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1

Duel between an ASAT with multiple-kill vehicles and a space-based weapons platform with kinetic-energy weapons. Final report, Oct 84Dec 85  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is described for a duel between a ground-based anti-satellite (ASAT) and a spaced-based weapons platform defending itself with kinetic energy weapons. The ASAT carries 1-6 kill vehicles and the space platform may first attack the ASAT booster with 1-3 defense missiles. If the ASAT kill vehicles collectively survive the boost phase, they are each subject to a

Cutchis

1986-01-01

2

Unique digital imagery interface between a silicon graphics computer and the kinetic kill vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulator (KHILS) wideband infrared scene projector (WISP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing a flexible and reliable source of IR target imagery is absolutely essential for operation of an IR Scene Projector in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment. The Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) at Eglin AFB provides the capability, and requisite interfaces, to supply target IR imagery to its Wideband IR Scene Projector (WISP) from three separate sources at frame rates ranging from 30 - 120 Hz. Video can be input from a VCR source at the conventional 30 Hz frame rate. Pre-canned digital imagery and test patterns can be downloaded into stored memory from the host processor and played back as individual still frames or movie sequences up to a 120 Hz frame rate. Dynamic real-time imagery to the KHILS WISP projector system, at a 120 Hz frame rate, can be provided from a Silicon Graphics Onyx computer system normally used for generation of digital IR imagery through a custom CSA-built interface which is available for either the SGI/DVP or SGI/DD02 interface port. The primary focus of this paper is to describe our technical approach and experience in the development of this unique SGI computer and WISP projector interface.

Erickson, Ricky A.; Moren, Stephen A.; Skalka, Marion S.

1998-07-01

3

Patterns of Amphotericin B Killing Kinetics against Seven Candida Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study tolerance to amphotericin B (AMB) was found among Candida parapsilosis and C. dubliniensis strains by seeding the whole volumes of wells used for MIC determinations, and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) for non-C. albicans Candida strains were demonstrated to be above the levels safely achievable in serum. As an extension of that study, we performed time-kill assays

Emilia Canton; Javier Peman; Miguel Gobernado; Angel Viudes; Ana Espinel-Ingroff

2004-01-01

4

Killing kinetics of intracellular Afipia felis treated with amikacin.  

PubMed

Afipia felis is a facultative intracellular bacterium which multiplies in macrophages following inhibition of phagosome-lysosome (P-L) fusion. When A. felis-infected cells are incubated for 72 h with various antibiotics, only aminoglycosides are found to be bactericidal. We therefore studied the killing of intracellular A. felis by amikacin, and its relationship with the restoration of P-L fusion. Amikacin reduced the number of A. felis from 8.5 x 10(5) to 3.5 x 102 cfu/mL within 94 h. P-L fusion was restored after 30-40 h of incubation with amikacin. Both mechanisms may participate in the intracellular killing of bacteria. PMID:10052910

Le Pocher, H; Brouqui, P; Raoult, D

1998-12-01

5

Kinetic analysis of the in vitro cell-killing action of neocarzinostatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the drug concentration and exposure time of neocarzinostatin (NCS) for a definite cell-killing effect was kinetically analyzed, taking into consideration its loss in biological activity during incubation. Its cell-killing activity was determined by a colony-forming inhibition assay, which was conducted at room temperature (25° C) for 0.5–30 min exposure and at 37° C for 5 min-96 h

Shogo Ozawa; Makoto Inaba

1989-01-01

6

Effects of cell density on drug-induced cell kill kinetics in vitro (inoculum effect)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cell density on drug-induced cell kill kinetics were studied by means of clonogenic assay using 3 human leukaemia-lymphoma cell lines. Mitoxantrone, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, vincristine and bleomycin were progressively less efficacious when cell density increased (positive inoculum effects), whereas the effects of cis-platin and carboplatin were not influenced by cell density. Inoculum effects were related to the kind

T Ohnuma; H Arkin; J F Holland

1986-01-01

7

Two-Lesion Kinetic Model of Double-Strand Break Rejoining and Cell Killing  

SciTech Connect

To better link biochemical processing of the DSB to cell killing, a two-lesion kinetic (TLK) model is proposed. In the TLK model, the family of all possible DSBs is sub-divided into simple and complex DSBs, and each kind of DSB may have its own repair characteristics. A unique aspect of the TLK model is that break-ends associated with both kinds of DSB are allowed to interact in pairwise fashion to form irreversible lethal and non-lethal damages. To test the performance of the TLK model, non-linear optimization methods are used to calibrate the model based on CHO cell survival data for an extensive set of single-dose and split-dose exposure conditions. Then, some of the postulated mechanisms of action are tested by comparing measured and predicted estimates of the initial DSB yield and the rate of DSB rejoining. TLK model predictions of CHO survival and the initial DSB yield and rejoining rate are all shown to be in good agreement with the measured data. Studies suggest a yield of about 25 DSB Gy-1 cell-1. About 20 DSB Gy-1 cell-1 are rejoined quickly (15-minute repair half-time), and 4 to 6 DSB Gy-1 cell-1 are rejoined very slowly (10 to 15 hour repair half-time). Both the slow- and fast-rejoining DSBs make a substantial contribution to the radiation killing of CHO cells. Although the TLK model provides a much more satisfactory formalism to relate biochemical processing of the DSB to cell killing than earlier kinetic models, some small differences among the measured and predicted CHO survival and DSB rejoining data suggest that additional factors and processes not considered in the present work may affect biochemical processing of the DSB and, hence, cell killing.

Stewart, Robert D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2000-11-01

8

Studies on the kinetics of killing and the proposed mechanism of action of microemulsions against fungi.  

PubMed

Microemulsions are physically stable oil/water clear dispersions, spontaneously formed and thermodynamically stable. They are composed in most cases of water, oil, surfactant and cosurfactant. Microemulsions are stable, self-preserving antimicrobial agents in their own right. The observed levels of antimicrobial activity associated with microemulsions may be due to the direct effect of the microemulsions themselves on the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. The aim of this work is to study the growth behaviour of different microbes in presence of certain prepared physically stable microemulsion formulae over extended periods of time. An experiment was designed to study the kinetics of killing of a microemulsion preparation (17.3% Tween-80, 8.5% n-pentanol, 5% isopropyl myristate and 69.2% sterile distilled water) against selected test microorganisms (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Rhodotorula spp.). Secondly, an experiment was designed to study the effects of the microemulsion preparation on the cytoplasmic membrane structure and function of selected fungal species by observation of 260 nm component leakage. Finally, the effects of the microemulsion on the fungal membrane structure and function using S. pombe were studied using transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the prepared microemulsions are stable, effective antimicrobial systems with effective killing rates against C. albicans, A. niger, S. pombe and Rhodotorula spp. The results indicate a proposed mechanism of action of significant anti-membrane activity, resulting in the gross disturbance and dysfunction of the cytoplasmic membrane structure which is followed by cell wall modifications, cytoplasmic coagulation, disruption of intracellular metabolism and cell death. PMID:23830945

Al-Adham, Ibrahim S I; Ashour, Hana; Al-Kaissi, Elham; Khalil, Enam; Kierans, Martin; Collier, Phillip J

2013-09-15

9

Utilization of rotor kinetic energy storage for hybrid vehicles  

DOEpatents

A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine, the power system comprises an electric machine (12) further comprising a first excitation source (47), a permanent magnet rotor (28) and a magnetic coupling rotor (26) spaced from the permanent magnet rotor and at least one second excitation source (43), the magnetic coupling rotor (26) also including a flywheel having an inertial mass to store kinetic energy during an initial acceleration to an operating speed; and wherein the first excitation source is electrically connected to the second excitation source for power cycling such that the flywheel rotor (26) exerts torque on the permanent magnet rotor (28) to assist braking and acceleration of the permanent magnet rotor (28) and consequently, the vehicle. An axial gap machine and a radial gap machine are disclosed and methods of the invention are also disclosed.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2011-05-03

10

A Microdosimetric-Kinetic Model for Cell Killing by Protracted Continuous Irradiation II: Brachytherapy and Biologic Effective Dose.  

PubMed

Relationships based on the microdosimetric-kinetic model are presented that calculate the average number of lethal lesions, and the associated cell survival, produced in mammalian cells by exposure to protracted continuous irradiation by temporary and permanent implantation of radioactive sources. The influence of cell parameters of linear-quadratic survival, repair function and proliferation rate, as well as the influence of dose rate, isotopic decay rate and linear energy transfer (LET) quality on cell killing are displayed and discussed. An expression for biologic effective dose (BED) is presented that facilitates comparison of the effects of protracted low-dose-rate irradiation and with a course of multiple instantaneously administered radiation treatments (fractions). PMID:24937780

Hawkins, Roland B; Inaniwa, Taku

2014-07-01

11

In vitro antibacterial activities of tigecycline and comparative agents by time-kill kinetic studies in fresh Mueller-Hinton broth.  

PubMed

Time-kill kinetics performed with tigecycline, in fresh MHB, demonstrated a consistent 1 to 2 log(10) CFU/ml reduction in bacterial counts against the majority of clinically relevant pathogens tested. Although classified as a bacteriostatic agent, tigecycline shows bactericidal activity against select isolates associated with serious infection. In general, vancomycin and imipenem demonstrated bactericidal activity. PMID:17662552

Petersen, Peter J; Jones, C Hal; Bradford, Patricia A

2007-11-01

12

Determination and modeling of kinetics of cancer cell killing by doxorubicin and doxorubicin encapsulated in targeted liposomes.  

PubMed

Various mathematical approaches have been devised to relate the cytotoxic effect of drugs in cell culture to the drug concentration added to the cell culture medium. Such approaches can satisfactorily account for drug response when the drugs are free in solution, but the approach becomes problematic when the drug is delivered in a drug delivery system, such as a liposome. To address this problem, we have developed a simple model that assumes that the cytotoxic potency of a drug is a function of the intracellular drug level in a critical compartment. Upon exposure to drug, cell death commences after a lag time, and the cell kill rate is dependent on the amount of drug in the critical intracellular compartment. The computed number of cells in culture, at any time after exposure to the drug, takes into account the cell proliferation rate, the cell kill rate, the average intracellular drug concentration, and a lag time for cell killing. We have applied this model to compare the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin (DOX), or DOX encapsulated in a liposome that is targeted to CD44 on B16F10 melanoma cells in culture. CD44 is the surface receptor that binds to hyaluronan and is overexpressed on various cancer cells, including B16F10. We have shown previously that the drug encapsulated in hyaluronan-targeted liposomes was more potent than was the free drug. The model required the determination of the cell-associated DOX after the cells were incubated with various concentrations of the free or the encapsulated drug for 3 h, and the quantification of cell number at various times after exposure to the drug. The uptake of encapsulated drug was greater than that of the free drug, and the ratio of cell association of encapsulated:free drug was 1.3 at 0.5 micro g/ml and increased to 3.3 at 20 micro g/ml DOX. The results demonstrate that the enhanced potency of the encapsulated drug could stem from its enhanced uptake. However, in certain cases, where larger amounts of the free drug were added, such that the intracellular amounts of drug exceeded those obtained from the encapsulated drug, the numbers of viable cells were still significantly smaller for the encapsulated drug. This finding demonstrates that for given amounts of intracellular DOX, the encapsulated form was more efficient in killing B16F10 cells than the free drug. The outcome was expressed in the kinetic model as a 5-6-fold larger rate constant of cell killing potency for the encapsulated drug versus the free drug. The model provides a quantitative framework for comparing the cytotoxic effect in cultured cells when applying the drug in the free form or in a delivery system. PMID:14744789

Eliaz, Rom E; Nir, Shlomo; Marty, Cornelia; Szoka, Francis C

2004-01-15

13

Interference with superinfection and with cell killing and determination of host range and growth kinetics mediated by feline leukemia virus surface glycoproteins.  

PubMed Central

The functions of the surface glycoproteins (SU) of feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) are of interest since these proteins mediate virus infection and interference and are critical determinants of disease specificity. In this study, we examined the biochemical and genetic determinants of SU important to virus entry and cell killing. In particular, we developed and used vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)/FeLV pseudotype virus interference assays to determine interference subgroupings and assess mechanisms of host cell restriction. We also assessed roles of SU in virus growth kinetics and in the inhibition of cell killing caused by superinfection with cytopathic virus. Subgroup classification by VSV/FeLV pseudotype assay was in agreement with that defined previously by focus interference assay and was found to be determined by changes near the N terminus of SU for FeLV subgroups A (FeLV-A) and C. Virus host range restriction was found to be mediated at the level of virus entry in most cases, although postentry events mediated restriction in the failure of a subgroup A-like, T-cell cytopathic and immunodeficiency-inducing clone (FeLV-FAIDS-EECC) to replicate in feline fibroblasts. FeLV-FAIDS-EECC-induced cell killing was also inhibited by prior infection with one of two FeLV-A isolates. This inhibition could be conveyed by as few as four amino acid changes near the N terminus of the FeLV-A SU and also appeared to be mediated at a postentry level. Lastly, the SU-coding sequence was also found to determine differences in growth kinetics of viruses within the same subgroup. These studies demonstrate that subtle alterations in the FeLV SU, particularly in the N-terminal region, impart multiple significant functional differences which distinguish virus variants.

Kristal, B S; Reinhart, T A; Hoover, E A; Mullins, J I

1993-01-01

14

Effects of vehicle on the uptake and elimination kinetics of capsaicinoids in human skin in vivo.  

PubMed

While the physiologic and molecular effects of capsaicinoids have been extensively studied in various model systems by a variety of administration routes, little is known about the uptake and elimination kinetic profiles in human skin following topical exposure. The present study evaluated the uptake and elimination kinetics of capsaicinoids in human stratum corneum following a single topical exposure to 3% solutions containing 55% capsaicin, 35% dihydrocapsaicin, and 10% other analogues prepared in three vehicles: mineral oil (MO), propylene glycol (PG), and isopropyl alcohol (IPA). Capsaicinoid solutions were evaluated simultaneously in a random application pattern on the volar forearms of 12 subjects using a small, single 150-microg dose. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were recovered from human skin using commercial adhesive discs to harvest stratum corneum from treated sites. Capsaicinoids were extracted from the stratum corneum-adhesive discs and quantified by liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS). Both capsaicinoids were detected in stratum corneum 1 min after application with all vehicles and achieved a pseudo-steady state shortly thereafter. IPA delivered three times greater capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin into the human stratum corneum than PG or MO at all time points investigated. The Cmax of capsaicin in IPA, PG, and MO was 16.1, 6.2, and 6.5 microg, respectively. The dihydrocapsaicin content was 60% of capsaicin with all vehicles. The estimated T(half) of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the three vehicles was similar (24 h). Thus, maximal cutaneous capsaicinoid concentrations were achieved quickly in the human stratum corneum and were concentration and vehicle dependent. In contrast, capsaicinoid half-life was long and vehicle independent. PMID:15451310

Pershing, Lynn K; Reilly, Christopher A; Corlett, Judy L; Crouch, Dennis J

2004-10-01

15

A microdosimetric-kinetic model for cell killing by protracted continuous irradiation including dependence on LET I: repair in cultured mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Relations based on the microdosimetric-kinetic (MK) model are presented that describe killing of mammalian cells by protracted continuous exposure to ionizing radiation of varying linear energy transfer quality (LET) at constant dose rate. The consequences of continuous irradiation exposure actually consisting of a discontinuous sequence of events corresponding to passage of each high-energy particle through or near the cell are incorporated into the model. The derived relations are applied to protracted irradiation experiments of Amdur and Bedford to determine the rate of repair of potentially lethal lesions. It is found that as the dose rate becomes less than about 5 Gy per hour the repair rate decreases significantly with decreasing dose rate. This suggests that repair function in these cells is induced and maintained in response to the intensity of irradiation. Clinical and radiation protection implications of this finding are noted. PMID:24191898

Hawkins, Roland B; Inaniwa, Taku

2013-12-01

16

Killing Coyotes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents different viewpoints concerning the federal government's Animal Damage Control (ADC) Program cited as responsible for killing millions of predators. Critics provide evidence of outdated and inhumane methods exemplified in the coyote killings. The ADC emphasizes new, nonlethal methods of controlling animals cited as "noxious." (MCO)

Beasley, Conger, Jr.

1993-01-01

17

Thermal Stability and Hydrogen Release Kinetics of Ammonia Borane Under Vehicle Storage Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Ammonia borane (AB) is a promising chemical hydrogen storage material for H2 powered fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs) owing to its considerable hydrogen density and stability under typical ambient conditions. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Targets for on-board hydrogen storage systems in 2015 provide a requirement for operating temperatures in full-sun exposure as high as 60°C (50°C by 2010) [1]. The purpose of this work is to investigate the thermal stability of solid AB during storage on-board a FCV at 40 to 60°C. Calorimeter measurements and calculation models are used to estimate AB thermal stability and H2 release kinetics under isothermal, adiabatic, and cooled storage conditions as a function of storage time, temperature, and AB purity.

Rassat, Scot D.; Smith, R. Scott; Aardahl, Christopher L.; Autrey, Thomas; Chin, Arthur A.; Magee, Joseph W.; VanSciver, Gary R.; Lipiecki, Frank J.

2006-09-01

18

A Kill Probability Model for a Multiple-Burst Attack of a Vehicle, Where the Probability of Igniting Spilled Fuel is Time Dependent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a method for computing the probability of defeating a vehicle with a series of consecutive bursts of fire. The vehicle assumed to be vulnerable to either mechanical damage or fire. A fire can be started by either puncturing the fuel ...

A. D. Groves

1975-01-01

19

Cell killing and DNA damage by etoposide in Chinese hamster V79 monolayers and spheroids: influence of growth kinetics, growth environment and DNA packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells from V79 multicell spheroids must be exposed to approximately 50 times more etoposide than exponentially growing monolayers in order to produce the same amount of cell killing. A part of this difference in sensitivity is readily explained by the decrease in growth fraction of large spheroids, and by the protection afforded by nutrient deprivation which also reduces cellular ATP.

PL Olive; JP Banáth; HH Evans

1993-01-01

20

Kinetic Analysis of Cell Killing Effect Induced by Cytosine Arabinoside and Cisplatin in Relation to Cell Cycle Phase Specificity in Human Colon Cancer and Chinese Hamster Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We presented a cell kill pharmacodynamic model for cell cycle phase- specific antitumor agents as well as that for cell cycle phase-nonspecific agents. The former was based upon assumptions that a cell population could be divided into a drug-sensitive population having sensitive (or specific) cell cycle phase(s) and a drug-resistant population in resistant cell cycle phases. This model revealed that

Shogo Ozawa; Yuichi Sugiyama; Junko Mitsuhashi; Makoto Inaba

21

Effects of vehicle on the uptake and elimination kinetics of capsaicinoids in human skin in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the physiologic and molecular effects of capsaicinoids have been extensively studied in various model systems by a variety of administration routes, little is known about the uptake and elimination kinetic profiles in human skin following topical exposure. The present study evaluated the uptake and elimination kinetics of capsaicinoids in human stratum corneum following a single topical exposure to 3%

Lynn K. Pershing; Christopher A. Reilly; Judy L. Corlett; Dennis J. Crouch

2004-01-01

22

Vehicle-dependent disposition kinetics of fluoranthene in Fisher-344 rats.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate how the vehicles of choice affect the pharmacokinetics of orally administered Fluoranthene [FLA] in rats. Fluoranthene is a member of the family of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon chemicals. Fluoranthene exposure to humans may occur as a result of cigarette smoking, consumption of contaminated food and water, heating woods in stoves and boilers, industrial sources such as coal gasification, carbon and graphite electrode manufacturing. Adult male Fisher-344 rats were given single oral doses of 25 and 50 microg/kg FLA in tricaprylin, peanut oil, cod liver oil, Tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5) and 2% Alkamuls-EL620 through gavage. After administration, the rats were housed individually in metabolic cages and sacrificed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours post FLA exposure. Blood, lung, liver, small intestine, adipose tissue samples, urine, and feces were collected at each time point. Samples were subjected to a liquid-liquid extraction using methanol, chloroform, and water. The extracts were analyzed by a reverse-phase HPLC, equipped with a fluorescence detector. The results revealed a dose-dependent increase in FLA concentrations in plasma and tissues for all the vehicles used. Plasma and tissue FLA concentrations were greater for peanut oil; cod liver oil, and tricaprylin vehicles compared to Alkamuls (p < 0.05), and Tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5). Most of the FLA administered through peanut oil, cod liver oil and tricaprylin was cleared from the body by 8 hours (90%) and 12 hours (80%) post administration for the 25 microg/kg and 50 microg/kg dose groups, respectively. With both doses employed, the metabolism of FLA was highest when cod liver oil was used as a vehicle and lowest in vehicles containing detergent/water [cod liver oil > peanut oil > tricaprylin > alkamuls > Tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5)]. These findings suggest that uptake and elimination of FLA is accelerated when administered through oil-based vehicles. The low uptake of FLA from Alkamuls and Tween 80/isotonic saline may have been a result of the poor solubility of the chemical. In summary, our findings reiterate that absorption characteristics of FLA were governed by the dose as well as the dosing vehicle. The vehicle-dependent bioavailability of FLA suggests a need for the judicious selection of vehicles in evaluating oral toxicity studies for risk assessment purposes. PMID:18441404

Harris, Deacqunita L; Hood, Darry B; Ramesh, Aramandla

2008-03-01

23

Vehicle-Dependent Disposition Kinetics of Fluoranthene in Fisher-344 Rats  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate how the vehicles of choice affect the pharmacokinetics of orally administered Fluoranthene [FLA] in rats. Fluoranthene is a member of the family of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon chemicals. Fluoranthene exposure to humans may occur as a result of cigarette smoking, consumption of contaminated food and water, heating woods in stoves and boilers, industrial sources such as coal gasification, carbon and graphite electrode manufacturing. Adult male Fisher-344 rats were given single oral doses of 25 and 50 ?g/kg FLA in tricaprylin, peanut oil, cod liver oil, tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5) and 2% Alkamuls-EL620 through gavage. After administration, the rats were housed individually in metabolic cages and sacrificed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours post FLA exposure. Blood, lung, liver, small intestine, adipose tissue samples, urine, and feces were collected at each time point. Samples were subjected to a liquid-liquid extraction using methanol, chloroform, and water. The extracts were analyzed by a reverse-phase HPLC, equipped with a fluorescence detector. The results revealed a dose-dependent increase in FLA concentrations in plasma and tissues for all the vehicles used. Plasma and tissue FLA concentrations were greater for peanut oil; cod liver oil, and tricaprylin vehicles compared to Alkamuls (p < 0.05), and tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5). Most of the FLA administered through peanut oil, cod liver oil and tricaprylin was cleared from the body by 8 hours (90%) and 12 hours (80%) post administration for the 25 ?g/kg and 50 ?g/kg dose groups, respectively. With both doses employed, the metabolism of FLA was highest when cod liver oil was used as a vehicle and lowest in vehicles containing detergent/water [cod liver oil > peanut oil > tricaprylin > alkamuls > tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5)]. These findings suggest that uptake and elimination of FLA is accelerated when administered through oil-based vehicles. The low uptake of FLA from alkamuls and tween 80/isotonic saline may have been a result of the poor solubility of the chemical. In summary, our findings reiterate that absorption characteristics of FLA were governed by the dose as well as the dosing vehicle. The vehicle-dependent bioavailability of FLA suggests a need for the judicious selection of vehicles in evaluating oral toxicity studies for risk assessment purposes.

Harris, Deacqunita L.; Hood, Darryl B.; Ramesh, Aramandla

2008-01-01

24

Planning a dynamic kill  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the methodology, design philosophy, and guidelines for planning a dynamic-kill operation for a wild well. The topics covered are two methods of computer analysis for designing dynamic-kill requirements, the design process, determining the pumping spread, and the pitfalls that a designer faces in planning a dynamic kill.

Abel, L.W. [Abel Engineering, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-05-01

25

Enhanced Cell Killing through the Use of Cell Kinetics-directed Treatment Schedules for Two-Drug Combinations in Vitro1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics-directed drug treatment schedules were tested in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Ten hr after treatment with 1,2:5,6-dianhydrogalactitol (DAG) (at a dose lethal to less than 5% of the cells), a 150% enrichment of cells into the S phase of the cell cycle was observed. This blockade in S phase was reversible and was followed at 18 hr after an exposure

S. C. Barranco; W. Boerwinkle; S. Nichols; K. M. Hokanson; J. Schumann; J. Bryant; L. F. Guseman

26

Point-spread function and MTF characterization of the kinetic-kill-vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulation (KHILS) infrared-laser scene projector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Scophony Infrared Scene Projector (IRSP) is being used at Wright Laboratories Armament Directorate, Guided Interceptor Technology Branch, Eglin AFB, to evaluate thermal-imaging guidance systems. This hardware-in-the-loop testing system reduces the number of necessary field trials and has potential for in-laboratory simulation where the performance of entire seeker systems can be analyzed. The performance of an optical system, in terms

Terri L. Alexander; Glenn D. Boreman; Alfred D. Ducharme; Ronald J. Rapp

1993-01-01

27

BB Guns Can Kill  

MedlinePLUS

... Kill BB guns can kill a person. High-velocity BB guns, which have muzzle velocities higher than 350 feet per second, can increase ... do not realize that BB guns, especially high-velocity guns, can cause death. Therefore the CPSC warns ...

28

Ion-kill dosimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

2001-01-01

29

Kinetics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conceptual questions about kinetics. For example, "[w]hat are the reaction velocity, the rates of formation of N2 and H2, and the rate of decomposition of ammonia for the decomposition of ammonia on a tungsten surface under the conditions reflected in the figure."

Nurrenbern, Susan C.; Robinson, William R.

2008-02-27

30

Evolution of coalitionary killing.  

PubMed

Warfare has traditionally been considered unique to humans. It has, therefore, often been explained as deriving from features that are unique to humans, such as the possession of weapons or the adoption of a patriarchal ideology. Mounting evidence suggests, however, that coalitional killing of adults in neighboring groups also occurs regularly in other species, including wolves and chimpanzees. This implies that selection can favor components of intergroup aggression important to human warfare, including lethal raiding. Here I present the principal adaptive hypothesis for explaining the species distribution of intergroup coalitional killing. This is the "imbalance-of-power hypothesis," which suggests that coalitional killing is the expression of a drive for dominance over neighbors. Two conditions are proposed to be both necessary and sufficient to account for coalitional killing of neighbors: (1) a state of intergroup hostility; (2) sufficient imbalances of power between parties that one party can attack the other with impunity. Under these conditions, it is suggested, selection favors the tendency to hunt and kill rivals when the costs are sufficiently low. The imbalance-of-power hypothesis has been criticized on a variety of empirical and theoretical grounds which are discussed. To be further tested, studies of the proximate determinants of aggression are needed. However, current evidence supports the hypothesis that selection has favored a hunt-and-kill propensity in chimpanzees and humans, and that coalitional killing has a long history in the evolution of both species. PMID:10601982

Wrangham, R W

1999-01-01

31

Bacterial Growth Kinetics under a Novel Flexible Methacrylate Dressing Serving as a Drug Delivery Vehicle for Antiseptics.  

PubMed

A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal®) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth kinetics in combination with three antiseptics was investigated in an in vitro porcine wound model. Standardized in vitro wounds were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and divided into six groups: no dressing (negative control), methacrylate dressing alone, and combinations with application of 0.02% Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), 0.4% PHMB, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine, 7.7 mg/mL Povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine), and 0.1% Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) + 2% phenoxyethanol. Bacterial load per gram tissue was measured over five days. The highest reduction was observed with PVP-iodine at 24 h to log10 1.43 cfu/g, followed by OCT at 48 h to log10 2.41 cfu/g. Whilst 0.02% PHMB resulted in a stable bacterial load over 120 h to log10 4.00 cfu/g over 120 h, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine inhibited growth during the first 48 h, with slightly increasing bacterial numbers up to log10 5.38 cfu/g at 120 h. These results indicate that this flexible methacrylate dressing can be loaded with various antiseptics serving as drug delivery system. Depending on the selected combination, an individually shaped and controlled antibacterial effect may be achieved using the same type of wound dressing. PMID:23698780

Forstner, Christina; Leitgeb, Johannes; Schuster, Rupert; Dosch, Verena; Kramer, Axel; Cutting, Keith F; Leaper, David J; Assadian, Ojan

2013-01-01

32

The Fish Kill Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities and learn about the complex life cycle of the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria.

Kosal, Erica F.

2004-02-01

33

Older women and mercy killing.  

PubMed

Mercy killing is usually defined as intentional killing, often by family members or friends, with the stated intent to end perceived suffering. International evidence suggests that mercy killing typically involves an older man killing his ailing wife. In this study, we examined U.S. cases of mercy killing recorded by The Hemlock Society for the period 1960-1993. We found that the typical case involved an older woman being killed by a man, often her husband, with her poor health as the justification for the killing. A firearm was often used in these incidents. These patterns of mercy killing are consistent with patterns of homicide-suicide among older adults. Future research should seek to understand why women are typically the targets, and men the agents of mercy killing. PMID:12557885

Canetto, S S; Hollenshead, J D

34

'Doctors must not kill'.  

PubMed

Four physicians respond to "It's over, Debbie," an anonymous resident physician's account of an incident when he or she injected a terminally ill cancer patient with a lethal dose of morphine (JAMA 1988 Jan 8; 259(2): 272). Gaylin and his colleagues condemn both the physician's violation of legal and ethical norms, and the conduct of JAMA's editor in publishing the article without editorial rebuke or comment. They warn that the issue of active euthanasia "touches medicine at its very moral center," and that, as pressure to legalize euthanasia in response to patient demand increases, the medical profession must repudiate direct and intentional killing of patients and discipline doctors who kill. PMID:3346989

Gaylin, W; Kass, L R; Pellegrino, E D; Siegler, M

1988-04-01

35

Killing tensors and canonical geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The systematic derivation of constants of the motion, based on Killing tensors and the gauge covariant approach, is outlined. Quantum dots are shown to support second-, third- and fourth-rank Killing tensors.

Cariglia, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; van Holten, J.-W.; Horvathy, P. A.; Kosi?ski, P.; Zhang, P.-M.

2014-06-01

36

Battered women who kill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses acquital rates using mock jurors in cases involving a battered woman charged with killing her husband. The simulated trial format was based on actual courtroom proceedings including witness cross-examination and jury deliberation proceedings. The type of plea entered was varied and reflected either self-defense, automatism, or a hypothetical plea of psychological self-defense. The severity of abuse incurred

Marilyn Kasian; Nicholas P. Spanos; Cheryl A. Terrance; Suzanne Peeblesi

1993-01-01

37

Killing horizons and spinors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the near-horizon geometry of generic Killing horizons constructing suitable coordinates and taking the appropriate scaling limit. We are able to show that the geometry will always show an enhancement of symmetries, and, in the extremal case, will develop a causally disconnected "throat" as expected. We analyze the implications of this to the Kerr/CFT conjecture and the attractor mechanism. We are also able to construct a set of special (pure) spinors associated with the horizon structure using their interpretation as maximally isotropic planes. The structure generalizes the usual reduced holonomy manifold in an interesting way and may be fruitful to the search of new types of compactification backgrounds.

Carneiro da Cunha, Bruno; de Queiroz, Amilcar

2014-05-01

38

How does the type of vehicle influence the in vitro skin absorption and elimination kinetics of terpenes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terpenes are widely used in the topical dermal preparations, cosmetics and toiletries and also in the experimental dermopharmacy, as penetration enhancers. Terpenes do not need to penetrate into viable skin tissue and this event is not even desired. The aim of this study was to investigate skin absorption and elimination kinetics of two terpenes, namely linalool and terpinen-4-ol, incorporated in

Krzysztof Cal

2006-01-01

39

Kill operation requires thorough analysis  

SciTech Connect

Full control of a blowout well requires a properly designed post-capping kill operation because failures in regaining well control usually occur during the kill operation, not during capping. Capping (the installation of pressure control or diverter equipment on the wellhead) is generally very reliable in gaining control of a blowout well. The following techniques are some of the viable means of killing blowout wells once the capping assemblies are in place: direct shut in of the flow; bullheading; momentum kill; volumetric control for migration of fluids or lubrication after migration ceases; and dynamic kills (friction-based dynamic kills or mass flow rate kills) The objective of most post-capping operations is to stop the flow and put the well under hydrostatic control. The means of killing a blowout once capping assemblies are in place should be chosen with care to avoid problems such as cratering, equipment failure, and underground blowouts. The particular circumstances and well integrity will dictate which kill method will be the most viable. Each of these five methods are explained.

Abel, L.W. [Wild Well Control Inc., Spring, TX (United States)

1995-05-15

40

Enhancement of propranolol hydrochloride and diazepam skin absorption in vitro. II: Drug, vehicle, and enhancer penetration kinetics.  

PubMed

The fluxes of representative hydrophilic (propranolol hydrochloride) and lipophilic (diazepam or indomethacin) drugs, administered as ethanolic solutions containing putative penetration enhancers (n-nonane, 1-nonanol, and 1-decanol), were measured across hairless mouse skin in vitro. Propranolol transport was augmented significantly by the presence of 4% (v/v) alkane or alkanol in the vehicle; diazepam and indomethacin, on the other hand, were enhanced only by n-nonane. Experiments with saturated solutions of the drugs as the donor phase revealed that the actions of the enhancers were taking place in the skin and were not a result of an alteration of solute thermodynamic activity in the vehicle. In separate runs, the impact of n-nonane and 1-nonanol on the percutaneous penetration of ethanol was determined. Temporal effects identical to those on the flux of propranolol were observed. A further measurement revealed that the penetration of 1-decanol, when administered as a 4% (v/v) solution in ethanol, followed a profile similar to that of the solvent (which, in turn, was comparable with that of the independently assessed propranolol hydrochloride). Thus, considerable linkage exists between the transport of a hydrophilic drug and the major vehicle component in the presence of n-nonane and 1-nonanol. The lipophilic drugs, conversely, were promoted only by n-nonane and only after most of the ethanol had been absorbed. The results show that an apparent synergy of transport between a putative enhancer and a cosolvent may not always lead to augmented drug flux. Study of the transport of all key formulation components is recommended, therefore, to optimize vehicles for transdermal drug delivery. PMID:1501066

Hori, M; Maibach, H I; Guy, R H

1992-04-01

41

How electroshock weapons kill!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

Lundquist, Marjorie

2010-03-01

42

33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117...Requirements New York § 117.801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a)...

2013-07-01

43

33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries...New York § 117.801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries...apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their...

2009-07-01

44

33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries...New York § 117.801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries...apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their...

2010-07-01

45

Lyophilised wafers as vehicles for the topical release of chlorhexidine digluconate--release kinetics and efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

There is a requirement to deliver accurate amounts of broad spectrum antimicrobial compounds locally to exuding wounds. Varying amounts of exudate complicates this process by limiting the residence and therefore efficacy of active substances. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of antimicrobials are necessary to suppress infection and lessen the chances of resistant strains of potentially pathogenic bacteria from prevailing. Polysaccharide wafers can adhere to exudating wound beds, absorbing fluids and forming highly viscous gels that remain in situ for prolonged periods of time to release sustained amounts of antimicrobial. In this study, five different formulations were produced containing the antimicrobial, chlorhexidine digluconate (CHD). Absorption of simulated wound fluid, resultant rheological properties of gels and efficacy against plated cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were measured and compared. CHD reduced the 'water uptake' of wafers by 11-50% (w/w) and decreased the rheological consistency of non-SA containing gels by 10-65%. Release studies indicated that karaya wafers gave the highest sustained release of CHD, >60 ?g/mL in 24 h, well in excess of the MBC for P. aeruginosa. Release kinetics indicated an anomalous diffusion mechanism according to Korsmeyer-Peppas, with diffusion exponents varying from 0.31 to 0.41 for most wafers except xanthan (0.65). PMID:23085374

Labovitiadi, Olga; Lamb, Andrew J; Matthews, Kerr H

2012-12-15

46

Does Assessment Kill Student Creativity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does assessment kill creativity? In this article, creativity is defined and discussed and an overview of creativity and motivational research is provided to describe how assessment practices can influence students' creativity. Recommendations for protecting creativity when assessing students also are provided.

Ronald A. Beghetto

2005-01-01

47

To kill a man's pride  

Microsoft Academic Search

This excerpt from To Kill a Man's Pride was published in the February 1980 issue of the South African literary magazine Staffrider. The publishers of Staffrider, Ravan Press, announced at that time that the full text would appear in Forced Landing, a new collection of contemporary black South African writings edited by Mothobi Mutloatse. The next issue of Staffrider (June

Mtutuzeli Matshoba

1981-01-01

48

Factors Associated with Higher Levels of Injury Severity in Occupants of Motor Vehicles That Were Severely Damaged in Traffic Crashes in Kentucky, 2000-2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The majority of motor vehicle occupants who were killed or hospitalized in crashes in Kentucky in 2000–2001 occupied vehicles that were severely damaged in the crash. Even so, overall only a small percentage of all severely damaged vehicle occupants were killed or hospitalized. The purpose was to identify occupant, vehicle, crash, and roadway\\/environmental factors that were associated with increased

MICHAEL SINGLETON; HUIFANG QIN; JINGYU LUAN

2004-01-01

49

Cell killing by lysosomotropic detergents  

PubMed Central

We have studied the mechanism by which lysosomotropic detergents kill baby hamster kidney cells. Lysosomotropic detergents are lysosomotropic amines (compounds with pK between 5 and 9, such as imidazole or morpholine) containing straight-chain hydrocarbon "tails" of 9-14 carbon atoms (Firestone, R. A., J. M. Pisano, and R. J. Bonney. 1979, J. Med. Chem., 22:1130-1133). Using lucifer yellow CH as a specific fluorescent label for lysosomes, it was shown by light microscopy that N-dodecyl (C12)-imidazole acted rapidly to damage lysosomes, causing leakage of dye into the cytoplasm. This was followed at later times by vacuolization, blebbing of the plasma membrane, cell rounding, and cell death. 3H-labeled C12-imidazole rapidly diffused into cells where much of it was trapped in lysosomes as shown by its co-migration with lysosomes in Percoll gradients. Cells preincubated with C12-imidazole released it slowly into C12-imidazole-free media, permitting the cells to be killed by the preincubation dose. Cell killing by the lysosomotropic detergents exhibited strongly sigmoidal dose-response curves. The sensitivity of baby hamster kidney cells to killing by C12- imidazole was density dependent, the cells being most sensitive at lowest cell densities, and relatively resistant at confluence. The amount of 3H-C12-imidazole taken up by the cells was also density dependent, with highest specific uptake occurring at the lowest cell density. A rise in lysosomal pH, measured in fluoresceinated dextran- labeled cells, commenced immediately upon addition of C12-imidazole to cells, and continued for over an hour. This was followed after a lag of 1-2 h by inhibition of protein and RNA synthesis and by lactate dehydrogenase release. Ionophores or lysosomotropic amines, such as methylamine, that raise intralysosomal pH provided substantial protection of the cells from killing by lysosomotropic detergents. These findings provide strong support for the idea that lysosomotropic detergents kill cells by disrupting lysosomes from within.

