These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Captive flight testing of a kinetic kill vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental approach for the captive flight ground-testing of a prototypical exoatmospheric kinetic kill vehicle is described. The primary objective of these tests is to evaluate target tracking and intercept guidance control algorithms. Test hardware is described, including the vehicle, hyper-velocity target simulator and diagnostics systems. Initial test results are reported. This testing approach is applicable to endoatmospheric and exoatmospheric interceptor designs.

Worrell, R. H.; Summers, M. A.; Brugman, V. P.; Weaver, L. F.; Etter, J. R.; Patz, B. J.; Ruiz, Y. V.

2

Developments at the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) sponsored the development of the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the- Loop Simulator (KHILS) to provide a comprehensive ground test capability for end game performance evaluation of BMDO interceptor concepts. Since its inception in 1986, the KHILS facility has been on the forefront of HWIL test technology development. This development has culminated in closed-loop testing involving

Robert Lee Murrer; Rhoe A. Thompson; Charles F. Coker

1999-01-01

3

Duel between an ASAT with multiple-kill vehicles and a space-based weapons platform with kinetic-energy weapons. Final report, Oct 84Dec 85  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is described for a duel between a ground-based anti-satellite (ASAT) and a spaced-based weapons platform defending itself with kinetic energy weapons. The ASAT carries 1-6 kill vehicles and the space platform may first attack the ASAT booster with 1-3 defense missiles. If the ASAT kill vehicles collectively survive the boost phase, they are each subject to a

Cutchis

1986-01-01

4

Characteristics of Vehicle-Animal Crashes in Which Vehicle Occupants Are Killed  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 10 years almost 1,500 people have been killed in motor vehicle collisions with animals. Police reports on 147 fatal vehicle–animal crashes during 2000–2002 were obtained from nine states. The goal was to determine common crash types, types of animals involved, and steps that could be taken to reduce the crashes and injuries. Seventy-seven percent of the struck

Allan F. Williams; JoAnn K. Wells

2005-01-01

5

Quantitative analysis of resistance to natural killer attacks reveals stepwise killing kinetics.  

PubMed

Molecular mechanisms can protect cancer cells from immune attacks. At the level of bulk tissue, these survival mechanisms are often indistinguishable and simply appear as reduced cell death. However, by tracking individual cell survival and death times, we found broad variation in the kinetics of immune evasion. In response to attacks by natural killer cells, we observed that some cancer lines exhibited exponential survival time distributions. Slowly killed cancer lines had reduced exponential rate constants. In contrast, a line engineered to express the serpin protein PI-9, which is known to promote resistance to immune killing, exhibited a markedly nonexponential survival time distribution. By following the histories of individual cancer cells with multiplexed reporters, we obtained evidence that two or more immune attacks are likely required to kill serpin-expressing cells. Thus, resistance is a finite and measurable quantity, with a distinct kinetic signature. A quantitative model based on independently measured parameters is consistent with our conclusions. PMID:25228316

Choi, Paul J; Mitchison, Timothy J

2014-12-18

6

Two-Lesion Kinetic Model of Double-Strand Break Rejoining and Cell Killing  

SciTech Connect

To better link biochemical processing of the DSB to cell killing, a two-lesion kinetic (TLK) model is proposed. In the TLK model, the family of all possible DSBs is sub-divided into simple and complex DSBs, and each kind of DSB may have its own repair characteristics. A unique aspect of the TLK model is that break-ends associated with both kinds of DSB are allowed to interact in pairwise fashion to form irreversible lethal and non-lethal damages. To test the performance of the TLK model, non-linear optimization methods are used to calibrate the model based on CHO cell survival data for an extensive set of single-dose and split-dose exposure conditions. Then, some of the postulated mechanisms of action are tested by comparing measured and predicted estimates of the initial DSB yield and the rate of DSB rejoining. TLK model predictions of CHO survival and the initial DSB yield and rejoining rate are all shown to be in good agreement with the measured data. Studies suggest a yield of about 25 DSB Gy-1 cell-1. About 20 DSB Gy-1 cell-1 are rejoined quickly (15-minute repair half-time), and 4 to 6 DSB Gy-1 cell-1 are rejoined very slowly (10 to 15 hour repair half-time). Both the slow- and fast-rejoining DSBs make a substantial contribution to the radiation killing of CHO cells. Although the TLK model provides a much more satisfactory formalism to relate biochemical processing of the DSB to cell killing than earlier kinetic models, some small differences among the measured and predicted CHO survival and DSB rejoining data suggest that additional factors and processes not considered in the present work may affect biochemical processing of the DSB and, hence, cell killing.

Stewart, Robert D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2000-11-01

7

Studies on the kinetics of killing and the proposed mechanism of action of microemulsions against fungi.  

PubMed

Microemulsions are physically stable oil/water clear dispersions, spontaneously formed and thermodynamically stable. They are composed in most cases of water, oil, surfactant and cosurfactant. Microemulsions are stable, self-preserving antimicrobial agents in their own right. The observed levels of antimicrobial activity associated with microemulsions may be due to the direct effect of the microemulsions themselves on the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. The aim of this work is to study the growth behaviour of different microbes in presence of certain prepared physically stable microemulsion formulae over extended periods of time. An experiment was designed to study the kinetics of killing of a microemulsion preparation (17.3% Tween-80, 8.5% n-pentanol, 5% isopropyl myristate and 69.2% sterile distilled water) against selected test microorganisms (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Rhodotorula spp.). Secondly, an experiment was designed to study the effects of the microemulsion preparation on the cytoplasmic membrane structure and function of selected fungal species by observation of 260 nm component leakage. Finally, the effects of the microemulsion on the fungal membrane structure and function using S. pombe were studied using transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the prepared microemulsions are stable, effective antimicrobial systems with effective killing rates against C. albicans, A. niger, S. pombe and Rhodotorula spp. The results indicate a proposed mechanism of action of significant anti-membrane activity, resulting in the gross disturbance and dysfunction of the cytoplasmic membrane structure which is followed by cell wall modifications, cytoplasmic coagulation, disruption of intracellular metabolism and cell death. PMID:23830945

Al-Adham, Ibrahim S I; Ashour, Hana; Al-Kaissi, Elham; Khalil, Enam; Kierans, Martin; Collier, Phillip J

2013-09-15

8

Antibody Fc engineering improves frequency and promotes kinetic boosting of serial killing mediated by NK cells.  

PubMed

The efficacy of most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting tumor antigens results primarily from their ability to elicit potent cytotoxicity through effector-mediated functions. We have engineered the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) mAb, HuM195, targeting the leukemic antigen CD33, by introducing the triple mutation Ser293Asp/Ala330Leu/Ile332Glu (DLE), and developed Time-lapse Imaging Microscopy in Nanowell Grids to analyze antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity kinetics of thousands of individual natural killer (NK) cells and mAb-coated target cells. We demonstrate that the DLE-HuM195 antibody increases both the quality and the quantity of NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity by endowing more NK cells to participate in cytotoxicity via accrued CD16-mediated signaling and by increasing serial killing of target cells. NK cells encountering targets coated with DLE-HuM195 induce rapid target cell apoptosis by promoting simultaneous conjugates to multiple target cells and induce apoptosis in twice the number of target cells within the same period as the wild-type mAb. Enhanced target killing was also associated with increased frequency of NK cells undergoing apoptosis, but this effect was donor-dependent. Antibody-based therapies targeting tumor antigens will benefit from a better understanding of cell-mediated tumor elimination, and our work opens further opportunities for the therapeutic targeting of CD33 in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:25232058

Romain, Gabrielle; Senyukov, Vladimir; Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Merouane, Amine; Kelton, William; Liadi, Ivan; Mahendra, Ankit; Charab, Wissam; Georgiou, George; Roysam, Badrinath; Lee, Dean A; Varadarajan, Navin

2014-11-20

9

From the Kinetic Energy Recovery System to the Thermo-Hydraulic Hybrid Motor Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents some theoretical and experimental results obtained by the Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute INOE 2000-IHP with its partners, regarding the creating of one hydraulic system able to recovering the kinetic energy of the motor vehicles, in the braking phases, and use this recovered energy in the starting and accelerating phases. Also, in the article is presented a testing stand, which was especially designed for testing the hydraulic system for recovery the kinetic energy. Through mounting of the kinetic energy recovering hydraulic system, on one motor vehicle, this vehicle became a thermo-hydraulic hybrid vehicle. Therefore, the dynamic behavior was analyzed for the whole hybrid motor vehicle, which includes the energy recovery system. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the possible performances of the hybrid vehicle and that the kinetic energy recovery hydraulic systems are good means to increase energy efficiency of the road motor vehicles and to decrease of the fuel consumption.

Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Guta, Dragos; Dumitrescu, Catalin

2011-12-01

10

Killing Kinetics of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific CD8 T Cells: Implications for HIV Vaccine Strategies1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the magnitude and function of vaccine-induced HIV-specific CD8 CTLs are likely to be important in the outcome of infection. We hypothesized that rapid cytolysis by CTLs may facilitate control of viral challenge. Release kinetics of the cytolytic effector molecules granzyme B and perforin, as well as the expression of the degranulation marker CD107a and IFN- were simultaneously studied in

Erik Rollman; Miranda Z. Smith; Andrew G. Brooks; Damian F. J. Purcell; Bartek Zuber; Ian A. Ramshaw; Stephen J. Kent

11

Killing Begets Killing: Evidence From a Bug-Killing Paradigm That Initial Killing Fuels Subsequent Killing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Killing appears to perpetuate itself even in the absence of retaliation. This phenomenon may occur in part as a means to justify prior killing and so ease the threat of prior killing. Additionally, this effect should arise particularly when a killer perceives similarity to the victims, because similarity should exacerbate threat from killing. To examine these ideas we developed a

Andy Martens; Spee Kosloff; Jeff Greenberg; M. J. Landau; T. Schmader

2007-01-01

12

Vehicle-Dependent Disposition Kinetics of Fluoranthene in Fisher-344 Rats  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate how the vehicles of choice affect the pharmacokinetics of orally administered Fluoranthene [FLA] in rats. Fluoranthene is a member of the family of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon chemicals. Fluoranthene exposure to humans may occur as a result of cigarette smoking, consumption of contaminated food and water, heating woods in stoves and boilers, industrial sources such as coal gasification, carbon and graphite electrode manufacturing. Adult male Fisher-344 rats were given single oral doses of 25 and 50 ?g/kg FLA in tricaprylin, peanut oil, cod liver oil, tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5) and 2% Alkamuls-EL620 through gavage. After administration, the rats were housed individually in metabolic cages and sacrificed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours post FLA exposure. Blood, lung, liver, small intestine, adipose tissue samples, urine, and feces were collected at each time point. Samples were subjected to a liquid-liquid extraction using methanol, chloroform, and water. The extracts were analyzed by a reverse-phase HPLC, equipped with a fluorescence detector. The results revealed a dose-dependent increase in FLA concentrations in plasma and tissues for all the vehicles used. Plasma and tissue FLA concentrations were greater for peanut oil; cod liver oil, and tricaprylin vehicles compared to Alkamuls (p < 0.05), and tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5). Most of the FLA administered through peanut oil, cod liver oil and tricaprylin was cleared from the body by 8 hours (90%) and 12 hours (80%) post administration for the 25 ?g/kg and 50 ?g/kg dose groups, respectively. With both doses employed, the metabolism of FLA was highest when cod liver oil was used as a vehicle and lowest in vehicles containing detergent/water [cod liver oil > peanut oil > tricaprylin > alkamuls > tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5)]. These findings suggest that uptake and elimination of FLA is accelerated when administered through oil-based vehicles. The low uptake of FLA from alkamuls and tween 80/isotonic saline may have been a result of the poor solubility of the chemical. In summary, our findings reiterate that absorption characteristics of FLA were governed by the dose as well as the dosing vehicle. The vehicle-dependent bioavailability of FLA suggests a need for the judicious selection of vehicles in evaluating oral toxicity studies for risk assessment purposes. PMID:18441404

Harris, Deacqunita L.; Hood, Darryl B.; Ramesh, Aramandla

2008-01-01

13

Vehicle-dependent disposition kinetics of fluoranthene in Fisher-344 rats.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate how the vehicles of choice affect the pharmacokinetics of orally administered Fluoranthene [FLA] in rats. Fluoranthene is a member of the family of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon chemicals. Fluoranthene exposure to humans may occur as a result of cigarette smoking, consumption of contaminated food and water, heating woods in stoves and boilers, industrial sources such as coal gasification, carbon and graphite electrode manufacturing. Adult male Fisher-344 rats were given single oral doses of 25 and 50 microg/kg FLA in tricaprylin, peanut oil, cod liver oil, Tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5) and 2% Alkamuls-EL620 through gavage. After administration, the rats were housed individually in metabolic cages and sacrificed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours post FLA exposure. Blood, lung, liver, small intestine, adipose tissue samples, urine, and feces were collected at each time point. Samples were subjected to a liquid-liquid extraction using methanol, chloroform, and water. The extracts were analyzed by a reverse-phase HPLC, equipped with a fluorescence detector. The results revealed a dose-dependent increase in FLA concentrations in plasma and tissues for all the vehicles used. Plasma and tissue FLA concentrations were greater for peanut oil; cod liver oil, and tricaprylin vehicles compared to Alkamuls (p < 0.05), and Tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5). Most of the FLA administered through peanut oil, cod liver oil and tricaprylin was cleared from the body by 8 hours (90%) and 12 hours (80%) post administration for the 25 microg/kg and 50 microg/kg dose groups, respectively. With both doses employed, the metabolism of FLA was highest when cod liver oil was used as a vehicle and lowest in vehicles containing detergent/water [cod liver oil > peanut oil > tricaprylin > alkamuls > Tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5)]. These findings suggest that uptake and elimination of FLA is accelerated when administered through oil-based vehicles. The low uptake of FLA from Alkamuls and Tween 80/isotonic saline may have been a result of the poor solubility of the chemical. In summary, our findings reiterate that absorption characteristics of FLA were governed by the dose as well as the dosing vehicle. The vehicle-dependent bioavailability of FLA suggests a need for the judicious selection of vehicles in evaluating oral toxicity studies for risk assessment purposes. PMID:18441404

Harris, Deacqunita L; Hood, Darry B; Ramesh, Aramandla

2008-03-01

14

Ion-kill dosimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

2001-01-01

15

Killing Spinor Identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found generic Killing spinor identities which bosonic equations of motion have to satisfy in supersymmetric theories if the solutions admit Killing spinors. Those identities constrain possible quantum corrections to bosonic solutions with unbroken supersymmetries. As an application we show that purely electric static extreme dilaton black holes may acquire specific quantum corrections, but the purely magnetic ones cannot.

Renata Kallosh; Tomas Ortin

1993-01-01

16

Killing Spinor Identities  

E-print Network

We have found generic Killing spinor identities which bosonic equations of motion have to satisfy in supersymmetric theories if the solutions admit Killing spinors. Those identities constrain possible quantum corrections to bosonic solutions with unbroken supersymmetries. As an application we show that purely electric static extreme dilaton black holes may acquire specific quantum corrections, but the purely magnetic ones cannot.

Renata Kallosh; Tomas Ortin

1993-06-18

17

BB Guns Can Kill  

MedlinePLUS

... Kill BB guns can kill a person. High-velocity BB guns, which have muzzle velocities higher than 350 feet per second, can increase ... do not realize that BB guns, especially high-velocity guns, can cause death. Therefore the CPSC warns ...

18

Homogeneous Killing spinor spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A classification of Petrov-type D Killing spinor spacetimes admitting a homogeneous conformal representant is presented. For each class a canonical line element is constructed and a physical interpretation of its conformal members is discussed.

Van den Bergh, N.

2011-12-01

19

HOW NEUTROPHILS KILL MICROBES  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Neutrophils provide the first line of defense of the innate immune,sys- tem by phagocytosing, killing, and digesting bacteria and fungi. Killing was previously believed to be accomplished,by oxygen,free radicals and other reactive oxygen,species generated by the NADPH oxidase, and by oxidized halides produced by myeloperoxi- dase. We now,know,this is incorrect. The oxidase pumps,electrons into the phagocytic vacuole, thereby

Anthony W. Segal

2005-01-01

20

Instantons and Killing spinors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate instantons on manifolds with Killing spinors and their cones. Examples of manifolds with Killing spinors include nearly Kaehler 6-manifolds, nearly parallel G_2-manifolds in dimension 7, Sasaki-Einstein manifolds, and 3-Sasakian manifolds. We construct a connection on the tangent bundle over these manifolds which solves the instanton equation, and also show that the instanton equation implies the Yang-Mills equation, despite

Derek Harland; Christoph Nölle

2011-01-01

21

Extrinsic Killing spinors  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Under intrinsic and extrinsic curvature assumptions on a Riemannian spin manifold and its boundary, we show that there is\\u000a an isomorphism between the restriction to the boundary of parallel spinors and extrinsic Killing spinors of non-negative Killing constant. As a corollary, we prove that a complete Ricci-flat spin manifold with mean-convex boundary\\u000a isometric to a round sphere, is necessarily a

Oussama Hijazi; Sebastián Montiel

2003-01-01

22

Killing spinors are Killing vector fields in Riemannian Supergeometry  

E-print Network

Killing spinors are Killing vector fields in Riemannian Supergeometry with even part G0 ~=Spin(k, l); (k, l) the signature of (M0, g0). Killing vector fields o* *n (M, g s there exists a corresponding odd vector field Xs on M. Our * *main result is that Xs is a Killing vector

Cortés, Vicente

23

Killing spinors on Kähler manifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper Kählerian Killing spinors are defined and their basic properties are investigated. Each Kähler manifold that admits a Kählerian Killing spinor is Einstein of odd complex dimension. Kählerian Killing spinors are a special kind of Kählerian twistor spinors. Real Kählerian Killing spinors appear for example, on closed Kähler manifolds with the smallest possible first eigenvalue of the Dirac

Klaus-Dieter Kirchberg

1993-01-01

24

Skew Killing spinors  

E-print Network

In this paper, we study the existence of a skew Killing spinor (see the definition below) on 2 and 3-dimensional Riemannian spin manifolds. We establish the integrability conditions and prove that these spinor fields correspond to twistor spinors in the two dimensional case while, up to a conformal change of the metric, they correspond to parallel spinors in the three dimensional case.

Habib, Georges

2011-01-01

25

Skew Killing spinors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the existence of a skew Killing spinor (see the definition below) on 2 and 3-dimensional Riemannian spin manifolds. We establish the integrability conditions and prove that these spinor fields correspond to twistor spinors in the two dimensional case while, up to a conformal change of the metric, they correspond to parallel spinors in the three

Georges Habib; Julien Roth

2011-01-01

26

Killing In Good Conscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent article, Cass Sunstein and Adrian Vermeule argue that capital punishment is morally required if it will deter more killings than it inflicts. They claim that the state’s duty is to minimize murders, and that recent deterrence research shows that state executions, even if deemed murders themselves, can do so. If these findings are true, they argue, the

Eric Blumenson

2006-01-01

27

Instantons and Killing spinors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate instantons on manifolds with Killing spinors and their cones. Examples of manifolds with Killing spinors include nearly Kähler 6-manifolds, nearly parallel G 2-manifolds in dimension 7, Sasaki-Einstein manifolds, and 3-Sasakian manifolds. We construct a connection on the tangent bundle over these manifolds which solves the instanton equation, and also show that the instanton equation implies the Yang-Mills equation, despite the presence of torsion. We then construct instantons on the cones over these manifolds, and lift them to solutions of heterotic supergravity. Amongst our solutions are new instantons on even-dimensional Euclidean spaces, as well as the well-known BPST, quaternionic and octonionic instantons.

