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1

Developments at the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) sponsored the development of the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the- Loop Simulator (KHILS) to provide a comprehensive ground test capability for end game performance evaluation of BMDO interceptor concepts. Since its inception in 1986, the KHILS facility has been on the forefront of HWIL test technology development. This development has culminated in closed-loop testing involving

Robert Lee Murrer; Rhoe A. Thompson; Charles F. Coker

1999-01-01

2

Duel between an ASAT with multiple-kill vehicles and a space-based weapons platform with kinetic-energy weapons. Final report, Oct 84Dec 85  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is described for a duel between a ground-based anti-satellite (ASAT) and a spaced-based weapons platform defending itself with kinetic energy weapons. The ASAT carries 1-6 kill vehicles and the space platform may first attack the ASAT booster with 1-3 defense missiles. If the ASAT kill vehicles collectively survive the boost phase, they are each subject to a

Cutchis

1986-01-01

3

Unique digital imagery interface between a silicon graphics computer and the kinetic kill vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulator (KHILS) wideband infrared scene projector (WISP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing a flexible and reliable source of IR target imagery is absolutely essential for operation of an IR Scene Projector in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment. The Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) at Eglin AFB provides the capability, and requisite interfaces, to supply target IR imagery to its Wideband IR Scene Projector (WISP) from three separate sources at frame rates ranging from 30 - 120 Hz. Video can be input from a VCR source at the conventional 30 Hz frame rate. Pre-canned digital imagery and test patterns can be downloaded into stored memory from the host processor and played back as individual still frames or movie sequences up to a 120 Hz frame rate. Dynamic real-time imagery to the KHILS WISP projector system, at a 120 Hz frame rate, can be provided from a Silicon Graphics Onyx computer system normally used for generation of digital IR imagery through a custom CSA-built interface which is available for either the SGI/DVP or SGI/DD02 interface port. The primary focus of this paper is to describe our technical approach and experience in the development of this unique SGI computer and WISP projector interface.

Erickson, Ricky A.; Moren, Stephen A.; Skalka, Marion S.

1998-07-01

4

Is the SSPK sufficient to represent a kill vehicle performance?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Is the SSPK (Single Shot Probability of Kill) sufficient to represent a kill vehicle performance? This question is often asked because the SSPK computation ignores the details of the miss distance performance and considers only the threshold limit of the miss distance. One may intuitively think that a KV (kill vehicle) with a smaller average miss distance should perform better than the one with a larger distance. In this case the SSPK alone may not be sufficient to represent a KV performance. This paper, however, will show that the SSPK and the miss distance performance are related (i.e., a higher SSPK means a smaller average miss distance, and vice versa) and therefore the SSPK is a sufficient KV performance measure. The relationship is derived based on the observation that KV miss distance obeys Rayleigh statistics.

Kim, Kang S.

2005-05-01

5

Characteristics of vehicle-animal crashes in which vehicle occupants are killed.  

PubMed

During the past 10 years almost 1,500 people have been killed in motor vehicle collisions with animals. Police reports on 147 fatal vehicle-animal crashes during 2000-2002 were obtained from nine states. The goal was to determine common crash types, types of animals involved, and steps that could be taken to reduce the crashes and injuries. Seventy-seven percent of the struck animals were deer, but six other types of animals were involved including small ones such as dogs. Eighty percent of the crashes were single-vehicle events. In most of these cases a motorcycle struck an animal and the rider came off the vehicle, or a passenger vehicle struck an animal and then ran off the road; in a few cases the animal went through the windshield. Multiple-vehicle crashes included vehicles striking deer that went through the windshields of oncoming vehicles, vehicles striking animals and then colliding with other vehicles, and vehicles striking animals that subsequently were struck by other vehicles. Crashes occurred primarily in rural areas, on roads with 55 mph or higher speed limits, during evening or nighttime hours, and in darkness. Greater application of deer-vehicle collision countermeasures known to be effective is needed, but it is noteworthy that a majority of fatalities occurred from subsequent collisions with other vehicles or objects, not from animal contacts. Sixty-five percent of motorcyclists killed were not wearing helmets, and 60% of vehicle occupants killed were unbelted; many of these fatalities would not have occurred with proper protection. PMID:15823876

Williams, Allan F; Wells, Joann K

2005-03-01

6

Characteristics of Vehicle-Animal Crashes in Which Vehicle Occupants Are Killed  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 10 years almost 1,500 people have been killed in motor vehicle collisions with animals. Police reports on 147 fatal vehicle–animal crashes during 2000–2002 were obtained from nine states. The goal was to determine common crash types, types of animals involved, and steps that could be taken to reduce the crashes and injuries. Seventy-seven percent of the struck

Allan F. Williams; JoAnn K. Wells

2005-01-01

7

Imaging burst kinetics and spatial coordination during serial killing by single natural killer cells  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxic lymphocytes eliminate virus-infected and cancerous cells by immune recognition and killing through the perforin-granzyme pathway. Traditional killing assays measure average target cell lysis at fixed times and high effector:target ratios. Such assays obscure kinetic details that might reveal novel physiology. We engineered target cells to report on granzyme activity, used very low effector:target ratios to observe potential serial killing, and performed low magnification time-lapse imaging to reveal time-dependent statistics of natural killer (NK) killing at the single-cell level. Most kills occurred during serial killing, and a single NK cell killed up to 10 targets over a 6-h assay. The first kill was slower than subsequent kills, especially on poor targets, or when NK signaling pathways were partially inhibited. Spatial analysis showed that sequential kills were usually adjacent. We propose that NK cells integrate signals from the previous and current target, possibly by simultaneous contact. The resulting burst kinetics and spatial coordination may control the activity of NK cells in tissues.

Choi, Paul J.; Mitchison, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

8

Imaging burst kinetics and spatial coordination during serial killing by single natural killer cells.  

PubMed

Cytotoxic lymphocytes eliminate virus-infected and cancerous cells by immune recognition and killing through the perforin-granzyme pathway. Traditional killing assays measure average target cell lysis at fixed times and high effector:target ratios. Such assays obscure kinetic details that might reveal novel physiology. We engineered target cells to report on granzyme activity, used very low effector:target ratios to observe potential serial killing, and performed low magnification time-lapse imaging to reveal time-dependent statistics of natural killer (NK) killing at the single-cell level. Most kills occurred during serial killing, and a single NK cell killed up to 10 targets over a 6-h assay. The first kill was slower than subsequent kills, especially on poor targets, or when NK signaling pathways were partially inhibited. Spatial analysis showed that sequential kills were usually adjacent. We propose that NK cells integrate signals from the previous and current target, possibly by simultaneous contact. The resulting burst kinetics and spatial coordination may control the activity of NK cells in tissues. PMID:23576740

Choi, Paul J; Mitchison, Timothy J

2013-04-01

9

Kinetic parameters for reversal of the multidrug pump as measured for drug accumulation and cell killing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the kinetic parameters that describe the effect of 20 different modulators of the multidrug resistance pump\\u000a on the reversal of cytotoxin accumulation in a resistant strain of P388 leukemia cells (P388\\/ADR), and on the reversal of\\u000a cell killing for these cells. When measured by a direct comparison of the amplitude of the pertinent protocol (accumulation\\u000a or cell killing),

Lu-Bin Lan; Suhail Ayesh; Elena Lyubimov; Irina Pashinsky; Wilfred D. Stein

1996-01-01

10

Method of, and apparatus for, killing marine life in and about the cooling system of a marine vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of killing marine life in the cooling system of a marine vehicle having a water-cooled internal combustion engine. It comprises: providing an enclosure about the inlet and outlet ports such that water circulated through the cooling system will be drawn from, and discharged back into, the enclosure; and operating the engine so as to cause the temperature of the water within the enclosure and the cooling system to increase to a predetermined minimum temperature; thereby to cause marine life in the enclosure and cooling system to be killed by the increased temperature of water within the cooling system and enclosure.

Brockhurst, J.V.

1992-09-22

11

Incidence of xenobiotics among drivers killed in single-vehicle crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have performed a study of single-vehicle crashes (SVCs) in order to verify a correlation between the loss of vehicle control and the presence of drugs in the body. Overall, 129 cases were recorded and occurred in the catchment area of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Milan between 1986 to 1996. Among the 129 cases under study, respectively

Luca Sironi; Luigi O. Molendini; Carlo Bernabei; Franco Marozzi

1999-01-01

12

Killing Kinetics of Caspofungin, Micafungin, and Amphotericin B against Candida guilliermondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphotericin B (AMB), micafungin, and caspofungin MICs, minimal fungicidal concentrations, and time- killing curves were determined in the presence and absence of 10% inactivated serum. AMB was the only agent with consistent killing activity (time required to achieve 99.9% of growth reduction was 2.1 to 3.2 h). The presence of serum enhanced caspofungin activity but lowered those of micafungin and

Emilia Canton; Javier Peman; Macrina Sastre; Monica Romero; Ana Espinel-Ingroff

2006-01-01

13

From the Kinetic Energy Recovery System to the Thermo-Hydraulic Hybrid Motor Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents some theoretical and experimental results obtained by the Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute INOE 2000-IHP with its partners, regarding the creating of one hydraulic system able to recovering the kinetic energy of the motor vehicles, in the braking phases, and use this recovered energy in the starting and accelerating phases. Also, in the article is presented a testing stand, which was especially designed for testing the hydraulic system for recovery the kinetic energy. Through mounting of the kinetic energy recovering hydraulic system, on one motor vehicle, this vehicle became a thermo-hydraulic hybrid vehicle. Therefore, the dynamic behavior was analyzed for the whole hybrid motor vehicle, which includes the energy recovery system. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the possible performances of the hybrid vehicle and that the kinetic energy recovery hydraulic systems are good means to increase energy efficiency of the road motor vehicles and to decrease of the fuel consumption.

Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Guta, Dragos; Dumitrescu, Catalin

2011-12-01

14

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Michigan: Highway Worker Killed by Passenger Vehicle While Setting Up Highway Work Zone Warning Signal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On Friday, August 9, 2002, a 26-year-old technical sales representative employed by a highway traffic management firm was struck and killed by a passenger vehicle while setting up a highway work zone warning device. The victim and her partner were working...

2003-01-01

15

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for New Jersey: School Crossing Guard Struck and Killed by a Sport Utility Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On October 26, 2005, NJ FACE staff received a newspaper article about a municipal adult school crossing guard who was killed after being struck by a sport utility vehicle (SUV) while at work. NJ FACE staff investigated this incident as part of a NJ FACE r...

2006-01-01

16

Comparison of in vitro disc diffusion and time kill-kinetic assays for the evaluation of antimicrobial wound dressing efficacy.  

PubMed

There is a plethora of new silver-containing dressings on the market today. Various manufacturers attempt to show that their dressings are the most efficacious and therefore should be preferentially employed by health care workers based on the results of their in vitro tests. However, there have been no studies that clearly identify which tests are appropriate for comparison purposes. The purpose of this study was to determine which in vitro test is most appropriate for evaluating the antimicrobial efficacy of silver-containing dressings. This was done by testing seven silver-containing dressings and two non-silver-containing topical agents against 17 clinically relevant microorganisms using zone of inhibition assays and time-kill kinetic assays in complex media. The results for the two assays were then correlated to determine whether the methods generated similar results. It was determined that the two methods do not correlate at all. This is most likely a result of the silver interacting with the media in the zone of inhibition test, thus invalidating the results of this test. We therefore conclude that zone of inhibition data generated for silver-containing dressings is of little value when assessing antimicrobial efficacy and that time-kill assays are of greater use. PMID:16008731

Gallant-Behm, Corrie L; Yin, Hua Q; Liu, Shijie; Heggers, John P; Langford, Rita E; Olson, Merle E; Hart, David A; Burrell, Robert E

17

Pharmacodynamic properties of BAY 12-8039 on gram-positive and gram-negative organisms as demonstrated by studies of time-kill kinetics and postantibiotic effect.  

PubMed Central

Time-kill kinetics of BAY 12-8039 were studied at two inocula against three strains each of Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pyogenes. The postantibiotic effects of BAY 12-8039 were studied on three strains each of E. coli, S. aureus, H. influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The pharmacodynamic data demonstrated that BAY 12-8039 has marked activity against gram-positive and gram-negative organisms (under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions) and anaerobes. BAY 12-8039 also exhibited a postantibiotic effect of >1 h for all strains except one E. coli strain.

Boswell, F J; Andrews, J M; Wise, R

1997-01-01

18

Tissue distribution and kinetics of endogenous porphyrins synthesized after topical application of ALA in different vehicles  

PubMed Central

The use of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) is gaining increasing attention for photosensitization in photodynamic therapy of superficially localized tumours. The aim of this work was to determine the kinetics of porphyrin generation in tissues after topical application of ALA delivered in different vehicles on the skin overlying the tumour and normal skin of mice. Maximal accumulation was found in tumour 3 h after ALA application in both cream and lotion preparations. Normal and overlying tumour skin tissues showed different kinetic patterns, reflecting histological changes when the latter is invaded by tumour cells. Liver, kidney, spleen and blood porphyrins also raised from basal levels, showing that ALA and/or ALA-induced porphyrins reach all tissues after topical application. During the first 24 h of ALA topical application, precursors and porphyrins are excreted by both urine and faeces. ALA lotion applied on the skin overlying the tumour induced higher accumulation of tumoural porphyrins than cream, and lotion applied on normal skin appeared to be the most efficient upon inducing total body porphyrins. This work has demonstrated the great influence of the formulation of ALA vehicle on penetration through the skin. Knowledge of the kinetics of porphyrin generation after different conditions of ALA application is needed for the optimization of diagnosis and phototherapy in human tumours. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign

Casas, A; Fukuda, H; Batlle, A M del C

1999-01-01

19

Killing Coyotes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents different viewpoints concerning the federal government's Animal Damage Control (ADC) Program cited as responsible for killing millions of predators. Critics provide evidence of outdated and inhumane methods exemplified in the coyote killings. The ADC emphasizes new, nonlethal methods of controlling animals cited as "noxious." (MCO)|

Beasley, Conger, Jr.

1993-01-01

20

Comparative real-time kinetic analysis of human complement killing of Leishmania infantum promastigotes derived from axenic culture or from Phlebotomus perniciosus.  

PubMed

Although Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes are generally considered resistant to human complement, studies of in vitro-cultured axenic stationary promastigotes using serum concentrations that approximate physiological plasma conditions indicate complement sensitivity. Natural Leishmania infection is caused by sand fly-inoculated promastigotes, whose complement resistance has not been analyzed systematically. We compared Leishmania susceptibility to human complement in L. infantum promastigotes derived from in vitro cultures and from sand flies. Phlebotomus perniciosus sand flies were fed with axenic promastigotes, L. infantum-infected U-937 cells, or spleen cells from L. infantum-infected hamsters. On selected days post-feeding, flies were dissected and promastigotes isolated; in addition, axenic promastigotes were obtained from culture at equivalent days of growth. In near-physiological serum concentration and temperature conditions, measurement of real-time kinetics of propidium iodide uptake showed that approximately 90% of axenic- and sand fly-derived promastigotes were rapidly killed by complement. We found no substantial differences between promastigotes from axenic culture, those isolated from flies on different post-feeding days, or those generated in flies fed with distinct inocula. The results indicate that Leishmania susceptibility to human complement is independent of promastigote developmental stage in the sand fly mid-gut and in axenic culture. PMID:18023393

Moreno, Inmaculada; Molina, Ricardo; Toraño, Alfredo; Laurin, Edurne; García, Esther; Domínguez, Mercedes

2007-09-11

21

Killing fetuses and killing newborns.  

PubMed

The argument for the moral permissibility of killing newborns is a challenge to liberal positions on abortion because it can be considered a reductio of their defence of abortion. Here I defend the liberal stance on abortion by arguing that the argument for the moral permissibility of killing newborns on ground of the social, psychological and economic burden on the parents recently put forward by Giubilini and Minerva is not valid; this is because they fail to show that newborns cannot be harmed and because there are morally relevant differences between fetuses and newborns. PMID:23637456

Di Nucci, Ezio

2013-05-01

22

Effects of vehicle on the uptake and elimination kinetics of capsaicinoids in human skin in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the physiologic and molecular effects of capsaicinoids have been extensively studied in various model systems by a variety of administration routes, little is known about the uptake and elimination kinetic profiles in human skin following topical exposure. The present study evaluated the uptake and elimination kinetics of capsaicinoids in human stratum corneum following a single topical exposure to 3%

Lynn K. Pershing; Christopher A. Reilly; Judy L. Corlett; Dennis J. Crouch

2004-01-01

23

Kinetic Analysis of Cell Killing Effect Induced by Cytosine Arabinoside and Cisplatin in Relation to Cell Cycle Phase Specificity in Human Colon Cancer and Chinese Hamster Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We presented a cell kill pharmacodynamic model for cell cycle phase- specific antitumor agents as well as that for cell cycle phase-nonspecific agents. The former was based upon assumptions that a cell population could be divided into a drug-sensitive population having sensitive (or specific) cell cycle phase(s) and a drug-resistant population in resistant cell cycle phases. This model revealed that

Shogo Ozawa; Yuichi Sugiyama; Junko Mitsuhashi; Makoto Inaba

24

Advances in cryo-vacuum test capabilities for dual-band sensors at the kinetic kill vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulation (KHILS) facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KHILS Vacuum Cold Chamber (KVACC) has formed the basis for a comprehensive test capability for newly developed dual-band infrared sensors. Since initial delivery in 1995, the KVACC chamber and its support systems have undergone a number of upgrades, maturing into a valuable test asset and technology demonstrator for missile defense systems. Many leading edge test technologies have been consolidated during the past several years, demonstrating the level of fidelity achievable in tomorrow's missile test facilities. These technologies include resistive array scene projectors, sub-pixel non-linear spatial calibration and coupled two-dimensional radiometric calibration techniques, re-configurable FPGA based calibration electronics, dual-band beam-combination and collimation optics, a closed-cycle multi-chamber cryo-vacuum environment, personal computer (PC) based scene generation systems and a surrounding class-1000 clean room environment. The purpose of this paper is to describe this unique combination of technologies and the capability it represents to the hardware-in-the-loop community.

Thompson, Rhoe A.; Herald, W. Larry; Bergin, Thomas P.; Marlow, Steven A.; Glattke, Eric W.

2004-08-01

25

Kinetics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conceptual questions about kinetics. For example, "[w]hat are the reaction velocity, the rates of formation of N2 and H2, and the rate of decomposition of ammonia for the decomposition of ammonia on a tungsten surface under the conditions reflected in the figure."

Nurrenbern, Susan C.; Robinson, William R.

2008-02-27

26

Parameters of bacterial killing and regrowth kinetics and antimicrobial effect examined in terms of area under the concentration-time curve relationships: action of ciprofloxacin against Escherichia coli in an in vitro dynamic model.  

PubMed Central

Although many parameters have been described to quantitate the killing and regrowth of bacteria, substantial shortcomings are inherent in most of them, such as low sensitivity to pharmacokinetic determinants of the antimicrobial effect, an inability to predict a total effect, insufficient robustness, and uncertain interrelations between the parameters that prevent an ultimate determination of the effect. To examine different parameters, the kinetics of killing and regrowth of Escherichia coli (MIC, 0.013 microg/ml) were studied in vitro by simulating a series of ciprofloxacin monoexponential pharmacokinetic profiles. Initial ciprofloxacin concentrations varied from 0.02 to 19.2 microg/ml, whereas the half-life of 4 h was the same in all experiments. The following parameters were calculated and estimated: the time to reduce the initial inoculum (N0) 10-, 100-, and 1,000-fold (T90%, T99%, and T99.9%, respectively), the rate constant of bacterial elimination (k(elb)), the nadir level (Nmin) in the viable count (N)-versus-time (t) curve, the time to reach Nmin (t(min)), the numbers of bacteria that survived (Ntau) by the end of the observation period (tau), the area under the bacterial killing and regrowth curve (log N(A)-t curve) from the zero point (time zero) to tau (AUBC), the area above this curve (AAC), the area between the control growth curve (log N(C)-t curve) and the bacterial killing and regrowth curve (log N(A)-t curve) from the zero point to tau (ABBC) or to the time point when log N(A) reaches the maximal values observed in the log N(C)-t curve (I(E); intensity of the effect), and the time shift between the control growth and regrowth curves (T(E); duration of the effect). Being highly sensitive to the AUC, I(E), and T(E) showed the most regular AUC relationships: the effect expressed by I(E) or T(E) increased systematically when the AUC or initial concentration of ciprofloxacin rose. Other parameters, especially T90%, T99%, T99.9%, t(min), and log N0 - log Nmin = delta log Nmin, related to the AUC less regularly and were poorly sensitive to the AUC. T(E) proved to be the best predictor and t(min) proved to be the worst predictor of the total antimicrobial effect reflected by I(E). Distinct feedback relationships between the effect determination and the experimental design were demonstrated. It was shown that unjustified shortening of the observation period, i.e., cutting off the log N(A)-t curves, may lead to the degeneration of the AUC-response relationships, as expressed by log N0 - log Ntau = delta log Ntau, AUBC, AAC, or ABBC, to a point where it gives rise to the false idea of an AUC- or concentration-independent effect. Thus, use of I(E) and T(E) provides the most unbiased, robust, and comprehensive means of determining the antimicrobial effect.

Firsov, A A; Vostrov, S N; Shevchenko, A A; Cornaglia, G

1997-01-01

27

Coyote kills harp seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note details the killing of a harp seal Pago- philus groenlandia by an eastern coyote Canis latrans o n C a p e C o d , M a s s a c h u s e t t s . I t i s b e - lieved to be the first documentation of a canid killing an

Jay Horton

28

Bacterial Growth Kinetics under a Novel Flexible Methacrylate Dressing Serving as a Drug Delivery Vehicle for Antiseptics.  

PubMed

A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal®) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth kinetics in combination with three antiseptics was investigated in an in vitro porcine wound model. Standardized in vitro wounds were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and divided into six groups: no dressing (negative control), methacrylate dressing alone, and combinations with application of 0.02% Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), 0.4% PHMB, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine, 7.7 mg/mL Povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine), and 0.1% Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) + 2% phenoxyethanol. Bacterial load per gram tissue was measured over five days. The highest reduction was observed with PVP-iodine at 24 h to log10 1.43 cfu/g, followed by OCT at 48 h to log10 2.41 cfu/g. Whilst 0.02% PHMB resulted in a stable bacterial load over 120 h to log10 4.00 cfu/g over 120 h, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine inhibited growth during the first 48 h, with slightly increasing bacterial numbers up to log10 5.38 cfu/g at 120 h. These results indicate that this flexible methacrylate dressing can be loaded with various antiseptics serving as drug delivery system. Depending on the selected combination, an individually shaped and controlled antibacterial effect may be achieved using the same type of wound dressing. PMID:23698780

Forstner, Christina; Leitgeb, Johannes; Schuster, Rupert; Dosch, Verena; Kramer, Axel; Cutting, Keith F; Leaper, David J; Assadian, Ojan

2013-05-21

29

Bacterial Growth Kinetics under a Novel Flexible Methacrylate Dressing Serving as a Drug Delivery Vehicle for Antiseptics  

PubMed Central

A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal®) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth kinetics in combination with three antiseptics was investigated in an in vitro porcine wound model. Standardized in vitro wounds were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and divided into six groups: no dressing (negative control), methacrylate dressing alone, and combinations with application of 0.02% Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), 0.4% PHMB, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine, 7.7 mg/mL Povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine), and 0.1% Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) + 2% phenoxyethanol. Bacterial load per gram tissue was measured over five days. The highest reduction was observed with PVP-iodine at 24 h to log10 1.43 cfu/g, followed by OCT at 48 h to log10 2.41 cfu/g. Whilst 0.02% PHMB resulted in a stable bacterial load over 120 h to log10 4.00 cfu/g over 120 h, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine inhibited growth during the first 48 h, with slightly increasing bacterial numbers up to log10 5.38 cfu/g at 120 h. These results indicate that this flexible methacrylate dressing can be loaded with various antiseptics serving as drug delivery system. Depending on the selected combination, an individually shaped and controlled antibacterial effect may be achieved using the same type of wound dressing.

Forstner, Christina; Leitgeb, Johannes; Schuster, Rupert; Dosch, Verena; Kramer, Axel; Cutting, Keith F.; Leaper, David J.; Assadian, Ojan

2013-01-01

30

Trip based optimal power management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using gas-kinetic traffic flow model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), utilizing more battery power, is considered a next-generation hybrid electric vehicles with great promise of higher fuel economy. The charge-depletion mode is more appropriate for the power management of PHEV, i.e. the state of charge (SOC) is expected to drop to a low threshold when the vehicle reaches the destination of the trip. Global

Qiuming Gong; Yaoyu Li; Zhong-Ren Peng

2008-01-01

31

FISH KILLS, NORTH CAROLINA  

EPA Science Inventory

Data related to fish kills in North Carolina are collected and stored in tables on the Web at the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources. http://www.esb.enr.state.nc.us/Fishkill/fishkill00.htm...

32

Homogeneous Killing spinor spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A classification of Petrov-type D Killing spinor spacetimes admitting a homogeneous conformal representant is presented. For each class a canonical line element is constructed and a physical interpretation of its conformal members is discussed.

Van den Bergh, N.

2011-12-01

33

Killing vectors and anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider an action that can generate fluids with three unequal stresses for metrics with a spacelike Killing vector. The parameters in the action are directly related to the stress anisotropies. The field equations following from the action are applied to an anisotropic cosmological expansion and an extension of the Gott-Hiscock cosmic string.

Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N.

2009-08-01

34

Killing vectors and anisotropy  

SciTech Connect

We consider an action that can generate fluids with three unequal stresses for metrics with a spacelike Killing vector. The parameters in the action are directly related to the stress anisotropies. The field equations following from the action are applied to an anisotropic cosmological expansion and an extension of the Gott-Hiscock cosmic string.

Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2009-08-15

35

The Fish Kill Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities and learn about the complex life cycle of the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria.

Kosal, Erica F.

2004-02-01

36

Instantons and Killing spinors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate instantons on manifolds with Killing spinors and their cones. Examples of manifolds with Killing spinors include nearly Kähler 6-manifolds, nearly parallel G 2-manifolds in dimension 7, Sasaki-Einstein manifolds, and 3-Sasakian manifolds. We construct a connection on the tangent bundle over these manifolds which solves the instanton equation, and also show that the instanton equation implies the Yang-Mills equation, despite the presence of torsion. We then construct instantons on the cones over these manifolds, and lift them to solutions of heterotic supergravity. Amongst our solutions are new instantons on even-dimensional Euclidean spaces, as well as the well-known BPST, quaternionic and octonionic instantons.

Harland, Derek; Nölle, Christoph

2012-03-01

37

Battered women who kill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses acquital rates using mock jurors in cases involving a battered woman charged with killing her husband. The simulated trial format was based on actual courtroom proceedings including witness cross-examination and jury deliberation proceedings. The type of plea entered was varied and reflected either self-defense, automatism, or a hypothetical plea of psychological self-defense. The severity of abuse incurred

Marilyn Kasian; Nicholas P. Spanos; Cheryl A. Terrance; Suzanne Peeblesi

1993-01-01

38

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Kills Caenorhabditis elegans by Cyanide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a transposon insertion mutation in a gene encoding a subunit of hydrogen cyanide synthase (hcnC) eliminated nematode killing. Second, the 17 avirulent mutants examined all exhibited reduced cyanide synthesis, and the residual production levels correlated with killing efficiency. Third, exposure to exogenous cyanide alone at levels comparable to the level produced by PAO1 killed nematodes with kinetics similar to those observed with bacteria. The killing was not enhanced if hcnC mutant bacteria were present during cyanide exposure. And fourth, a nematode mutant (egl-9) resistant to P. aeruginosa was also resistant to killing by exogenous cyanide in the absence of bacteria. A model for nematode killing based on inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase is presented. The action of cyanide helps account for the unusually broad host range of virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis in opportunistic human infections due to the bacterium.

Gallagher, Larry A.; Manoil, Colin

2001-01-01

39

Killing the competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex- and age-specific rates of killing unrelated persons of one’s own sex were computed for Canada (1974–1983), England\\/Wales\\u000a (1977–1986), Chicago (1965–1981), and Detroit (1972) from census information and data archives of all homicides known to police.\\u000a Patterns in relation to sex and age were virtually identical among the four samples, although the rates varied enormously\\u000a (from 3.7 per million citizens

Martin Daly; Margo Wilson

1990-01-01

40

Development, democracy, and mass killings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a newly assembled dataset spanning from 1820 to 1998, we study the relationship between the occurrence and magnitude of episodes of mass killing and the levels of development and democracy across countries and over time. Mass killings appear to be more likely at intermediate levels of income and less likely at very high levels of democracy. However, the estimated

William Easterly; Roberta Gatti; Sergio Kurlat

2006-01-01

41

Lyophilised wafers as vehicles for the topical release of chlorhexidine digluconate--release kinetics and efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

There is a requirement to deliver accurate amounts of broad spectrum antimicrobial compounds locally to exuding wounds. Varying amounts of exudate complicates this process by limiting the residence and therefore efficacy of active substances. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of antimicrobials are necessary to suppress infection and lessen the chances of resistant strains of potentially pathogenic bacteria from prevailing. Polysaccharide wafers can adhere to exudating wound beds, absorbing fluids and forming highly viscous gels that remain in situ for prolonged periods of time to release sustained amounts of antimicrobial. In this study, five different formulations were produced containing the antimicrobial, chlorhexidine digluconate (CHD). Absorption of simulated wound fluid, resultant rheological properties of gels and efficacy against plated cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were measured and compared. CHD reduced the 'water uptake' of wafers by 11-50% (w/w) and decreased the rheological consistency of non-SA containing gels by 10-65%. Release studies indicated that karaya wafers gave the highest sustained release of CHD, >60 ?g/mL in 24 h, well in excess of the MBC for P. aeruginosa. Release kinetics indicated an anomalous diffusion mechanism according to Korsmeyer-Peppas, with diffusion exponents varying from 0.31 to 0.41 for most wafers except xanthan (0.65). PMID:23085374

Labovitiadi, Olga; Lamb, Andrew J; Matthews, Kerr H

2012-10-17

42

How electroshock weapons kill!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

Lundquist, Marjorie

2010-03-01

43

Curiosity Killed the App  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students gain experience with the software/system design process, closely related to the engineering design process, to solve a problem. First, they learn about the Mars Curiosity rover and its mission, including the difficulties that engineers must consider and overcome to operate a rover remotely. Students observe a simulation of a robot being controlled remotely. These experiences guide discussion on how the design process is applied in these scenarios. The lesson culminates in a hands-on experience with the design process as students simulate the remote control of a rover. In the associated activity, students gain further experience with the design process by creating an Android application using App Inventor to control one aspect of a remotely controlled vehicle. (Note: The lesson requires a LEGO® MINDSTORMS® Education NXT base set.)

IMPART RET Program, College of Information Science & Technology,

44

Formation fracturing kills Indonesian blowout  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic killing methods without fracturing could not be applied in killing PT-29 blowout, due to the reservoir rock properties (shaley sand formation). A special fracturing and acidizing technique was required in order to allow the calculated kill rate of 40 bbl/ min. A low injection rate of 0.5 bbl/min with high injection pressure of 1,250 psi occurred due to a degree of formation damage and the mud cake covering the sand face. The calculated formation fracture pressure of 1,393 psi was a reliable value compared to actual fracture pressure of 1,400 psi. The designed killing rate of 40 bbl/ min could not reach the blowout well due to some leak-off of the injected fluid in unexpected directions of the induced fractures. Clearing PT-29 of all debris was very important for immediate well capping. The capping operation was done after the fire was extinguished; although the well was still flowing gas and water, no hazard of explosion was detected. The exact subsurface position of the blowout well of PT-29 was uncertain due to the lack of directional survey data. This problem reduced the effectiveness of the killing operation. A reliable water supply is important to the success of the killing job. Once the fracture had been induced, kill fluid had to be pumped continuously; any interruption might cause the fracture to heal. Deviation and directional survey data on every vertical or directional well are absolutely important for accurate relief well drilling purposes in case it is required.

Wizyodiazjo, S.; Salech, M.; Sumanta, K.

1982-11-15

45

Selective Killing of Nonreplicating Mycobacteria  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Antibiotics are typically more effective against replicating rather than nonreplicating bacteria. However, a major need in global health is to eradicate persistent or nonreplicating subpopulations of bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Hence, identifying chemical inhibitors that selectively kill bacteria that are not replicating is of practical importance. To address this, we screened for inhibitors of dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (DlaT), an enzyme required by Mtb to cause tuberculosis in guinea pigs and used by the bacterium to resist nitric oxide-derived reactive nitrogen intermediates, a stress encountered in the host. Chemical screening for inhibitors of Mtb DlaT identified select rhodanines as compounds that almost exclusively kill nonreplicating mycobacteria in synergy with products of host immunity, such as nitric oxide and hypoxia, and are effective on bacteria within macrophages, a cellular reservoir for latent Mtb. Compounds that kill nonreplicating pathogens in cooperation with host immunity could complement the conventional chemotherapy of infectious disease.

Bryk, Ruslana; Gold, Benjamin; Venugopal, Aditya; Singh, Jasbir; Samy, Raghu; Pupek, Krzysztof; Cao, Hua; Popescu, Carmen; Gurney, Mark; Hotha, Srinivas; Cherian, Joseph; Rhee, Kyu; Ly, Lan; Converse, Paul J.; Ehrt, Sabine; Vandal, Omar; Jiang, Xiuju; Schneider, Jean; Lin, Gang; Nathan, Carl

2008-01-01

46

Parents Who Get Killed and the Children Who Kill Them  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical analysis of homicides in which children have killed parents has been limited, largely due to the lack of publicly available data. Findings from an analysis of 10 years of FBI Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) data are reported in this article. Analysis revealed that the typical parent or stepparent slain during the period 1977-1986 was White and non-Hispanic. the typical

KATHLEEN M. HEIDE

1993-01-01

47

The influence of body-size and diet on road-kill trends in mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roads negatively impact animals in a variety of ways. One of the most obvious impacts is vehicle-induced mortality. We have\\u000a little understanding of the patterns and rates of road mortality for mammals. The aims of this study were to determine representative\\u000a road-kill rates for local mammal species, compare road-kill rates between mammals of different sizes and diets, and compare\\u000a patterns

Erika L. BarthelmessMargot; Margot S. Brooks

2010-01-01

48

To kill a mockingbird robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robots are being introduced in our society but their social status is still unclear. A critical issue is if the robot's exhibition of intelligent life-like behavior leads to the users' perception of animacy. The ultimate test for the life-likeness of a robot is to kill it. We therefore conducted an experiment in which the robot's intelligence and the participants' gender

Christoph Bartneck; Marcel Verbunt; Omar Mubin; Abdullah Al Mahmud

2007-01-01

49

Farm Education at Stony Kill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes typical winter farm lessons for students visiting Stony Kill Farm Environmental Education Center located 70 miles north of New York City: butter and corncake making, soil erosion experiments, dissecting and growing seeds. Emphasizes major theme of conservation of farmland from destructive farming practices and careless development. (NEC)

Parisio, Richard

1986-01-01

50

Human neutrophils kill Bacillus anthracis.  

PubMed

Bacillus anthracis spores cause natural infections and are used as biological weapons. Inhalation infection with B. anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is almost always lethal, yet cutaneous infections usually remain localized and resolve spontaneously. Neutrophils are typically recruited to cutaneous but seldom to other forms of anthrax infections, raising the possibility that neutrophils kill B. anthracis. In this study we infected human neutrophils with either spores or vegetative bacteria of a wild-type strain, or strains, expressing only one of the two major virulence factors. The human neutrophils engulfed B. anthracis spores, which germinated intracellularly and were then efficiently killed. Interestingly, neutrophil killing was independent of reactive oxygen species production. We fractionated a human neutrophil granule extract by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified alpha-defensins as the component responsible for B. anthracis killing. These data suggest that the timely recruitment of neutrophils can control cutaneous infections and possibly other forms of B. anthracis infections, and that alpha-defensins play an important role in the potent anti-B. anthracis activity of neutrophils. PMID:16292357

Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hurwitz, Robert; Brinkmann, Volker; Schmid, Monika; Jungblut, Peter; Weinrauch, Yvette; Zychlinsky, Arturo

2005-11-11

51

Children Who Kill Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of risk in young offenders is complicated by the general lack of specific assessment instruments. Young offenders who kill family members constitute a small group and often display characteristics that set them apart from the general young offender population. The following article reviews information about young offenders who murder family members in the context of three cases. Young

C. J. Lennings

2003-01-01

52

Does Assessment Kill Student Creativity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Does assessment kill creativity? In this article, creativity is defined and discussed and an overview of creativity and motivational research is provided to describe how assessment practices can influence students' creativity. Recommendations for protecting creativity when assessing students also are provided.|

Beghetto, Ronald A.