1983-01-01

50

Beetle Kill Wall at NREL  

ScienceCinema

When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

None

2013-05-29

51

Beetle Kill Wall at NREL  

SciTech Connect

When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

None

2010-01-01

52

Beetle Kill Wall at NREL  

ScienceCinema

When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

53

Women who kill their mates.  

PubMed

Spousal homicide perpetrators are much more likely to be men than women. Accordingly, little research has focused on delineating characteristics of women who have committed spousal homicide. A retrospective clinical review of coroners' files containing all cases of spousal homicide occurring in Quebec over a 20-year period was carried out. A total of 276 spousal homicides occurred between 1991 and 2010, with 42 homicides by female spouses and 234 homicides by male spouses. Differences between homicides committed by female offenders and male offenders are discussed, and findings on spousal homicide committed by women are compared with those of previous studies. Findings regarding offenses perpetrated by females in the context of mental illness, domestic violence, and homicide-suicide are explored. The finding that only 28% of the female offenders in the Quebec sample had previously been subjected to violence by their victim is in contrast to the popular belief and reports that indicate that most female-perpetrated spousal homicide occurs in self-defense or in reaction to long-term abuse. In fact, women rarely gave a warning before killing their mates. Most did not suffer from a mental illness, although one-fifth were acutely intoxicated at the time of the killing. In the vast majority of cases of women who killed their mates, there were very few indicators that might have signaled the risk and helped predict the violent lethal behavior. PMID:23015414

Bourget, Dominique; Gagné, Pierre

2012-01-01

54

33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Arthur Kill. 117.702 Section 117.702 Navigation...Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.702 Arthur Kill. (a) The draw of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge shall be...

2009-07-01

55

33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arthur Kill. 117.702 Section 117.702 Navigation...Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.702 Arthur Kill. (a) The draw of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge shall be...

2010-07-01

56

Did Vertigo Kill America's Forgotten Astronaut?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On November 15, 1967, U.S. Air Force test pilot Major Michael J. Adams was killed while flying the X-15 rocket-propelled research vehicle in a parabolic spaceflight profile. This flight was part of a joint effort with NASA. An electrical short in one of the experiments aboard the vehicle caused electrical transients, resulting in excessive workload by the pilot. At altitude Major Adams inappropriately initiated a flat spin that led to a series of unusual aircraft attitudes upon atmospheric re-entry, ultimately causing structural failure of the airframe. Major Adams was known to experience vertigo (i.e. spatial disorientation) while flying the X-15, but all X-15 pilots most likely experienced vertigo (i.e. somatogravic, or "Pitch-Up", illusion) as a normal physiologic response to the accelerative forces involved. Major Adams probably experienced vertigo to a greater degree than did others, since prior aeromedical testing for astronaut selection at Brooks AFB revealed that he had an unusually high degree of labyrinthine sensitivity. Subsequent analysis reveals that after engine burnout, and through the zenith of the flight profile, he likely experienced the oculoagravic ("Elevator") illusion. Nonetheless, painstaking investigation after the mishap revealed that spatial disorientation (Type II, Recognized) was NOT the cause, but rather, a contributing factor. The cause was in fact the misinterpretation of a dual-use flight instrument (i.e. Loss of Mode Awareness), resulting in confusion between yaw and roll indications, with subsequent flight control input that was inappropriate. Because of the altitude achieved on this flight, Major Adams was awarded Astronaut wings posthumously. Understanding the potential for spatial disorientation, particularly the oculoagravic illusion, associated with parabolic spaceflight profiles, and understanding the importance of maintaining mode awareness in the context of automated cockpit design, are two lessons that have direct application to the commercial space industry today.

Bendrick, Gregg A.; Merlin, Peter W.

2007-01-01

57

Ebola outbreak killed 5000 gorillas.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, the Zaire strain of Ebola virus (ZEBOV) has repeatedly emerged in Gabon and Congo. Each human outbreak has been accompanied by reports of gorilla and chimpanzee carcasses in neighboring forests, but both the extent of ape mortality and the causal role of ZEBOV have been hotly debated. Here, we present data suggesting that in 2002 and 2003 ZEBOV killed about 5000 gorillas in our study area. The lag between neighboring gorilla groups in mortality onset was close to the ZEBOV disease cycle length, evidence that group-to-group transmission has amplified gorilla die-offs. PMID:17158318

Bermejo, Magdalena; Rodríguez-Teijeiro, José Domingo; Illera, Germán; Barroso, Alex; Vilà, Carles; Walsh, Peter D

2006-12-01

58

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus...REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed...

2010-01-01

59

9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113...REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed...

2009-01-01

60

9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113...REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed...

2010-01-01

61

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus...REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed...

2009-01-01

62

Euthanasia: killing as due care?  

PubMed

On 10 April 2001, the Netherlands was the first country to pass a law on the killing of patients at their request (euthanasia), which took effect on 1 April 2002. Belgium followed and passed a euthanasia law on 16 May 2002, which took effect on 23 September 2002 and is even more liberal than the Dutch one. Physicians will be exempted from criminal liability provided they satisfy the so-called 'due care criteria'. However, in medical history euthanasia has never been part of the medical duty of care. Instead, the goals of medicine have always been the relief of pain and suffering. The current article provides insights into the Dutch, Belgian and Oregon euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide practices and reflects upon some central medical and legal documents on the regulation of euthanasia and the provision of palliative care. Modern palliative care includes both the delivery of competent palliative skills and a virtuous attitude of compassionate caring about the terminally ill patient as an autonomous person. Here, the author rejects killing as due care and proposes a novel concept of 'RAHME' (Aramaic: compassion, love, mercy), which calls for a holistically oriented concept where physicians act as companions to the terminally ill and dying patients. PMID:14571664

Oduncu, Fuat S

2003-01-01

63

Letting die and mercy killing.  

PubMed

We are all called to make moral decisions, not only about preserving life and health, but also about accepting our death and dying. There are situations, when it is morally right, and indeed obligatory, to allow a dying person to die in peace and dignity. But there is a world of difference between allowing a peaceful death, and deliberately setting out to bring death of the person either by acts of commission (s.c. 'active euthanasia'), or by acts of omission (s.c. 'passive euthanasia'). The word "killing" seems proper for euthanasia, because "to kill" does mean " to intentionally cause the death of someone." It can be morally acceptable to withhold or withdraw a treatment precisely because it is reasonably judged as inefficacious (futile), or excessively burdensome for the patient. One's reason for withholding such treatment must not be a judgement about the desirability of putting an end to the patient's life, but a judgement about the desirability of putting an end to the treatment, which is futile or burdensome. PMID:16294443

Narbekovas, Andrius; Meilius, Kazimieras

2003-01-01

64

Evidence that Killing Escalates Within-Subjects in a Bug-Killing Paradigm.  

PubMed

Prior research has examined killing behavior using a paradigm in which participants believe (falsely) that they are killing bugs. This work suggests that killing behavior escalates. In the present study, we sought to replicate the basic escalation effect within-subjects. Further, in doing so, we controlled for experimenter "sanctioning" of killing that may have differed with key between-subjects manipulations in the prior research. To control for this possible confound, the present experiment held experimenter instructions constant and examined whether killing naturally escalated within-subjects across two 12-sec bug-killing tasks. Additionally, to verify that escalation is due to killing per se and not just physical practice of the procedure, we manipulated whether the procedure was described as real killing or simulated killing. Results showed that when participants thought they were killing bugs, the number of bugs put into the grinder increased from the first to the second killing task. No such escalation occurred when participants performed the procedure while knowing the killing was simulated. Thus, killing of bugs escalates and is not simply a consequence of perceived sanctioning of killing by an experimenter or simulated practice of the procedure. PMID:22331599

Martens, Andy; Kosloff, Spee

2012-02-13

65

Killed but metabolically active vaccines.  

PubMed

Beginning in the 20th century and continuing into the new millennia, vaccines against numerous diseases have had an unquestioned principal role of both enhancing the quality of life and increasing life expectancy (Rappuoli R, Mandl CW, Black S, De Gregorio E: Vaccines for the twenty-first century society. Nat Rev Immunol 2011, 11:865-872). Despite this success and the development of sophisticated new vaccine technologies, there remain multiple infectious diseases including tuberculosis, malaria and AIDS that await an effective prophylactic vaccine. In addition, there have been recent clinical successes among individuals with cancer using vaccine treatment strategies-so-called therapeutic vaccines-that stimulate tumor specific immunity and increase survival (Kantoff PW, Higano CS, Shore ND, Berger ER, Small EJ, Penson DF, Redfern CH, Ferrari AC, Dreicer R, Sims RB, et al.: Sipuleucel-T immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer. New Engl J Med 2010, 363:411-422). Here we summarize a new class of vaccines termed Killed But Metabolically Active (KBMA). KBMA vaccines are whole pathogenic or attenuated organisms killed through photochemical inactivation and cannot cause disease, yet retain sufficient metabolic activity to initiate a potent immune response. KBMA vaccines have two broad applications. First, recombinant KBMA vaccines encoding selected antigens relevant to infectious disease or cancer can be used to elicit a desired immune response. In the second application, KBMA vaccines can be derived from attenuated forms of a targeted pathogen, allowing for the presentation of the entire antigenic repertoire to the immune system, of particular importance when the correlates of protection are unknown. PMID:22608846

Dubensky, Thomas W; Skoble, Justin; Lauer, Peter; Brockstedt, Dirk G

2012-12-01

66

A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.

Raup, D. M.

1991-01-01

67

75 FR 62469 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0907] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from...

2010-10-12

68

75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0355] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from...

2010-06-01

69

The soft-kill fallacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dozens of non-lethal weapons have been proposed or developed, mostly in laboratory-scale models. They encompass a broad range of technologies, including chemical, biological, kinetic, electromagnetic, and accoustic weapons, as well as informational techniques such as computer viruses. `Non-lethal weapons disable or destroy without causing significant injury or damage,` asserted Undersecretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz in a March 1991 memorandum. The

Aftergood

1994-01-01

70

On the moral acceptability of killing animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to a “rights view” it is acceptable to kill animals if they are innocent threats or shields or are in a “lifeboat situation.” However, according to advocates of such a view, our practices of killing animals for food or scientific research may be morally unacceptable. In this paper we argue that, even if we grant the basic assumptions of

Hugh Lehman

1988-01-01

71

Children killed by genetic parents versus stepparents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite many empirical studies of children killed by parents, there has been little theoretical progress. An examination of 378 cases in a national register revealed that circumstances differed for genetic parents versus stepparents. Infants were at greatest risk of filicide, especially by genetic mothers. Genetic mothers who killed offspring, especially older children, disproportionately had a mental illness and received relatively

Grant T. Harris; N. Zoe Hilton; Marnie E. Rice; Angela W. Eke

2007-01-01

72

Electromechanical Energy Transduction for Hybrid Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid vehicle technology seeks to reduce the total energy consumption used for vehicle locomotion by recovering and reutilizing kinetic energy that is otherwise unrecovered or dissipated in conventional vehicle deceleration. The goal of the work is to determine the transduction mechanisms that work towards a Carnot efficiency without considering constraints or limitations placed by cost or materials. Specifically, this talk

Sridhar Reddy Vanja; Michael W. Kelly; A. N. Caruso

2010-01-01

73

Momentum kill procedure can quickly control blowouts  

SciTech Connect

The momentum kill method can help in quickly regaining control of a blowing well, providing the blowing well rate and fluid properties can be estimated reasonably. The momentum of the kill fluid counteracts and overcomes the flowing momentum of formation fluids. In other words, sufficient mud density pumped at a sufficient rate is directed into the flow stream to force the escaping fluid column back into the well bore. Sufficient kill fluid hydrostatic pressure must be stacked'' in the hole so that the well remains dead after the operation. The momentum kill is not a panacea for all blowouts. An assessment must be made of the potential problems unique to this method, and certain requirements must be met if the technique is to be successful. The paper discusses some of the considerations for evaluating the use of the momentum kill method.

Watson, W.D. (Southern International Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)); Moore, P. (Preston L. Moore and Associates Inc., Norman, OK (United States))

1993-08-30

74

Killing cells by targeting mitosis  

PubMed Central

Cell cycle deregulation is a common feature of human cancer. Tumor cells accumulate mutations that result in unscheduled proliferation, genomic instability and chromosomal instability. Several therapeutic strategies have been proposed for targeting the cell division cycle in cancer. Whereas inhibiting the initial phases of the cell cycle is likely to generate viable quiescent cells, targeting mitosis offers several possibilities for killing cancer cells. Microtubule poisons have proved efficacy in the clinic against a broad range of malignancies, and novel targeted strategies are now evaluating the inhibition of critical activities, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 1, Aurora or Polo kinases or spindle kinesins. Abrogation of the mitotic checkpoint or targeting the energetic or proteotoxic stress of aneuploid or chromosomally instable cells may also provide further benefits by inducing lethal levels of instability. Although cancer cells may display different responses to these treatments, recent data suggest that targeting mitotic exit by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex generates metaphase cells that invariably die in mitosis. As the efficacy of cell–cycle targeting approaches has been limited so far, further understanding of the molecular pathways modulating mitotic cell death will be required to move forward these new proposals to the clinic.

Manchado, E; Guillamot, M; Malumbres, M

2012-01-01

75

Bacteriophage-aided intracellular killing of engulfed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by murine macrophages.  

PubMed

Phages are known to effectively kill extracellularly multiplying bacteria as they do not have the ability of intracellular penetration within the animal cells. However, the present manuscript focuses on studying the impact of surface-adsorbed phage particles on the killing of engulfed Staphylococcus aureus inside phagocytic cells. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were isolated and cultured, followed by evaluation of their ability of bacterial uptake and killing. The intracellular killing potential of macrophages in the presence of unadsorbed free phage as well as phage adsorbed onto S. aureus 43300 was studied. Phage added alone to macrophage preparation did not influence intracellular killing of engulfed S. aureus by macrophages. However, phage adsorbed onto host bacterial cells (utilizing host bacteria as a vehicle to carry the lytic phage into the phagocytic compartment) brought about time-dependent and titre-dependent significant reduction in the number of viable intracellular cocci. Phage particles that shuttled inside the macrophage along with bacteria also significantly reduced cytotoxic damage caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). This in turn enhanced the bactericidal killing potential of phagocytic cells. In earlier studies the inability of phages to kill intracellular bacteria has been thought to be a major drawback of phage therapy. For the first time results of this study confirm the killing ability of the broad host range lytic phage MR-5 of both extracellular as well as intracellular engulfed S. aureus inside macrophages. This approach shall not only restrict intracellular proliferation of staphylococci within the myeloid cells but also protect the host from further relapse of infection and treatment failures. PMID:24633444

Kaur, Sandeep; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

2014-05-01

76

Fish Kills Caused by Pollution in 1975 - Sixteenth Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an analysis of pollution-caused fish kills compiled from data supplied by State officials. It includes analytical text and the following tables: major kills, historical summary, summaries by State, source, water body, kills within EPA region...

1977-01-01

77

Electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renewed interest in electric vehicles (EVs) in the wake of the California Air Resources Board mandate that 2% of the vehicles lighter than 3750 lb (1700 kg) sold by each manufacturer in that state in 1998 be zero-emission vehicles is examined. The reasons why replacing an internal combustion vehicle (ICV) with an electrically powered equivalent greatly reduces air pollution,

M. J. Riezenman

1992-01-01

78

Finding Ultimate Limits of Performance for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles are seen as a solution to improving fuel economy and reducing pollution emissions from automobiles. By recovering kinetic energy during braking and optimizing the engine operation to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, a hybrid vehicle can outperform a traditional vehicle. In designing a hybrid vehicle, the task of finding optimal component sizes and an appropriate control strategy

Edward D. Tate; Stephen P. Boyd

79

Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tables, charts, and narrative comments addressing the number of law enforcement officers killed or assaulted are presented throughout this publication. The unit of count is the victim officer, not the number of incidents or weapons employed. In tabulation...

1999-01-01

80

Is All That TV Killing You?  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Is All That TV Killing You? Study suggests more than ... premature death went up by 55 percent for all other causes, compared to people who said they ...

81

Chemically enhanced sunlight for killing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Solar ultraviolet (UV) photocatalyzed oxidation of chemicals with titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) has received considerable attention. Much less recognized, however, is the ability of the same system to destroy bacteria. This study examined this phenomenon and the conditions that effect it. Bacteria in aqueous solution were given solar exposure with titanium dioxide and their survival with time was detected. Lamps with a predominantly solar ultraviolet spectrum were also used in the experiments. Without exposure to UV light, TiO{sub 2} does not affect the bacteria. However, several common bacteria were killed in just a few minutes on solar exposure in the presence of TiO{sub 2}. Whereas without TiO{sub 2} it took more than an hour to destroy them. A concentration of 0.01 percent TiO{sub 2} was most effective in killing bacteria and tenfold concentrations lower or higher were successively less effective. Inorganic and organic compounds in solution, even in small amounts, interfered with the efficiency of killing. An alkaline solution also reduced the bactericidal activity. Circulation and agitation provided by stirring to keep the TiO{sub 2} particles suspended reduced the time necessary to kill the bacteria. Time-intensity curves for killing bacteria were the same general shape with or without TiO{sub 2}. This suggests that TiO{sub 2} served merely as a catalyst to increase the rate of the reaction but that the mechanism of action was not changed. The shape of the curves shows that the organisms are sensitized with a minimum intensity of radiation and that an increase doesn`t greatly increase the rate of the kill. Below this critical intensity, however, the time required for killing markedly increases as the intensity is decreased.

Block, S.S.; Seng, V.P.; Goswami, D.W. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1997-02-01

82

Killing of Brucella abortus by bovine serum.  

PubMed Central

Studies of the serum bactericidal system in bovine brucellosis were undertaken to investigate the role of the humoral immune response in protection of cattle against the facultative intracellular parasite Brucella abortus. Fresh sera from normal control cattle, infected cattle, and cattle immunized with B. abortus cell envelopes were collected before treatment and during the course of immunization or infection. Normal fresh bovine serum or fresh agammaglobulinemic serum from colostrum-deprived calves was effective in killing smooth virulent B. abortus 2308, but rough strains RB51 (a rough mutant of strain 2308) and 45/20 were much more sensitive to serum. The difference in susceptibility to serum was shown to be correlated with differences in lipopolysaccharide chemotype, with the more resistant strain 2308 having O polysaccharide and the more susceptible strains 45/20 and RB51 lacking O side chains. By treatment of fresh serum with MgCl2 and EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid] killing was shown to occur via the classical pathway of complement activation. When antibody to B. abortus was present, killing of strain RB51 increased but killing of smooth strain 2308 decreased. The earliest antibody response in serum from infected animals did not interfere with killing. When affinity-purified bovine immunoglobulins specific for B. abortus smooth lipopolysaccharide were added to fresh normal bovine serum, immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2 isotypes blocked killing but IgM and IgA isotypes did not. Thus, it appears that serum from previously unexposed animals or animals early during infection can kill smooth B. abortus, an appropriate defense mechanism before the organism becomes intracellular. At later stages of infection, blocking antibodies predominate. Images

Corbeil, L B; Blau, K; Inzana, T J; Nielsen, K H; Jacobson, R H; Corbeil, R R; Winter, A J

1988-01-01

83

Intravital imaging of CTLs killing islet cells in diabetic mice  

PubMed Central

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing ? cells in the pancreatic islets, which are essentially mini-organs embedded in exocrine tissue. CTLs are considered to have a predominant role in the autoimmune destruction underlying T1D. Visualization of CTL-mediated killing of ? cells would provide new insight into the pathogenesis of T1D, but has been technically challenging to achieve. Here, we report our use of intravital 2-photon imaging in mice to visualize the dynamic behavior of a virally expanded, diabetogenic CTL population in the pancreas at cellular resolution. Following vascular arrest and extravasation, CTLs adopted a random motility pattern throughout the compact exocrine tissue and displayed unimpeded yet nonlinear migration between anatomically nearby islets. Upon antigen encounter within islets, a confined motility pattern was acquired that allowed the CTLs to scan the target cell surface. A minority of infiltrating CTLs subsequently arrested at the ? cell junction, while duration of stable CTL–target cell contact was on the order of hours. Slow-rate killing occurred in the sustained local presence of substantial numbers of effector cells. Collectively, these data portray the kinetics of CTL homing to and between antigenic target sites as a stochastic process at the sub-organ level and argue against a dominant influence of chemotactic gradients.

Coppieters, Ken; Amirian, Natalie; von Herrath, Matthias

2011-01-01

84

Kill fluid for oil field operations  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process employing a kill fluid to substantially reduce the volumetric flow of formation fluid into a wellbore penetrating a formation containing the formation fluid below an earthen surface. It comprises: admixing components of a continuous flowing gel at the surface comprising of water-soluble carboxylate-containing polymer, a complex capable of crosslinking the polymer and formed of at least one electropositive chromium III species and at least one electronegative carboxylatespecies, and an aqueous solvent for the polymer and the complex; crosslinking the polymer and the complex to form the gel, wherein the kill fluid comprises the gel; placing a volume of the kill fluid in the wellbore sufficient to create a hydrostatic head which exerts a kill fluid pressure against the formation fluid substantially equal to or greater than the formation fluid pressure and thereby substantially reduces the volumetric flow of the formation fluid into the wellbore; performing an oil field operation after placing the volume of the kill fluid in the wellbore; and removing the gel from the wellbore to substantially restore the volumetric flow of the formation fluid into the wellbore.

Sydansk, R.D.

1990-08-14

85

Hybrid Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This TOP provides standardized tests recommended for evaluating hybrid vehicles. Because of the development of hybrid propulsion techniques for military wheeled and tracked vehicles new testing procedures to assess the automotive and safety design of thes...

2008-01-01

86

Differential timing of antibody-mediated phagocytosis and cell-free killing of invasive African Salmonella allows immune evasion.  

PubMed

Nontyphoidal Salmonellae commonly cause fatal bacteraemia in African children lacking anti-Salmonella antibodies. These are facultative intracellular bacteria capable of cell-free and intracellular survival within macrophages. To better understand the relationship between extracellular and intracellular infection in blood and general mechanisms of Ab-related protection against Salmonella, we used human blood and sera to measure kinetics of Ab and complement deposition, serum-mediated bactericidal killing and phagocytosis of invasive African Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium D23580. Binding of antibodies peaked by 30 s, but C3 deposition lagged behind, peaking after 2-4 min. C5b-9 deposition was undetectable until between 2 and 6 min and peaked after 10 min, after which time an increase in serum-mediated killing occurred. In contrast, intracellular, opsonized Salmonellae were readily detectable within 5 min. By 10 min, around half of monocytes and most neutrophils contained bacteria. The same kinetics of serum-mediated killing and phagocytosis were observed with S. enterica Typhimurium laboratory strain SL1344, and the S. enterica Enteritidis African invasive isolate D24954 and laboratory strain PT4. The differential kinetics between cell-free killing and phagocytosis of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella allows these bacteria to escape the blood and establish intracellular infection before they are killed by the membrane attack complex. PMID:24375424

Siggins, Matthew K; O'Shaughnessy, Colette M; Pravin, John; Cunningham, Adam F; Henderson, Ian R; Drayson, Mark T; MacLennan, Calman A

2014-04-01

87

A real-time killing assay to follow viral epitope presentation to CD8 T cells.  

PubMed

The ability of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) to clear virus-infected cells requires the presentation of viral peptides intracellularly processed and displayed by major histocompatibility complex class I. Assays to measure CTL-mediated killing often use peptides exogenously added onto target cells--which does not account for epitope processing--or follow killing of infected cells at a single time point. In this study we established a real-time fluorogenic cytotoxic assay that measures the release of the Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase by dying target cells every 5 min after addition of CTL. It has comparable sensitivity to (51)chromium-based killing assay with the additional advantage of incorporating the kinetics of epitope presentation. We showed that HIV infection of immortalized or primary CD4 T cells leads to asynchronous killing by two CTL clones specific for epitopes located in different proteins. Real-time monitoring of killing of virus-infected cells will enable identification of immune responses efficiently preventing virus dissemination. PMID:24060536

Gourdain, Pauline; Boucau, Julie; Kourjian, Georgio; Lai, Nicole Y; Duong, Ellen; Le Gall, Sylvie

2013-12-15

88

Extracellular killing of inhaled pneumococci in rats  

SciTech Connect

Early clearance of inhaled Staphylococcus aureus is believed to be caused by phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. In murine models inhaled pneumococci are cleared even more rapidly than S. aureus. Conventional opsonins appear to play no role in this clearance, and recently it has been shown that murine alveolar lining material contains free fatty acids and other soluble factors that are directly bactericidal for pneumococci. To determine whether non-phagocytic factors are involved in pneumococcal clearance, we compared the site of killing of inhaled pneumococci and S. aureus in rats using histologic methods and bronchoalveolar lavage. Spontaneous lysis of pneumococci was prevented by use of autolysin-defective pneumococci or by substitution of ethanolamine for choline in the cell wall. Histologic studies showed that the percent of inhaled staphylococci associated with alveolar macrophages always exceeded the percent of staphylococci cleared, whereas there was little association of pneumococci with macrophages during clearance. Analysis of the intracellular or extracellular location of iron 59 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats that had inhaled aerosols of /sup 59/Fe-labeled bacteria suggested that staphylococci were killed predominantly in macrophages and pneumococci in the extracellular space. When /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci or staphylococci were ingested and killed by macrophages in vitro, the /sup 59/Fe remained with the macrophages, suggesting that the extracellular location of /sup 59/Fe during pneumococcal killing in vivo was not caused by rapid turnover of /sup 59/Fe in macrophages. Studies of the site of killing of inhaled type 25 pneumococci labeled exclusively in the cell wall with carbon 14-ethanolamine confirmed the results obtained with /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci. Thus, early killing of inhaled pneumococci, unlike staphylococci, appears to take place outside of macrophages.

Coonrod, J.D.; Marple, S.; Holmes, G.P.; Rehm, S.R.

1987-12-01

89

Internet Resources on Genocide and Mass Killings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Internet Resources on Genocide and Mass Killings is an extensive compilation of primary materials and annotated links related to "twentieth-century genocidal and mass man-made killing occurrences." Divided into fifteen sections, subject coverage includes topics such as The Jewish Holocaust, War Crimes and Criminals, Yugoslavia and Kosovo, among others. Most of the original documents in the compilation have been uploaded to the site, facilitating navigation and research. Documents not residing at the site are linked via succinct annotations. The compilation is searchable and updated continuously by its creator Dr. Stuart D. Stein, Senior Lecturer in Sociology and Social Psychology at the University of West England.

90

Mothers who killed or attempted to kill their child: life circumstances, childhood abuse, and types of killing.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to examine the life circumstances, childhood abuse, and types of homicidal acts of 48 mothers who killed/attempted to kill their child(ren) under age 12 between 1970-96 in Finland. Data on the mothers'life stresses, psychological problems, and childhood abuse were collected from mental state examination (MSE) reports. The cases were divided into 15 neonaticides and 33 mothers who killed an older child. Childhood abuse was documented in 63% of the mothers' MSE reports. Qualitative analysis identified neonaticides,joint homicide-suicide attempts, impulsive aggression, psychotic acts, postpartum depression, and abusive acts. Nonlinear principal components analysis showed that different variables were related to the neonaticide and non-neonaticide cases. We concluded that despite differences in the psychosocial profiles of neonaticides and other maternal homicidal acts the cycle of violence perspective can be applied to both cases, even though it may not be a sufficient explanation for maternal child killings. PMID:10606431

Haapasalo, J; Petäjä, S

1999-01-01

91

How to Make a Killing Jar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Biodiversity Counts illustration shows students how to make a simple killing jar to preserve arthropods for further study. As the labeled drawing shows, all that's needed is a jar with a lid, tape for reinforcement, a few drops of ethyl acetate, and a paper towel.

92

Can Vet Schools Teach without Killing Animals?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a protest by students at the University of Illinois (Urbana) College of Veterinary Medicine over the killing of animals that led to temporary curtailing of lethal animal experiments. Examines the conflict between animal rights groups and some faculty who are openly skeptical about the effectiveness of alternatives to the hands-on…

Mangan, Katherine S.

2000-01-01

93

Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication presents tables, charts, and narrative comments addressing the number of law enforcement officers killed and assaulted in the line of duty. The unit of count is the victim officer, not the number of incidents nor weapons employed. In tabu...

2001-01-01

94

Red Tide Kills Fish, Fouls Gulf Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This CBS news article reports a toxic algae bloom that spread along the Texas Gulf coast in 2000, killing millions of fish and fouling beaches with their remains. The article explains how red tide affects fish and describes health threats to humans.

News, Cbs

95

Mass killings and detection of impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highly energetic bolide impacts occur and their flux is known. For larger bodies the energy release is greater than for any other short-term global phenomenon. Such impacts produce or release a large variety of shock induced changes including major atmospheric, sedimentologic, seismic and volcanic events. These events must necessarily leave a variety of records in the stratigraphic column, including mass killings resulting in major changes in population density and reduction or extinction of many taxonomic groups, followed by characteristic patterns of faunal and flora replacement. Of these effects, mass killings, marked by large-scale loss of biomass, are the most easily detected evidence in the field but must be manifest on a near-global scale. Such mass killings that appear to be approximately synchronous and involve disappearance of biomass at a bedding plane in many sedimentologically independent sections globally suggest a common cause and probable synchroneity. Mass killings identify an horizon which may be examined for evidence of cause. Geochemical markers may be ephemeral and absence may not be significant. There appears to be no reason why ongoing phenomena such as climate and sea-level changes are primary causes of anomolous episodic events.

Mclaren, Digby J.

1988-01-01

96

Killing Hitler: A Writer's Journey and Angst.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the author's experiences in preparing a talk that "evokes the specter" of Adolf Hitler and in writing an historical account of a British plot to kill Hitler. Address the question of why the British allowed him to live that final year of the war. Muses on why scholars write, and the impact of violence and terrorism. (SG)

Thaler, Paul

2002-01-01

97

Electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

Not Available

1990-03-01

98

Motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An improvement in a motor vehicle is described including: a vehicle body; a front road wheel disposed in the front part of the vehicle body; a rear road wheel disposed in the rear part of the vehicle body; an engine for driving at least either of the front and rear road wheels; and a steering wheel for steering at least either of the front and rear road wheels; comprising: detection means connected to the vehicle for detecting the transverse sliding angle of the vehicle body; and display means connected to the detection means for visually displaying the moving direction of the vehicle body on the basis of an output of the detection means; and the detection means comprises a first sensor for detecting the advancing speed of the vehicle, a second sensor for detecting the transverse acceleration of the vehicle, a third sensor for detecting the yawing velocity of the vehicle, and a processor for calculating the transverse sliding angle on the basis of the advancing speed, the transverse acceleration and the yawing velocity.

Furukawa, Y.; Sano, S.

1986-04-15

99

Electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

1990-03-01

100

Improvised Explosive Devise Placement Detection from a Semi-Autonomous Ground Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Improvised Explosive Devices (IED's) continue to kill and seriously injure military members throughout the Iraqi theatre. Autonomous Ground Vehicle (AGV) seeks to identify the human presence placing the IED and then report that contact to a unit of action...

B. D. Miller

2006-01-01

101

Kinetic Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for kinetic determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.

Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David

1993-01-01

102

GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND - Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Island, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

103

Monoclonal antibody targets, kills leukemia cells  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego Moores Cancer Center have identified a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets and directly kills chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. The findings, published in the online Early Edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on March 25, 2013 represent a potential new therapy for treating at least some patients with CLL, the most common type of blood cancer in the United States.

104

Cytotoxic Killing and Immune Evasion by Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between the immune system and pathogens is a complex one, with pathogens constantly developing new ways of\\u000a evading destruction by the immune system. The immune system's task is made even harder when the pathogen in question is an\\u000a intra-cellular one (such as a virus or certain bacteria) and it is necessary to kill the infected host cell in

Cliburn Chan; Andrew J. T. George; Jaroslav Stark

2007-01-01

105

Killing of microorganisms by pulsed electric fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lethal effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on suspensions of various bacteria, yeast, and spores in buffer solutions and\\u000a liquid foodstuffs were examined. Living-cell counts of vegetative cell types were reduced by PEF treatment by up to more than\\u000a four orders of magnitude (> 99.99%). On the other hand, endoand ascospores were not inactivated or killed to any great extent.

T. Grahl; H. Märkl

1996-01-01

106

Designing surfaces that kill bacteria on contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(4-vinyl-N-alkylpyridinium bromide) was covalently attached to glass slides to create a surface that kills airborne bacteria on contact. The antibacterial properties were assessed by spraying aqueous suspensions of bacterial cells on the surface, followed by air drying and counting the number of cells remaining viable (i.e., capable of growing colonies). Amino glass slides were acylated with acryloyl chloride, copolymerized with 4-vinylpyridine, and N-alkylated with different alkyl bromides (from propyl to hexadecyl). The resultant surfaces, depending on the alkyl group, were able to kill up to 94 ± 4% of Staphylococcus aureus cells sprayed on them. A surface alternatively created by attaching poly(4-vinylpyridine) to a glass slide and alkylating it with hexyl bromide killed 94 ± 3% of the deposited S. aureus cells. On surfaces modified with N-hexylated poly(4-vinylpyridine), the numbers of viable cells of another Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, as well as of the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, dropped more than 100-fold compared with the original amino glass. In contrast, the number of viable bacterial cells did not decline significantly after spraying on such common materials as ceramics, plastics, metals, and wood.

Tiller, Joerg C.; Liao, Chun-Jen; Lewis, Kim; Klibanov, Alexander M.

2001-05-01

107

Road-Killed Animals as Resources for Ecological Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes 19 literature sources identifying road-killed vertebrates and frequency of kill by numbers. Examples of how these animals can be incorporated into curricula (integrating biology, society, people, and values) are given, followed by an illustrated example of how a road-killed raccoon's skull demonstrated a human/wildlife interaction prior…

Adams, Clark E.

1983-01-01

108

Synergy between penicillins and low concentrations of gentamicin in the killing of group B streptococci.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial sensitivity, synergy, and timed-killing assays were determined for 20 strains of group B streptococci isolated from cultures of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of infected neonates. The mean minimal inhibitory concentrations by the tube-dilution method were as follows: penicillin, 0.02 microgram/ml; ampicillin, 0.05 microgram/ml; and gentamicin, 4.5 micrograms/ml. No synergy was detected with any combination of penicillin or ampicillin and gentamicin by the checkerboard titration method. Killing kinetics were determined for combinations of penicillin or ampicillin and gentamicin at low concentrations of these antibiotics comparable to those attained in the CSF following systemic administration of these antibiotics. Addition of 0.1 microgram and 0.5 microgram of gentamicin/ml to penicillin or ampicillin significantly accelerated the killing of group B streptococci. Despite the "poor" permeation of gentamicin into the CSF, the accelerated killing of streptococci at low concentrations of this antibiotic provides a rationale for the initial use of a combination of penicillin or ampicillin and gentamicin in the treatment of group B streptococcal meningitis. PMID:3897398

Swingle, H M; Bucciarelli, R L; Ayoub, E M

1985-09-01

109

Electromechanical Energy Transduction for Hybrid Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid vehicle technology seeks to reduce the total energy consumption used for vehicle locomotion by recovering and reutilizing kinetic energy that is otherwise unrecovered or dissipated in conventional vehicle deceleration. The goal of the work is to determine the transduction mechanisms that work towards a Carnot efficiency without considering constraints or limitations placed by cost or materials. Specifically, this talk will present ideal thermodynamic models of energy exchange between mechanical, electrostatic, electromechanical and electrochemical devices with a goal of projecting an ideal hybrid vehicle.

Reddy Vanja, Sridhar; Kelly, Michael W.; Caruso, A. N.

2010-03-01

110

Dynamic kill: controlling wild wells a new way  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic kill describes a technique for terminating a blowout utilizing flowing frictional pressure to supplement the hydrostatic pressure of the kill fluid being injected through the relief well and up the blowing well. Therefore, a lighter kill fluid such as water can be implemented. The objective is to allow a blowout to be killed without breaking down the formation so the maximum amount of fluid can be circulated through the relief well by not losing fluid to a fractured formation. This allows optimum control during the kill operation and stable communication between the two wells. By allowing more fluid to be applied to the kill through one relief well, dynamic kill also increases the probability that one relief well will be sufficient. When the well is dynamically dead, the initial kill fluid, which will usually be too light to hold the well dead in a static condition, is replaced with a heavier kill mud. In fact, three weights of mud may be required to allow control during the transition from low density initial dynamic kill mud to heavy final kill mud. 5 refs.

Blount, E.M.; Soeiinah, E.

1981-10-01

111

Effect of Silicon on the Desulfurization of Al-Killed Steels: Part I. Mathematical Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations suggest that increased silicon levels improve ladle desulfurization of aluminum-killed steel. While the overall desulfurization reaction of Al-killed steels does not show a direct role of silicon in desulfurization, model calculations are presented which test the idea that silicon suppresses the reduction of silica which can consume aluminum at the slag/metal interface. Consumption of aluminum would increase the oxygen potential at the slag/metal interface and decrease the sulfur partition coefficient between slag and metal. The model considers the coupled reactions of the reduction of silica, iron oxide, and manganese oxide in the slag and desulfurization of the steel by aluminum. The results show that silicon can indeed suppress consumption of aluminum at the slag/metal interface by side reactions other than desulfurization, with silicon affecting both the kinetics and the equilibrium of desulfurization.

Roy, Debdutta; Pistorius, Petrus Christiaan; Fruehan, Richard J.

2013-10-01

112

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

113

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

114

What Killed The Dinosaurs?: The Great Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents theories about why the dinosaurs became extinct. The first page provides background information covering not only the "great dying" at the K-T boundary but also the mass extinction at the end of the Paleozoic Era. The author covers six factors that complicate the study of mass extinction including time resolution, the Signor-Lipps Effect, and falsifiability. A link then takes the reader to a second page where invalid extinction hypotheses are explained. These range from "hay fever killed the dinosaurs" to "the dinosaurs just faded away," (no causation implied). The final link leads us to current thinking about extinction including volcanism, plate tectonics, and the Alvarez Hypothesis.

Hutchinson, John

115

Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces?  

PubMed Central

Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important first steps for revealing the molecular sensitive targets in cells lethally challenged by exposure to copper surfaces and provide a scientific explanation for the use of copper surfaces as antimicrobial agents for supporting public hygiene.