Harland, Derek; Nölle, Christoph

2012-03-01

28

The Fish Kill Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case study, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process, they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities, and learn about the complex life cycle of the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria. The case is appropriate for an introductory environmental science course, a general biology course that covers ecology, or a general zoology course.

Kosal, Erica F.

2003-01-01

29

Symplectic Killing spinors Svatopluk Krysl  

E-print Network

Symplectic Killing spinors Svatopluk Kr´ysl Charles University, Sokolovsk´a 83, Praha 8, Czech Killing spinor fields for this structure are sections of the symplectic spinor bundle satisfying a certain a necessary condition satisfied by a symplectic Killing spinor field. The advantage of this condition consists

Krysl, Svatopluk

30

Skew Killing spinors Georges Habib  

E-print Network

Skew Killing spinors Georges Habib , Julien Roth Abstract In this paper, we study the existence of a skew Killing spinor (see the definition below) on 2 and 3-dimensional Riemannian spin manifolds. We constructions (see [4, 6] for results in this topic). A -Killing spinor is a smooth section of the spinor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

31

Killing, letting die and euthanasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing

D N Husak

1979-01-01

32

Killing spinors on spheres and hyperbolic manifolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properties of Killing spinors on spheres and hyperbolic manifolds are investigated with an emphasis on the relations to Killing vectors, conformal Killing vectors, and solutions of Maxwell's equations.

Fujii, Yasunori; Yamagishi, Kengo

1986-04-01

33

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Kills Caenorhabditis elegans by Cyanide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a transposon insertion mutation in a gene encoding a subunit of hydrogen cyanide synthase (hcnC) eliminated nematode killing. Second, the 17 avirulent mutants examined all exhibited reduced cyanide synthesis, and the residual production levels correlated with killing efficiency. Third, exposure to exogenous cyanide alone at levels comparable to the level produced by PAO1 killed nematodes with kinetics similar to those observed with bacteria. The killing was not enhanced if hcnC mutant bacteria were present during cyanide exposure. And fourth, a nematode mutant (egl-9) resistant to P. aeruginosa was also resistant to killing by exogenous cyanide in the absence of bacteria. A model for nematode killing based on inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase is presented. The action of cyanide helps account for the unusually broad host range of virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis in opportunistic human infections due to the bacterium. PMID:11591663

Gallagher, Larry A.; Manoil, Colin

2001-01-01

34

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 kills Caenorhabditis elegans by cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a transposon insertion mutation in a gene encoding a subunit of hydrogen cyanide synthase (hcnC) eliminated nematode killing. Second, the 17 avirulent mutants examined all exhibited reduced cyanide synthesis, and the residual production levels correlated with killing efficiency. Third, exposure to exogenous cyanide alone at levels comparable to the level produced by PAO1 killed nematodes with kinetics similar to those observed with bacteria. The killing was not enhanced if hcnC mutant bacteria were present during cyanide exposure. And fourth, a nematode mutant (egl-9) resistant to P. aeruginosa was also resistant to killing by exogenous cyanide in the absence of bacteria. A model for nematode killing based on inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase is presented. The action of cyanide helps account for the unusually broad host range of virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis in opportunistic human infections due to the bacterium. PMID:11591663

Gallagher, L A; Manoil, C

2001-11-01

35

Hypervelocity impact flash for missile-defense kill assessment and engagement analysis : experiments on Z  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kill assessment continues to be a major problem for the nation's missile defense program. A potential approach for addressing this issue involves spectral and temporal analysis of the short-time impact flash that occurs when a kill vehicle intercepts and engages a target missile. This can provide identification of the materials involved in the impact event, which will, in turn, yield

Thornhill; Tom Finley; William Dodd Reinhart; Raymond Jeffery Jr. Lawrence; Lalit Chandra Chhabildas; Daniel P. Kelly

2005-01-01

36

Killing spinors on Lorentzian manifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to describe some results concerning the geometry of Lorentzian manifolds admitting Killing spinors. We prove that there are imaginary Killing spinors on simply connected Lorentzian Einstein–Sasaki manifolds. In the Riemannian case, an odd-dimensional complete simply connected manifold (of dimension n?7) is Einstein–Sasaki if and only if it admits a non-trivial Killing spinor to ?=±12.

Christoph Bohle

2003-01-01

37

Killing spinor initial data sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3+1 decomposition of the twistor and valence-2 Killing spinor equation is made using the space-spinor formalism. Conditions on initial data sets for the Einstein vacuum equations are given so that their developments contain solutions to the twistor and\\/or Killing equations. These lead to the notions of twistor and Killing spinor initial data. These notions are used to obtain a

Alfonso García-Parrado Gómez-Lobo; Juan A. Valiente Kroon

2008-01-01

38

Killing spinor initial data sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3+1 decomposition of the twistor and valence-2 Killing spinor equation is made using the space spinor formalism. Conditions on initial data sets for the Einstein vacuum equations are given so that their developments contain solutions to the twistor and\\/or Killing equations. These lead to the notions of twistor and Killing spinor initial data. These notions are used to obtain

Juan A. Valiente Kroon

39

Killing spinor initial data sets  

E-print Network

A 3+1 decomposition of the twistor and valence-2 Killing spinor equation is made using the space spinor formalism. Conditions on initial data sets for the Einstein vacuum equations are given so that their developments contain solutions to the twistor and/or Killing equations. These lead to the notions of twistor and Killing spinor initial data. These notions are used to obtain a characterisation of initial data sets whose development are of Petrov type N or D.

Alfonso García-Parrado Gómez-Lobo; Juan A. Valiente Kroon

2007-12-20

40

Killing spinors on Lorentzian manifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to describe some results concerning the geometry of Lorentzian manifolds admitting Killing spinors. We prove that there are imaginary Killing spinors on simply connected Lorentzian Einstein-Sasaki manifolds. In the Riemannian case, an odd-dimensional complete simply connected manifold (of dimension n ≠ 7) is Einstein-Sasaki if and only if it admits a non-trivial Killing

C. Bohle

1999-01-01

41

Killing Spinors -- Beyond Supergravity  

E-print Network

This is a doctoral thesis on the application of techniques originally developed in the programme of characterisation of supersymmetric solutions to Supergravity theories, to finding alternative backgrounds. We start by discussing the concept of a Killing spinor, and how these are paramount to the process of classifying of these aforementioned supersymmetric solutions. Moreover, these geometric objects also have applications when considered in different scenarios (the 'beyond' in the title). In particular, techniques based on a parallelising rule for a spinorial field can be used for obtaining solutions to Einstein-Maxwell-De Sitter theories, as well as a (partial) classification of Lorentzian Einstein-Weyl manifolds, a problem of geometrical interest. The annexe contain an introduction and summary in Spanish language. The appendices discuss the tensorial and spinorial conventions employed, some relevant geometrical information on the scalar manifolds for the matter contents of interest, as well as for the nul...

Palomo-Lozano, Alberto

2012-01-01

42

Mathematical model for comparison of time-killing curves.  

PubMed Central

The relevance of mathematical modeling to investigations of the bactericidal effects of antimicrobial agents has been emphasized in many studies of killing kinetics. We propose here a descriptive model of general use, with four parameters which account for the lag phase, the initial number of bacteria, and the limit of effectiveness and bactericidal rate of antimicrobial agents. The model has been applied to several kinetic datum sets with amoxicillin, cephalothin, nalidixic acid, pefloxacin, and ofloxacin against two Escherichia coli strains. It is a useful tool to compare killing curves by taking into account model parameter confidence limits. This can be illustrated by studying drug effects, strain effects, and concentration effects. For the antibiotics used here, concentration effects had an influence mainly on the length of the lag phase and the minimum number of living cells observed. It is therefore clear that differences in the killing curves with changes in one or more parameters could occur. PMID:8215284

Guerillot, F; Carret, G; Flandrois, J P

1993-01-01

43

Conflict theory and police killings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been considerable interest in the homicide of law enforcement officers, there has been little systematic analysis of the effects of structural variables on police killings across macro social units. Recently, Peterson and Bailey (1988) have examined the macro social determinants of police killings within a theoretical context and concluded that social conditons which bring civilians and law

Mitchell B. Chamlin

1989-01-01

44

How electroshock weapons kill!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

Lundquist, Marjorie

2010-03-01

45

Killing spinors are Killing vector fields in Riemannian Supergeometry  

E-print Network

A supermanifold M is canonically associated to any pseudo Riemannian spin manifold (M_0,g_0). Extending the metric g_0 to a field g of bilinear forms g(p) on T_p M, p\\in M_0, the pseudo Riemannian supergeometry of (M,g) is formulated as G-structure on M, where G is a supergroup with even part G_0\\cong Spin(k,l); (k,l) the signature of (M_0,g_0). Killing vector fields on (M,g) are, by definition, infinitesimal automorphisms of this G-structure. For every spinor field s there exists a corresponding odd vector field X_s on M. Our main result is that X_s is a Killing vector field on (M,g) if and only if s is a twistor spinor. In particular, any Killing spinor s defines a Killing vector field X_s.

D. V. Alekseevsky; V. Cortés; C. Devchand; U. Semmelmann

1997-04-02

46

Killing spinors are Killing vector fields in Riemannian supergeometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A supermanifold M is canonically associated to any pseudo-Riemannian spin manifold ( M0, g0). Extending the metric g0 to a field g of bilinear forms g( p) on TpM, p?M0, the pseudo-Riemannian supergeometry of ( M, g) is formulated as G-structure on M, where G is a supergroup with even part G 0 ? Spin(k, l); (k, l) the signature of ( M0, go). Killing vector fields on ( M, g) are, by definition, infinitesimal automorphisms of this G-structure. For every spinor field s there exists a corresponding odd vector field Xs on M. Our main result is that Xs is a Killing vector field on ( M, g) if and only if s is a twistor spinor. In particular, any Killing spinor s defines a Killing vector field Xs.

Alekseevsky, D. V.; Cortés, V.; Devchand, C.; Semmelmann, U.