2005-01-01

53

Kill Vehicle Effectiveness for Boost Phase Interception of Ballistic Missiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Boost phase interception of ballistic missiles is envisioned as the primary response of the layered defense architecture implemented in the ballistic missile defense system. A limited time frame in which to take action and the necessity to implement hit-t...

F. Bardanis

2004-01-01

54

On killing. II: The psychological cost of learning to kill.  

PubMed

Military and law enforcement studies reveal that interpersonal combat is a universal human phobia. Physiological responses include forebrain shutdown and sympathetic arousal. A resistance to killing exists in the midbrain of most healthy members of most species, becoming ascendant when the forebrain shuts down, and can prevent soldiers from performing in combat. The U.S. military has increased participation in killing activities from 20% in World War II to 95% in Vietnam by operantly conditioning responses. Conditioning is achieved through training that closely resembles battle situations and inadvertently occurs when children see violence as entertainment. The price of this conditioning is an increase in post-traumatic stress disorder which can be defrayed through debriefing, social acceptance, and prevention of atrocities. Similar techniques may be used to prevent PTSD in civilian populations involved in tragedies like school shootings. PMID:11642191

Grossman, D

2001-01-01

55

Azithromycin Kills Invasive Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Gingival Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans invades periodontal pocket epithelium and is therefore difficult to eliminate by periodontal scaling and root planing. It is susceptible to azithromycin, which is taken up by many types of mammalian cells. This led us to hypothesize that azithromycin accumulation by gingival epithelium could enhance the killing of intraepithelial A. actinomycetemcomitans. [3H]azithromycin transport by Smulow-Glickman gingival epithelial cells and SCC-25 oral epithelial cells was characterized. To test our hypothesis, we infected cultured Smulow-Glickman cell monolayers with A. actinomycetemcomitans (Y4 or SUNY 465 strain) for 2 h, treated them with gentamicin to eliminate extracellular bacteria, and then incubated them with azithromycin for 1 to 4 h. Viable intracellular bacteria were released, plated, and enumerated. Azithromycin transport by both cell lines exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics and was competitively inhibited by l-carnitine and several other organic cations. Cell incubation in medium containing 5 ?g/ml azithromycin yielded steady-state intracellular concentrations of 144 ?g/ml in SCC-25 cells and 118 ?g/ml in Smulow-Glickman cells. Azithromycin induced dose- and time-dependent intraepithelial killing of both A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. Treatment of infected Smulow-Glickman cells with 0.125 ?g/ml azithromycin killed approximately 29% of the intraepithelial CFU of both strains within 4 h, while treatment with 8 ?g/ml azithromycin killed ?82% of the CFU of both strains (P < 0.05). Addition of carnitine inhibited the killing of intracellular bacteria by azithromycin (P < 0.05). Thus, human gingival epithelial cells actively accumulate azithromycin through a transport system that facilitates the killing of intraepithelial A. actinomycetemcomitans and is shared with organic cations.

Lai, Pin-Chuang

2013-01-01

56

Azithromycin kills invasive Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in gingival epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans invades periodontal pocket epithelium and is therefore difficult to eliminate by periodontal scaling and root planing. It is susceptible to azithromycin, which is taken up by many types of mammalian cells. This led us to hypothesize that azithromycin accumulation by gingival epithelium could enhance the killing of intraepithelial A. actinomycetemcomitans. [(3)H]azithromycin transport by Smulow-Glickman gingival epithelial cells and SCC-25 oral epithelial cells was characterized. To test our hypothesis, we infected cultured Smulow-Glickman cell monolayers with A. actinomycetemcomitans (Y4 or SUNY 465 strain) for 2 h, treated them with gentamicin to eliminate extracellular bacteria, and then incubated them with azithromycin for 1 to 4 h. Viable intracellular bacteria were released, plated, and enumerated. Azithromycin transport by both cell lines exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics and was competitively inhibited by l-carnitine and several other organic cations. Cell incubation in medium containing 5 ?g/ml azithromycin yielded steady-state intracellular concentrations of 144 ?g/ml in SCC-25 cells and 118 ?g/ml in Smulow-Glickman cells. Azithromycin induced dose- and time-dependent intraepithelial killing of both A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. Treatment of infected Smulow-Glickman cells with 0.125 ?g/ml azithromycin killed approximately 29% of the intraepithelial CFU of both strains within 4 h, while treatment with 8 ?g/ml azithromycin killed ?82% of the CFU of both strains (P < 0.05). Addition of carnitine inhibited the killing of intracellular bacteria by azithromycin (P < 0.05). Thus, human gingival epithelial cells actively accumulate azithromycin through a transport system that facilitates the killing of intraepithelial A. actinomycetemcomitans and is shared with organic cations. PMID:23274657

Lai, Pin-Chuang; Walters, John D

2012-12-28

57

Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FBI publishes Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted each year to provide information about the officers who were killed, feloniously or accidentally, and those officers who were assaulted while performing their duties. The FBI collects these d...

2010-01-01

58

Mortus Discriminatus: Procedures in Targeted Killing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Currently, no widely established standard or published set of guidelines and planning considerations exist for operational planners to conduct targeted killing operations. Due to the political complexity intertwined with targeted killing these types of op...

G. W. Johnson

2007-01-01

59

Women who kill their mates.  

PubMed

Spousal homicide perpetrators are much more likely to be men than women. Accordingly, little research has focused on delineating characteristics of women who have committed spousal homicide. A retrospective clinical review of coroners' files containing all cases of spousal homicide occurring in Quebec over a 20-year period was carried out. A total of 276 spousal homicides occurred between 1991 and 2010, with 42 homicides by female spouses and 234 homicides by male spouses. Differences between homicides committed by female offenders and male offenders are discussed, and findings on spousal homicide committed by women are compared with those of previous studies. Findings regarding offenses perpetrated by females in the context of mental illness, domestic violence, and homicide-suicide are explored. The finding that only 28% of the female offenders in the Quebec sample had previously been subjected to violence by their victim is in contrast to the popular belief and reports that indicate that most female-perpetrated spousal homicide occurs in self-defense or in reaction to long-term abuse. In fact, women rarely gave a warning before killing their mates. Most did not suffer from a mental illness, although one-fifth were acutely intoxicated at the time of the killing. In the vast majority of cases of women who killed their mates, there were very few indicators that might have signaled the risk and helped predict the violent lethal behavior. PMID:23015414

Bourget, Dominique; Gagné, Pierre

2012-09-27

60

Electromechanical Energy Transduction for Hybrid Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid vehicle technology seeks to reduce the total energy consumption used for vehicle locomotion by recovering and reutilizing kinetic energy that is otherwise unrecovered or dissipated in conventional vehicle deceleration. The goal of the work is to determine the transduction mechanisms that work towards a Carnot efficiency without considering constraints or limitations placed by cost or materials. Specifically, this talk

Sridhar Reddy Vanja; Michael W. Kelly; A. N. Caruso

2010-01-01

61

Stabilizing underwater vehicle motion using internal rotors  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a case study of a particular control methodology and as a practical contribution in the area of underwater vehicle control, we consider the problem of stabilizing an underwater vehicle using internal rotors as actuators. The control design method comprises three steps. The first step involves shaping the kinetic energy of the conservative dynamics. For the underwater vehicle, the control

Craig A. Woolsey; Naomi Ehrich Leonard

2002-01-01

62

Desert Dust Kills Florida Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) article discusses the connection between dust storms in Africa, and red tides along the Florida coast. Red tides are blooms of toxic algae that kill fish, birds, and mammals, as well as cause health problems in humans. Storm activity in the Sahara Desert region kicks up topsoil that winds transport into the Gulf of Mexico. These clouds fertilize the water with iron, which bacteria named Trichodesmium use to create nitrogen. The nitrogen makes the water a friendly environment for the toxic algae. This article discusses this process and research that is going on to help solve the problem. Audio version is available as well.

63

9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.203...Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus,...

2010-01-01

64

9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.203...Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus,...

2009-01-01

65

User's Guide and Program Description for a Tripped Roll Over Vehicle Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tripped rollover results when a vehicle slides sideways into a curb or other small obstruction which converts the vehicle's translational kinetic energy into rotation. Given the vehicle's center of gravity height and wheel track width, it can roll over gi...

T. J. Rosenthal H. T. Szostak R. W. Allen

1987-01-01

66

Electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renewed interest in electric vehicles (EVs) in the wake of the California Air Resources Board mandate that 2% of the vehicles lighter than 3750 lb (1700 kg) sold by each manufacturer in that state in 1998 be zero-emission vehicles is examined. The reasons why replacing an internal combustion vehicle (ICV) with an electrically powered equivalent greatly reduces air pollution,

M. J. Riezenman

1992-01-01

67

Finding Ultimate Limits of Performance for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles are seen as a solution to improving fuel economy and reducing pollution emissions from automobiles. By recovering kinetic energy during braking and optimizing the engine operation to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, a hybrid vehicle can outperform a traditional vehicle. In designing a hybrid vehicle, the task of finding optimal component sizes and an appropriate control strategy

Edward D. Tate; Stephen P. Boyd

68

Killed but metabolically active vaccines.  

PubMed

Beginning in the 20th century and continuing into the new millennia, vaccines against numerous diseases have had an unquestioned principal role of both enhancing the quality of life and increasing life expectancy (Rappuoli R, Mandl CW, Black S, De Gregorio E: Vaccines for the twenty-first century society. Nat Rev Immunol 2011, 11:865-872). Despite this success and the development of sophisticated new vaccine technologies, there remain multiple infectious diseases including tuberculosis, malaria and AIDS that await an effective prophylactic vaccine. In addition, there have been recent clinical successes among individuals with cancer using vaccine treatment strategies-so-called therapeutic vaccines-that stimulate tumor specific immunity and increase survival (Kantoff PW, Higano CS, Shore ND, Berger ER, Small EJ, Penson DF, Redfern CH, Ferrari AC, Dreicer R, Sims RB, et al.: Sipuleucel-T immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer. New Engl J Med 2010, 363:411-422). Here we summarize a new class of vaccines termed Killed But Metabolically Active (KBMA). KBMA vaccines are whole pathogenic or attenuated organisms killed through photochemical inactivation and cannot cause disease, yet retain sufficient metabolic activity to initiate a potent immune response. KBMA vaccines have two broad applications. First, recombinant KBMA vaccines encoding selected antigens relevant to infectious disease or cancer can be used to elicit a desired immune response. In the second application, KBMA vaccines can be derived from attenuated forms of a targeted pathogen, allowing for the presentation of the entire antigenic repertoire to the immune system, of particular importance when the correlates of protection are unknown. PMID:22608846

Dubensky, Thomas W; Skoble, Justin; Lauer, Peter; Brockstedt, Dirk G

2012-05-18

69

Amalgamating oncolytic viruses to enhance their safety, consolidate their killing mechanisms, and accelerate their spread.  

PubMed

Oncolytic viruses are structurally and biologically diverse, spreading through tumors and killing them by various mechanisms and with different kinetics. Here, we created a hybrid vesicular stomatitis/measles virus (VSV/MV) that harnesses the safety of oncolytic MV, the speed of VSV, and the tumor killing mechanisms of both viruses. Oncolytic MV targets CD46 and kills by forcing infected cells to fuse with uninfected neighbors, but propagates slowly. VSV spreads rapidly, directly lysing tumor cells, but is neurotoxic and loses oncolytic potency when neuroattenuated by conventional approaches. The hybrid VSV/MV lacks neurotoxicity, replicates rapidly with VSV kinetics, and selectively targets CD46 on tumor cells. Its in vivo performance in a myeloma xenograft model was substantially superior to either MV or widely used recombinant oncolytic VSV-M51.Molecular Therapy (2013); 21 10, 1930-1937. doi:10.1038/mt.2013.164. PMID:23842448

Ayala-Breton, Camilo; Suksanpaisan, Lukkana; Mader, Emily K; Russell, Stephen J; Peng, Kah-Whye

2013-07-11

70

75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills...Greenpoint Avenue Bridge across Newtown Creek, mile 1.3, New York. This...Greenpoint Avenue Bridge, across Newtown Creek at mile 1.3, at New...

2010-06-01

71

75 FR 62469 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills...Greenpoint Avenue Bridge across Newtown Creek, mile 1.3, New York. The...Greenpoint Avenue Bridge, across Newtown Creek at mile 1.3, at New...

2010-10-12

72

Raping and making love are different concepts: so are killing and voluntary euthanasia.  

PubMed

The distinction between 'kill' and 'help to die' is argued by analogy with the distinction between 'rape' and 'make love to'. The difference is the consent of the receiver of the act, therefore 'kill' is the wrong word for an act of active voluntary euthanasia. The argument that doctors must not be allowed by law to perform active voluntary euthanasia because this would recognise an infringement of the sanctity of life ('the red light principle') is countered by comparing such doctors with the drivers of emergency vehicles, who are allowed to drive through red lights. PMID:3184136

Davies, J

1988-09-01

73

Intraspecific killing of a male ocelot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw data on the social behavior of secretive felids is often scant. A freshly killed ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) corpse was found at Brownsberg Nature Park, Suriname. The specimen incurred damage to the neck, skull, upper vertebrae, and scapula. These injuries are consistent with the hypothesis that it was killed by a conspecific, most likely during a male-male interaction. This paper

Cynthia L. Thompson

2011-01-01

74

Men who kill their mates: A profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of 46 men arrested in Detroit, Michigan, for killing their current or former spouse (legal or common law) or girlfriend during 1982 and 1983 is analyzed in the context of their killings. Analyses include demographic and social characteristics of offenders and victims, circumstances of offense, and arrest disposition. Where feasible, comparisons are made with general populations of homicide

Ann Goetting I

1989-01-01

75

Children killed by genetic parents versus stepparents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite many empirical studies of children killed by parents, there has been little theoretical progress. An examination of 378 cases in a national register revealed that circumstances differed for genetic parents versus stepparents. Infants were at greatest risk of filicide, especially by genetic mothers. Genetic mothers who killed offspring, especially older children, disproportionately had a mental illness and received relatively

Grant T. Harris; N. Zoe Hilton; Marnie E. Rice; Angela W. Eke

2007-01-01

76

Vehicle Utilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In September 1966, a decision was made to go on a plant-wide pooling basis with no vehicles assigned to individuals. After investigation, it was decided that some of the vehicles formerly used as pools should be classified as functional. Pool vehicles are...

J. E. Harding

1976-01-01

77

Spacetime encodings. III. Second order Killing tensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the Petrov type D, stationary axisymmetric vacuum (SAV) spacetimes that were found by Carter to have separable Hamilton-Jacobi equations, and thus admit a second-order Killing tensor. The derivation of the spacetimes presented in this paper borrows from ideas about dynamical systems, and illustrates concepts that can be generalized to higher-order Killing tensors. The relationship between the components of the Killing equations and metric functions are given explicitly. The origin of the four separable coordinate systems found by Carter is explained and classified in terms of the analytic structure associated with the Killing equations. A geometric picture of what the orbital invariants may represent is built. Requiring that a SAV spacetime admits a second-order Killing tensor is very restrictive, selecting very few candidates from the group of all possible SAV spacetimes. This restriction arises due to the fact that the consistency conditions associated with the Killing equations require that the field variables obey a second-order differential equation, as opposed to a fourth-order differential equation that imposes the weaker condition that the spacetime be SAV. This paper introduces ideas that could lead to the explicit computation of more general orbital invariants in the form of higher-order Killing tensors.

Brink, Jeandrew

2010-01-01

78

The soft-kill fallacy  

SciTech Connect

Dozens of non-lethal weapons have been proposed or developed, mostly in laboratory-scale models. They encompass a broad range of technologies, including chemical, biological, kinetic, electromagnetic, and accoustic weapons, as well as informational techniques such as computer viruses. `Non-lethal weapons disable or destroy without causing significant injury or damage,` asserted Undersecretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz in a March 1991 memorandum. The idea of `non-lethal` weapons is politically attractive and purposively misleading. Some of these `non-lethal` weapons may violate treaties. Four international treaties are particularly relevant and discussed in some detail. A list of weapons of this nature is also provided. But basic political, legal and strategic questions about the utility of the non-lethal thrust remains unanswered and sometimes unasked. 15 refs.

Aftergood, S.

1994-09-01

79

Fish Kills Caused by Pollution in 1976 - Seventeenth Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an analysis of pollution-caused fish kills compiled from data supplied by State officials. It includes analytical text and the following tables: major kills, historical summary, summaries by State, source, water body, kills within EPA region...

1979-01-01

80

Electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

1990-03-01

81

Electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

Not Available

1990-03-01

82

Cell killing by antibody-drug conjugates.  

PubMed

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are designed to specifically bind to and kill cells expressing their target antigens. In addition to the obvious requirement of the presence of the target antigen on the cell surface, several other factors contribute to the sensitivity of target cells to the action of ADCs. These include (i) the rate of internalization of the ADC, (ii) its proteolytic degradation in late endosomes and lysosomes and the subsequent release of cytotoxic drug, and (iii) the intracellular concentration of the released drug. In addition to killing antigen-expressing cells, some ADCs were found to kill bystander cells irrespective of their antigen expression. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the mechanisms of killing of antigen-expressing and bystander cells by antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:17553616

Kovtun, Yelena V; Goldmacher, Victor S

2007-06-05

83

Bootlegger Trail Site: A Spring Bison Kill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents excellent descriptions of excavation techniques at this bison kill site, as well as a model of subsistence. The model contributes greatly to our understanding of seasonal activities of late prehistoric hunters and gatherers in the proj...

T. E. Roll K. Deaver J. Moe J. W. Fisher D. Schoepp

1980-01-01

84

Killing spinor equations from nonlinear realisations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting from a nonlinear realisation of eleven-dimensional supergravity based on the group G11, whose generators appear as low level generators of E11, we present a super extended algebra, which leads to a covariant derivative of spinors identical to the Killing spinor equation of this theory. A similar construction leads to the Killing spinor equation of N=1 pure supergravity in ten dimensions.

Miemiec, André; Schnakenburg, Igor

2004-10-01

85

Cryptococcus Neoformans Modulates Extracellular Killing by Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

We recently established a key role for host sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) in regulating the killing activity of neutrophils against Cryptococcus neoformans. In this paper, we studied the effect of C. neoformans on the killing activity of neutrophils and whether SMS would still be a player against C. neoformans in immunocompromised mice lacking T and natural killer (NK) cells (Tg?26 mice). To this end, we analyzed whether C. neoformans would have any effect on neutrophil survival and killing in vitro and in vivo. We show that unlike Candida albicans, neither the presence nor the capsule size of C. neoformans cells have any effect on neutrophil viability. Interestingly, melanized C. neoformans cells totally abrogated the killing activity of neutrophils. We monitored how exposure of neutrophils to C. neoformans cells would interfere with any further killing activity of the conditioned medium and found that pre-incubation with live but not “heat-killed” fungal cells significantly inhibits further killing activity of the medium. We then studied whether activation of SMS at the site of C. neoformans infection is dependent on T and NK cells. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionization tissue imaging in infected lung we found that similar to previous observations in the isogenic wild-type CBA/J mice, SM 16:0 levels are significantly elevated at the site of infection in mice lacking T and NK cells, but only at early time points. This study highlights that C. neoformans may negatively regulate the killing activity of neutrophils and that SMS activation in neutrophils appears to be partially independent of T and/or NK cells.

Qureshi, Asfia; Grey, Angus; Rose, Kristie L.; Schey, Kevin L.; Del Poeta, Maurizio

2011-01-01

86

Teleparallel Killing Vectors of the Einstein Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we establish the definition of the Lie derivative of a second rank tensor in the context of teleparallel theory of gravity and also extend it for a general tensor of rank p + q. This definition is then used to find Killing vectors of the Einstein universe. It turns out that Killing vectors of the Einstein universe in the teleparallel theory are the same as in general relativity.

Sharif, M.; Amir, M. Jamil

87

Activity of Telithromycin (HMR 3647) against Anaerobic Bacteria Compared to Those of Eight Other Agents by Time-Kill Methodology†  

PubMed Central

Time-kill studies examined the activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647), erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and metronidazole against 11 gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Time-kill studies were carried out with the addition of Oxyrase in order to prevent the introduction of CO2. Macrolide-azalide-ketolide MICs were 0.004 to 32.0 ?g/ml. Of the latter group, telithromycin had the lowest MICs, especially against non-Bacteroides fragilis group strains, followed by azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, and roxithromycin. Clindamycin was active (MIC ? 2.0 ?g/ml) against all anaerobes except Peptostreptococcus magnus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, while pristinamycin MICs were 0.06 to 4.0 ?g/ml. Amoxicillin-clavulanate had MICs of ?1.0 ?g/ml, while metronidazole was active (MICs, 0.03 to 2.0 ?g/ml) against all except Propionibacterium acnes. After 48 h at twice the MIC, telithromycin was bactericidal (?99.9% killing) against 6 strains, with 99% killing of 9 strains and 90% killing of 10 strains. After 24 h at twice the MIC, 90, 99, and 99.9% killing of nine, six, and three strains, respectively, occurred. Lower rates of killing were seen at earlier times. Similar kill kinetics relative to the MIC were seen with other macrolides. After 48 h at the MIC, clindamycin was bactericidal against 8 strains, with 99 and 90% killing of 9 and 10 strains, respectively. After 24 h, 90% killing of 10 strains occurred at the MIC. The kinetics of clindamycin were similar to those of pristinamycin. After 48 h at the MIC, amoxicillin-clavulanate showed 99.9% killing of seven strains, with 99% killing of eight strains and 90% killing of nine strains. At four times the MIC, metronidazole was bactericidal against 8 of 10 strains tested after 48 h and against all 10 strains after 24 h; after 12 h, 99% killing of all 10 strains occurred.

Credito, Kim L.; Ednie, Lois M.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

1999-01-01

88

Intravital imaging of CTLs killing islet cells in diabetic mice  

PubMed Central

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing ? cells in the pancreatic islets, which are essentially mini-organs embedded in exocrine tissue. CTLs are considered to have a predominant role in the autoimmune destruction underlying T1D. Visualization of CTL-mediated killing of ? cells would provide new insight into the pathogenesis of T1D, but has been technically challenging to achieve. Here, we report our use of intravital 2-photon imaging in mice to visualize the dynamic behavior of a virally expanded, diabetogenic CTL population in the pancreas at cellular resolution. Following vascular arrest and extravasation, CTLs adopted a random motility pattern throughout the compact exocrine tissue and displayed unimpeded yet nonlinear migration between anatomically nearby islets. Upon antigen encounter within islets, a confined motility pattern was acquired that allowed the CTLs to scan the target cell surface. A minority of infiltrating CTLs subsequently arrested at the ? cell junction, while duration of stable CTL–target cell contact was on the order of hours. Slow-rate killing occurred in the sustained local presence of substantial numbers of effector cells. Collectively, these data portray the kinetics of CTL homing to and between antigenic target sites as a stochastic process at the sub-organ level and argue against a dominant influence of chemotactic gradients.

Coppieters, Ken; Amirian, Natalie; von Herrath, Matthias

2011-01-01

89

Vehicle systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perspectives of the subpanel on expendable launch vehicle structures and cryotanks are: (1) new materials which provide the primary weight savings effect on vehicle mass/size; (2) today's investment; (3) typically 10-20 years to mature and fully characterize new materials.

Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

1993-02-01

90

Improvised Explosive Devise Placement Detection from a Semi-Autonomous Ground Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Improvised Explosive Devices (IED's) continue to kill and seriously injure military members throughout the Iraqi theatre. Autonomous Ground Vehicle (AGV) seeks to identify the human presence placing the IED and then report that contact to a unit of action...

B. D. Miller

2006-01-01

91

Canine prostatic secretions kill Trichomonas vaginalis.  

PubMed Central

The zinc content of prostatic secretions is thought to be an important nonspecific defense against urinary tract infection in men. This investigation measured killing by prostatic fluid of Trichomonas vaginalis, a common sexually transmitted pathogen, and related this activity to zinc concentration. We used a canine model which closely resembles the human male genital tract. Prostatic secretions from all dogs killed all T. vaginalis isolates. There appear to be several mechanisms for killing of trichomonads by prostatic fluid. At prostatic fluid zinc concentrations comparable to those in normal men (greater than or equal to 3.2 mM), the rate of killing of trichomonads was proportional to the zinc concentration. At intermediate zinc levels, killing occurred by both zinc-dependent and zinc-independent mechanisms. A zinc-independent mechanism was responsible for antitrichomonal activity at relatively low zinc levels (less than 1.6 mM), comparable to those in the prostatic fluid of men with chronic prostatitis. This study suggests that the variable clinical spectrum of trichomoniasis in men may result from a balance between the zinc sensitivity of the T. vaginalis strains on one side and the content of both zinc and zinc-independent factors in prostatic fluid on the other.

Krieger, J N; Rein, M F

1982-01-01

92

Integration without integration: New Killing spinor spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-conformally flat spacetimes admitting a non-null two-index Killing spinor are investigated by means of the Geroch-Held-Penrose formalism. Claims appearing in the literature that such spacetimes are all explicitly known are incorrect. This was shown in [5] for the family where, in the canonical frame, the spin coefficients ? or ?, vanish. Here the general case with non-vanishing ?, ?, ? and ? is re-considered. It is shown that the construction in [4] hinges on the tacit assumption that certain integrability conditions hold, implying two algebraic relations for the spin coefficients and the components of the Ricci spinor. All (conformal classes of) spacetimes, in which one of these conditions is violated, are obtained by invariant integration. The resulting classes are each other's Sachs transform and are characterised by one free function. They admit in general no Killing vectors, but still admit a conformal gauge (different from the trivial unitary gauge) in which a Killing tensor exists.

Van den Bergh, Norbert

2010-05-01

93

Extracellular killing of inhaled pneumococci in rats  

SciTech Connect

Early clearance of inhaled Staphylococcus aureus is believed to be caused by phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. In murine models inhaled pneumococci are cleared even more rapidly than S. aureus. Conventional opsonins appear to play no role in this clearance, and recently it has been shown that murine alveolar lining material contains free fatty acids and other soluble factors that are directly bactericidal for pneumococci. To determine whether non-phagocytic factors are involved in pneumococcal clearance, we compared the site of killing of inhaled pneumococci and S. aureus in rats using histologic methods and bronchoalveolar lavage. Spontaneous lysis of pneumococci was prevented by use of autolysin-defective pneumococci or by substitution of ethanolamine for choline in the cell wall. Histologic studies showed that the percent of inhaled staphylococci associated with alveolar macrophages always exceeded the percent of staphylococci cleared, whereas there was little association of pneumococci with macrophages during clearance. Analysis of the intracellular or extracellular location of iron 59 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats that had inhaled aerosols of /sup 59/Fe-labeled bacteria suggested that staphylococci were killed predominantly in macrophages and pneumococci in the extracellular space. When /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci or staphylococci were ingested and killed by macrophages in vitro, the /sup 59/Fe remained with the macrophages, suggesting that the extracellular location of /sup 59/Fe during pneumococcal killing in vivo was not caused by rapid turnover of /sup 59/Fe in macrophages. Studies of the site of killing of inhaled type 25 pneumococci labeled exclusively in the cell wall with carbon 14-ethanolamine confirmed the results obtained with /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci. Thus, early killing of inhaled pneumococci, unlike staphylococci, appears to take place outside of macrophages.

Coonrod, J.D.; Marple, S.; Holmes, G.P.; Rehm, S.R.

1987-12-01

94

HIV transcription is induced with cell killing  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evident in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

1993-11-01

95

Internet Resources on Genocide and Mass Killings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Internet Resources on Genocide and Mass Killings is an extensive compilation of primary materials and annotated links related to "twentieth-century genocidal and mass man-made killing occurrences." Divided into fifteen sections, subject coverage includes topics such as The Jewish Holocaust, War Crimes and Criminals, Yugoslavia and Kosovo, among others. Most of the original documents in the compilation have been uploaded to the site, facilitating navigation and research. Documents not residing at the site are linked via succinct annotations. The compilation is searchable and updated continuously by its creator Dr. Stuart D. Stein, Senior Lecturer in Sociology and Social Psychology at the University of West England.

96

Electromechanical Energy Transduction for Hybrid Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid vehicle technology seeks to reduce the total energy consumption used for vehicle locomotion by recovering and reutilizing kinetic energy that is otherwise unrecovered or dissipated in conventional vehicle deceleration. The goal of the work is to determine the transduction mechanisms that work towards a Carnot efficiency without considering constraints or limitations placed by cost or materials. Specifically, this talk will present ideal thermodynamic models of energy exchange between mechanical, electrostatic, electromechanical and electrochemical devices with a goal of projecting an ideal hybrid vehicle.

Reddy Vanja, Sridhar; Kelly, Michael W.; Caruso, A. N.

2010-03-01

97

Role of C5a-ase in group B streptococcal resistance to opsonophagocytic killing.  

PubMed

Type III group B streptococci (GBS) can be subdivided into three subtypes, RDP III-1, III-2, and III-3, on the basis of numerical analysis of HindIII restriction endonuclease digestion patterns (HindIII RDP) with their chromosomal DNAs. In the present study, the effect of C5a on opsonophagocytic killing of a representative strain from each RDP type was investigated by using a novel optical method for determining opsonophagocytic killing, and the effect of C5a-ase treatment of C5a on opsonophagocytic killing was also investigated. Pre-stimulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) with C5a significantly increased opsonophagocytic killing of all three strains. The increase in killing was abolished by pretreating the C5a with GBS that express C5a-ase, a treatment that also destroyed the chemoattractant activity of the C5a. The kinetics of killing of the RDP III-2 strain differed from those of the other two strains. The survival of the RDP III-2 bacteria continued to decline over the entire 60-min incubation of the opsonophagocytic assay when PMNs were prestimulated with C5a or with C5a that had been inactivated with GBS C5a-ase (dC5a). In contrast, killing of the RDP III-1 and III-3 strains almost ceased after 20 or 60 min when PMNs were prestimulated with dC5a or C5a, respectively. A difference in bacterial killing between the III-2 strain and the III-1 and III-3 strains therefore became increasingly apparent with prolonged incubation time. The percentage of bacteria surviving in the extracellular fluid was approximately the same as the percentages of bacteria surviving in both intracellular and extracellular locations when PMNs were prestimulated with either C5a or dC5a. These data imply that the majority of bacterial killing occurred following phagocytosis and suggest that the enhanced killing of GBS following prestimulation of PMNs with C5a resulted from increased ingestion of the bacteria. PMID:7591133

Takahashi, S; Nagano, Y; Nagano, N; Hayashi, O; Taguchi, F; Okuwaki, Y

1995-12-01

98

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

Box, W.D.

1997-02-11

99

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

Box, W.D.

1998-08-11

100

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

101

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

102

Integrating Poetry and "To Kill a Mockingbird."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a method of teaching "To Kill a Mockingbird" along with the study of poetry. Notes that this method allows students to consider the themes of courage and developing compassion. Concludes that teaching such a multigenre unit allows students to look for connections among fact and fiction, the past and present, their own lives and…

Jolley, Susan Arpajian

2002-01-01

103

Can Vet Schools Teach without Killing Animals?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses a protest by students at the University of Illinois (Urbana) College of Veterinary Medicine over the killing of animals that led to temporary curtailing of lethal animal experiments. Examines the conflict between animal rights groups and some faculty who are openly skeptical about the effectiveness of alternatives to the hands-on…

Mangan, Katherine S.

2000-01-01

104

Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The year 2001 will always be remembered as the year terrorists turned commercial airliners into murder weapons and used them to kill 3,047 innocent people. Counted within that number are 72 local, state, and federal law enforcement officers, the most offi...

2001-01-01

105

Killing Hitler: A Writer's Journey and Angst.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the author's experiences in preparing a talk that "evokes the specter" of Adolf Hitler and in writing an historical account of a British plot to kill Hitler. Address the question of why the British allowed him to live that final year of the war. Muses on why scholars write, and the impact of violence and terrorism. (SG)|

Thaler, Paul

2002-01-01

106

Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During 1997, 65 law enforcement officers were killed in the line of duty. Law enforcement agencies in 29 states and the District of Columbia reported officers' deaths. Of the victims, 34 were employed by city police departments, 20 by county police and sh...

1998-01-01

107

How to Make a Killing Jar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Biodiversity Counts illustration shows students how to make a simple killing jar to preserve arthropods for further study. As the labeled drawing shows, all that's needed is a jar with a lid, tape for reinforcement, a few drops of ethyl acetate, and a paper towel.

108

Parricide: Children Who Kill Their Parents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis is a scholarly investigation of adolescents who kill their parents. The research centers on who is the offender, why he or she has used parricide as a solution to an unresolvable problem, and how the criminal is treated by the justice system. ...

R. A. Strong

1988-01-01

109

Four House Fires That Killed 28 Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the last quarter of 1987, four fires in three communities killed 28 children and two adults. Each fire shocked it community. The basic lessons were similar, and common to many other fires: There were no working smoke detectors. The houses were overcrow...

J. M. Shapiro D. J. Carpenter P. S. Schaenman H. Stambaugh

1987-01-01

110

MECHANISM BY WHICH AMMONIUM FERTILIZERS KILL LARKSPUR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental concerns of using pesticides on public lands have greatly reduced the use of herbicides to control tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi). Alternative methods of control have used ammonium sulfate placed in the crown of individual plants to kill larkspur. The objective of this study was ...

111

Killing and TerrorThe Cultural Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the meaning of the word terror and how has its meaning changed through the ages? This article sets out to show how that meaning changed from ancient Greece to the present day. Murders and massacres were an accepted and normal part of societies, and only very recently in history was the killing of defenseless people universally condemned, hence,

Stefan Bratkowski

2005-01-01

112

Methods of killing employed by psychotic parricides.  

PubMed

Lewis, et al. in 1998 showed that psychotic women are more likely to use a weapon than nonpsychotic women to kill their children. This study presents data concerning psychotic parricide. Analysis indicated that a higher percentage used a weapon (81% versus 36%) than psychotic filicide. Reasons for this difference are discussed. PMID:14650686

Marleau, Jacques D

2003-10-01

113

Anuran road-kills neighboring a peri-urban reserve in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.  

PubMed

Mortality from road-kills may figure among the important causes of decline in amphibian populations and species extinctions worldwide. Evaluation of the magnitude, composition, and temporal and spatial distributions of amphibian road-kills is a key step for mitigation planning, especially in peri-urban reserves. Once a month for 16 months, we surveyed, on foot, a 4.4 km section of state road ERS-389 bordering the Itapeva reserve in the southern Atlantic Forest. We recorded 1433 anuran road-kills and estimated a mortality rate of 9002 road-kills/km/year. The species most often recorded were the largest ones: Leptodactylus latrans, Rhinella icterica, Leptodactylus gracilis and Hypsiboas faber; 54.5% of the carcasses could not be identified. Anuran mortality was concentrated in summer, and was associated with temperature, rainfall and photoperiod. Leptodactylus road-kills were strongly influenced by vehicle traffic, probably because of its high abundance during the entire study period. Road-kill hotspots differed for anurans as a group and for single species, and we found an association among spatial patterns of mortality and types of land cover, distance from the nearest waterbody, roadside ditches, and artificial light. Traffic should be banned temporarily during periods of high mortality, which can be forecasted based on meteorological data. A comprehensive mitigation approach should take into account hotspots of all anuran records, and also of target species for selecting locations for amphibian passages and fencing. Roadside ditches, artificial waterbodies, and conventional street lights should be reduced as much as possible, since they may represent ecological traps for anuran populations. PMID:22858802

Coelho, Igor Pfeifer; Teixeira, Fernanda Zimmermann; Colombo, Patrick; Coelho, Artur Vicente Pfeifer; Kindel, Andreas

2012-08-02

114

Fatal falls and jumps from motor vehicles.  