Santo, Christophe Espirito; Lam, Ee Wen; Elowsky, Christian G.; Quaranta, Davide; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

2011-01-01

116

The Kinematics of Cytotoxic Lymphocytes Influence Their Ability to Kill Target Cells  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) have been reported to show a range of motility patterns from rapid long-range tracking to complete arrest, but how and whether these kinematics affect their ability to kill target cells is not known. Many in vitro killing assays utilize cell lines and tumour-derived cells as targets, which may be of limited relevance to the kinetics of CTL-mediated killing of somatic cells. Here, live-cell microscopy is used to examine the interactions of CTL and primary murine skin cells presenting antigens. We developed a qualitative and quantitative killing assay using extended-duration fluorescence time-lapse microscopy coupled with large-volume objective software-based data analysis to obtain population data of cell-to-cell interactions, motility and apoptosis. In vivo and ex vivo activated antigen-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes were added to primary keratinocyte targets in culture with fluorometric detection of caspase-3 activation in targets as an objective determinant of apoptosis. We found that activated CTL achieved contact-dependent apoptosis of non-tumour targets after a period of prolonged attachment – on average 21 hours – which was determined by target cell type, amount of antigen, and activation status of CTL. Activation of CTL even without engagement of the T cell receptor was sufficient to mobilise cells significantly above baseline, while the addition of cognate antigen further enhanced their motility. Highly activated CTL showed markedly increased vector displacement, and velocity, and lead to increased antigen-specific target cell death. These data show that the inherent kinematics of CTL correlate directly with their ability to kill non-tumour cells presenting cognate antigen.

Bhat, Purnima; Leggatt, Graham; Matthaei, Klaus I.; Frazer, Ian H.

2014-01-01

117

Kinetic Atom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys the research of scientists like Joule, Kelvin, Maxwell, Clausius, and Boltzmann as it comments on the basic conceptual issues involved in the development of a more precise kinetic theory and the idea of a kinetic atom. (Author/SK)

Wilson, David B.

1981-01-01

118

Kinetic Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a unit on chemical reaction kinetics that consists of a predemonstration activity, the demonstration, and a set of postdemonstration activities that help students transfer the concepts to actual chemical reactions. Simulates various aspects of chemical reaction kinetics. (JRH)

Burgardt, Erik D.; Ryan, Hank

1996-01-01

119

Heat production due to intracellular killing activity.  

PubMed

Using Saccharomyces ceravisiae, Candida albicans and Stapylococcus aureus, heat production during phagocytosis was measured in U937 cells which are capable of differentiating to monocytic phagocytes. No increase in heat production of non-differentiated U937 was observed since they were not phagocytic cells. However after differentiation to monocytic phagocytes by lymphokine, U937 cells produced a remarkable amount of heat during phagocytosis. Although Ehrlich ascites tumor cells sensitized with antibody were capable of engulfing S. aureus, no increase in heat nor in superoxide anion production during phagocytosis was detected. It was also found that no heat increase occurred in neutrophils from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). It can thus be concluded that the heat production during phagocytosis is due to the intercellular killing process of phagocytic cells. PMID:2131646

Hayatsu, H; Masuda, S; Miyamae, T; Yamamura, M

1990-09-01

120

Antimicrobial Peptide Killing of African Trypanosomes  

PubMed Central

Summary The diseases caused by trypanosomes are medically and economically devastating to the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Parasites of the genus Trypanosoma, infect both humans, causing African sleeping sickness, and livestock, causing Nagana. The development of effective treatment strategies has suffered from the severe side effects of approved drugs, resistance and major difficulties in delivering drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are ubiquitous components of immune defense and are being rigorously pursued as novel sources of new therapeutics for a variety of pathogens. Here we review the role of antimicrobial peptides in the innate immune response of the tsetse fly to African trypanosomes, catalogue trypanocidal antimicrobial peptides from diverse organisms and highlight the susceptibility of bloodstream form African trypanosomes to killing by unconventional toxic peptides.

Harrington, John M.

2011-01-01

121

Advancements in dynamic kill calculations for blowout wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the development, interpretation, and use of dynamic kill equations. To this end, three simple calculation techniques are developed for determining the minimum dynamic kill rate. Two techniques contain only single-phase calculations and are independent of reservoir inflow performance. Despite these limitations, these two methods are useful for bracketing the minimum flow rates necessary to kill a blowing well. For the third technique, a simplified mechanistic multiphase-flow model is used to determine a most-probable minimum kill rate.

Kouba, G.E. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States). Production Fluids Div.); MacDougall, G.R. (Chevron Canada Resources Ltd., Slave Lake, (Canada)); Schumacher, B.W. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States). Information Technology Dept.)

1993-09-01

122

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

Box, W.D.

1994-03-15

123

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (115 Newhaven Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1994-01-01

124

Vehicle barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable\\/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate

Hirsh

1991-01-01

125

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

126

Contributions of Cell Kill and Posttreatment Tumor Growth Rates to the Repopulation of Intracerebral 9L Tumors after Chemotherapy: An MRI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drought of progress in clinical brain tumor therapy provides an impetus for developing new treatments as well as methods for testing therapeutics in animal models. The inability of traditional assays to simultaneously measure tumor size, location, growth kinetics, and cell kill achieved by a treatment complicates the interpretation of therapy experiments in animal models. To address these issues, tumor

Brian D. Ross; Yong-Jie Zhao; Eric R. Neal; Lauren D. Stegman; Matthew Ercolani; Oded Ben-Yoseph; Thomas L. Chenevert

1998-01-01

127

MOTOR VEHICLE TRIP TICKET  

Cancer.gov

MOTOR VEHICLE TRIP TICKET Please read all instructions carefully. INSTRUCTIONS: You are responsible for reporting vehicle defects and accidents immediately. DESTINATION VEHICLE TAG NO. NAME OF ALL DRIVERS: PHONE NO TYPE OF VEHICLE SIGNATURE

128

In Situ Magnetohydrodynamic Energy Generation for Planetary Entry Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims to study the suitability of multi-pass entry trajectories for harnessing of vehicle kinetic energy through magnetohydrodynamic power generation from the high temperature entry plasma. Potential mission configurations are analyzed.

Ali, H. K.; Braun, R. D.

2014-06-01

129

Design of Targeted B Cell Killing Agents  

PubMed Central

B cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of both systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Autoreactive B cells not only produce autoantibodies, but also are capable to efficiently present specific autoantigens to T cells. Furthermore, B cells can secrete proinflammatory cytokines and amplify the vicious process of self-destruction. B cell-directed therapy is a potentially important approach for treatment of various autoimmune diseases. The depletion of B cells by anti-CD20/19 monoclonal antibody Retuximab® used in autoimmune diseases therapy leads to systemic side effects and should be significantly improved. In this study we designed a repertoire of genetically engineered B cell killers that specifically affected one kind of cells carrying a respective B cell receptor. We constructed immunotoxins (ITs), fused with c-myc epitope as a model targeting sequence, based on barnase, Pseudomonas toxin, Shiga-like toxin E.coli and Fc domain of human antibody IgG?1. C-MYC hybridoma cell line producing anti-c-myc IgG was chosen as a model for targeted cell depletion. C-myc sequence fused with toxins provided addressed delivery of the toxic agent to the target cells. We demonstrated functional activity of designed ITs in vitro and showed recognition of the fusion molecules by antibodies produced by targeted hybridoma. To study specificity of the proposed B cells killing molecules, we tested a set of created ITs ex vivo, using C-MYC and irrelevant hybridoma cell lines. Pseudomonas-containing IT showed one of the highest cytotoxic effects on the model cells, however, possessed promiscuous specificity. Shiga-like toxin construct demonstrated mild both cytotoxicity and specificity. Barnase and Fc-containing ITs revealed excellent balance between their legibility and toxic properties. Moreover, barnase and Fc molecules fused with c-myc epitope were able to selectively deplete c-myc-specific B cells and decrease production of anti-c-myc antibodies in culture of native splenocytes, suggesting their highest therapeutic potential as targeted B cell killing agents.

Ponomarenko, Natalia A.; Stremovskiy, Oleg A.; Kozlov, Leonid V.; Bichucher, Anna M.; Dmitriev, Sergey E.; Smirnov, Ivan V.; Shamborant, Olga G.; Balabashin, Dmitry S.; Sashchenko, Lidia P.; Tonevitsky, Alexander G.; Friboulet, Alain; Gabibov, Alexander G.; Deyev, Sergey M.

2011-01-01

130

Control of Influenza and Poliomyelitis with Killed Virus Vaccines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses control of poliomyelitis and influenza by live and killed virus vaccines. Considered are the etiological agents, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiology of each disease. Reviews recent scientific studies of the diseases. Recommends use of killed virus vaccines in controlling both diseases. (CS)

Salk, Jonas; Salk, Darrell

1977-01-01

131

Potatis: Ny Teknik foer Blastdoedning (Potatoes: Haulm Killing).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Treatment and killing of haulm is an important part of potato-growing. Haulm killing is a means of terminating growth when the tubers have reached a suitable size, and also to prepare the tubers for harvesting. The resistance of the skin and the tuber to ...

K. Larsson

1992-01-01

132

Infant Killing and Cannibalism in Free-Living Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male chimpanzees at the Gombe National Park were twice seen to attack ‘stranger’ females and seize their infants. One infant was then killed and partially eaten: the other was ‘rescued’ and carried by three different males. Once several males were found eating a freshly killed ‘stranger’ infant. A similar event was observed in Uganda by Dr. Suzuki, and Dr. Nishida

Jane Goodall

1977-01-01

133

Clustering of apoptotic cells via bystander killing by peroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustering of apoptotic cells is a char- acteristic of many developing or renewing systems, suggesting that apoptotic cells kill bystanders. By- stander killing can be triggered experimentally by inducing apoptosis in single cells and may be based on the exchange of as yet unidentified chemical cell death signals between nearby cells without the need for cell-to-cell communication via gap junctions.

KYRILL REZNIKOV; LARISSA KOLESNIKOVA; ALADDIN PRAMANIK; KOICHI TAN-NO; IRINA GILEVA; TATJANA YAKOVLEVA; RUDOLF RIGLER; LARS TERENIUS; GEORGY BAKALKIN

2000-01-01

134

Flat deformation of a spacetime with two Killing fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that, given an analytic Lorentzian metric on a 4-manifold, gab, which admits two Killing vector fields, it exists a local deformation law ?ab = agab + b Hab, where Hab is a 2-dimensional projector, such that ?ab is flat and admits the same Killing vectors.

Llosa, Josep; Carot, Jaume

2010-05-01

135

Killing of Bacteria by Copper Surfaces Involves Dissolved Copper?  

PubMed Central

Bacteria are rapidly killed on copper surfaces. However, the mechanism of this process remains unclear. Using Enterococcus hirae, the effect of inactivation of copper homeostatic genes and of medium compositions on survival and copper dissolution was tested. The results support a role for dissolved copper ions in killing.

Molteni, Cristina; Abicht, Helge K.; Solioz, Marc

2010-01-01

136

Controlled cell killing by a recombinant nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus.  

PubMed

In most tissue culture cell lines tested, infection with the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5) results in very little cell death. To determine if SV5 could be used as a vector for controlled killing of tumor cells, a recombinant SV5 (rSV5-TK) was constructed to encode the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) gene. MDBK cells infected with rSV5-TK showed a time-dependent loss of viability when infected cells were cultured in the presence of the prodrug acyclovir (ACV) or ganciclovir (GCV) while no significant toxicity was observed in the absence of prodrug. Cells infected with a control rSV5 expressing GFP and cultured with prodrug showed only a slight reduction in growth rate and little cell death. Time-lapse video microscopy of rSV5-TK-infected MDBK cells that were cultured in the presence of ACV showed an accumulation of cells with morphological effects characteristic of apoptotic cell death. An MDBK cell line persistently infected with rSV5-TK retained long-term expression of TK and sensitivity to prodrug-mediated cell killing that were comparable to those found in an acute infection. Titration experiments showed that the rSV5-TK plus GCV combination resulted in cell death for all mouse and human cell lines tested, although the kinetics and efficiency of cell death varied between cell types. Our results demonstrating controlled cell killing by a recombinant paramyxovirus support the use of negative-strand RNA viruses as therapeutic vectors for targeted killing of cancer cells. PMID:11853412

Parks, Griffith D; Young, Virginia A; Koumenis, Constantinos; Wansley, Elizabeth K; Layer, Jennifer L; Cooke, Kelly M

2002-02-01

137

Mechanisms of Contact-Mediated Killing of Yeast Cells on Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces?  

PubMed Central

Surfaces made of copper or its alloys have strong antimicrobial properties against a wide variety of microorganisms. However, the molecular mode of action responsible for the antimicrobial efficacy of metallic copper is not known. Here, we show that dry copper surfaces inactivate Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae within minutes in a process called contact-mediated killing. Cellular copper ion homeostasis systems influenced the kinetics of contact-mediated killing in both organisms. Deregulated copper ion uptake through a hyperactive S. cerevisiae Ctr1p (ScCtr1p) copper uptake transporter in Saccharomyces resulted in faster inactivation of mutant cells than of wild-type cells. Similarly, lack of the C. albicans Crp1p (CaCrp1p) copper-efflux P-type ATPase or the metallothionein CaCup1p caused more-rapid killing of Candida mutant cells than of wild-type cells. Candida and Saccharomyces took up large quantities of copper ions as soon as they were in contact with copper surfaces, as indicated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis and by the intracellular copper ion-reporting dye coppersensor-1. Exposure to metallic copper did not cause lethality through genotoxicity, deleterious action on a cell's genetic material, as indicated by a mutation assay with Saccharomyces. Instead, toxicity mediated by metallic copper surfaces targeted membranes in both yeast species. With the use of Live/Dead staining, onset of rapid and extensive cytoplasmic membrane damage was observed in cells from copper surfaces. Fluorescence microscopy using the indicator dye DiSBaC2(3) indicated that cell membranes were depolarized. Also, during contact-mediated killing, vacuoles first became enlarged and then disappeared from the cells. Lastly, in metallic copper-stressed yeasts, oxidative stress in the cytoplasm and in mitochondria was elevated.

Quaranta, Davide; Krans, Travis; Santo, Christophe Espirito; Elowsky, Christian G.; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

2011-01-01

138

Kinetic Energy Anti-Satellite Weapon System (KE ASAT WS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The KE ASAT WS which aimed at providing capabilities to negate satellites in space and deny ability to collect critical land and ocean surveillance data is presented. The KE ASAT WS includes two subsystems: the missile subsystem consisting of a kill vehicle, a three-stage booster, and a launcher; and the weapon control subsystem consisting of the mission control element, battery

J. T. Stegmaier; M. J. Grannan

1992-01-01

139

Exploration Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using recycled materials, learners will design a transportation vehicle to carry an egg in an egg toss (a rudimentary model of a shock absorbent transport vessel). Learners will consider how their design would protect very delicate and sophisticated equipment over long distances, and how this applies to rockets designed to carry exploration satellites or modules into space. This activity can be found on pages 54-57 of the activity guide.

Terc

2007-01-01

140

Killing, letting die and moral perception.  

PubMed

There are a number of arguments that purport to show, in general terms, that there is no difference between killing and letting die. These are used to justify active euthanasia on the basis of the reasons given for allowing patients to die. I argue that the general and abstract arguments fail to take account of the complex and particular situations which are found in the care of those with terminal illness. When in such situations, there are perceptions and intuitions available that do not easily find propositional form but lead most of those whose practice is in the care of the dying to resist active euthanasia. I make a plea for their intuitions to be heeded above the sterile voice of abstract premises and arguments by examining the completeness of the outline form of the pro-euthanasia argument. In doing so, I make use of Nussbaum's discussion of moral perception and general claims to be found in the literature of moral particularism. PMID:11654118

Gillett, Grant

1994-10-01

141

Psychological traits underlying different killing methods among Malaysian male murderers.  

PubMed

Murder is the most notorious crime that violates religious, social and cultural norms. Examining the types and number of different killing methods that used are pivotal in a murder case. However, the psychological traits underlying specific and multiple killing methods are still understudied. The present study attempts to fill this gap in knowledge by identifying the underlying psychological traits of different killing methods among Malaysian murderers. The study adapted an observational cross-sectional methodology using a guided self-administered questionnaire for data collection. The sampling frame consisted of 71 Malaysian male murderers from 11 Malaysian prisons who were selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were also asked to provide the types and number of different killing methods used to kill their respective victims. An independent sample t-test was performed to establish the mean score difference of psychological traits between the murderers who used single and multiple types of killing methods. Kruskal-Wallis tests were carried out to ascertain the psychological trait differences between specific types of killing methods. The results suggest that specific psychological traits underlie the type and number of different killing methods used during murder. The majority (88.7%) of murderers used a single method of killing. Multiple methods of killing was evident in 'premeditated' murder compared to 'passion' murder, and revenge was a common motive. Examples of multiple methods are combinations of stabbing and strangulation or slashing and physical force. An exception was premeditated murder committed with shooting, when it was usually a single method, attributed to the high lethality of firearms. Shooting was also notable when the motive was financial gain or related to drug dealing. Murderers who used multiple killing methods were more aggressive and sadistic than those who used a single killing method. Those who used multiple methods or slashing also displayed a higher level of minimisation traits. Despite its limitations, this study has provided some light on the underlying psychological traits of different killing methods which is useful in the field of criminology. PMID:24763234

Kamaluddin, M R; Shariff, N S; Nur-Farliza, S; Othman, A; Ismail, K; Mat Saat, G A

2014-04-01

142

Child motor vehicle occupant and pedestrian casualties before and after enactment of Child Restraint Seats Legislation in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem. Prevention of injuries to child passengers is a significant public health priority, as motor vehicle-related injuries remain a leading cause of death for children in Japan. The purpose of compulsory child restraint seats legislation in April 2000 was to reduce the number of child passengers killed or injured in motor vehicle crashes.Methods. The objectives of this preliminary evaluation are

E. B. R. Desapriya; Nobutada Iwase; Ian Pike; Mariana Brussoni; Michael Papsdorf

2004-01-01

143

Generalized Killing-Yano equations in D=5 gauged supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a generalization of the (conformal) Killing-Yano equations relevant to D=5 minimal gauged supergravity. The generalization stems from the fact that the dual of the Maxwell flux, the 3-form ?F, couples naturally to particles in the background as a ‘torsion’. Killing-Yano tensors in the presence of torsion preserve most of the properties of the standard Killing-Yano tensors — exploited recently for the higher-dimensional rotating black holes of vacuum gravity with cosmological constant. In particular, the generalized closed conformal Killing-Yano 2-form gives rise to the tower of generalized closed conformal Killing-Yano tensors of increasing rank which in turn generate the tower of Killing tensors. An example of a generalized Killing-Yano tensor is found for the Chong-Cveti?-Lü-Pope black hole spacetime [Z.W. Chong, M. Cvetic, H. Lu, C.N. Pope, hep-th/0506029]. Such a tensor stands behind the separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi, Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations in this background.

Kubiz?ák, David; Kunduri, Hari K.; Yasui, Yukinori

2009-07-01

144

Prevalence of alcohol and drugs among car and van drivers killed in road accidents in norway: an overview from 2001 to 2010.  

PubMed

Objectives: To examine the prevalence of alcohol and drugs in blood samples collected from car and van drivers killed in traffic accidents in Norway during the time period from 2001 to 2010. Methods: Blood samples (n = 676, 63% of all killed drivers) were analyzed for alcohol, psychoactive medications, and illicit drugs. The cutoff limits for positive results were set according to the new legislative limits under the Norwegian Road Traffic Act. The results were assessed in relation to sex and age, time of day and day of week, and single- versus multiple-vehicle and all investigated vehicle accidents. Results: Alcohol or one or more drugs was detected in samples from 40.2 percent of all investigated drivers, with 28.7 percent showing blood concentrations of at least 5 times the legislative limits. For the investigated female drivers, the total prevalence was 24.0 percent. Among the single-vehicle accidents, alcohol or drugs was found in 63.8 percent of the cases, with 49.1 percent showing blood concentrations of at least 5 times the legislative limits. Alcohol was detected in 25.3 and 49.1 percent of samples from all investigated drivers and among drivers killed in single-vehicle accidents, respectively. Psychoactive medications were found in 14.4 and 17.7 percent and illicit drugs in 14.1 and 19.2 percent, respectively. The most commonly detected group of medications was benzodiazepines, and amphetamines and tetrahydrocannabinol were the most commonly detected illicit drugs. The prevalence of alcohol alone was highest among drivers under the age of 25, and the combination of alcohol with other drugs was highest among drivers under the age of 35. Drivers between the ages of 25 and 54 showed the highest prevalence of medications and/or illicit drugs without the presence of alcohol. The highest prevalence of alcohol or drugs was found among drivers killed in single-vehicle accidents on weeknights (83.8%) and on weekend nights (89.3%). Conclusions: The findings confirm that a large number of fatally injured drivers, in particular among drivers involved in single-vehicle accidents, had concentrations of alcohol or drugs above the new legislative limits introduced in 2012. In many cases, concentrations of at least 5 times the limits were found. The proportion of drivers killed who tested positive for alcohol or other drugs did not change during the study period; however, the total number of drivers killed per year decreased by about 20 percent. Some changes were also observed with regard to the types of benzodiazepines and amphetamines detected during the 10-year period. PMID:24867563

Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Gjerde, Hallvard

2014-08-18

145

Potassium channels mediate killing by human natural killer cells  

SciTech Connect

Human natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood spontaneously recognize and kill a wide variety of target cells. It has been suggested that ion channels are involved in the killing process because there is a Ca-dependent stage and because killing by presensitized cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which in many respects resembles NK killing, is associated with changes in K and Na transport in the target cell. Using the whole-cell variation of the patch-clamp technique, the authors found a voltage-dependent potassium (K/sup +/) current in NK cells. The K/sup +/ current was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the K-channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and quinidine and by the traditional Ca-channel blockers verapamil and Cd/sup 2 +/. They tested the effects of ion-channel blockers on killing of two commonly used target cell lines: K562, which is derived from a human myeloid leukemia, and U937, which is derived from a human histiocytic leukemia. Killing of K562 target cells, determined in a standard /sup 51/Cr-release assay, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by verapamil, quinidine, Cd/sup 2 +/, and 4-aminopyridine at concentrations comparable to those that blocked the K/sup +/ current in NK cells. In K562 target cells only a voltage-dependent Na= current was found and it was blocked by concentrations of tetrodotoxin that had no effect on killing. Killing of U937 target cells was also inhibited by the two ion-channel blockers tested, quinidine and verapamil. In this cell line only a small K/sup +/ current was found that was similar to the one in NK cells. The findings show that there are K channels in NK cells and that these channels play a necessary role in the killing process.

Schlichter, L.; Sidell N.; Hagiwara, S.

1986-01-01

146

Motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a vehicle for self-propelled travel over the ground and for increased efficiency while executing an inherently unstable maneuver such as turning, the vehicle comprising: a. a chassis having a forward end including; i. a body, and ii. wheel means for supporting the body above the ground; b. a drive unit having a forward end and a rearward end and including: i. a pair of laterally spaced steerable wheels for contacting the ground, the steerable wheels having a normal axis of rotation and; ii. power means for imparting rotation to at least one of the pair of steerable wheels; and c. coupling means for securing the drive unit to the chassis and for substantially equalizing the contribution of each of the pair of steerable wheels in directing and propelling the vehicle, the coupling means including; i. connection means pivotally joining the drive unit to the chassis forwardly of the body; ii. a first strut laterally spaced from the connection means and extending between the chassis and the drive unit; iii. a second strut laterally spaced from the connection means in a direction opposite from the lateral spacing of the first strut and extending between the chassis and the drive unit. Each of the strut has a first end movably affixed to the chassis and a second end movably affixed to the drive unit, the second end of each of the struts being affixed to the drive unit at a location spaced above and forward of the normal axis of rotation of the pair of steerable wheels.

Roe, D.A.; Harp, T.D.

1987-03-10

147

Vehicle barrier  

DOEpatents

A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

Hirsh, Robert A. (Bethel Park, PA)

1991-01-01

148

Unmanned Vehicle Situation Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept of unmanned vehicle situation awareness and provides a discussion of how unmanned vehicle situation awareness can be defined based upon human situation awareness. A broadly accepted human situation awareness definition is directly applied to the notion of unmanned vehicle situation awareness. The paper also discusses unique unmanned vehicle aspects that will influence unmanned vehicle situation

Julie A. Adams

149

Enzyme Kinetics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resrouce provides detailed protocols for performing a laboratory exercise in enzyme kinetics. The activity of enzymes are characterized both by reaction rates and the effect of different concentrations of substrates.

Carl Stiefbold (University of Oregon;); Karen Sprague (University of Oregon;); Will Goodwin (University of Oregon;); Sam Donovan (University of Oregon;); Vicki Chandler (University of Oregon;)

1998-01-01

150

Male-killing bacteria in insects: mechanisms, incidence, and implications.  

PubMed Central

Bacteria that are vertically transmitted through female hosts and kill male hosts that inherit them were first recorded in insects during the 1950s. Recent studies have shown these "male-killers" to be diverse and have led to a reappraisal of the biology of many groups of bacteria. Rickettsia, for instance, have been regarded as human pathogens transmitted by arthropods. The finding of a male-killing Rickettsia obligately associated with an insect suggests that the genus' members may be primarily associated with arthropods and are only sometimes pathogens of vertebrates. We examined both how killing of male hosts affects the dynamics of inherited bacteria and how male-killing bacteria affect their host populations. Finally, we assessed the potential use of these microorganisms in the control of insect populations.

Hurst, G. D.; Jiggins, F. M.

2000-01-01

151

Surface structure influences contact killing of bacteria by copper  

PubMed Central

Copper kills bacteria rapidly by a mechanism that is not yet fully resolved. The antibacterial property of copper has raised interest in its use in hospitals, in place of plastic or stainless steel. On the latter surfaces, bacteria can survive for days or even weeks. Copper surfaces could thus provide a powerful accessory measure to curb nosocomial infections. We here investigated the effect of the copper surface structure on the efficiency of contact killing of Escherichia coli, an aspect which so far has received very little attention. It was shown that electroplated copper surfaces killed bacteria more rapidly than either polished copper or native rolled copper. The release of ionic copper was also more rapid from electroplated copper compared to the other materials. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria nudged into the grooves between the copper grains of deposited copper. The findings suggest that, in terms of contact killing, more efficient copper surfaces can be engineered.

Zeiger, Marco; Solioz, Marc; Edongue, Hervais; Arzt, Eduard; Schneider, Andreas S

2014-01-01

152

Scientists Report New Lead in How Anthrax Kills Cells  

Cancer.gov

For years scientists have known that anthrax bacillus produces a toxin containing a deadly protein called lethal factor. However, researchers have never been able to identify how lethal factor kills cells.

153

Immunization Against Coccidioidomycosis by Killed Cell and Cell Fraction Vaccines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerosol and subcutaneous vaccination with killed arthrosporess and subcutaneous vaccination using a boivin-type fraction were compared for their efficacy in protecting rhesus monkeys against lethal aerosol challenge with C. immitis. Complete protection ag...

J. T. Sinski E. P. Lowe N. F. Conant H. F. Hardin M. W. Castleberry

1964-01-01

154

Surface structure influences contact killing of bacteria by copper.  

PubMed

Copper kills bacteria rapidly by a mechanism that is not yet fully resolved. The antibacterial property of copper has raised interest in its use in hospitals, in place of plastic or stainless steel. On the latter surfaces, bacteria can survive for days or even weeks. Copper surfaces could thus provide a powerful accessory measure to curb nosocomial infections. We here investigated the effect of the copper surface structure on the efficiency of contact killing of Escherichia coli, an aspect which so far has received very little attention. It was shown that electroplated copper surfaces killed bacteria more rapidly than either polished copper or native rolled copper. The release of ionic copper was also more rapid from electroplated copper compared to the other materials. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria nudged into the grooves between the copper grains of deposited copper. The findings suggest that, in terms of contact killing, more efficient copper surfaces can be engineered. PMID:24740976

Zeiger, Marco; Solioz, Marc; Edongué, Hervais; Arzt, Eduard; Schneider, Andreas S

2014-06-01

155

Potassium Channels Mediate Killing by Human Natural Killer Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood spontaneously recognize and kill a wide variety of target cells. It has been suggested that ion channels are involved in the killing process because there is a Ca-dependent stage and because killing by presensitized cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which in many respects resembles NK killing, is associated with changes in K and Na transport in the target cell. However, no direct evidence exists for ion channels in NK cells or in their target cells. Using the whole-cell variation of the patch-clamp technique, we found a voltage-dependent potassium (K+) current in NK cells. The K+ current was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the K-channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and quinidine and by the traditional Ca-channel blockers verapamil and Cd2+. We tested the effects of ion-channel blockers on killing of two commonly used target cell lines: K562, which is derived from a human myeloid leukemia, and U937, which is derived from a human histiocytic leukemia. Killing of K562 target cells, determined in a standard 51Cr-release assay, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by verapamil, quinidine, Cd2+, and 4-aminopyridine at concentrations comparable to those that blocked the K+ current in NK cells. In K562 target cells only a voltage-dependent Na+ current was found and it was blocked by concentrations of tetrodotoxin that had no effect on killing. Killing of U937 target cells was also inhibited by the two ion-channel blockers tested, quinidine and verapamil. In this cell line only a small K+ current was found that was similar to the one in NK cells. We could not find any evidence of a Ca2+ current in target cells or in NK cells; therefore, our results cannot explain the Ca dependence of killing. Our findings show that there are K channels in NK cells and that these channels play a necessary role in the killing process. In contrast, the endogenous channel type in the target cell is probably not a factor in determining target cell sensitivity to natural killing.

Schlichter, Lyanne; Sidell, Neil; Hagiwara, Susumu

1986-01-01

156

Effect of Ertapenem Protein Binding on Killing of Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of protein binding on the antimicrobial activity of ertapenem was evaluated using the bacterial kill rate and concentration-response studies. Various proportions of human serum were utilized to determine the total and free-drug concentrations using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The MICs and kill curves were determined for test isolates of Enterobacter cloacae and Staphylococcus aureus at various

David E. Nix; Kathryn R. Matthias; Emily C. Ferguson

2004-01-01

157

Flat deformation of a spacetime admitting two commuting Killing fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that, given an analytic Lorentzian metric on a 4-manifold, gab, which admits two Killing vector fields, there exists a local deformation law ?ab = a gab + b Hab, where Hab is a two-dimensional projector, such that ?ab is flat and admits the same Killing vectors. We also characterize the particular case when the projector Hab coincides with the quotient metric. We apply some of our results to general stationary axisymmetric spacetimes.

Llosa, Josep; Carot, Jaume

2010-12-01

158

Impunity for Political Killing in a Comparative Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, I examine the relationship between electoral competition in the 1990s and the (un)rule of law for political\\u000a killings in Mexico and other democratizing nations. Electoral competition in Mexico in the 1990s between the PRI and the PRD\\u000a occurred across multiple municipalities within different states in the 1989–2000 period but PRD leaders and members were not\\u000a all killed

Sara Schatz

159

Hybrid Vehicle Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interest in nonpetroleum fueled ground vehicles led Stafford to develop the computer code, Electric Vehicle Simulation (EVSIM). EVSIM was designed to predict the performance of current electric vehicles or to be used in the design of electric/hybrid vehic...

D. B. Founds

1983-01-01

160

Rates of CTL killing in persistent viral infection in vivo.  

PubMed

The CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is an important defence against viral invasion. Although CTL-mediated cytotoxicity has been widely studied for many years, the rate at which virus-infected cells are killed in vivo by the CTL response is poorly understood. To date the rate of CTL killing in vivo has been estimated for three virus infections but the estimates differ considerably, and killing of HIV-1-infected cells was unexpectedly low. This raises questions about the typical anti-viral capability of CTL and whether CTL killing is abnormally low in HIV-1. We estimated the rate of killing of infected cells by CD8+ T cells in two distinct persistent virus infections: sheep infected with Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) and humans infected with Human T Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) which together with existing data allows us to study a total of five viruses in parallel. Although both BLV and HTLV-1 infection are characterised by large expansions of chronically activated CTL with immediate effector function ex vivo and no evidence of overt immune suppression, our estimates are at the lower end of the reported range. This enables us to put current estimates into perspective and shows that CTL killing of HIV-infected cells may not be atypically low. The estimates at the higher end of the range are obtained in more manipulated systems and may thus represent the potential rather than the realised CTL efficiency. PMID:24699260

Elemans, Marjet; Florins, Arnaud; Willems, Luc; Asquith, Becca

2014-04-01

161

Forestry Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power Pack II provides an economical means of moving a power source into remote roadless forest areas. It was developed by Prof. Miles and his associates, working in cooperation with the University of California's Department of Forestry. The team combined its own design of an all-terrain vehicle with a suspension system based on the NASA load equalization technology. Result is an intermediate-sized unit which carries a power source and the powered tools to perform a variety of forest management tasks which cannot be done economically with current equipment. Power Pack II can traverse very rough terrain and climb a 60 degree slope; any one of the wheels can move easily over an obstacle larger than itself. Work is being done on a more advanced Power Pack III.

1982-01-01

162

Reusable Space Vehicle Baseline Conceptual Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modeling efforts for future space operation vehicles at the United States Air Force Research Labs Air Vehicles Directorate have been focused towards the in flight mission. To better serve the research and development effort, a simulation of the ground ope...

D. R. Maynard P. Pettit

2004-01-01

163

Model based vehicle detection for intelligent vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems are being researched nowadays for Intelligent Vehicles has to deal -with the detection and tracking of other vehicles. It will have many applications: Platooning, Stop&go, Blind angle perception, Manoeuvres supervisor. In this paper, a system based on computer vision is presented. A geometric model of the vehicle is defined where its energy function

J. M. Collado; C. Hilario; J. M. Armingol

2004-01-01

164

Degree of Immunity Induced by Killed Vaccines to Experimental Salmonellosis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Killed vaccines, deoxycholate-extracted or heated, were shown to induce an effective degree of immunity which protected against death (100%), prevented extensive multiplication, and left the mice with low residual salmonella populations in spleen and liver after intravenous (iv) or intraperitoneal (ip) challenge with virulent Salmonella typhimurium. Protection was most effective against the ip challenge route and less effective against the iv route. A study of the kinetics of the population of bacteria in the spleens and livers of immunized animals showed that after ip challenge there was an initial reduction of 99% at 6 hr after challenge, maintenance of levels of less than 103 bacteria per organ, and a final population of 102 to 103 per organ at 21 days. With iv challenge, after an initial reduction of 90% at 6 hr, growth ensued to levels above 106 bacteria per organ until 8 days, followed by a steady decline yielding residual populations of 103 to 104 in some cases. Organ hypertrophy correlated with bacterial population. Morbidity was prevented (as measured by gain in body weight) by immunization against ip challenge but not against iv challenge. Killed vaccines protected by their ability to induce an immune state which reduced the initial challenge population, prevented extensive multiplication, yet allowed “cellular immunity” to develop due to response to the living challenge infection itself. The consequence was a low-level carrier state similar to that induced by recovery from sublethal virulent infection.

Herzberg, Mendel; Nash, Peter; Hino, Sharon

1972-01-01

165

Electric and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

1979-01-01

166

Remote Vehicle Controller.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A remote control system is disclosed for use with vehicles having radios. A first vehicle has a controller attached to the radio for use in sending signals to a second vehicle. The second, remotely controlled, vehicle has a receiver connected to the vehic...

J. J. Schmitz

1992-01-01

167

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data  

EIA Publications

Annual data released on the number of on-road alternative fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles made available by both the original equipment manufacturers and aftermarket vehicle conversion facilities. Data on the use of alternative fueled vehicles and the amount of fuel they consume is also available.

Information Center

2013-04-08

168

Remote vehicle controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A remote control system is disclosed for use with vehicles having radios. A first vehicle has a controller attached to the radio for use in sending signals to a second vehicle. The second, remotely controlled, vehicle has a receiver connected to the vehicle radio which receives commands from the first radio to effect the desired motion and action of the second vehicle. The receiver and controller have circuitry which allows them to be reprogrammed to function on various military vehicles and also be attached to the different radio systems in use by the U.S. Military.

Schmitz, John J.

1992-06-01

169

Kinetic Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of a comprehensive physics tutorial for high school students, this page describes kinetic energy conceptually and mathematically, provides examples enhanced by illustrations, and problems for practice with drop down boxes for your answers and feedback. In the left navigation bar, click on Potential Energy to get parallel information on potential energy.

2010-01-01

170

Inflatable kill packers used in working over Kuwaiti wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on inflatable packers which are being used with great success in post-well capping workover operations in Kuwait oil fields. In mid-January, about one kill packer was being run per day. Use is expected to increase in March when a second post-capping crew arrives. Of several thousand unconventional ideas submitted to Kuwait Oil Co. (KOC) for controlling the well fires left in the aftermath of lst year's Gulf War, only about a dozen were actually used. Inflatable kill packers, designed and manufactured by Baker Service Tools and marketed by Baker Oil Tools, were one of the ideas that proved effective. The kill packers are modifications of Baker's inflatable packers that have successfully been used in capping producers on many blowouts throughout the world, including the Piper Alpha disaster in the North Sea and the Saga blowout offshore Norway.

Miller, D. (Baker Oil Tools, Houston, TX (US)); Conover, G. (Baker Service Tools, Houston, TX (US))

1992-03-09

171

Aeromonas salmonicida resistance to complement-mediated killing.  

PubMed Central

The resistance of Aeromonas salmonicida to complement-mediated killing was investigated by using different strains and their isogenic mutants that had been previously characterized for their surface components. We found that the classical complement pathway is involved in serum killing of susceptible A. salmonicida strains, while the alternative complement pathway seems not to be involved. All of the A. salmonicida strains are able to activate complement, but the smooth strains (with or without the A-layer) are resistant to complement-mediated killing. The reasons for this resistance are that C3b may be bound far from the cell membrane and that it is rapidly degraded; therefore, the lytic final complex C5b-9 (membrane attack complex) is not formed. Isogenic rough mutants are serum sensitive because they bind more C3b than the smooth strains, and if C3b is not completely degraded, then the lytic complex (C5b-9) is formed. Images

Merino, S; Alberti, S; Tomas, J M

1994-01-01

172

Wound healing properties and kill kinetics of Clerodendron splendens G. Don, a Ghanaian wound healing plant  

PubMed Central

As part of our general objective of investigating indigenous plants used in wound healing in Ghana, we hereby report our findings from some in vitro and in vivo studies related to wound healing activities of Clerodendron splendens G. Don (Verbanaceae). Methanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant was tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Micrococcus flavus, as well as resistant strains of Staph. aureus SA1199B, RN4220 and XU212), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteous mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Candida albicans using the micro-well dilution method. Survivor–time studies of the microorganisms, radical scavenging activity using 2,2’-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and various in vivo wound healing activity studies were also conducted on the extract. The extract exhibited biostatic action against all the test microorganisms with a Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) ranging between 64 and 512 ?g/ml and a free radical scavenging property with an IC50 value of 103.2 ?g/ml. The results of the in vivo wound healing tests showed that upon application of C. splendens ointment, there was a reduction in the epithelization period from 26.7 days (control) to 13.6 days along with a marked decrease in the scar area from 54.2 mm2 (control) to 25.2 mm2. Significant increase in the tensile strength and hydroxyproline content were also observed as compared to the control and was comparable to nitrofurazone. The above results appear to justify the traditional use of C. splendens in wound healing and treatment of skin infections in Ghana.