1998-06-01

47

Curiosity Killed the App  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students gain experience with the software/system design process, closely related to the engineering design process, to solve a problem. First, they learn about the Mars Curiosity rover and its mission, including the difficulties that engineers must consider and overcome to operate a rover remotely. Students observe a simulation of a robot being controlled remotely. These experiences guide discussion on how the design process is applied in these scenarios. The lesson culminates in a hands-on experience with the design process as students simulate the remote control of a rover. In the associated activity, students gain further experience with the design process by creating an Android application using App Inventor to control one aspect of a remotely controlled vehicle. (Note: The lesson requires a LEGO® MINDSTORMS® Education NXT base set.)

IMPART RET Program, College of Information Science & Technology,

48

Killing spinors on spheres and hyperbolic manifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of Killing spinors on spheres and hyperbolic manifolds are investigated with an emphasis on the relations to Killing vectors, conformal Killing vectors, and solutions of Maxwell’s equations.

Yasunori Fujii; Kengo Yamagishi

1986-01-01

49

Optimal planning and control for hazard avoidance of front-wheel steered ground vehicles  

E-print Network

Hazard avoidance is an important capability for safe operation of robotic vehicles at high speed. It is also an important consideration for passenger vehicle safety, as thousands are killed each year in passenger vehicle ...

Peters, Steven C. (Steven Conrad)

2012-01-01

50

Real Killing spinors and holonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a description of all complete simply connected Riemannian manifolds carrying real Killing spinors. Furthermore, we present a construction method for manifolds with the exceptional holonomy groupsG2 and Spin(7).

Christian Bär

1993-01-01

51

Killing spinors and gravitational perturbations  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that in a vacuum space-time, possibly with a nonzero cosmological constant, which admits a D(1,0) Killing spinor, one component of the perturbed Weyl spinor that satisfies a decoupled equation, when multiplied by an appropriate factor made out of the components of the Killing spinor, constitutes a Debye potential that generates metric perturbations of the considered background. It

G. F. Torres del Castillo

1986-01-01

52

Timelike Killing spinors in seven dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ the G-structure formalism to study supersymmetric solutions of minimal and SU(2) gauged supergravities in seven dimensions admitting Killing spinors with associated timelike Killing vector. The most general such Killing spinor defines an SU(3) structure. We deduce necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a timelike Killing spinor on the bosonic fields of the theories, and find that

Marco Cariglia

2004-01-01

53

ccsd00002799, KILLING FORMS ON SYMMETRIC SPACES  

E-print Network

de#12;nitions of Killing vector #12;elds on Riemannian manifolds. A vector #12;eld X is Killing AND UWE SEMMELMANN Proposition 1.2. A symmetric space admitting real Killing spinors is locally confor carry Killing spinors is locally irreducible (cf. [3]) and using the squaring construction one can

54

Killing spinors and gravitational perturbations  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that in a vacuum space-time, possibly with a nonzero cosmological constant, which admits a D(1,0) Killing spinor, one component of the perturbed Weyl spinor that satisfies a decoupled equation, when multiplied by an appropriate factor made out of the components of the Killing spinor, constitutes a Debye potential that generates metric perturbations of the considered background. It is also shown that in the case where the background is of type N, there is an operation that relates the gravitational perturbations and the zero-rest-mass fields of spin-0, - 1/2 , and -1.

Torres del Castillo, G.F.

1986-06-01

55

dg-ga/9704002 Killing spinors are Killing vector fields in  

E-print Network

dg-ga/9704002 MPI 97-29 Killing spinors are Killing vector fields in Riemannian Supergeometry D spinor. In particular, any Killing spinor s defines a Killing vector field Xs. 1 Introduction); (k, l) the signature of (M0, g0). Killing vector fields on (M, g) are, by definition, infinitesimal

Semmelmann, Uwe

56

Farm Education at Stony Kill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes typical winter farm lessons for students visiting Stony Kill Farm Environmental Education Center located 70 miles north of New York City: butter and corncake making, soil erosion experiments, dissecting and growing seeds. Emphasizes major theme of conservation of farmland from destructive farming practices and careless development. (NEC)

Parisio, Richard

1986-01-01

57

Euthanasia: Killing as Due Care?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary On 10 April 2001, the Netherlands was the first country to pass a law on the killing of patients at their request (euthanasia), which took effect on 1 April 2002. Belgium followed and passed a euthanasia law on 16 May 2002, which took effect on 23 September 2002 and is even more liberal than the Dutch one. Physicians will

Fuat S. Oduncu

2003-01-01

58

The influence of body-size and diet on road-kill trends in mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roads negatively impact animals in a variety of ways. One of the most obvious impacts is vehicle-induced mortality. We have\\u000a little understanding of the patterns and rates of road mortality for mammals. The aims of this study were to determine representative\\u000a road-kill rates for local mammal species, compare road-kill rates between mammals of different sizes and diets, and compare\\u000a patterns

Erika L. BarthelmessMargot; Margot S. Brooks

2010-01-01

59

Killing spinors are killing vector fields in Riemannian supergeometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supermanifold M is canonically associated to any pseudo-Riemannian spin manifold (M0, g0). Extending the metric g0 to a field g of bilinear forms g(p) on TpM, p?M0, the pseudo-Riemannian supergeometry of (M, g) is formulated as G-structure on M, where G is a supergroup with even part G0 ? Spin(k, l); (k, l) the signature of (M0, go). Killing

D. V. Alekseevsky; V. Cortés; C. Devchand; U. Semmelmann

1998-01-01

60

Azithromycin Kills Invasive Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Gingival Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans invades periodontal pocket epithelium and is therefore difficult to eliminate by periodontal scaling and root planing. It is susceptible to azithromycin, which is taken up by many types of mammalian cells. This led us to hypothesize that azithromycin accumulation by gingival epithelium could enhance the killing of intraepithelial A. actinomycetemcomitans. [3H]azithromycin transport by Smulow-Glickman gingival epithelial cells and SCC-25 oral epithelial cells was characterized. To test our hypothesis, we infected cultured Smulow-Glickman cell monolayers with A. actinomycetemcomitans (Y4 or SUNY 465 strain) for 2 h, treated them with gentamicin to eliminate extracellular bacteria, and then incubated them with azithromycin for 1 to 4 h. Viable intracellular bacteria were released, plated, and enumerated. Azithromycin transport by both cell lines exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics and was competitively inhibited by l-carnitine and several other organic cations. Cell incubation in medium containing 5 ?g/ml azithromycin yielded steady-state intracellular concentrations of 144 ?g/ml in SCC-25 cells and 118 ?g/ml in Smulow-Glickman cells. Azithromycin induced dose- and time-dependent intraepithelial killing of both A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. Treatment of infected Smulow-Glickman cells with 0.125 ?g/ml azithromycin killed approximately 29% of the intraepithelial CFU of both strains within 4 h, while treatment with 8 ?g/ml azithromycin killed ?82% of the CFU of both strains (P < 0.05). Addition of carnitine inhibited the killing of intracellular bacteria by azithromycin (P < 0.05). Thus, human gingival epithelial cells actively accumulate azithromycin through a transport system that facilitates the killing of intraepithelial A. actinomycetemcomitans and is shared with organic cations. PMID:23274657

Lai, Pin-Chuang

2013-01-01

61

Beetle Kill Wall at NREL  

ScienceCinema

When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

None

2013-05-29

62

Parallel and Killing Spinors on Spinc Manifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe all simply connected Spinc manifolds carrying parallel and real Killing spinors. In particular we show that every Sasakian manifold (not necessarily Einstein) carries a canonical Spinc structure with Killing spinors.

Andrei Moroianu

1996-01-01

63

Killing in Okaraygua: An Inspector Irronogaray Mystery  

E-print Network

1 Citation: Levine, Stuart. (2012) Killing in Okaraygua: An Inspector Irronogaray Mystery [Kindle Edition]. Amazon Digital Services, Amazon.com. Published version: http://www.amazon.com/Killing-Okaraygua-Inspector-Irronogaray- ebook...

Levine, Stuart

2012-09-05

64

Integrability conditions for Killing spinors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conditions for the existence of solutions ofDµ?=±c?µ? are discussed. In general, it is not sufficient to consider only the first integrability condition [Dµ,Dv]?=-2c2?{µv}?; in particular, the second integrability condition is needed to explain why, in certain cases, only for one choice of sign does a solution exist. The Killing spinor-tensors, as defined by Walker and Penrose, are shown to

P. van Nieuwenhuizen; N. P. Warner

1984-01-01

65

The Management of Police Killings  

Microsoft Academic Search

lmost four yeArs Ago in the first issue of Crime and Social Justice, tAkAgi? (?974)?presentedananalysisofpolicekillingsofciviliansandofpolice? officers killed in the line of duty in the United States. He examined the deaths of male civilians over 10 years old caused by police intervention during a 10-year period and noted the dramatic increase of civilian deaths (especially blacks) caused by the police between

Sid Harring; Tony Platt; Richard Speiglman; Paul Takagi

66

Women who kill their mates.  