PubMed Central

In 1978, 345 persons were killed in the United States in jumps and falls from non-crashing motor vehicles: 64 per cent fell; 15 per cent jumped; and it was not known whether the other 21 per cent jumped or fell. Two hundred and one people had been traveling on the exterior of vehicles, especially truck beds, and almost all of these people fell from their vehicles. The other 144 fatalities involved people in passenger compartments. Many of the falls from compartments occurred when occupants opened doors, or when vehicles changed direction. Seventy-seven per cent of those who fell from passenger compartments were males, and 44 per cent were less than five years old. Among those who jumped from vehicle compartments, 62 per cent were women and all were older than 14 years. Fatal falls and jumps from vehicles could be reduced in a variety of ways. These include legislation to prohibit travel on vehicle exteriors, designing vehicles so that doors cannot be opened when in motion, improving door designs, installing signals that provide warning if doors are not closed completely, and using occupant restraints.

Williams, A F; Goins, S E

1981-01-01

115

Combustion Kinetics of Reentry Vehicle Ablation Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermal decomposition of carbonyl fluoride (COF2) in excess argon was studied behind shock waves in the temperature and total pressure ranges 2600-3600K and 0.5 to 12 atmospheres respectively. The reaction was found to be unimolecular in nature, and t...

R. A. Matula

1971-01-01

116

Motor vehicle fatalities in the United States construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A death certificate-based surveillance system was used to identify 2144 work-related motor vehicle fatalities among civilian workers in the United States construction industry over the years 1980–92. Construction workers were twice as likely to be killed by a motor vehicle as the average worker, with an annual crude mortality rate of 2.3\\/100?000 workers. Injury prevention efforts in construction have had

Timothy Ore; David E Fosbroke

1997-01-01

117

Slow-moving vehicles in Swedish traffic.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to reach a better understanding of accidents on Swedish roads involving slow-moving vehicles and to suggest ways of preventing such accidents. We analyzed accident data from a 5-year period (1992-1996) involving all types of farm vehicles as well as horses and horse-drawn vehicles. During each year of the period under investigation, slow-moving vehicles were involved in more than 250 traffic accidents on Swedish roads, and an average of 10 people were killed, 66 sustained serious injuries, and 192 sustained slight injuries. This was about 1.3% of all persons injured in traffic accidents in Sweden. The deaths and injuries mostly involved car drivers and passengers. Tractor drivers and unprotected road users (people walking or traveling by motorcycle, moped, or bicycle) also sustained serious injuries and deaths. Vehicles overtaking slow-moving vehicles from behind were the most common type of accident (30%), followed by turning accidents (27%), accidents at crossroads (26%), and with oncoming vehicles (17%). To strengthen the suggestions for improvement, a questionnaire was sent out to driving school teachers in Sweden. Subjects were asked about their experiences with farm vehicles on the roads and their suggestions for ways to increase traffic safety. Based on the accident data and the questionnaire responses, we developed several suggestions for reducing road accidents, including measures for making farm vehicles more visible, improvement of the training provided at driving schools, and information campaigns directed at drivers of farm vehicles and other road users. Further in-depth research is needed to analyze road accidents involving slow-moving vehicles and to test different intervention measures. PMID:15216651

Pinzke, S; Lundqvist, P

2004-05-01

118

Vehicle structure  

SciTech Connect

There is provided a vehicle which includes a frame, a steerable wheel mounted on the frame and at least one further wheel mounted for free rotation on the frame. A flywheel is mounted for rotation adjacent one of the wheels. The vehicle includes means for imparting rotation to the flywheel, and a clutch plate rotatably and coaxially mounted adjacent the same wheel to which the flywheel is adjacent. Speed-reduction means allows rotation of the flywheel to rotate the clutch plate at a faster rate than the flywheel, and a frictionless clutch is provided between the clutch plate and the adjacent wheel.

Stroud, E.A.

1984-05-01

119

Cytotoxic Killing and Immune Evasion by Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between the immune system and pathogens is a complex one, with pathogens constantly developing new ways of\\u000a evading destruction by the immune system. The immune system's task is made even harder when the pathogen in question is an\\u000a intra-cellular one (such as a virus or certain bacteria) and it is necessary to kill the infected host cell in

Cliburn Chan; Andrew J. T. George; Jaroslav Stark

2007-01-01

120

11. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF KILLING FLOOR ON LEVEL 4; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF KILLING FLOOR ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD SPLITTERS' PLATFORMS - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

121

9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.203 Section 113.203 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline...

2013-01-01

122

9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine...

2013-01-01

123

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline...

2013-01-01

124

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus...

2013-01-01

125

9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle...

2013-01-01

126

9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.213 Section 113.213 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213...

2013-01-01

127

9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113.204 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink...

2013-01-01

128

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline...

2013-01-01

129

9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.201 Section 113.201 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine...

2013-01-01

130

9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.201 Section 113.201 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine...

2009-01-01

131

HIV transcription is induced with cell killing  

SciTech Connect

Previous work has shown that HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct are induced to express chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) following exposure to DNA-damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation, {gamma} rays, neutrons, and others. In this report, the authors demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evidence in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Other agents which caused no cell killing (such as heat-shock for up to 2 h, treatment with metronidazole, exposure to sunlight, vitamin C treatment, and others) had no effect on HIV-LTR induction. These results suggest that HIV transcription is induced as a consequence of the turn on of a cellular death or apoptotic pathway.

Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Panozzo, J. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States). Dept. of Pathology; Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

1994-01-01

132

Designing surfaces that kill bacteria on contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(4-vinyl-N-alkylpyridinium bromide) was covalently attached to glass slides to create a surface that kills airborne bacteria on contact. The antibacterial properties were assessed by spraying aqueous suspensions of bacterial cells on the surface, followed by air drying and counting the number of cells remaining viable (i.e., capable of growing colonies). Amino glass slides were acylated with acryloyl chloride, copolymerized with 4-vinylpyridine, and N-alkylated with different alkyl bromides (from propyl to hexadecyl). The resultant surfaces, depending on the alkyl group, were able to kill up to 94 ± 4% of Staphylococcus aureus cells sprayed on them. A surface alternatively created by attaching poly(4-vinylpyridine) to a glass slide and alkylating it with hexyl bromide killed 94 ± 3% of the deposited S. aureus cells. On surfaces modified with N-hexylated poly(4-vinylpyridine), the numbers of viable cells of another Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, as well as of the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, dropped more than 100-fold compared with the original amino glass. In contrast, the number of viable bacterial cells did not decline significantly after spraying on such common materials as ceramics, plastics, metals, and wood.

Tiller, Joerg C.; Liao, Chun-Jen; Lewis, Kim; Klibanov, Alexander M.

2001-05-01

133

Designing surfaces that kill bacteria on contact  

PubMed Central

Poly(4-vinyl-N-alkylpyridinium bromide) was covalently attached to glass slides to create a surface that kills airborne bacteria on contact. The antibacterial properties were assessed by spraying aqueous suspensions of bacterial cells on the surface, followed by air drying and counting the number of cells remaining viable (i.e., capable of growing colonies). Amino glass slides were acylated with acryloyl chloride, copolymerized with 4-vinylpyridine, and N-alkylated with different alkyl bromides (from propyl to hexadecyl). The resultant surfaces, depending on the alkyl group, were able to kill up to 94 ± 4% of Staphylococcus aureus cells sprayed on them. A surface alternatively created by attaching poly(4-vinylpyridine) to a glass slide and alkylating it with hexyl bromide killed 94 ± 3% of the deposited S. aureus cells. On surfaces modified with N-hexylated poly(4-vinylpyridine), the numbers of viable cells of another Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, as well as of the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, dropped more than 100-fold compared with the original amino glass. In contrast, the number of viable bacterial cells did not decline significantly after spraying on such common materials as ceramics, plastics, metals, and wood.

Tiller, Joerg C.; Liao, Chun-Jen; Lewis, Kim; Klibanov, Alexander M.

2001-01-01

134

Immune Response to Orally Administered Killed MAP in Calves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to determine whether orally administered heat-killed MAP could induce a protective immune response in calves. Newborn male dairy calves were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatment groups: Heat killed MAP only (n=2), live MAP challenge only (n=4), heat killed MAP fo...

135

Macrophage tumor killing: influence of the local environment.  

PubMed

Tumor killing by activated macrophages is not a highly determined biologic event, but a relative capability influenced by the local environment. An intrinsic macrophage cytotoxic effector system is modulated by serum and other environmental factors that can either enhance or suppress tumor killing. Activated macrophages kill tumor cells only when a regulating threshold drops to a critically low level. PMID:327547

Hibbs, J B; Taintor, R R; Chapman, H A; Weinberg, J B

1977-07-15

136

7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section...Foreign Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which...its surface has a set green color caused by excessive heat in...tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule...

2013-01-01

137

It's Not Just Conflict That Motivates Killing of Orangutans  

PubMed Central

We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents’ active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI) and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI). These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed.

Davis, Jacqueline T.; Mengersen, Kerrie; Abram, Nicola K.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wells, Jessie A.; Meijaard, Erik

2013-01-01

138

Conformal Killing symmetric tensor flelds on a Riemannian manifold  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conformal Killing vector fleld on a Riemannian manifold is a vector fleld generating a one-parameter group of conformal transformations. We generalize the difierential equation of conformal Killing vector flelds to symmetric tensor flelds of arbitrary rank. The main result of the article is the flniteness theorem: the space of rank m ‚ 0 conformal Killing tensor flelds on a

Vladimir Sharafutdinov

139

It's Not Just Conflict That Motivates Killing of Orangutans.  

PubMed

We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents' active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI) and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI). These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed. PMID:24130707

Davis, Jacqueline T; Mengersen, Kerrie; Abram, Nicola K; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wells, Jessie A; Meijaard, Erik

2013-10-09

140

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

Box, W.D.

1996-03-12

141

Vehicle emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Air pollution in the United States is a major problem; transportation plays a major role in air pollution. This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, provides students with data on pollution caused by vehicles. Pollutants covered include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and lead, among others. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

142

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

Box, W.D.

1994-03-15

143

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

144

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (115 Newhaven Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1994-01-01

145

Optimal and adaptive control of underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article contains a continuous-time optimal and adaptive control scheme for underwater vehicles moving in 6 d.o.f. The control scheme is an modification of the algorithm of Johansson. The algorithm is optimal in the sense that it minimizes the state errors and the forces which contribute to the vehicle's kinetic energy that is spent to correct these errors. The performance

Svein I. Sagatun; Rolf Johansson

1995-01-01

146

Vehicle Occupant Head Distance Extraction Method using StereoVision  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the development of airbag system has improved the safety of the occupants. However, the car occupant can be often killed by improper airbag operation. Robust detection of vehicle occupant posture is necessary for a safer intelligent airbag deployment system. This paper presents a stereo- based method of estimating the posture of the occupant. Utilizing the disparity images

Sooyoung Ha; Sang-ho Ahn; Young-choon Kim; Mu-yeon Kim; Soo-yeon Son; Kuhn-il Lee

2006-01-01

147

Enzyme Kinetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Conveys an appreciation of enzyme kinetic analysis by using a practical and intuitive approach. Discusses enzyme assays, kinetic models and rate laws, the kinetic constants (V, velocity, and Km, Michaels constant), evaluation of V and Km from experimental data, and enzyme inhibition. (CW)|

Moe, Owen; Cornelius, Richard

1988-01-01

148

Effect of Silicon on the Desulfurization of Al-Killed Steels: Part I. Mathematical Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations suggest that increased silicon levels improve ladle desulfurization of aluminum-killed steel. While the overall desulfurization reaction of Al-killed steels does not show a direct role of silicon in desulfurization, model calculations are presented which test the idea that silicon suppresses the reduction of silica which can consume aluminum at the slag/metal interface. Consumption of aluminum would increase the oxygen potential at the slag/metal interface and decrease the sulfur partition coefficient between slag and metal. The model considers the coupled reactions of the reduction of silica, iron oxide, and manganese oxide in the slag and desulfurization of the steel by aluminum. The results show that silicon can indeed suppress consumption of aluminum at the slag/metal interface by side reactions other than desulfurization, with silicon affecting both the kinetics and the equilibrium of desulfurization.

Roy, Debdutta; Pistorius, Petrus Christiaan; Fruehan, Richard J.

2013-10-01

149

Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces?  

PubMed Central

Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important first steps for revealing the molecular sensitive targets in cells lethally challenged by exposure to copper surfaces and provide a scientific explanation for the use of copper surfaces as antimicrobial agents for supporting public hygiene.

Santo, Christophe Espirito; Lam, Ee Wen; Elowsky, Christian G.; Quaranta, Davide; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

2011-01-01

150

What Killed The Dinosaurs?: The Great Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents theories about why the dinosaurs became extinct. The first page provides background information covering not only the "great dying" at the K-T boundary but also the mass extinction at the end of the Paleozoic Era. The author covers six factors that complicate the study of mass extinction including time resolution, the Signor-Lipps Effect, and falsifiability. A link then takes the reader to a second page where invalid extinction hypotheses are explained. These range from "hay fever killed the dinosaurs" to "the dinosaurs just faded away," (no causation implied). The final link leads us to current thinking about extinction including volcanism, plate tectonics, and the Alvarez Hypothesis.

Hutchinson, John

151

Progress at Fresh Kills improving water quality  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that in December 1987, the federal district court in Nevada issued a consent order forcing New York City (NYC) to improve its handling of solid waste and reduce the discharge of solid waste into the surrounding waterway. Implementation of the consent order by NYC resulted in many improvements in the transport of solid waste from the Marine Transfer Station (MTS) to Fresh Kills Landfill. The end result was a marked reduction in solid waste discharge and an improvement in water quality along the New Jersey shore areas.

Londres, E.J.

1991-06-01

152

Exploration Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using recycled materials, learners will design a transportation vehicle to carry an egg in an egg toss (a rudimentary model of a shock absorbent transport vessel). Learners will consider how their design would protect very delicate and sophisticated equipment over long distances, and how this applies to rockets designed to carry exploration satellites or modules into space. This activity can be found on pages 54-57 of the activity guide.

Terc

2007-01-01

153

Vehicle Controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

1985-01-01

154

Real-Time Highway Traffic Condition Assessment Framework Using Vehicle-Infrastructure Integration (VII) With Artificial Intelligence (AI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework for real-time highway traffic condition assessment using vehicle kinetic information, which is likely to be made available from vehicle-infrastructure integration (VII) systems, in which vehicle and infrastructure agents communicate to improve mobility and safety. In the proposed VII framework, the vehicle onboard equipment and roadside units (RSUs) collaboratively work, supported by an artificial intelligence (AI)

Yongchang Ma; Mashrur Chowdhury; Adel Sadek; Mansoureh Jeihani

2009-01-01

155

What use are male hosts? The dynamics of maternally inherited bacteria showing sexual transmission or male killing.  

PubMed

Closely related pathogens and parasites often have distinctly different strategies for transmission. In some cases, presence of one potential mode of transmission reduces the rate of or forbids another. In these cases, one can ask what the conditions are that favor the use of one mode of transmission over the other. We constructed a mathematical model to examine this issue for the case of maternally inherited endosymbionts of insects. Here, killing males (to enhance transmission through the female line by reducing sibling competition) and retaining live males as a vehicle for sexual transmission are mutually exclusive strategies. Our model indicates that sexual transmission of a maternally inherited parasite can exclude a male-killing strain, provided that a sexually transmitted infection can take over an infection by a male-killing strain either following exposure or when male killing is incomplete and sexual transmission is efficient. The presence of sexual transmission may also explain why secondary symbionts do not degrade toward the evolution of male killing but remain as "beneficial partners" to both male and female hosts. This stabilization may be fundamental to the evolution toward obligate mutualism, and thus it is important in the ecology and evolution of many arthropod groups. PMID:19272014

Engelstädter, Jan; Hurst, Gregory D D

2009-05-01

156

The ability of insect-killing fungi to kill pecan aphids under laboratory conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is need for efficacious biocontrol agents for pecan aphids in commercial orchards. We determined the virulence (killing power) of several beneficial fungi to pecan aphids. We tested three species (kinds) of fungi: 1) Isaria fumosorosea (two strains of this species were tested: ARSEF 3581 a...

157

Hypervelocity impact flash for missile-defense kill assessment and engagement analysis : experiments on Z.  

SciTech Connect

Kill assessment continues to be a major problem for the nation's missile defense program. A potential approach for addressing this issue involves spectral and temporal analysis of the short-time impact flash that occurs when a kill vehicle intercepts and engages a target missile. This can provide identification of the materials involved in the impact event, which will, in turn, yield the data necessary for target identification, engagement analysis, and kill assessment. This report describes the first phases of a project under which we are providing laboratory demonstrations of the feasibility and effectiveness of this approach. We are using two major Sandia facilities, the Z-Pinch accelerator, and the two- and three-stage gas guns at the Shock Thermodynamics and Applied Research (STAR) facility. We have looked at the spectral content of impact flash at velocities up to 25 km/s on the Z-Pinch machine to establish the capability for spectroscopy for these types of events, and are looking at similar experiments at velocities from 6 to 11 km/s on the gas guns to demonstrate a similar capability for a variety of research-oriented and applied materials. The present report describes only the work performed on the Z machine.

Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Reinhart, William Dodd; Lawrence, Raymond Jeffery Jr.; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra; Kelly, Daniel P.

2005-07-01

158

Motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a vehicle for self-propelled travel over the ground and for increased efficiency while executing an inherently unstable maneuver such as turning, the vehicle comprising: a. a chassis having a forward end including; i. a body, and ii. wheel means for supporting the body above the ground; b. a drive unit having a forward end and a rearward end and including: i. a pair of laterally spaced steerable wheels for contacting the ground, the steerable wheels having a normal axis of rotation and; ii. power means for imparting rotation to at least one of the pair of steerable wheels; and c. coupling means for securing the drive unit to the chassis and for substantially equalizing the contribution of each of the pair of steerable wheels in directing and propelling the vehicle, the coupling means including; i. connection means pivotally joining the drive unit to the chassis forwardly of the body; ii. a first strut laterally spaced from the connection means and extending between the chassis and the drive unit; iii. a second strut laterally spaced from the connection means in a direction opposite from the lateral spacing of the first strut and extending between the chassis and the drive unit. Each of the strut has a first end movably affixed to the chassis and a second end movably affixed to the drive unit, the second end of each of the struts being affixed to the drive unit at a location spaced above and forward of the normal axis of rotation of the pair of steerable wheels.

Roe, D.A.; Harp, T.D.

1987-03-10

159

Vehicle barrier  

DOEpatents

A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

Hirsh, Robert A. (Bethel Park, PA)

1991-01-01

160

Antimicrobial Peptide Killing of African Trypanosomes  

PubMed Central

Summary The diseases caused by trypanosomes are medically and economically devastating to the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Parasites of the genus Trypanosoma, infect both humans, causing African sleeping sickness, and livestock, causing Nagana. The development of effective treatment strategies has suffered from the severe side effects of approved drugs, resistance and major difficulties in delivering drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are ubiquitous components of immune defense and are being rigorously pursued as novel sources of new therapeutics for a variety of pathogens. Here we review the role of antimicrobial peptides in the innate immune response of the tsetse fly to African trypanosomes, catalogue trypanocidal antimicrobial peptides from diverse organisms and highlight the susceptibility of bloodstream form African trypanosomes to killing by unconventional toxic peptides.

Harrington, John M.

2011-01-01

161

Optimization of power management in an hybrid electric vehicle using dynamic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles are those powered from two different sources. Typically, they are equipped with an internal combustion engine, and also with an electrical storage system, such as a bank of batteries or ultra-capacitors. While braking, these vehicles may convert kinetic energy to electrical energy and send it back to the electrical storage system (regenerative braking). The whole vehicle system

Laura V. Pérez; Guillermo R. Bossio; Diego Moitre; Guillermo O. García

2006-01-01

162

Advancements in dynamic kill calculations for blowout wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the development, interpretation, and use of dynamic kill equations. To this end, three simple calculation techniques are developed for determining the minimum dynamic kill rate. Two techniques contain only single-phase calculations and are independent of reservoir inflow performance. Despite these limitations, these two methods are useful for bracketing the minimum flow rates necessary to kill a blowing well. For the third technique, a simplified mechanistic multiphase-flow model is used to determine a most-probable minimum kill rate.

Kouba, G.E. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States). Production Fluids Div.); MacDougall, G.R. (Chevron Canada Resources Ltd., Slave Lake, (Canada)); Schumacher, B.W. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States). Information Technology Dept.)

1993-09-01

163

Vehicle Classifying Counter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report concerns the design, development and testing of a vehicle classifying counter. The vehicle classifying counter was developed at the Materials and Research Department to classify vehicles by their wheelbase and number of axles. Tests were perfor...

E. F. Nordlin L. G. Kubel A. F. Bailey T. F. Grillo L. E. Welsh

1969-01-01

164

Vehicle suspension  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a vehicle consisting of sprung and unsprung masses, the combination of struts and support springs for the weight of the sprung mass, an axis defined by pivots between sprung and unsprung masses, with a front pivot approximately midway between the wheels and near the vertical and horizontal planes through the front axles, with a rear pivot lying in an axis through the front pivot and in a plane through the center-of-gravity of the sprung mass, with the plane parallel to the centrifugal force vector through the center-of-gravity of the sprung mass, and with the rear pivot positioned approximately midway between the rear wheels, means for transmitting the centrifugal force component on the front pivot to the front wheels and ground, and means for transmitting the centrifugal force component on the rear pivot to the rear wheels and ground.

Mikina, S.J.

1986-08-05

165

Model based vehicle detection for intelligent vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems are being researched nowadays for Intelligent Vehicles has to deal -with the detection and tracking of other vehicles. It will have many applications: Platooning, Stop&go, Blind angle perception, Manoeuvres supervisor. In this paper, a system based on computer vision is presented. A geometric model of the vehicle is defined where its energy function

J. M. Collado; C. Hilario; J. M. Armingol

2004-01-01

166

Conserved Matter Superenergy Currents for Hypersurface Orthogonal Killing Vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that for hypersurface orthogonal Killing vectors, the corresponding Chevreton superenergy currents will be conserved and proportional to the Killing vectors. This holds for four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes with an electromagnetic field that is sourcefree and inherits the symmetry of the spacetime. A similar result also holds for the trace of the Chevreton tensor. The corresponding Bel currents have previously

Ingemar Eriksson

2005-01-01

167

Microwave irradiation for rapid killing and fixing of plant tissue  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation by microwaves allows for rapid killing and fixing of plant tissue, with excellent cellular integrity for histological examination. One or two exposures to microwaves for three seconds in formalin/acetic acid/alcohol gave good preservation of nuclei, chloroplasts, and other plant structures. The microwave method offers a considerable saving of time over traditional methods for killing and fixing plant tissue.

Walsh, G.E.; Bohannon, P.M.; Wessinger-Duvall, P.B.

1989-01-01

168

Control of Influenza and Poliomyelitis with Killed Virus Vaccines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses control of poliomyelitis and influenza by live and killed virus vaccines. Considered are the etiological agents, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiology of each disease. Reviews recent scientific studies of the diseases. Recommends use of killed virus vaccines in controlling both diseases. (CS)

Salk, Jonas; Salk, Darrell

1977-01-01

169

The classification of Killing magnetic curves in S2×R  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the trajectories of charged particles moving in a space modeled by the homogeneous 3-space S2×R under the action of the Killing magnetic fields. The main results consist in the local description of the magnetic trajectories associated to Killing vector fields in S2×R, providing their complete classification. Moreover, some interpretations in terms of geometric properties are given.

Munteanu, Marian Ioan; Nistor, Ana-Irina

2012-02-01

170

7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

171

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart...

2013-01-01

172

Inheriting Spacelike Conformal Killing Vectors in String Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the consequences of the existence of spacelike conformal Killing vectors (SpCKV) parallel to xa for cosmic strings and string fluid in the context of general relativity. The inheritance symmetries of the cosmic strings and string fluid are discussed in the case of SpCKV. Furthermore we examine proper homothetic spacelike Killing vectors for the cosmic strings and string fluid.

Baysal, Hüsnü

173

PREDATORY BEHAVIOR OF GOVERNMENTS: THE CASE OF MASS KILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we seek to answer the question: why do governments engage in mass killing? Tullock (1974) gives gain or avoidance of loss as the motive. We construct a three?stage theoretic framework to explain the choice of a ruler of a country. The conditions that must be met for a mass killing regime to win over alternative regimes are

Sang Hoo Bae; Attiat F. Ott

2008-01-01

174

9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PLATFORMS IN FOREGROUND WERE USED BY SPLITTERS, TRIMMERS AND GOVERNMENT INSPECTORS; SKINNING TABLE RAN ALONG THE WINDOWS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

175

Control of Influenza and Poliomyelitis with Killed Virus Vaccines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses control of poliomyelitis and influenza by live and killed virus vaccines. Considered are the etiological agents, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiology of each disease. Reviews recent scientific studies of the diseases. Recommends use of killed virus vaccines in controlling both diseases. (CS)|

Salk, Jonas; Salk, Darrell

1977-01-01

176

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Kills Caenorhabditis elegans by Cyanide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aerugi- nosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a

LARRY A. GALLAGHER; COLIN MANOIL

2001-01-01

177

Male Brown-headed Cowbird Attacks and Kills a Nestling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I observed a male Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) attack and kill a nestling of an unidentified passerine in a grassland field in Day County, South Dakota, in June 2000. The killing or removal of nestlings by female cowbirds has been reported by others, but this behavior has not been documented previously in male cowbirds.

Igl, L. D.

2003-01-01

178

Suicide Bombings and Targeted Killings in (Counter) Terror Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops sequential game models for key operational terrorist (how often to attack) and government (how often to execute targeted killings) decisions taken during a (counter-) terror campaign such as the second intifada. Key results include the following: The government initiates targeted killings when the marginal number of Israeli civilian lives saved from prevented terror attacks exceeds the marginal

Daniel Jacobson; Edward H. Kaplan

2007-01-01

179

The Seal Killing Controversy: What Are the Facts?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the seal controversy using the harp and Alaska fur seals to illustrate the two distinct issues, i.e., conservation (the effect of killing upon the animal population); and two, morality (the effect of killing upon the human spirit). Factual information combines with personal philosophy. (LK)|

Scheffer, Victor B.

1973-01-01

180

Mechanisms of Contact-Mediated Killing of Yeast Cells on Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces?  

PubMed Central

Surfaces made of copper or its alloys have strong antimicrobial properties against a wide variety of microorganisms. However, the molecular mode of action responsible for the antimicrobial efficacy of metallic copper is not known. Here, we show that dry copper surfaces inactivate Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae within minutes in a process called contact-mediated killing. Cellular copper ion homeostasis systems influenced the kinetics of contact-mediated killing in both organisms. Deregulated copper ion uptake through a hyperactive S. cerevisiae Ctr1p (ScCtr1p) copper uptake transporter in Saccharomyces resulted in faster inactivation of mutant cells than of wild-type cells. Similarly, lack of the C. albicans Crp1p (CaCrp1p) copper-efflux P-type ATPase or the metallothionein CaCup1p caused more-rapid killing of Candida mutant cells than of wild-type cells. Candida and Saccharomyces took up large quantities of copper ions as soon as they were in contact with copper surfaces, as indicated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis and by the intracellular copper ion-reporting dye coppersensor-1. Exposure to metallic copper did not cause lethality through genotoxicity, deleterious action on a cell's genetic material, as indicated by a mutation assay with Saccharomyces. Instead, toxicity mediated by metallic copper surfaces targeted membranes in both yeast species. With the use of Live/Dead staining, onset of rapid and extensive cytoplasmic membrane damage was observed in cells from copper surfaces. Fluorescence microscopy using the indicator dye DiSBaC2(3) indicated that cell membranes were depolarized. Also, during contact-mediated killing, vacuoles first became enlarged and then disappeared from the cells. Lastly, in metallic copper-stressed yeasts, oxidative stress in the cytoplasm and in mitochondria was elevated.

Quaranta, Davide; Krans, Travis; Santo, Christophe Espirito; Elowsky, Christian G.; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

2011-01-01

181

Novel innate cancer killing activity in humans  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, we pilot tested an in vitro assay of cancer killing activity (CKA) in circulating leukocytes of 22 cancer cases and 25 healthy controls. Methods Using a human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa, as target cells, we compared the CKA in circulating leukocytes, as effector cells, of cancer cases and controls. The CKA was normalized as percentages of total target cells during selected periods of incubation time and at selected effector/target cell ratios in comparison to no-effector-cell controls. Results Our results showed that CKA similar to that of our previous study of SR/CR mice was present in human circulating leukocytes but at profoundly different levels in individuals. Overall, males have a significantly higher CKA than females. The CKA levels in cancer cases were lower than that in healthy controls (mean ± SD: 36.97 ± 21.39 vs. 46.28 ± 27.22). Below-median CKA was significantly associated with case status (odds ratio = 4.36; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.06, 17.88) after adjustment of gender and race. Conclusions In freshly isolated human leukocytes, we were able to detect an apparent CKA in a similar manner to that of cancer-resistant SR/CR mice. The finding of CKA at lower levels in cancer patients suggests the possibility that it may be of a consequence of genetic, physiological, or pathological conditions, pending future studies with larger sample size.

2011-01-01

182

Mouse oocyte killing by neutrons: target considerations  

SciTech Connect

Highly radiosensitive primordial mouse oocytes, the principal cells at genetic risk in the female, have been studied using 0.43-MeV neutrons. Analysis of the survival curve (D/sub 37/ = 0.055 Gy) indicates that the diameter of the radiosensitive target (assumed spherical and of unit density) is larger than that of the nucleus but not of the oocyte, implicating a non-nuclear but sub-cellular target. This is consistent with results from /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporated in DNA. Our efforts to identify the extraordinarily radiosensitive lethality target in these primordial oocytes suggest it is the plasma membrane. Monte Carlo calculations for 0.43-MeV neutrons show that at the D/sub 37/ only a single proton recoil will traverse the plasma membrane, consistent with the observed exponential survival curve. A highly sensitive non-DNA target for mouse oocyte killing may importantly influence interpretations of genetic mutation data from mice and their use in estimating genetic risk in humans. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Straume, T.; Dobson, R.L.

1985-04-01

183

Motor Vehicle Trauma: An Unnecessary Disease  

PubMed Central

The motor vehicle accident kills and maims more of our young people than any other affliction. Yet prevention of injuries and deaths from MVA receives less emphasis in medical education, medical publications and collective political action than the problem merits. In daily practice, there are numerous opportunities for prevention counselling, alcoholic driver case finding, and critical assessment of the privilege of driving. Within their community, family physicians can have input into some preventive programs. At government level, physicians should increase their pressure for legislative action to reduce MVA injuries and deaths.

Johnson, Douglas H.

1987-01-01

184

Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Lysosomal Killing of Cryptococcus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death.

Hole, Camaron R.; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L.; Wozniak, Karen L.

2012-10-01

185

Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Lysosomal Killing of Cryptococcus  

PubMed Central

Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death.

Hole, Camaron R.; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L.; Wozniak, Karen L.

2012-01-01

186

Managing Threat, Cost, and Incentive to Kill: The Short and Long-Term Effects of Intervention in Mass Killings  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do third-party interventions affect the severity of mass killings? The authors theorize that episodes of mass killing are the consequence of two factors: (1) the threat perceptions of the perpetrators and (2) the cost of implementing genocidal policies relative to other alternatives. To reduce genocidal hostilities, interveners must address these factors. Doing so requires that interveners alter the genocidaire’s

Jacob D. Kathman; Reed M. Wood

2011-01-01

187

Killing vectors in asymptotically flat space-times. I. Asymptotically translational Killing vectors and the rigid positive energy theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study Killing vector fields in asymptotically flat space-times. We prove the following result, implicitly assumed in the uniqueness theory of stationary black holes. If the conditions of the rigidity part of the positive energy theorem are met, then in such space-times there are no asymptotically null Killing vector fields except if the initial data set can be embedded in

Robert Beig; Piotr T. Chrusciel

1996-01-01

188

Managing Threat, Cost, and Incentive to Kill: The Short- and Long-Term Effects of Intervention in Mass Killings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do third-party interventions affect the severity of mass killings? The authors theorize that episodes of mass killing are the consequence of two factors: (1) the threat perceptions of the perpetrators and (2) the cost of implementing genocidal policies relative to other alternatives. To reduce genocidal hostilities, interveners must address…

Kathman, Jacob D.; Wood, Reed M.

2011-01-01

189

Hybrid vehicle systems analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique has been developed for deriving the optimal operating strategy including engine calibration for a hybrid vehicle given the vehicle hardware description, the operating cycle, emission constraints, and the relative costs of the two energy sources carried on the vehicle. The technique is described. The results of applying it to a set of electric\\/ICE hybrid vehicles attempt to encompass

F. G. Willis; R. R. Radtke

1985-01-01

190

Electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the energy utilization of gasoline and battery-electric powered special purpose vehicles is discussed along with the impact of electric cars on national energy consumption, the development of electric vehicles in Japan, the applicability of safety standards to electric and hybrid-vehicles, and crashworthiness tests on two electric vehicles. Aspects of energy storage are explored, taking into account a

L. J. Jacovides; E. P. Cornell; R. Kirk

1981-01-01

191

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energyâs Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine

James Francfort

2003-01-01

192

Green Vehicle Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is geared toward consumers to help them choose the most fuel-efficient and clean vehicles. Users can download vehicle lists, look up vehicle ratings, learn more about reducing vehicle pollution, and use the links section to find further information. This is a timely site for a period when Americans might well want to think about reducing their dependence on oil.

2001-01-01

193

Stowable and Inflatable Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A stowable and inflatable vehicle, adapted for use as a decoy space vehicle and as a replica of a relatively hot parent space vehicle. In addition to other components, the inventive decoy and replica vehicle includes: a telescoping central tubular member ...

C. F. Seifert H. S. Seapy T. K. Petersen

1979-01-01

194

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data  

EIA Publications

This report contains data on the number of onroad alternative fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles made available by both the original equipment manufacturers and aftermarket vehicle conversion facilities and data on the use of alternative fueled vehicles and the amount of fuel they consume.

Information Center

2013-04-08

195

Heparin Kinetics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author has studied the kinetics of heparin and heparin fractions after intravenous administration in humans and in this thesis the results of this study are reported. Basic knowledge about the physico-chemical properties of heparin and its interaction...

C. A. M. Swart

1983-01-01

196

Enzyme Kinetics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resrouce provides detailed protocols for performing a laboratory exercise in enzyme kinetics. The activity of enzymes are characterized both by reaction rates and the effect of different concentrations of substrates.

Carl Stiefbold (University of Oregon;); Karen Sprague (University of Oregon;); Will Goodwin (University of Oregon;); Sam Donovan (University of Oregon;); Vicki Chandler (University of Oregon;)

1998-01-01

197

Using a bug-killing paradigm to understand how social validation and invalidation affect the distress of killing.  