Gbedema, Stephen Y.; Emelia, Kisseih; Francis, Adu; Kofi, Annan; Eric, Woode

2010-01-01

173

Adozelesin, a potent new alkylating agent: cell-killing kinetics and cell-cycle effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adozelesin (U-73975) was highly cytotoxic to V79 cells in culture and was more cytotoxic than several clinically active antitumor drugs as determined in a human tumor-cloning assay. Phase-specificity studies showed that cells in the M + early G1 phase were most resistant to adozelesin and those in the late G1 + early S phase were most sensitive. Adozelesin transiently slowed

Bijoy K. Bhuyanl; Kathy S. Smithl; Earl G. Adams; Tanya L. Wallace; Daniel D. Von Hoff; Li H. Lil

1992-01-01

174

Cell kill kinetics and cell cycle effects of taxol on human and hamster ovarian cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxol is a clinically active anticancer drug, which exerts its cytotoxicity by the unique mechanism of polymerizing tubulin monomers into microtubules and stabilizing microtubules. Our studies with ovarian (hamster CHO and human A2780) cells showed that taxol is a phase-specific agent that is much more cytotoxic to mitotic cells than interphase cells. First, the dose-survival pattern of taxol resembled that

Narima M. Lopes; Earl G. Adams; Thomas W. Pitts; Bijoy K. Bhuyan

1993-01-01

175

A comparison of guided and unguided anti-missile kinetic kill countermeasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern Surface to Air Missiles (SAMs) present a significant threat to today's military and civilian aircraft. Current countermeasure systems such as flares and chaff rely on decoying the missile threat and do not provide adequate protection against advanced computerized missiles. An aircraft defense system that actively seeks out and defeats an incoming missile by placing a physical barrier in the

M. C. Cherry; S. C. Kramer; J. J. Hagan

1996-01-01

176

Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.  

PubMed

Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803

Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

2014-04-01

177

Synergy of itraconazole with macrophages in killing Blastomyces dermatitidis.  

PubMed Central

We examined in vitro interaction between the azole antifungal agents itraconazole and ketoconazole and macrophages and their activities against Blastomyces dermatitidis. Fungistatic and fungicidal concentrations for B. dermatitidis in vitro were assessed in a microculture system in which fungistasis was measured as inhibition of multiplication and fungicidal activity was measured as reduction of inoculum CFU. Resident peritoneal murine macrophages, which surround but do not phagocytize the fungus, were not fungicidal for B. dermatitidis isolates but were fungistatic for some isolates studied. Synergy was demonstrated when fungistatic concentrations (e.g., 0.01 micrograms/ml) of itraconazole, which limited growth 55% compared with that of controls, were cocultured with macrophages; this resulted in fungicidal activity (85% killing) against B. dermatitidis (ATCC 26199) in 72-h assays. This synergy could occur even if itraconazole was added after the macrophages had surrounded the fungus. Ketoconazole at fungistatic concentrations did not act synergistically with macrophages to kill B. dermatitidis. Lymph node lymphocytes could not substitute for macrophages in synergy with itraconazole to kill B. dermatitidis. When B. dermatitidis was separated by a filter from macrophages in Transwell cultures, fungicidal synergy with itraconazole was less efficient. Pretreatment of B. dermatitidis with itraconazole for 24 h did not render the fungus susceptible to killing by macrophages in the absence of itraconazole, whereas pretreatment of nonfungistatic macrophages with itraconazole rendered them fungistatic in a dose-dependent manner. Three other isolates were killed by otherwise fungistatic concentrations of itraconazole when the isolates were cocultured with macrophages. These findings indicate that one basis for the efficacy of itraconazole versus ketoconazole in treating blastomycosis could be synergy of a fungistatic concentration of itraconazole with macrophages in killing of B. dermatitidis.

Brummer, E; Bhagavathula, P R; Hanson, L H; Stevens, D A

1992-01-01

178

Polymers used to direct kill fluids to blowout  

SciTech Connect

In many reservoirs, it is difficult to establish communication between a relief well and a blowout well because of high fluid loss between the wells. In such cases, the polymer kill technique can be an important method to establish the required communication. This method will only work in very high permeability or fractured, vugular formations. However, these reservoirs are most likely to blowout at rates that will need a relief well. Once communication has been established, cheaper, less-viscous fluids can then be used to perform a dynamic kill. After this succeeds, drilling mud or other heavy fluids can be pumped to contain the well.

Ely, J.W.; Holditch, S.A.

1988-08-01

179

Hybrid Vehicle Design Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is written for a first-year algebra-based physics class, though it could easily be modified for conceptual physics. It is intended to provide hands-on activities to teach the overarching concept of energy, as it relates to both kinetic and potential energy. Within these topics, students are exposed to gravitational potential, spring potential, the Carnot engine, temperature scales, and simple magnets. During the module, students utilize these scientific concepts to solve the following problem: "The rising price of gasoline has many effects on the US economy and the environment. You have been contracted as by an engineering firm to help with the design of a physical energy storage system to be used on a new hybrid vehicle for Nissan. How would you go about solving this problem? What information would you consider to be important to know? You will make a sales pitch to Nissan with a small prototype with your idea at the end of the unit." This module is built around the Legacy Cycle, a format that incorporates findings from educational research on how people best learn.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

180

Killing of human melanoma cells by the membrane attack complex (MAC) as a function of its molecular composition  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of the MAC in causing membrane damage and lysis of M21 cells was determined varying the C9:C8 molar ratio. C8,C9-depleted serum was reconstituted with radio-labeled C8 and C9 in kinetic and dose-response analyses. C5b-8 was sufficient to cause membrane leakiness, determined by /sup 86/Rb release and propidium iodide (PI) uptake, and this membrane damage was largely reversible. Cell killing was effected at high C5b-8 density as evidenced by /sup 51/Cr release and PI uptake with enhancement by C9. C5b-8 dependent cytolysis showed a lag between C8 binding and functional channel formation and increased with C8 uptake, suggesting cooperativity of C5b-8 in channel formation. With limiting numbers of bound C8 molecules, C9 binding and channel formation proceeded without lag. Saturation of C9 binding sites was observed at an average C9:C8 ratio of 6:1. By electron microscopy (EM), circular membrane lesions were visualized at a C9:C8 ratio of 3:1 or higher. Maximal cytolytic efficiency of MAC was observed at lower ratios at which ultrastructural lesions could not be detected. These results suggest that M21 cells can be killed by C5b-8 and that killing is maximized by amounts of C9 insufficient for poly C9 formation as detected by EM.

Martin, D.; Chiu, F.J.; Gigli, I.; Mueller-Eberhard, H.J.

1986-03-01

181

Karo-kari: a form of honour killing in pakistan.  

PubMed

Karo-Kari is a type of premeditated honour killing, which originated in rural and tribal areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The homicidal acts are primarily committed against women who are thought to have brought dishonour to their family by engaging in illicit pre-marital or extra-marital relations. In order to restore this honour, a male family member must kill the female in question. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature other sources on karo-kari and related forms of honour killing or violence against women. Media and non-governmental organization reports were utilized for case studies and analysis. Although legally proscribed, socio-cultural factors and gender role expectations have given legitimacy to karo-kari within some tribal communities. In addition to its persistence in areas of Pakistan, there is evidence that karo-kari may be increasing in incidence in other parts of the world in association with migration. Moreover, perpetrators of ;honour killings' often have motives outside of female adultery. Analysis of the socio-cultural and psycho-pathological factors associated with the practice of karo-kari can guide the development of prevention strategies. PMID:19091732

Patel, Sujay; Gadit, Amin Muhammad

2008-12-01

182

Targeted Killing in U.S. Counterterrorism Strategy and Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeted killing, particularly through the use of missiles fired from Predator drone aircraft, has become an important, and internationally controversial, part of the US war against al Qaeda in Pakistan and other places. The Obama administration, both during the campaign and in its first months in office, has publicly embraced the strategy as a form of counterterrorism. This paper argues,

Kenneth Anderson

2009-01-01

183

Probability of Kill for VLA ASROC Torpedo Launch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to generate a tactical decision aid (TDA) capable of calculating the probability of kill of a submarine when targeted with a vertical launched (VLA) anti-submarine rocket propelled torpedo (ASROC). In determining the submarin...

S. J. Valerio

2009-01-01

184

Endotoxin-induced serum factor kills malarial parasites in vitro.  

PubMed Central

We investigated the possibility that malarial parasites may be killed by nonspecific soluble mediators, such as those in tumor necrosis serum, that are obtained from mice given macrophage-activating agents like Corynebacterium parvum or Mycobacterium bovis BCG, followed by endotoxin. Such sera killed parasites in vitro after overnight incubation; killing was measured directly by using an in vivo infectivity assay. Parasite infectivity was not decreased by incubation in sera from mice given C. parvum or BCG alone (no endotoxin) or by incubation in sera from normal mice given endotoxin. Plasmodium yoelii, its lethal variant, and Plasmodium berghei were equally susceptible to inactivation. Sera obtained from mice given endotoxin during the course of infection with these parasites also contained parasite-killing factor. The activity of this factor appeared to be proportional to parasitemia in that it was higher in the sera from mice infected with the lethal parasites than in the sera from mice with infections which resolved either spontaneously or after vaccination.

Taverne, J; Dockrell, H M; Playfair, J H

1981-01-01

185

Aspen Successfully Regenerated after Killing Residual Vegetation with Herbicides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three pounds per acre acid equivalent of aerially applied 2, 4-D, or 2, 4-D plus 2,4,5-T, were used to release young quaking aspen suckers from unmerchantable hardwoods left after commercial clearcutting. Although one-year-old suckers were killed to the g...

D. A. Perala

1971-01-01

186

Making the Case: What is the Problem with Targeted Killing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

What is the problem with targeted killing. The problem is not simply the legal and moral grounds for the policy, nor the tactical implementation of the policy. Rather, the problem is that current research does not convincingly articulate the causal relati...

A. W. Boyden I. R. Ramirez V. P. Menard

2009-01-01

187

How Moist Heat Kills Spores of Bacillus subtilis?  

PubMed Central

Populations of Bacillus subtilis spores in which 90 to 99.9% of the spores had been killed by moist heat gave only two fractions on equilibrium density gradient centrifugation: a fraction comprised of less dense spores that had lost their dipicolinic acid (DPA), undergone significant protein denaturation, and were all dead and a fraction with the same higher density as that of unheated spores. The latter fraction from heat-killed spore populations retained all of its DPA, but ?98% of the spores could be dead. The dead spores that retained DPA germinated relatively normally with nutrient and nonnutrient germinants, but the outgrowth of these germinated spores was significantly compromised, perhaps because they had suffered damage to some proteins such that metabolic activity during outgrowth was greatly decreased. These results indicate that DPA release takes place well after spore killing by moist heat and that DPA release during moist-heat treatment is an all-or-nothing phenomenon; these findings also suggest that damage to one or more key spore proteins causes spore killing by moist heat.

Coleman, William H.; Chen, De; Li, Yong-qing; Cowan, Ann E.; Setlow, Peter

2007-01-01

188

Evaluation of Voriconazole Pharmacodynamics Using Time-Kill Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voriconazole is an investigational azole antifungal agent with activity against a variety of fungal species, including fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans. In this study, we employed in vitro time-kill methods to characterize the relationship between concentrations of voriconazole and its fungistatic activity against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and C. neoformans. Isolates were exposed to voriconazole

MICHAEL E. KLEPSER; DENNIS MALONE; RUSSELL E. LEWIS; ERIKA J. ERNST; MICHAEL A. PFALLER

2000-01-01

189

Does Host Complement Kill Borrelia burgdorferi within Ticks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, inhabits the gut lumen of the tick vector. At this location the spirochete is exposed to host blood when a tick feeds. We report here on studies that were done with normal and complement-deficient (C3-knockout) mice to determine if the host complement system killed spirochetes within the vector. We found that spirochete numbers within

Sivaprakash Rathinavelu; Anne Broadwater; Aravinda M. de Silva

2003-01-01

190

Distributed Propulsion Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation....

H. D. Kim

2010-01-01

191

Vehicle Electronics and Architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vehicle Electronics and Architecture (VEA) focus area is responsible for developing the essential support structure needed to accommodate the numerous advanced technologies prevalent in today's ground vehicles. We develop the software and data network...

C. Mocnik

2011-01-01

192

Motor Vehicle NOx Inventories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, presents a comparison of three methods of computing vehicle miles traveled (VMT) breakdown by vehicle class for urban areas. The report describes the three approaches--Nationwide Urban, National Emissions Data System (NEDS), and Localized--an...

A. J. Brochu D. S. Rothman

1985-01-01

193

Air Vehicle Path Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This dissertation explores optimal path planning for air vehicles. An air vehicle exposed to illumination by a tracking radar is considered and the problem of determining an optimal planar trajectory connecting two prespecified points is addressed. An ana...

J. M. Hebert

2001-01-01

194

Kinetic City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kinetic City is an after-school standards-based science program in which kids complete activities in conjunction with a dynamic website. It includes science experiments, games, activities, challenges and more. It provides kids in grades three through five a fun, entertaining way to learn standards-based science. It is the ideal combination of technology and hands-on collaboration. A free log-in is required for some of the content on the site. An additional section for educators or parents is featured. This provides guidance on how to best implement some of the resources. Overall, this is a nice collection for more general resources on these topics.

2009-07-02

195

Crystallization kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Avrami's treatment of nucleation and growth kinetics considers that active nucleation sites are randomly distributed throughout the volume and that grains may impinge upon grains grown from other sites, causing growth to cease on the common interface. This treatment resulted in the well-known Avrami equation. As a result of the reassessment of these basic assumptions, an integral equation is proposed for the time-dependence evaluation of the transformed phase volume fraction in crystallization processes, instead of the Avrami equation. The proposed model fits very well the whole range of experimental data for NiZr2 and Te92Pb8 amorphous to crystalline transformation.

Erukhimovitch, V.; Baram, J.

1994-09-01

196

Entrainment and vehicle following controllers design for autonomous intelligent vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrainment and vehicle following controllers are proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles in both non-tight and tight vehicle following manoeuvres. A nonlinear vehicle model is used for designing the controllers. The proposed vehicle following controller is designed based on a constant time headway policy; whereas, the proposed entrainment controller is designed based on a k-factor headway policy. The proposed vehicle following

C. C. Chien; P. Ioannou; M. C. Lai

1994-01-01

197

Effect of Silicon on Desulfurization of Aluminum-killed Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent reports have suggested that silicon has a beneficial effect on the rate of desulfurization of Al-killed steel. This effect is difficult to understand looking at the overall desulfurization reaction which does not include silicon. However an explanation is proposed by taking into account the (SiO2)/[Si] equilibrium in which some Al reaching the slag-metal interface is used in reducing the SiO2 in the slag. This reaction can be suppressed to some extent if the silicon content of the metal is increased and in doing so, more Al will be available at the slag-metal interface for the desulfurization reaction and this would increase the rate of the desulfurization reaction. A model was developed, assuming the rates are controlled by mass transfer, taking into account the coupled reactions of the reduction of silica, and other unstable oxides, namely iron oxide and manganese oxide, in the slag and desulfurization reaction in the steel by aluminum. The model predicts that increasing silicon increases the rate and extent of desulfurization. Plant data was analyzed to obtain rough estimates of ladle desulfurization rates and also used to validate the model predictions. Experiments have been conducted on a kilogram scale of material in an induction furnace to test the hypothesis. The major conclusions of the study are as follows: The rate and extent of desulfurization improve with increasing initial silicon content in the steel; the effect diminishes at silicon contents higher than approximately 0.2% and with increasing slag basicity. This was confirmed with kilogram-scale laboratory experiments. The effects of the silicon content in the steel (and of initial FeO and MnO in the slag) largely arise from the dominant effects of these reactions on the equilibrium aluminum content of the steel: as far as aluminum consumption or pick-up is concerned, the Si/SiO2 reaction dominates, and desulfurization has only a minor effect on aluminum consumption. The rate is primarily controlled by mass transfer in the metal and slag phase mass transfer has a minor effect on the overall desulfurization kinetics. The model results are in agreement with the experimental data for the change in sulfur, silicon and aluminum contents with time which renders credibility to the underlying hypothesis of the kinetic model. Although the change of sulfur content with time is not very sensitive to the activity data source, the change of aluminum and silicon contents with time depend on the activity data source. The experimental results demonstrate that if the silicon content in the steel is high enough, the silicon can reduce the alumina from the slag and thus the steel melt will pick up aluminum. This can cause significant savings in aluminum consumption. For most of the slag compositions used in the experiments, the overall mass transfer is only limited by the steel phase and the slag phase mass transfer can be neglected for most practical cases. Mass balance calculations in the experiments support the basis of the model and also show that with respect to aluminum consumption, silica reduction is the main aluminum consuming (or production) reaction and the desulfurization reaction is only a secondary consumer of aluminum. Results from the plant trials conducted to test the effect of silicon on ladle desulfurization show that the rate and extent of desulfurization increase with the increase of the initial Si content, so in the ladle refining process, adding all the silicon in the beginning with the aluminum and the fluxes will be beneficial and could save considerable processing time at the ladle. The aluminum consumption for the heats with silicon added in the beginning (both in terms of the Al added to the steel and as slag deoxidants) is considerably lower compared to the cases where the silicon is added at the end. However, on a relative cost term, aluminum and silicon are similarly priced so substitution would not offer a major cost advantage.

Roy, Debdutta

198

Recent Developments in Vehicle Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent developments in vehicle dynamics are discussed. Vehicle suspension systems, applications of multi-body dynamics problems in vehicle dynamics, rear steer, and special aspects of commercial vehicle dynamics are discussed.

J. Bernard M. Vanderploeg J. Shannan

1987-01-01

199

Nitrosamines in Vehicle Interiors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Researchers in the nitrosamine field were contacted on their views of the TEA analyzer and ThermoSorb/N Air Samplers for nitrosamine analysis. Gas samples were taken from vehicle interiors to determine the effects of vehicle type, vehicle age, mode of ope...

L. R. Smith

1981-01-01

200

Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the vehicle navigation problem for an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) with six degrees of freedom. We approach this problem using an error state formulation of the Kalman filter. Integration of the vehicle's high-rate inertial measurement unit's (IMU's) accelerometers and gyros allow time propagation while other sensors provide measurement corrections. The low-rate aiding sensors include a Doppler velocity

Paul A. Miller; Jay A. Farrell; Yuanyuan Zhao; Vladimir Djapic

2010-01-01

201

Automotive vehicle sensors  

SciTech Connect

This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

1995-09-01

202

Urban vehicle research project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project's main goal of high energy efficiency in a four-passenger vehicle was approached from two directions. (1) Try a hybrid electric drive system with the stationary internal combustion engine powered by locally produced alcohol and compare its convenience and efficiency to contemporary vehicles. (2) Build a light, aerodynamically clean vehicle body to package all the components plus four adults

1984-01-01

203

Commercial road vehicle noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the characteristics of the noise emitted by commercial vehicles has been made. The most important single parameter determining the noise of a modern diesel-engined vehicle is the engine speed. All of the other parameters such as load, road speed, etc., have only a secondary effect. The sources of noise on the vehicle are reviewed and it is

P. E. Waters

1974-01-01

204

Energy 101: Electric Vehicles  

ScienceCinema

This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

None

2013-05-29

205

The adaptive suspension vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a description of the Adaptive Suspension Vehicle. The vehicle uses a legged, rather than a wheeled or tracked, locomotion principle, and is intended to demonstrate the feasibility of systems of this type for transportation in very rough terrain conditions. The vehicle is presently under test, with installation and validation of software modules for different operational conditions scheduled

Kenneth J. Waldron; Robert B. McGhee

1986-01-01

206

Tow vehicle depth verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

NRL demonstrated extraction of accurate single beam and multibeam bathymetry from a towed vehicle designed to locate mines in the water column. However, biases were encountered in measuring the static pressure depth of the moving vehicle. Water depth is calculated by simply adding tow vehicle depth, measured by a pressure sensor, to the multibeam ranges from the seafloor, measured acoustically

M. M. Harris; W. E. Avera; L. D. Bibee

2002-01-01

207

Tolrestat kinetics  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of tolrestat, a potent inhibitor of aldose reductase, were examined. Serum concentrations of tolrestat and of total /sup 14/C were measured after dosing normal subjects and subjects with diabetes with /sup 14/C-labeled tolrestat. In normal subjects, tolrestat was rapidly absorbed and disappearance from serum was biphasic. Distribution and elimination t 1/2s were approximately 2 and 10 to 12 hr, respectively, after single and multiple doses. Unchanged tolrestat accounted for the major portion of /sup 14/C in serum. Radioactivity was rapidly and completely excreted in urine and feces in an approximate ratio of 2:1. Findings were much the same in subjects with diabetes. In normal subjects, the kinetics of oral tolrestat were independent of dose in the 10 to 800 mg range. Repetitive dosing did not result in unexpected cumulation. Tolrestat was more than 99% bound to serum protein; it did not compete with warfarin for binding sites but was displaced to some extent by high concentrations of tolbutamide or salicylate.

Hicks, D.R.; Kraml, M.; Cayen, M.N.; Dubuc, J.; Ryder, S.; Dvornik, D.

1984-10-01

208

Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

1999-08-01

209

Vehicle/engine integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VEHICLE/ENGINE Integration Issues are explored for orbit transfer vehicles (OTV's). The impact of space basing and aeroassist on VEHICLE/ENGINE integration is discussed. The AOTV structure and thermal protection subsystem weights were scaled as the vehicle length and surface was changed. It is concluded that for increased allowable payload lengths in a ground-based system, lower length-to-diameter (L/D) is as important as higher mixture ration (MR) in the range of mid L/D ATOV's. Scenario validity, geometry constraints, throttle levels, reliability, and servicing are discussed in the context of engine design and engine/vehicle integration.

Cooper, L. P.; Vinopal, T. J.; Florence, D. E.; Michel, R. W.; Brown, J. R.; Bergeron, R. P.; Weldon, V. A.

1984-04-01

210

Kill ratio calculation for in-line yield prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for better yields in IC manufacturing calls for a smarter use of the vast amount of data that can be generated by a world class production line.In this scenario, in-line inspection processes produce thousands of wafer maps, number of defects, defect type and pictures every day. A step forward is to correlate these with the other big data- generator area: test. In this paper, we present how these data can be put together and correlated to obtain a very useful yield predicting tool. This correlation will first allow us to calculate the kill ratio, i.e. the probability for a defect of a certain size in a certain layer to kill the die. Then we will use that number to estimate the cosmetic yield that a wafer will have.

Lorenzo, Alfonso; Oter, David; Cruceta, Sergio; Valtuena, Juan F.; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Mata, Carlos

1999-04-01

211

Secondary Kill Effect of Deltamethrin on Triatoma infestans  

PubMed Central

Control of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, relies on the application of pyrethroid insecticides, especially deltamethrin. We performed laboratory studies to determine whether a T. infestans nymph that comes into contact with a deltamethrin-treated surface horizontally transfers the insecticide to subsequent triatomines. We found that a triatomine that walks on a deltamethrin-treated surface for a short period of time has the ability to transport the insecticide in concentrations sufficient to kill other triatomines with which it comes into contact. The effect was limited to high-density environments, and mortality as a result of secondary exposure was greater among second-instar nymphs compared with fifth-instar nymphs. Our results suggest that deltamethrin could be killing triatomines through both direct and indirect contact, although it remains unclear whether the phenomenon occurs in natural conditions.

MALONEY, KATHLEEN M.; ANCCA-JUAREZ, JENNY; SALAZAR, RENZO; BORRINI-MAYORI, KATTY; PAMO-TITO, DANITZA; KEATING, JOSEPH A.; LEVY, MICHAEL Z.

2012-01-01

212

Ares Launch Vehicles Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 2005, the Ares Projects have been building the nation s next generation of crew and cargo launch vehicles. As part of the Constellation Program, the Ares vehicles will enable astronauts in the Orion crew exploration vehicle and Altair lunar lander to reach the Moon and beyond. These vehicles draw upon hardware and experienced developed over 50 years of exploration, while also incorporating technology and management practices from today. Ares is concentrating on building the Ares I crew launch vehicle to ensure America s continued ability to send crews to the International Space Station. Progress has been made on design, fabrication, and testing for the first stage, upper stage, upper stage engine, and integrated vehicle. This presentation will provide an overview of the Ares launch vehicles architecture, milestone progress, and top project risks.

Vanhooser, Teresa

2009-01-01

213

Sabretoothed Carnivores and the Killing of Large Prey  

PubMed Central

Sabre-like canines clearly have the potential to inflict grievous wounds leading to massive blood loss and rapid death. Hypotheses concerning sabretooth killing modes include attack to soft parts such as the belly or throat, where biting deep is essential to generate strikes reaching major blood vessels. Sabretoothed carnivorans are widely interpreted as hunters of larger and more powerful prey than that of their present-day nonsabretoothed relatives. However, the precise functional advantage of the sabretooth bite, particularly in relation to prey size, is unknown. Here, we present a new point-to-point bite model and show that, for sabretooths, depth of the killing bite decreases dramatically with increasing prey size. The extended gape of sabretooths only results in considerable increase in bite depth when biting into prey with a radius of less than ?10 cm. For sabretooths, this size-reversed functional advantage suggests predation on species within a similar size range to those attacked by present-day carnivorans, rather than “megaherbivores” as previously believed. The development of the sabretooth condition appears to represent a shift in function and killing behaviour, rather than one in predator-prey relations. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how sabretoothed carnivorans are likely to have evolved along a functionally continuous trajectory: beginning as an extension of a jaw-powered killing bite, as adopted by present-day pantherine cats, followed by neck-powered biting and thereafter shifting to neck-powered shear-biting. We anticipate this new insight to be a starting point for detailed study of the evolution of pathways that encompass extreme specialisation, for example, understanding how neck-powered biting shifts into shear-biting and its significance for predator-prey interactions. We also expect that our model for point-to-point biting and bite depth estimations will yield new insights into the behaviours of a broad range of extinct predators including therocephalians (gorgonopsian + cynodont, sabretoothed mammal-like reptiles), sauropterygians (marine reptiles) and theropod dinosaurs.

Andersson, Ki; Norman, David; Werdelin, Lars

2011-01-01

214

Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

1996-08-01

215

Development of novel antibacterial peptides that kill resistant isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid emergence of bacterial strains that are resistant to current antibiotics requires the development of novel types of antimicrobial compounds. Proline-rich cationic antibacterial peptides such as pyrrhocoricin kill responsive bacteria by binding to the 70kDa heat shock protein DnaK and inhibiting protein folding. We designed and synthesized multiply protected dimeric analogs of pyrrhocoricin and optimized the in vitro antibacterial

Mare Cudic; Barry A. Condie; Daniel J. Weiner; Elena S. Lysenko; Zhi Q. Xiang; O. Insug; Philippe Bulet; Laszlo Otvos Jr

2002-01-01

216

The Killing of African Trypanosomes by Ethidium Bromide  

PubMed Central

Introduced in the 1950s, ethidium bromide (EB) is still used as an anti-trypanosomal drug for African cattle although its mechanism of killing has been unclear and controversial. EB has long been known to cause loss of the mitochondrial genome, named kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), a giant network of interlocked minicircles and maxicircles. However, the existence of viable parasites lacking kDNA (dyskinetoplastic) led many to think that kDNA loss could not be the mechanism of killing. When recent studies indicated that kDNA is indeed essential in bloodstream trypanosomes and that dyskinetoplastic cells survive only if they have a compensating mutation in the nuclear genome, we investigated the effect of EB on kDNA and its replication. We here report some remarkable effects of EB. Using EM and other techniques, we found that binding of EB to network minicircles is low, probably because of their association with proteins that prevent helix unwinding. In contrast, covalently-closed minicircles that had been released from the network for replication bind EB extensively, causing them, after isolation, to become highly supertwisted and to develop regions of left-handed Z-DNA (without EB, these circles are fully relaxed). In vivo, EB causes helix distortion of free minicircles, preventing replication initiation and resulting in kDNA loss and cell death. Unexpectedly, EB also kills dyskinetoplastic trypanosomes, lacking kDNA, by inhibiting nuclear replication. Since the effect on kDNA occurs at a >10-fold lower EB concentration than that on nuclear DNA, we conclude that minicircle replication initiation is likely EB's most vulnerable target, but the effect on nuclear replication may also contribute to cell killing.

Roy Chowdhury, Arnab; Bakshi, Rahul; Wang, Jianyang; Yildirir, Gokben; Liu, Beiyu; Pappas-Brown, Valeria; Tolun, Gokhan; Griffith, Jack D.; Shapiro, Theresa A.; Jensen, Robert E.; Englund, Paul T.

2010-01-01

217

Controlling the Pine-Killing Woodwasp, Sirex noctilio , with Nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pine-killing woodwasp Sirex noctilio, a native to Eurasia\\/Morocco, was accidentally introduced into various Southern Hemisphere countries during the last century\\u000a and has recently (2005) been detected in north-eastern North America. The parasitic nematode Beddingia siricidicola is by far the most important control agent of sirex and has been introduced into each Southern Hemisphere country soon after\\u000a sirex became established.

Robin A. Bedding

218

Accounting for Genocide: How Many Were Killed in Srebrenica?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The takeover of the UN ‘safearea’ of Srebrenica by Bosnian Serb forces inJuly 1995 was followed by the killing of alarge number of male Bosnian Muslim civilians,in what has been characterized as the worstmassacre in Europe since World War II. Thisarticle is based on a report submitted asevidence to the UN International CriminalTribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) inthe case

Helge Brunborg; Torkild Hovde Lyngstad; Henrik Urdal

2003-01-01

219

Rickettsia associated with male-killing in a buprestid beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many populations of the buprestid leaf-mining beetle, Brachys tessellatus, from central South Carolina, USA, show highly skewed sex ratios, ranging from 1.3 to 6.0 females per male. We have identified a Rickettsia bacterium that is associated with sex ratio distortion (SRD) and selective killing of male embryos in B. tessellatus. Molecular assays of infection by this bacterium are highly associated

Eilleen T. Lawson; Timothy A. Mousseau; Rebecca Klaper; Mark D. Hunter; John H. Werren

2001-01-01

220

Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 ?g/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200?±?50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200?±?50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 ?g/mL) or lower (20 ?g/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 ?g/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations.

2014-01-01

221

Involvement of Sphingolipids in Apoptin-Induced Cell Killing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential anti-tumor agent Apoptin activates apoptosis in many human cancers and transformed cell lines, but is believed to be less potent in primary cells. Although caspase 3 is activated during apoptin-induced apoptosis, the mechanism of tumor cell killing remains elusive. We now show that apoptin-mediated cell death involves modulation of the sphingomyelin–ceramide pathway. Treating cells with Ad-GFPApoptin resulted in

Xiang Liu; Youssef H. Zeidan; Saeed Elojeimy; David H. Holman; Ahmed M. El-Zawahry; Gui-wen Guo; Alicja Bielawska; Jacek Bielawski; Zdzislaw Szulc; Semyon Rubinchik; Jian-Yun Dong; Thomas E. Keane; Mahvash Tavassoli; Yusuf A. Hannun; James S. Norris

2006-01-01

222

Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 ?g/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200 ± 50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200 ± 50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 ?g/mL) or lower (20 ?g/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 ?g/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations.

Cheng, Dengfeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Guoxin; Shi, Hongcheng

2014-04-01

223

Mechanism of killing of Giardia lamblia trophozoites by complement.  

PubMed Central

Only antibodies of the IgM class support the lytic effect of complement on Giardia lamblia (GL). We sensitized GL trophozoites (SGL) at 4 degrees C with serum containing anti-GL antibodies or IgM purified from this serum, and either normal human serum (NHS), complement 2-deficient human serum (C2d-HS), or C4-deficient guinea pig serum was used as source of complement. SGL were killed by NHS (86%) and by the deficient sera (50 and 40%, respectively), suggesting activation of the alternative pathway. However, the reaction was inhibited by Mg-EGTA. These observations led to studies of the role of C1. The lytic effect of NHS and C2d-HS on SGL was abolished by immunochemically depleting C1 from these sera, and reconstituted by adding purified C1q plus C1r and C1s. Factor B-depleted C2d-HS also lost its capacity to mediate killing, but reconstitution with factor B led to a dose-dependent increase in the killing of SGL. We next investigated the participation of the membrane attack complex in this system. SGL carrying C5b to C7 were lysed when incubated with C8 alone (56%); the addition of C9 further increased killing (98%), while C9 in the absence of C8 had no effect. We concluded that although activation of the classical pathway produces lysis of SGL, lysis may also proceed through a unique pathway of complement activation that requires C1 and factor B, but is independent of C4 and C2. Lysis of SGL can be accomplished by C5b to C8 in the absence of C9.

Deguchi, M; Gillin, F D; Gigli, I

1987-01-01

224

Sorafenib and HDAC inhibitors synergize to kill CNS tumor cells  

PubMed Central

The present studies were designed to determine whether the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib (Nexavar) interacted with histone deacetylase inhibitors to kill glioblastoma and medulloblastoma cells. In a dose-dependent fashion sorafenib lethality was enhanced in multiple genetically disparate primary human glioblastoma isolates by the HDAC inhibitor sodium valproate (Depakote). Drug exposure reduced phosphorylation of p70 S6K and of mTOR. Similar data to that with valproate were also obtained using the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat (Zolinza). Sorafenib and valproate also interacted to kill medulloblastoma and PNET cell lines. Treatment with sorafenib and HDAC inhibitors radio-sensitized both GBM and medulloblastoma cell lines. Knock down of death receptor (CD95) expression protected GBM cells from the drug combination, as did overexpression of c-FLIP-s, BCL-XL and dominant negative caspase 9. Knock down of PDGFR? recapitulated the effect of sorafenib in combination with HDAC inhibitors. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the combination of sorafenib and HDAC inhibitors kills through activation of the extrinsic pathway, and could represent a useful approach to treat CNS-derived tumors.

Tang, Yong; Yacoub, Adly; Hamed, Hossein A.; Poklepovic, Andrew; Tye, Gary W.; Grant, Steven; Dent, Paul

2012-01-01

225

Surface acoustic waves enhance neutrophil killing of bacteria.  

PubMed

Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria that play a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria and are the leading cause of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections on indwelling catheters and medical prosthetic devices. Failure to resolve these biofilm infections may necessitate the surgical removal of the prosthetic device which can be debilitating and costly. Recent studies have shown that application of surface acoustic waves to catheter surfaces can reduce the incidence of infections by a mechanism that has not yet been clarified. We report here the effects of surface acoustic waves (SAW) on the capacity of human neutrophils to eradicate S. epidermidis bacteria in a planktonic state and within biofilms. Utilizing a novel fibrin gel system that mimics a tissue-like environment, we show that SAW, at an intensity of 0.3 mW/cm(2), significantly enhances human neutrophil killing of S. epidermidis in a planktonic state and within biofilms by enhancing human neutrophil chemotaxis in response to chemoattractants. In addition, we show that the integrin CD18 plays a significant role in the killing enhancement observed in applying SAW. We propose from out data that this integrin may serve as mechanoreceptor for surface acoustic waves enhancing neutrophil chemotaxis and killing of bacteria. PMID:23936303

Loike, John D; Plitt, Anna; Kothari, Komal; Zumeris, Jona; Budhu, Sadna; Kavalus, Kaitlyn; Ray, Yonatan; Jacob, Harold

2013-01-01

226

Effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

SciTech Connect

The effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated, using male Long-Evans rats exposed to 1% lead acetate in the drinking water for varying periods of time to achieve blood lead levels ranging from 20-200 ..mu..g/dl. Studies of PMN bacterial and fungal killing activity, chemotaxis and phagocytosis demonstrated that: 1) bactericidal activity of PMN from rats exposed to lead was not altered; 2) chemotactic activity remained within normal limits; 3) the phagocytic ability of the PMN also remained unaltered. In addition to these normal findings, one major abnormality was demonstrated: a significant decrease in the ability of PMN from rats exposed to lead to kill Candida albicans. This defect was not related to age or to length of exposure. It could not be produced by addition of lead to the test system in vitro. Further investigation revealed significant decreases in PMN glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase activities. These data support two possible mechanisms for the abnormal fungicidal activity of PMN from lead-exposed rats: decrease in ability to reduce oxygen to active metabolites, or reduction in myeloperoxidase activity due to diminshed synthesis of the heme moiety required for its function.

Silberstein, C.F.

1984-01-01

227

Default risk modeling with position-dependent killing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion in a linear potential in the presence of position-dependent killing is used to mimic a default process. Different assumptions regarding transport coefficients, initial conditions, and elasticity of the killing measure lead to diverse models of bankruptcy. One “stylized fact” is fundamental for our consideration: empirically default is a rather rare event, especially in the investment grade categories of credit ratings. Hence, the action of killing may be considered as a small parameter. In a number of special cases we derive closed-form expressions for the entire term structure of the cumulative probability of default, its hazard rate, and intensity. Comparison with historical data on aggregate global corporate defaults confirms the validity of the perturbation method for estimations of long-term probability of default for companies with high credit quality. On a single company level, we implement the derived formulas to estimate the one-year likelihood of default of Enron on a daily basis from August 2000 to August 2001, three months before its default, and compare the obtained results with forecasts of traditional structural models.

Katz, Yuri A.

2013-04-01

228

Antimicrobial metallic copper surfaces kill Staphylococcus haemolyticus via membrane damage.  

PubMed

Recently, copper (Cu) in its metallic form has regained interest for its antimicrobial properties. Use of metallic Cu surfaces in worldwide hospital trials resulted in remarkable reductions in surface contaminations. Yet, our understanding of why microbes are killed upon contact to the metal is still limited and different modes of action have been proposed. This knowledge, however, is crucial for sustained use of such surfaces in hospitals and other hygiene-sensitive areas. Here, we report on the molecular mechanisms by which the Gram-positive Staphylococcus haemolyticus is inactivated by metallic Cu. Staphylococcus haemolyticus was killed within minutes on Cu but not on stainless steel demonstrating the antimicrobial efficacy of metallic Cu. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis and in vivo staining with Coppersensor-1 indicated that cells accumulated large amounts of Cu ions from metallic Cu surfaces contributing to lethal damage. Mutation rates of Cu- or steel-exposed cells were similarly low. Instead, live/dead staining indicated cell membrane damage in Cu- but not steel-exposed cells. These findings support a model of the cellular targets of metallic Cu toxicity in bacteria, which suggests that metallic Cu is not genotoxic and does not kill via DNA damage. In contrast, membranes constitute the likely Achilles' heel of Cu surface-exposed cells. PMID:22950011

Santo, Christophe Espírito; Quaranta, Davide; Grass, Gregor

2012-03-01

229

Antimicrobial metallic copper surfaces kill Staphylococcus haemolyticus via membrane damage  

PubMed Central

Recently, copper (Cu) in its metallic form has regained interest for its antimicrobial properties. Use of metallic Cu surfaces in worldwide hospital trials resulted in remarkable reductions in surface contaminations. Yet, our understanding of why microbes are killed upon contact to the metal is still limited and different modes of action have been proposed. This knowledge, however, is crucial for sustained use of such surfaces in hospitals and other hygiene-sensitive areas. Here, we report on the molecular mechanisms by which the Gram-positive Staphylococcus haemolyticus is inactivated by metallic Cu. Staphylococcus haemolyticus was killed within minutes on Cu but not on stainless steel demonstrating the antimicrobial efficacy of metallic Cu. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis and in vivo staining with Coppersensor-1 indicated that cells accumulated large amounts of Cu ions from metallic Cu surfaces contributing to lethal damage. Mutation rates of Cu- or steel-exposed cells were similarly low. Instead, live/dead staining indicated cell membrane damage in Cu- but not steel-exposed cells. These findings support a model of the cellular targets of metallic Cu toxicity in bacteria, which suggests that metallic Cu is not genotoxic and does not kill via DNA damage. In contrast, membranes constitute the likely Achilles’ heel of Cu surface-exposed cells.