PubMed

Spousal homicide perpetrators are much more likely to be men than women. Accordingly, little research has focused on delineating characteristics of women who have committed spousal homicide. A retrospective clinical review of coroners' files containing all cases of spousal homicide occurring in Quebec over a 20-year period was carried out. A total of 276 spousal homicides occurred between 1991 and 2010, with 42 homicides by female spouses and 234 homicides by male spouses. Differences between homicides committed by female offenders and male offenders are discussed, and findings on spousal homicide committed by women are compared with those of previous studies. Findings regarding offenses perpetrated by females in the context of mental illness, domestic violence, and homicide-suicide are explored. The finding that only 28% of the female offenders in the Quebec sample had previously been subjected to violence by their victim is in contrast to the popular belief and reports that indicate that most female-perpetrated spousal homicide occurs in self-defense or in reaction to long-term abuse. In fact, women rarely gave a warning before killing their mates. Most did not suffer from a mental illness, although one-fifth were acutely intoxicated at the time of the killing. In the vast majority of cases of women who killed their mates, there were very few indicators that might have signaled the risk and helped predict the violent lethal behavior. PMID:23015414

Bourget, Dominique; Gagné, Pierre

2012-01-01

67

The geometry of D = 11 Killing spinors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a way to classify all supersymmetric configurations of D=11 supergravity using the G-structures defined by the Killing spinors. We show that the most general bosonic geometries admitting a Killing spinor have at least a local SU(5) or an (Spin(7)l × R8) × R structure, depending on whether the Killing vector constructed from the Killing spinor is timelike or

Jerome P. Gauntlett; Stathis Pakis

2003-01-01

68

KILLING SPINORS ON LORENTZIAN MANIFOLDS CHRISTOPH BOHLE  

E-print Network

and Killing vector #12;elds in the semi{Riemannian supergeometry canonically associated to a semi{ RiemannianKILLING SPINORS ON LORENTZIAN MANIFOLDS CHRISTOPH BOHLE Abstract. The aim of this paper is to describe some results concerning the geometry of Lorentzian manifolds admitting Killing spinors. We prove

69

Some basic properties of Killing spinors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of Killing spinor is analyzed in a general way by using the spinorial formalism. It is shown, among other things, that higher derivatives of Killing spinors can be expressed in terms of lower order derivatives. Conformal Killing vectors are studied in some detail in the light of spinorial analysis: Classical results are formulated in terms of spinors. A

Shahen Hacyan; Jerzy Plebanski

1976-01-01

70

Imaginary Kahlerian Killing spinors I Nicolas Ginoux  

E-print Network

Imaginary K¨ahlerian Killing spinors I Nicolas Ginoux and Uwe Semmelmann February 19, 2012 Abstract-trivial imaginary K¨ahlerian Killing spinors. 1 Introduction Let (M2n , g, J) a K¨ahler manifold of real dimension 2¨ahler manifold and C. A pair (, ) of sections of M is called an -K¨ahlerian Killing spinor if and only

Semmelmann, Uwe

71

EXTRINSIC KILLING SPINORS OUSSAMA HIJAZI AND SEBASTI  

E-print Network

EXTRINSIC KILLING SPINORS OUSSAMA HIJAZI AND SEBASTI #19; AN MONTIEL Abstract. Under intrinsic that there is an isomorphism between the restriction to the boundary of parallel spinors and extrinsic Killing spinors of non-dimensional Riemannian spin manifold Q, real Killing spinors could be characterized as being eigenspinor #12;elds

Henri Poincaré -Nancy-Université, Université

72

The CIA and Targeted Killings Beyond Borders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article focuses on the accountability of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in relation to targeted killings, under both United States law and international law. As the CIA, often in conjunction with Department of Defense (DOD) Special Operations forces, becomes more and more deeply involved in carrying out extraterritorial targeted killings both through kill\\/capture missions and drone-based missile strikes in

Philip Alston

2011-01-01

73

Killing the Police: Myths and Motives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the situational motives of assailants who kill New York City police in the line of duty. Contrary to popular opinion, police are not often killed during domestic disturbances nor are they the seemingly senseless victims of madmen or lunatics. Rather, New York police are more likely to be killed by rational robbers fleeing the scene of a

Mona Margarita

1980-01-01

74

Did Vertigo Kill America's Forgotten Astronaut?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On November 15, 1967, U.S. Air Force test pilot Major Michael J. Adams was killed while flying the X-15 rocket-propelled research vehicle in a parabolic spaceflight profile. This flight was part of a joint effort with NASA. An electrical short in one of the experiments aboard the vehicle caused electrical transients, resulting in excessive workload by the pilot. At altitude Major Adams inappropriately initiated a flat spin that led to a series of unusual aircraft attitudes upon atmospheric re-entry, ultimately causing structural failure of the airframe. Major Adams was known to experience vertigo (i.e. spatial disorientation) while flying the X-15, but all X-15 pilots most likely experienced vertigo (i.e. somatogravic, or "Pitch-Up", illusion) as a normal physiologic response to the accelerative forces involved. Major Adams probably experienced vertigo to a greater degree than did others, since prior aeromedical testing for astronaut selection at Brooks AFB revealed that he had an unusually high degree of labyrinthine sensitivity. Subsequent analysis reveals that after engine burnout, and through the zenith of the flight profile, he likely experienced the oculoagravic ("Elevator") illusion. Nonetheless, painstaking investigation after the mishap revealed that spatial disorientation (Type II, Recognized) was NOT the cause, but rather, a contributing factor. The cause was in fact the misinterpretation of a dual-use flight instrument (i.e. Loss of Mode Awareness), resulting in confusion between yaw and roll indications, with subsequent flight control input that was inappropriate. Because of the altitude achieved on this flight, Major Adams was awarded Astronaut wings posthumously. Understanding the potential for spatial disorientation, particularly the oculoagravic illusion, associated with parabolic spaceflight profiles, and understanding the importance of maintaining mode awareness in the context of automated cockpit design, are two lessons that have direct application to the commercial space industry today.

Bendrick, Gregg A.; Merlin, Peter W.

2007-01-01

75

Killing spinors are Killing vector fields in Riemannian Supergeometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supermanifold M is canonically associated to any pseudo Riemannian spin manifold (M_0,g_0). Extending the metric g_0 to a field g of bilinear forms g(p) on T_p M, p\\\\in M_0, the pseudo Riemannian supergeometry of (M,g) is formulated as G-structure on M, where G is a supergroup with even part G_0\\\\cong Spin(k,l); (k,l) the signature of (M_0,g_0). Killing vector fields

D. V. Alekseevsky; V. Cortés; C. Devchand; U. Semmelmann

1997-01-01

76

A construction of Killing spinors on Sn  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive simple general expressions for the explicit Killing spinors on the n-sphere, for arbitrary n. Using these results we also construct the Killing spinors on various AdS×Sphere supergravity backgrounds, including AdS5×S5, AdS4×S7, and AdS7×S4. In addition, we extend previous results to obtain the Killing spinors on the hyperbolic spaces Hn.

H. Lü; C. N. Pope; J. Rahmfeld

1999-01-01

77

Timelike Killing spinors in seven dimensions  

E-print Network

We employ the G-structure formalism to study supersymmetric solutions of minimal and SU(2) gauged supergravities in seven dimensions admitting Killing spinors with associated timelike Killing vector. The most general such Killing spinor defines an SU(3) structure. We deduce necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a timelike Killing spinor on the bosonic fields of the theories, and find that such configurations generically preserve one out of sixteen supersymmetries. Using our general supersymmetric ansatz we obtain numerous new solutions, including squashed or deformed AdS solutions of the gauged theory, and a large class of Godel-like solutions with closed timelike curves.

Marco Cariglia; Oisin A. P. Mac Conamhna

2004-07-14

78

Timelike Killing spinors in seven dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ the G-structure formalism to study supersymmetric solutions of minimal and SU(2) gauged supergravities in seven dimensions admitting Killing spinors with an associated timelike Killing vector. The most general such Killing spinor defines a SU(3) structure. We deduce necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a timelike Killing spinor on the bosonic fields of the theories, and find that such configurations generically preserve one out of 16 supersymmetries. Using our general supersymmetric ansatz we obtain numerous new solutions, including squashed or deformed anti-de Sitter solutions of the gauged theory, and a large class of Gödel-like solutions with closed timelike curves.

Cariglia, Marco; Conamhna, Oisín A.

2004-12-01

79

Timelike Killing spinors in seven dimensions  

SciTech Connect

We employ the G-structure formalism to study supersymmetric solutions of minimal and SU(2) gauged supergravities in seven dimensions admitting Killing spinors with an associated timelike Killing vector. The most general such Killing spinor defines a SU(3) structure. We deduce necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a timelike Killing spinor on the bosonic fields of the theories, and find that such configurations generically preserve one out of 16 supersymmetries. Using our general supersymmetric ansatz we obtain numerous new solutions, including squashed or deformed anti-de Sitter solutions of the gauged theory, and a large class of Goedel-like solutions with closed timelike curves.

Cariglia, Marco; Conamhna, Oisin A.P. Mac [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

2004-12-15

80

The killing consensus : homicide detectives, police that kill and organized crime in São Paulo, Brazil  

E-print Network

Policing is widely understood, empirically and theoretically, as a core function of the state. Much of the knowledge presumes that police are the only body that may kill and arbitrate killing, routinely and without retaliation ...

Willis, Graham Arthur Neill, 1979-

2013-01-01

81

Killing vectors in plane HH spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing the spinorial approach to the structure of hyperheavens, we integrate completely the Killing vector equations for plane (case I) hyperheavens, reducing them to one master equation of an extremely plausible form. (In this process, optimally simple gauges are demonstrated for each Petrov type.) The mechanism of generating Ernst potentials by Killing vectors is then investigated, and explicit forms are

J. D. Finley; J. F. Pleban´ski

1978-01-01

82

Hypersurface homogeneous Killing spinor space-times  

E-print Network

I present a complete list of hypersurface homogeneous space-times admitting a non-null valence two Killing spinor, including a new class admitting only exceptional Killing tensors. A connection is established with the classification of locally rotationally symmetric or boost symmetric space-times.

Bergh, Norbert Van den

2014-01-01

83

Deformations of M-theory Killing superalgebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We classify the Lie superalgebra deformations of the Killing superalgebras of some M-theory backgrounds. We show that the Killing superalgebras of the Minkowski, Freund Rubin and M5-brane backgrounds are rigid, whereas the ones for the M-wave, the Kaluza Klein monopole and the M2-brane admit deformations, which we give explicitly.

Figueroa-O'Farrill, José

2007-10-01

84

Hypersurface homogeneous Killing spinor space-times  

E-print Network

I present a complete list of hypersurface homogeneous space-times admitting a non-null valence two Killing spinor, including a new class admitting only exceptional Killing tensors. A connection is established with the classification of locally rotationally symmetric or boost symmetric space-times.