PubMed

Clinical evidence demonstrates that killing among soldiers at war predicts their experience of long-lasting trauma/distress. Killing leads to distress, in part, due to guilt experienced from violating moral standards. Because social consensus shapes what actions are perceived as moral and just, we hypothesized that social validation for killing would reduce guilt, whereas social invalidation would exacerbate it. To examine this possibility in a laboratory setting, participants were led to kill bugs in an "extermination task." Perceptions of social validation/invalidation were manipulated through the supposed actions of a confederate (Study 1) or numerous previous participants (Study 2) that agreed or refused to kill bugs. Distress measures focused on trauma-related guilt. Higher levels of distress were observed when individuals perceived their actions as invalidated as opposed to when they perceived their actions as socially validated. Implications for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experienced by soldiers and the paradoxical nature of publicly expressing antiwar sentiments are discussed. PMID:23407746

Webber, David; Schimel, Jeff; Martens, Andy; Hayes, Joseph; Faucher, Erik H

2013-02-13

198

Laser Microbial Killing and Biofilm Disruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objectives: To analyze the ability of NIR lasers to reduce bacterial load and demonstrate the capability of fiber-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser disrupting biofilm. Study Design: NIR diode laser was tested in vitro and in vivo using pathogenic microorganisms (S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa). In addition biofilms were grown from clinical Pseudomonas isolates and placed in culture plates, screws, tympanostomy tubes and PET sutures. Methods: In the animal experiments acute rhinosinusitis model was created by packing the rabbit nose with bacteria soaked solution. The nasal pack was removed in two days and nose was exposed to laser irradiation. A 940 nm diode laser with fiber diffuser was used. Nasal cultures were obtained before and after the laser treatments. Animals were sacrificed fifteen days following laser treatment and bacteriologic/histologic results analyzed. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser generated shockwave pulses were delivered on biofilm using special probes over culture plates, screws, tubes, and PET sutures for the biofilm experiments. Results: Average of two log bacteria reduction was achieved with NIR laser compared to controls. Histologic studies demonstrated preservation of tissue integrity without significant damage to mucosa. Biofilms were imaged before, during and after treatment using a confocal microscope. During laser-generated shockwave application, biofilm was initially seen to oscillate and eventually break off. Large and small pieces of biofilm were totally and instantly removed from the surface to which they were attached in seconds. Conclusions: Significant bacterial reduction was achieved with NIR laser therapy in this experimental in vitro and animal study. In addition we disrupted Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and special probes generating plasma and shockwave. This new and innovative method of bacteria killing and biofilm disruption without injuring host tissue may have clinical application in the future.

Krespi, Yosef P.; Kizhner, Victor

2009-06-01

199

Suitable vehicles: Framing blame and justice when children kill a child  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of a comparative analysis of English and Norwegian newspaper coverage of two child-on-child homicides from the 1990s. Domestic coverage of the English case of James Bulger presented it as alarmingly symptomatic of deep-seated moral decline in Britain that only tough, remoralizing strategies could address. Coverage of the Norwegian case of Silje Redergård constructed it as

David A. Green

2008-01-01

200

Generalized killing equations and symmetries of spinning space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of general conditions for the isometrics of d-dimensional spinning space is derived. These equations constitute a Grassmann valued extension of the Killing equations for ordinary space. They are developed as invariances of spinning particle actions. Solutions for extended Killing equations in arbitrary curved space are presented. The spinning particles in d-dimensions are shown to possess new types of supersymmetries which transform the commuting and anti-commuting coordinates linearly and nonlinearly. The algebra of these nonlinear transformations is presented. A complete solution of the generalized Killing equations is outlined. An infinite set of conserved charges is constructed.

Rietdijk, R. H.; Vanholten, J. W.

1989-04-01

201

Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens  

SciTech Connect

The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

Daniel P. Molloy

2004-02-24

202

HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing  

SciTech Connect

Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct`, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {Gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

Woloschak, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Schreck, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)][South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Panozzo, J. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States); Chang-Liu, C.-M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

1996-11-01

203

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

James Francfort

2003-11-01

204

Hybrid Vehicle Design Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is written for a first-year algebra-based physics class, though it could easily be modified for conceptual physics. It is intended to provide hands-on activities to teach the overarching concept of energy, as it relates to both kinetic and potential energy. Within these topics, students are exposed to gravitational potential, spring potential, the Carnot engine, temperature scales, and simple magnets. During the module, students utilize these scientific concepts to solve the following problem: âThe rising price of gasoline has many effects on the US economy and the environment. You have been contracted as by an engineering firm to help with the design of a physical energy storage system to be used on a new hybrid vehicle for Nissan. How would you go about solving this problem? What information would you consider to be important to know? You will make a sales pitch to Nissan with a small prototype with your idea at the end of the unit.â This module is built around the Legacy Cycle, a format that incorporates findings from educational research on how people best learn.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

205

40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement...kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement...kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...

2010-07-01

206

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed...recommended for use in dogs, shall be...Twenty-five parvovirus susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates...drawn from each dog and tested for...antibody to canine parvovirus in the same...

2009-01-01

207

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed...recommended for use in dogs, shall be...Twenty-five parvovirus susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates...drawn from each dog and tested for...antibody to canine parvovirus in the same...

2010-01-01

208

Scientists Report New Lead in How Anthrax Kills Cells  

Cancer.gov

For years scientists have known that anthrax bacillus produces a toxin containing a deadly protein called lethal factor. However, researchers have never been able to identify how lethal factor kills cells.

209

9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine...paragraph. (i) Eight infectious bovine rhinotracheitis susceptible...after the last vaccination, blood samples shall be drawn and the...inactivated and tested for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus...

2010-01-01

210

9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine...paragraph. (i) Eight infectious bovine rhinotracheitis susceptible...after the last vaccination, blood samples shall be drawn and the...inactivated and tested for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus...

2009-01-01

211

Hidden symmetries and killing tensors on curved spaces  

SciTech Connect

Higher-order symmetries corresponding to Killing tensors are investigated. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and nonstandard supersymmetries is pointed out. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures as dynamical algebras or even infinite dimensional algebras or superalgebras. The general results are applied to space-times which appear in modern studies. One presents the infinite dimensional superalgebra of Dirac type operators on the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space that can be seen as a twisted loop algebra. The existence of the conformal Killing-Yano tensors is investigated for some spaces with mixed 3-Sasakian structures.

Ianus, S. [University of Bucharest, Department of Mathematics (Romania); Visinescu, M., E-mail: mvisin@theory.nipne.r [Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Department of Theoretical Physics (Romania); Vilcu, G. E. [Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (Romania)

2010-11-15

212

PFIESTERIA SHUMWAYAE KILLS FISH BY MICROPREDATION NOT ECOTOXIN SECRETION  

EPA Science Inventory

Massive fish kills in mid-Atlantic USA estuaries involving several million Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus,have been attributed to dinoflagellates of the toxic Pfiesteria complex (TPC). Potent ichthyotoxins secreted during Pfiesteria blooms are thought to be responsible fo...

213

[Killing and dignity of animals: a problem for veterinarians?].  

PubMed

Killing of animals is an important task to be performed by veterinarians. Killing decisions and their implementation often raise ethical questions. As a result of an interdisciplinary workshop targeting the subject "killing of animals" with veterinarians and ethicists, a three-dimensional dimension scheme was developed. Whereas the first two dimensions are focused on the animal's past and future life and are discussed with regard to life quality and life accomplishment (the "telos"), the third dimension incorporates the reason to kill and may integrate the concept of dignity. This form of dignity and the weighing of interests are applied to example scenarios and the resulting responsibilities of veterinarians and society are discussed. PMID:21696009

Fahrion; Dürr, S; Doherr, M G; Hartnack, S; Kunzmann, P

2011-05-01

214

Flu Can Kill Even Healthy Children, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Flu Can Kill Even Healthy Children, Study Finds Unvaccinated ... October 28, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Children's Health Flu MONDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Children, even those ...

215

Effect of hybrid system battery performance on determining CO 2 emissions of hybrid electric vehicles in real-world conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can potentially reduce vehicle CO2 emissions by using recuperated kinetic vehicle energy stored as electric energy in a hybrid system battery (HSB). HSB performance affects the individual net HEV CO2 emissions for a given driving pattern, which is considered to be equivalent to unchanged net energy content in the HSB. The present study investigates the influence

Robert Alvarez; Peter Schlienger; Martin Weilenmann

2010-01-01

216

Conserved matter superenergy currents for hypersurface orthogonal Killing vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that for hypersurface orthogonal Killing vectors the corresponding Chevreton superenergy currents will be conserved and proportional to the Killing vectors. This holds for four-dimensional Einstein–Maxwell spacetimes with an electromagnetic field that is source-free and inherits the symmetry of the spacetime. A similar result also holds for the trace of the Chevreton tensor. The corresponding Bel currents have previously

Ingemar Eriksson

2006-01-01

217

1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING NORTHWEST; A PORTION OF THE SCALDING TANK IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT, CENTER; CONCRETE PYLONS AT LOWER RIGHT SUPPORTED BY SCRAPING MACHINE; FINAL SCRAPING WAS DONE BY WORKERS STANDING ON ELEVATED PLATFORMS AT LEFT; BATHTUB-SHAPED CART NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO WAS USED TO TRANSPORT OFFAL TO RENDERING AREAS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

218

Are Road Kills Valid Indicators of Armadillo Population Structure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wecollected 3 yr of data on road-killed nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) to determine if these individuals were representative of the population as a whole. Comparisons between road kills and an adjacent live-caught population revealed no differences in sex ratios or the reproductive condition of adult females. However, there was a significant difference in the age structure of the two groups,

J. LOUGHRY; COLLEEN M. McDONOUGH

219

Fifty-Five Years of Fish Kills in Coastal Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The designation of Texas as a “hotspot” for fish mortalities relative to the other 22 coastal US states is of serious concern\\u000a for scientists, resource managers, and the public alike. We investigated the major sources and causes of fish kills in coastal\\u000a Texas from 1951 to 2006. During this 55-year period, more than 383 million fish were killed, 72% of

Amanda Thronson; Antonietta Quigg

2008-01-01

220

Gabaergic modulation of mouse-killing in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

When GABA-potentiating compounds were administered IP to rats with prior experience of mouse-killing behaviour, a reduction of killing was observed with gammavinyl GABA (200 and 400 mg\\/kg) and nipecotic acid amide (400 mg\\/kg), while no significant effect was noted following injection of dipropylacetate or THIP. The inhibitory effects of gamma-vinyl GABA and nipecotic acid amide were not reversed by subsequent

Antoine Depaulis; Marguerite Vergnes

1984-01-01

221

Binding and killing of bacteria by bismuth subsalicylate.  

PubMed Central

Bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) is a compound without significant aqueous solubility that is widely used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. BSS was able to bind bacteria of diverse species, and these bound bacteria were subsequently killed. A 4-log10 reduction of viable bacteria occurred within 4 h after a 10 mM aqueous suspension of BSS was inoculated with 2 x 10(6) Escherichia coli cells per ml. Binding and killing were dependent on the levels of inoculated bacteria, and significant binding but little killing of the exposed bacteria occurred at an inoculum level of 2 x 10(9) E. coli per ml. Intracellular ATP decreased rapidly after exposure of E. coli to 10 mM BSS and, after 30 min, was only 1% of the original level. Extracellular ATP increased after exposure to BSS, but the accumulation of extracellular ATP was not sufficient to account for the loss of intracellular ATP. The killing of bacteria exposed to BSS may have been due to cessation of ATP synthesis or a loss of membrane integrity. Bactericidal activity of BSS was also investigated in a simulated gastric juice at pH 3. Killing of E. coli at this pH was much more rapid than at pH 7 and was apparently due to salicylate released by the conversion of BSS to bismuth oxychloride. It is proposed that the binding and killing observed for BSS contribute to the efficacy of this compound against gastrointestinal infections such as traveler's diarrhea.

Sox, T E; Olson, C A

1989-01-01

222

Electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

A study of the energy utilization of gasoline and battery-electric powered special purpose vehicles is discussed along with the impact of electric cars on national energy consumption, the development of electric vehicles in Japan, the applicability of safety standards to electric and hybrid-vehicles, and crashworthiness tests on two electric vehicles. Aspects of energy storage are explored, taking into account a review of battery systems for electrically powered vehicles, the dynamic characterization of lead-acid batteries for vehicle applications, nickel-zinc storage batteries as energy sources for electric vehicles, and a high energy tubular battery for a 1800 kg payload electric delivery van. Subjects considered in connection with drive systems include the drive system of the DOE near-term electric vehicle, a high performance AC electric drive system, an electromechanical transmission for hybrid vehicle power trains, and a hybrid vehicle for fuel economy. Questions of vehicle development are examined, giving attention to the Electrovair electric car, special purpose urban cars, the system design of the electric test vehicle, a project for city center transport, and a digital computer program for simulating electric vehicle performance.

Jacovides, L.J.; Cornell, E.P.; Kirk, R.

1981-01-01

223

Calcium, cancer and killing: the role of calcium in killing cancer cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells.  

PubMed

Killing cancer cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and by natural killer (NK) cells is of vital importance. Cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis depend on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, and the expression of numerous ion channels with the ability to control intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations has been correlated with cancer. A rise of intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations is also required for efficient CTL and NK cell function and thus for killing their targets, in this case cancer cells. Here, we review the data on Ca(2+)-dependent killing of cancer cells by CTL and NK cells. In addition, we discuss emerging ideas and present a model how Ca(2+) may be used by CTL and NK cells to optimize their cancer cell killing efficiency. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 12th European Symposium on Calcium. PMID:23220009

Schwarz, Eva C; Qu, Bin; Hoth, Markus

2012-12-03

224

Kinetic Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of a comprehensive physics tutorial for high school students, this page describes kinetic energy conceptually and mathematically, provides examples enhanced by illustrations, and problems for practice with drop down boxes for your answers and feedback. In the left navigation bar, click on Potential Energy to get parallel information on potential energy.

2010-01-01

225

Distributed Propulsion Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation....

H. D. Kim

2010-01-01

226

Welfare of animals at slaughter and killing: a new regulation on the protection of animals at the time of killing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the European Commission (EC) has published a proposal for a Council Regulation on the protection of animals at the\\u000a time of killing. The proposed regulation will enhance the technical requirements of Directive 93\\/119\\/EC on the protection\\u000a of animals at the time of slaughter or killing, which have not been amended since 1993. The main specific problems identified\\u000a with the

Annamaria Passantino

2009-01-01

227

Entrainment and vehicle following controllers design for autonomous intelligent vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrainment and vehicle following controllers are proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles in both non-tight and tight vehicle following manoeuvres. A nonlinear vehicle model is used for designing the controllers. The proposed vehicle following controller is designed based on a constant time headway policy; whereas, the proposed entrainment controller is designed based on a k-factor headway policy. The proposed vehicle following

C. C. Chien; P. Ioannou; M. C. Lai

1994-01-01

228

Recent Developments in Vehicle Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent developments in vehicle dynamics are discussed. Vehicle suspension systems, applications of multi-body dynamics problems in vehicle dynamics, rear steer, and special aspects of commercial vehicle dynamics are discussed.

J. Bernard M. Vanderploeg J. Shannan

1987-01-01

229

Electric Vehicle Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

Moore, Pam

2011-01-01

230

Police Patrol Vehicles1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns the design of the police patrol vehicle as used by the Detroit Police Department. The objective was to identify areas where the vehicle could be improved so that its desired functions could be performed safely and expeditiously. Most of the recommendations resulting from this study involve the man-machine relationship between the patrolman and his vehicle. Because this

Gerald E. Clark; Herbert G. Ludwig

1970-01-01

231

Automotive vehicle sensors  

SciTech Connect

This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

1995-09-01

232

Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: A study of fatally injured drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to find which drugs and drug combinations were most common in drivers who died, in particular, in single vehicle crashes where the responsibility for the crash would be referred to the driver killed. The study included all available blood samples from drivers, who died within 24h of the accident, in the years 2001 and

Jørg Mørland; Anni Steentoft; Kirsten Wiese Simonsen; Ilkka Ojanperä; Erkki Vuori; Kristin Magnusdottir; Jakob Kristinsson; Gunnel Ceder; Robert Kronstrand; Asbjørg Christophersen

2011-01-01

233

Infection and Killing of Multiple Myeloma by Adenoviruses  

PubMed Central

Abstract Oncolytic virotherapy makes use of the natural ability of viruses to infect and kill cancer cells. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has been approved for use in humans as a therapy for solid cancers. In this study, we have tested whether Ad5 and low-seroprevalence adenoviruses can be used as oncolytics for multiple myeloma (MM). We show that Ad5 productively infects most myeloma cell lines, replicates to various degrees, and mediates oncolytic cell killing in vitro and in vivo. Comparison of Ad5 with low-seroprevalence Ads on primary marrow samples from MM patients revealed striking differences in the abilities of different adenoviral serotypes to kill normal CD138– cells and CD138+ MM cells. Ad5 and Ad6 from species C and Ad26 and Ad48 from species D all mediated killing of CD138+ cells with low-level killing of CD138– cells. In contrast, Ad11, Ad35, Ad40, and Ad41 mediated weak oncolytic effects in all of the cells. Comparison of cell binding, cell entry, and replication revealed that Ad11 and Ad35 bound MM cells 10 to 100 times better than other serotypes. However, after this efficient interaction, Ad11 and Ad35 viral DNA was not replicated and cell killing did not occur. In contrast, Ad5, Ad6, Ad26, and Ad48 all replicated 10- to 100-fold in MM cells and this correlated with cell killing. These data suggest that Ad5 and other low-seroprevalence adenoviruses may have utility as oncolytic agents against MM and other hematologic malignancies.

Senac, Julien S.; Doronin, Konstantin; Russell, Stephen J.; Jelinek, Diane F.; Greipp, Philip R.

2010-01-01

234

Energy efficient passenger vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use. The vehicle basically comprises a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules, namely body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

Dessert, R.

1983-02-22

235

Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

1999-08-01

236

Requirements for the crash protection of older vehicle passengers.  

PubMed

This study compares injury outcomes in vehicle crashes involving different age groups of belted passengers. Two datasets were considered. Firstly, UK national data revealed that younger passengers are much more likely to be involved in crashes per million miles travelled compared to older passengers although older passengers are much more likely to be killed or seriously injured compared to younger passengers. Secondly, in-depth vehicle crash injury data were examined to determine some of the underlying reasons for the enhanced injury risk amongst older passengers. In crashes of approximately equal severity, the older passenger group were significantly more likely to be fatally injured in frontal crashes (p<0.001). However young passengers were as equally likely to be killed in struck-side crashes compared to the older group. The results also showed that older passengers sustained more serious injuries to the chest region in frontal crashes compared with the younger aged group (p<0.0001) and it is this body region that is particularly problematic. When the data were analysed further, it was found that a large proportion of passengers were female and that in the majority of cases, the seat belt was responsible for injury. Since by the year 2030, 1 in 4 persons will be aged over 65 in most OECD countries, the results suggest a need for intervention through vehicle design including in-vehicle crashworthiness systems that take into account reduced tolerance to impact with ageing. PMID:12941224

Morris, Andrew; Welsh, Ruth; Hassan, Ahamedali

2003-01-01

237

Cell kill kinetics and cell cycle effects of taxol on human and hamster ovarian cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxol is a clinically active anticancer drug, which exerts its cytotoxicity by the unique mechanism of polymerizing tubulin monomers into microtubules and stabilizing microtubules. Our studies with ovarian (hamster CHO and human A2780) cells showed that taxol is a phase-specific agent that is much more cytotoxic to mitotic cells than interphase cells. First, the dose-survival pattern of taxol resembled that

Narima M. Lopes; Earl G. Adams; Thomas W. Pitts; Bijoy K. Bhuyan

1993-01-01

238

Chemical Kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While thermodynamics provides steady-state information of the combustion process, chemical kinetics describes the transient\\u000a states of the system during the combustion process. Particularly important is information related to the rate at which species\\u000a are consumed and produced, and the rate at which the heat is released. Combustion chemistry has two important characteristics\\u000a not commonly observed in other chemical systems. First,

Sara McAllister; Jyh-Yuan Chen; A. Carlos Fernandez-Pello

239

Kinetic Sculpture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners build a tower thatâs at least 12 inches high with two or more parts that move (spin, sway, or flap) in the wind. This art meets construction activity allows learners to think about design challenges while creating a kinetic sculpture (a sculpture that moves). This is an excellent follow-up activity to "High Rise" from the same source.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

240

Honor killing attitudes amongst adolescents in Amman, Jordan.  

PubMed

The present study examines attitudes towards honor crimes amongst a sample of 856 ninth grade students (mean age?=?14.6, SD?=?0.56) from 14 schools in Amman, Jordan. Descriptive findings suggest that about 40% of boys and 20% of girls believe that killing a daughter, sister, or wife who has dishonored the family can be justified. A number of theoretically meaningful predictors were examined: Findings suggest that attitudes in support of honor killings are more likely amongst adolescents who have collectivist and patriarchal world views, believe in the importance of female chastity amongst adolescents, and morally neutralize aggressive behavior in general. Findings for parental harsh discipline are mixed: While the father's harsh discipline is predictive of honor killing attitudes, the mother's behavior is not. Furthermore, support for honor killing is stronger amongst male adolescents and adolescents for low education backgrounds. After controlling for other factors religion and the intensity of religious beliefs are not associated with support for honor killings. Models were tested separately for male and female respondents and suggested no systematic differences in predictors. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23744567

Eisner, Manuel; Ghuneim, Lana

2013-06-06

241

Killing of human malaria parasites by macrophage secretory products.  

PubMed Central

The susceptibility of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, to killing in vitro by macrophage secretory products was investigated. The effect of O2 radicals and tumor necrosis factor on parasite viability was assessed both morphologically and by following the uptake of [3H]hypoxanthine. H2O2 produced by the interaction of glucose and glucose oxidase was found to reduce viability; this effect was reversed by the addition of exogenous catalase. Further studies indicated that the catalase level within the erythrocyte was not altered upon parasite invasion. O2 radicals produced during the xanthine-xanthine oxidase interaction also killed P. falciparum. The addition of various O2 radical scavengers (including catalase) did not reverse this effect; therefore, it was not possible to determine which of the O2 radicals were involved in the killing process. Samples from three different sources containing tumor necrosis factor, a nonspecific soluble mediator derived from Mycobacterium bovis BCG-activated macrophages treated with endotoxin, also killed the parasite. There was no evidence that tumor necrosis factor or the products of the xanthine-xanthine oxidase interaction caused damage to the erythrocyte membrane that could be implicated as an important aspect of the killing process. These findings all strongly suggest that such macrophage products play an important role in immunity to malaria.

Wozencraft, A O; Dockrell, H M; Taverne, J; Targett, G A; Playfair, J H

1984-01-01

242

Energy efficient passenger vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use comprised of a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship is described. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules: body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

Dessert, R.

1980-01-01

243

Tracked Air Cushion Research Vehicle. Vehicle Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance of the TACRV in terms of speed, acceleration and deceleration is discussed in this report and the range of cushion operating gaps is summarized. These performance items are presented for the vehicle operating at the Department of Transport...

C. Savatteri J. Helgesen

1971-01-01

244

Control instrumentation for wellheads and mud kill system  

SciTech Connect

This work describes the wellhead and mud kill system instrumentation installed at the Mobile Oil Indonesia Arun natural gas field in N. Sumatra. The first part describes the controls and instrumentation associated with the field production wells. The philosophy behind the design of the pressure controls and pressure protection system is discussed, including details of the layout and operation of the various wellhead control panels. The second part of the study covers the well kill system at Arun and in particular describes the instrumentation and control equipment. A full description is given of the pressure and flow monitoring system and of the problems encountered when measuring the flow rate of well kill mud. The remote controls necessary for the system are described also.

Giles, A.J.

1982-01-01

245

[Serial killings in a nursing home for the elderly].  

PubMed

In 2005, a 27-year-old nurse had been sentenced to life imprisonment for killing 9 female residents of the home within 3 years. After the post-mortem examination a natural death had been certified for all the victims. These 9 deaths were retrospectively analysed as to the motive and circumstances of the crime, the method applied, the results of the postmortem examination and the autopsy as well as the profile of the perpetrator. 8 victims had been smothered by blocking the external air passages with a soft fabric and one had been killed by omitting to remove secretion from the respiratory tract. The autopsies performed after exhumation did not furnish unequivocal evidence of homicide. Generally, the method of killing applied in these cases is known to leave almost no traces. Apart from the circumstantial evidence, the court had to base its decision on the confessions of the emotionally disturbed perpetrator, although she partly revoked these confessions later. PMID:19323148

Doberentz, Elke; Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

246

Phagocytosis and killing of salmonella typhimurium by peritoneal exudate cells.  

PubMed Central

Normal peritoneal cells from conventional, germfree, or nu/nu mice readily killed opsonized salmonellae, an observation that suggests that this activity in the normal peritoneal cavity may not be dependent on either environmental antigenic stimulation or T-cell mediation. In contrast, peritoneal cells elicited 4 days after injection with thioglycolate medium failed to kill opsonized salmonellae but appeared to be highly phagocytic. Peritoneal cells from thioglycolate-treated mice could be induced to kill opsonized salmonellae by giving the mice a primary footpad injection and a secondary intraperitoneal injection of Corynebacterium parvum. This activation by C. parvum appeared to be thymus dependent, since it did not occur in nu/nu mice.

Briles, D E; Lehmeyer, J; Forman, C

1981-01-01

247

Killing and Noether Symmetries of Plane Symmetric Spacetime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is devoted to investigate the Killing and Noether symmetries of static plane symmetric spacetime. For this purpose, five different cases have been discussed. The Killing and Noether symmetries of Minkowski spacetime in cartesian coordinates are calculated as a special case and it is found that Lie algebra of the Lagrangian is 10 and 17 dimensional respectively. The symmetries of Taub's universe, anti-deSitter universe, self similar solutions of infinite kind for parallel perfect fluid case and self similar solutions of infinite kind for parallel dust case are also explored. In all the cases, the Noether generators are calculated in the presence of gauge term. All these examples justify the conjecture that Killing symmetries form a subalgebra of Noether symmetries (Bokhari et al. in Int. J. Theor. Phys. 45:1063, 2006).

Shamir, M. Farasat; Jhangeer, Adil; Bhatti, Akhlaq Ahmad

2013-09-01

248

Inflatable kill packers used in working over Kuwaiti wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on inflatable packers which are being used with great success in post-well capping workover operations in Kuwait oil fields. In mid-January, about one kill packer was being run per day. Use is expected to increase in March when a second post-capping crew arrives. Of several thousand unconventional ideas submitted to Kuwait Oil Co. (KOC) for controlling the well fires left in the aftermath of lst year's Gulf War, only about a dozen were actually used. Inflatable kill packers, designed and manufactured by Baker Service Tools and marketed by Baker Oil Tools, were one of the ideas that proved effective. The kill packers are modifications of Baker's inflatable packers that have successfully been used in capping producers on many blowouts throughout the world, including the Piper Alpha disaster in the North Sea and the Saga blowout offshore Norway.

Miller, D. (Baker Oil Tools, Houston, TX (US)); Conover, G. (Baker Service Tools, Houston, TX (US))

1992-03-09

249

[Effect of niclosamide spreading oil on killing schistosome cercariae].  

PubMed

Dechlorinated water (100 ml, 30 degrees C) was put into a plate (diameter 15 cm), and 1% niclosamide spreading oil 5 microl was added, then a ring of Schistosoma japonicum cercariae were picked up to the plate. The time of killing all the cercariae was observed at three time points (immediately, 24, 48 h), and the dechlorinated water was used as control. The results showed that schistosome cercariae were all killed in three minutes by 1% niclosamide spreading oil at the three time points. The cercaria-killing effects of each time point were not significantly different (F = 0.062, P > 0.05). The cercariae were alive in the control in 48 h. PMID:23012973

Peng, Guo-Hua; Hu, Zhu-Hua; Bao, Zi-Ping; Zhou, Yi-Sheng; Xiong, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Hai-Ying'; Guo, Jia-Gang

2012-06-01

250

QFT on homothetic Killing twist deformed curved spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the quantum field theory (QFT) of a free, real, massless and curvature coupled scalar field on self-similar symmetric spacetimes, which are deformed by an abelian Drinfel'd twist constructed from a Killing and a homothetic Killing vector field. In contrast to deformations solely by Killing vector fields, such as the Moyal-Weyl Minkowski spacetime, the equation of motion and Green's operators are deformed. We show that there is a *-algebra isomorphism between the QFT on the deformed and the formal power series extension of the QFT on the undeformed spacetime. We study the convergent implementation of our deformations for toy-models. For these models it is found that there is a *-isomorphism between the deformed Weyl algebra and a reduced undeformed Weyl algebra, where certain strongly localized observables are excluded. Thus, our models realize the intuitive physical picture that noncommutative geometry prevents arbitrary localization in spacetime.

Schenkel, Alexander

2011-10-01

251

Conformal Yano-Killing Tensors in General Relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How CYK tensors appear in General Relativity? Geometric definition of the asymptotic flat spacetime: strong asymptotic flatness, which guarantees well defined total angular momentum [2, 3, 4] Conserved quantities - asymptotic charges (?, 𝓲0) [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9] Quasi-local mass and "rotational energy" for Kerr black hole [5] Constants of motion along geodesics and symmetric Killing tensors [5, 6] Spacetimes possessing CYK tensor [10]: Minkowski (quadratic polynomials) [5] (Anti-)deSitter (natural construction) [7, 8, 9] Kerr (type D spacetime) [5] Taub-NUT (new symmetric conformal Killing tensors) [6] Other applications: Symmetries of Dirac operator Symmetries of Maxwell equations

Jezierski, Jacek

2011-09-01

252

SMART BOMBS, SERIAL KILLING, AND THE RAPTURE: RT BOMBS, SERIAL KILLING, AND THE RAPTURE: RT BOMBS, SERIAL KILLING, The Vanishing Bodies of Imperial Apocalypticism  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. One of the most well-publicized hypotheses regarding the terror of 9\\/11 is the notion that religious fantasies played a major role in inspiring the militants of al-Qaeda to launch their suicide attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Only irrational fanatics could have been capable of killing themselves for the sake of taking thousands of innocent lives

Peter Yoonsuk Paik

253

Vehicle-based road dust emission measurement: I—methods and calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing re-entrained aerosol kinetic emissions from roads (TRAKER) is a vehicle-based method for measuring road dust emissions. Particulate matter is sampled in front and behind a vehicle's tire and the difference in PM concentration is related to emissions. This paper describes the most recent developments of TRAKER. The loss of particles within the inlet lines, the response of the TRAKER

V. Etyemezian; H. Kuhns; J. Gillies; M. Green; M. Pitchford; J. Watson

2003-01-01

254

Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the

Schexnayder

2002-01-01

255

Smart vehicle video management  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method includes selecting a video source view from at least one of a plurality of vehicle-mounted video sources based on detection of a vehicle event. The video source view may be displayed according to a presentation mode. The method may include associating a plurality of vehicle events with a video source view or video presentation mode. A system includes display logic selecting a video source view from a plurality of vehicle-mounted video sources based on detection of a vehicle event. The system can include presentation rules specifying an association between a plurality of vehicle events and a video source view and/or a video presentation mode. The presentation rules are editable and configurable.

Luskin; Eugene (Issaquah, WA); Petrochuk; Andrew (Bellevue, WA); Kizhnerman; David (Kirkland, WA)

2008-12-09

256

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is to increase the body of knowledge as well as the awareness and acceptance of electric drive and other advanced technology vehicles (ATV). The AVTA accomplishes this goal by testing ATVs on test tracks and dynamometers (Baseline Performance testing), as well as in real-world applications (Fleet and Accelerated Reliability testing and public demonstrations). This enables the AVTA to provide Federal and private fleet managers, as well as other potential ATV users, with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance and infrastructure needs so they can make informed decisions about acquiring and operating ATVs. The ATVs currently in testing include vehicles that burn gaseous hydrogen (H2) fuel and hydrogen/CNG (H/CNG) blended fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE), and hybrid electric (HEV), urban electric, and neighborhood electric vehicles. The AVTA is part of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

James Francfort

2004-06-01

257

Vehicle underbody fairing  

SciTech Connect

A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA); Salari, Kambiz (Livermore, CA); McCallen, Rose (Livermore, CA)

2010-11-09

258

Estimating crashes involving heavy vehicles in Western Australia, 1999-2000: a capture-recapture method.  

PubMed

A two-sample exploratory study of police and hospital records was undertaken to estimate the number of fatalities and serious injuries for heavy vehicle drivers involved in a crash in Western Australia. The capture-recapture method was used to assess differences and similarities in characteristics of heavy vehicle drivers from both sources. Each heavy vehicle driver involved in a crash from the police report was matched against the heavy vehicle driver's hospitalisation record from the Hospital Morbidity Data System, with surname, initials, date of birth, gender, date of crash, road user type and vehicle type as matching fields. The estimated number of fatalities and serious injuries to heavy vehicle drivers from 1st July 1999 to 31st December 2000 was 5 and 59, respectively, which was 25 and 31% higher based on the capture-recapture methodology than the aggregated (non-overlapping) total officially reported to the police and hospitals. No significant age difference (p>0.05) was found for drivers involved in a heavy vehicle crash between the two sources (37 years versus 40 year of age). However, female heavy vehicle drivers were over-represented in the hospital records (11%) compared to the police records (1%). The capture-recapture approach is useful for evaluating the completeness of data sources and identifying biases within datasets. The underestimation of heavy vehicle drivers seriously injured and killed has important implications for heavy vehicle safety management and resource allocation in Western Australia. PMID:16221468

Meuleners, Lynn B; Lee, Andy H; Cercarelli, L Rina; Legge, Matthew

2005-10-10

259

Tolrestat kinetics  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of tolrestat, a potent inhibitor of aldose reductase, were examined. Serum concentrations of tolrestat and of total /sup 14/C were measured after dosing normal subjects and subjects with diabetes with /sup 14/C-labeled tolrestat. In normal subjects, tolrestat was rapidly absorbed and disappearance from serum was biphasic. Distribution and elimination t 1/2s were approximately 2 and 10 to 12 hr, respectively, after single and multiple doses. Unchanged tolrestat accounted for the major portion of /sup 14/C in serum. Radioactivity was rapidly and completely excreted in urine and feces in an approximate ratio of 2:1. Findings were much the same in subjects with diabetes. In normal subjects, the kinetics of oral tolrestat were independent of dose in the 10 to 800 mg range. Repetitive dosing did not result in unexpected cumulation. Tolrestat was more than 99% bound to serum protein; it did not compete with warfarin for binding sites but was displaced to some extent by high concentrations of tolbutamide or salicylate.

Hicks, D.R.; Kraml, M.; Cayen, M.N.; Dubuc, J.; Ryder, S.; Dvornik, D.

1984-10-01

260

Vehicle health management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle health management (VHM) for space system avionics can ensure system readiness for launch vehicles and space-based dormant vehicles. In a research to evaluate space system avionics VHM for its guidance, navigation, and control systems (GN&C), researchers examined fault tolerance, redundancy, and levels of built-in test coverage needed to meet system performance requirements. They also analyzed ground and on-orbit test

Kathleen Radke; Paul Bursch; Ron Frazzini; Jerry Wald; Don Brown

1994-01-01

261

Killing for Girls: Predation Play and Female Empowerment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predation games--games in which the player is actively encouraged and often required to hunt and kill in order to survive--have historically been the purview of male players. Females, though now much more involved in digital games than before, generally play games that stress traditionally feminine values such as socializing with others, shopping,…

Bertozzi, Elena

2012-01-01

262

Structural Design and Analysis of Hit-To-Kill Projectile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the very first step on the development of a guided ammunition system. It presents high level physics based simulations of a guided 60-mm projectile system, which intention is to enable the sub-projectile to hit and kill an incoming hostile missile at an extended range within a very limited time frame. The projectile requires a very high muzzle

Michael M. Chen

263

Sabretoothed Carnivores and the Killing of Large Prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sabre-like canines clearly have the potential to inflict grievous wounds leading to massive blood loss and rapid death. Hypotheses concerning sabretooth killing modes include attack to soft parts such as the belly or throat, where biting deep is essential to generate strikes reaching major blood vessels. Sabretoothed carnivorans are widely interpreted as hunters of larger and more powerful prey than

Ki Andersson; David Norman; Lars Werdelin; Daphne Soares

2011-01-01

264

An El Jobo Mastodon Kill at Taima-taima, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excavation at Taima-taima in 1976 recovered artifacts of the El Jobo complex in direct association with the butchered remains of a juvenile mastodon. Radiocarbon dates on associated wood twigs indicate a minimum age of 13,000 years before the present for the mastodon kill, a dating significantly older than that of the Clovis complex in North America. The El Jobo complex

Alan L. Bryan; Rodolfo M. Casamiquela; Jose M. Cruxent; Ruth Gruhn; Claudio Ochsenius

1978-01-01

265

Neocognitron trained with winner-kill-loser rule.  