Santo, Christophe Espirito; Quaranta, Davide; Grass, Gregor

2012-01-01

230

Surface Acoustic Waves Enhance Neutrophil Killing of Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria that play a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria and are the leading cause of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections on indwelling catheters and medical prosthetic devices. Failure to resolve these biofilm infections may necessitate the surgical removal of the prosthetic device which can be debilitating and costly. Recent studies have shown that application of surface acoustic waves to catheter surfaces can reduce the incidence of infections by a mechanism that has not yet been clarified. We report here the effects of surface acoustic waves (SAW) on the capacity of human neutrophils to eradicate S. epidermidis bacteria in a planktonic state and within biofilms. Utilizing a novel fibrin gel system that mimics a tissue-like environment, we show that SAW, at an intensity of 0.3 mW/cm2, significantly enhances human neutrophil killing of S. epidermidis in a planktonic state and within biofilms by enhancing human neutrophil chemotaxis in response to chemoattractants. In addition, we show that the integrin CD18 plays a significant role in the killing enhancement observed in applying SAW. We propose from out data that this integrin may serve as mechanoreceptor for surface acoustic waves enhancing neutrophil chemotaxis and killing of bacteria.

Loike, John D.; Plitt, Anna; Kothari, Komal; Zumeris, Jona; Budhu, Sadna; Kavalus, Kaitlyn; Ray, Yonatan; Jacob, Harold

2013-01-01

231

Effect of Nitric Oxide on Staphylococcal Killing and Interactive Effect with Superoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

killing, it is rapid and occurs withi n2ho fexposure. We further show that the interaction of .NO and O2 2 results in decreased O2 2 -mediated staphylococcal killing at early time points. .NO, however, appears to enhance or stabilize microbial killing over prolonged periods of incubation. This study did not produce evidence of early synergism of ROI and RNI, but

S. S. KAPLAN; J. R. LANCASTER; R. E. BASFORD; L. SIMMONS

232

Kill rates and predation patterns of jaguars (Panthera onca) in the southern Pantanal, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jaguars (Panthera onca) often prey on livestock, resulting in conflicts with humans. To date, kill rates and predation patterns by jaguars have not been well documented. We studied the foraging ecology of jaguars in an area with both livestock and native prey and documented kill rates, characteristics of prey killed, patterns of predation, and the influence of prey size on

Sandra M. C. Cavalcanti; Eric M. Gese

2010-01-01

233

40 CFR 180.1314 - Killed, nonviable Streptomyces acidiscabies strain RL-110T; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Killed, nonviable Streptomyces acidiscabies strain RL-110T; exemption... § 180.1314 Killed, nonviable Streptomyces acidiscabies strain RL-110T ...established for residues of killed, nonviable Streptomyces acidiscabies strain...

2013-07-01

234

The Vehicle Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ubiquitous computing in the vehicle industry has primarily focused on sensor data serving different ubiquitous on-board services (e.g., crash detection, antilock brake systems, or air conditioning). These services mainly address vehicle drivers while driving. However, in view of the role of vehicles in today's society, it goes without saying that vehicles relate to more than just the driver or occupants; they are part of a larger ecosystem, including traffic participants, authorities, customers and the like. To serve the ecosystem with ubiquitous services based on vehicle sensor data, there is a need for an open information infrastructure that enables service development close to the customer. This paper presents results from a research project on designing such an infrastructure at a major European vehicle manufacturer. Our empirical data shows how the vehicle manufacturer's conceptualization of services disagrees with the needs of vehicle stakeholders in a more comprehensive vehicle ecosystem. In light of this, we discuss the effect on information infrastructure design and introduce the distinction between information infrastructure as product feature and service facilitator. In a more general way, we highlight the importance of information infrastructure to contextualize the vehicle as part of a larger ecosystem and thus support open innovation.

Kuschel, Jonas

235

Estimating crashes involving heavy vehicles in Western Australia, 1999-2000: a capture-recapture method.  

PubMed

A two-sample exploratory study of police and hospital records was undertaken to estimate the number of fatalities and serious injuries for heavy vehicle drivers involved in a crash in Western Australia. The capture-recapture method was used to assess differences and similarities in characteristics of heavy vehicle drivers from both sources. Each heavy vehicle driver involved in a crash from the police report was matched against the heavy vehicle driver's hospitalisation record from the Hospital Morbidity Data System, with surname, initials, date of birth, gender, date of crash, road user type and vehicle type as matching fields. The estimated number of fatalities and serious injuries to heavy vehicle drivers from 1st July 1999 to 31st December 2000 was 5 and 59, respectively, which was 25 and 31% higher based on the capture-recapture methodology than the aggregated (non-overlapping) total officially reported to the police and hospitals. No significant age difference (p>0.05) was found for drivers involved in a heavy vehicle crash between the two sources (37 years versus 40 year of age). However, female heavy vehicle drivers were over-represented in the hospital records (11%) compared to the police records (1%). The capture-recapture approach is useful for evaluating the completeness of data sources and identifying biases within datasets. The underestimation of heavy vehicle drivers seriously injured and killed has important implications for heavy vehicle safety management and resource allocation in Western Australia. PMID:16221468

Meuleners, Lynn B; Lee, Andy H; Cercarelli, L Rina; Legge, Matthew

2006-01-01

236

Toxicological profile of diethyl phthalate: a vehicle for fragrance and cosmetic ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diethyl phthalate (DEP; CAS No. 84-66-2) has many industrial uses, as a solvent and vehicle for fragrance and cosmetic ingredients and subsequent skin contact. This review focuses on its safety in use as a solvent and vehicle for fragrance and cosmetic ingredients. Available data are reviewed for acute toxicity, eye irritation, dermal irritation, dermal sensitization, phototoxicity, photoallergenicity, percutaneous absorption, kinetics,

A. M. Api

2001-01-01

237

Automatic vehicle location system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic vehicle detection system is disclosed, in which each vehicle whose location is to be detected carries active means which interact with passive elements at each location to be identified. The passive elements comprise a plurality of passive loops arranged in a sequence along the travel direction. Each of the loops is tuned to a chosen frequency so that the sequence of the frequencies defines the location code. As the vehicle traverses the sequence of the loops as it passes over each loop, signals only at the frequency of the loop being passed over are coupled from a vehicle transmitter to a vehicle receiver. The frequencies of the received signals in the receiver produce outputs which together represent a code of the traversed location. The code location is defined by a painted pattern which reflects light to a vehicle carried detector whose output is used to derive the code defined by the pattern.

Hansen, G. R., Jr. (inventor)

1973-01-01

238

Vehicle underbody fairing  

DOEpatents

A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA) [Pacifica, CA; Salari, Kambiz (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; McCallen, Rose (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA

2010-11-09

239

Relief-well requirements to kill a high-rate gas blowout from a deepwater reservoir  

SciTech Connect

Relief-well requirements were investigated for a dynamic kill of a high-rate gas blowout from a deepwater reservoir to define any necessary special procedures or equipment. Results of the investigation show that a high injection rate and a special-design large-diameter injection riser are required to dynamically kill such a blowout with seawater. The injection riser is necessary to limit surface pump pressure during the high-rate kill operation. Procedures to complete the kill operation hydrostatically with heavy fluid following the dynamic kill are outlined.

Warriner, R.A. (Triton Engineering Services Co. (US)); Cassity, T.G. (Cameron Iron Works (US))

1988-12-01

240

A Javat universal vehicle router for routing unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider vehicle routing problems in the context of the Air Force operational problem of routing unmanned aerial vehicles from base locations to various reconnaissance sites. The unmanned aerial vehicle routing problem requires consideration of heterogeneous vehicles, vehicle endurance limits, time windows, and time walls for some of the sites requiring coverage, site priorities, and asymmetric travel distances. We propose

R. W. Hardera

241

Routing Vehicles with Ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

242

Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

1983-01-01

243

Anaerobic killing of oral streptococci by reduced, transition metal cations.  

PubMed

Reduced, transition metal cations commonly enhance oxidative damage to cells caused by hydroperoxides formed as a result of oxygen metabolism or added externally. As expected, the cations Fe2+ and Cu+ enhanced killing of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 by hydroperoxides. However, unexpectedly, they also induced lethal damage under fully anaerobic conditions in a glove box with no exposure to O2 or hydroperoxides from initial treatment with the cations. Sensitivities to anaerobic killing by Fe2+ varied among the organisms tested. The oral streptococci Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558, Streptococcus rattus FA-1, and Streptococcus sanguis NCTC 10904 were approximately as sensitive as S. mutans GS-5. Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790, Actinomyces viscosus OMZ105E, and Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 had intermediate sensitivity, while Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4646 and Escherichia coli B were insensitive. Killing of S. mutans GS-5 in response to millimolar levels of added Fe2+ occurred over a wide range of temperatures and pH. The organism was able to take up ferrous iron, but ferric reductase activity could not be detected. Chelators, uric acid, and thiocyanate were not effective inhibitors of the lethal damage. Sulfhydryl compounds, ferricyanide, and ferrocyanide were protective if added prior to Fe2+ exposure. Fe2+, but not Fe3+, acted to reduce the acid tolerance of glycolysis by intact cells of S. mutans. The reduction in acid tolerance appeared to be related directly to Fe2+ inhibition of F-ATPase, which could be assayed with permeabilized cells, isolated membranes, or F1 enzyme separated from membranes. Cu+ and Cu2+ also inhibited F-ATPase and sensitized glycolysis by intact cells to acid. All of these damaging actions occurred anaerobically and thus did not appear to involve reactive oxygen species. PMID:9435058

Dunning, J C; Ma, Y; Marquis, R E

1998-01-01

244

New fish-killing alga in coastal Delaware produces neurotoxins.  

PubMed Central

Ten fish mortality events, involving primarily Atlantic menhaden, occurred from early July through September 2000 in several bays and creeks in Delaware, USA. Two events involved large mortalities estimated at 1-2.5 million fish in Bald Eagle Creek, Rehoboth Bay. Samples from Indian Inlet (Bethany Beach), open to the Atlantic, as well as from an enclosed area of massive fish kills at nearby Bald Eagle Creek and Torque Canal were collected and sent to our laboratory for analysis. Microscopic examination of samples from the fish kill site revealed the presence of a single-cell Raphidophyte alga Chattonella cf. verruculosa at a maximum density of 1.04 x 10(7) cells/L. Naturally occurring brevetoxins were also detected in the bloom samples. Besides the Chattonella species, no other known brevetoxin-producing phytoplankton were present. Chromatographic, immunochemical, and spectroscopic analyses confirmed the presence of brevetoxin PbTx-2, and PbTx-3 and -9 were confirmed by chromatographic and immunochemical analyses. This is the first confirmed report in the United States of brevetoxins associated with an indigenous bloom in temperate Atlantic estuarine waters and of C. cf. verruculosa as a resident toxic organism implicated in fish kills in this area. The bloom of Chattonella continued throughout September and eventually declined in October. By the end of October C. cf. verruculosa was no longer seen, nor was toxin measurable in the surface waters. The results affirm that to avoid deleterious impacts on human and ecosystem health, increased monitoring is needed for brevetoxins and organism(s) producing them, even in areas previously thought to be unaffected.

Bourdelais, Andrea J; Tomas, Carmelo R; Naar, Jerome; Kubanek, Julia; Baden, Daniel G

2002-01-01

245

Mothers who kill: evolutionary underpinnings and infanticide law.  

PubMed

Women who kill their children present a profound challenge to accepted notions of motherhood and the protection offered by mothers to their children. Historically, societies have varied in the sanctions applied to perpetrators of such acts, across both time and place. Where penalties were once severe and punitive for mothers, in modern times some two dozen nations now have infanticide acts that reduce the penalties for mothers who kill their infants. Embedded within these acts are key criteria that relate (a) only to women who are (b) suffering the hormonal or mood effects of pregnancy/lactation at the time of the offence which is (c) usually restricted to within the first year after delivery. Criticisms of infanticide legislation have largely centered on inherent gender bias, misconceptions about the hormonal basis of postpartum psychiatric disorders, and the nexus and contribution of these disorders to the offending in relation to issues of culpability and sentencing. Important differences between female perpetrators relative to the age of the child victim have also highlighted problems in the implementation of infanticide legislation. For example, women who commit neonaticide (murder during the first day of life) differ substantially from mentally ill mothers who kill older children. However, despite these shortcomings, many nations have in recent years chosen to retain their infanticide acts. This article reviews the central controversies of infanticide legislation in relation to current research and fundamental fairness. Using evolutionary psychology as a theoretical framework to organize this discussion, it is argued that infanticide legislation is at best unnecessary and at worst misapplied, in that it exculpates criminal intent and fails to serve those for whom an infanticide defense might otherwise have been intended. PMID:22961624

Friedman, Susan Hatters; Cavney, James; Resnick, Phillip J

2012-01-01

246

Overview of Electrified Vehicle Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains a chart describing the components of electrified vehicle systems based on the vehicle drive system. Vehicle drive systems in the chart include conventional internal combustion engine, start/stop, mild hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), medium HEV, full HEV, plug-in series HEV, and battery electric vehicle. The chart is provided in both .jpg and .ppt (PowerPoint) formats.

Center for Advanced Automotive Technology (CAAT)

247

Specifically targeting ERK1 or ERK2 kills Melanoma cells  

PubMed Central

Background Overcoming the notorious apoptotic resistance of melanoma cells remains a therapeutic challenge given dismal survival of patients with metastatic melanoma. However, recent clinical trials using a BRAF inhibitor revealed encouraging results for patients with advanced BRAF mutant bearing melanoma, but drug resistance accompanied by recovery of phospho-ERK (pERK) activity present challenges for this approach. While ERK1 and ERK2 are similar in amino acid composition and are frequently not distinguished in clinical reports, the possibility they regulate distinct biological functions in melanoma is largely unexplored. Methods Rather than indirectly inhibiting pERK by targeting upstream kinases such as BRAF or MEK, we directly (and near completely) reduced ERK1 and ERK2 using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to achieve sustained inhibition of pERK1 and/or pERK2. Results and discussion Using A375 melanoma cells containing activating BRAFV600E mutation, silencing ERK1 or ERK2 revealed some differences in their biological roles, but also shared roles by reduced cell proliferation, colony formation in soft agar and induced apoptosis. By contrast, chemical mediated inhibition of mutant BRAF (PLX4032) or MEK (PD0325901) triggered less killing of melanoma cells, although they did inhibit proliferation. Death of melanoma cells by silencing ERK1 and/or ERK2 was caspase dependent and accompanied by increased levels of Bak, Bad and Bim, with reduction in p-Bad and detection of activated Bax levels and loss of mitochondrial membrane permeability. Rare treatment resistant clones accompanied silencing of either ERK1 and/or ERK2. Unexpectedly, directly targeting ERK levels also led to reduction in upstream levels of BRAF, CRAF and pMEK, thereby reinforcing the importance of silencing ERK as regards killing and bypassing drug resistance. Conclusions Selectively knocking down ERK1 and/or ERK2 killed A375 melanoma cells and also increased the ability of PLX4032 to kill A375 cells. Thus, a new therapeutic window is open for future clinical trials in which agents targeting ERK1 and ERK2 should be considered in patients with melanoma.

2012-01-01

248

Selective killing of T lymphocytes by phototoxic liposomes  

SciTech Connect

Two-fold specificity in drug delivery obtained through the localized activation of drugs by physical means and the attachment of drugs to proteins that bind to target cells might be used for highly selective cancer chemotherapy or for immunosuppression. Toward this end, a monoclonal antibody against an antigen on the surface of T lymphocytes was covalently attached to liposomes containing a phototoxic drug, pyrene, bound to the lipid bilayer. When unfractionated peripheral blood lymphocytes, or B- and T-cell lines, were irradiated after treatment with these liposomes, T cells were killed while B cells were spared, demonstrating the validity of the approach in a simple in vitro assay.

Yemul, S.; Berger, C.; Estabrook, A.; Suarez, S.; Edelson, R.; Bayley, H.

1987-01-01

249

Selective Killing of T Lymphocytes by Phototoxic Liposomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-fold specificity in drug delivery obtained through (i) the localized activation of drugs by physical means and (ii) the attachment of drugs to proteins that bind to target cells might be used for highly selective cancer chemotherapy or for immunosuppression. Toward this end, a monoclonal antibody against an antigen on the surface of T lymphocytes was covalently attached to liposomes containing a phototoxic drug, pyrene, bound to the lipid bilayer. When unfractionated peripheral blood lymphocytes, or B- and T-cell lines, were irradiated after treatment with these liposomes, T cells were killed while B cells were spared, demonstrating the validity of the approach in a simple in vitro assay.

Yemul, Shrishailam; Berger, Carole; Estabrook, Alison; Suarez, Sylvia; Edelson, Richard; Bayley, Hagan

1987-01-01

250

Creating Psychological Profiles of Characters in To Kill a Mockingbird  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson asks students to explore the motivation behind characters' actions in To Kill a Mockingbird. Students first engage in a freewrite activity. They then do research and creative thinking to design a poster and plan a presentation representing a psychological profile for a selected character, while determining what specific factors (such as family, career, environment, and so forth) have the greatest influence on the characters' decision making throughout the novel. The groups present their findings to the class by assuming the persona of their character and explaining the psychological factors influencing their behavior in the novel.

Gibbons, Lauren A.

2012-07-29

251

Double suicide genes selectively kill human umbilical vein endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  To construct a recombinant adenovirus containing CDglyTK double suicide genes and evaluate the killing effect of the double\\u000a suicide genes driven by kinase domain insert containing receptor (KDR) promoter on human umbilical vein endothelial cells.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Human KDR promoter, Escherichia coli (E. coli) cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (TK) gene were cloned using polymerase chain\\u000a reaction

Weiguo Jia; Longyong Mei; Yanping Wang; Lunxu Liu; Guowei Che

2011-01-01

252

Lifting Body Flight Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

Barret, Chris

1998-01-01

253

How can we kill cancer cells: Insights from the computational models of apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells are widely known to be protected from apoptosis, a phenomenon that is a major hurdle to successful anticancer therapy. Over-expression of several anti-apoptotic proteins, or mutations in pro-apoptotic factors, has been recognized to confer such resistance. Development of new experimental strategies, such as in silico modeling of biological pathways, can increase our understanding of how abnormal regulation of apoptotic pathway in cancer cells can lead to tumour chemoresistance. Monte Carlo simulations are in particular well suited to study inherent variability, such as spatial heterogeneity and cell-to-cell variations in signaling reactions. Using this approach, often in combination with experimental validation of the computational model, we observed that large cell-to-cell variability could explain the kinetics of apoptosis, which depends on the type of pathway and the strength of stress stimuli. Most importantly, Monte Carlo simulations of apoptotic signaling provides unexpected insights into the mechanisms of fractional cell killing induced by apoptosis-inducing agents, showing that not only variation in protein levels, but also inherent stochastic variability in signaling reactions, can lead to survival of a fraction of treated cancer cells.

Raychaudhuri, Subhadip

2010-01-01

254

Vehicle with magnetic engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vehicle is described comprising a vehicle frame fitted with axles and wheels rotatably carried by the axles; an engine block mounted on the frame; a plurality of magnetic cylinders provided in the engine block and a plurality of magnetic pistons disposed in the magnetic cylinders, respectively, in reciprocating relationship, the magnetic cylinders having a first magnetic polarity in one

Wortham

1993-01-01

255

Nuclear air cushion vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

Anderson, J. L.

1973-01-01

256

Vehicle barrier systems  

SciTech Connect

The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper. 2 tabs.

Sena, P.A.

1986-01-01

257

Vehicle barrier systems  

SciTech Connect

The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

Sena, P.A.

1986-01-01

258

Vehicle barrier systems  

SciTech Connect

The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment, and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

Sena, P.A.

1986-01-01

259

Suspension for Tracked Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A patent is described for a tracked vehicle suspension containing a transverse balance beam spring-supported by means of flat rubber elastic elements. The beam is hinged at the middle to the chassis of the vehicle and the ends rest on the track carriers. ...

V. V. Emelyanenko R. V. Efimova N. A. Litvinov E. R. Melman

1969-01-01

260

Vehicles for Outdoor Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wheelchair Motorcycle Association tests various motorized vehicles that might help the physically disabled child get about outdoors. Vehicles found to be practical for older children and adolescents include three-wheeled motorcycles and customized go-carts. An address for obtaining more information on the association is provided. (SW)

Exceptional Parent, 1983

1983-01-01

261

Conestoga launch vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several major applications for commercial and government markets have developed recently which will make use of small satellites. A launch vehicle designed specifically for small satellites brings many attendant benefits. Space Services Incorporated has developed the Conestoga family of launch vehicles to meet the needs of five major markets: low orbiting communication satellites, positioning satellites, earth sensing satellites, space manufacturing

Mark H. Daniels; James E. Davidson

1988-01-01

262

Advanced vehicle technology assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a summary of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory assessment of advanced electric and hybrid vehicles for potential development by the early 1990s is summarized. The primary objective is to recommend subsystem research priorities based on a comparison of alternatives as part of complete vehicle systems with equivalent performance. The assessment includes evaluations of candidate technologies as well as

K. S. Hardy; V. P. Roan

1985-01-01

263

Cutting Attachment for Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A debris cutting system for attachment to a vehicle. The system includes a nose shaped projection that extends horizontally in the forward direction from the forward moving end of the vehicle. The projection includes a front blade mount subsystem, a pair ...

D. H. Kendall

2008-01-01

264

Intelligent Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle mission Planning; Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations. The representative IVHM technologies for computer platform using heterogeneous communication, 3) coupled electromagnetic oscillators for enhanced communications, 4) Linux-based real-time systems, 5) genetic algorithms, 6) Bayesian Networks, 7) evolutionary algorithms, 8) dynamic systems control modeling, and 9) advanced sensing capabilities. This paper presents IVHM technologies developed under NASA's NFFP pilot project and the integration of these technologies forms the framework for IIVM.

Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

2005-01-01

265

in the Inclusions in Si-Mn-killed Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic equilibria between CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2-MgO(-MnO) slag and Fe-1.5 mass pct Mn-0.5 mass pct Si-0.5 mass pct Cr melt was investigated at 1873 K (1600 °C) in order to understand the effect of slag composition on the concentration of Al2O3 in the inclusions in Si-Mn-killed steels. The composition of the inclusions were mainly equal to (mol pct MnO)/(mol pct SiO2) = 0.8(±0.06) with Al2O3 content that was increased from about 10 to 40 mol pct by increasing the basicity of slag (CaO/SiO2 ratio) from about 0.7 to 2.1. The concentration ratio of the inclusion components, , and the activity ratio of the steel components, , showed a good linear relationship on a logarithmic scale, indicating that the activity coefficient ratio of the inclusion components, , was not significantly changed. From the slag-steel-inclusion multiphase equilibria, the concentration of Al2O3 in the inclusions was expressed as a linear function of the activity ratio of the slag components, on a logarithmic scale. Consequently, a compositional window of the slag for obtaining inclusions with a low liquidus temperature in the Si-Mn-killed steel treated in an alumina ladle is recommended.

Park, Jun Seok; Park, Joo Hyun

2014-06-01

266

Innate immune lectins kill bacteria expressing blood group antigen  

PubMed Central

The expression of ABO(H) blood group antigens causes deletion of cells that generate self anti-blood group antibodies, but this deletion limits adaptive immunity toward pathogens bearing cognate blood group antigens. To explore potential defense mechanisms against these pathogens, given such limitations in adaptive immunity, we screened for innate proteins that could recognize human blood group antigens. Here we report that two innate immune lectins, galectins-4 and -8, which are expressed in the intestinal tract, recognize and kill human blood group antigen-expressing E. coli, while failing to alter viability of other E. coli strains or other gram-negative or gram-positive organisms both in vitro and in vivo. Killing by both galectins-4 and -8 resides within their C-terminal domains, occurs rapidly and independently of complement, and is accompanied by disruption of membrane integrity. These results demonstrate that innate defense lectins can provide immunity against pathogens that display blood group self-antigens on their surface.

Stowell, Sean R.; Arthur, Connie M.; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Lilian C.; Gourdine, Jean-Philippe; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Ju, Tongzhong; Molinaro, Ross J.; Rivera-Marrero, Carlos; Xia, Baoyun; Smith, David F.; Cummings, Richard D.

2010-01-01

267

Effectiveness of live or killed plague vaccines in man  

PubMed Central

While the safety of the available live plague vaccine EV 76 (Paris) continues to be the subject of further study, the USP formol-killed, virulent Pasteurella pestis (Yersinia pestis) suspension capable of protecting 60% of non-human primates, particularly Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus), warrants further clinical tests and field trials. Inoculated in a dosage of 2×109 killed plague bacilli (1 ml), followed by a booster of 400 million organisms (0.2 ml) in 1-3 months, this vaccine stimulates the appearance of passive mouse-protection antibodies (below an index of 10) and passive haemagglutinins in 60%-65% of human subjects. Recent experiences in Viet-Nam demonstrate that personnel vaccinated with the USP vaccine, although frequently exposed, enjoy almost complete freedom from the disease. One of the 4 known and confirmed cases of bubonic plague in North Americans occurred in an unvaccinated individual. Among individuals inoculated with the USP vaccine, 2 confirmed cases of pneumonic plague and 1 case of asymptomatic pharyngeal plague have been recorded. The incidence of plague in the Republic of Viet-Nam during the past 3 years is estimated at 13 263 cases in a population in part vaccinated with a live plague which exhibited inadequate immunogenic efficacy in experimental tests.

Meyer, K. F.

1970-01-01

268

TLR ligands stimulation protects MSC from NK killing.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a fundamental role in allograft rejection and graft-versus-host disease through their immunosuppressive abilities. Recently, Toll-like receptors (TLR) have been shown to modulate MSC functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of several TLR ligands on the interaction between MSC and natural killer (NK) cells. Our results show that TLR-primed adult bone marrow and embryonic MSC are more resistant than unprimed MSC to IL-2-activated NK-induced killing. Such protection can be explained by the modulation of Natural Killer group 2D ligands major histocompatibility complex class I chain A and ULBP3 and DNAM-1 ligands by TLR-primed MSC. These results indicate that MSCs are able to adapt their immuno-behavior in an inflammatory context, decreasing their susceptibility to NK killing. In addition, TLR3 but not TLR4-primed MSC enhance their suppressive functions against NK cells. However, the efficiency of this response is heterogeneous, even if the phenotypes of different analyzed MSC are rather homogeneous. The consequences could be important in MSC-mediated cell therapy, since the heterogeneity of adult MSC responders may be explored in order to select the more efficient responders. PMID:24123639

Giuliani, Massimo; Bennaceur-Griscelli, Annelise; Nanbakhsh, Arash; Oudrhiri, Noufissa; Chouaib, Salem; Azzarone, Bruno; Durrbach, Antoine; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques

2014-01-01

269

Photoacoustically-guided photothermal killing of mosquitoes targeted by nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In biomedical applications, nanoparticles have demonstrated the potential to eradicate abnormal cells in small localized pathological zones associated with cancer or infections. Here, we introduce a method for nanotechnology-based photothermal (PT) killing of whole organisms considered harmful to humans or the environment. We demonstrate that laser-induced thermal, and accompanying nano- and microbubble phenomena, can injure or kill C. elegans and mosquitoes fed carbon nanotubes, gold nanospheres, gold nanoshells, or magnetic nanoparticles at laser energies that are safe for humans. In addition, a photoacoustic (PA) effect was used to control nanoparticle delivery. Through the integration of this technique with molecular targeting, nanoparticle clustering, magnetic capturing and spectral sharpening of PA and PT plasmonic resonances, our laser-based PA-PT nano-theranostic platform can be applied to detection and the physical destruction of small organisms and carriers of pathogens, such as malaria vectors, spiders, bed bugs, fleas, ants, locusts, grasshoppers, phytophagous mites, or other arthropod pests, irrespective of their resistance to conventional treatments. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). PMID:23450780

Foster, Stephen R; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Totten, Daniel C; Beneš, Helen; Shmookler Reis, Robert J; Zharov, Vladimir P

2014-07-01

270

Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phenazines that Kill Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic microbes employ a variety of methods to overcome host defenses, including the production and dispersal of molecules that are toxic to their hosts. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is a pathogen of a diverse variety of hosts including mammals and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we identify three small molecules in the phenazine class that are produced by P. aeruginosa strain PA14 that are toxic to C. elegans. We demonstrate that 1-hydroxyphenazine, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, and pyocyanin are capable of killing nematodes in a matter of hours. 1-hydroxyphenazine is toxic over a wide pH range, whereas the toxicities of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyocyanin are pH-dependent at non-overlapping pH ranges. We found that acidification of the growth medium by PA14 activates the toxicity of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, which is the primary toxic agent towards C. elegans in our assay. Pyocyanin is not toxic under acidic conditions and 1-hydroxyphenazine is produced at concentrations too low to kill C. elegans. These results suggest a role for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in mammalian pathogenesis because PA14 mutants deficient in phenazine production have been shown to be defective in pathogenesis in mice. More generally, these data demonstrate how diversity within a class of metabolites could affect bacterial toxicity in different environmental niches.

Cezairliyan, Brent; Vinayavekhin, Nawaporn; Grenfell-Lee, Daniel; Yuen, Grace J.; Saghatelian, Alan; Ausubel, Frederick M.

2013-01-01

271

A stochastic killing system for biological containment of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Bacteria with a stochastic conditional lethal containment system have been constructed. The invertible switch promoter located upstream of the fimA gene from Escherichia coli was inserted as expression cassette in front of the lethal gef gene deleted of its own natural promoter. The resulting fusion was placed on a plasmid and transformed to E. coli. The phenotype connected with the presence of such a plasmid was to reduce the population growth rate with increasing significance as the cell growth rate was reduced. In very fast growing cells, there was no measurable effect on growth rate. When a culture of E. coli harboring the plasmid comprising the containment system is left as stationary cells in suspension without nutrients, viability drops exponentially over a period of several days, in contrast to the control cells, which maintain viability nearly unaffected during the same period of time. Similar results were obtained with a strain in which the killing cassette was inserted in the chromosome. In competition with noncontained cells during growth, the contained cells are always outcompeted. Stochastic killing obtained by the fim-gef fusion is at present relevant only as a containment approach for E. coli, but the model may be mimicked in other organisms by using species-specific stochastic expression systems.

Klemm, P; Jensen, L B; Molin, S

1995-01-01

272

Advantages and disadvantages of killed and live poliomyelitis vaccines*  

PubMed Central

Decision-making on the use of poliomyelitis vaccines in the WHO Expanded Immunization Programme, and particularly in the developing nations, needs to be based on an understanding of the epidemiology of poliomyelitis in different parts of the globe. Even with two safe and effective kinds of poliomyelitis vaccine available, poliomyelitis has by no means been eradicated from the world. In developed countries that are considered well-vaccinated, certain sectors of the population may be inadequately protected against risk of infection by indigenous or imported wild polioviruses. In developing nations that are in transition toward an epidemic phase of poliomyelitis, wild polioviruses will continue to be a threat until thorough immunization is established and maintained. Killed-virus poliomyelitis vaccines have proved to be effective in certain countries that have used them exclusively; these are small countries with excellent public health systems, where coverage by the killed vaccine has been wide and frequent. Live vaccines, administered to hundreds of millions of persons during the past decade, have also been remarkably safe and effective. However, in certain warm-climate countries induction of antibodies in a satisfactorily high proportion of vaccinees has been difficult to accomplish. The advantages and disadvantages of each kind of poliomyelitis vaccine need to be weighed with respect to the particular setting in which a vaccine has been or will be used.

Melnick, Joseph L.

1978-01-01

273

Exponential Stabilization of Underactuated Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Underactuated vehicles are vehicles with fewer independent control actuators than degrees of freedom to be controlled. Such vehicles may be used in inspection of sub-sea cables, inspection and maintenance of offshore oil drilling platforms, and similar. T...

K. Y. Pettersen

1996-01-01

274

EMPIRICAL MODEL OF VEHICLE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

An empirical model that characterizes the relationship between equilibrium vehicle emission distributions and malfunction, repair, and replacement rates by splitting vehicles into two emission categories has been developed. ross emitters and clean vehicles are defined by the magn...

275

Dust Mitigation Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes the development and demonstration of an apparatus, called a dust mitigation vehicle, for reducing the amount of free dust on the surface of the Moon. The dust mitigation vehicle would be used to pave surfaces on the Moon to prevent the dust from levitating or adhering to surfaces. The basic principle of operation of these apparatuses is to use a lens or a dish mirror to concentrate solar thermal radiation onto a small spot to heat lunar regolith. In the case of the prototype dust mitigation vehicle, a Fresnel lens was used to heat a surface layer of regolith sufficiently to sinter or melt dust grains into a solid mass. The prototype vehicle has demonstrated paving rates up to 1.8 square meters per day. The proposed flight design of the dust mitigation vehicle is also described.

Cardiff, Eric H.

2011-01-01

276

Lunar material transport vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

1988-01-01

277

Caspase-8 Activation Precedes Alterations of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential during Monocyte Apoptosis Induced by Phagocytosis and Killing of Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Human peripheral blood monocytes become apoptotic following phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus. Although this type of monocyte apoptosis is known to be initiated by Fas-Fas ligand (FasL) interactions, the downstream signaling pathway has not been determined. In this work the involvement of mitochondria and the kinetics of caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation after phagocytosis of S. aureus were studied. Caspase-8 activity was measured in cell lysates by using the fluorogenic substrate Ac-IETD-AFC. Active caspase-3 levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) were measured in whole cells by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies reacting with activated caspase-3 and chloromethyl-X-rosamine, respectively. The results show that caspase-8 was activated shortly after phagocytosis of bacteria. Caspase-8 activation was followed by progressive disruption of ??m, which is associated with the production of reactive oxygen intermediates. The irreversible caspase-8 inhibitor zIETD-FMK prevented the disruption of ??m and the release of cytochrome c from S. aureus-exposed monocytes. Caspase-3 activation occurred following disruption of ??m. These results strongly suggest that apoptosis of monocytes that have phagocytosed and killed S. aureus is driven by the Fas-FasL-initiated pathway, which is typical for type II cells.

Weglarczyk, Kazimierz; Baran, Jaroslaw; Zembala, Marek; Pryjma, Juliusz

2004-01-01

278

Electric vehicle activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data and information collected for the Public Service Electric and Gas Company's (PSE&G) electric vehicle demonstration program were intended to support and enhance DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Site Operator Program. The DOE Site Operator Program is focused on the life cycle and reliability of Electric Vehicles (EV's). Of particular interest are vehicles currently available with features that are likely to be put into production or demonstrate new technology. PSE&G acquired eight GMC Electric G-Vans in 1991, and three TEVans in 1993, and conducted a program plan to test and assess the overall performance of these electric vehicles. To accomplish the objectives of DOE's Site Operator's test program, a manual data collection system was implemented. The manual data collection system has provided energy use and mileage data. From September 1991 to October 1994 PSE&G logged 69,368 miles on eleven test vehicles. PSE&G also demonstrated the EVs to diverse groups and associations at fifty seven various events. Included in the report are lessons learned concerning maintenance, operation, public reactions, and driver's acceptance of the electric vehicles.

Delmonaco, J. L.; Pandya, D. A.

1995-02-01

279

Electric vehicle almanac  

SciTech Connect

Electric Vehicle Almanac presents an overview of the current activity in electric vehicle development. Brief highlights are given for different types of vehicles--ranging from mini town cars to high tonnage industrial trucks--produced by 48 different EV developers around the world. Most of these vehicles are concept cars, prototypes and demonstration vehicles. However, a few are cars actually in modest-volume production in Europe. Extensively covered in the almanac are research and development activities for EV batteries. As widely attested, current battery state-of-the-art is--in terms of both energy storage capacity and instant power response--at least one order of magnitude shy of putting EVs in any sort of contention with internal combustion vehicles. Two sections are worth special mention. One is excerpted from an EV thermal management study by Arthur D. Little, a renowned consulting company. This study suggests that current technology exists to make EVs practical for cold weather driving, typical of the Northeastern US. The other highlights an examination by the US Environmental Protection Agency into the energy efficiencies and costs of EVs viz-a-viz internal combustion vehicles.

Brewer, D.E.

1995-12-31

280

Methane emissions from vehicles.  

PubMed

Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas emitted by vehicles. We report results of a laboratory study of methane emissions using a standard driving cycle for 30 different cars and trucks (1995-1999 model years) from four different manufacturers. We recommend the use of an average emission factor for the U.S. on-road vehicle fleet of (g of CH/g of CO2) = (15 +/- 4) x 10(-5) and estimate that the global vehicle fleet emits 0.45 +/- 0.12 Tg of CH4 yr(-1) (0.34 +/- 0.09 Tg of C yr(-1)), which represents < 0.2% of anthropogenic CH4 emissions. This estimate includes the effects of vehicle aging, cold start, and hot running emissions. The contribution of CH4 emissions from vehicles to radiative forcing of climate change is 0.3-0.4% of that of CO2 emissions from vehicles. The environmental impact of CH4 emissions from vehicles is negligible and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. PMID:15112800

Nam, E K; Jensen, T E; Wallington, T J

2004-04-01

281

KINETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATION BY STANDARD OPTIMIZATION METHODS IN CATALYTIC CONVERTER MODELING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of mathematical models to the prediction of the performance of automotive catalytic converters is gaining increasing interest, both for gasoline and diesel engined-vehicles. This article addresses converter modeling in the transient state under realistic experimental conditions. The model employed in this study relies on Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics, and a number of apparent kinetic parameters must be tuned to match

G. PONTIKAKIS; C. PAPADIMITRIOU; A. STAMATELOS

2004-01-01

282

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

283

Assured crew return vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A return vehicle is disclosed for use in returning a crew to Earth from low earth orbit in a safe and relatively cost effective manner. The return vehicle comprises a cylindrically-shaped crew compartment attached to the large diameter of a conical heat shield having a spherically rounded nose. On-board inertial navigation and cold gas control systems are used together with a de-orbit propulsion system to effect a landing near a preferred site on the surface of the Earth. State vectors and attitude data are loaded from the attached orbiting craft just prior to separation of the return vehicle.