Norbert Van den Bergh

2014-08-19

85

Pulpability of Beetle-Killed Spruce  

E-print Network

the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood canPulpability of Beetle-Killed Spruce United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest- rated wood required the same or slightly less refining energy to achieve a certain level of freeness

Abubakr, Said

86

CONFORMAL KILLING SPINORS AND THE HOLONOMY PROBLEM IN LORENTZIAN GEOMETRY  

E-print Network

. Conformal Killing spinors give rise to conformal Killing vector fields and conformal Killing formsCONFORMAL KILLING SPINORS AND THE HOLONOMY PROBLEM IN LORENTZIAN GEOMETRY ­ A SURVEY OF NEW RESULTS ­ HELGA BAUM Abstract. This paper is a survey of recent results about conformal Killing spinors

Baum, Helga

87

CONFORMAL KILLING SPINORS AND THE HOLONOMY PROBLEM IN LORENTZIAN GEOMETRY  

E-print Network

. Conformal Killing spinors give rise to conformal Killing vector fields and conformal Killing formsCONFORMAL KILLING SPINORS AND THE HOLONOMY PROBLEM IN LORENTZIAN GEOMETRY -- A SURVEY OF NEW RESULTS -- HELGA BAUM # Abstract. This paper is a survey of recent results about conformal Killing spinors

Baum, Helga

88

GENERALIZED KILLING SPINORS ON SPHERES ANDREI MOROIANU, UWE SEMMELMANN  

E-print Network

GENERALIZED KILLING SPINORS ON SPHERES ANDREI MOROIANU, UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. We study generalized Killing spinors on round spheres Sn . We show that on the standard sphere S8 any generalized Killing spinor has to be an ordinary Killing spinor. Moreover we classify generalized Killing spinors

Semmelmann, Uwe

89

Peeling the onion: an heuristic overview of hit-to-kill missile defense in the 21st century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers engaged in the development of infrared detector technologies may well benefit from a broader understanding of their products from the perspective of the end-user. An appreciation of how this technology is to be used by system designers, many of whom possess only a rudimentary understanding of quantum physics, is highly germane. Answers to questions like: "What device technology will be employed," "How will the device be used?" and "What are the impacts on signal-to-noise?" are of critical importance. In this paper, some of the fundamentals of hit-to-kill missile defense technology are examined in a largely non-mathematical context. From its "Star Wars" inception during the Reagan administration, to today"s Missile Defense Agency, the core requirement of missile defense has not changed - find the threat and destroy it before it reaches its destination. This fundamental requirement, while conceptually straightforward, is extraordinarily difficult to satisfy, and is almost exclusively dependent on our ability to detect and designate a relatively small, very fast-moving, room-temperature object, at great distances, and usually in a severe environment of shock and vibration further clouded by error and uncertainty. With an obvious bias toward passive IR detection and associated focal plane array characteristics, the flight of a fictitious interceptor is followed from launch to impact. At various points along the interceptor"s trajectory, a "peel the onion" approach is utilized to expose increasingly detailed layers of behavior, including the eventual release of the kinetic kill vehicle, and its autonomous flight to a body-to-body impact with its target. Various sources of error and their impact on the success of the mission are examined, and an overall understanding of the key features of the infrared seeker and its critical role in missile defense are ultimately developed.

LaCroix, Len; Kurzius, Shelby

2005-03-01

90

Gauge theories on sphere and Killing vectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a general method for studying manifestly O( n+1) covariant formulation of p-form gauge theories by stereographically projecting these theories, defined in flat Euclidean space, onto the surface of a hypersphere. The gauge fields in the two descriptions are mapped by conformal Killing vectors while conformal Killing spinors are necessary for the matter fields, allowing for a very transparent analysis and compact presentation of results. General expressions for these Killing vectors and spinors are given. The familiar results for a vector gauge theory are reproduced.

Banerjee, Rabin

2004-05-01

91

The soft-kill fallacy  

SciTech Connect

Dozens of non-lethal weapons have been proposed or developed, mostly in laboratory-scale models. They encompass a broad range of technologies, including chemical, biological, kinetic, electromagnetic, and accoustic weapons, as well as informational techniques such as computer viruses. `Non-lethal weapons disable or destroy without causing significant injury or damage,` asserted Undersecretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz in a March 1991 memorandum. The idea of `non-lethal` weapons is politically attractive and purposively misleading. Some of these `non-lethal` weapons may violate treaties. Four international treaties are particularly relevant and discussed in some detail. A list of weapons of this nature is also provided. But basic political, legal and strategic questions about the utility of the non-lethal thrust remains unanswered and sometimes unasked. 15 refs.

Aftergood, S.

1994-09-01

92

Activity of Telithromycin (HMR 3647) against Anaerobic Bacteria Compared to Those of Eight Other Agents by Time-Kill Methodology†  

PubMed Central

Time-kill studies examined the activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647), erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and metronidazole against 11 gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Time-kill studies were carried out with the addition of Oxyrase in order to prevent the introduction of CO2. Macrolide-azalide-ketolide MICs were 0.004 to 32.0 ?g/ml. Of the latter group, telithromycin had the lowest MICs, especially against non-Bacteroides fragilis group strains, followed by azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, and roxithromycin. Clindamycin was active (MIC ? 2.0 ?g/ml) against all anaerobes except Peptostreptococcus magnus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, while pristinamycin MICs were 0.06 to 4.0 ?g/ml. Amoxicillin-clavulanate had MICs of ?1.0 ?g/ml, while metronidazole was active (MICs, 0.03 to 2.0 ?g/ml) against all except Propionibacterium acnes. After 48 h at twice the MIC, telithromycin was bactericidal (?99.9% killing) against 6 strains, with 99% killing of 9 strains and 90% killing of 10 strains. After 24 h at twice the MIC, 90, 99, and 99.9% killing of nine, six, and three strains, respectively, occurred. Lower rates of killing were seen at earlier times. Similar kill kinetics relative to the MIC were seen with other macrolides. After 48 h at the MIC, clindamycin was bactericidal against 8 strains, with 99 and 90% killing of 9 and 10 strains, respectively. After 24 h, 90% killing of 10 strains occurred at the MIC. The kinetics of clindamycin were similar to those of pristinamycin. After 48 h at the MIC, amoxicillin-clavulanate showed 99.9% killing of seven strains, with 99% killing of eight strains and 90% killing of nine strains. At four times the MIC, metronidazole was bactericidal against 8 of 10 strains tested after 48 h and against all 10 strains after 24 h; after 12 h, 99% killing of all 10 strains occurred. PMID:10428930

Credito, Kim L.; Ednie, Lois M.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

1999-01-01

93

Activity of telithromycin (HMR 3647) against anaerobic bacteria compared to those of eight other agents by time-kill methodology.  

PubMed

Time-kill studies examined the activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647), erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and metronidazole against 11 gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Time-kill studies were carried out with the addition of Oxyrase in order to prevent the introduction of CO(2). Macrolide-azalide-ketolide MICs were 0.004 to 32.0 microg/ml. Of the latter group, telithromycin had the lowest MICs, especially against non-Bacteroides fragilis group strains, followed by azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, and roxithromycin. Clindamycin was active (MIC /=99.9% killing) against 6 strains, with 99% killing of 9 strains and 90% killing of 10 strains. After 24 h at twice the MIC, 90, 99, and 99.9% killing of nine, six, and three strains, respectively, occurred. Lower rates of killing were seen at earlier times. Similar kill kinetics relative to the MIC were seen with other macrolides. After 48 h at the MIC, clindamycin was bactericidal against 8 strains, with 99 and 90% killing of 9 and 10 strains, respectively. After 24 h, 90% killing of 10 strains occurred at the MIC. The kinetics of clindamycin were similar to those of pristinamycin. After 48 h at the MIC, amoxicillin-clavulanate showed 99.9% killing of seven strains, with 99% killing of eight strains and 90% killing of nine strains. At four times the MIC, metronidazole was bactericidal against 8 of 10 strains tested after 48 h and against all 10 strains after 24 h; after 12 h, 99% killing of all 10 strains occurred. PMID:10428930

Credito, K L; Ednie, L M; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

1999-08-01

94

Killing Initial Data on spacelike conformal boundaries  

E-print Network

We analyze Killing Initial Data on Cauchy surfaces in conformally rescaled vacuum space-times satisfying Friedrich's conformal field equations. As an application, we derive the KID equations on a spacelike $\\mathcal{J}^-$.

Tim-Torben Paetz

2014-03-11

95

The Geometry of D=11 Killing Spinors  

E-print Network

We propose a way to classify all supersymmetric configurations of D=11 supergravity using the G-structures defined by the Killing spinors. We show that the most general bosonic geometries admitting a Killing spinor have at least a local SU(5) or an (Spin(7)\\ltimes R^8)x R structure, depending on whether the Killing vector constructed from the Killing spinor is timelike or null, respectively. In the former case we determine what kind of local SU(5) structure is present and show that almost all of the form of the geometry is determined by the structure. We also deduce what further conditions must be imposed in order that the equations of motion are satisfied. We illustrate the formalism with some known solutions and also present some new solutions including a rotating generalisation of the resolved membrane solutions and generalisations of the recently constructed D=11 Godel solution.

Jerome P. Gauntlett; Stathis Pakis

2002-12-02

96

The geometry of D = 11 Killing spinors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a way to classify all supersymmetric configurations of D=11 supergravity using the G-structures defined by the Killing spinors. We show that the most general bosonic geometries admitting a Killing spinor have at least a local SU(5) or an (Spin(7)l × R8) × R structure, depending on whether the Killing vector constructed from the Killing spinor is timelike or null, respectively. In the former case we determine what kind of local SU(5) structure is present and show that almost all of the form of the geometry is determined by the structure. We also deduce what further conditions must be imposed in order that the equations of motion are satisfied. We illustrate the formalism with some known solutions and also present some new solutions including a rotating generalisation of the resolved membrane solutions and generalisations of the recently constructed D=11 Godel solution.

Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Pakis, Stathis

2003-04-01

97

Homogeneous Killing spinor space-times  

E-print Network

A classification of Petrov type D Killing spinor space-times admitting a homogeneous conformal representant is presented. For each class a canonical line-element is constructed and a physical interpretation of its conformal members is discussed.

Norbert Van den Bergh

2011-08-11

98

Killing spinors, supersymmetries and rotating intersecting branes  

Microsoft Academic Search

I review a recently proposed method for determining the symmetry superalgebra\\u000aof a supergravity configuration from its Killing spinors, and its application\\u000ato the `near-horizon' limits of various rotating and intersecting branes.

P. K. Townsend

1999-01-01

99

TWISTOR AND KILLING SPINORS IN LORENTZIAN GEOMETRY  

E-print Network

SPINORS IN LORENTZIAN GEOMETRY par. _ This paper is a survey about recent results concerning twistor and Killing spinors on Lorentzian. After some basic facts about twistor spinors we explain a relation between Lorentzian twist* *or

Baum, Helga

100

Spinor methods in conformal Killing transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equations of conformal Killing transport are discussed using tensor and spinor methods. It is shown that, in Minkowski space-time, the equations for a null conformal Killing vector ?a are completely determined by the corresponding spinor ?A and its covariant derivative, which defines a spinor pA'. In conformally flat space-time, the covariant derivative of pA' is also involved. Some applications

Kenza Dighton; Guildford County

1975-01-01

101

Gauge theories on sphere and Killing vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a general method for studying manifestly O(n+1) covariant formulation of p-form gauge theories by stereographically projecting these theories, defined in flat Euclidean space, onto the surface of a hypersphere. The gauge fields in the two descriptions are mapped by conformal Killing vectors while conformal Killing spinors are necessary for the matter fields, allowing for a very transparent analysis

Rabin Banerjee

2004-01-01

102

Killing Spinor Equations from Nonlinear Realisations  

E-print Network

Starting from a nonlinear realisation of eleven dimensional supergravity based on the group G11, whose generators appear as low level generators of E11, we present a super extended algebra, which leads to a covariant derivative of spinors identical to the Killing spinor equation of this theory. A similar construction leads to the Killing spinor equation of N=1 pure supergravity in ten dimensions.

Andre Miemiec; Igor Schnakenburg

2004-04-26

103

Killing spinor equations from nonlinear realisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting from a nonlinear realisation of eleven-dimensional supergravity based on the group G11, whose generators appear as low level generators of E11, we present a super extended algebra, which leads to a covariant derivative of spinors identical to the Killing spinor equation of this theory. A similar construction leads to the Killing spinor equation of N=1 pure supergravity in ten

André Miemiec; Igor Schnakenburg

2004-01-01

104

Killing spinors for the bosonic string  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain the effective action for the bosonic string with arbitrary Yang-Mills fields, up to the ?' order, in general dimensions. The form of the action is determined by the requirement that the action admit well-defined Killing spinor equations, whose projected integrability conditions give rise to the full set of equations of motion. The success of the construction suggests that the hidden "pseudo-supersymmetry" associated with the Killing spinor equations may be a property of the bosonic string itself.

Lü, H.; Wang, Zhao-Long

2012-03-01

105

Dangerously antisocial youths who kill their parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent parricide offenders are typically presented in the popular and professional literature as prosocial youths in fear\\u000a of their lives, often killing to protect themselves or others from death or serious physical injury or to end the chronic\\u000a abuse they and other family members suffer. There are, however, dangerously antisocial youths who kill their parents for selfish,\\u000a instrumental reasons.\\u000a \\u000a The

Kathleen M. Heide

1995-01-01

106

Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

Bloomfield, Aaron P.

2009-01-01

107

Practical vehicle rollover avoidance control using energy method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel rollover prevention control algorithm is developed for application on vehicles with a high centre of gravity. The developed algorithm can be implemented on any vehicle equipped with an electronic stability program with or without an extra roll rate sensor. The vehicle rollover index is defined from the vehicle lateral kinetic energy and the new concept

Seibum B. Choi

2008-01-01

108

Wildlife road-kills on three major roads in north-eastern New South Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although vehicle-induced mortality of wildlife is well known on roads throughout Australia, few empirical studies describe the extent of this mortality or assess the potential effects on wildlife populations. We recorded 529 roadkills of 53 vertebrate species along a 100-km circuit of three major roads during 20 weekly surveys across winter, spring and summer. This equates to 0.3 road-kills km-1

Brendan D. TaylorA; Ross L. GoldingayA

109

Pathologic findings in rabies-suspect, random-source, and accidentally killed skunks.  

PubMed

To evaluate sampling biases, pathologic findings in accidentally killed skunks (ie, killed by motor vehicles) were compared with those in random-source skunks (live-trapped and euthanatized, or trap-killed during research) and skunks submitted to a public health laboratory as rabies-suspect. Presence or absence of microscopic lesions in the brain, kidneys, liver, and lungs were used to test the null hypothesis that prevalence of disease did not differ by source of collection. Brain lesions differed with the source; rabid and nonrabid skunks submitted to a public health laboratory had higher prevalences of lesions than did other skunks. Kidney, liver, and lung lesions did not differ among skunks by source of collection. Liver and lung lesions were attributed mainly to parasitism, were not severe, and did not cause debilitated condition. Lesions were seen more often in the kidneys than in other tissues. Usually, lesions were mild to severe, focal, chronic, nonsuppurative, interstitial nephritis (possibly a consequence of leptospirosis). Six of 177 skunks necropsied appeared cachectic. Aleutian disease was diagnosed in one skunk and histoplasmosis was diagnosed in another, but rabies and canine distemper virus infection were the only diseases found with the potential to cause the high population mortality. Public health surveillance cases were biased toward diseased animals (rabies and canine distemper virus infection), but random-source or accidentally killed animals provided unbiased data. Although other factors must be considered, accidentally killed skunks provided cost-effective and useful data for the evaluation of enzootic rabies. PMID:3505935

Woolf, A; Gremillion-Smith, C

1986-11-01

110

Proteasomes Control Caspase-1 Activation in Anthrax Lethal Toxin-mediated Cell Killing*S  

E-print Network

Proteasomes Control Caspase-1 Activation in Anthrax Lethal Toxin-mediated Cell Killing*S Received York 10461 Activation of caspase-1 through the inflammasome protein Nalp1b controls anthrax lethal evidence of membrane impairment recovered upon the addition of MG132, mirroring the Boc-D-cmk response

Brojatsch, Jürgen

111

A real-time killing assay to follow viral epitope presentation to CD8 T cells.  

PubMed

The ability of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) to clear virus-infected cells requires the presentation of viral peptides intracellularly processed and displayed by major histocompatibility complex class I. Assays to measure CTL-mediated killing often use peptides exogenously added onto target cells--which does not account for epitope processing--or follow killing of infected cells at a single time point. In this study we established a real-time fluorogenic cytotoxic assay that measures the release of the Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase by dying target cells every 5 min after addition of CTL. It has comparable sensitivity to (51)chromium-based killing assay with the additional advantage of incorporating the kinetics of epitope presentation. We showed that HIV infection of immortalized or primary CD4 T cells leads to asynchronous killing by two CTL clones specific for epitopes located in different proteins. Real-time monitoring of killing of virus-infected cells will enable identification of immune responses efficiently preventing virus dissemination. PMID:24060536

Gourdain, Pauline; Boucau, Julie; Kourjian, Georgio; Lai, Nicole Y; Duong, Ellen; Le Gall, Sylvie

2013-12-15

112

Activities and Time-Kill Studies of Selected Penicillins, ?-Lactamase Inhibitor Combinations, and Glycopeptides against Enterococcus faecalis  

PubMed Central

The activities of piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ticarcillin, ticarcillin-clavulanate, ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, vancomycin, and teicoplanin were tested against 212 Enterococcus faecalis strains (9 ?-lactamase producers) by standard agar dilution MIC testing (104 CFU/spot). The MICs at which 50 and 90% of the isolates were inhibited (MIC50s and MIC90s, respectively) were as follows (?g/ml): piperacillin, 4 and 8; piperacillin-tazobactam, 4 and 8; ticarcillin, 64 and 128; ticarcillin-clavulanate, 64 and 128; ampicillin, 2 and 2; ampicillin-sulbactam, 1 and 2; vancomycin, 1 and 4; and teicoplanin, 0.5 and 1. Agar dilution MIC testing of the nine ?-lactamase-positive strains with an inoculum of 106 CFU/spot revealed higher ?-lactam MICs (piperacillin, 64 to >256 ?g/ml; ticarcillin, 128 to >256 ?g/ml; and ampicillin, 16 to 128 ?g/ml); however, MICs with the addition of inhibitors were similar to those obtained with the lower inoculum. Time-kill studies of 15 strains showed that piperacillin-tazobactam was bactericidal (99.9% killing) for 14 strains after 24 h at four times the MIC, with 90% killing of all 15 strains at two times the MIC. After 12 and 6 h, 90% killing of 14 and 13 strains, respectively, was found at two times the MIC. Ampicillin gave 99.9% killing of 14 ?-lactamase-negative strains after 24 h at eight times the MIC, with 90% killing of all 15 strains at two times the MIC. After 12 and 6 h, 90% killing of 14 and 13 strains, respectively, was found at two times the MIC. Killing by ticarcillin-clavulanate was slower than that observed for piperacillin-tazobactam, relative to the MIC. For the one ?-lactamase-producing strain tested by time-kill analysis with a higher inoculum, addition of the three inhibitors (including sulbactam) to each of the ?-lactams resulted in bactericidal activity at 24 h at two times the MIC. For an enzyme-negative strain, addition of inhibitors did not influence kinetics. Kinetics of vancomycin and teicoplanin were significantly slower than those of the ?-lactams, with bactericidal activity against 6 strains after 24 h at eight times the MIC, with 90% killing of 12 and 14 strains, respectively, at four times the MIC. Slower-kill kinetics by both glycopeptides were observed at earlier periods. PMID:9559796

Hoellman, Dianne B.; Visalli, Melissa A.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

1998-01-01

113

Integration without integration: New Killing spinor spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-conformally flat spacetimes admitting a non-null two-index Killing spinor are investigated by means of the Geroch-Held-Penrose formalism. Claims appearing in the literature that such spacetimes are all explicitly known are incorrect. This was shown in [5] for the family where, in the canonical frame, the spin coefficients ? or ?, vanish. Here the general case with non-vanishing ?, ?, ? and ? is re-considered. It is shown that the construction in [4] hinges on the tacit assumption that certain integrability conditions hold, implying two algebraic relations for the spin coefficients and the components of the Ricci spinor. All (conformal classes of) spacetimes, in which one of these conditions is violated, are obtained by invariant integration. The resulting classes are each other's Sachs transform and are characterised by one free function. They admit in general no Killing vectors, but still admit a conformal gauge (different from the trivial unitary gauge) in which a Killing tensor exists.