PubMed

The neocognitron, which was proposed by Fukushima (1980), is a hierarchical multi-layered neural network capable of robust visual pattern recognition. It acquires the ability to recognize patterns through learning. This paper proposes a new rule for competitive learning, named winner-kill-loser, and apply it to the neocognitron. The winner-kill-loser rule resembles the winner-take-all rule. Every time when a training stimulus is presented, non-silent cells compete with each other. The winner, however, not only takes all, but also kills losers. In other words, the winner learns the training stimulus, and losers are removed from the network. If all cells are silent, a new cell is generated and it learns the training stimulus. Thus feature-extracting cells gradually come to distribute uniformly in the feature space. The use of winner-kill-loser rule is not limited to the neocognitron. It is useful for various types of competitive learning, in general. This paper also proposes several improvements made on the neocognitron: such as, disinhibition to the inhibitory surround in the connections to C-cells (or complex cells) from S-cells (or simple cells); and square root shaped saturation in the input-to-output characteristics of C-cells. As a result of these improvements, the recognition rate of the neocognitron has been largely increased. PMID:20494552

Fukushima, Kunihiko

2010-05-06

266

Developing a Critical Literacy Approach with "To Kill a Mockingbird."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ponders why the novel "To Kill a Mockingbird" has held a place in the secondary school canon for 40 years. Describes a 10-week unit for year 10 English students that takes a critical literacy approach to the novel. Outlines a set of pre-reading activities, during reading activities and post-reading activities. (SR)

Spires, Marian

2000-01-01

267

Binary black hole spacetimes with a helical Killing vector  

SciTech Connect

Binary black hole spacetimes with a helical Killing vector, which are discussed as an approximation for the early stage of a binary system, are studied in a projection formalism. In this setting the four-dimensional Einstein equations are equivalent to a three-dimensional gravitational theory with a SL(2,R)/SO(1,1) sigma model as the material source. The sigma model is determined by a complex Ernst equation. 2+1 decompositions of the three-metric are used to establish the field equations on the orbit space of the Killing vector. The two Killing horizons of spherical topology which characterize the black holes, the cylinder of light where the Killing vector changes from timelike to spacelike, and infinity are singular points of the equations. The horizon and the light cylinder are shown to be regular singularities, i.e., the metric functions can be expanded in a formal power series in the vicinity. The behavior of the metric at spatial infinity is studied in terms of formal series solutions to the linearized Einstein equations. It is shown that the spacetime is not asymptotically flat in the strong sense to have a smooth null infinity under the assumption that the metric tends asymptotically to the Minkowski metric. In this case the metric functions have an oscillatory behavior in the radial coordinate in a nonaxisymmetric setting, the asymptotic multipoles are not defined. The asymptotic behavior of the Weyl tensor near infinity shows that there is no smooth null infinity.

Klein, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften, Inselstrasse 22, 04103, Leipzig (Germany)

2004-12-15

268

Male-killing Wolbachia in a flour beetle.  

PubMed Central

The bacteria in the genus Wolbachia are cytoplasmically inherited symbionts of arthropods. Infection often causes profound changes in host reproduction, enhancing bacterial transmission and spread in a population. The reproductive alterations known to result from Wolbachia infection include cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), parthenogenesis, feminization of genetic males, fecundity enhancement, male killing and, perhaps, lethality Here, we report male killing in a third insect, the black flour beetle Tribolium madens, based on highly female-biased sex ratios of progeny from females infected with Wolbachia. The bias is cytoplasmic in nature as shown by repeated backcrossing of infected females with males of a naturally uninfected strain. Infection also lowers the egg hatch rates significantly to approximately half of those observed for uninfected females. Treatment of the host with antibiotics eliminated infection, reverted the sex ratio to unbiased levels and increased the percentage hatch. Typically Wolbachia infection is transmitted from mother to progeny, regardless of the sex of the progeny; however, infected T. madens males are never found. Virgin females are sterile, suggesting that the sex-ratio distortion in T. madens results from embryonic male killing rather than parthenogenesis. Based on DNA sequence data, the male-killing strain of Wolbachia in T. madens was indistinguishable from the CI-inducing Wolbachia in Tribolium confusum, a closely related beetle. Our findings suggest that host symbiont interaction effects may play an important role in the induction of Wolbachia reproductive phenotypes.

Fialho, R F; Stevens, L

2000-01-01

269

The Evolution of Law and Policy for CIA Targeted Killing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many critiques of the Central Intelligence Agency’s alleged use of killer drones depend on law that does not bind the United States or on contestable applications of uncertain facts to vague law. While acknowledging a blurry line between law and policy, we continue to develop a due process for targeted killing. In the real world, intelligence is sometimes faulty, mistakes

Afsheen John Radsan

2012-01-01

270

Analyzing the novel “to kill a Mockingbird” in literature class  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to find out most effective activities that could be applied in “Perspectives in Literature Class” while the novel which is one of the most fundamental example of American Literature – ““To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee - is analyzed in terms of various narration techniques including characterization, theme, plot, exposition, point of view,

Ayfer Tan??; Lütfiye Cengizhan

2010-01-01

271

Killing for Girls: Predation Play and Female Empowerment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Predation games--games in which the player is actively encouraged and often required to hunt and kill in order to survive--have historically been the purview of male players. Females, though now much more involved in digital games than before, generally play games that stress traditionally feminine values such as socializing with others,…

Bertozzi, Elena

2012-01-01

272

Democracy, Ethnicity, and the Problem of Extrajudicial Killing in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnicity, a pedigree of the British imperialist pernicious policy of divide and exploit, has become a virulent scourge that has facilitated a widespread subversion of the democratic ethos in Nigeria. The flagrant display of ethnic chauvinism by the political elites in their bid to usurp power for their selfish ends orchestrates extrajudicial killings in the polity. This article explores the

A. E. Ojie

2006-01-01

273

Salvo Kill Probabilities for Circular Targets - Axisymmetric Case.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The kill probability resulting from the delivery of a salvo of weapons is not a straightforward calculation since the aiming error is likely to be common to all rounds in the salvo. In the absence of a computer program or a set of tables the analyst may h...

M. A. Thomas

1971-01-01

274

Karo-kari: a form of honour killing in pakistan.  

PubMed

Karo-Kari is a type of premeditated honour killing, which originated in rural and tribal areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The homicidal acts are primarily committed against women who are thought to have brought dishonour to their family by engaging in illicit pre-marital or extra-marital relations. In order to restore this honour, a male family member must kill the female in question. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature other sources on karo-kari and related forms of honour killing or violence against women. Media and non-governmental organization reports were utilized for case studies and analysis. Although legally proscribed, socio-cultural factors and gender role expectations have given legitimacy to karo-kari within some tribal communities. In addition to its persistence in areas of Pakistan, there is evidence that karo-kari may be increasing in incidence in other parts of the world in association with migration. Moreover, perpetrators of ;honour killings' often have motives outside of female adultery. Analysis of the socio-cultural and psycho-pathological factors associated with the practice of karo-kari can guide the development of prevention strategies. PMID:19091732

Patel, Sujay; Gadit, Amin Muhammad

2008-12-01

275

Outcome of Children Seen after One Parent Killed the Other  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of children (N= 95) seen by our team at least one year previously for assessment after one parent had killed the other, was followed up by a postal questionnaire to the original referrer. Through this we examined a number of outcome variables including placement effects, the frequency of their contact with the surviving parent, the referrer’s view of

Tony Kaplan; Dora Black; Philippa Hyman; Jill Knox

2001-01-01

276

The Fish Kill Mystery: Learning about Aquatic Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents a case where students can learn about aquatic communities. In this case, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process, they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities. They also learn about the complex life cycle of the dinoflagellate…

Kosal, Erica F.

2004-01-01

277

Targeted Killing in U.S. Counterterrorism Strategy and Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeted killing, particularly through the use of missiles fired from Predator drone aircraft, has become an important, and internationally controversial, part of the US war against al Qaeda in Pakistan and other places. The Obama administration, both during the campaign and in its first months in office, has publicly embraced the strategy as a form of counterterrorism. This paper argues,

Kenneth Anderson

2009-01-01

278

Mothers Who Kill Their Children: Considering Patterns, Prevention and Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filicide, or the crime of killing one's children, is as old as human society. Even a brief consideration of written history confirms this. It appears in the Old Testament. It is written into Roman law. Filicide is not new, and yet, because it undermines some of our most cherished myths-that mothers are unfailingly altruistic and that nuclear families are safe,

Cheryl L Meyer; Michelle Oberman

2006-01-01

279

Evaluation of Voriconazole Pharmacodynamics Using Time-Kill Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voriconazole is an investigational azole antifungal agent with activity against a variety of fungal species, including fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans. In this study, we employed in vitro time-kill methods to characterize the relationship between concentrations of voriconazole and its fungistatic activity against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and C. neoformans. Isolates were exposed to voriconazole

MICHAEL E. KLEPSER; DENNIS MALONE; RUSSELL E. LEWIS; ERIKA J. ERNST; MICHAEL A. PFALLER

2000-01-01

280

Routing Vehicles with Ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

281

Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehi...

S. M. Schexnayder S. Das R. Dhingra J. G. Overly B. E. Tonn

2001-01-01

282

Effect of Silicon on Desulfurization of Aluminum-killed Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent reports have suggested that silicon has a beneficial effect on the rate of desulfurization of Al-killed steel. This effect is difficult to understand looking at the overall desulfurization reaction which does not include silicon. However an explanation is proposed by taking into account the (SiO2)/[Si] equilibrium in which some Al reaching the slag-metal interface is used in reducing the SiO2 in the slag. This reaction can be suppressed to some extent if the silicon content of the metal is increased and in doing so, more Al will be available at the slag-metal interface for the desulfurization reaction and this would increase the rate of the desulfurization reaction. A model was developed, assuming the rates are controlled by mass transfer, taking into account the coupled reactions of the reduction of silica, and other unstable oxides, namely iron oxide and manganese oxide, in the slag and desulfurization reaction in the steel by aluminum. The model predicts that increasing silicon increases the rate and extent of desulfurization. Plant data was analyzed to obtain rough estimates of ladle desulfurization rates and also used to validate the model predictions. Experiments have been conducted on a kilogram scale of material in an induction furnace to test the hypothesis. The major conclusions of the study are as follows: The rate and extent of desulfurization improve with increasing initial silicon content in the steel; the effect diminishes at silicon contents higher than approximately 0.2% and with increasing slag basicity. This was confirmed with kilogram-scale laboratory experiments. The effects of the silicon content in the steel (and of initial FeO and MnO in the slag) largely arise from the dominant effects of these reactions on the equilibrium aluminum content of the steel: as far as aluminum consumption or pick-up is concerned, the Si/SiO2 reaction dominates, and desulfurization has only a minor effect on aluminum consumption. The rate is primarily controlled by mass transfer in the metal and slag phase mass transfer has a minor effect on the overall desulfurization kinetics. The model results are in agreement with the experimental data for the change in sulfur, silicon and aluminum contents with time which renders credibility to the underlying hypothesis of the kinetic model. Although the change of sulfur content with time is not very sensitive to the activity data source, the change of aluminum and silicon contents with time depend on the activity data source. The experimental results demonstrate that if the silicon content in the steel is high enough, the silicon can reduce the alumina from the slag and thus the steel melt will pick up aluminum. This can cause significant savings in aluminum consumption. For most of the slag compositions used in the experiments, the overall mass transfer is only limited by the steel phase and the slag phase mass transfer can be neglected for most practical cases. Mass balance calculations in the experiments support the basis of the model and also show that with respect to aluminum consumption, silica reduction is the main aluminum consuming (or production) reaction and the desulfurization reaction is only a secondary consumer of aluminum. Results from the plant trials conducted to test the effect of silicon on ladle desulfurization show that the rate and extent of desulfurization increase with the increase of the initial Si content, so in the ladle refining process, adding all the silicon in the beginning with the aluminum and the fluxes will be beneficial and could save considerable processing time at the ladle. The aluminum consumption for the heats with silicon added in the beginning (both in terms of the Al added to the steel and as slag deoxidants) is considerably lower compared to the cases where the silicon is added at the end. However, on a relative cost term, aluminum and silicon are similarly priced so substitution would not offer a major cost advantage.

Roy, Debdutta

283

EMPIRICAL MODEL OF VEHICLE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

An empirical model that characterizes the relationship between equilibrium vehicle emission distributions and malfunction, repair, and replacement rates by splitting vehicles into two emission categories has been developed. ross emitters and clean vehicles are defined by the magn...

284

Intelligent vehicle applications worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent vehicles are an application in which the words “intelligent autonomous systems” represent not only an important research topic but also a strategic solution to the mobility problems that may arise in the coming years. Vehicles that can move autonomously and navigate in everyday traffic, on highways, and in urban and unstructured scenarios will become a reality in the next

R. Bishop

2000-01-01

285

Vehicle Dynamics and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system topics covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire models and tire-road friction

Rajesh Rajamani

2006-01-01

286

Reentry vehicle instrumentation survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the state of the art in reentry vehicle on-board instrumentation. Brief descriptions of each class of instruments are given with the discussion centering principally on the currently employed instrumentation and their limitations (accuracy). References are given to provide further information on individual instrumentation systems. These systems include methods to measure nosetip forces and shapes, vehicle dynamics, and

W. R. Grabowsky; H. P. Eldridge; R. C. Wheaton

1981-01-01

287

The automated transfer vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) was confirmed at the October 1995 ESA Ministerial Council meeting in Toulouse by the ESA Member States as part of the programme for European participation in the International Space Station. The ATV will be a servicing and logistics vehicle for periodically resupplying the Station. It will be operational from early 2003, flying

J. Y. Heloret

1999-01-01

288

Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

289

Magnetic Gradient Vehicle Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to an apparatus for detecting metallic objects. In a more limited sense, it relates to a vehicle detection apparatus of the type which senses vehicles by detecting variations in the coupling of a magnetic field between a tra...

M. K. Mills

1974-01-01

290

Case for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Cars that rely on electricity, not burning fuel, for motive power may offer the only workable solution to the joint predicaments of a global greenhouse effect and severe air pollution in cities. Much of the technology needed for building effective electric vehicles exists now or is under development. The emergence of electric vehicles has important economic implications. Whoever pioneers the commercialization of cost-competitive electric vehicle technologies will find inviting export markets around the world. Electric vehicles will be attractive where pollution is severe and intractable, peak vehicle performance is less highly valued than reliability and low maintenance, cheap electricity is available off-peak, and investments in oil distribution are small. Indeed, if the U.S. and other major industrial nations do not act, it is quite possible that the next generation of corporate automotive giants may arise in developing countries, where cars are relatively scarce today. This paper discusses the issues involved.

Sperling, D. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1996-11-01

291

Lunar material transport vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

1988-03-01

292

Concentration-Dependent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Killing and Prevention of Resistance by Rifampin?  

PubMed Central

Rifampin is a cornerstone of modern antituberculosis therapy. However, rifampin's half-life of 3 h is believed to limit its utility for intermittent therapy, so new congeners with long half-lives are being developed. Using an in vitro pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of tuberculosis, we examined the relationships between rifampin exposure, microbial killing of log-phase-growth Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and suppression of resistance. Rifampin's microbial killing was linked to the area under the concentration-time curve-to-MIC ratio. The suppression of resistance was associated with the free peak concentration (Cmax)-to-MIC ratio and not the duration that the rifampin concentration was above MIC. Rifampin prevented resistance to itself at a free Cmax/MIC ratio of ?175. The postantibiotic effect duration was ?5.2 days and was most closely related to the Cmax/MIC ratio (r2 = 0.96). To explain rifampin's concentration-dependent effect, we examined the kinetics of rifampin entry into M. tuberculosis. Rifampin achieved concentration-dependent intracellular steady-state concentrations within 15 min. Our results suggest that doses of rifampin higher than those currently employed would optimize the effect of rifampin, if patients could tolerate them. Another major implication is that in the design of new rifampin congeners for intermittent therapy, the important properties may include (i) the efficient entry of the rifamycin into M. tuberculosis, (ii) the achievement of a free Cmax/MIC of >175 that can be tolerated by patients, and (iii) a long postantibiotic effect duration.

Gumbo, Tawanda; Louie, Arnold; Deziel, Mark R.; Liu, Weiguo; Parsons, Linda M.; Salfinger, Max; Drusano, George L.

2007-01-01

293

Control instrumentation for wellheads and mud-kill systems. [Indonesia  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the instrumentation and control systems used on the wellheads and mud-kill systems at the Mobil Oil Arun natural gas field, situated onshore in the province of Aceh, North Sumatra, Indonesia. It points out that two blowouts in the Arun field provided valuable experience in evaluating both equipment and systems in terms of design, reliability, and application for this type of field service. It also examines operations at a carbonate reef containing an estimated 15 Tcf (0.42x10/sub 12/ m/sub 3/) gas at approximately 7,000 psig (48 263 kPa) and 360/sup 0/F (182/sup 0/C). The focus is on the design and installation of the control systems associated with the wellhead and mud-kill systems and the problems encounted during the past 5 yrs are highlighted.

Giles, A.J.

1983-08-01

294

PA-824 Kills Nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Intracellular NO Release  

PubMed Central

Bicyclic nitroimidazoles, including PA-824, are exciting candidates for the treatment of tuberculosis. These prodrugs require intracellular activation for their biological function. We found that Rv3547 is a deazaflavin-dependent nitroreductase (Ddn) that converts PA-824 into three primary metabolites; the major one is the corresponding des-nitroimidazole (des-nitro). When derivatives of PA-824 were used, the amount of des-nitro metabolite formed was highly correlated with anaerobic killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Des-nitro metabolite formation generated reactive nitrogen species, including nitric oxide (NO), which are the major effectors of the anaerobic activity of these compounds. Furthermore, NO scavengers protected the bacilli from the lethal effects of the drug. Thus, these compounds may act as intracellular NO donors and could augment a killing mechanism intrinsic to the innate immune system.

Singh, Ramandeep; Manjunatha, Ujjini; Boshoff, Helena I. M.; Ha, Young Hwan; Niyomrattanakit, Pornwaratt; Ledwidge, Richard; Dowd, Cynthia S.; Lee, Ill Young; Kim, Pilho; Zhang, Liang; Kang, Sunhee; Keller, Thomas H.; Jiricek, Jan; Barry, Clifton E.

2009-01-01

295

Great tits search for, capture, kill and eat hibernating bats  

PubMed Central

Ecological pressure paired with opportunism can lead to surprising innovations in animal behaviour. Here, we report predation of great tits (Parus major) on hibernating pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) at a Hungarian cave. Over two winters, we directly observed 18 predation events. The tits specifically and systematically searched for and killed bats for food. A substantial decrease in predation on bats after experimental provisioning of food to the tits further supports the hypothesis that bat-killing serves a foraging purpose in times of food scarcity. We finally conducted a playback experiment to test whether tits would eavesdrop on calls of awakening bats to find them in rock crevices. The tits could clearly hear the calls and were attracted to the loudspeaker. Records for tit predation on bats at this cave now span more than ten years and thus raise the question of whether cultural transmission plays a role for the spread of this foraging innovation.

Estok, Peter; Zsebok, Sandor; Siemers, Bjorn M.

2010-01-01

296

Fathers who kill their children: an analysis of the literature.  

PubMed

Roughly half of filicidal acts are committed by fathers, though the majority of the literature focuses on maternal filicide. This paper reviews the existing literature on paternal filicide with the goal of identifying characteristics common among these fathers. Fathers who killed their children were, on average, in their mid thirties. The mean age of their victims was five. They may have multiple victims. Sons and daughters were killed in equal numbers. Reasons included death related to abuse, mental illness (including psychosis and depression), and revenge against a spouse. The method often involved wounding violence. Suicide following the act occurred frequently. After being tried for their crimes, filicidal fathers were more frequently incarcerated than hospitalized. Given the range of those capable of this act, mental health professionals must be alert to the possibility of filicide in a variety of fathers. Considering this risk, clinicians should inquire about thoughts of harming children, partners, and themselves. PMID:19187457

West, Sara G; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Resnick, Phillip J

2009-01-29

297

The Jeremiah Metzger Lecture. Microbial defenses against killing by phagocytes.  

PubMed Central

Phagocytes are a key feature of defense against microorganisms. Phagocyte function is a complex system with many intricately involved components. Each of these components provides microorganisms with a target for countermeasures against phagocytes. We have discussed examples and purported mechanisms for microbial defenses against the steps involved in killing by phagocytes. Understanding the interplay of these host and pathogen factors leads to a better understanding of both normal host defenses and pathogenesis of disease.

Mandell, G. L.; Frank, M. O.

1992-01-01

298

Sabretoothed Carnivores and the Killing of Large Prey  

PubMed Central

Sabre-like canines clearly have the potential to inflict grievous wounds leading to massive blood loss and rapid death. Hypotheses concerning sabretooth killing modes include attack to soft parts such as the belly or throat, where biting deep is essential to generate strikes reaching major blood vessels. Sabretoothed carnivorans are widely interpreted as hunters of larger and more powerful prey than that of their present-day nonsabretoothed relatives. However, the precise functional advantage of the sabretooth bite, particularly in relation to prey size, is unknown. Here, we present a new point-to-point bite model and show that, for sabretooths, depth of the killing bite decreases dramatically with increasing prey size. The extended gape of sabretooths only results in considerable increase in bite depth when biting into prey with a radius of less than ?10 cm. For sabretooths, this size-reversed functional advantage suggests predation on species within a similar size range to those attacked by present-day carnivorans, rather than “megaherbivores” as previously believed. The development of the sabretooth condition appears to represent a shift in function and killing behaviour, rather than one in predator-prey relations. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how sabretoothed carnivorans are likely to have evolved along a functionally continuous trajectory: beginning as an extension of a jaw-powered killing bite, as adopted by present-day pantherine cats, followed by neck-powered biting and thereafter shifting to neck-powered shear-biting. We anticipate this new insight to be a starting point for detailed study of the evolution of pathways that encompass extreme specialisation, for example, understanding how neck-powered biting shifts into shear-biting and its significance for predator-prey interactions. We also expect that our model for point-to-point biting and bite depth estimations will yield new insights into the behaviours of a broad range of extinct predators including therocephalians (gorgonopsian + cynodont, sabretoothed mammal-like reptiles), sauropterygians (marine reptiles) and theropod dinosaurs.

Andersson, Ki; Norman, David; Werdelin, Lars

2011-01-01

299

Male-Killing Wolbachia in the Butterfly Hypolimnas bolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Maternally inherited insect symbionts often manipulate host reproduction for their own benefit. Symbionts are transmitted\\u000a to the next host generation through the female hosts, and as such males represent dead ends for transmission. Natural selection\\u000a therefore favors symbiont-induced phenotypes that provide a reproductive advantage to infected females, regardless of possible\\u000a negative selective effects on males. Male-killing (MK) is one such

Anne Duplouy; Scott L. O’Neill

300

Accounting for Genocide: How Many Were Killed in Srebrenica?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The takeover of the UN ‘safearea’ of Srebrenica by Bosnian Serb forces inJuly 1995 was followed by the killing of alarge number of male Bosnian Muslim civilians,in what has been characterized as the worstmassacre in Europe since World War II. Thisarticle is based on a report submitted asevidence to the UN International CriminalTribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) inthe case

Helge Brunborg; Torkild Hovde Lyngstad; Henrik Urdal

2003-01-01

301

Effect of rifampin on ampicillin killing of group B streptococci.  

PubMed Central

The activity of rifampin against group B streptococci as a single agent and in combination with ampicillin was examined. The minimum concentration of rifampin required to inhibit 90% of the isolates of group B streptococci (18 of 20 isolates) was 0.6 microgram/ml. The checkerboard double-dilution studies of these two antibiotics and the time-killing studies both indicate that rifampin inhibits the bactericidal activity of ampicillin for group B streptococci. Images

Smith, S M; Eng, R H; Landesman, S

1982-01-01

302

Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

1996-08-01

303

Development of novel antibacterial peptides that kill resistant isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid emergence of bacterial strains that are resistant to current antibiotics requires the development of novel types of antimicrobial compounds. Proline-rich cationic antibacterial peptides such as pyrrhocoricin kill responsive bacteria by binding to the 70kDa heat shock protein DnaK and inhibiting protein folding. We designed and synthesized multiply protected dimeric analogs of pyrrhocoricin and optimized the in vitro antibacterial

Mare Cudic; Barry A. Condie; Daniel J. Weiner; Elena S. Lysenko; Zhi Q. Xiang; O. Insug; Philippe Bulet; Laszlo Otvos Jr

2002-01-01

304

Mars manned transportation vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

Perez-Davis, M.E.; Faymon, K.A.

1987-07-01

305

9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. 113.207 Section 113.207 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.207...

2013-01-01

306

STS-5 (Space Transport System-5) Fish Kill, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since fish kills were observed following previous Space Transport System (STS) launches, the USAF Occupational and Environmental Health Laboratory was requested to conduct an on-site investigation of any possible fish kill associated with STS-5 on 11 Nove...

J. E. Milligan G. B. Hubbard

1983-01-01

307

Review of Factors Involved in Bird-Tower Kills, and Mitigative Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Between 5 million and 80 million birds are killed annually from collisions with man-made structures, with the largest kills occurring to passerine species on overcast nights during fall migration. An understanding of avian physiological and behavioral fac...

B. N. Jaroslow

1979-01-01

308

Effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

SciTech Connect

The effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated, using male Long-Evans rats exposed to 1% lead acetate in the drinking water for varying periods of time to achieve blood lead levels ranging from 20-200 ..mu..g/dl. Studies of PMN bacterial and fungal killing activity, chemotaxis and phagocytosis demonstrated that: 1) bactericidal activity of PMN from rats exposed to lead was not altered; 2) chemotactic activity remained within normal limits; 3) the phagocytic ability of the PMN also remained unaltered. In addition to these normal findings, one major abnormality was demonstrated: a significant decrease in the ability of PMN from rats exposed to lead to kill Candida albicans. This defect was not related to age or to length of exposure. It could not be produced by addition of lead to the test system in vitro. Further investigation revealed significant decreases in PMN glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase activities. These data support two possible mechanisms for the abnormal fungicidal activity of PMN from lead-exposed rats: decrease in ability to reduce oxygen to active metabolites, or reduction in myeloperoxidase activity due to diminshed synthesis of the heme moiety required for its function.

Silberstein, C.F.

1984-01-01

309

Blast resistant vehicle seat  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

Ripley, Edward B

2013-02-12

310

Rapid road repair vehicle  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed are improvements to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

Mara, L.M.

1999-09-07

311

Factors associated with human-killing tigers in Chitwan National Park, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-killing is the ultimate expression of human–tiger conflict. It is a complex issue that needs to be addressed to maintain support for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation in areas where human-killing is prevalent. This research was undertaken to investigate the ecological and sociological aspects of human-killing in the central lowlands of Nepal. We used 28 years of data from human-killing events

Bhim Gurung; James L. David Smith; Charles McDougal; Jhamak B. Karki; Adam Barlow

2008-01-01

312

Plasma Kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Chapter 7 of ISSI SR-001, Schwartz et al. [1998] explain the basic ideas of analysis by means of plasma kinetics: Liouville mapping and finite gyroradius effects. Liouville mapping can be used to relate features of distribution functions such as heating, anisotropies or beams, to the field variations. It is based on the conservation of phase space density along particle trajectories in collisionless plasmas, and therefore requires that particle trajectories (or at least their initial and final states) can be accurately approximated. This requirement generally relies on invariants of the particle motion such as the energy and adiabatic invariants and some knowledge of the electromagnetic fields along the trajectories. The large gyroradius of energetic ions has the consequence that ions detected at different directions are actually probing conditions at considerable distances around the space- craft. Density gradients then appear as gyrophase anisotropies in the angular distributions. This effect was first employed by Kaufmann and Konradi [1973] to probe the magnetopause. Section 7.5 of Schwartz et al. [1998] explain how it can be used to remotely sense sharp boundaries in ion densities. In particular, see Figures 7.4 and 7.6 in that chapter for a graphical demonstration. For a historical perspective on these topics, see also the classic paper by Northrop and Teller [1960] on the motion of charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. In addition, Whipple et al. [1998] present an alternative framework that builds on the underlying concepts, while Whipple et al. [1986] describe extensions to the classic adiabatic theory that apply even in regions of strong gradients.

Daly, Patrick W.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Lefebvre, Betrand

313

Comparison of killing of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by pure singlet oxygen. [Salmonella typhimurium; Escherichia coli; Sarcina lutea; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus lactis; Streptococcus faecalis  

SciTech Connect

Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were found to display different sensitivities to pure singlet oxygen generated outside of cells. Killing curves for Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli strains were indicative of multihit killing, whereas curves for Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis, and Streptococcus faecalis exhibited single-hit kinetics. The S. typhimurium deep rough strain TA1975, which lacks nearly all of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide coat and manifests concomitant enhancement of penetration by some exogenous substances, responded to singlet oxygen with initially faster inactivation than did the S. typhimurium wild-type strain, although the maximum rates of killing appeared to be quite similar. The structure of the cell wall thus plays an important role in susceptibility to singlet oxygen. The outer membrane-lipopolysaccharide portion of the gram-negative cell wall initially protects the bacteria from extracellular singlet oxygen, although it may also serve as a source for secondary reaction products which accentuate the rates of cell killing. S. typhimurium and E. coli strains lacking the cellular antioxidant, glutathione, showed no difference from strains containing glutathione in response to the toxic effects of singlet oxygen. Strains of Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus that contained carotenoids, however, were far more resistant to singlet oxygen lethality than were both carotenoidless mutants of the same species and other gram-positive species lacking high levels of protective carotenoids.

Dahl, T.A.; Midden, W.R. (Bowling Green State Univ., OH (USA)); Hartman, P.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

1989-04-01

314

The Killing of Osama Bin Laden & Anwar Al-Aulaqi: Uncharted Legal Territory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The killing of Osama bin Laden in Pakistan in May 2011 and Anwar al-Aulaqi in Yemen in September 2011 both raise the question of when the killing of an identified individual posing a threat to a nation-state is lawful. Although it has not yet been forced to publicly defend either killing in any great detail, the Obama Administration has insisted

Beth Van Schaack

2012-01-01

315

Male-killing endosymbionts: influence of environmental conditions on persistence of host metapopulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Male killing endosymbionts manipulate their arthropod host reproduction by only allowing female embryos to develop into infected females and killing all male offspring. Because of the reproductive manipulation, we expect them to have an effect on the evolution of host dispersal rates. In addition, male killing endosymbionts are expected to approach fixation when fitness of infected individuals is larger

Dries Bonte; Thomas Hovestadt; Hans-Joachim Poethke

2008-01-01

316

The Shape of Things to Come? Assessing the Effectiveness of Suicide Attacks and Targeted Killings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we assess the effectiveness of suicide attacks and targeted killings in the Second Intifada. We find evidence that the targeted killings of Palestinian leaders by Israel reduce realized Palestinian violence. We find, however, that intended Palestinian violence is increasing at low levels of targeted killings, but decreasing at higher levels. There is little evidence to suggest that

David A. Jaeger; Daniele Paserman

2007-01-01

317

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted

B. D. Gruendell; E. S. Barrows; A. B. Borde

1997-01-01

318

Variability of Photodynamic Killing in Escherichia coli and Avoidance of Variability with Agar  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic killing of Escherichia coli in acridine orange is influenced by the composition of the containing vessel, and after high kill the variance between replicate suspensions is greater than attributable solely to sampling and plating. Addition of agar minimizes both phenomena, but a higher illumination dose is required to produce the same degree of killing.

O'Bryan, Corliss; Harrison, Arthur P.

1971-01-01

319

Pseudomonas aeruginosa killing of Caenorhabditis elegans used to identify P. aeruginosa virulence factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported recently that the human oppor- tunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 kills Caenorhabditis elegans and that many P. aeruginosa virulence factors (genes) required for maximum virulence in mouse patho- genicity are also required for maximum killing of C. elegans. Here we report that among eight P. aeruginosa PA14 TnphoA mutants isolated that exhibited reduced killing of C. elegans,

MAN-WAH TAN; L AURENCE G. RAHME; A. STERNBERG; R ONALD G. TOMPKINS; FREDERICK M. AUSUBEL

1999-01-01

320

Classification of the Killing vectors in nonexpanding {HH}-spaces with ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conformal Killing equations and their integrability conditions for nonexpanding hyperheavenly spaces with ? are studied. Classification of homothetic and isometric Killing vectors in nonexpanding hyperheavenly spaces with ? and homothetic Killing vectors in heavenly spaces is given. Some metrics belonging to the two-sided Walker class are found. An example of the Lorentzian real slice of the type [N] ? [N] is explicitly given.

Chudecki, Adam

2012-07-01

321

Design Criteria for Low Risk Re-Entry Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper shows how a sharp vehicle with low wing loading, is able to follow re-entry trajectories with low thermal risks by using Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) to thermally protect the vehicle front edges. These reusable materials can withstand the global radiative equilibrium temperatures that are experienced during reentry characterized by a longer and a more gradual conversion of the kinetic and potential energy of the vehicle into thermal energy. A number of aerothermodynamic problems are addressed to assess the feasibility of the vehicle design and of the thermal protection of the payload. In particular, the boundary layer thermal protection concept is illustrated to show how a UHTC massive tip edges (fuselage and wings) are able to protect also the remaining vehicle structure made of conventional material, promoting a revolutionary approach to the Thermal Protection System (TPS) configuration for hypersonic vehicle flying at small angle of attack. CFD results and engineering formulations are adopted for the computation of the aerodynamic coefficients and heat fluxes. The analysis identifies the design criteria for a conventional looking vehicle for a crew return from LEO (e.g. from the International Space Station).

Monti, R.; Pezzella, G.

2005-02-01

322

Automatic kinetic typography composer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animated text, commonly called kinetic typography, is any attractive visual expression used in films, TV programs, video games, etc. Previous studies have developed tools that support the authoring and rendering of kinetic typography. However, authoring kinetic typography is not easy because its methodology is still at an early stage. Hence, we systematize expression elements in kinetic typography and propose an

Mitsuru Minakuchi; Katsumi Tanaka

2005-01-01

323

Vehicle jack with wedge mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many developing countries, particularly Nigeria, the high cost of production of a vehicle jack and the prevailing economic situation has made the commercial production of vehicle jacks difficult. Thus, the development of an appropriate technology for a vehicle jack would be of vital utility to vehicle users. This paper presents the design and construction of a low-price, simple mechanical

Ademola A. Dare; Sunday A. Oke

324

Power transmission apparatus for vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a power transmission apparatus for a vehicle comprising: an output shaft for transmitting power from a power unit to the front and rear wheels of the vehicle; a front wheel driving device for driving the vehicle front wheel; a rear wheel driving device for driving the vehicle rear wheel; a driving shaft operatively driven by the output

Oka

1987-01-01

325

Vehicle detection from aerial imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle detection from aerial images is becoming an increasingly important research topic in surveillance, traffic monitoring and military applications. The system described in this paper focuses on vehicle detection in rural environments and its applications to oil and gas pipeline threat detection. Automatic vehicle detection by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) will replace current pipeline patrol services that rely on pilot

Joshua Gleason; Ara V. Nefian; Xavier Bouyssounousse; Terry Fong; George Bebis

2011-01-01

326

Throttle Control for Vehicle Following  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throttle control design is an important part of Au- tomated Vehicle Control System (AVCS). In this paper we design some throttle control schemes for vehicle following under constant time headway spacing policy. The schemes maintain a steady state inter-vehicle spacing decided by a desired time headway set by the driver. One verified nonlinear longitudinal vehicle model is used for simulations

P. Ioannou; Z. Xu

1993-01-01

327

Remotely Operated Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from the Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) Center, learn how some students are putting to work both technical skills as well as soft skills, such as teamwork and problem solving, in creating underwater remotely operated vehicles.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-10-25

328

Vehicle Bumper Performance Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a study of various aspects of vehicle bumper performance. Included are: current bumper design, override and underride propensity, ability to sustain dynamic loading, pedestrian protection, ancillary uses, and a survey of...

W. J. Rup J. M. Daly M. Erten

1968-01-01

329

Household Vehicles Energy Consumption  

EIA Publications

This report provides newly available national and regional data and analyzes the nation's energy use by light-duty vehicles. This release represents the analytical component of the report, with a data component having been released in early 2005.