Cerimele, Christopher J. (inventor); Ried, Robert C. (inventor); Peterson, Wayne L. (inventor); Zupp, George A., Jr. (inventor); Stagnaro, Michael J. (inventor); Ross, Brian P. (inventor)

1991-01-01

284

Blast resistant vehicle seat  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

Ripley, Edward B

2013-02-12

285

Introduction to Electrified Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint presentation was delivered by Anthony Tisler from the Michigan Academy for Green Mobility Alliance (MAGMA) at the Utica Community Schoolsâ Professional Development Day for Teachers in the Industrial Arts/Engineering Pathway, held at the Instructional Resource Center in Sterling Heights, MI on April 15, 2014. The presentation provides information on electric vehicle architecture and components. It is a great tool for introducing students at the high school or college level to various battery electric vehicle (BEV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) components, configurations, and operation.

Michigan Academy for Green Mobility Alliance (MAGMA)

286

Null Killing vectors and geometry of null strings in Einstein spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Einstein complex spacetimes admitting null Killing or null homothetic Killing vectors are studied. Such vectors define totally null and geodesic 2-surfaces called the null strings or twistor surfaces. Geometric properties of these null strings are discussed. It is shown, that spaces considered are hyperheavenly spaces (-spaces) or, if one of the parts of the Weyl tensor vanishes, heavenly spaces (-spaces). The explicit complex metrics admitting null Killing vectors are found. Some Lorentzian and ultrahyperbolic slices of these metrics are discussed.

Chudecki, Adam

2014-04-01

287

Isolation and characterization of Noctiluca killing bacteria from a shrimp aquaculture pond in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

To control harmful algal blooms (HABs), in particular dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans, which causes damage to shrimp production, algicidal bacteria were isolated from shrimp pond water and screened for their\\u000a killing effect against N. scintillans under laboratory condition. Among 260 bacterial isolates, 10 showed killing effects on N. scintillans. Out of 5 strains showing relatively stronger killing activity, 4 strains belonged to the

Teeyaporn Keawtawee; Kimio Fukami; Putth Songsangjinda; Pensri Muangyao

288

Age and Sex Composition of Seals Killed by Polar Bears in the Eastern Beaufort Sea  

PubMed Central

Background Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n?=?650) and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida) lairs (n?=?1396) observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985–2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation. Principal Findings Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2%) while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344) of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344). Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344) of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007–2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ?21 years (60/121), and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n?=?78). The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r2?=?0.30, P?=?0.04), but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P?=?0.37). Conclusions/Significance Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender.

Pilfold, Nicholas W.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Stirling, Ian; Richardson, Evan; Andriashek, Dennis

2012-01-01

289

Killing of Bacillus subtilis Spores by a Modified Fenton Reagent Containing CuCl2 and Ascorbic Acid  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subtilis spores were killed by CuCl2-ascorbic acid, chloride ions were essential for killing of spores, and spores with defective coats were killed more rapidly. CuCl2-ascorbic acid did not damage spore DNA, and spores killed by this reagent initiated germination. However, spores killed by CuCl2-ascorbic acid may have damage to their inner membrane.

Shapiro, Michael P.; Setlow, Barbara; Setlow, Peter

2004-01-01

290

Why doctors and nurses must not kill patients.  

PubMed

Euthanasia continues to be a subject of lively interest to many groups in society. It is often discussed in terms which appeal to those who believe there is no other way to relieve the sufferings of the dying, but which fail to explore its important ethical, professional and legal aspects. When these are examined, it is seen that the legalization of euthanasia would create major problems in medicine and nursing, chiefly centred on the likelihood of abuse and the difficulty or impossibility of its detection. It is now known from official sources that in Holland, the only place where euthanasia is widely practised though in defiance of the law, the authorities have no control over it, and it is indeed associated with many abuses, including the frequent killing of persons without their consent. PMID:7683077

Pollard, B; Winton, R

1993-03-15

291

Manners of killing and rituals in Apulian mafia murders.  

PubMed

The Apulian (South of Italy) territory saw the birth of a criminal organization called Sacra Corona Unita (SCU, United Holy Crown) which transformed the rules of traditional mafia organizations. This work examined 83 victims of the SCU between 1980 and 2000. The bodies were mainly of SCU members and in some cases, of police and law enforcement officers and other citizens caught in the crossfire. Some of these were discovered; thanks to the collaboration of "repented" SCU members who became police informers. The condition of the bodies varied in relation to the date and manner of killing. In some cases anthropometric research methods were necessary. In 73% of the cases, lesions of the head were the only marks left on the body. In conclusion, the existence of some social aspects connected with the symbolisms and membership rites that characterized the origin, evolution, and decline of the SCU is stressed. PMID:19486252

De Donno, Antonio; Santoro, Valeria; Rossi, Anna Paola; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Introna, Francesco

2009-07-01

292

How antibiotics kill bacteria: from targets to networks  

PubMed Central

Preface Antibiotic drug-target interactions, and their respective direct effects, are generally well-characterized. In contrast, the bacterial responses to antibiotic drug treatments that contribute to cell death are not as well understood and have proven to be quite complex, involving multiple genetic and biochemical pathways. Here, we review the multi-layered effects of drug-target interactions, including the essential cellular processes inhibited by bactericidal antibiotics and the associated cellular response mechanisms that contribute to killing by bactericidal antibiotics. We also discuss new insights into these mechanisms that have been revealed through the study of biological networks, and describe how these insights, together with related developments in synthetic biology, may be exploited to create novel antibacterial therapies.

Kohanski, Michael A; Dwyer, Daniel J; Collins, James J

2010-01-01

293

Benzothiazinones Kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Blocking Arabinan Synthesis  

PubMed Central

New drugs are required to counter the tuberculosis (TB) pandemic. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of 1,3-benzothiazin-4-ones (BTZs), a new class of antimycobacterial agents that kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro, ex vivo, and in mouse models of TB. Using genetics and biochemistry, we identified the enzyme decaprenylphosphoryl-?-d-ribose 2?-epimerase as a major BTZ target. Inhibition of this enzymatic activity abolishes the formation of decaprenylphosphoryl arabinose, a key precursor that is required for the synthesis of the cell-wall arabinans, thus provoking cell lysis and bacterial death. The most advanced compound, BTZ043, is a candidate for inclusion in combination therapies for both drug-sensitive and extensively drug-resistant TB.

Makarov, Vadim; Manina, Giulia; Mikusova, Katarina; Mollmann, Ute; Ryabova, Olga; Saint-Joanis, Brigitte; Dhar, Neeraj; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; Buroni, Silvia; Lucarelli, Anna Paola; Milano, Anna; De Rossi, Edda; Belanova, Martina; Bobovska, Adela; Dianiskova, Petronela; Kordulakova, Jana; Sala, Claudia; Fullam, Elizabeth; Schneider, Patricia; McKinney, John D.; Brodin, Priscille; Christophe, Thierry; Waddell, Simon; Butcher, Philip; Albrethsen, Jakob; Rosenkrands, Ida; Brosch, Roland; Nandi, Vrinda; Bharath, Sowmya; Gaonkar, Sheshagiri; Shandil, Radha K.; Balasubramanian, Venkataraman; Balganesh, Tanjore; Tyagi, Sandeep; Grosset, Jacques; Riccardi, Giovanna; Cole, Stewart T.

2011-01-01

294

A kill chain architecture for prosecution of ground targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is becoming more important for the designer of radar (and other military sensing) systems to be able to provide military commanders and procurement decision makers with a concept of how a new system can enhance warfighting capability. Showing enhanced sensor performance is no longer sufficient to sell a new system. In order to better understand issues relating to sensor employment, we develop a top-level functional architecture of the kill chain for Air-to-Ground targeting. A companion paper constructs an executable model in the form of a Colored Petri Net (CPN) from the architecture. The focus on architecture that we present here aligns well with the new Department of Defense guidance, which requires new acquisition programs to be structured around system architectures. This should provide a common reference system for communication among warfighters, planners, and technologists. The translation to an executable model should allow identification of technology insertion points.

Kerrick, Alan D.; Shaw, Arnab K.

2004-08-01

295

The efficacy of the heat killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

There is concern that current procedures for the heat inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis may not be adequate. This raises serious safety issues for laboratory staff performing molecular investigations such as IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing. This paper confirms that the protocol of van Embden et al, as performed routinely in this laboratory, is safe and effective for the heat inactivation of M tuberculosis. This procedure involves complete immersion of a tube containing a suspension of one loopfull of growth in a water bath at 80°C for 20 minutes. Seventy four isolates were included in this investigation. Despite prolonged incubation for 20 weeks, none of the heat killed M tuberculosis suspensions produced visible colonies or gave a positive growth signal from liquid culture. This method did not affect the integrity of the DNA for subsequent molecular investigations.

Doig, C; Seagar, A L; Watt, B; Forbes, K J

2002-01-01

296

Pyruvate Protects Pathogenic Spirochetes from H2O2 Killing  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic spirochetes cause clinically relevant diseases in humans and animals, such as Lyme disease and leptospirosis. The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the causative agent of leptospirosis, Leptospria interrogans, encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their enzootic cycles. This report demonstrated that physiologically relevant concentrations of pyruvate, a potent H2O2 scavenger, and provided passive protection to B. burgdorferi and L. interrogans against H2O2. When extracellular pyruvate was absent, both spirochetes were sensitive to a low dose of H2O2 (?0.6 µM per h) generated by glucose oxidase (GOX). Despite encoding a functional catalase, L. interrogans was more sensitive than B. burgdorferi to H2O2 generated by GOX, which may be due to the inherent resistance of B. burgdorferi because of the virtual absence of intracellular iron. In B. burgdorferi, the nucleotide excision repair (NER) and the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathways were important for survival during H2O2 challenge since deletion of the uvrB or the mutS genes enhanced its sensitivity to H2O2 killing; however, the presence of pyruvate fully protected ?uvrB and ?mutS from H2O2 killing further demonstrating the importance of pyruvate in protection. These findings demonstrated that pyruvate, in addition to its classical role in central carbon metabolism, serves as an important H2O2 scavenger for pathogenic spirochetes. Furthermore, pyruvate reduced ROS generated by human neutrophils in response to the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist zymosan. In addition, pyruvate reduced neutrophil-derived ROS in response to B. burgdorferi, which also activates host expression through TLR2 signaling. Thus, pathogenic spirochetes may exploit the metabolite pyruvate, present in blood and tissues, to survive H2O2 generated by the host antibacterial response generated during infection.

Troxell, Bryan; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Bourret, Travis J.; Zeng, Melody Yue; Blum, Janice; Gherardini, Frank; Hassan, Hosni M.; Yang, X. Frank

2014-01-01

297

Activation of AMPK enhances neutrophil chemotaxis and bacterial killing.  

PubMed

An inability of neutrophils to eliminate invading microorganisms is frequently associated with severe infection and may contribute to the high mortality rates associated with sepsis. In the present studies, we examined whether metformin and other 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators affect neutrophil motility, phagocytosis and bacterial killing. We found that activation of AMPK enhanced neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro and in vivo, and also counteracted the inhibition of chemotaxis induced by exposure of neutrophils to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In contrast, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of AMPK?1 or blockade of AMPK activation through treatment of neutrophils with the AMPK inhibitor compound C diminished neutrophil chemotaxis. In addition to their effects on chemotaxis, treatment of neutrophils with metformin or aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) improved phagocytosis and bacterial killing, including more efficient eradication of bacteria in a mouse model of peritonitis-induced sepsis. Immunocytochemistry showed that, in contrast to LPS, metformin or AICAR induced robust actin polymerization and distinct formation of neutrophil leading edges. Although LPS diminished AMPK phosphorylation, metformin or AICAR was able to partially decrease the effects of LPS/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) engagement on downstream signaling events, particularly LPS-induced I?B? degradation. The I?B kinase (IKK) inhibitor PS-1145 diminished I?B? degradation and also prevented LPS-induced inhibition of chemotaxis. These results suggest that AMPK activation with clinically approved agents, such as metformin, may facilitate bacterial eradication in sepsis and other inflammatory conditions associated with inhibition of neutrophil activation and chemotaxis. PMID:24091934

Park, Dae Won; Jiang, Shaoning; Tadie, Jean-Marc; Stigler, William S; Gao, Yong; Deshane, Jessy; Abraham, Edward; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W

2013-01-01

298

An evaluation of Sex-Age-Kill (SAK) model performance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and ?? > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when ?? < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ??121.9 of the true population level 95 of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when ?? ??? 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

Millspaugh, J. J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, R. L.; Diefenbach, D. R.; Boyce, M. S.; Hansen, L. P.; Kammermeyer, K.

2009-01-01

299

Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps.  

PubMed

Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism. PMID:24281548

Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

2014-04-01

300

Cesium removal and kinetics equilibrium: Precipitation kinetics  

SciTech Connect

This task consisted of both non-radioactive and radioactive (tracer) tests examining the influence of potentially significant variables on cesium tetraphenylborate precipitation kinetics. The work investigated the time required to reach cesium decontamination and the conditions that affect the cesium precipitation kinetics.

Barnes, M.J.

1999-12-17

301

Lunar Transfer Vehicle Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lunar transportation architectures exist for several different mission scenarios. Direct flights from Earth are possible, as the Apollo program clearly demonstrated. Alternatively, a space transfer vehicle could be constructed in space by using the Space ...

J. T. Keeley

1993-01-01

302

Electric Vehicles 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation was developed by a member of MITâs electric vehicle team and provides a basic overview of electric and hybrid electric vehicle (EV and HEV) history, operation, challenges, and advantages. Discussed is EV/HEV history dating from 1830- 2010, the operation of EV/HEV systems (networking and sourcing of power throughout components), challenges (ranges, energy equivalence, consumer acceptance, charge time, grid integration, and cost), advantages (energy efficiency, fuel cost, and emissions), meeting challenges (convenient charging and improving technology), EV/HEV vehicles today (Chevrolet Volt, Tesla Roadster, and Fisker Karma), and MITâs electric vehicle team (projects, awards, and competitions). For more info on the MIT team visit http://web.mit.edu/evt/.

Technology, Massachusetts I.

303

Motor Vehicle Emission Estimation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New gasoline-powered motor vehicle (light-duty and heavy-duty) emission factors, which supersede those in EPA Publication AP-42 (Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors) for carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, are presented based on ...

D. S. Kircher D. P. Armstrong

1973-01-01

304

Braking - Tracked Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Provides a method of evaluating the brake systems of tracked vehicles. Covers brake holding ability, stopping distance, steering brake performance, wet and freezing effects, braking potential, service brake efficiency, fade and recovery tests, brake syste...

1977-01-01

305

Household Vehicles Energy Consumption  

EIA Publications

This report provides newly available national and regional data and analyzes the nation's energy use by light-duty vehicles. This release represents the analytical component of the report, with a data component having been released in early 2005.

Mark Schipper

2005-11-30

306

Expendable Launch Vehicle Propulsion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current status is reviewed of the U.S. Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) fleet, the international competition, and the propulsion technology of both domestic and foreign ELVs. The ELV propulsion technology areas where research, development, and demonstr...

P. N. Fuller

1991-01-01

307

Vehicle Classification Systems Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several methods of classifying vehicles employing mechanical-electrical and television-video tape systems were field tested and evaluated to determine their state of development and possible future use in highway data collection activities. Mechanical-ele...

M. M. Alexander R. Threlkeld J. Williams

1975-01-01

308

Constellation Launch Vehicles Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the current status of the launch vehicles associated with the Constellation Program. These are the Ares I and the Ares V. An overview of the Ares launch vehicles is included. The presentation stresses that the major criteria for the Ares I launcher is the safety of the crew, and the presentation reviews the various features that are designed to assure that aim. The Ares I vehicle is being built on a foundation of proven technologies, and the Ares V will give NASA unprecedented performance and payload volume that can enable a range of future missions. The CDs contain videos of scenes from various activities surrounding the design, construction and testing of the vehicles.

Cook, Steve; Fragola, Joseph R.; Priskos, Alex; Davis, Danny; Kaynard, Mike; Hutt, John; Davis, Stephan; Creech, Steve

2009-01-01

309

Experimental Semiautonomous Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semiautonomous rover vehicle serves as testbed for evaluation of navigation and obstacle-avoidance techniques. Designed to traverse variety of terrains. Concepts developed applicable to robots for service in dangerous environments as well as to robots for exploration of remote planets. Called Robby, vehicle 4 m long and 2 m wide, with six 1-m-diameter wheels. Mass of 1,200 kg and surmounts obstacles as large as 1 1/2 m. Optimized for development of machine-vision-based strategies and equipped with complement of vision and direction sensors and image-processing computers. Front and rear cabs steer and roll with respect to centerline of vehicle. Vehicle also pivots about central axle, so wheels comply with almost any terrain.

Wilcox, Brian H.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Litwin, Todd E.; Matthies, Larry H.; Cooper, Brian K.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Gat, Erann; Gennery, Donald B.; Firby, Robert J.; Miller, David P.; Loch, John L.; Slack, Marc G.

1993-01-01

310

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is concerned with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). A UAV\\u000a is a remotely piloted or self-piloted aircraft that can carry a payload\\u000a of cameras, sensors, communications, and electronic warfare equipment. A UAV may carry also a weapon, in which case it is\\u000a called an Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV). UCAV\\u000a s are effective attack weapons. Typical missions of UAVs

Alan Washburn; Moshe Kress

311

Industrial Vehicle Routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is\\u000a an NP-hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded\\u000a as one of the great successes of OR. Vehicle routing decision support tools provide substantial savings in society every day,

Geir Hasle; Oddvar Kloster

312

Launch Vehicle Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) planning for updated launch vehicle operations progresses, there is a need to consider improved methods. This study considers the use of phased array antennas mounted on launch vehicles and transmitting data to either NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) satellites or to the commercial Iridium, Intelsat, or Inmarsat communications satellites. Different data rate requirements are analyzed to determine size and weight of resulting antennas.

Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

2005-01-01

313

Vehicle dynamics modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of this research was to develop a computer based mathematical model of motor vehicle dynamics. Mainly the tire, suspension and chassis behaviour have been modelled in detail. Other components like engine and drive train are modeled in a very simplified manner. The model provides steer, throttle and brake controls as the means to drive the vehicle.\\u000aDriving instructions can

Satyen Vyas

2008-01-01

314

Non-Isothermal Kinetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the principle of nonisothermal kinetics and some of the factors involved in such reactions, especially when considering the reliability of the kinetic parameters, compared to those of isothermal conditions. (GA)

Brown, M. E.; Phillpotts, C. A. R.

1978-01-01

315

Tumor-selective gene transduction and cell killing with an oncotropic autonomous parvovirus-based vector.  

PubMed

A recombinant MVMp of the fibrotropic strain of minute virus of mice (MVMp) expressing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene was used to infect a series of biologically relevant cultured cells, normal or tumor-derived, including normal melanocytes versus melanoma cells, normal mammary epithelial cells versus breast adenocarcinoma cells, and normal neurons or astrocytes versus glioma cells. As a reference cell system we used normal human fibroblasts versus the SV40-transformed fibroblast cell line NB324K. After infection, we observed good expression of the reporter gene in the different tumor cell types, but only poor expression if any in the corresponding normal cells. We also constructed a recombinant MVMp expressing the green fluorescent protein reporter gene and assessed by flow cytometry the efficiency of gene transduction into the different target cells. At a multiplicity of infection of 30, we observed substantial transduction of the gene into most of the tumor cell types tested, but only marginal transduction into normal cells under the same experimental conditions. Finally, we demonstrated that a recombinant MVMp expressing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene can, in vitro, cause efficient killing of most tumor cell types in the presence of ganciclovir, whilst affecting normal proliferating cells only marginally if at all. However, in the same experimental condition, breast tumor cells appeared to be resistant to GCV-mediated cytotoxicity, possibly because these cells are not susceptible to the bystander effect. Our data suggest that MVMp-based vectors could prove useful as selective vehicles for anticancer gene therapy, particularly for in vivo delivery of cytotoxic effector genes into tumor cells. PMID:10822306

Dupont, F; Avalosse, B; Karim, A; Mine, N; Bosseler, M; Maron, A; Van den Broeke, A V; Ghanem, G E; Burny, A; Zeicher, M

2000-05-01

316

Space robot simulator vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

1985-01-01

317

Fire vehicle hardening  

SciTech Connect

After attack, the wartime fire fighter faces a harsh environment in which he must operate to perform his mission. Debris, unexploded bombs, and munitions pose hazards that must be overcome. Without modification to the fire-fighting vehicles, there is little assurance that the fire fighter would even be able to reach the locations necessary for performing his mission. Adding armor to the vehicle to protect both the operator and the vehicle from these hazards is the proposed solution. Through a study performed by the BDM Corporation under a subcontract to Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., the recommended types, thicknesses, and locations of material necessary to allow the P-19 crash-rescue fire vehicle to survive, with 95% probability, 100 random events using the NATO Standard Fragment Threat Criteria was determined. Using this information, a preliminary design for a prototype hardening kit for the P-19 was developed. In conjunction with this effort, a P-19 was modified by installing attachment points, and mock-up armor was fabricated and fitted to the vehicle to refine the design. The kit design consisted of (1) various mild steel panels that varied in thickness from 0.125 to 0.375 in., (2) Lexan panels for areas that had to be transparent, (3) flexible Kevlar 49 for areas requiring flexibility, and (4) foam-filled tires. The factors considered in the design were the effects on the vehicle, fragment-stopping ability, weight, cost, ability to fabricate, and ease of installation. 40 figs.

Horner, L.G.

1988-11-01

318

Upgraded demonstration vehicle task report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vehicle/battery performance capabilities and interface problems that occurred when upgraded developmental batteries were integrated with upgraded versions of comercially available electric vehicles were investigated. Developmental batteries used included nickel zinc batteries, a nickel iron battery, and an improved lead acid battery. Testing of the electric vehicles and upgraded batteries was performed in the complete vehicle system environment to characterize performance and identify problems unique to the vehicle/battery system. Constant speed tests and driving schedule range tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer. The results from these tests of the upgraded batteries and vehicles were compared to performance capabilities for the same vehicles equipped with standard batteries.

Bryant, J.; Hardy, K.; Livingston, R.; Sandberg, J.

1981-01-01

319

Potential and kinetic energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between potential and kinetic energy? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to kinetic and potential energy. The law of conservation of energy is explained, using the example of turning natural gas into electricity. Definitions and examples of potential energy and kinetic energy are provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

320

A General Vehicle Routing Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study a rich vehicle routing problem incorporating various complexities found in real-life applications. The General Vehicle Routing Problem (GVRP) is a combined load acceptance and generalised vehicle routing problem. Among the real-life requirements are time window restrictions, a heterogeneous vehicle fleet with different travel times, travel costs and capacity, multi-dimensional capacity constraints, order\\/vehicle compatibility constraints, orders

Asvin Goel; Volker Gruhn

2008-01-01

321

Bordetella pertussis Acquires Resistance to Complement-Mediated Killing In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to initially colonize a host, bacteria must avoid various components of the innate immune system, one of which is complement. The genus Bordetella includes three closely related species that differ in their ability to resist complement-mediated killing. Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica resist killing in naive serum, a characteristic that may aid in efficient respiratory tract colonization and

Elizabeth J. Pishko; David J. Betting; Christina S. Hutter; Eric T. Harvill

2003-01-01

322

Trifluoperazine stimulates ionizing radiation induced cell killing through inhibition of DNA repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of trifluoperazine (TFP), a phenothiazine derivative antipsychotic drug, on ionizing radiation (IR) induced cell killing through inhibition of DNA repair was investigated in human cell lines. In clonogenic survival assay, TFP augmented IR induced cell killing. Also, TFP enhanced micronucleus formation in irradiated human lymphocytes. The effect of TFP and other known DNA repair inhibitors like wortmannin and

Sudeshna Gangopadhyay; Parimal Karmakar; Uma Dasgupta; Anindita Chakraborty

2007-01-01

323

Sex-specific dispersal and evolutionary rescue in metapopulations infected by male killing endosymbionts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Male killing endosymbionts manipulate their arthropod host reproduction by only allowing female embryos to develop into infected females and killing all male offspring. Because the resulting change in sex ratio is expected to affect the evolution of sex-specific dispersal, we investigated under which environmental conditions strong sex-biased dispersal would emerge, and how this would affect host and endosymbiont metapopulation

Dries Bonte; Thomas Hovestadt; Hans-Joachim Poethke

2009-01-01

324

Effect of Target Maneuvering on Kill Probability in Air-to-Air Gunnery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made to determine the effect of target maneuvering during projectile flight time on kill probability in air-to-air gunnery. The effect of target uncertainty was analyzed by comparing kill probabilities for a specified non-maneuvering target wi...

R. E. Guild

1972-01-01

325

What are 60 warblers worth? Killing in the name of conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological research sometimes entails animal suffering and even animal killing. The ethical appropriateness of animal suffering and killing in conservation research may entail considerations that differ from many other kinds of research. This is true, insomuch as conservation research is specifically motivated by an ethical premise: an appreciation for non-human life. In striking contrast with other academic fields (e.g. medicine),

John A. Vucetich; Michael P. Nelson

2007-01-01

326

Mathematical Simulation of Using Decoying and Killing Missiles to Counter Anti-Radiation Missiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new method of intercepting anti-radiation missiles (ARM) using decoying and killing missiles (DKM) is proposed in this paper. (Decoying and killing missiles are actually surface-to-air missiles with their guidance heads replaced by decoying jammers.) A ...

S. Zhou B. Tao

1997-01-01

327

Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins Kill Bacteria by Inducing Oxidative, Thiol, and Metal Stress  

PubMed Central

Mammalian Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins (PGRPs) are a family of evolutionary conserved bactericidal innate immunity proteins, but the mechanism through which they kill bacteria is unclear. We previously proposed that PGRPs are bactericidal due to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a mechanism of killing that was also postulated, and later refuted, for several bactericidal antibiotics. Here, using whole genome expression arrays, qRT-PCR, and biochemical tests we show that in both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis PGRPs induce a transcriptomic signature characteristic of oxidative stress, as well as correlated biochemical changes. However, induction of ROS was required, but not sufficient for PGRP killing. PGRPs also induced depletion of intracellular thiols and increased cytosolic concentrations of zinc and copper, as evidenced by transcriptome changes and supported by direct measurements. Depletion of thiols and elevated concentrations of metals were also required, but by themselves not sufficient, for bacterial killing. Chemical treatment studies demonstrated that efficient bacterial killing can be recapitulated only by the simultaneous addition of agents leading to production of ROS, depletion of thiols, and elevation of intracellular metal concentrations. These results identify a novel mechanism of bacterial killing by innate immunity proteins, which depends on synergistic effect of oxidative, thiol, and metal stress and differs from bacterial killing by antibiotics. These results offer potential targets for developing new antibacterial agents that would kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Kashyap, Des Raj; Rompca, Annemarie; Gaballa, Ahmed; Helmann, John D.; Chan, Jefferson; Chang, Christopher J.; Hozo, Iztok; Gupta, Dipika; Dziarski, Roman

2014-01-01

328

Complement bound to tumor target cells enhances their sensitivity to macrophage-mediated killing  

SciTech Connect

Tumor cells are known to be susceptible to destruction by a variety of immune effector mechanisms including complement (C) and activated macrophages (M theta). The authors have chosen to study the interaction of these two effector systems by examining the effects of bound mouse C on the antibody-independent M theta-mediated lysis of the P815 mouse mastocytoma cell line. Hemolytically active normal mouse serum (NMS) was used to deposit C on tumor targets by an alternative pathway mechanism in the absence of added antibody. C3 was quantitated on the P815 cells by a cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. C. parvum-activated macrophages produced tumor cytolysis which was measured in a serum-free 16 hour /sup 51/Cr-release assay. Target cells which had been incubated with NMS for 30 min at 37/sup 0/C demonstrated a 30% increase in specific /sup 51/Cr-release at a 1:1 effector to target (E:T) ratio, as compared to targets incubated with heat-inactivated (56/sup 0/C, 30 min) NMS. The treatment of target cells with NMS alone did not cause lysis. At higher E:T ratios specific /sup 51/Cr-release approached a maximum level which was not increased further by C treatment of the target cells. However, at low E:T ratios, NMS increased the specific /sup 51/Cr-release in a dose-dependent fashion; this increase was abrogated by 10 mM EDTA. The kinetics of lysis of C-treated P815 cells by activated M theta does not differ from that of control P815 cells. These results indicate that target-bound C may enhance M theta-mediated killing of tumor cells.

Bara, S.; Lint, T.F.

1986-03-05

329

High pressure destruction kinetics of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in single strength and concentrated orange juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

High pressure (HP) destruction of Leucoonostoc mesenteroides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in single strength and concentrated orange juice by high hydrostatic pressure treatment was evaluated at selected pressures (100–400 MPa) and holding times (0–120 min) at 20 °C. Kinetic analysis of the microbial survivor data was evaluated based on the biphasic destruction behavior consisting of: (i) an instantaneous pressure kill (IPK)

S. Basak; H. S. Ramaswamy; J. P. G. Piette

2002-01-01

330

Methylotroph cloning vehicle  

DOEpatents

A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host and in a C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host to the C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C.sub.1 -utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C.sub.1 -utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C.sub.1 -utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C.sub.1 -utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C.sub.1 gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields.

Hanson, Richard S. (Deephaven, MN); Allen, Larry N. (Excelsior, MN)

1989-04-25

331

Distributed Propulsion Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

Kim, Hyun Dae

2010-01-01

332

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Michigan: Tow Truck Operator Pinned Under Sport Utility Vehicle When Working Under It.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On March 18, 2005, a 34-year-old male tow truck driver was killed when the sport utility vehicle (SUV) he was preparing to tow fell on top of him. This was his third run of the day. The SUV had sustained front-end damage when it left the roadway and struc...

2007-01-01

333

Fluconazole assists berberine to kill fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans.  

PubMed

It was found in our previous study that berberine (BBR) and fluconazole (FLC) used concomitantly exhibited a synergism against FLC-resistant Candida albicans in vitro. The aim of the present study was to clarify how BBR and FLC worked synergistically and the underlying mechanism. Antifungal time-kill curves indicated that the synergistic effect of the two drugs was BBR dose dependent rather than FLC dose dependent. In addition, we found that BBR accumulated in C. albicans cells, especially in the nucleus, and resulted in cell cycle arrest and significant change in the transcription of cell cycle-related genes. Besides BBR, other DNA intercalators, including methylene blue, sanguinarine, and acridine orange, were all found to synergize with FLC against FLC-resistant C. albicans. Detection of intracellular BBR accumulation by fluorescence measurement showed that FLC played a role in increasing intracellular BBR concentration, probably due to its effect in disrupting the fungal cell membrane. Similar to the case with FLC, other antifungal agents acting on the cell membrane were able to synergize with BBR. Interestingly, we found that the efflux of intracellular BBR was FLC independent but strongly glucose dependent and associated with the drug efflux pump Cdr2p. These results suggest that BBR plays a major antifungal role in the synergism of FLC and BBR, while FLC plays a role in increasing the intracellular BBR concentration. PMID:24060867

Li, De-Dong; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Da-Zhi; Quan, Hua; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Hu, Dan-Dan; Li, Ming-Bang; Zhao, Lan-Xue; Zhu, Liang-Hua; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

2013-12-01

334

OSU-03012 interacts with lapatinib to kill brain cancer cells  

PubMed Central

We have further defined mechanism(s) by which the drug OSU-03012 (OSU) kills brain cancer cells. OSU toxicity was enhanced by the HSP90 inhibitor 17-N-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG) that correlated with reduced expression of ERBB1 and ERBB2. Inhibition of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway blocked the interaction between 17AAG and OSU. OSU toxicity was enhanced by the inhibitor of ERBB1/2/4, lapatinib. Knock down of ERBB1/2/4 in a cell line specific fashion promoted OSU toxicity. Combined exposure of cells to lapatinib and OSU resulted in reduced AKT and ERK1/2 activity; expression of activated forms of AKT and to a lesser extent MEK1 protected cells from the lethal effects of the drug combination. Knock down of PTEN suppressed, and expression of PTEN enhanced, the lethal interaction between OSU and lapatinib. Downstream of PTEN, inhibition of mTOR recapitulated the effects of lapatinib. Knock down of CD95, NOXA, PUMA, BIK or AIF, suppressed lapatinib and OSU toxicity. Knock down of MCL-1 enhanced, and overexpression of MCL-1 suppressed, drug combination lethality. Lapatinib and OSU interacted in vivo to suppress the growth of established tumors. Collectively our data argue that the inhibition of ERBB receptor function represents a useful way to enhance OSU lethality in brain tumor cells.

Booth, Laurence; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Ridder, Thomas; Chen, Ching-Shih; Grant, Steven; Dent, Paul

2012-01-01

335

Pazopanib and HDAC inhibitors interact to kill sarcoma cells.  

PubMed

The present studies were to determine whether the multi-kinase inhibitor pazopanib interacted with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI: valproate, vorinostat) to kill sarcoma cells. In multiple sarcoma cell lines, at clinically achievable doses, pazopanib and HDACI interacted in an additive to greater than additive fashion to cause tumor cell death. The drug combination increased the numbers of LC3-GFP and LC3-RFP vesicles. Knockdown of Beclin1 or ATG5 significantly suppressed drug combination lethality. Expression of c-FLIP-s, and to a lesser extent BCL-XL or dominant negative caspase 9 reduced drug combination toxicity; knock down of FADD or CD95 was protective. Expression of both activated AKT and activated MEK1 was required to strongly suppress drug combination lethality. The drug combination inactivated mTOR and expression of activated mTOR strongly suppressed drug combination lethality. Treatment of animals carrying sarcoma tumors with pazopanib and valproate resulted in a greater than additive reduction in tumor volume compared with either drug individually. As both pazopanib and HDACIs are FDA-approved agents, our data argue for further determination as to whether this drug combination is a useful sarcoma therapy in the clinic. PMID:24556916

Tavallai, Seyedmehrad; Hamed, Hossein A; Grant, Steven; Poklepovic, Andrew; Dent, Paul

2014-05-01

336

Resveratrol Inhibits Inflammation Induced by Heat-Killed Listeria monocytogenes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Resv eratrol is a polyphenolic compound in red wine that has antioxidant and cardioprotective effects in animal models. Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen that mainly affects immunocompromised individuals and is initially detected at the cell surface or in phagosomes by toll-like receptor 2. Many antioxidants also exert anti-inflammatory activities; therefore, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of resveratrol by studying the various inflammatory responses induced by heat-killed L. monocytogenes (HKLM). Resveratrol strongly blocked HKLM-induced NADPH oxidase-1 mRNA and reactive oxygen species production by macrophages. Resveratrol also suppressed monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, prostaglandin production, inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase expression, and NO production induced by HKLM. We investigated the signaling pathway involved in the resveratrol effect. HKLM stimulated glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. The involvement of GSK3? and ERK1/2 was tested using inhibitors. While the GSK3? inhibitor LiCl potentiated the effect of HKLM, the MEK inhibitor U0126 blocked these responses. Additionally, pretreatment with resveratrol blocked phosphorylation of both kinases induced by HKLM. These results suggest that HKLM is strong inducer of inflammatory mediators, and that the inhibitory effect of resveratrol may be mediated by the GSK3? and ERK1/2 pathways.

Park, Dae-Weon; Kim, Jin-Sik; Chin, Byung-Rho

2012-01-01

337

Imaging type VI secretion-mediated bacterial killing.  

PubMed

In the environment, bacteria compete with each other for nutrient availability or to extend their ecological niche. The type VI secretion system contributes to bacterial competition by the translocation of antibacterial effectors from predators into prey cells. The T6SS assembles a dynamic structure-the sheath-wrapped around a tube constituted of the Hcp protein. It has been proposed that by cycling between extended and contracted conformations the sheath acts as a crossbow to propel the Hcp tube toward the target cell. While the sheath dynamics have been studied in monocultures, the activity of the T6SS has not been recorded in presence of the prey. Here, time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of cocultures demonstrates that prey cells are killed upon contact with predator cells. Additional experiments provide evidence that sheath contraction correlates with nearby cell fading and that prey lysis occurs within minutes after sheath contraction. The results support a model in which T6SS dynamics are responsible for T6SS effectors translocation into recipient cells. PMID:23291094

Brunet, Yannick R; Espinosa, Leon; Harchouni, Seddik; Mignot, Tâm; Cascales, Eric

2013-01-31

338

Killing of juvenile Fasciola hepatica by purified bovine eosinophil proteins.  

PubMed

Eosinophils were isolated from the mammary gland of Fasciola hepatica-infected cattle by intramammary infusion with a crude extract from adult F. hepatica. Up to 5 x 10(9) eosinophils with a purity of over 90% could be obtained from a single quarter of the gland. The major contaminating cells were monocytes which reached their peak several days following the eosinophil peak. Two major proteins were isolated from bovine eosinophil granules, a high molecular weight peroxidase-active protein and a smaller molecular weight predominantly basic protein. This smaller protein was thought to be the bovine equivalent of guinea-pig and human major basic protein (MBP), although it possessed an unusually high concentration of cysteine. The bovine MBP had a profound effect on juvenile F. hepatica in vitro causing damage and death at concentrations down to 1 x 10(-6) M. The damage was detected by a 51Cr release assay and/or a viability assay involving microscopical examination of the flukes. Other cations, especially protamine sulphate, were also shown to kill flukes, although both lysozyme, found in neutrophils, and the peroxidase-positive peak from bovine eosinophils were unable to mediate any detectable damage. PMID:7438542

Duffus, W P; Thorne, K; Oliver, R

1980-05-01

339

Killing of juvenile Fasciola hepatica by purified bovine eosinophil proteins.  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils were isolated from the mammary gland of Fasciola hepatica-infected cattle by intramammary infusion with a crude extract from adult F. hepatica. Up to 5 x 10(9) eosinophils with a purity of over 90% could be obtained from a single quarter of the gland. The major contaminating cells were monocytes which reached their peak several days following the eosinophil peak. Two major proteins were isolated from bovine eosinophil granules, a high molecular weight peroxidase-active protein and a smaller molecular weight predominantly basic protein. This smaller protein was thought to be the bovine equivalent of guinea-pig and human major basic protein (MBP), although it possessed an unusually high concentration of cysteine. The bovine MBP had a profound effect on juvenile F. hepatica in vitro causing damage and death at concentrations down to 1 x 10(-6) M. The damage was detected by a 51Cr release assay and/or a viability assay involving microscopical examination of the flukes. Other cations, especially protamine sulphate, were also shown to kill flukes, although both lysozyme, found in neutrophils, and the peroxidase-positive peak from bovine eosinophils were unable to mediate any detectable damage. Images Fig. 4

Duffus, W P; Thorne, K; Oliver, R

1980-01-01

340

Infective endocarditis and phlebotomies may have killed mozart.  