Mark Schipper

2005-11-30

330

Tracked-Vehicle Transportability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the procedures for evaluating the transportability characteristics of tracked vehicles moving under their own power, or moved by carrier over highway, off-road terrain, rail, water, or by air. Keywords: Crane, Dynamometer, Lifting ...

1987-01-01

331

New Mars vehicle concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper briefly reviews the evolution of the Mars vehicle design concepts from 1952 to 1990, and the currently understood requirements, constraints, and options for manned Mars missions in the early decades of the 21st century. The most up-to-date integrated Mars vehicle concepts for crew-carrying transfer and excursion vehicles are presented together with the Mars descent-ascent mission phases. Particular attention is given to a reusable transfer ship, which is a modular vehicle launched to earth orbit on six 185 t-class boosters and assembled there robotically; it uses dual nuclear-thermal rocket engines and liquid hydrogen propellant. The lander concept is capable of supporting many kinds of surface missions anywhere on Mars.

Sherwood, Brent

1993-02-01

332

40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement...San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement...San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...

2010-07-01

333

Surrogate teleoperated vehicle (STV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotics Systems Technology is building surrogate teleoperated vehicles (STV). The STV system consists of two parts-the remote platform (RP) and the mobility\\/RSTA module (MOB\\/RSTA). The RP is based on an off-the-shelf Polaris six-wheel drive, Ackerman-steered all terrain vehicle. Its full suspension allows the operator to drive at speeds exceeding 58 k\\/h. The current automatic drive train will be modified using

S. D. Myers

1991-01-01

334

Fire vehicle hardening  

SciTech Connect

After attack, the wartime fire fighter faces a harsh environment in which he must operate to perform his mission. Debris, unexploded bombs, and munitions pose hazards that must be overcome. Without modification to the fire-fighting vehicles, there is little assurance that the fire fighter would even be able to reach the locations necessary for performing his mission. Adding armor to the vehicle to protect both the operator and the vehicle from these hazards is the proposed solution. Through a study performed by the BDM Corporation under a subcontract to Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., the recommended types, thicknesses, and locations of material necessary to allow the P-19 crash-rescue fire vehicle to survive, with 95% probability, 100 random events using the NATO Standard Fragment Threat Criteria was determined. Using this information, a preliminary design for a prototype hardening kit for the P-19 was developed. In conjunction with this effort, a P-19 was modified by installing attachment points, and mock-up armor was fabricated and fitted to the vehicle to refine the design. The kit design consisted of (1) various mild steel panels that varied in thickness from 0.125 to 0.375 in., (2) Lexan panels for areas that had to be transparent, (3) flexible Kevlar 49 for areas requiring flexibility, and (4) foam-filled tires. The factors considered in the design were the effects on the vehicle, fragment-stopping ability, weight, cost, ability to fabricate, and ease of installation. 40 figs.

Horner, L.G.

1988-11-01

335

How Important is Vehicle Safety in the New Vehicle Purchase\\/Lease Process for Fleet Vehicles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Despite the potential benefits that fleet vehicle purchase decisions could have on road safety, the role that vehicle safety plays in fleet managers' purchase decisions is poorly understood.Methods. In this study, fleet managers from Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire regarding the importance of vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase\\/lease process and the importance that is placed on

Sjaanie Koppel; Judith Charlton; Brian Fildes

2007-01-01

336

Kaluza-Klein consistency, Killing vectors and Kähler spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We make a detailed investigation of all spaces Qn1...nNq1...qN of the form of U(1) bundles over arbitrary products ?iCPni of complex projective spaces, with arbitrary winding numbers qi over each factor in the base. Special cases, including Q1111 (sometimes known as T11), Q111111 and Q2132, are relevant for compactifications of type IIB and D = 11 supergravity. Remarkable `conspiracies' allow consistent Kaluza-Klein S5, S4 and S7 sphere reductions of these theories that retain all the Yang-Mills fields of the isometry group in a massless truncation. We prove that such conspiracies do not occur for the reductions on the Qn1...nNq1...qN spaces, and that it is inconsistent to make a massless truncation in which the non-Abelian SU(ni + 1) factors in their isometry groups are retained. In the course of proving this we derive many properties of the spaces Qn1...nNq1...qN of more general utility. In particular, we show that they always admit Einstein metrics, and that the spaces where qi = (ni + 1)/l all admit two Killing spinors. We also obtain an iterative construction for real metrics on CPn, and construct the Killing vectors on Qn1...nNq1...qN in terms of scalar eigenfunctions on CPni. We derive bounds that allow us to prove that certain Killing-vector identities on spheres, necessary for consistent Kaluza-Klein reductions, are never satisfied on Qn1...nNq1...qN.

Hoxha, P.; Martinez-Acosta, R. R.; Pope, C. N.

2000-10-01

337

Mothers who kill: evolutionary underpinnings and infanticide law.  

PubMed

Women who kill their children present a profound challenge to accepted notions of motherhood and the protection offered by mothers to their children. Historically, societies have varied in the sanctions applied to perpetrators of such acts, across both time and place. Where penalties were once severe and punitive for mothers, in modern times some two dozen nations now have infanticide acts that reduce the penalties for mothers who kill their infants. Embedded within these acts are key criteria that relate (a) only to women who are (b) suffering the hormonal or mood effects of pregnancy/lactation at the time of the offence which is (c) usually restricted to within the first year after delivery. Criticisms of infanticide legislation have largely centered on inherent gender bias, misconceptions about the hormonal basis of postpartum psychiatric disorders, and the nexus and contribution of these disorders to the offending in relation to issues of culpability and sentencing. Important differences between female perpetrators relative to the age of the child victim have also highlighted problems in the implementation of infanticide legislation. For example, women who commit neonaticide (murder during the first day of life) differ substantially from mentally ill mothers who kill older children. However, despite these shortcomings, many nations have in recent years chosen to retain their infanticide acts. This article reviews the central controversies of infanticide legislation in relation to current research and fundamental fairness. Using evolutionary psychology as a theoretical framework to organize this discussion, it is argued that infanticide legislation is at best unnecessary and at worst misapplied, in that it exculpates criminal intent and fails to serve those for whom an infanticide defense might otherwise have been intended. PMID:22961624

Friedman, Susan Hatters; Cavney, James; Resnick, Phillip J

2012-09-10

338

Double suicide genes selectively kill human umbilical vein endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  To construct a recombinant adenovirus containing CDglyTK double suicide genes and evaluate the killing effect of the double\\u000a suicide genes driven by kinase domain insert containing receptor (KDR) promoter on human umbilical vein endothelial cells.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Human KDR promoter, Escherichia coli (E. coli) cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (TK) gene were cloned using polymerase chain\\u000a reaction

Weiguo Jia; Longyong Mei; Yanping Wang; Lunxu Liu; Guowei Che

2011-01-01

339

Specifically targeting ERK1 or ERK2 kills Melanoma cells  

PubMed Central

Background Overcoming the notorious apoptotic resistance of melanoma cells remains a therapeutic challenge given dismal survival of patients with metastatic melanoma. However, recent clinical trials using a BRAF inhibitor revealed encouraging results for patients with advanced BRAF mutant bearing melanoma, but drug resistance accompanied by recovery of phospho-ERK (pERK) activity present challenges for this approach. While ERK1 and ERK2 are similar in amino acid composition and are frequently not distinguished in clinical reports, the possibility they regulate distinct biological functions in melanoma is largely unexplored. Methods Rather than indirectly inhibiting pERK by targeting upstream kinases such as BRAF or MEK, we directly (and near completely) reduced ERK1 and ERK2 using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to achieve sustained inhibition of pERK1 and/or pERK2. Results and discussion Using A375 melanoma cells containing activating BRAFV600E mutation, silencing ERK1 or ERK2 revealed some differences in their biological roles, but also shared roles by reduced cell proliferation, colony formation in soft agar and induced apoptosis. By contrast, chemical mediated inhibition of mutant BRAF (PLX4032) or MEK (PD0325901) triggered less killing of melanoma cells, although they did inhibit proliferation. Death of melanoma cells by silencing ERK1 and/or ERK2 was caspase dependent and accompanied by increased levels of Bak, Bad and Bim, with reduction in p-Bad and detection of activated Bax levels and loss of mitochondrial membrane permeability. Rare treatment resistant clones accompanied silencing of either ERK1 and/or ERK2. Unexpectedly, directly targeting ERK levels also led to reduction in upstream levels of BRAF, CRAF and pMEK, thereby reinforcing the importance of silencing ERK as regards killing and bypassing drug resistance. Conclusions Selectively knocking down ERK1 and/or ERK2 killed A375 melanoma cells and also increased the ability of PLX4032 to kill A375 cells. Thus, a new therapeutic window is open for future clinical trials in which agents targeting ERK1 and ERK2 should be considered in patients with melanoma.

2012-01-01

340

Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, geologists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Gerlach, Terrance M.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Evans, William C.; Colvard, Elizabeth M.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Rogie, John D.; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

2000-01-01

341

Gauge theories on de Sitter space and Killing vectors  

SciTech Connect

We provide a general method for studying a manifestly covariant formulation of p-form gauge theories on the de Sitter space. This is done by stereographically projecting the corresponding theories, defined on flat Minkowski space, onto the surface of a de Sitter hyperboloid. The gauge fields in the two descriptions are mapped by conformal Killing vectors allowing for a very transparent analysis and compact presentation of results. As applications, the axial anomaly is computed and the electric-magnetic duality is exhibited. Finally, the zero curvature limit is shown to yield consistent results.

Banerjee, Rabin [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098 (India)]. E-mail: rabin@bose.res.in

2007-09-15

342

Analysis of murine cellular receptors for tumor-killing factor  

SciTech Connect

Receptors for tumor-killing factor (TKF) on the surface of murine cells were analyzed using radioiodinated TKF. Not only sensitive cells but also insensitive cells were found to have specific receptors. Among the sensitive cells, no clear relation was observed between the number of receptors on the cell surface and sensitivity to TKF. Compounds affecting microfilaments (cytochalasin B and D) and microtubules (colchicine and Colcemid) significantly inhibited cytolysis of sensitive cells induced by receptor-bound TKF. It is concluded that internalization of receptor-bound TKF is a prerequisite for triggering cytolysis.

Ohsawa, F.; Natori, S.

1987-01-01

343

Attachment of killed Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells and membranes to erythrocytes.  

PubMed Central

To correlate viability with attachment capacity, Mycoplasma gallisepticum cell harvested at different growth phases and treated by various agents were tested for their capacity to attach to human erythrocytes. The results show that viability per se is not essential for M. gallisepticum attachment to erythrocytes, as cells killed by ultraviolet irradiation anmd membranes isolated by lysing M. gallisepticum cells by various means retained attachment capacity. However, treatment of the mycoplasmas by protein-denaturing agents, such as heart, glutaraldehyde, or prolonged exposure to low pH, drastically affected or even abolished attachment, supporting the protein nature of the mycoplasma membrane components responsible for specific binding to the sialoglycoprotein receptors on the erythrocytes.

Banai, M; Kahane, I; Feldner, J; Razin, S

1981-01-01

344

Motor vehicle crash fatalities: A comparison of hispanic and non-hispanic motorists in colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objectives: We compare the population-based death rates from traffic crashes in the Hispanic and non-Hispanic white populations in a single state, and compare fatally injured Hispanic and non-Hispanic drivers with respect to safety belt use, alcohol involvement, speeding, vehicle age, valid licensure, and urban-rural location. Methods: Hispanic and non-Hispanic white motorists killed in traffic crashes in 1991-1995 were studied

Jennifer S. Harper; William M. Marine; Carol J. Garrett; Dennis Lezotte; Steven R. Lowenstein

2000-01-01

345

Assisted suicide and the killing of people? Maybe. Physician-assisted suicide and the killing of patients? No: the rejection of Shaw's new perspective on euthanasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

David Shaw presents a new argument to support the old claim that there is not a significant moral difference between killing and letting die and, by implication, between active and passive euthanasia. He concludes that doctors should not make a distinction between them. However, whether or not killing and letting die are morally equivalent is not as important a question

Hugh V McLachlan

2010-01-01

346

Apparatus for stopping a vehicle  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for externally controlling one or more brakes on a vehicle having a pressurized fluid braking system. The apparatus can include a pressurizable vessel that is adapted for fluid-tight coupling to the braking system. Impact to the rear of the vehicle by a pursuit vehicle, shooting a target mounted on the vehicle or sending a signal from a remote control can all result in the fluid pressures in the braking system of the vehicle being modified so that the vehicle is stopped and rendered temporarily inoperable. A control device can also be provided in the driver's compartment of the vehicle for similarly rendering the vehicle inoperable. A driver or hijacker of the vehicle preferably cannot overcome the stopping action from the driver's compartment.

Wattenburg, Willard H. (Walnut Creek, CA); McCallen, David B. (Livermore, CA)

2007-03-20

347

China's Launch Vehicle Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China's Launch Vehicle technologies have been started since 1950s. With the efforts made by several-generation Chinese Space people, the Long March (LM) Launch Vehicles, China's main space transportation tools, have undergone a development road from conventional propellants to cryogenic propellants, from stage-by-stage to strap-on, from dedicated-launch to multiple-launch, from satellite-launching to space capsule-launching. The LM Launch Vehicles are capable of sending various payloads to different orbits with low cost and high reliability. Till now, the LM Launch Vehicles have conducted 67 launch missions, putting 76 spacecraft into the given orbits since the successful mission made by LM-1 in 1970. Especially, they have performed 22 international commercial satellite-launching missions, sending 27 foreign satellites successfully. The footprints of LM Launch Vehicles reflect the development and progress of Chinese Space Industry. At the beginning of the 21st century, with the development of launch vehicle technology and the economic globalization, it is an inexorable trend that Chinese space industry must participate in the international cooperation and competition. Being faced with both opportunities and challenges, Chinese Space Industry should promote actively the commercial launch service market to increase service quality and improve the comprehensive competition capabilities. In order to maintain the sustaining development of China's launch vehicle technology and to meet the increasing needs in the international commercial launch service market, Chinese space industry is now doing research work on developing new-generation Chinese launchers. The new launchers will be large-scale, powerful and non-contamination. The presence of the new-generation Chinese launchers will greatly speed up the development of the whole space-related industries in China, as well as other parts of the world. In the first part, this paper gives an overview on China Aerospace Science &Technology Corporation (CASC), which builds LM Launch Vehicle and is working on the new-generation Chinese Launchers. In the second part, the paper pays more attentions to introduce LM Launch Vehicles, as well as their commercial launch services. Then in the third part, the paper firstly describes the new-generation launchers.

Bai, Jingwu

2002-01-01

348

Chemical and Biological Kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examples of the application of the methods and ideas of chemical kinetics in various branches of chemistry and biology are considered and the results of studies on the kinetics and mechanisms of autoxidation and inhibited and catalysed oxidation of organic substances in the liquid phase are surveyed. Problems of the kinetics of the ageing of polymers and the principles of their stabilisation are discussed and certain trends in biological kinetics (kinetics of tumour growth, kinetic criteria of the effectiveness of chemotherapy, problems of gerontology, etc.) are considered. The bibliography includes 281 references.

Emanuel', N. M.

1981-10-01

349

Control instrumentation for wellheads and mud-kill systems. [Indonesia  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the instrumentation and control systems used on the wellheads and mud-kill systems at the Mobil Oil Arun natural gas field, situated onshore in the province of Aceh, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The reservoir is a carbonate reef containing an estimated 15 Tcf (0.42 X 10/sup 12/ m/sup 3/) gas at approximately 7,000 psig (48 263 kPa) and 360/sup 0/F (182/sup 0/C). The wellstream from the field is separated into natural gas, condensate liquid, and water. The gas and condensate are then shipped through separate pipelines to the Arun liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility at Lho' Seumawe, about 40 mi (25 km) away on the northeastern coast of Sumatra. After liquefaction the LNG is shipped by tanker to Japan. The field was discovered in 1971 and became operational in 1977. The LNG delivery contract complied with the Japanese calls for regular delivery; thus continuity of supply to the LNG plant was of paramount importance for meeting transportation and supply schedules. Two actual blowouts in the Arun field have provided valuable experience in evaluating both equipment and systems in terms of design, reliability, and application for this type of field service. This paper concentrates on the design and installation of the control systems associated with the wellhead and mud-kill systems and highlights the problems encountered during the past five years.

Giles, A.J.

1983-08-01

350

Killing of gram-negative bacteria by lactoferrin and lysozyme.  

PubMed Central

Although lactoferrin has antimicrobial activity, its mechanism of action is not full defined. Recently we have shown that the protein alters the Gram-negative outer membrane. As this membrane protects Gram-negative cells from lysozyme, we have studied whether lactoferrin's membrane effect could enhance the antibacterial activity of lysozyme. We have found that while each protein alone is bacteriostatic, together they can be bactericidal for strains of V. cholerae, S. typhimurium, and E. coli. The bactericidal effect is dose dependent, blocked by iron saturation of lactoferrin, and inhibited by high calcium levels, although lactoferrin does not chelate calcium. Using differing media, the effect of lactoferrin and lysozyme can be partially or completely inhibited; the degree of inhibition correlating with media osmolarity. Transmission electron microscopy shows that E. coli cells exposed to lactoferrin and lysozyme at 40 mOsm become enlarged and hypodense, suggesting killing through osmotic damage. Dialysis chamber studies indicate that bacterial killing requires direct contact with lactoferrin, and work with purified LPS suggests that this relates to direct LPS-binding by the protein. As lactoferrin and lysozyme are present together in high levels in mucosal secretions and neutrophil granules, it is probable that their interaction contributes to host defense. Images

Ellison, R T; Giehl, T J

1991-01-01

351

Photoacoustically-guided photothermal killing of mosquitoes targeted by nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In biomedical applications, nanoparticles have demonstrated the potential to eradicate abnormal cells in small localized pathological zones associated with cancer or infections. Here, we introduce a method for nanotechnology-based photothermal (PT) killing of whole organisms considered harmful to humans or the environment. We demonstrate that laser-induced thermal, and accompanying nano- and microbubble phenomena, can injure or kill C. elegans and mosquitoes fed carbon nanotubes, gold nanospheres, gold nanoshells, or magnetic nanoparticles at laser energies that are safe for humans. In addition, a photoacoustic (PA) effect was used to control nanoparticle delivery. Through the integration of this technique with molecular targeting, nanoparticle clustering, magnetic capturing and spectral sharpening of PA and PT plasmonic resonances, our laser-based PA-PT nano-theranostic platform can be applied to detection and the physical destruction of small organisms and carriers of pathogens, such as malaria vectors, spiders, bed bugs, fleas, ants, locusts, grasshoppers, phytophagous mites, or other arthropod pests, irrespective of their resistance to conventional treatments. (© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). PMID:23450780

Foster, Stephen R; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Totten, Daniel C; Beneš, Helen; Shmookler Reis, Robert J; Zharov, Vladimir P

2013-03-01

352

Effectiveness of live or killed plague vaccines in man  

PubMed Central

While the safety of the available live plague vaccine EV 76 (Paris) continues to be the subject of further study, the USP formol-killed, virulent Pasteurella pestis (Yersinia pestis) suspension capable of protecting 60% of non-human primates, particularly Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus), warrants further clinical tests and field trials. Inoculated in a dosage of 2×109 killed plague bacilli (1 ml), followed by a booster of 400 million organisms (0.2 ml) in 1-3 months, this vaccine stimulates the appearance of passive mouse-protection antibodies (below an index of 10) and passive haemagglutinins in 60%-65% of human subjects. Recent experiences in Viet-Nam demonstrate that personnel vaccinated with the USP vaccine, although frequently exposed, enjoy almost complete freedom from the disease. One of the 4 known and confirmed cases of bubonic plague in North Americans occurred in an unvaccinated individual. Among individuals inoculated with the USP vaccine, 2 confirmed cases of pneumonic plague and 1 case of asymptomatic pharyngeal plague have been recorded. The incidence of plague in the Republic of Viet-Nam during the past 3 years is estimated at 13 263 cases in a population in part vaccinated with a live plague which exhibited inadequate immunogenic efficacy in experimental tests.

Meyer, K. F.

1970-01-01

353

Emotional and coping responses to serial killings. The Gainesville murders.  

PubMed

Forensic experts have focused more on the psychological profile of a serial killer rather than on the pronounced effects on the community at large. Coping with a stressful event is thought to influence emotional states. However, little empirical understanding of this process exists. The present study examined changes in psychological factors 9 days after the occurrence of serial killings in a college community. Multivariate analyses of variance conducted on the variables of stress, anxiety, physical symptoms, and depression revealed a significant difference between the group tested after the murders and a cross-sectional cohort group. Univariate analyses revealed that the study class was significantly more depressed compared with the cohort group. The study class was also significantly more depressed compared with their own responses 1 year before the killings. For both classes, depression was significantly correlated with certain coping styles, including escape-avoidance and accept responsibility. Results have implications for certain coping behaviors (i.e., avoidant behaviors), such as that leaving the community may have been maladaptive and perhaps diverted attention from the more necessary active problem-solving behaviors (e.g., increasing security) in addition to increasing depression. PMID:8320543

Norvell, N K; Cornell, C E; Limacher, M C

1993-07-01

354

Lymphocyte CFTR promotes epithelial bicarbonate secretion for bacterial killing.  

PubMed

The expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in lymphocytes has been reported for nearly two decades; however, its physiological role remains elusive. Here, we report that co-culture of lymphocytes with lung epithelial cell line, Calu-3, promotes epithelial HCO(3)- production/secretion with up-regulated expression of carbonic anhydrase 2 and 4 (CA-2, CA-4) and enhanced bacterial killing capability. The lymphocyte-enhanced epithelial HCO(3)- secretion and bacterial killing activity was abolished when Calu3 cells were co-cultured with lymphocytes from CFTR knockout mice, or significantly reduced by interfering with E-cadherin, a putative binding partner of CFTR. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced E-cadherin and CA-4 expression in the challenged lung was also found to be impaired in CFTR knockout mice compared to that of the wild-type. These results suggest that the interaction between lymphocytes and epithelial cells may induce a previously unsuspected innate host defense mechanism against bacterial infection by stimulating epithelial HCO(3)- production/secretion, which requires CFTR expression in lymphocytes. PMID:22552906

Tang, Xiao Xiao; Fok, Kin Lam; Chen, Hao; Chan, Kay Sheung; Tsang, Lai Ling; Rowlands, Dewi Kenneth; Zhang, Xiao Hu; Dong, Jian Da; Ruan, Ye Chun; Jiang, Xiaohua; Yu, Sidney Siu Bun; Chung, Yiu Wa; Chan, Hsiao Chang

2012-12-01

355

Relationship between hyperthermic cell killing and protein denaturation by alcohols  

SciTech Connect

The monohydric alcohols methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and tert.-butanol dramatically sensitize V79 Chinese hamster lung cells to hyperthermia. for concentrations less than 3% alcohol by weignt, the rate of cell inactivation (k) appears to vary exponentially as a function of alcohol concentration. The degree of sensitization increases with increasing chain length, and for a constant concentration the ratio of the k's is 1:1.3:1.8:3.1 for methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and t-butanol, respectively. Mono-, di-, and trihydric alcohols have similar effects upon the rate of protein denaturation. Membrane lipid fluidity of V79 cells was determined from 23 to 63/sup 0/C by measuring the rotational correlation time of the spin label 2,2-dimethyl-5-dodecyl-5-methyloxazolidine-N-oxide (2N14). A straight line was found for the Arrhenius plot of tau/sub c/, with an activation energy of 4.82 +- 0.07 kcal/mole. From the Arrhenius plot of the rate of cell killing from 42.0 to 46.8/sup 0/C, the enthalpy (..delta..H) and entropy (..delta..S) of activation were found to be 146 +- 9 kcal/mole and 388 cal/mole K, respectively. These values are consistent with protein denaturation (or possibly the denaturation of some other macromolecule) being the rate-limiting step in hyperthermic cell killing.

Massicotte-Nolan, P.; Glofcheski, D.J.; Kruuv, J.; Lepock, J.R.

1981-08-01

356

Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phenazines that Kill Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic microbes employ a variety of methods to overcome host defenses, including the production and dispersal of molecules that are toxic to their hosts. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is a pathogen of a diverse variety of hosts including mammals and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we identify three small molecules in the phenazine class that are produced by P. aeruginosa strain PA14 that are toxic to C. elegans. We demonstrate that 1-hydroxyphenazine, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, and pyocyanin are capable of killing nematodes in a matter of hours. 1-hydroxyphenazine is toxic over a wide pH range, whereas the toxicities of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyocyanin are pH-dependent at non-overlapping pH ranges. We found that acidification of the growth medium by PA14 activates the toxicity of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, which is the primary toxic agent towards C. elegans in our assay. Pyocyanin is not toxic under acidic conditions and 1-hydroxyphenazine is produced at concentrations too low to kill C. elegans. These results suggest a role for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in mammalian pathogenesis because PA14 mutants deficient in phenazine production have been shown to be defective in pathogenesis in mice. More generally, these data demonstrate how diversity within a class of metabolites could affect bacterial toxicity in different environmental niches.

Cezairliyan, Brent; Vinayavekhin, Nawaporn; Grenfell-Lee, Daniel; Yuen, Grace J.; Saghatelian, Alan; Ausubel, Frederick M.

2013-01-01

357

Univalent antibodies kill tumour cells in vitro and in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antibody molecules are bivalent, or less often multivalent, with each antibody site within a single molecule having the same specificity. Bivalency must enhance the tenacity of antibody attachment to cell surfaces, as dissociation will require simultaneous release at both sites. However, the bivalency of the antibody sometimes induces a target cell to undergo antigenic modulation1-3, thereby offering the cell a means of evading complement and the various effector cells recruited by the antibody. We have investigated the attack by univalent antibodies, which, despite removal of one antibody site, retain their Fc zones and hence their ability to recruit the killing agents, on neoplastic B lymphocytes of the guinea pig L2C line. Rabbit antibodies raised against surface immunoglobulin of these cells were partially digested with papain to yield the univalent Fab/c derivatives4,5. We report here that these derivatives showed enhanced cell killing both in vitro and in vivo, and that this enhancement appeared to derive from avoiding antigenic modulation.

Glennie, M. J.; Stevenson, G. T.

1982-02-01

358

Changing T-cell enigma: Cancer killing or cancer control?  

PubMed

Data from different laboratories and theoretical considerations challenge our current view on anticancer immunity. Immune cells are capable of destroying cancer cells under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, cellular immunity is considered to control cancers through mechanisms that kill cancers. Yet, therapeutic anticancer immune responses rarely delete cancers. If efficient, they rather establish a life with stable disease. This raises the question of whether killing is the sole mechanism by which immune therapy attacks cancers. Here, we show that, besides cancer eradication by cytotoxic lymphocytes, other modes of action are operative and strictly required for cancer control. We show that T helper-1 cells arrest cancer growth by driving cancers into a state of stable or permanent growth arrest, called senescence. Such immune cells establish cytokine-producing walls around developing cancers. When producing interferon-? and tumor necrosis factor, this cytokine-induced tumor immune-surveillance keeps the cancer cells in a permanently non-proliferating state. Simultaneously, antiangiogenic chemokines cut their connections to the surrounding tissues. This strategy significantly reduces tumor burden and prolongs life of cancer-bearing animals. As human cancers also undergo senescence, the current data suggest tumor-immune surveillance through cytokine-induced senescence, instead of tumor eradication, as the more realistic and primary goal of cancer control. PMID:24013429

Wieder, Thomas; Braumüller, Heidi; Brenner, Ellen; Zender, Lars; Röcken, Martin

2013-08-26

359

Physical process first law for bifurcate Killing horizons  

SciTech Connect

The physical process version of the first law for black holes states that the passage of energy and angular momentum through the horizon results in a change in area ({kappa}/8{pi}){delta}A={delta}E-{omega}{delta}J, so long as this passage is quasistationary. A similar physical process first law can be derived for any bifurcate Killing horizon in any spacetime dimension d{>=}3 using much the same argument. However, to make this law nontrivial, one must show that sufficiently quasistationary processes do in fact occur. In particular, one must show that processes exist for which the shear and expansion remain small, and in which no new generators are added to the horizon. Thorne, MacDonald, and Price considered related issues when an object falls across a d=4 black hole horizon. By generalizing their argument to arbitrary d{>=}3 and to any bifurcate Killing horizon, we derive a condition under which these effects are controlled and the first law applies. In particular, by providing a nontrivial first law for Rindler horizons, our work completes the parallel between the mechanics of such horizons and those of black holes for d{>=}3. We also comment on the situation for d=2.

Amsel, Aaron J.; Marolf, Donald; Virmani, Amitabh [Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2008-01-15

360

Electrically powered motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An electrically powered vehicle achieves maximum structural strength with minimum weight by utilizing a combined body and chassis formed entirely of plastic material, molded and bonded into an integral composite structure which includes a central, hollow longitudinal beam, top, bottom, and side panels of the vehicle body portion, and a power unit supporting chamber at the forward end closing the forward end of the beam and tying it to the side panels. The beam holds the batteries, and the chamber contains all of the components of the power unit including the controlling device. The structure is thus as rigid and light as possible, in addition to eliminating any possibility of any unwanted grounding or electrical paths. The only metal in the vehicle is that of the additional components such as road wheels, suspension members, steering, and power unit and the fasteners and brackets used to retain them in mounted position.

Eve, W. R.; Gould, J. S.; Mccutchen, J. V.; Pelcher, A. M.; Watson, R. E.; Winquist, R. D.

1980-08-12

361

PNGV vehicle engineering accomplishments  

SciTech Connect

This article describes technical progress made by the industry/government partnership which sets the stage for developing tomorrow`s supercar. The alliance among Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, and the US federal government, known as the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), continues to work towards its long-term goal of developing and producing an affordable, fuel-efficient, low-emission automobile that meets today`s performance standards. A diverse range of new concepts and technologies in such areas as power generation, energy storage, electronics, materials, manufacturing, and systems analysis is being explored to meet these goals. The following is a summary of recent, significant accomplishments being made by the PNGV with respect to concept vehicles, hybrid propulsion systems, and air bags which the partnership classifies as vehicle engineering technology.

Taylor, C.

1996-11-01

362

Vehicle-based road dust emission measurement—Part II: Effect of precipitation, wintertime road sanding, and street sweepers on inferred PM 10 emission potentials from paved and unpaved roads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing Re-Entrained Kinetic Emissions from Roads (TRAKER) is a new technique to infer paved and unpaved road dust PM10 emission potentials based on particulate matter (PM) measurements made onboard a moving vehicle. Light scattering instruments mounted in front and behind the vehicle's tires measure the differential particle concentration of dust suspended by the vehicle's tire in contact with the road

H Kuhns; V Etyemezian; M Green; Karin Hendrickson; Michael McGown; Kevin Barton; Marc Pitchford

2003-01-01

363

Analysis of benzene emissions from vehicles and vehicle refueling  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, several investigators have characterized and measured hydrocarbon components, including benzene, in vehicle exhaust. An analysis is presented of benzene exhaust emission data reported from approximately 100 light-duty vehicles. Results indicate that on average, benzene exhaust emissions from catalyst-equipped vehicles are significantly less than those from non-catalyst vehicles. In addition, benzene exhaust emissions from 3-way catalyst vehicles appear to be significantly less than those from oxidation catalyst vehicles, on average. These observations parallel analogous average reductions in total hydrocarbons, indicating that modern catalyst-based exhaust emission controls reduce benzene emissions to approximately the same degree as they reduce total hydrocarbons. Also, benzene evaporative emissions from 3-way catalyst vehicles appear to be substantially less than those from oxidation catalyst vehicles. Finally, a benzene refueling emission rate was calculated. Its contribution to total benzene emissions appears to be very small.

Raley, D.L.; McCallum, P.W.; Shadis, W.J.

1984-01-01

364

Vehicle brake testing system  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a force measuring system capable of measuring forces associated with vehicle braking and of evaluating braking performance. The disclosure concerns an invention which comprises a first row of linearly aligned plates, a force bearing surface extending beneath and beside the plates, vertically oriented links and horizontally oriented links connecting each plate to a force bearing surface, a force measuring device in each link, a transducer coupled to each force measuring device, and a computing device coupled to receive an output signal from the transducer indicative of measured force in each force measuring device. The present invention may be used for testing vehicle brake systems.

Stevens, Samuel S [Harriman, TN; Hodgson, Jeffrey W [Lenoir City, TN

2002-11-19

365

Vehicle Dynamics and Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system topics covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire models and tire-road friction estimation. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics.

Rajamani, Rajesh

366

BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

None

2010-07-01

367

40 CFR 1048.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? 1048.610 Section...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2013-07-01

368

Vehicle dynamics and external disturbance estimation for vehicle path prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the onboard prediction of a motor vehicle's path to help enable a variety of emerging functions in autonomous vehicle control and active safety systems. It is shown in simulation that good accuracy of path prediction is achieved using numerical integration of a linearized two degree of freedom vehicle handling model. To improve performance, a steady-state Kalman filter

Chiu-Feng Lin; A. Galip Ulsoy; David J. LeBlanc

2000-01-01

369

Effects of Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have image, or symbolic benefits, in addition to their functionality. This study examines the images that ten HEV–owning households saw in their vehicles, and the impact symbolic benefits had on these consumers’ decisions to purchase HEVs. In general, all of the HEV owners perceived some image in their vehicles, although these images varied in their strength

Reid R. Heffner; Kenneth S Kurani; Tom Turrentine

2005-01-01

370

Nighttime Vehicle Detection for Driver Assistance and Autonomous Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an effective method for detecting vehicles in front of the camera-assisted car during nighttime driving. The proposed method detects vehicles based on detecting and locating vehicle headlights and taillights using techniques of image segmentation and pattern analysis. First, to effectively extract bright objects of interest, a segmentation process based on automatic multilevel thresholding is applied on the

Yen-lin Chen; Yuan-hsin Chen; Chao-jung Chen; Bing-fei Wu

2006-01-01

371

Aspergillus Vertebral Osteomyelitis in a Child with a Primary Monocyte Killing Defect: Response to GM-CSF Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first case of vertebral aspergillosis in a child with a primary defect in monocyte killing, an extremely rare immunodeficiency. The diagnosis of defective monocyte killing was made by an in vitro assay that showed normal killing of Staphylococcus aureus by the patient's neutrophils but impaired killing by his monocytes. Importantly, the extensive granulomatous infection that involved the

L. Abu Jawdeh; R. Haidar; F. Bitar; S. Mroueh; S. Akel; N. Nuwayri-Salti; G. S. Dbaibo

2000-01-01

372

Surplus killing by introduced predators in Australia—evidence for ineffective anti-predator adaptations in native prey species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian examples of surplus killing by mammalian predators were collated. These included surplus killing of native mammals and birds by foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and stock, native mammals and native birds by dingoes (Canis lupus dingo). We found no examples of surplus killing by feral cats (Felis catus). Incidents collated include historical anecdotes of surplus killing by foxes as they colonised

Jeff Short; J. E. Kinnear; Alan Robley

2002-01-01

373

Rail Vehicle Dynamics Model Validation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The validation of mathematical models of rail vehicle dynamics using test data poses a number of difficult problems, which are addressed in this report. Previous attempts to validate rail vehicle models are reviewed critically, and experience gained in va...

S. E. Shladover R. L. Hull

1981-01-01

374

Electric Vehicle Conceptual Design Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conceptual design of an electric vehicle is presented. The vehicle has been designed to accommodate a number of alternate drive trains. The initial drive will consist of commercially available dc components; more advanced drives may be installed to up...

1976-01-01

375

Hybrid Vehicles and Consumer Preferences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Series and parallel hybrid vehicle configurations defined by the JPL Hybrid Vehicle Assessment were investigated using an ordered-logit market model as an indicator of consumer preferences among various levels of performance and cost. The market model was...

1986-01-01

376

NHTSA's Vehicle Compatibility Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is conducting a research program to investigate the crash compatibility of passenger cars, light trucks and vans (LTVs) in vehicle-to-vehicle collisions. NHTSA has conducted a series of eight full...

S. Summers A. Prasad W. T. Hollowell

2002-01-01

377

Household vehicles energy consumption 1991  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Not Available

1993-12-09

378

PspA protects Streptococcus pneumoniae from killing by apolactoferrin, and antibody to PspA enhances killing of pneumococci by apolactoferrin [corrected].  

PubMed

Lactoferrin is an important component of innate immunity through its sequestration of iron, bactericidal activity, and immune modulatory activity. Apolactoferrin (ALF) is the iron-depleted form of lactoferrin and is bactericidal against pneumococci and several other species of bacteria. We observed that lactoferricin (LFN), an 11-amino-acid peptide from the N terminus of lactoferrin, is bactericidal for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Strains of S. pneumoniae varied in their susceptibility to ALF. Lactoferrin is bound to the pneumococcal surface by pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA). Using mutant PspA(-) pneumococci of four different strains, we observed that PspA offers significant protection against killing by ALF. Knockout mutations in genes for two other choline-binding proteins (PspC and PcpA) did not affect killing by ALF. PspA did not have to be attached to the bacterial surface to inhibit killing, because the soluble recombinant N-terminal half of PspA could prevent killing by both ALF and LFN. An 11-amino-acid fragment of PspA was also able to reduce the killing by LFN. Antibody to PspA enhanced killing by lactoferrin. These findings suggested that the binding of ALF to PspA probably blocks the active site(s) of ALF that is responsible for killing. PMID:15321996

Shaper, Mirza; Hollingshead, Susan K; Benjamin, William H; Briles, David E

2004-09-01

379

Heavy Vehicle Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heavy Vehicle (HV) systems are a necessary component of achieving OHVT goals. Elements are in place for a far-ranging program: short, intermediate, and long-term. Solicitation will bring industrial input and support. Future funding trend is positive, outlook for HV systems is good.

Sid Diamond; Richard Wares; Jules Routbort

2000-04-11

380

Electric vehicle monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described for monitoring one or more electric vehicles which are driven by parallel-connected induction motors controlled by a variable voltage\\/variable frequency inverter, the induction motors being divided into a first group of one or more induction motors and a second group of one or more induction motors, comprising: rotational frequency detecting means for detecting a rotational frequency

S. Kojima; H. Obi

1987-01-01

381

Fire vehicle hardening  

Microsoft Academic Search

After attack, the wartime fire fighter faces a harsh environment in which he must operate to perform his mission. Debris, unexploded bombs, and munitions pose hazards that must be overcome. Without modification to the fire-fighting vehicles, there is little assurance that the fire fighter would even be able to reach the locations necessary for performing his mission. Adding armor to

1988-01-01

382

Advanced launch vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicles capable of lifting very large and heavy payloads into low earth orbit (LEO) will be needed to support certain large-scale space missions being considered for the late 1990-2000 time period. These missions include the support of strategic national commitments, large space power systems, and interplanetary and lunar exploration. Nearer term missions will utilize the Space Shuttle and its direct

W. R. Marshall; B. W. Shelton

1984-01-01

383

Hyraulic Hybird Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because there is a large demand for better fuel economy on vehicles, researching different hybrid methods is necessary. The main goal of this project was to design, build, and test a complete hydraulic launch assist system on a Ford F350 diesel truck. The...

D. Blackketter F. Albrecht R. Wiegers

2006-01-01

384

Engine & Vehicle Mechanics Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This competency-based curriculum includes all competencies a student will acquire in an engine and vehicle mechanics educational program. It follows guidelines established for automobile technician training programs leading toward certification and addresses requirements of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE). The…

Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

385

Commercial launch vehicle services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plans to discontinue the use of expendable launch vehicles have been reevaluated in view of the growing number of communications satellite payloads. A White House directive of May 16, 1983, makes space hardware, services, and facilities available to private sector users. Whereas the customer must bear all costs, the government will absorb the sunk costs of research and development. The

K. E. Degnan

1983-01-01

386

Diesel Vehicle Maintenance Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide a model set of competencies, this manual presents tasks which were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary diesel vehicle maintenance curriculum. The tasks are divided into seven major component areas of instruction: chassis and suspension, diesel engines, diesel fuel, electrical,…

Braswell, Robert; And Others

387

Diesel Vehicle Maintenance Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to provide a model set of competencies, this manual presents tasks which were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary diesel vehicle maintenance curriculum. The tasks are divided into seven major component areas of instruction: chassis and suspension, diesel engines, diesel fuel, electrical,…

Braswell, Robert; And Others

388

The Electric Vehicle Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

Roman, Harry T.

2010-01-01

389

Deep Submergence Vehicle Alvin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the site to go to for information about Alvin, the deep submergence vehicle. Describes the history of Alvin, dive statistics, dive logs, dive site viewer, publication, and photos. Students will love the interactive Alvin simulator. Also available are a user manual, observer information, and cruise planning tips. An excellent marine technology resource.

390

Power transmission in vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a power transmission in a vehicle in which a power plant having a rear hanger portion is mounted on a body frame having a pair of frame members extending downwardly generally aft of the engine, and the power of the power plant is transmitted to a driving wheel through a continuous loop transmission mechanism.

Oike, I.; Hiasa, T.

1987-06-09

391

Mars Exploratory Vehicles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students learn about the characteristics of the planet Mars. Challenges students to design and build a model of a robotic vehicle that can travel on the surface of Mars and accomplish an assigned task that will provide information useful for future manned trips to the planet. Outlines mission task cards and progress…

Canizo, Thea L.; And Others

1997-01-01

392

Clustering of Vehicle Trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method that is suitable for clustering of vehicle trajectories obtained by an automated vision system. We combine ideas from two spectral clustering methods and propose a trajectory-similarity measure based on the Hausdorff distance, with modifications to improve its robustness and account for the fact that trajectories are ordered collections of points. We compare the proposed method with

Stefan Atev; Grant Miller; Nikolaos P. Papanikolopoulos

2010-01-01

393

Vehicle tracking systems  

SciTech Connect

Several systems have been developed to accomplish vehicle location. The systems consist of three types: Dead Reckoning, Satellite, and LORAN C. If the information is to be sent back to a central location, some type of radiocommunication system is needed. One can use the existing voice radio or add a radio system just for transmitting the data.

Schwalm, R.W.

1987-01-01

394

The electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a study into the use of US patents to analyse responses to regulatory change in the automobile industry. Confirming that patents are a rich indicator of technological development, it focuses on the development of the electric vehicle (EV) and, in particular, the identification of networks of firms developing EVs. A key finding of the study is the

Alan Pilkington; Romano Dyerson; Omid Tissier

2002-01-01

395

Hybrid FSAE Vehicle Realization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition. Vehicle integration is underway as part of a variety of 2010-11 senior design projects. This leverages a variety of analytical an...

E. Odom J. Law S. Beyerlein

2010-01-01

396

The impact of reported direct and indirect killing on mental health symptoms in Iraq war veterans.  

PubMed

This study examined the mental health impact of reported direct and indirect killing among 2,797 U.S. soldiers returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom. Data were collected as part of a postdeployment screening program at a large Army medical facility. Overall, 40% of soldiers reported killing or being responsible for killing during their deployment. Even after controlling for combat exposure, killing was a significant predictor of posttraumatic disorder (PTSD) symptoms, alcohol abuse, anger, and relationship problems. Military personnel returning from modern deployments are at risk of adverse mental health conditions and related psychosocial functioning related to killing in war. Mental health assessment and treatment should address reactions to killing to optimize readjustment following deployment. PMID:20104592

Maguen, Shira; Lucenko, Barbara A; Reger, Mark A; Gahm, Gregory A; Litz, Brett T; Seal, Karen H; Knight, Sara J; Marmar, Charles R

2010-02-01

397

Spacetime encodings. IV. The relationship between Weyl curvature and Killing tensors in stationary axisymmetric vacuum spacetimes  

SciTech Connect

The problem of obtaining an explicit representation for the fourth invariant of geodesic motion (generalized Carter constant) of an arbitrary stationary axisymmetric vacuum spacetime generated from an Ernst potential is considered. The coupling between the nonlocal curvature content of the spacetime as encoded in the Weyl tensor, and the existence of a Killing tensor is explored and a constructive, algebraic test for a fourth-order Killing tensor suggested. The approach used exploits the variables defined for the Baecklund transformations to clarify the relationship between Weyl curvature, constants of geodesic motion, expressed as Killing tensors, and the solution-generation techniques. A new symmetric noncovariant formulation of the Killing equations is given. This formulation transforms the problem of looking for fourth-order Killing tensors in 4D into one of looking for four interlocking two-manifolds admitting fourth-order Killing tensors in 2D.

Brink, Jeandrew [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91103 (United States)

2010-01-15

398

Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase kills African trypanosomes in vitro.  

PubMed

The African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei is the cause of sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in animals. Here we report that semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidases (SSAOs), enzymes that are abound in T. brucei mammal hosts, eliminate trypanosomes by oxidation of its substrate in vitro. SSAO and its endogenous substrate methylamine are not toxic to T. brucei, but parasites were killed in the presence of both of them. SSAO inhibitors antagonized the SSAO-methylamine induced toxicity on T. brucei. The trypanocidal activity was mainly associated with formaldehyde generated in the SSAO mediated oxidation of methylamine. This finding suggests that SSAO may play some roles in non-specific defense of trypanosome infection in mammals. PMID:21145304

Wang, Qiao-Ping; Lai, De-Hua; Li, Zhi; Li, Feng-Jun; Lun, Zhao-Rong

2010-12-08

399

Manners of killing and rituals in Apulian mafia murders.  

PubMed

The Apulian (South of Italy) territory saw the birth of a criminal organization called Sacra Corona Unita (SCU, United Holy Crown) which transformed the rules of traditional mafia organizations. This work examined 83 victims of the SCU between 1980 and 2000. The bodies were mainly of SCU members and in some cases, of police and law enforcement officers and other citizens caught in the crossfire. Some of these were discovered; thanks to the collaboration of "repented" SCU members who became police informers. The condition of the bodies varied in relation to the date and manner of killing. In some cases anthropometric research methods were necessary. In 73% of the cases, lesions of the head were the only marks left on the body. In conclusion, the existence of some social aspects connected with the symbolisms and membership rites that characterized the origin, evolution, and decline of the SCU is stressed. PMID:19486252

De Donno, Antonio; Santoro, Valeria; Rossi, Anna Paola; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Introna, Francesco

2009-05-26

400

Benzothiazinones Kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Blocking Arabinan Synthesis  

PubMed Central

New drugs are required to counter the tuberculosis (TB) pandemic. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of 1,3-benzothiazin-4-ones (BTZs), a new class of antimycobacterial agents that kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro, ex vivo, and in mouse models of TB. Using genetics and biochemistry, we identified the enzyme decaprenylphosphoryl-?-d-ribose 2?-epimerase as a major BTZ target. Inhibition of this enzymatic activity abolishes the formation of decaprenylphosphoryl arabinose, a key precursor that is required for the synthesis of the cell-wall arabinans, thus provoking cell lysis and bacterial death. The most advanced compound, BTZ043, is a candidate for inclusion in combination therapies for both drug-sensitive and extensively drug-resistant TB.

Makarov, Vadim; Manina, Giulia; Mikusova, Katarina; Mollmann, Ute; Ryabova, Olga; Saint-Joanis, Brigitte; Dhar, Neeraj; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; Buroni, Silvia; Lucarelli, Anna Paola; Milano, Anna; De Rossi, Edda; Belanova, Martina; Bobovska, Adela; Dianiskova, Petronela; Kordulakova, Jana; Sala, Claudia; Fullam, Elizabeth; Schneider, Patricia; McKinney, John D.; Brodin, Priscille; Christophe, Thierry; Waddell, Simon; Butcher, Philip; Albrethsen, Jakob; Rosenkrands, Ida; Brosch, Roland; Nandi, Vrinda; Bharath, Sowmya; Gaonkar, Sheshagiri; Shandil, Radha K.; Balasubramanian, Venkataraman; Balganesh, Tanjore; Tyagi, Sandeep; Grosset, Jacques; Riccardi, Giovanna; Cole, Stewart T.

2011-01-01

401

Inflammatory neurodegeneration and mechanisms of microglial killing of neurons.  

PubMed

Inflammatory neurodegeneration contributes to a wide variety of brain pathologies. A number of mechanisms by which inflammatory-activated microglia and astrocytes kill neurons have been identified in culture. These include: (1) acute activation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX) found in microglia, (2) expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in glia, and (3) microglial phagocytosis of neurons. Activation of PHOX (by cytokines, beta-amyloid, prion protein, lipopolysaccharide, ATP, or arachidonate) causes microglial proliferation and inflammatory activation; thus, PHOX is a key regulator of inflammation. However, activation of PHOX alone causes little or no death, but when combined with iNOS expression results in apparent apoptosis via peroxynitrite production. Nitric oxide (NO) from iNOS expression also strongly synergizes with hypoxia to induce neuronal death because NO inhibits cytochrome oxidase in competition with oxygen, resulting in glutamate release and excitotoxicity. Finally, microglial phagocytosis of these stressed neurons may contribute to their loss. PMID:20195798

Brown, Guy C; Neher, Jonas J

2010-03-02

402

The efficacy of the heat killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

There is concern that current procedures for the heat inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis may not be adequate. This raises serious safety issues for laboratory staff performing molecular investigations such as IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing. This paper confirms that the protocol of van Embden et al, as performed routinely in this laboratory, is safe and effective for the heat inactivation of M tuberculosis. This procedure involves complete immersion of a tube containing a suspension of one loopfull of growth in a water bath at 80°C for 20 minutes. Seventy four isolates were included in this investigation. Despite prolonged incubation for 20 weeks, none of the heat killed M tuberculosis suspensions produced visible colonies or gave a positive growth signal from liquid culture. This method did not affect the integrity of the DNA for subsequent molecular investigations.

Doig, C; Seagar, A L; Watt, B; Forbes, K J

2002-01-01

403

Gene therapy approaches for the selective killing of cancer cells.  

PubMed

This review describes gene therapy strategies that take advantage of defective signal transduction pathways to selectively kill cancer cells without adversely affecting normal cells. The distinctive features of cancer cells currently exploited by gene therapy include mitosis, cell permissiveness to infection, specific protease activity, and the activity of the p53, Rb/E2F and wnt/catenin signal transduction pathways. In most cases, proof of concept has been obtained in vitro and in vivo, but only a few approaches made it to the clinic. Overall, the clinical success rate has been disappointing and it is concluded that the gene therapy of cancer requires more innovation and hard work before its potential can be fully realized. PMID:12171540

Westphal, Eva Maria; Melchner Hv, Harald von

2002-01-01

404

EOD Vehicle Conceptual Design Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design study of a tethered undersea remotely operated vehicle (ROV) has been made for the U.S. Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Technology Center. The conceptual design vehicle is designated ROV-EOD. The purpose of the vehicle is to locate, identify and neutralize suspected ordnance on the ocean floor, normally at or near harbors; thus relieving divers of a very

K. Rogers; G. Bane; W. Laing

1982-01-01

405

Intelligent vehicle airbag controller design  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent vehicle airbag controller design methodology is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the vehicle impact severity is analyzed to get four characteristic factors utilized as fuzzy inputs. From these four characteristics factors, the 'two stages fuzzy algorithm' is developed and used as the airbag deployment algorithm to identify the vehicle impact severity. Finally, the fuzzy-Gaussian neural network (FGNN) is

Yi-Jen Mon; Kuang-Tso Luo

2004-01-01

406

Detection and classification of vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents algorithms for vision-based detection and cl assification of vehicles in monocular image sequences of traffi c scenes recorded by a stationary camera. Processing is done at three levels: raw images, region level and vehicle level. Vehicle s are modeled as rectangular patches with certain dynamic behavior. The proposed method is based on the establishment of correspondences between

Surendra Gupte; Osama Masoud; Robert F. K. Martin; Nikolaos P. Papanikolopoulos

2002-01-01

407

Nonlinearities in Road Vehicle Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study of lateral vehicle dynamics with the objective to enhance stability and handling qualities, non-linear aspects may have to be included to cover also larger lateral accelerations and amplitudes. The paper treats whole vehicle motions and relative motions of vehicle subsystems. In particular, single car stability, also in the large, is discussed as well as the shimmy phenomenon

H. B. Pacejka

1986-01-01

408

An evaluation of Sex-Age-Kill (SAK) model performance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and ?? > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when ?? < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ??121.9 of the true population level 95 of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when ?? ??? 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

Millspaugh, J. J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, R. L.; Diefenbach, D. R.; Boyce, M. S.; Hansen, L. P.; Kammermeyer, K.

2009-01-01

409

Chromogenic assay measuring opsonophagocytic killing capacities of antipneumococcal antisera.  

PubMed

Assays measuring opsonophagocytic killing capacity of immune sera are good surrogate assays for assessing pneumococcal vaccine responses, but they are tedious to perform primarily because the enumeration of surviving bacteria requires the counting of individual bacterial colonies. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a simple and rapid chromogenic assay for estimating the number of surviving bacteria. In this method, the conventional opsonophagocytic killing assays were performed in microtiter wells with differentiated HL-60 cells as phagocytes. At the end of the assay the reaction mixture was cultured for an additional 4.5 h to increase the number of bacteria. After the short culture, XTT (3,3'-[1[(phenylamino)carbonyl]-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) and coenzyme Q were added to the wells and the optical density at 450 nm was measured. Our study shows that changes in the optical density were proportional to the number of CFU of live bacteria in the wells. Also, the number of bacteria at the end of the 4.5-h culture was found to be proportional to the original number of bacteria in the wells. When the performance of the chromogenic assay was evaluated by measuring the opsonizing titers of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6B and 19F, the sensitivity and precision of the new method were similar to those of the conventional opsonization assay employing the colony counting method. Furthermore, the results of this chromogenic assay obtained with 33 human sera correlate well with those obtained with the conventional colony counting method (R > 0.90) for the two serotypes (6B and 19F). Thus, this simple chromogenic assay would be useful in rapidly measuring the capacities of antisera to opsonize pneumococci. PMID:11329452

Lin, J S; Park, M K; Nahm, M H

2001-05-01

410

Incidence and total lifetime costs of motor vehicle-related fatal and non-fatal injury by road user type in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEach year, more than a million people are killed in motor vehicle crashes worldwide. Crashes place a tremendous burden on societies not only in terms of lives lost but also in terms of cost. While there are many evidence-based road safety interventions that exist, many of these interventions are underutilised. Economic studies are a useful tool to illustrate the full

R B Naumann; A M Dellinger; E Zaloshnja; B A Lawrence; T R Miller

2010-01-01

411

Comparative Killing Rates of Fluoroquinolones and Cell Wall-Active Agents  

PubMed Central

Killing rates of fluoroquinolones, ?-lactams, and vancomycin were compared against Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, pneumococci, streptococci, and Enterococcus faecalis. The times required for fluoroquinolones to decrease viability by 3 log10 were 1.5 h for Enterobacteriaceae, 4 to 6 h for staphylococci, and ?6 h for streptococci and enterococci. Thus, the rate of killing by fluoroquinolones is organism group dependent; overall, they killed more rapidly than ?-lactams and vancomycin.

Fung-Tomc, Joan C.; Gradelski, Elizabeth; Valera, Lourdes; Kolek, Benjamin; Bonner, Daniel P.

2000-01-01

412

A Mannose-Binding Receptor is Expressed on Human Keratinocytes and Mediates Killing of Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human keratinocytes are known to kill Candida albicans in vitro, but the mechanism of killing is not yet understood. Here, we demonstrate that spontaneous, ultraviolet-B-light-induced, ?-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-induced, and interleukin-8-induced Candida killing by keratinocytes can be inhibited with mannan and mannosylated bovine serum albumin (Man-BSA). A polyclonal goat serum raised against the human macrophage mannose receptor stained suprabasal keratinocytes, but no staining

Gyözö Szolnoky; Zsuzsanna Bata-Csörgö; Anna Sz. Kenderessy; Mária Kiss; Andor Pivarcsi; Zoltán Novák; Katalin Nagy Newman; Günther Michel; Thomas Ruzicka; László Maródi; Attila Dobozy; Lajos Kemény

2001-01-01

413

THE SHAPE OF THINGS TO COME? ON THE DYNAMICS OF SUICIDE ATTACKS AND TARGETED KILLINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the dynamics of suicide attacks and targeted killings in theSecondIntifada.WefindevidencethatthetargetedkillingsofPalestinianlead- ers by Israel reduce realized Palestinian violence. We find, however, that intended Palestinian violence is increasing at low levels of targeted killings, but decreasing at higher levels. We find that suicide bombings that kill at least one Israeli lead to a subsequent increase in the

David A. Jaeger; M. Daniele Paserman

2009-01-01

414

Different patterns of cytokine regulation of phagocytosis and bacterial killing by human neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here the capacity of human recombinant interleukin-1-beta (IL-1?), interferon-gamma (INF-?), interferon-alpha (INF-?), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (INF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) to modulate phagocytosis and bacterial killing by human neutrophils. IL-1?, INF-? and TNF-? enhance phagocytosis of bacteria but do not have consistent effect on bacterial killing. In contrast, IL-6 augments bacterial killing but not phagocytosis of bacteria

Dmitry V. Pechkovsky; Michael P. Potapnev; Oksana M. Zalutskaya

1996-01-01

415

Hydrogen Peroxide-Mediated Killing of Caenorhabditis elegans by Streptococcus pyogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caenorhabditis elegans is currently introduced as a new, facile, and cheap model organism to study the pathogenesis of gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica serovar Ty- phimurium. The mechanisms of killing involve either diffusible exotoxins or infection-like processes. Recently, it was shown that also some gram-positive bacteria kill C. elegans, although the precise mechanisms of killing remained

W. T. M. Jansen; M. Bolm; R. Balling; G. S. Chhatwal; R. Schnabel

2002-01-01

416

Forensic DNA confirms intraguild killing of a chuditch ( Dasyurus geoffroii ) by a feral cat ( Felis catus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because animals killed by predators are often found partially consumed or decomposed, identification of the predator is often\\u000a unachievable by post mortem examination. Forensic DNA offers an alternative in such situations. Using a novel method to analyse\\u000a DNA from bite wounds on a freshly-killed chuditch Dasyurus geoffroii, we describe the first confirmed instance in this species of intraguild killing by

A. S. Glen; O. Berry; D. R. Sutherland; S. Garretson; T. Robinson; P. J. de Tores

2010-01-01

417

Killing of Caenorhabditis elegans by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Used to Model Mammalian Bacterial Pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that a single clinical isolate of the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain PA14), which previously was shown to be pathogenic in mice and plants, also kills Caenorhabditis elegans. The rate of PA14-mediated killing of C. elegans depends on the composition of the agar medium on which PA14 is grown. When PA14 is grown on minimal medium, killing

Man-Wah Tan; Shalina Mahajan-Miklos; Frederick M. Ausubel

1999-01-01

418

Heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus La205 enhances NK cell cytotoxicity through increased granule exocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat-killed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to be important immunomodulators that stimulate tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and nitric oxide (NO) production as well as increase phagocytic activity in macrophages. NK cells play a critical role in innate immune response and induce spontaneous killing of tumor cells and virus-infected cells. However, the effect of heat-killed LAB on NK cells is

Soyoung Cheon; Ki Woong Lee; Kyung Eun Kim; Jung Kyu Park; Sunyoung Park; Chul-hyun Kim; Daejin Kim; Hyong Joo Lee; Daeho Cho

2011-01-01

419

First integrals of motion in a gauge covariant framework, Killing-Maxwell system and quantum anomalies  

SciTech Connect

Hidden symmetries in a covariant Hamiltonian framework are investigated. The special role of the Stackel-Killing and Killing-Yano tensors is pointed out. The covariant phase-space is extended to include external gauge fields and scalar potentials. We investigate the possibility for a higher-order symmetry to survive when the electromagnetic interactions are taken into account. Aconcrete realization of this possibility is given by the Killing-Maxwell system. The classical conserved quantities do not generally transfer to the quantized systems producing quantum gravitational anomalies. As a rule the conformal extension of the Killing vectors and tensors does not produce symmetry operators for the Klein-Gordon operator.

Visinescu, M., E-mail: mvisin@theory.nipne.ro [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Department of Theoretical Physics (Romania)

2012-10-15

420

Intelligent behaviors through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decade has seen a significant increase in intelligent safety devices on private automobiles. These devices have both increased and augmented the situational awareness of the driver and in some cases provided automated vehicle responses. To date almost all intelligent safety devices have relied on data directly perceived by the vehicle. This constraint has a direct impact on the types of solutions available to the vehicle. In an effort to improve the safety options available to a vehicle, numerous research laboratories and government agencies are investing time and resources into connecting vehicles to each other and to infrastructure-based devices. This work details several efforts in both the commercial vehicle and the private auto industries to increase vehicle safety and driver situational awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. It will specifically discuss intelligent behaviors being designed to automatically disable non-compliant vehicles, warn tractor trailer vehicles of unsafe lane maneuvers such as lane changes, passing, and merging, and alert drivers to non-line-of-sight emergencies.

Garcia, Richard D.; Sturgeon, Purser; Brown, Mike

2012-05-01

421

Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

1996-12-31

422

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Kentucky: Land Surveyor Struck and Killed by Passenger Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One late fall day in 2009, at approximately 3:30 PM, two land surveyors had completed surveying tasks for the day and were walking north, on opposites sides of a two-lane rural state highway. They were returning surveying equipment to the company truck. S...

2011-01-01

423

VCU researchers develop and test new molecule as a delivery vehicle to image and kill brain tumors:  

Cancer.gov

A single compound with dual function – the ability to deliver a diagnostic and therapeutic agent – may one day be used to enhance the diagnosis, imaging and treatment of brain tumors, according to findings from Virginia Commonwealth University and Virginia Tech.

424

Household vehicles energy consumption 1994  

SciTech Connect

Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

NONE

1997-08-01

425

Integrated development of light armored vehicles based on wargaming simulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicles are evolving into vehicle networks through improved sensors, computers and communications. Unless carefully planned, these complex systems can result in excessive crew workload and difficulty in optimizing the use of the vehicle. To overcome these problems, a war-gaming simulator is being developed as a common platform to integrate contributions from three different groups. The simulator, OneSAF, is used to integrate simplified models of technology and natural phenomena from scientists and engineers with tactics and doctrine from the military and analyzed in detail by operations analysts. This approach ensures the modelling of processes known to be important regardless of the level of information available about the system. Vehicle survivability can be improved as well with better sensors, computers and countermeasures to detect and avoid or destroy threats. To improve threat detection and reliability, Defensive Aids Suite (DAS) designs are based on three complementary sensor technologies including: acoustics, visible and infrared optics and radar. Both active armour and softkill countermeasures are considered. In a typical scenario, a search radar, providing continuous hemispherical coverage, detects and classifies the threat and cues a tracking radar. Data from the tracking radar is processed and an explosive grenade is launched to destroy or deflect the threat. The angle of attack and velocity from the search radar can be used by the soft-kill system to carry out an infrared search and track or an illuminated range-gated scan for the threat platform. Upon detection, obscuration, countermanoeuvres and counterfire can be used against the threat. The sensor suite is completed by acoustic detection of muzzle blast and shock waves. Automation and networking at the platoon level contribute to improved vehicle survivability. Sensor data fusion is essential in avoiding catastrophic failure of the DAS. The modular DAS components can be used with Light Armoured Vehicle (LAV) variants including: armoured personnel carriers and direct-fire support vehicles. OneSAF will be used to assess the performance of these DAS-equipped vehicles on a virtual battlefield.

Palmarini, Marc; Rapanotti, John

2004-08-01

426

Leukemic cell killing by samarium-153 labeled antisense oligodeoxynucleotide probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The c-myc oncogene is amplified in leukemia and cancer of colon, breast and lung, making the c-myc mRNA a suitable cytoplasmic receptor-like target for therapy of proliferation. The kinetics of uptake of Sm-153 labeled antisense (AS), sense (SN, control) and oxo and thio, derivatives by lymphocytic leukemic cells (P388) was evaluated. The 15-mer oligonucleotide sequence for the initiation-codon domain was

M. K. Dewanjee; A. K. Ghafouripour; L. Willem

1994-01-01

427

Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J. H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

2013-09-01

428

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

Mara, L.M.

1998-05-05

429

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01

430

High pressure destruction kinetics of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in single strength and concentrated orange juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

High pressure (HP) destruction of Leucoonostoc mesenteroides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in single strength and concentrated orange juice by high hydrostatic pressure treatment was evaluated at selected pressures (100–400 MPa) and holding times (0–120 min) at 20 °C. Kinetic analysis of the microbial survivor data was evaluated based on the biphasic destruction behavior consisting of: (i) an instantaneous pressure kill (IPK)

S. Basak; H. S. Ramaswamy; J. P. G. Piette

2002-01-01

431

Hybrid Vehicles Gain Traction  

Microsoft Academic Search

When gasoline prices climbed to $3 a gallon last summer, hybrid vehicles--which combine a conventional engine and a battery-powered electric motor to achieve improved fuel economy and performance--began racing out of showrooms. Whereas the average U.S. car goes about 23 miles on a gallon of gas, a full-fledged hybrid car such as a Toyota Prius travels about twice as far

Joseph J. Romm; Andrew A. Frank

2006-01-01

432

Motorized dumping vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A motorized dump-type vehicle is described for on-the-job transporting of concrete or other materials, comprising: (a) a rectangular metal formed chassis frame having integrally-joined side, front and rear members defining in transit front and rear ends thereof; (b) a gasoline engine mounted above and on the rear end of the frame; (c) an open top dump container having metal formed

1987-01-01

433

PNGV vehicle engineering accomplishments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes technical progress made by the industry\\/government partnership which sets the stage for developing tomorrow`s supercar. The alliance among Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, and the US federal government, known as the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), continues to work towards its long-term goal of developing and producing an affordable, fuel-efficient, low-emission automobile that meets today`s

1996-01-01

434

Batteries for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric-vehicle batteries are under development in programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy with the main objectives of accelerating development in industry when the program began and of developing new high-performance systems. To achieve the first objective, lead-acid, nickel-iron, nickel-zinc and zinc chlorine batteries are under development. Of these batteries, the lead-acid battery is most certain of achieving its

P. A. Nelson; W. H. Webster; H. Shimotake

1981-01-01

435

Vehicle recycling process  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A vehicle recycling plant comprising a furnace, means for introducing a fuel into said furnace, a cupola disposed in close proximity to said furnace, and communicating therewith so that the hot gases discharged from the furnace are introduced into the cupola, means for conveying scrap vehicles above said furnace and into said cupola, substantially horizontal flue means communicating with both the cupola and the furnace for removing exhaust gases therefrom, a plurality of smelters disposed in said horizontal flue for melting down various components previously disassembled from the vehicles, a plurality of heat exchange means disposed in said horizontal flue for removing heat therefrom and converting it into various forms of energy, an enlarged horizontal flue portion disposed downstream of said heat exchange means, said enlarged flue portion containing a plurality of air vents for mixing ambient air with the flue gas and a scrubbing section for removing particulate material from the flue gas, vacuum pump means for drawing the flue gas through the horizontal stack and exhaust means for discharging the flue gas to the atmosphere.

Rhinehart; Paul E. (Winchester, VA)

1977-03-29

436

Interactive effects of Na and K in killing by natural killer cells  

SciTech Connect

Contact-mediated lysis by human natural killer cells is inhibited by a number of drugs that block the predominant K channel. In this study the authors have further examined the role of the K channel and the interactions between passive K and Na transport in killing. Low external Na-inhibited killing and inhibition were not due to reduced inward current through the Na channels in the target cell. A role for the Na/H antiport is suggested since amiloride inhibited killing in a dose-dependent manner that was competitive with external Na. Depolarizing the killer cell with elevated external K did not inhibit killing. On the contrary, high K{sub 0} reduced the inhibition caused by low Na{sub 0} and by the K-channel blockers quinidine, verapamil, and retinoic acid. Hyperpolarizing the killer cell with low K{sub 0} or valinomycin inhibited killing. Hence, the primary role of the K channels during killing is not to maintain the negative membrane potential. On the contrary, depolarization may promote killing under conditions where killing is submaximal.

Schlichter, L.C.; MacCoubrey, I.C. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1989-09-01

437

AN ATTRACT-AND-KILL SYSTEM TO CONTROL CARPOPHILUS SPP. IN AUSTRALIAN STONE FRUIT ORCHARDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over a period of two growing seasons in stone fruit orchards in the Goulburn Valley, northern Victoria, Australia, the use of an attract and kill system for control of Carpophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and the effective range or drawing power of the attract and kill stations were examined. ...

438

Released ATP Is an Extracellular Cytotoxic Mediator in Salivary Histatin 5Induced Killing of Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salivary histatins (Hsts) are antifungal peptides with promise as therapeutic agents against candidiasis. Hst 5 kills the fungal pathogen Candida albicans via a mechanism that involves release of cellular ATP in the absence of cytolysis. Here we demonstrate that released ATP has a further role in Hst 5 killing. Incubation of the cells with ATP analogues induced cell death, and

SVETLANA E. KOSHLUKOVA; MARCELO W. B. ARAUJO; DIDI BAEV; MIRA EDGERTON

2000-01-01

439

ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS IN AN EXPERIMENTAL TESTING PIPE SYSTEM FOR AN INHIBITOR OF MUSSEL KILL  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive series of 16 laboratory experiments demonstrated that the presence of vinyl tubing within a recirculating pipe system was responsible for lowering zebra mussel kill following treatment with the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. All vinyl tubing was replaced in all testing units with silicone tubing, and high mussel kill (>95%) was then obtained.

Daniel P. Molloy

2003-06-04

440

Bose-Einstein condensation and Spontaneous Break ing of Conformal Symmetry on Killing Horizons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local scalar QFT (in Weyl algebraic approach) is constructed on degenerate semi-Riemannian manifolds corresponding to Killing horizons in spacetime. Covariance properties of the C -algebra of observables with respect to the conformal group PSL(2,R) are studied. It is shown that, in addition to the state studied by Guido, Longo, Roberts and Verch for bifurcated Killing horizons, which is conformally invariant

Valter Moretti; Nicola Pinamonti

2004-01-01

441

Who Shalt Not Kill? Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity, Executive Control, and Moral Judgment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent findings suggest that exerting executive controlinfluencesresponsestomoraldilemmas.Inourstudy, subjects judged how morally appropriate it would be for them to kill one person to save others. They made these judgments in 24 dilemmas that systematically varied physi- cal directness of killing, personal risk to the subject, inevi- tability of the death, and intentionality of the action. All four of these variables demonstrated

Adam B. Moore; Brian A. Clark; Michael J. Kane

442

Killing technique of North American badgers preying on Richardson's ground squirrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcasses of 13 Richardson's ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) cached during autumn by North American badgers (Taxidea taxus) in southern Alberta, Canada, were inspected to determine the capture and killing technique. Regardless of prey size (251-651 g) or torpor status (normothermic or torpid), badgers killed ground squir - rels with a single grasping bite directed dorsally or laterally to the thorax.

Gail R. Michener; Andrew N. Iwaniuk

2001-01-01

443

Mechanisms of Resistance of Porphyromonas gingivalis to Killing by Serum Complement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complement system plays an important role in the host defense against infection, and the formation of the terminal complement complex on the bacterial surface has been shown to be particularly important in killing of gram-negative bacteria. The gram-negative periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis is resis- tant to complement killing, and possible mechanisms suggested for this resistance include protease production and

Jennifer M. Slaney; Alexandra Gallagher; Joseph Aduse-Opoku; Keith Pell; Michael A. Curtis

2006-01-01

444

Killing of Aspergillus fumigatus by Alveolar Macrophages Is Mediated by Reactive Oxidant Intermediates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phagocytosis and mechanisms of killing of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia by murine alveolar macrophages (AM), which are the main phagocytic cells of the innate immunity of the lung, were investigated. Engulfment of conidia by murine AM lasts 2 h. Killing of A. fumigatus conidia by AM begins afte r6ho fphagocytosis. Swelling of the conidia inside the AM is a prerequisite for

B. Philippe; O. Ibrahim-Granet; M. C. Prevost; M. A. Gougerot-Pocidalo; M. Sanchez Perez; A. Van der Meeren; J. P. Latge ´

2003-01-01

445

What are 60 warblers worth? Killing in the name of conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological research sometimes entails animal suffering and even animal killing. The ethical appropriateness of animal suffering and killing in conservation research may entail considerations that differ from many other kinds of research. This is true, insomuch as conservation research is specifically motivated by an ethical premise: an appreciation for non-human life. In striking contrast with other academic fields (e.g. medicine),

John A. Vucetich; Michael P. Nelson

2007-01-01

446

33 CFR 165.T01-0727 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ. 165.T01-0727 Section 165.T01-0727 Navigation...165.T01-0727 Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ. (a) Regulated area. The following area is a regulated...