PubMed

Thirty-five year-old Amadeus Mozart died in Vienna after an acute illness that lasted only 15 days but no consensus has been reached on the cause of his death. From many letters written by his farther it is almost certain that he experienced at least three episodes of acute rheumatic fever attack in his childhood, and a relapse of rheumatic fever was suggested to have killed Mozart, although death from acute rheumatic fever is very rare in adults. His last illness was characterized by high fever, massive edema, vomiting and skin rash. His last illness can be explained by infectious endocarditis and heart failure. During his last hours, he was given phlebotomy, possibly for the third time in two weeks, and soon after he became unconscious and died. As such, phlebotomy performed on a man dehydrated by high fever and vomiting may have caused systemic shock. In summary, Mozart probably died from chronic rheumatic heart disease complicated by infective endocarditis and heart failure, and repeated phlebotomy-induced hypovolemic shock. PMID:21267381

Lee, Simon Jong-Koo

2010-12-01

341

Fluconazole Assists Berberine To Kill Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

It was found in our previous study that berberine (BBR) and fluconazole (FLC) used concomitantly exhibited a synergism against FLC-resistant Candida albicans in vitro. The aim of the present study was to clarify how BBR and FLC worked synergistically and the underlying mechanism. Antifungal time-kill curves indicated that the synergistic effect of the two drugs was BBR dose dependent rather than FLC dose dependent. In addition, we found that BBR accumulated in C. albicans cells, especially in the nucleus, and resulted in cell cycle arrest and significant change in the transcription of cell cycle-related genes. Besides BBR, other DNA intercalators, including methylene blue, sanguinarine, and acridine orange, were all found to synergize with FLC against FLC-resistant C. albicans. Detection of intracellular BBR accumulation by fluorescence measurement showed that FLC played a role in increasing intracellular BBR concentration, probably due to its effect in disrupting the fungal cell membrane. Similar to the case with FLC, other antifungal agents acting on the cell membrane were able to synergize with BBR. Interestingly, we found that the efflux of intracellular BBR was FLC independent but strongly glucose dependent and associated with the drug efflux pump Cdr2p. These results suggest that BBR plays a major antifungal role in the synergism of FLC and BBR, while FLC plays a role in increasing the intracellular BBR concentration.

Li, De-Dong; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Da-Zhi; Quan, Hua; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Hu, Dan-Dan; Li, Ming-Bang; Zhao, Lan-Xue; Zhu, Liang-Hua

2013-01-01

342

Involvement of sphingolipids in apoptin-induced cell killing.  

PubMed

The potential anti-tumor agent Apoptin activates apoptosis in many human cancers and transformed cell lines, but is believed to be less potent in primary cells. Although caspase 3 is activated during apoptin-induced apoptosis, the mechanism of tumor cell killing remains elusive. We now show that apoptin-mediated cell death involves modulation of the sphingomyelin-ceramide pathway. Treating cells with Ad-GFPApoptin resulted in increased ceramide accumulation and enhanced expression of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) with a concomitant increase in ASMase activity and decreased sphingomyelin. Using confocal microscopy, ASMase, normally present in the endosomal/lysosomal compartment, was observed to translocate to the cell's periphery. Cotreatment of Ad-GFPApoptin-infected cells with the ASMase inhibitor desipramine (2.5 muM) attenuated (30%; P<0.01) apoptin-induced cell death. Apoptin was also able to induce a significant decline in sphingosine content by inhibition of ceramide deacylation through down-regulation of acid ceramidase at the protein level. Supporting the role of ceramide in apoptin action, treatment of cells with the combination of an exogenous cell-permeable ceramide analog (C6-ceramide) and Ad-GFPApoptin infection yielded a significant increase (P<0.01) in apoptosis over either treatment modality alone. Together, these data suggest that apoptin modulates ceramide/sphingolipid metabolism as part of its mechanism of action. PMID:16926120

Liu, Xiang; Zeidan, Youssef H; Elojeimy, Saeed; Holman, David H; El-Zawahry, Ahmed M; Guo, Gui-Wen; Bielawska, Alicja; Bielawski, Jacek; Szulc, Zdzislaw; Rubinchik, Semyon; Dong, Jian-Yun; Keane, Thomas E; Tavassoli, Mahvash; Hannun, Yusuf A; Norris, James S

2006-11-01

343

Electromagnetic self-forces and generalized Killing fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building upon previous results in scalar field theory, a formalism is developed that uses generalized Killing fields to understand the behavior of extended charges interacting with their own electromagnetic fields. New notions of effective linear and angular momenta are identified, and their evolution equations are derived exactly in arbitrary (but fixed) curved spacetimes. A slightly modified form of the Detweiler-Whiting axiom that a charge's motion should only be influenced by the so-called regular component of its self-field is shown to follow very easily. It is exact in some interesting cases and approximate in most others. Explicit equations describing the center-of-mass motion, spin angular momentum and changes in mass of a small charge are also derived in a particular limit. The chosen approximations—although standard—incorporate dipole and spin forces that do not appear in the traditional Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac or Dewitt-Brehme equations. They have, however, been previously identified in the test body limit.

Harte, Abraham I.

2009-08-01

344

VCU researchers develop and test new molecule as a delivery vehicle to image and kill brain tumors:  

Cancer.gov

A single compound with dual function – the ability to deliver a diagnostic and therapeutic agent – may one day be used to enhance the diagnosis, imaging and treatment of brain tumors, according to findings from Virginia Commonwealth University and Virginia Tech.

345

Assured Crew Return Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The developmental status is discussed regarding the 'lifeboat' vehicle to enhance the safety of the crew on the Space Station Freedom (SSF). NASA's Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) is intended to provide a means for returning the SSF crew to earth at all times. The 'lifeboat' philosophy is the key to managing the development of the ACRV which further depends on matrixed support and total quality management for implementation. The risk of SSF mission scenarios are related to selected ACRV mission requirements, and the system and vehicle designs are related to these precepts. Four possible ACRV configurations are mentioned including the lifting-body, Apollo shape, Discoverer shape, and a new lift-to-drag concept. The SCRAM design concept is discussed in detail with attention to the 'lifeboat' philosophy and requirements for implementation.

Stone, D. A.; Craig, J. W.; Drone, B.; Gerlach, R. H.; Williams, R. J.

1991-01-01

346

Conestoga launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several major applications for commercial and government markets have developed recently which will make use of small satellites. A launch vehicle designed specifically for small satellites brings many attendant benefits. Space Services Incorporated has developed the Conestoga family of launch vehicles to meet the needs of five major markets: low orbiting communication satellites, positioning satellites, earth sensing satellites, space manufacturing prototypes, and scientific experiments. The Conestoga provides low cost, rapid schedules, one-stop shopping, flexible launch sites, multiple satellite deployments, insurability, reliability, and modularity.

Daniels, Mark H.; Davidson, James E.

347

BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

None

2010-07-01

348

Vehicle Dynamics and Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system topics covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire models and tire-road friction estimation. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics.

Rajamani, Rajesh

349

Inter-vehicle communication: technical issues on vehicle control application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual exchange of status data between vehicles in close proximity is the basis for safe vehicle operation. Application areas range from driver assistance\\/warning to fully autonomous driving. To enable this data exchange we need an intervehicle communication (IVC) system. Vehicles involved in mutual data exchange form a kind of local area network; however, the characteristics of this network are quite

M. Aoki; H. Fujii

1996-01-01

350

The effects of welfare vehicle asset rules on vehicle assets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before 1996, households were typically ineligible for welfare if they had assets worth more than $1000, where $1500 from each vehicle's value was excluded from this determination. However, the 1996 welfare reform act began allowing states to increase their asset limits and vehicle exclusions. This may prompt low-income households to reallocate resources to or from vehicles. We examine the effects

Mark F. Owens; Charles L. Baum

2012-01-01

351

The effects of welfare vehicle asset rules on vehicle assets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before 1996, households were typically ineligible for welfare if they had assets worth more than $1000, where $1500 from each vehicle's value was excluded from this determination. However, the 1996 welfare reform act began allowing states to increase their asset limits and vehicle exclusions. This may prompt low-income households to reallocate resources to or from vehicles. We examine the effects

Mark F. Owens; Charles L. Baum

2011-01-01

352

Vehicle dynamics and external disturbance estimation for vehicle path prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the onboard prediction of a motor vehicle's path to help enable a variety of emerging functions in autonomous vehicle control and active safety systems. It is shown in simulation that good accuracy of path prediction is achieved using numerical integration of a linearized two degree of freedom vehicle handling model. To improve performance, a steady-state Kalman filter

Chiu-Feng Lin; A. Galip Ulsoy; David J. LeBlanc

2000-01-01

353

Energy loss in vehicle to vehicle oblique impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the seventies, many methodologies have been developed for estimating from energy loss the delta V produced in a vehicle to vehicle impact. Normal energy loss, is calculated by a discrete number of residual crush measurements in the direction parallel to the vehicle's axis, using the stiffness coefficients. In the case of oblique impact, a correction factor is applied to

Dario Vangi

2009-01-01

354

76 FR 36914 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego...NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC,...

2011-06-23

355

76 FR 34692 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego...NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC,...

2011-06-14

356

76 FR 36910 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego...NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power [[Page 36911

2011-06-23

357

50 CFR 21.42 - Authority to issue depredating orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. 21.42 Section 21.42 ...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. Upon the receipt of evidence clearly showing that migratory game birds have accumulated in such...

2013-10-01

358

50 CFR 21.42 - Authority to issue depredating orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. 21.42 Section 21.42 ...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. Upon the receipt of evidence clearly showing that migratory game birds have accumulated in such...

2011-10-01

359

50 CFR 21.42 - Authority to issue depredating orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. 21.42 Section 21.42 ...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. Upon the receipt of evidence clearly showing that migratory game birds have accumulated in such...

2012-10-01

360

"Is Cybermedicine Killing You?" - The Story of a Cochrane Disaster  

PubMed Central

This editorial briefly reviews the series of unfortunate events that led to the publication, dissemination, and eventual retraction of a flawed Cochrane systematic review on interactive health communication applications (IHCAs), which was widely reported in the media with headlines such as "Internet Makes Us Sick," "Knowledge May Be Hazardous to Web Consumers' Health," "Too Much Advice Can Be Bad for Your Health," "Click to Get Sick?" and even "Is Cybermedicine Killing You?" While the media attention helped to speed up the identification of errors, leading to a retraction of the review after only 13 days, a paper published in this issue of JMIR by Rada shows that the retraction, in contrast to the original review, remained largely unnoticed by the public. We discuss the three flaws of the review, which include (1) data extraction and coding errors, (2) the pooling of heterogeneous studies, and (3) a problematic and ambiguous scope and, possibly, some overlooked studies. We then discuss "retraction ethics" for researchers, editors/publishers, and journalists. Researchers and editors should, in the case of retractions, match the aggressiveness of the original dissemination campaign if errors are detected. It is argued that researchers and their organizations may have an ethical obligation to track down journalists who reported stories on the basis of a flawed study and to specifically ask them to publish an article indicating the error. Journalists should respond to errors or retractions with reports that have the same prominence as the original story. Finally, we look at some of the lessons for the Cochrane Collaboration, which include (1) improving the peer-review system by routinely sending out pre-prints to authors of the original studies, (2) avoiding downplay of the magnitude of errors if they occur, (3) addressing the usability issues of RevMan, and (4) making critical articles such as retraction notices open access.

Kummervold, Per Egil

2005-01-01

361

Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus  

SciTech Connect

Received for publication September 9, 2005. Stabilizing phosphorus (P) in poultry waste to reduce P losses from manured soils is important to protect surface waters, while pathogens in manures are an emerging issue. This study was conducted to evaluate CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} for killing manure bacterial populations (pathogens) and stabilizing P in poultry wastes and to investigate the influence on soils following amendment with the treated wastes. Layer manure and broiler litter varying in moisture content were treated with CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} at rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% by weight. All treated wastes were analyzed for microbial plate counts, pH, and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP), while a few selected layer manures were analyzed by phosphorus X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). A loamy sand and a silt loam were amended with broiler litter and layer manure treated with CaO at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% and soil WSP and pH were measured at times 1, 8, and 29 d. Liming reduced bacterial populations, with greater rates of lime leading to greater reductions; for example 10% CaO applied to 20% solids broiler litter reduced the plate counts from 793 000 to 6500 mL{sup -1}. Liming also reduced the WSP in the manures by over 90% in all cases where at least 10% CaO was added. Liming the manures also reduced WSP in soils immediately following application and raised soil pH. The liming process used successfully reduced plate counts and concerns about P losses in runoff following land application of these limed products due to decreased WSP.

Maguire,R.; Hesterberg, D.; Gernat, A.; Anderson, K.; Wineland, M.; Grimes, J.

2006-01-01

362

Universal properties from a local geometric structure of a Killing horizon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider universal properties that arise from a local geometric structure of a Killing horizon, and analyse whether such universal properties give rise to degeneracy of classical configurations. We first introduce a non-perturbative definition of such a local geometric structure, which we call an asymptotic Killing horizon. It is then shown that infinitely many asymptotic Killing horizons reside on a common null hypersurface, once there exists one asymptotic Killing horizon, which is thus considered as degeneracy. In order to see how this degeneracy is physically meaningful, we analyse also the acceleration of the orbits of the vector that generates an asymptotic Killing horizon. It is shown that there exists the diff(S1) or diff(R1) sub-algebra on an asymptotic Killing horizon universally, which is picked out naturally, based on the behaviour of the acceleration. We argue that the discrepancy between string theory and the Euclidean approach in the entropy of an extreme black hole may be resolved, if the microscopic states responsible for black hole thermodynamics are connected with asymptotic Killing horizons.

Koga, Jun-ichirou

2007-06-01

363

Prevalence of a Non-Male-Killing Spiroplasma in Natural Populations of Drosophila hydei  

PubMed Central

Male-killing phenotypes are found in a variety of insects and are often associated with maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria. In several species of Drosophila, male-killing endosymbionts of the genus Spiroplasma have been found at low frequencies (0.1 to 3%). In this study, spiroplasma infection without causing male-killing was shown to be prevalent (23 to 66%) in Japanese populations of Drosophila hydei. Molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that D. hydei was infected with a single strain of spiroplasma, which was closely related to male-killing spiroplasmas from other Drosophila species. Artificial-transfer experiments suggested that the spiroplasma genotype rather than the host genotype was responsible for the absence of the male-killing phenotype. Infection densities of the spiroplasma in the natural host, D. hydei, and in the artificial host, Drosophila melanogaster, were significantly lower than those of the male-killing spiroplasma NSRO, which was in accordance with the hypothesis that a threshold infection density is needed for the spiroplasma-induced male-killing expression.

Kageyama, Daisuke; Anbutsu, Hisashi; Watada, Masayoshi; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

2006-01-01

364

Early stages of in vitro killing curve of LY146032 and vancomycin for Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed Central

The early stages of the time-killing curves of vancomycin and LY146032 have been studied, by use of short sampling intervals, for three strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Both vancomycin and LY146032 killed S. aureus, but the time-killing curves differed: the effect of vancomycin was slow, limited, and not related to the concentration of the drug, whereas that of LY146032 was rapid, extensive, and related to concentration. When strains ATCC 25923 and CIP 6525 were exposed to LY146032, the population decreased exponentially with time. The killing rate was constant and linked to the concentration by a Michaelis-Menten relationship. The maximum killing rate and the affinity constant of LY146032, estimated from the data transformed by the Lineweaver-Burk method, differed for the two strains. The concentration of the antibiotic at which killing theoretically begins (estimated by linear regression using the logarithm of the concentration) is of the same magnitude as the MIC of LY146032, which indicates the pure bactericidal mode of action of the drug. S. aureus ATCC 12600 was more resistant to the bactericidal effect of the two drugs, and its killing curve did not conform to the model described here.

Flandrois, J P; Fardel, G; Carret, G

1988-01-01

365

Structural basis for benzothiazinone-mediated killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

BTZ043, a tuberculosis drug candidate with nanomolar whole-cell activity, targets the DprE1 enzyme of the essential decaprenylphosphoryl-?-D-ribofuranose-2?-epimerase thus blocking biosynthesis of arabinans, vital cell-wall components of mycobacteria. Crystal structures of DprE1, in its native form and in complex with BTZ043, unambiguously reveal formation of a semimercaptal adduct between the drug and an active-site cysteine, as well as contacts to a neighbouring catalytic lysine residue. Kinetic studies confirm BTZ043 as a mechanism-based, covalent inhibitor. This explains the exquisite potency of BTZ043, which, when fluorescently labelled, localizes DprE1 at the poles of growing bacteria. Menaquinone can reoxidize the FAD cofactor in DprE1 and may be the natural electron acceptor for this reaction in the cell. Our structural and kinetic analysis provides both insight into a critical epimerization reaction and a platform for structure-based design of improved inhibitors. Surprisingly, given the colossal tuberculosis burden globally, BTZ043 is the only new drug candidate to have been co-crystallized with its target.

Neres, Joao; Pojer, Florence; Molteni, Elisabetta; Chiarelli, Laurent R.; Dhar, Neeraj; Boy-Rottger, Stefanie; Buroni, Silvia; Fullam, Elizabeth; Degiacomi, Giulia; Lucarelli, Anna Paola; Read, Randy J.; Zanoni, Giuseppe; Edmondson, Dale E.; De Rossi, Edda; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; McKinney, John D.; Dyson, Paul J.; Riccardi, Giovanna; Mattevi, Andrea; Cole, Stewart T.; Binda, Claudia

2013-01-01

366

1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric a...

S. Sluder R. Larsen M. Duoba

1996-01-01

367

Rail Vehicle Dynamics Model Validation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The validation of mathematical models of rail vehicle dynamics using test data poses a number of difficult problems, which are addressed in this report. Previous attempts to validate rail vehicle models are reviewed critically, and experience gained in va...

S. E. Shladover R. L. Hull

1981-01-01

368

TARDEC's Vehicle Electronics & Architecture Group.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

VEA Vision Statement: VEA will be the first choice to technology and engineering expertise for vehicle electronics integration, research and application--today and tomorrow. VEA Mission Statement: VEA develops, integrates, and sustains the right vehicle e...

C. Ostrowski N. Williams

2010-01-01

369

Diesel Vehicle Maintenance Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide a model set of competencies, this manual presents tasks which were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary diesel vehicle maintenance curriculum. The tasks are divided into seven major component areas of instruction: chassis and suspension, diesel engines, diesel fuel, electrical,…

Braswell, Robert; And Others

370

Lunar transfer vehicle studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar transportation architectures exist for several different mission scenarios. Direct flights from Earth are possible, as the Apollo program clearly demonstrated. Alternatively, a space transfer vehicle could be constructed in space by using the Space Station as a base of operations, or multiple vehicles could be launched from Earth and dock in LEO without using a space station for support. Similarly, returning personnel could proceed directly to Earth or rendezvous at the Space Station for a ride back home on the Space Shuttle. Multiple design concepts exist which are compatible with these scenarios and which can support requirements of cargo, personnel, and mission objectives. Regardless of the ultimate mission selected, some technologies will certainly play a key role in the design and operation of advanced lunar transfer vehicles. Current technologies are capable of delivering astronauts to the lunar surface, but improvements are needed to affordably transfer the material and equipment that will be needed for establishing a lunar base. Materials and structures advances, in particular, will enable the development of more capable cryogenic fluid management and propulsion systems, improved structures, and more efficient vehicle assembly, servicing and processing.

Keeley, Joseph T.

1993-02-01

371

General Vehicle Dynamic Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two computer programs were developed to calculate the three-dimensional dynamics of a rigid high-speed ground-vehicle supported vertically and laterally by an arbitrary number of suspensions and excited by arbitrary inputs (acting on the suspensions or on...

I. L. Paul H. Sankaran J. J. Jackson

1966-01-01

372

Battery for vehicle  

SciTech Connect

In a battery of a vehicle such as motorcycle, the bottom is indented at both ends in the longitudinal direction; i.e., with respect to both end portions, in the longitudinal direction of the bottom, the middle portion protrudes downwardly, so that the battery is more advantageously accommodated in the triangular space formed by the motorcycle frame.

Uehara, M.

1984-04-24

373

Lunar Roving Vehicle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will construct a model of a lunar roving vehicle. This activity is in Unit 2 of the Exploring the Moon teachers guide, which is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

374

Urban Vehicle Research Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project's main goal of high energy efficiency in a four-passenger vehicle was approached from two directions. (1) Try a hybrid electric drive system with the stationary internal combustion engine powered by locally produced alcohol and compare its con...

W. C. Carl

1984-01-01

375

Morphing unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on aircraft morphing has exploded in recent years. The motivation and driving force behind this has been to find new and novel ways to increase the capabilities of aircraft. Materials advancements have helped to increase possibilities with respect to actuation and, hence, a diversity of concepts and unimagined capabilities. The expanded role of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has provided

Juan Carlos Gomez; Ephrahim Garcia

2011-01-01

376

Recreational Vehicle Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…

Felice, Michael

377

Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) identifies gases that are present in minute quantities in the International Space Station (ISS) breathing air that could harm the crew s health. If successful, instruments like VCAM could accompany crewmembers during long-duration exploration missions to the Moon or traveling to Mars.

Chutjian, Ara; Darrach, Muray

2007-01-01

378

Platoons of underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have presented a decentralized control design methodology for regulating global functions of cooperating mobile systems. The application of relatively standard system-theoretic tools, leads to a novel broadcast-only communication structure. The feedback mechanism between vehicles is the measurement of the global variables and broadcast of their integrated values. More generally, the methods presented allow the designer to determine what explicit

Daniel J. Stilwell; Bradley E. Bishop

2000-01-01

379

Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

Viterna, Larry A.

1997-01-01

380

Engine & Vehicle Mechanics Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based curriculum includes all competencies a student will acquire in an engine and vehicle mechanics educational program. It follows guidelines established for automobile technician training programs leading toward certification and addresses requirements of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE). The…

Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

381

Heavy Vehicle Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heavy Vehicle (HV) systems are a necessary component of achieving OHVT goals. Elements are in place for a far-ranging program: short, intermediate, and long-term. Solicitation will bring industrial input and support. Future funding trend is positive, outlook for HV systems is good.

Sid Diamond; Richard Wares; Jules Routbort

2000-04-11

382

Batteries for Electric Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

Conover, R. A.

1985-01-01

383

Sizing of scramjet vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current European project LAPCAT II has the ambitious goal to define a conceptual vehicle capable of achieving the antipodal range Brussels-Sydney (~18,000 km) in about 2 h at Mach number Ma = 8. At this high speed, the requirement of high lift to drag (L/D) ratio is critical to high performance, because of high skin friction and wave drag: in fact, as the Mach number increases, the L/D ratio decreases. The design of the vehicle architecture (shape and propulsion system) is, as a consequence, crucial to achieve a reasonably high L/D. In this work, critical parameters for the preliminary sizing of a hypersonic airbreathing airliner have been identified. In particular, for a given Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and mission requirements, a solution space of possible vehicle architectures at cruise have been obtained. In this work, the Gross Weight at Take-Off (TOGW) was deliberately discarded as a constraint, based on previous studies by Czysz and Vanderkerkhove [1]. Typically, limiting from the beginning, the TOGW leads to a vicious spiral where weight and propulsion system requirements keep growing, eventually denying convergence. In designing passenger airliners, in fact, it is the payload that is assumed fixed from the start, not the total weight. In order to screen the solutions found, requirements for taking-off (TO) and landing as well as the trajectory have been accounted for. A consistent solution has finally been obtained by imposing typical airliner constraints: emergency take-off and landing. These constraints enable singling out a realistic design from the broad family of vehicles capable of performing the given mission. This vehicle has been obtained by integrating not only aerodynamics, trajectory, and airliner constraints, but also by integrating the propulsion system, the trimming devices and by doing some adjustments to the conceptual vehicle shape (i. e., spatular nose). Thus, the final vehicle is the result of many iterations in the design space, until performance, trajectory, propulsion systems, and airport constraints are successfully met.

Ingenito, A.; Gulli, S.; Bruno, C.

2011-10-01

384

Electric and hybrid vehicle technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents innovative design concepts for electric vehicles and their components. Topics include: Hybrid/Electric Vehicle Design Options and Evaluations; Electric Drivetrain for the Hybrid Electric Bus; Variable Speed Compressor, HFC-134a Based Air Conditioning System for electric Vehicles; Performance Testing of the Extended-Range (Hybrid) Electric G Van; and Development of an Electric Concept Vehicle with a Super Quick Charging System.

Not Available

1992-01-01

385

Energy Minimizing Vehicle Routing Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new cost function based on distance and load of the vehicle for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem.\\u000a The vehicle-routing problem with this new load-based cost objective is called the Energy Minimizing Vehicle Routing Problem\\u000a (EMVRP). Integer linear programming formulations with O(n\\u000a 2) binary variables and O(n\\u000a 2) constraints are developed for the collection and delivery cases,

Imdat Kara; Bahar Yetis Kara; M. Kadri Yetis

2007-01-01

386

Methylotroph cloning vehicle  

DOEpatents

A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

1989-04-25

387

Killing-Yano symmetry of Kaluza-Klein black holes in five dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a generalized Killing-Yano equation in the presence of torsion, spacetime metrics admitting a rank-2 generalized Killing-Yano tensor are investigated in five dimensions under the assumption that its eigenvector associated with the zero eigenvalue is a Killing vector field. It is shown that such metrics are classified into three types and the corresponding local expressions are given explicitly. It is also shown that they cover some classes of charged, rotating Kaluza-Klein black hole solutions of minimal supergravity and Abelian heterotic supergravity.

Houri, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Kei

2013-04-01

388

Knowledge Navigation for Virtual Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A virtual vehicle is a digital model of the knowledge surrounding a potentially real vehicle. Knowledge consists not only of the tangible information, such as CAD, but also what is known about the knowledge - its metadata. This paper is an overview of technologies relevant to building a virtual vehicle, and an assessment of how to bring those technologies together.

Gomez, Julian E.

2004-01-01

389

Detection and classification of vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents algorithms for vision-based detection and cl assification of vehicles in monocular image sequences of traffi c scenes recorded by a stationary camera. Processing is done at three levels: raw images, region level and vehicle level. Vehicle s are modeled as rectangular patches with certain dynamic behavior. The proposed method is based on the establishment of correspondences between

Surendra Gupte; Osama Masoud; Robert F. K. Martin; Nikolaos P. Papanikolopoulos

2002-01-01

390

Emergency-vehicle VHF antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helical VHF antenna mounts on roof of moving vehicle to communicate with distant stations via earth satellites. Antenna requires no pointing and can provide two-way communication while vehicle moves at high speed. Device has proved extremely successful in electrocardiogram transmission tests between medical services vehicle and hospital emergency room.

Anderson, R. E.; Carlson, A. W.; Lewis, J.

1977-01-01

391

An electrically assisted, hybrid vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of an electrically assisted, hybrid electric vehicle. The mechanical and electrical system modifications required to convert a 1995 Dodge Neon Sedan are presented. Results of dynamic testing with regards to fuel economy, vehicle range, and emissions are presented to illustrate the benefits of operating the vehicle as an HEV

Scott Aylor; Micheal Parten; Tim Maxwell; Jesse Jones

1998-01-01

392

Fin Assembly for a Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fin assembly for effecting guidance of a vehicle through a fluid medium includes an electromagnet fixed in a portion of the vehicle, and a rigid shaft fixed to a hull portion of the vehicle and extending outwardly therefrom and in alignment with the ele...

C. P. Cho S. J. Olson

1996-01-01

393

Bimodal pattern of killing of DNA-repair-defective or anoxically grown Escherichia coli by hydrogen peroxide  

SciTech Connect

Two modes of killing of Escherichia coli K-12 by hydrogen peroxide can be distinguished. Mode-one killing was maximal with hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 1 to 2 mM. At higher concentrations the killing rate was approximately half maximal and was independent of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ concentration but first order with respect to exposure time. Mode-one killing required active metabolism during the H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ challenge, and it resulted in sfiA-independent filamentation of both cells which survived and those which were killed by the challenge. This mode of killing was enhanced in xth, polA, recA, and recB strains and was accelerated in all strains by an unidentified, anoxia-induced cell function. A strain carrying both xth and recA mutations appeared to undergo spontaneous mode-one killing only under aerobic conditions. Mode-one killing appeared to result from DNA damage which normally occurs at a low, nonlethal level during aerobic growth. Mode-two killing occurred at higher doses of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and exhibited a multihit dependence on both H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ concentration and exposure time. Mode-two killing did not require active metabolism, and killed cells did not filament, although survivors demonstrated a dose-dependent growth lag. Strains with DNA-repair defects were not especially susceptible to mode-two killing.

Imlay, J.A.; Linn, S.

1986-05-01

394

Determination and Modeling of Kinetics of Cancer Cell Killing by Doxorubicin and Doxorubicin Encapsulated in Targeted Liposomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various mathematical approaches have been devised to relate the cytotoxic effect of drugs in cell culture to the drug concentration added to the cell culture medium. Such approaches can satisfactorily account for drug response when the drugs are free in solution, but the approach becomes problematic when the drug is delivered in a drug delivery system, such as a liposome.

Rom E. Eliaz; Shlomo Nir; Cornelia Marty; Francis C. Szoka

2004-01-01

395

Ion kinetic energy spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles upon which accurate measurements of kinetic energy of ; kilovolt ions are based are illustrated, and the design of an instrument for ; focusing the ions formed by reactions in a field-free region is described. ; Measurement of both the kinetic energy and mass-to-charge ratio of an ion formed ; in a field-free region of a mass spectrometer

J. J. Beynon; R. G. Cooks

1974-01-01

396

Launch Vehicle Failure Dynamics and Abort Triggering Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launch vehicle ascent is a time of high risk for an on-board crew. There are many types of failures that can kill the crew if the crew is still on-board when the failure becomes catastrophic. For some failure scenarios, there is plenty of time for the crew to be warned and to depart, whereas in some there is insufficient time for the crew to escape. There is a large fraction of possible failures for which time is of the essence and a successful abort is possible if the detection and action happens quickly enough. This paper focuses on abort determination based primarily on data already available from the GN&C system. This work is the result of failure analysis efforts performed during the Ares I launch vehicle development program. Derivation of attitude and attitude rate abort triggers to ensure that abort occurs as quickly as possible when needed, but that false positives are avoided, forms a major portion of the paper. Some of the potential failure modes requiring use of these triggers are described, along with analysis used to determine the success rate of getting the crew off prior to vehicle demise.

Hanson, John M.; Hill, Ashely D.; Beard, Bernard B.

2011-01-01

397

77 FR 10960 - Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and Wards Islands, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Marine security, Navigation (water), Reporting and recordkeeping...temporary security zone: All waters of the East River between the Hell Gate Rail Road Bridge (mile...Port Morris Stacks), and all waters of the Bronx Kill...

2012-02-24

398

In Crashes That Kill Children, It's Their Driver Who's Often Drunk  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. In Crashes That Kill Children, It's Their Driver Who's Often Drunk Finding highlights need ... of children still die each year, and now it is known that they are most often in ...

399

Blood Clots That Kill: Preventing DVT | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Deep Vein Thrombosis Blood Clots That Kill: Preventing DVT Past Issues / ... of: Shutterstock CLICK IMAGE TO ENLARGE Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can be a killer. Here’s how to ...

400

The impact of killing and injuring others on mental health symptoms among police officers  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relationship between killing or seriously injuring someone in the line of duty and mental health symptoms in a sample of police officers (N = 400) who were first assessed during academy training and at five additional time points over three years. We found that nearly 10% of police officers reported having to kill or seriously injure someone in the line of duty in the first three years of police service. After controlling for demographics and exposure to life threat, killing or seriously injuring someone in the line of duty was significantly associated with PTSD symptoms (p< .01) and marginally associated with depression symptoms (p < .06). These results highlight the potential mental health impact of killing or seriously injuring someone in the line of duty. Greater attention to mental health services following these types of exposures can serve as a preventative measure for police officers who have been negatively impacted.

Komarovskaya, Irina; Maguen, Shira; McCaslin, Shannon E.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Madan, Anita; Brown, Adam D.; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R.

2013-01-01

401

Heat-induced alterations in the cell nucleus. Relations to hyperthermic cell killing and radiosensitization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hyperthermia may kill eukaryotic cells and may also enhance the radiosensitivity of those cells that survive the heat treatment. Clinically, the possible use of hyperthermia as an adjuvant in the radiotherapeutic treatment of cancer needs the understandin...

H. H. Kampinga

1989-01-01

402

Immunization Against Experimental Lethal Simian Coccidioidomycosis Using Whole Killed Arthrospores and Cell Fraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerosol and subcutaneous vaccination with killed arthrospores and subcutaneous vaccination using a boivin-type fraction were compared for their efficacy in protecting rhesus monkeys against lethal aerosol challenge with C. immitis. Complete protection aga...

J. T. Sinski E. P. Lowe N. F. Conant H. F. Hardin M. W. Castleberry

1965-01-01

403

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2009-01-01

404

KINETICS OF ROD OUTER SEGMENT RENEWAL IN THE DEVELOPING MOUSE RETINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of rod outer segment renewal in the developing retina have been investigated in C57BL\\/6J mice. Litters of mice were injected with (3H)amino acids at various ages and killed at progressively later time intervals . Plastic 1 .5 µm sections of retina were studied by light microscope autoradiography . The rate of outer segment disk synthesis, as judged by

MATTHEW M. LAVAIL

1973-01-01

405

A nanoparticle-based combination chemotherapy delivery system for enhanced tumor killing by dynamic rewiring of signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Exposure to the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) inhibitor erlotinib promotes the dynamic rewiring of apoptotic pathways, which sensitizes cells within a specific period to subsequent exposure to the DNA-damaging agent doxorubicin. A critical challenge for translating this therapeutic network rewiring into clinical practice is the design of optimal drug delivery systems. We report the generation of a nanoparticle delivery vehicle that contained more than one therapeutic agent and produced a controlled sequence of drug release. Liposomes, representing the first clinically approved nanomedicine systems, are well-characterized, simple, and versatile platforms for the manufacture of functional and tunable drug carriers. Using the hydrophobic and hydrophilic compartments of liposomes, we effectively incorporated both hydrophobic (erlotinib) and hydrophilic (doxorubicin) small molecules, through which we achieved the desired time sequence of drug release. We also coated the liposomes with folate to facilitate targeting to cancer cells. When compared to the time-staggered application of individual drugs, staggered release from tumor-targeted single liposomal particles enhanced dynamic rewiring of apoptotic signaling pathways, resulting in improved tumor cell killing in culture and tumor shrinkage in animal models. PMID:24825919

Morton, Stephen W; Lee, Michael J; Deng, Zhou J; Dreaden, Erik C; Siouve, Elise; Shopsowitz, Kevin E; Shah, Nisarg J; Yaffe, Michael B; Hammond, Paula T

2014-01-01

406

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

Mara, L.M.

1998-05-05

407

Long-term effectiveness against cholera of oral killed whole-cell vaccine produced in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the long-term protection afforded by a killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine produced in Vietnam. A mass immunization of children and adults with the killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine was undertaken in half of the communes of Hue, Vietnam, in 1998; the remaining communes were immunized in 2000. No cholera was observed in Hue until 2003, when an outbreak

Vu Dinh Thiem; Jacqueline L. Deen; Lorenz von Seidlein; Do Gia Canh; Dang Duc Anh; Jin-Kyung Park; Mohammad Ali; M. Carolina Danovaro-Holliday; Nguyen Dinh Son; Nguyen Thai Hoa; Jan Holmgren; John D. Clemens

2006-01-01

408

Cell killing and DNA damage by hydrogen peroxide are mediated by intracellular iron.  

PubMed Central

Phenanthroline, a strong iron chelator, prevents both the formation of DNA single-strand breaks and the killing of mouse cells produced by H2O2. These results, taken together with our previous findings, indicate that the DNA damage is produced by hydroxyl radicals formed when H2O2 reacts with chromatin-bound Fe2+ and that this damage is responsible for the killing effect.

Mello Filho, A C; Hoffmann, M E; Meneghini, R

1984-01-01

409

BOD sensors using multi-species living or thermally killed cells of a BODSEED microbial culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) biosensor installed with a biofilm containing immobilized thermally killed cells of a BODSEED (Cole-Palmer E-05466-00) microbial culture gave BOD sensing sensitivity comparable with that of a biosensor using the same population of the immobilized living cells of the same culture. The thermally killed cell sensor showed better response and storage stability but slightly longer response

T. C. Tan; Chaohong Wu

1999-01-01

410

Degradation of Outer Membrane Protein A in Escherichia coli Killing by Neutrophil Elastase  

Microsoft Academic Search

In determining the mechanism of neutrophil elastase (NE)-mediated killing of Escherichia coli, we found that NE degraded outer membrane protein A (OmpA), localized on the surface of Gram-negative bacteria. NE killed wild-type, but not OmpA-deficient, E. coli. Also, whereas NE-deficient mice had impaired survival in response to E. coli sepsis, as compared to wild-type mice, the presence or absence of

Abderr azzaq Belaaouaj; Kwang Sik Kim; Steven D. Shapiro

2000-01-01

411

Residual chromatin breaks as biodosimetry for cell killing by carbon ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the relationship between cell killing and the induction of residual chromatin breaks on various human cell lines and primary cultured cells obtained by biopsy from patients irradiated with either X-rays or heavy-ion beams to identify potential bio-marker of radiosensitivity for radiation-induced cell killing. The carbon-ion beams were accelerated with the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC).

M. Suzuki; Y. Kase; T. Nakano; T. Kanai; K. Ando

1998-01-01

412

Real-time profiling of NK cell killing of human astrocytes using xCELLigence technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted the first profiling of human Natural Killer (NK) cell mediated killing of astrocytes using xCELLigence technology. The sensitivity and applicability of xCELLigence was compared to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and time-lapsed microscopy to validate the killing events. The xCELLigence technology uses electrical impedance measurements from adherent cells and converts into Cell Index (CI). NK cells did not

Kriebashne Moodley; Catherine E. Angel; Michelle Glass; E. Scott Graham

2011-01-01

413

p16 gene transfer increases cell killing with abnormal nucleation after ionising radiation in glioma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that cells synchronised at the G1–S phase are highly radiosensitive. In this study, p16-null human glioma cell lines were induced into G1 cell cycle arrest by adenovirus-mediated p16 gene transfer, and examined for radiation-induced cell killing. Clonogenic analysis and trypan blue extraction test showed that the p16 gene transfer enhanced radiation-induced cell killing in p16-null glioma

S Hama; S Matsuura; H Tauchi; F Yamasaki; Y Kajiwara; K Arita; H Yoshioka; Y Heike; K Mandai; K Kurisu

2003-01-01

414

A three-dimensional organotypic assay to measure target cell killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) mediate antigen- and cell–cell contact dependent killing of target cells, such as cancer cells and virus-infected cells. In vivo, this process requires the active migration of CTL towards and away from target cells. We here describe an organotypic 3D collagen matrix assay to monitor CTL migration together with CTL-mediated killing of target cells. The assay supports

Bettina Weigelin; Peter Friedl

2010-01-01

415

Terpinen-4-ol is the Most Active Ingredient of Tea Tree Oil to Kill Demodex Mites  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the active ingredient in tea tree oil (TTO) responsible for its reported killing effect on Demodex mites, the most common ectoparasite found in the human skin extending to the eye. Methods Using a reported in vitro killing assay to measure the survival time of adult Demodex folliculorum up to 150 minutes, we have screened serial concentrations of 13 of the 15 known ingredients of TTO (ISO4730:2004) that were soluble in mineral oil and examined their synergistic relationships in killing mites. The most potent ingredient was then tested for its efficacy in killing Demodex in vivo. Results All ingredients exhibited a dose-dependent killing effect. Besides Terpinen-4-ol, the order of relative potency did not correlate with the order of relative abundance in TTO for the remaining 12 ingredients. Terpinen-4-ol was the most potent ingredient followed by ?-Terpineol, 1,8-Cineole and Sabinene. Terpinen-4-ol, the most abundant ingredient in TTO, was more potent than TTO at equivalent concentrations and its killing effect was even observable at a mere concentration of 1%. Terpinen-4-ol exhibited a significant synergistic effect with Terpinolene, but an antagonistic effect with ?-Terpineol in killing mites (both P < 0.05). In vivo, Terpinen-4-ol was shown to eradicate mites. Conclusions The above finding suggests that deployment of Terpinen-4-ol alone should enhance its potency in killing Demodex mites by reducing the adverse and antagonistic effects from other ingredients in TTO. Translational Relevance Terpinen-4-ol can be adopted in future formulations of acaricides to treat a number of ocular and cutaneous diseases caused by demodicosis.

Tighe, Sean; Gao, Ying-Ying; Tseng, Scheffer C. G.

2013-01-01

416

Effect of alkalinisation and increased fluid intake on bacterial phagocytosis and killing in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of alkalinisation and increased fluid intake on bacterial phagocytosis and killing in urine was studied. Phagocytosis ofEscherichia coli andStaphylococcus saprophyticus by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) took place in only one of three first voided early morning urine samples from volunteers, and no bacterial killing occurred. This was attributed to the high osmolality (690 to 720 mOsm) and low pH

R. A. Gargan; J. M. T. Hamilton-Miller; W. Brumfitt

1993-01-01

417

Life cycle, physiology, ecology and red tide occurrences of the fish-killing raphidophyte Chattonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine fish-killing raphidophytes of the genus Chattonella currently consist of five species, i.e. C. antiqua, C. marina, C. minima, C. ovata and C. subsalasa. The distribution of Chattonella species was confirmed in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions in the world accompanying mass mortalities of fishes in nature and in aquaculture. The fish-killing mechanisms are still unclear, but suffocation is

Ichiro Imai; Mineo Yamaguchi

418

Electrified Motor-Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHILE to experience an electric shock from a motor-vehicle appears from a recent note to be unusual in England1, it is so common in the United States as to call for no comment. An interesting consequence of this phenomenon is to be seen on the San Francisco-Oakland and Golden Gate Bridges, where thousands of cars a day pass the toll

E. C. Williams

1939-01-01

419

Exploiting multi-vehicle interactions to improve urban vehicle tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of traffic flow modeling began over fifty years ago when Lighthill and Whitham used flow continuity equation from fluid dynamics to describe traffic behavior. Since then, a multitude of models, broadly classified into macroscopic, mesoscopic, and microscopic models, has been developed. Macroscopic models describe the space-time evolution of aggregate quantities such as traffic flow density whereas microscopic models describe behavior of individual drivers/vehicles in the presence of other vehicles. In this paper, we consider tracking of vehicles using a specific microscopic model known as the intelligent driver model (IDM). As in other microscopic models, the IDM equations of motion of a vehicle are nonlinearly coupled to those of neighboring vehicles, with the magnitudes of coupling terms becoming larger as vehicles get closer and smaller as vehicles get farther apart. In our approach, the state of weakly coupled groups of vehicles is represented by separated probability distributions. When the vehicles move closer to each other, the state is represented by a joint probability distribution that takes into account the interaction among vehicles. We use a sum of Gaussians approach to represent the underlying interaction structure for state estimation and reduce computational complexity. In this paper we describe our approach and illustrate the approach with simulated examples.

Prasanth, R. K.; Klamer, Dale; Arambel, Pablo O.

2010-04-01

420

Compulsory child restraint seat law and motor vehicle child occupant deaths and injuries in Japan 1994–2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of child restraint seats (CRS) is to reduce the number of individuals killed or injured in motor vehicle (MV) crashes. Japanese Road Traffic Law 17–3-4 (April 2000) specifies a requirement that CRS be used for all children aged 0–5 years. The objective of this evaluation was to determine the legislative impact on fatalities in Japan for the period

E. Desapriya; T. Fujiwara; G. Scime; S. Babula; I. Pike

2008-01-01

421

Japan's launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of Japan's Mu series scientific research launch vehicles, and N and H series practical applications vehicles, is described. The three-stage M-3C features a second-stage radio inertial guidance system. The evolution to the M-3S includes a first-stage TVC and Solid Motor Roll Control device, and eight 310-m strap-on boosters (SOB's). The M-3SII developed to launch an interplanetary satellite for the 1986 Halley's Comet apparition, employs two 735-mm SOB's and a microprocessor digitalized flight control system, and can put a 770 kg satellite into low earth orbit. The N-1 is a three-stage radio-guided vehicle using first and second stage liquid engines, a solid motor third stage, three SOB's, and having the capability to launch a 145 kg geostationary satellite. N-II improvements include a 350 kg geostationary payload capacity, nine SOB's, and an inertial guidance system. The H-1 planned for 1987 has a 550 kg geostationary payload capacity and a domestically developed cryogenic engine. The H-II planned for 1992 will be capable of launching a two-ton geostationary satellite, or LOX/LH2 plural satellites simultaneously. It will be powered by a single 95-ton thrust LE-7 main engine.

Kuroda, Y.; Hara, N.

422

Optimal killing for obligate killers: the evolution of life histories and virulence of semelparous parasites.  

PubMed Central

Many viral, bacterial and protozoan parasites of invertebrates first propagate inside their host without releasing any transmission stages and then kill their host to release all transmission stages at once. Life history and the evolution of virulence of these obligately killing parasites are modelled, assuming that within-host growth is density dependent. We find that the parasite should kill the host when its per capita growth rate falls to the level of the host mortality rate. The parasite should kill its host later when the carrying capacity, K, is higher, but should kill it earlier when the parasite-independent host mortality increases or when the parasite has a higher birth rate. When K(t), for parasite growth, is not constant over the duration of an infection, but increases with time, the parasite should kill the host around the stage when the growth rate of the carrying capacity decelerates strongly. In case that K(t) relates to host body size, this deceleration in growth is around host maturation.

Ebert, D; Weisser, W W

1997-01-01

423

Malarial parasites and tumour cells are killed by the same component of tumour necrosis serum.  

PubMed Central

Tumour necrosis serum (TNS), from animals primed with macrophage activating agents and challenged with endotoxin, causes necrosis of some tumours and can kill certain tumour lines in vitro and malarial parasites in vitro and in vivo. We have tested the possibility that the same factor is responsible for killing both tumour cells and malarial parasites. In competitive inhibition experiments, parasitized erythrocytes, but not normal erythrocytes, inhibited the cytotoxicity of TNS against a tumour cell line. Conversely, the tumour cells inhibited the killing of Plasmodium yoelii in vitro by TNS. When rabbit TNS was fractionated by ion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration and the fractions at each step were pooled according to their ability to kill the tumour cells, in vitro parasite killing activity was found to correlate with tumour cell cytotoxicity, to a final sample which was purified more than 600-fold. Our results suggest that in terms of function, at least, the same component of TNS is responsible for the killing of both tumour cells and malarial parasites.

Taverne, J; Matthews, N; Depledge, P; Playfair, J H

1984-01-01

424

Antibody enhances killing of Tritrichomonas foetus by the alternative bovine complement pathway.  

PubMed Central

The role of bovine antibody and complement in host defense against Tritrichomonas foetus was measured by using an assay of trichomonad viability based on protozoal uptake of tritiated adenine. Moderate killing was measured in the absence of antibody only with high concentrations of complement-preserved hypogammaglobulinemic bovine serum. However, very low concentrations of hyperimmune serum promoted significant enhancement (P less than 0.05) of killing by complement. Heat inactivation of complement (56 degrees C for 30 min) eliminated antibody-dependent and -independent killing. Similarly, depletion of bovine factor B in serum by heat treatment (50 degrees C for 45 min) abolished antibody-dependent and -independent killing. However, selective inactivation of the classical complement pathway with magnesium ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid did not affect antibody-dependent or -independent killing by complement. These findings demonstrate antibody enhancement of complement-mediated killing of T. foetus by the alternative pathway of bovine complement.

Aydintug, M K; Leid, R W; Widders, P R

1990-01-01

425

Induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition mediates the killing of HeLa cells by staurosporine.  

PubMed

The role of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in the killing of HeLa cells by staurosporine (STR) was assessed with the use of bongkrekic acid (BK), an inhibitor of the MPT. BK prevented cell killing as well as biochemical manifestations of the MPT: (a) the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (deltapsim); (b) the release of cytochrome c from the intramembranous space to the cytosol; and (c) the release of malate dehydrogenase from the mitochondrial matrix. Stable transfectants that overexpressed Akt were also resistant to cell killing and did not develop an MPT. STR inhibited the phosphorylation of Bad, whereas Bad phosphorylation was preserved in cells that overexpress Akt. In wild-type HeLa cells treated with STR, the content of Bax in the cytosol decreased as that in the mitochondria increased, a result that was again prevented by overexpression of Akt. Bid accumulation in the mitochondria with STR was not affected by overexpression of Akt. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-Val-Ala-Val-Asp(OMe) fluoromethylketone prevented cell killing bu not induction of the MPT. The data document the central role of the MPT in the killing of HeLa cells by STR. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that induction of the MPT is a consequence of the movement of Bax to the mitochondria. Phosphorylation of Bad prevents Bax translocation. Caspases participate in the events related to cell killing that occur subsequent to induction of the MPT. PMID:11289115

Tafani, M; Minchenko, D A; Serroni, A; Farber, J L

2001-03-15

426

Trogocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica contributes to cell killing and tissue invasion.  

PubMed

Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amoebiasis, a potentially fatal diarrhoeal disease in the developing world. The parasite was named "histolytica" for its ability to destroy host tissues, which is probably driven by direct killing of human cells. The mechanism of human cell killing has been unclear, although the accepted model was that the parasites use secreted toxic effectors to kill cells before ingestion. Here we report the discovery that amoebae kill by ingesting distinct pieces of living human cells, resulting in intracellular calcium elevation and eventual cell death. After cell killing, amoebae detach and cease ingestion. Ingestion of human cell fragments is required for cell killing, and also contributes to invasion of intestinal tissue. The internalization of fragments of living human cells is reminiscent of trogocytosis (from Greek trogo, nibble) observed between immune cells, but amoebic trogocytosis differs because it results in death. The ingestion of live cell material and the rejection of corpses illuminate a stark contrast to the established model of dead cell clearance in multicellular organisms. These findings change the model for tissue destruction in amoebiasis and suggest an ancient origin of trogocytosis as a form of intercellular exchange. PMID:24717428

Ralston, Katherine S; Solga, Michael D; Mackey-Lawrence, Nicole M; Somlata; Bhattacharya, Alok; Petri, William A

2014-04-24

427

Assisted suicide and the killing of people? Maybe. Physician-assisted suicide and the killing of patients? No: the rejection of Shaw's new perspective on euthanasia.  

PubMed

David Shaw presents a new argument to support the old claim that there is not a significant moral difference between killing and letting die and, by implication, between active and passive euthanasia. He concludes that doctors should not make a distinction between them. However, whether or not killing and letting die are morally equivalent is not as important a question as he suggests. One can justify legal distinctions on non-moral grounds. One might oppose physician-assisted suicide and active euthanasia when performed by doctors on patients whether or not one is in favour of the legalisation of assisted suicide and active euthanasia. Furthermore, one can consider particular actions to be contrary to appropriate professional conduct even in the absence of legal and ethical objections to them. Someone who wants to die might want only a doctor to kill him or to help him to kill himself. However, we are not entitled to everything that we want in life or death. A doctor cannot always fittingly provide all that a patient wants or needs. It is appropriate that doctors provide their expert advice with regard to the performance of active euthanasia but they can and should do so while, qua doctors, they remain hors de combat. PMID:20448006

McLachlan, Hugh V

2010-05-01

428

Kinetics of phase transformations  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains papers presented at the Materials Research Society symposium on Kinetics of Phase Transformations held in Boston, Massachusetts from November 26-29, 1990. The symposium provided a forum for research results in an exceptionally broad and interdisciplinary field. Presentations covered nearly every major class of transformations including solid-solid, liquid-solid, transport phenomena and kinetics modeling. Papers involving amorphous Si, a dominant topic at the symposium, are collected in the first section followed by sections on four major areas of transformation kinetics. The symposium opened with joint sessions on ion and electron beam induced transformations in conjunction with the Surface Chemistry and Beam-Solid Interactions: symposium. Subsequent sessions focused on the areas of ordering and nonlinear diffusion kinetics, solid state reactions and amorphization, kinetics and defects of amorphous silicon, and kinetics of melting and solidification. Seven internationally recognized invited speakers reviewed many of the important problems and recent results in these areas, including defects in amorphous Si, crystal to glass transformations, ordering kinetics, solid-state amorphization, computer modeling, and liquid/solid transformations.

Thompson, M.O. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); Aziz, M.J. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Stephenson, G.B. (International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center)

1992-01-01

429

Colicin Killing: Foiled Cell Defense and Hijacked Cell Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of bacteriocins, notably those produced by E. coli (and named colicins), was initiated in 1925 by Gratia, who first discovered "un remarquable exemple d'antagonisme entre deux souches de colibacilles". Since this innovating observation, the production of toxic exoproteins has been widely reported in all major lineages of Eubacteria and in Archaebacteria. Bacteriocins belong to the most abundant and most diverse group of these bacterial defense systems. Paradoxically, these antimicrobial cytotoxins are actually powerful weapons in the intense battle for bacterial survival. They are also biotechnologically useful since several bacteriocins are used as preservatives in the food industry or as antibiotics or as potential antitumor agents in human health care. Most colicins kill bacteria in one of two ways. The first type is those that form pores in the phospholipid bilayer of the inner membrane. They are active immediately after their translocation across the outer membrane. The translocation pathway requires generally either the BtuB receptor and the Tol (OmpF/TolABQR) complex, or the FepA, FhuA, or Cir receptor and the Ton (TonB/ExbBD) system. The second type of colicins encodes specific endonuclease activities that target DNA, rRNA, or tRNAs in the cytoplasm. To be active, these colicins require translocation across both the outer and inner membranes. The molecular mechanisms implicated in the complex cascade of interactions, required for the transfers of colicin molecules from the extracellular medium through the different "cellular compartments" (outer membrane, periplasm, inner membrane, and cytoplasm), are still incompletely understood. It is clear, however, that the colicins "hijack" specific cellular functions to facilitate access to their target. In this chapter, following a general presentation of colicin biology, we describe, compare, and update several of the concepts related to colicin toxicity and discuss recent, often unexpected findings, which help to advance our understanding of the molecular events governing colicin import. In particular, our review includes the following: (1) Structural data on the tripartite interaction of a colicin with the outer membrane receptor and the translocation machinery, (2) Comparison of the normal cellular functions of the Tol and Ton systems of the inner membrane with their "hijacked" roles during colicin import, (3) An analysis of the interaction of a nuclease-type colicin with its cognate immunity protein in the context of the immunity of producer cells, and of the dissociation of this complex in the context of the attack of the colicin on target cells, (4) Information on the endoproteolytic cleavage, which presumably accompanies the penetration of nuclease-type colicins into the cytoplasm. The new data presented here provides further insight into cellular functions "hijacked" or "borrowed" by colicins to permit their entry into target cells.

de Zamaroczy, Miklos; Chauleau, Mathieu

430

Regional lymphadenitis following antileprosy vaccine BCG with killed Mycobacterium leprae.  

PubMed

Phase-II and extended Phase-II studies were conducted in three different sets of the population in Thiruthani Taluk, Chengalpattu District, South India, involving BCG and killed Mycobacterium leprae (KML) combination vaccines to ascertain the acceptability of the vaccines. In the Phase-II study, 997 healthy volunteers were vaccinated on individual randomization with one of the vaccines arms: BCG 0.1 mg + 6 x 10(8) KML, BCG 0.1 mg + 5 x 10(7) KML, BCG 0.1 mg + 5 x 10(6) KML, BCG, 0.1 mg or normal saline. Blood samples were taken and the serum was tested for antibody levels against phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) and the 35-kDa protein of M. leprae. In this study, we observed regional suppurative adenitis in 6% (6 out of 100), 3% (3 out of 100), and 3% (3 out of 100) of the vaccinees in the BCG 0.1 mg + 6 x 10(8) KML, BCG 0.1 mg + 5 x 10(7) KML, and BCG 0.1 mg + 5 x 10(6) KML vaccine arms, respectively, in the 13-70 year age group. Earlier BCG scar status, skin-test reactions to lepromin-A, Rees' MLSA, and serum antibody levels against PGL-I and the 35-kDa protein did not help to identify the group at risk of developing suppurative adenitis. Suppurative adenitis appears to have a different relationship between the age of the subject and the dose of the vaccine. In order to overcome the problem of regional suppurative adenitis and to know the mechanism involved, an extended Phase-II study was conducted in similar groups of the population by reducing the BCG and KML doses, i.e., with BCG 0.05 mg + 6 x 10(8) KML, BCG 0.05 mg + 5 x 10(7) KML, and BCG 0.01 mg + 5 x 10(7) KML. Biopsy specimens were collected from lymph nodes of the suppurative adenitis cases and were subjected for culture and histopathological examination. The observations showed that regional suppurative adenitis could be reduced to 1% in the BCG 0.05 + 6 x 10(8) KML group, 0.5% in the BCG 0.05 + 5 x 10(7) KML group, and 0.5% in the BCG 0.01 + 5 x 10(7) KML group. This phenomenon of suppurative adenitis appears to be related to the total dose of mycobacterial antigens. Suppurative adenitis was seen by weeks 18 and 20 post-vaccination in the latter two lower doses; whereas it was seen by week 8 in the higher dose of the combination vaccines. No case of suppurative adenitis was observed in the BCG 0.1 mg group. Culture and histopathology ruled out the possibilities of progressive BCG infection and superadded infection. Considering the above results, BCG 0.05 mg + 6 x 10(8) KML was acceptable for a large-scale vaccine trial in South India. PMID:9207749

De Britto, R L; Ramanathan, V D; Gupte, M D

1997-03-01

431

Three-wheeled motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A three-wheeled motor vehicle is described consisting of: (a) a vehicle body; (b) two front wheels rotatably mounted on the vehicle body; (c) a single rear wheel rotatably mounted on the vehicle body; (d) an engine disposed on the vehicle body between the front wheels; (e) a driver's compartment defined in the vehicle body; (f) the vehicle body including a front portion covering the engine and the front wheels and a rear portion disposed behind the front portion and covering the compartment and the rear wheel, the front portion having a relatively wide and flat shape and the rear portion being narrower than the front portion and progressively higher in a rearward direction for a substantial proportion of the rear portion; and (g) the vehicle body also including lateral wing portions on each side extending longitudinally rearwardly from behind the front wheels and tapering into the rear portion for causing the vehicle body to have a substantially constant cross-sectional area throughout a substantial proportion of both the front and rear portions and the transition between the front and rear portions for producing an aerodynamically improved vehicle body shape.

Irimajiri, S.; Komuro, K.; Aikawa, K.

1986-03-04

432

Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy?s (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations. Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing. Testing and evaluations were conducted in the following phases: ? Development of test procedures, which established testing procedures; ? Baseline performance testing, which established a performance baseline; ? Accelerated reliability testing, which determined vehicle reliability; ? Fleet testing, used to evaluate vehicle economics in fleet operation, and ? End of test performance evaluation. Test results are reported by two means and posted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to their website: quarterly progress reports, used to document work in progress; and final test reports. This final report documents work conducted for the entirety of the contract by the Clarity Group, Inc., doing business as ECOtality North America (ECOtality). The contract was performed from 1 October 2005 through 31 March 2013. There were 113 light-duty on-road (95), off-road (3) and low speed (15) vehicles tested.

Garetson, Thomas

2013-03-31

433

Vehicle following controller design for autonomous intelligent vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new vehicle following controller is proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles. The proposed vehicle following controller not only provides smooth transient maneuvers for unavoidable nonzero initial conditions but also guarantees the asymptotic platoon stability without the availability of feedforward information. Furthermore, the achieved asymptotic platoon stability is shown to be robust to sensor delays and an upper bound for the allowable sensor delays is also provided in this paper.

Chien, C. C.; Lai, M. C.; Mayr, R.

1994-01-01

434

Vehicle-to-vehicle safety messaging in DSRC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the design of layer-2 protocols for a vehicle to send safety messages to other vehicles. The target is to send vehicle safety messages with high reliability and low delay. The communication is one-to-many, local, and geo-significant. The vehicular communication network is ad-hoc, highly mobile, and with large numbers of contending nodes. The messages are very short, have

Qing Xu; Tony K. Mak; Jeff Ko; Raja Sengupta

2004-01-01

435

Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management for Advanced Vehicle Propulsion Technologies  

SciTech Connect

A critical element to the success of new propulsion technologies that enable reductions in fuel use is the integration of component thermal management technologies within a viable vehicle package. Vehicle operation requires vehicle thermal management systems capable of balancing the needs of multiple vehicle systems that may require heat for operation, require cooling to reject heat, or require operation within specified temperature ranges. As vehicle propulsion transitions away from a single form of vehicle propulsion based solely on conventional internal combustion engines (ICEs) toward a wider array of choices including more electrically dominant systems such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), new challenges arise associated with vehicle thermal management. As the number of components that require active thermal management increase, so do the costs in terms of dollars, weight, and size. Integrated vehicle thermal management is one pathway to address the cost, weight, and size challenges. The integration of the power electronics and electric machine (PEEM) thermal management with other existing vehicle systems is one path for reducing the cost of electric drive systems. This work demonstrates techniques for evaluating and quantifying the integrated transient and continuous heat loads of combined systems incorporating electric drive systems that operate primarily under transient duty cycles, but the approach can be extended to include additional steady-state duty cycles typical for designing vehicle thermal management systems of conventional vehicles. The work compares opportunities to create an integrated low temperature coolant loop combining the power electronics and electric machine with the air conditioning system in contrast to a high temperature system integrated with the ICE cooling system.

Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

2010-04-01

436

Sensor Technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Management of Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is focusing considerable efforts on technology development for Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems. The research in this area is targeted toward increasing aerospace vehicle safety and reliability, while reducing vehicle operating and maintenance costs. Onboard, real-time sensing technologies that can provide detailed information on structural integrity are central to such a health management system. This paper describes a number of sensor technologies currently under development for integrated vehicle health management. The capabilities, current limitations, and future research needs of these technologies are addressed.

Prosser, W. H.; Brown, T. L.; Woodard, S. E.; Fleming, G. A.; Cooper, E. G.

2002-01-01

437

Evolutionary algorithm for vehicle driving cycle generation.  

PubMed

Modeling transit bus emissions and fuel economy requires a large amount of experimental data over wide ranges of operational conditions. Chassis dynamometer tests are typically performed using representative driving cycles defined based on vehicle instantaneous speed as sequences of "microtrips", which are intervals between consecutive vehicle stops. Overall significant parameters of the driving cycle, such as average speed, stops per mile, kinetic intensity, and others, are used as independent variables in the modeling process. Performing tests at all the necessary combinations of parameters is expensive and time consuming. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for building driving cycles at prescribed independent variable values using experimental data through the concatenation of "microtrips" isolated from a limited number of standard chassis dynamometer test cycles. The selection of the adequate "microtrips" is achieved through a customized evolutionary algorithm. The genetic representation uses microtrip definitions as genes. Specific mutation, crossover, and karyotype alteration operators have been defined. The Roulette-Wheel selection technique with elitist strategy drives the optimization process, which consists of minimizing the errors to desired overall cycle parameters. This utility is part of the Integrated Bus Information System developed at West Virginia University. PMID:22010377

Perhinschi, Mario G; Marlowe, Christopher; Tamayo, Sergio; Tu, Jun; Wayne, W Scott

2011-09-01

438

Wind energy for electric vehicle recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatially diluted character of the kinetic energy content of wind makes it an attractive means of energy supply for electric vehicles intended for local traffic in suburban areas where individually owned windmills used for this purpose can be spaced at large enough distances from one another to avoid undesirable interference effects. These windmills would charge large stationary batteries whenever the wind intensity is sufficiently high, and the batteries would transfer their charge overnight to the small batteries carried by the vehicles. Such systems using wind generators of relatively small size (5 to 10 kW) are simple and rugged and should be able to operate over long periods between overhauls. Since it would be equipped with automatic controls, it could operate unattended and could bring about a significant near-term savings in the fuel required for transportation. This paper examines various aspects of systems of this type, leading to the conclusion that with the major components of the system already well-developed, this source of energy could be utilized in a cost-effective manner in most parts of this country.

Sammells, A. F.; Fejer, A. A.

439

Chemical Kinetics Database  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.

440

A "Stationery" Kinetics Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple redox reaction that occurs between potassium permanganate and oxalic acid that can be used to prepare an interesting disappearing ink for demonstrating kinetics for introductory chemistry. Discusses laboratory procedures and factors that influence disappearance times. (CW)

Hall, L.; Goberdhansingh, A.

1988-01-01

441

Cell Biology: Cell Kinetics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the purview of cell kinetics are all studies relating to the characterization and measurement of cell cycle parameters, particularly for in vivo studies of normal and tumor cells, and in vitro studies of derived cell lines. Methodologies for measur...

1979-01-01

442

Cell Biology: Cell Kinetics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the purview of cell kinetics are all studies relating to the characterization and measurement of cell cycle parameters, particularly for in vivo studies of normal and tumor cells, and in vitro studies of derived cell lines. Methodologies for measur...

1984-01-01

443

Cell Biology: Cell Kinetics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the purview of cell kinetics are all studies relating to the characterization and measurement of cell cycle parameters, particularly for in vivo studies of normal and tumor cells, and in vitro studies of derived cell lines. Methodologies for measur...

1982-01-01

444

Cell Biology: Cell Kinetics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the purview of cell kinetics are all studies relating to the characterization and measurement of cell cycle parameters, particularly for in vivo studies of normal and tumor cells, and in vitro studies of derived cell lines. Methodologies for measur...

1980-01-01

445

Energy management and vehicle synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major drivers in the development of launch vehicles for the twenty-first century are reduction in cost of vehicles and operations, continuous reusability, mission abort capability with vehicle recovery, and readiness. One approach to the design of such vehicles is to emphasize energy management and propulsion as being the principal means of improvements given the available industrial capability and the required freedom in selecting configuration concept geometries. A methodology has been developed for the rational synthesis of vehicles based on the setting up and utilization of available data and projections, and a reference vehicle. The application of the methodology is illustrated for a single stage to orbit (SSTO) with various limits for the use of airbreathing propulsion.

Czysz, P.; Murthy, S. N. B.

1995-01-01

446

Mission and space vehicle concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of top-level considerations which affect Mars and vehicle selection are discussed. Indications are provided of the nature and severity of the impact of these considerations on missions and vehicles. Various types of missions, such as Mars fly-bys, Mars orbiting and landing mission, and missions to the moons of Mars are identified and discussed. Mission trajectories and opportunities are discused briefly. The different types of vehicles required in a Mars program are also discussed. Discussion includes several potential Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) vehicles, Mars surface vehicles, and 2 types of Orbit-to-Orbit (OTO) vehicles. Indications are provided as to preference for some of the concepts discussed.

Butler, John

1986-01-01

447

International Human Powered Vehicle Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Human Powered Vehicle Association is an association of national associations and organizations who are "dedicated to promoting improvement, innovation and creativity in the use of human power, especially in the design and development of human-powered vehicles." The website provides updates on the world of human-powered vehicles, such as upcoming world championships and innovations in bicycle technology. The Source Guide includes links to directories with details on human-powered vehicle providers and companies selling materials needed for bicycle builders. The Library provides information on video, software, books and periodicals, while the Builder's Corner section offers how-to articles and guides. Information on human-powered vehicle races and schools with Human Powered Vehicle programs is also provided.

448

Prediction of postoperative clinical course by autologous tumor-killing activity in lung cancer patients  

SciTech Connect

Fifty patients with primary localized lung cancer were tested at the time of surgery for the ability of their lymphocytes to kill autologous, freshly isolated tumor cells, and the assay was evaluated for prognostic significance. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of 27 patients (54%) demonstrated significant autologous tumor-killing activity in 6-hour 51Cr-release assays. Twenty-three of the 27 patients with autologous tumor-killing activity remained tumor free and survived more than 5 years after curative surgery, while all 23 who were negative for autologous tumor-killing activity relapsed by 18 months after surgery and died within 42 months after surgery. The differences in survival curves for the two groups were highly significant (P less than .00003). Autologous tumor-killing activity was not correlated with natural killer (NK) cell activity against K562 human myeloid leukemia cells or proliferation of lymphocytes stimulated with autologous, freshly isolated tumor cells in mixed culture. There were no differences in total survival between patients with positive results and those with negative results in tests of NK cell activity and autologous mixed lymphocyte-tumor culture reaction. These results indicate that autologous tumor-killing activity is a meaningful prognostic indicator and provide evidence for immunological control of tumor growth and metastasis. According to our preliminary data, it is unlikely that lung cancer patients who remain tumor free after 60 months of follow-up will develop recurrence or die from the disease. We are conducting a study to determine whether induction of autologous tumor-killing activity before surgery, by treatment with biological response modifiers,can improve the clinical outcome in patients who do not naturally have this potential.

Uchida, A.; Kariya, Y.; Okamoto, N.; Sugie, K.; Fujimoto, T.; Yagita, M. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

1990-11-07

449

Targeting hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites to manage disease risk  

PubMed Central

Endemic and emerging diseases are rarely uniform in their spatial distribution or prevalence among cohorts of wildlife. Spatial models that quantify risk-driven differences in resource selection and hunter mortality of animals at fine spatial scales can assist disease management by identifying high-risk areas and individuals. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) and selection ratios (SRs) to quantify sex- and age-specific resource selection patterns of collared (n = 67) and hunter-killed (n = 796) nonmigratory elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis) during the hunting season between 2002 and 2012, in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. Distance to protected area was the most important covariate influencing resource selection and hunter-kill sites of elk (AICw = 1.00). Collared adult males (which are most likely to be infected with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) and chronic wasting disease) rarely selected for sites outside of parks during the hunting season in contrast to adult females and juvenile males. The RSFs showed selection by adult females and juvenile males to be negatively associated with landscape-level forest cover, high road density, and water cover, whereas hunter-kill sites of these cohorts were positively associated with landscape-level forest cover and increasing distance to streams and negatively associated with high road density. Local-level forest was positively associated with collared animal locations and hunter-kill sites; however, selection was stronger for collared juvenile males and hunter-killed adult females. In instances where disease infects a metapopulation and eradication is infeasible, a principle goal of management is to limit the spread of disease among infected animals. We map high-risk areas that are regularly used by potentially infectious hosts but currently underrepresented in the distribution of kill sites. We present a novel application of widely available data to target hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites as a promising tool for applying selective hunting to the management of transmissible diseases in a game species.

Dugal, Cherie J; van Beest, Floris M; Vander Wal, Eric; Brook, Ryan K

2013-01-01

450

Membrane Lipid Peroxidation in Copper Alloy-Mediated Contact Killing of Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Copper alloy surfaces are passive antimicrobial sanitizing agents that kill bacteria, fungi, and some viruses. Studies of the mechanism of contact killing in Escherichia coli implicate the membrane as the target, yet the specific component and underlying biochemistry remain unknown. This study explores the hypothesis that nonenzymatic peroxidation of membrane phospholipids is responsible for copper alloy-mediated surface killing. Lipid peroxidation was monitored with the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Survival, TBARS levels, and DNA degradation were followed in cells exposed to copper alloy surfaces containing 60 to 99.90% copper or in medium containing CuSO4. In all cases, TBARS levels increased with copper exposure levels. Cells exposed to the highest copper content alloys, C11000 and C24000, exhibited novel characteristics. TBARS increased immediately at a very rapid rate but peaked at about 30 min. This peak was associated with the period of most rapid killing, loss in membrane integrity, and DNA degradation. DNA degradation is not the primary cause of copper-mediated surface killing. Cells exposed to the 60% copper alloy for 60 min had fully intact genomic DNA but no viable cells. In a fabR mutant strain with increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids, sensitivity to copper alloy surface-mediated killing increased, TBARS levels peaked earlier, and genomic DNA degradation occurred sooner than in the isogenic parental strain. Taken together, these results suggest that copper alloy surface-mediated killing of E. coli is triggered by nonenzymatic oxidative damage of membrane phospholipids that ultimately results in the loss of membrane integrity and cell death.

Hong, Robert; Kang, Tae Y.; Michels, Corinne A.

2012-01-01

451

Juno II Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modified Jupiter C (sometimes called Juno I), used to launch Explorer I, had minimum payload lifting capabilities. Explorer I weighed slightly less than 31 pounds. Juno II was part of America's effort to increase payload lifting capabilities. Among other achievements, the vehicle successfully launched a Pioneer IV satellite on March 3, 1959, and an Explorer VII satellite on October 13, 1959. Responsibility for Juno II passed from the Army to the Marshall Space Flight Center when the Center was activated on July 1, 1960. On November 3, 1960, a Juno II sent Explorer VIII into a 1,000-mile deep orbit within the ionosphere.

1958-01-01

452

Alternative Fuel Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This Federal Technology Alert on alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), is intended for fleet managers in government agencies and other government officials who need to use more alternative fuels and AFVs in their fleets of cars and trucks. This publication describes the government's plans and progress in meeting goals for the use of AFVs, which are stated in the Energy Policy Act and various Executive Orders. It describes the types of AFVs available, lists actual and potential federal uses, makes some general recommendations, and presents field experiences to date.

Not Available

2003-09-01

453

Hybrid vehicle motor alignment  

DOEpatents

A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

Levin, Michael Benjamin (Ann Arbor, MI)

2001-07-03

454

Space Vehicles Directorate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Vehicles Directorate is a division of the Air Force Research Laboratory and is located on Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The directorate is composed of four divisions specializing in research and development, specifically the Battlespace Environment, Spacecraft Technology, Innovative Concepts, and Integrated Experiments divisions. The Web site contains information on all of these divisions, as well as facility and technology program fact sheets, photo and video galleries, and technology demonstrations. Each video even has three versions (small, medium, and large) to make downloading on slow connections easier. There are many projects and areas of research detailed on the site; so, visitors will have plenty of exploring to do.

2002-01-01

455

Systems Challenges for Hypersonic Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines the system challenges posed by fully reusable hypersonic cruise airplanes and access to space vehicles. Hydrocarbon and hydrogen fueled airplanes are considered with cruise speeds of Mach 5 and 10, respectively. The access to space matrix is examined. Airbreathing and rocket powered, single- and two-stage vehicles are considered. Reference vehicle architectures are presented. Major systems/subsystems challenges are described. Advanced, enhancing systems concepts as well as common system technologies are discussed.

Hunt, James L.; Laruelle, Gerard; Wagner, Alain

1997-01-01

456

Space vehicle gyroscope sensor applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Considerations which form the basis for the specification, design and evaluation of gyroscopes for spaceborne sensor applications are presented. The applications are distinguished by basic vehicle category: launch vehicles, spacecraft, entry vehicles and sounding rockets. Specifically excluded from discussion are gyroscope effector applications. Exotic or unconventional gyroscopes for which operational experience is nonexistent are mentioned only briefly to alert the reader of future trends. General requirements for testing and evaluation are discussed.

1972-01-01

457

Coal liquefaction kinetics  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the mechanisms of uncatalyzed direct coal liquefaction by means of reaction kinetics has been a long sought goal. Curran et al. in 1967 and Wiser in 1968 and Neavel in 1976 measured the rates of liquefaction of various coals and postulated a free radical mechanism to explain the data obtained. The kinetics as determined by these and other workers is described in detail by Gorin in Chapter 27 of Elliott`s Second Supplementary Volume to the Chemistry of Coal Series. However, it has been well known that most coals contain some material extractable by organic solvents. The solvents used in direct coal liquefaction would of course be expected to also extract soluble material as well as effect the liquefaction reaction. If the extractable material were a significant quantity in the coal, it would seriously affect the kinetics. Cassidy et al. used a stirred autoclave with a sampling port at the bottom in their kinetic studies. They observed that hot charging the coal rapidly formed an oil which they considered to originate predominantly from the {open_quote}guest component{close_quote}, i.e., extractables, in the lignite they studied. Also, the free radical nature of the liquefaction process would be expected to produce secondary reaction products which would complicate the kinetics as well as lead to retrograde products. The kinetics of the liquefaction of a bituminous and subbituminous coal are reported.

Wang, Shaojie; Wang, Keyu; Huang, He; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

1996-12-31

458

A Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the concept of a potential test vehicle for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that is designed to evaluate the dynamics, human factors, and safety aspects of advanced technologies in passenger class automobiles expected to be introduced as a result of the Intelligent Vehicle/Highway System (IVHS) Program. The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) requirements were determined from the inputs of anticipated users and possible research needs of NHTSA. Design and implementation approaches are described, the benefits of the vehicle are discussed and costs for several options presented.

Marriott, A.

1995-01-01

459

Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

None

1984-06-01

460

Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) Visiting Vehicle Group needed a targeting tool for vehicles that rendezvous with the ISS. The Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory targeting tool provides the ability to perform both realtime and planning operations for the Visiting Vehicle Group. This tool provides a highly reconfigurable base, which allows the Visiting Vehicle Group to perform their work. The application is composed of a telemetry processing function, a relative motion function, a targeting function, a vector view, and 2D/3D world map type graphics. The software tool provides the ability to plan a rendezvous trajectory for vehicles that visit the ISS. It models these relative trajectories using planned and realtime data from the vehicle. The tool monitors ongoing rendezvous trajectory relative motion, and ensures visiting vehicles stay within agreed corridors. The software provides the ability to update or re-plan a rendezvous to support contingency operations. Adding new parameters and incorporating them into the system was previously not available on-the-fly. If an unanticipated capability wasn't discovered until the vehicle was flying, there was no way to update things.

Hamm, Dustin

2013-01-01