2013-07-01

447

Killing Forms on the Five-Dimensional Einstein-Sasaki Y(p, q) Spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the complete set of Killing-Yano tensors on the five-dimensional Einstein-Sasaki Y(p, q) spaces. Two new Killing-Yano tensors are identified, associated with the complex volume form of the Calabi-Yau metric cone. The corresponding hidden symmetries are not anomalous and the geodesic equations are superintegrable.

Visinescu, Mihai

2012-12-01

448

Targeted Killing: Self-Defense, Preemption, and the War on Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the parameters and utility of “targeted killing” in combating terrorism and its role within the norm of state self-defense in the international community. The author’s thesis is that, while targeted killing provides states with a method of combating terrorism, and while it is “effective” on a number of levels, it is inherently limited and not a panacea.

Thomas Byron Hunter

2009-01-01

449

FACTORS AFFECTING SECONDARY KILL OF THE GERMAN COCKROACH (DICTYOPTERA: BLATTELLIDAE) BY GEL BAITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary kill of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L)., by baits was reported to increase the overall control efficacy of bait products. However, most studies have been based on laboratory strains and small nymphs. We compared the secondary kill of four cockroach gel baits against various developmental stages of a laboratory (Jwax) and a field (Dorie) strain B. germanica. The

CHANGLU WANG; X. YANG; M. A. EL-NOUR

450

Both leukotoxin and poly- N-acetylglucosamine surface polysaccharide protect Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans cells from macrophage killing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two virulence factors produced by the periodontopathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans are leukotoxin, a secreted lipoprotein that kills human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages, and poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA), a surface polysaccharide that mediates intercellular adhesion, biofilm formation and detergent resistance. In this study we examined the roles of leukotoxin and PGA in protecting A. actinomycetemcomitans cells from killing by the human macrophage cell line

Vishwanath Venketaraman; Albert K. Lin; Amy Le; Scott C. Kachlany; Nancy D. Connell; Jeffrey B. Kaplan

2008-01-01

451

More on the triplet Killing potentials of quaternionic Kahler manifolds [rapid communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show the properties of the triplet Killing potentials of quaternionic Kähler manifolds which have been missing in the literature. It is done by means of the metric formula of the manifolds. We compute the triplet Killing potentials for the quaternionic Kähler manifold Sp(n+1)/((Sp(n)?Sp(1))) as an illustration.

Aoyama, Shogo

2005-10-01

452

Paclitaxel inhibits killing by murine cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo but not in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

To kill antigen-specific target cells (TCs), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) reorganise their microtubule cytoskeleton to deliver lytic granules to the TCs. We used two drugs that stabilise microtubules, paclitaxel and peloruside, to determine how the stabilising microtubule network affects CTL function in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, neither paclitaxel nor peloruside inhibited antigen-specific killing, lytic granule delivery to the

Marcus James Robinson; Franca Ronchese; John H Miller; Anne Camille La Flamme; AC La Flamme

2010-01-01

453

Humane killing of fishes for scientific research: a comparison of two methods.  

PubMed

Two killing methods were compared on the clupeid, bony bream Nematolosa erebi and it was found that ice-slurry immersion was more humane than benzocaine overdose. The use of ice-slurry for killing N. erebi should be accepted as a standard humane method and considered similarly for other warm-water species. PMID:20557609

Blessing, J J; Marshall, J C; Balcombe, S R

2010-06-01

454

Mothers Who Kill: Number of Victims, Sexism, and a Just World  

Microsoft Academic Search

High profile cases, such as those of Susan Smith and Andrea Yates, have drawn the attention of the public and scholars to the act of filicide, the killing of a child by his\\/her parent. Although relatively rare, filicide has occurred throughout history. Most experts agree mental illness is frequently an underlying factor when mothers kill their children. After giving birth

Kelly Cook; Nicole Feldman; Rebecca Martin

2006-01-01

455

Vehicle-to-vehicle safety messaging in DSRC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the design of layer-2 protocols for a vehicle to send safety messages to other vehicles. The target is to send vehicle safety messages with high reliability and low delay. The communication is one-to-many, local, and geo-significant. The vehicular communication network is ad-hoc, highly mobile, and with large numbers of contending nodes. The messages are very short, have

Qing Xu; Tony K. Mak; Jeff Ko; Raja Sengupta

2004-01-01

456

Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management for Advanced Vehicle Propulsion Technologies  

SciTech Connect

A critical element to the success of new propulsion technologies that enable reductions in fuel use is the integration of component thermal management technologies within a viable vehicle package. Vehicle operation requires vehicle thermal management systems capable of balancing the needs of multiple vehicle systems that may require heat for operation, require cooling to reject heat, or require operation within specified temperature ranges. As vehicle propulsion transitions away from a single form of vehicle propulsion based solely on conventional internal combustion engines (ICEs) toward a wider array of choices including more electrically dominant systems such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), new challenges arise associated with vehicle thermal management. As the number of components that require active thermal management increase, so do the costs in terms of dollars, weight, and size. Integrated vehicle thermal management is one pathway to address the cost, weight, and size challenges. The integration of the power electronics and electric machine (PEEM) thermal management with other existing vehicle systems is one path for reducing the cost of electric drive systems. This work demonstrates techniques for evaluating and quantifying the integrated transient and continuous heat loads of combined systems incorporating electric drive systems that operate primarily under transient duty cycles, but the approach can be extended to include additional steady-state duty cycles typical for designing vehicle thermal management systems of conventional vehicles. The work compares opportunities to create an integrated low temperature coolant loop combining the power electronics and electric machine with the air conditioning system in contrast to a high temperature system integrated with the ICE cooling system.

Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

2010-04-01

457

Robust Scalable Vehicle Control via Non-Dimensional Vehicle Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A temporal and spatial re-parameterization of the well- known linear vehicle Bicycle Model is presented. This parameterization utilizes non-dimensional ratios of vehicle parameters called pi-groups. Investigation of these pi- groups using compiled data from 44 published sets of Vehicle Dynamics reveals that the data does not span the pi-space, but instead follows a multi-dimensio nal line through pi-space with a

S. Brennan; A. Alleyne

2001-01-01

458

Resveratrol Inhibits Inflammation Induced by Heat-Killed Listeria monocytogenes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Resv eratrol is a polyphenolic compound in red wine that has antioxidant and cardioprotective effects in animal models. Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen that mainly affects immunocompromised individuals and is initially detected at the cell surface or in phagosomes by toll-like receptor 2. Many antioxidants also exert anti-inflammatory activities; therefore, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of resveratrol by studying the various inflammatory responses induced by heat-killed L. monocytogenes (HKLM). Resveratrol strongly blocked HKLM-induced NADPH oxidase-1 mRNA and reactive oxygen species production by macrophages. Resveratrol also suppressed monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, prostaglandin production, inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase expression, and NO production induced by HKLM. We investigated the signaling pathway involved in the resveratrol effect. HKLM stimulated glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. The involvement of GSK3? and ERK1/2 was tested using inhibitors. While the GSK3? inhibitor LiCl potentiated the effect of HKLM, the MEK inhibitor U0126 blocked these responses. Additionally, pretreatment with resveratrol blocked phosphorylation of both kinases induced by HKLM. These results suggest that HKLM is strong inducer of inflammatory mediators, and that the inhibitory effect of resveratrol may be mediated by the GSK3? and ERK1/2 pathways.

Park, Dae-Weon; Kim, Jin-Sik; Chin, Byung-Rho

2012-01-01

459

A rare case of serial killing by poisoning.  

PubMed

A case of serial killing by poisoning by a 59-year-old practical nurse is discussed. Following a report by an emergency-room doctor of an attempted murder, police performed an investigation into all deaths of patients in the nurse's care. Earlier, a medico-legal cause-of-death investigation had been performed on two of these cadavers, but in the other three cases the death certificate had been issued after a medical investigation only. In two of these latter cases, the body had been cremated, but fixed histological samples taken at medical autopsy were available, while in one case the person had died recently and the body was thereafter exhumed and autopsied. All of the suspected victims were older people who required nursing, and the nurse's course of action was consistent in all cases. In the absence of ordinary post-mortem toxicology samples in the medical cases, extraordinary evidence - paraffin-embedded liver tissue samples originally taken for histology at autopsy - was successfully recovered in two cases and analyzed for drugs. In all five cases, drugs not prescribed to the patient were detected, including digoxin, dixyrazine, citalopram, venlafaxine, and benzodiazepines (diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, temazepam, and oxazepam). The nurse was eventually found guilty of five murders by poisoning, five attempted murders, and three aggravated assaults. The nurse was sentenced to life imprisonment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23613335

Vuori, Erkki; Pelander, Anna; Rasanen, Ilpo; Juote, Mikko; Ojanperä, Ilkka

2013-04-24

460

Imaging type VI secretion-mediated bacterial killing.  

PubMed

In the environment, bacteria compete with each other for nutrient availability or to extend their ecological niche. The type VI secretion system contributes to bacterial competition by the translocation of antibacterial effectors from predators into prey cells. The T6SS assembles a dynamic structure-the sheath-wrapped around a tube constituted of the Hcp protein. It has been proposed that by cycling between extended and contracted conformations the sheath acts as a crossbow to propel the Hcp tube toward the target cell. While the sheath dynamics have been studied in monocultures, the activity of the T6SS has not been recorded in presence of the prey. Here, time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of cocultures demonstrates that prey cells are killed upon contact with predator cells. Additional experiments provide evidence that sheath contraction correlates with nearby cell fading and that prey lysis occurs within minutes after sheath contraction. The results support a model in which T6SS dynamics are responsible for T6SS effectors translocation into recipient cells. PMID:23291094

Brunet, Yannick R; Espinosa, Leon; Harchouni, Seddik; Mignot, Tâm; Cascales, Eric

2013-01-03

461

Genomic c-Myc Quadruplex DNA Selectively Kills Leukemia  

PubMed Central

C-Myc, a key regulator of cell cycle and proliferation, is commonly overexpressed in leukemia and associated with poor prognosis. Conventional antisense oligonucleotides targeting c-myc may attenuate leukemic cell growth, however, are poorly taken into cells, rapidly degraded, and have unwanted effects on normal cells. The c-myc promoter contains a guanine-rich sequence (PU27), capable of forming quadruplex (four-stranded) DNA, which may negatively regulate c-myc transcription, however, its biological significance is unknown. We show that treatment of leukemia with an oligonucleotide encoding the genomic PU27 sequence induces cell cycle arrest and death by oncotic-necrosis due to PU27-mediated suppression of c-myc mRNA/protein expression. Furthermore, PU27 is abundantly taken into cells, localized in the cytoplasm/nucleus, inherently stable in serum and intracellularly, and has no effect on normal cells. Suppression of c-myc expression by PU27 caused significant DNA damage, cell and mitochondrial swelling, and membrane permeability, characteristic of oncotic-necrosis. Induction of oncosis caused mitochondrial dysfunction, depletion of cellular ATP levels and enhanced oxidative stress. This novel anti-leukemic strategy addresses current concerns of oliginucleotide therapeutics including problems with uptake, stability, and unintentional effects on normal cells and is the first report of selective cancer cell killing by a genomic DNA sequence.

Sedoris, Kara C.; Thomas, Shelia D.; Clarkson, Cortney R.; Muench, David; Islam, Ashraful; Singh, Rajesh; Miller, Donald M.

2013-01-01

462

Methods of filicide: stepparents and genetic parents kill differently.  

PubMed

Stepparents commit filicide at higher rates than do genetic parents. According to M. Daly and M. I. Wilson (1994), motivational differences generate differences in the methods by which stepparents and genetic parents kill a child. Using Canadian and British national-level databases, Daly and Wilson (1994) found that stepfathers were more likely than genetic fathers to commit filicide by beating and bludgeoning, arguably revealing stepparental feelings of bitterness and resentment not present to the same degree in genetic fathers. Genetic fathers, in contrast, were more likely than stepfathers to commit filicide by shooting or asphyxiation, methods which often produce a relatively quick and painless death. We sought to replicate and extend these findings using a United States national-level database of over 400,000 homicides. Results replicate those of Daly and Wilson (1994) for genetic fathers and stepfathers. In addition, we identified similar differences in the methods by which stepmothers and genetic mothers committed filicide. Discussion addresses stepparental psychology in light of the current research, limitations of the current study, and future directions for research on this topic. PMID:15179747

Weekes-Shackelford, Viviana A; Shackelford, Todd K

2004-02-01

463

The impact of killing in war on mental health symptoms and related functioning.  

PubMed

This study examined the mental health and functional consequences associated with killing combatants and noncombatants. Using the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) survey data, the authors reported the percentage of male Vietnam theater veterans (N = 1200) who killed an enemy combatant, civilian, and/or prisoner of war. They next examined the relationship between killing in war and a number of mental health and functional outcomes using the clinical interview subsample of the NVVRS (n = 259). Controlling for demographic variables and exposure to general combat experiences, the authors found that killing was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, dissociation, functional impairment, and violent behaviors. Experiences of killing in war are important to address in the evaluation and treatment of veterans. PMID:19842160

Maguen, Shira; Metzler, Thomas J; Litz, Brett T; Seal, Karen H; Knight, Sara J; Marmar, Charles R

2009-10-01

464

Power transmission apparatus for vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a power transmission apparatus for a vehicle comprising: an output shaft for transmitting power from a power unit to the front and rear wheels of the vehicle; a front wheel driving device for driving the vehicle front wheel; a rear wheel driving device for driving the vehicle rear wheel; a driving shaft operatively driven by the output shaft interposed between the front wheel driving device and the rear wheel driving device and having one end connected to the front wheel driving device and the other end connected to the rear wheel driving device; and the front wheel driving device including a unidirectional clutch for transmitting a driving force during forward movement of the vehicle only in one direction from the power unit to the vehicle front wheel.

Oka, Y.

1987-09-15

465

International Human Powered Vehicle Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Human Powered Vehicle Association is an association of national associations and organizations who are "dedicated to promoting improvement, innovation and creativity in the use of human power, especially in the design and development of human-powered vehicles." The website provides updates on the world of human-powered vehicles, such as upcoming world championships and innovations in bicycle technology. The Source Guide includes links to directories with details on human-powered vehicle providers and companies selling materials needed for bicycle builders. The Library provides information on video, software, books and periodicals, while the Builder's Corner section offers how-to articles and guides. Information on human-powered vehicle races and schools with Human Powered Vehicle programs is also provided.

466

International Human Powered Vehicle Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Human Powered Vehicle Association is an association of national associations and organizations who are "dedicated to promoting improvement, innovation and creativity in the use of human power, especially in the design and development of human-powered vehicles." The website provides updates on the world of human-powered vehicles, such as upcoming world championships and innovations in bicycle technology. The Source Guide includes links to directories with details on human-powered vehicle providers and companies selling materials needed for bicycle builders. The Library provides information on video, software, books and periodicals, while the Builder's Corner section offers how-to articles and guides. Information on human-powered vehicle races and schools with Human Powered Vehicle programs is also provided.

2010-08-04

467

Evolutionary algorithm for vehicle driving cycle generation.  

PubMed

Modeling transit bus emissions and fuel economy requires a large amount of experimental data over wide ranges of operational conditions. Chassis dynamometer tests are typically performed using representative driving cycles defined based on vehicle instantaneous speed as sequences of "microtrips", which are intervals between consecutive vehicle stops. Overall significant parameters of the driving cycle, such as average speed, stops per mile, kinetic intensity, and others, are used as independent variables in the modeling process. Performing tests at all the necessary combinations of parameters is expensive and time consuming. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for building driving cycles at prescribed independent variable values using experimental data through the concatenation of "microtrips" isolated from a limited number of standard chassis dynamometer test cycles. The selection of the adequate "microtrips" is achieved through a customized evolutionary algorithm. The genetic representation uses microtrip definitions as genes. Specific mutation, crossover, and karyotype alteration operators have been defined. The Roulette-Wheel selection technique with elitist strategy drives the optimization process, which consists of minimizing the errors to desired overall cycle parameters. This utility is part of the Integrated Bus Information System developed at West Virginia University. PMID:22010377

Perhinschi, Mario G; Marlowe, Christopher; Tamayo, Sergio; Tu, Jun; Wayne, W Scott

2011-09-01

468

The Complementary Expendable Launch Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The final approval of the Complementary Expendable Launch Vehicle, now the Titan IV, was significant in that it represented a new national space launch policy and a resurgence of a robust U.S. expendable launch vehicle industry. Assured Access to Space and mixed fleet were now prime principles of national policy. The long path of correcting the previous national policy and the emergence and growth of the Titan IV, now the Department of Defense's primary heavy lift space launch vehicle, are traced.

Whitehead, Victor W.

1990-09-01

469

Effect of 50% human serum on the killing activity of micafungin against eight Candida species using time-kill methodology.  

PubMed

Micafungin activity was determined against 24 wild-type clinical isolates and 5 American Type Culture Collection strains belonging to 8 Candida species in RPMI-1640 with and without 50% serum using broth microdilution and time-kill methodology. MIC values increased from 4- to 128-folds in 50% serum for all Candida species. Micafungin was not fungicidal against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and against 2 of 3 C. metapsilosis at ?0.25, 1, and 1 ?g/mL, respectively, after 48 h with 50% serum, showing good fungistatic activity. Fungicidal activity at ?2, 4, and 32 ?g/mL was noticed against C. glabrata, C. inconspicua, and C. krusei isolates, respectively. Micafungin at 8-32 ?g/mL showed fungistatic activity against C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis. Serum decreased the in vitro activity of micafungin. With serum binding of echinocandins taken into account, safely fungistatic or fungicidal concentrations seem to require elevated doses against some Candida species, including C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. krusei. PMID:22726529

Földi, Richárd; Szilágyi, Judit; Kardos, Gábor; Berényi, Réka; Kovács, Renátó; Majoros, László

2012-06-20

470

Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: a study of fatally injured drivers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to find which drugs and drug combinations were most common in drivers who died, in particular, in single vehicle crashes where the responsibility for the crash would be referred to the driver killed. The study included all available blood samples from drivers, who died within 24h of the accident, in the years 2001 and 2002 in the five Nordic countries (total population about 24 million inhabitants). The samples were analysed for more than 200 different drugs in addition to alcohol, using a similar analytical programme and cut-off limits in all countries. In three countries (Finland, Norway and Sweden) blood samples were available for more than 70% of the drivers, allowing representative prevalence data to be collected. 60% of the drivers in single vehicle crashes had alcohol and/or drug in their blood samples, compared with 30% of drivers killed in collisions with other vehicles. In single vehicle accidents, 66% of the drivers under 30 years of age had alcohol and/or drugs in their blood (alcohol only - 40%; drugs only - 12%; alcohol and drugs - 14%). The drugs found were mostly illicit drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs with warning labels (in 57% and 58% respectively of the drivers under 30 with drugs present). Similar findings were obtained for drivers 30-49 years of age (63% with alcohol and/or drugs). In drivers aged 50 years and above, killed in single vehicle crashes (48% with alcohol and/or drugs) illicit drugs were found in only one case, and psychoactive medicinal drugs were detected less frequently than in younger age groups. In 75% of single vehicle crashes, the driver was under 50 years. Thus, the majority of accidents where the drivers must be considered responsible, occurred with drivers who had recently used alcohol, or drugs, alone or in combination. The drugs involved were often illicit and/or psychoactive drugs with warning labels. Therefore a large proportion of single vehicle accidents appear to be preventable, if more effective measures against driving after intake of alcohol and drugs can be implemented. PMID:21819819

Mørland, Jørg; Steentoft, Anni; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Ojanperä, Ilkka; Vuori, Erkki; Magnusdottir, Kristin; Kristinsson, Jakob; Ceder, Gunnel; Kronstrand, Robert; Christophersen, Asbjørg

2011-05-28

471

Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

None

1984-06-01

472

Structural basis for benzothiazinone-mediated killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

BTZ043, a tuberculosis drug candidate with nanomolar whole-cell activity, targets the DprE1 enzyme of the essential decaprenylphosphoryl-?-D-ribofuranose-2?-epimerase thus blocking biosynthesis of arabinans, vital cell-wall components of mycobacteria. Crystal structures of DprE1, in its native form and in complex with BTZ043, unambiguously reveal formation of a semimercaptal adduct between the drug and an active-site cysteine, as well as contacts to a neighbouring catalytic lysine residue. Kinetic studies confirm BTZ043 as a mechanism-based, covalent inhibitor. This explains the exquisite potency of BTZ043, which, when fluorescently labelled, localizes DprE1 at the poles of growing bacteria. Menaquinone can reoxidize the FAD cofactor in DprE1 and may be the natural electron acceptor for this reaction in the cell. Our structural and kinetic analysis provides both insight into a critical epimerization reaction and a platform for structure-based design of improved inhibitors. Surprisingly, given the colossal tuberculosis burden globally, BTZ043 is the only new drug candidate to have been co-crystallized with its target.

Neres, Joao; Pojer, Florence; Molteni, Elisabetta; Chiarelli, Laurent R.; Dhar, Neeraj; Boy-Rottger, Stefanie; Buroni, Silvia; Fullam, Elizabeth; Degiacomi, Giulia; Lucarelli, Anna Paola; Read, Randy J.; Zanoni, Giuseppe; Edmondson, Dale E.; De Rossi, Edda; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; McKinney, John D.; Dyson, Paul J.; Riccardi, Giovanna; Mattevi, Andrea; Cole, Stewart T.; Binda, Claudia

2013-01-01

473

Mack LNG vehicle development  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to install a production-ready, state-of-the-art engine control system on the Mack E7G natural gas engine to improve efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. In addition, the power rating was increased from 300 brake horsepower (bhp) to 325 bhp. The emissions targets were oxides of nitrogen plus nonmethane hydrocarbons of less than 2.5 g/bhp-hr and particulate matter of less than 0.05 g/bhp-hr on 99% methane. Vehicle durability and field testing were also conducted. Further development of this engine should include efficiency improvements and oxides of nitrogen reductions.

Southwest Research Institute

2000-01-05

474

Metformin-induced preferential killing of breast cancer initiating CD44+CD24?/low cells is sufficient to overcome primary resistance to trastuzumab in HER2+ human breast cancer xenografts  

PubMed Central

Trastuzumab-refractory breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) could explain the high rate of primary resistance to single-agent trastuzumab in HER2 gene-amplified breast cancer patients. The identification of agents with strong selective toxicity for trastuzumab-resistant breast CSCs may have tremendous relevance for how HER2+ breast cancer patients should be treated. Using the human breast cancer cell line JIMT-1, which was established from the pleural metastasis of a patient who was clinically resistant to trastuzumab ab initio, we examined whether preferential killing of the putative CD44+CD24 ?/low breast CSC population might be sufficient to overcome primary resistance to trastuzumab in vivo. Because recent studies have shown that the anti-diabetic biguanide metformin can exert antitumor effects by targeted killing of CSC-like cells, we explored whether metformin's ability to preferentially kill breast cancer initiating CD44+CD24 ?/low cells may have the potential to sensitize JIMT-1 xenograft mouse models to trastuzumab. Upon isolation for breast cancer initiating CD44+CD24 ?/low cells by employing magnetic activated cell sorting, we observed the kinetics of metformin-induced killing drastically varied among CSC and non-CSC subpopulations. Metformin's cell killing effect increased dramatically by more than 10-fold in CD44+CD24 ?/low breast CSC cells compared to non-CD44+CD24 ?/low immunophenotypes. While seven-weeks treatment length with trastuzumab likewise failed to reduce tumor growth of JIMT-1 xenografts, systemic treatment with metformin as single agent resulted in a significant two-fold reduction in tumor volume. When trastuzumab was combined with concurrent metformin, tumor volume decreased sharply by more than four-fold. Given that metformin-induced preferential killing of breast cancer initiating CD44+CD24 ?/low subpopulations is sufficient to overcome in vivo primary resistance to trastuzumab, the incorporation of metformin into trastuzumab-based regimens may provide a valuable strategy for treatment of HER2+ breast cancer patients.

Cufi, Silvia; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Dorca, Joan; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Martin-Castillo, Begona; Menendez, Javier A.

2012-01-01

475

Bus vehicle status analysis in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the current bus vehicle status in China, including vehicle age, bus company size, emissions standards, fuel type and bus vehicles' distribution of the country. The analysis results show that nearly one fifth vehicles are more than 8 years old; and generally the size of bus companies is small; and high emission vehicles account for a large proportion

Haozhi Zhang; Lihua Zhang; Rongxian Liu; Yulin Jiang

2011-01-01

476

Danger Estimation of Vehicles at Intersection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with dynamic vision, vehicle avoidance, navigation, and applications to guide dog robot and vehicle intelligent control system. Danger estimation of vehicles at the intersection is proposed in this paper. Traffic rules of vehicles and the locomotion strategy of robot is formulated, and finally a danger matrix is defined for each vehicle represented by its location and its

Hideo Mori; N. Moghaddam Charkari; Shinji Kotani

1995-01-01

477

GRAPH LAPLACIANS AND STABILIZATION OF VEHICLE FORMATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of vehicle formations has emerged as a topic of signiflcant interest to the controls community. In this paper, we merge tools from graph theory and control theory to derive stability criteria for vehicle formations. The interconnection between vehicles (i.e., which vehicles are sensed by other vehicles) is modeled as a graph, and the eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix of

J. Alexander Fa; Richard M. Murray

478

Development of a Generic Vehicle Modelling Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fleet wide vehicle crash research requires a wide range of numerical vehicle models to simulate the crash behaviour of a real life vehicle fleet in crashes. Representative simulations of a vehicle fleet may require 10,000 till 100,000 crash simulations. This requires relatively simple vehicle crash models in order to obtain acceptable CPU times, in the order of minutes. The current

Zweep van der CD; WJ Witteman; H Mooi

2006-01-01

479

Transition manoeuvres in intelligent vehicle highway systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the area of vehicle control in intelligent vehicle highway systems (IVHS) has primarily focussed on either purely longitudinal or purely lateral control of vehicles. This paper introduces transition manoeuvres in such systems. These include vehicle merge, split and lane change procedures. A combined longitudinal and lateral vehicle model has been developed to study this problem. The paper discusses

V. K. Narendran; J. K. Hedrick

1993-01-01

480

Preferential killing of p53-deficient cancer cells by reversine.  

PubMed

Reversine is a small synthetic molecule that inhibits multiple mitotic kinases, including MPS1 as well as Aurora kinase A and B (AURKA and AURKB). Here, we investigated the effects of reversine on p53-deficient vs p53-proficient cancer cells. We found that low doses (~0.5 µM) of reversine, which selectively inhibit MPS1 and hence impair the spindle assembly checkpoint, kill human TP53 (-/-) colon carcinoma cells less efficiently than their wild-type counterparts. In sharp contrast, high doses (~5 µM) of reversine induced hyperploidization and apoptosis to a much larger extent in TP53 (-/-) than in TP53 (+/+) cells. Such a selective cytotoxicity could not be reproduced by the knockdown of MPS1, AURKA and AURKB, neither alone nor in combination, suggesting that it involves multiple (rather than a few) molecular targets of reversine. Videomicroscopy-based cell fate profiling revealed that, in response to high-dose reversine, TP53 (-/-) (but not TP53 (+/+) ) cells undergo several consecutive rounds of abortive mitosis, resulting in the generation of hyperpolyploid cells that are prone to succumb to apoptosis upon the activation of mitotic catastrophe. In line with this notion, the depletion of anti-apoptotic proteins of the BCL-2 family sensitized TP53 (-/-) cells to the toxic effects of high-dose reversine. Moreover, the knockdown of BAX or APAF-1, as well as the chemical inhibition of caspases, limited the death of TP53 (-/-) cells in response to high-dose reversine. Altogether, these results suggest that p53-deficient cells are particularly sensitive to the simultaneous inhibition of multiple kinases, including MPS1, as it occurs in response to high-dose reversine. PMID:22592527

Jemaà, Mohamed; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Boilève, Alice; Lissa, Delphine; Senovilla, Laura; Harper, Francis; Pierron, Gérard; Berardinelli, Francesco; Antoccia, Antonio; Castedo, Maria; Vitale, Ilio; Kroemer, Guido

2012-06-01

481

Staphylococcus epidermidis Strategies to Avoid Killing by Human Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading nosocomial pathogen. In contrast to its more aggressive relative S. aureus, it causes chronic rather than acute infections. In highly virulent S. aureus, phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) contribute significantly to immune evasion and aggressive virulence by their strong ability to lyse human neutrophils. Members of the PSM family are also produced by S. epidermidis, but their role in immune evasion is not known. Notably, strong cytolytic capacity of S. epidermidis PSMs would be at odds with the notion that S. epidermidis is a less aggressive pathogen than S. aureus, prompting us to examine the biological activities of S. epidermidis PSMs. Surprisingly, we found that S. epidermidis has the capacity to produce PSM?, a potent leukocyte toxin, representing the first potent cytolysin to be identified in that pathogen. However, production of strongly cytolytic PSMs was low in S. epidermidis, explaining its low cytolytic potency. Interestingly, the different approaches of S. epidermidis and S. aureus to causing human disease are thus reflected by the adaptation of biological activities within one family of virulence determinants, the PSMs. Nevertheless, S. epidermidis has the capacity to evade neutrophil killing, a phenomenon we found is partly mediated by resistance mechanisms to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), including the protease SepA, which degrades AMPs, and the AMP sensor/resistance regulator, Aps (GraRS). These findings establish a significant function of SepA and Aps in S. epidermidis immune evasion and explain in part why S. epidermidis may evade elimination by innate host defense despite the lack of cytolytic toxin expression. Our study shows that the strategy of S. epidermidis to evade elimination by human neutrophils is characterized by a passive defense approach and provides molecular evidence to support the notion that S. epidermidis is a less aggressive pathogen than S. aureus.

Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; Rigby, Kevin; Wang, Rong; Queck, Shu Y.; Braughton, Kevin R.; Whitney, Adeline R.; Teintze, Martin; DeLeo, Frank R.; Otto, Michael

2010-01-01

482

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy to kill Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a new promising strategy to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms such as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The search for new approaches that can kill bacteria but do not induce the appearance of undesired drug-resistant strains suggests that PDT may have advantages over traditional antibiotic therapy. PDT is a non-thermal photochemical reaction that involves the simultaneous presence of visible light, oxygen and a dye or photosensitizer (PS). Several PS have been studied for their ability to bind to bacteria and efficiently generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon photo-stimulation. ROS are formed through type I or II mechanisms and may inactivate several classes of microbial cells including Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are typically characterized by an impermeable outer cell membrane that contains endotoxins and blocks antibiotics, dyes, and detergents, protecting the sensitive inner membrane and cell wall. This review covers significant peer-reviewed articles together with US and World patents that were filed within the past few years and that relate to the eradication of Gram-negative bacteria via PDI or PDT. It is organized mainly according to the nature of the PS involved and includes natural or synthetic food dyes; cationic dyes such as methylene blue and toluidine blue; tetrapyrrole derivatives such as phthalocyanines, chlorins, porphyrins, chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll derivatives; functionalized fullerenes; nanoparticles combined with different PS; other formulations designed to target PS to bacteria; photoactive materials and surfaces; conjugates between PS and polycationic polymers or antibodies; and permeabilizing agents such as EDTA, PMNP and CaCl?. The present review also covers the different laboratory animal models normally used to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections with antimicrobial PDT. PMID:23550545

Sperandio, Felipe F; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R

2013-08-01

483

Killing niche competitors by remote-control bacteriophage induction.  

PubMed

A surprising example of interspecies competition is the production by certain bacteria of hydrogen peroxide at concentrations that are lethal for others. A case in point is the displacement of Staphylococcus aureus by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx, which is of considerable clinical significance. How it is accomplished, however, has been a great mystery, because H(2)O(2) is a very well known disinfectant whose lethality is largely due to the production of hyperoxides through the abiological Fenton reaction. In this report, we have solved the mystery by showing that H(2)O(2) at the concentrations typically produced by pneumococci kills lysogenic but not nonlysogenic staphylococci by inducing the SOS response. The SOS response, a stress response to DNA damage, not only invokes DNA repair mechanisms but also induces resident prophages, and the resulting lysis is responsible for H(2)O(2) lethality. Because the vast majority of S. aureus strains are lysogenic, the production of H(2)O(2) is a very widely effective antistaphylococcal strategy. Pneumococci, however, which are also commonly lysogenic and undergo SOS induction in response to DNA-damaging agents such as mitomycin C, are not SOS-induced on exposure to H(2)O(2). This is apparently because they are resistant to the DNA-damaging effects of the Fenton reaction. The production of an SOS-inducing signal to activate prophages in neighboring organisms is thus a rather unique competitive strategy, which we suggest may be in widespread use for bacterial interference. However, this strategy has as a by-product the release of active phage, which can potentially spread mobile genetic elements carrying virulence genes. PMID:19141630

Selva, Laura; Viana, David; Regev-Yochay, Gili; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Corpa, Juan Manuel; Lasa, Iñigo; Novick, Richard P; Penadés, José R

2009-01-13

484

Precision and repeatability of the TRAKER vehicle-based paved road dust emission measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing re-entrained aerosol kinetic emissions from roads (TRAKER), a vehicle based measurement system, has been reported as an alternative to silt measurements for estimating PM10 paved road dust emissions. The precision of the TRAKER system was quantified with repeated measurements over the same roads. A prescribed driving route in Las Vegas, Nevada was traversed with the TRAKER on four consecutive

V. Etyemezian; H. Kuhns; G. Nikolich

2006-01-01

485

GOAT (goes over all terrain) vehicle: a scaleable robotic vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the potential applications of mobile robots require a small to medium sized vehicle that is capable of traversing large obstacles and rugged terrain. Search and rescue operations require a robot small enough to drive through doorways, yet capable enough to surmount rubble piles and stairs. This paper presents the GOAT (Goes Over All Terrain) vehicle, a medium scale

Michael G. Dodson; Stanley L. Owsley; Stewart J. Moorehead

2003-01-01

486

RAY-TRACING FOR VEHICLE-TO-VEHICLE COMMUNICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive model of the transmission channel between moving vehicles in realistic environments is pre- sented in this paper. The approach consists of tree major parts: the modelling of the road traffic, the modelling of the environment adjacent to the road and the actual modelling of the wave propagation between the vehicles. A ray-tracing approach is used for the wave

Jurgen Maurer; Werner Sorgel; Werner Wiesbeck

487

Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid Vehicle Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad ...

K. O. Leschly

1979-01-01

488

Serial Killing of Tumor Cells by Human Natural Killer Cells - Enhancement by Therapeutic Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Background Natural killer cells are an important component of the innate immune system. Anti-cancer therapies utilizing monoclonal antibodies also rely on the cytotoxicity of NK cells for their effectiveness. Here, we study the dynamics of NK cell cytotoxicity. Methodology/Principal Findings We observe that IL-2 activated human NK cells can serially hit multiple targets. Using functional assays, we demonstrate that on an average, a single IL-2 activated NK cell can kill four target cells. Data using live video microscopy suggest that an individual NK cell can make serial contacts with multiple targets and majority of contacts lead to lysis of target cells. Serial killing is associated with a loss of Perforin and Granzyme B content. A large majority of NK cells survive serial killing, and IL-2 can replenish their granular stock and restore the diminished cytotoxicity of ‘exhausted’ NK cells. IL-2 and IL-15 are equally effective in enhancing the killing frequency of resting NK cells. Significantly, Rituximab, a therapeutic monoclonal antibody increases the killing frequency of both resting and IL-2 activated NK cells. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that NK cell-based therapies for overcoming tumors rely on their serial killing ability. Therefore, strategies augmenting the killing ability of NK cells can boost the immune system and enhance the effectiveness of monoclonal antibody-based therapies.

Bhat, Rauf; Watzl, Carsten

2007-01-01