Van den Bergh, Norbert

2010-05-01

114

Conformal Killing vectors in nonexpanding HH-spaces with ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general structure of nonexpanding hyperheavenly spaces is presented. We find conformal Killing equations and their integrability conditions in spinorial formalism. The reduction of Killing equations to one master equation is also presented. We generalize the Killing problem on the case of a nonzero cosmological constant and a conformal Killing factor. Finally, an example of the complex [N]otimes[N] space with the conformal Killing vector is considered and the respective metric is explicitly given.

Chudecki, Adam

2010-10-01

115

Extracellular killing of inhaled pneumococci in rats  

SciTech Connect

Early clearance of inhaled Staphylococcus aureus is believed to be caused by phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. In murine models inhaled pneumococci are cleared even more rapidly than S. aureus. Conventional opsonins appear to play no role in this clearance, and recently it has been shown that murine alveolar lining material contains free fatty acids and other soluble factors that are directly bactericidal for pneumococci. To determine whether non-phagocytic factors are involved in pneumococcal clearance, we compared the site of killing of inhaled pneumococci and S. aureus in rats using histologic methods and bronchoalveolar lavage. Spontaneous lysis of pneumococci was prevented by use of autolysin-defective pneumococci or by substitution of ethanolamine for choline in the cell wall. Histologic studies showed that the percent of inhaled staphylococci associated with alveolar macrophages always exceeded the percent of staphylococci cleared, whereas there was little association of pneumococci with macrophages during clearance. Analysis of the intracellular or extracellular location of iron 59 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats that had inhaled aerosols of /sup 59/Fe-labeled bacteria suggested that staphylococci were killed predominantly in macrophages and pneumococci in the extracellular space. When /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci or staphylococci were ingested and killed by macrophages in vitro, the /sup 59/Fe remained with the macrophages, suggesting that the extracellular location of /sup 59/Fe during pneumococcal killing in vivo was not caused by rapid turnover of /sup 59/Fe in macrophages. Studies of the site of killing of inhaled type 25 pneumococci labeled exclusively in the cell wall with carbon 14-ethanolamine confirmed the results obtained with /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci. Thus, early killing of inhaled pneumococci, unlike staphylococci, appears to take place outside of macrophages.

Coonrod, J.D.; Marple, S.; Holmes, G.P.; Rehm, S.R.

1987-12-01

116

Cytotoxic Killing and Immune Evasion by Repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between the immune system and pathogens is a complex one, with pathogens constantly developing new ways of evading destruction by the immune system. The immune system's task is made even harder when the pathogen in question is an intra-cellular one (such as a virus or certain bacteria) and it is necessary to kill the infected host cell in order to eliminate the pathogen. This causes damage to the host, and such killing therefore needs to be carefully controlled, particularly in tissues with poor regenerative potential, or those involved in the immune response itself. Host cells therefore possess repair mechanisms which can counteract killing by immune cells. These in turn can be subverted by pathogens which up-regulate the resistance of infected cells to killing. In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that this repair process plays an important role in determining the efficacy of evasion and escape from immune control. We model a situation where cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells kill pathogen-infected and tumour cells by directed secretion of preformed granules containing perforin and granzymes. Resistance to such killing can be conferred by the expression of serine protease inhibitors (serpins). These are utilized by several virally infected and tumour cells, as well as playing a role in the protection of host bystander, immune and immuneprivileged cells. We build a simple stochastic model of cytotoxic killing, where serpins can neutralize granzymes stoichiometrically by forming an irreversible complex, and the survival of the cell is determined by the balance between serpin depletion and replenishment, which in its simplest form is equivalent to the well known shot noise process. We use existing analytical results for this process, and additional simulations to analyse the effects of repair on cytotoxic killing. We then extend the model to the case of a replicating target cell population, which gives a branching process coupled to shot noise. We show how the process of repair can have a major impact on the dynamics of pathogen evasion and escape of tumour cells from immune surveillance

Chan, Cliburn; George, Andrew J. T.; Stark, Jaroslav

2007-07-01

117

Timelike Killing Fields and Relativistic Statistical Mechanics  

E-print Network

For spacetimes with timelike Killing fields, we introduce a "Fermi-Walker-Killing" coordinate system and use it to prove a Liouville Theorem for an appropriate volume element of phase space for a statistical mechanical system of particles. We derive an exact relativistic formula for the Helmholtz free energy of an ideal gas and compare it, for a class of spacetimes, to its Newtonian analog, derived both independently and as the Newtonian limit of our formula. We also find the relativistic thermodynamic equation of state. Specific examples are given in Kerr spacetime.

David Klein; Peter Collas

2008-10-09

118

Killing Spinors for the Bosonic String  

E-print Network

We obtain the effective action for the bosonic string with arbitrary Yang-Mills fields, up to the \\alpha' order, in general dimensions. The form of the action is determined by the requirement that the action admit well-defined Killing spinor equations, whose projected integrability conditions give rise to the full set of equations of motion. The success of the construction suggests that the hidden "pseudo-supersymmetry" associated with the Killing spinor equations may be a property of the bosonic string itself.

Lu, H

2011-01-01

119

Killing Spinors for the Bosonic String  

E-print Network

We obtain the effective action for the bosonic string with arbitrary Yang-Mills fields, up to the \\alpha' order, in general dimensions. The form of the action is determined by the requirement that the action admit well-defined Killing spinor equations, whose projected integrability conditions give rise to the full set of equations of motion. The success of the construction suggests that the hidden "pseudo-supersymmetry" associated with the Killing spinor equations may be a property of the bosonic string itself.

H. Lu; Zhao-Long Wang

2011-06-08

120

Internet Resources on Genocide and Mass Killings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Internet Resources on Genocide and Mass Killings is an extensive compilation of primary materials and annotated links related to "twentieth-century genocidal and mass man-made killing occurrences." Divided into fifteen sections, subject coverage includes topics such as The Jewish Holocaust, War Crimes and Criminals, Yugoslavia and Kosovo, among others. Most of the original documents in the compilation have been uploaded to the site, facilitating navigation and research. Documents not residing at the site are linked via succinct annotations. The compilation is searchable and updated continuously by its creator Dr. Stuart D. Stein, Senior Lecturer in Sociology and Social Psychology at the University of West England.

121

Can Vet Schools Teach without Killing Animals?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a protest by students at the University of Illinois (Urbana) College of Veterinary Medicine over the killing of animals that led to temporary curtailing of lethal animal experiments. Examines the conflict between animal rights groups and some faculty who are openly skeptical about the effectiveness of alternatives to the hands-on…

Mangan, Katherine S.

2000-01-01

122

Oxidative killing of microbes by neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrophils and other phagocytic leukocytes contain a phagocyte NADPH oxidase enzyme that generates superoxide after cell activation. Reactive oxygen species derived from superoxide, together with proteases liberated from the granules, are used to kill ingested microbes. Dysfunction of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase results in chronic granulomatous disease, with life-threatening infections.

Dirk Roos; Robin van Bruggen; Christof Meischl

2003-01-01

123

Methods of killing employed by psychotic parricides.  

PubMed

Lewis, et al. in 1998 showed that psychotic women are more likely to use a weapon than nonpsychotic women to kill their children. This study presents data concerning psychotic parricide. Analysis indicated that a higher percentage used a weapon (81% versus 36%) than psychotic filicide. Reasons for this difference are discussed. PMID:14650686

Marleau, Jacques D

2003-10-01

124

TWISTOR AND KILLING SPINORS IN LORENTZIAN GEOMETRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a survey of recent results concerning twistor and Killing spinors on Lorentzian manifolds based on lectures given at CIRM, Luminy, in June 1999, and at ESI, Wien, in October 1999. After some basic facts about twistor spinors we explain a relation between Lorentzian twistor spinors with lightlike Dirac current and the Fefferman spaces of strictly pseudoconvex spin

Helga Baum

2000-01-01

125

Imaginary Killing spinors in Lorentzian geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the geometric structure of Lorentzian spin manifolds, which admit imaginary Killing spinors. The discussion is based on the cone construction and a normal form classification of skew-adjoint operators in signature (2,n-2). Derived geometries include Brinkmann spaces, Lorentzian Einstein-Sasaki spaces and certain warped product structures. Exceptional cases with decomposable holonomy of the cone are possible.

Felipe Leitner

2003-01-01

126

Killing Spinors for the Bosonic String  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtain the effective action for the bosonic string with arbitrary Yang-Mills fields, up to the \\\\alpha' order, in general dimensions. The form of the action is determined by the requirement that the action admit well-defined Killing spinor equations, whose projected integrability conditions give rise to the full set of equations of motion. The success of the construction suggests that

H. Lu; Zhao-Long Wang

2011-01-01

127

Killing Spinors and Massless Spinor Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that in a space-time that admits a Killing spinor any solution of the Weyl or of the Maxwell equations can be used as a potential for another solution of the corresponding equation. Furthermore, it is shown that the new solution can be generated by a single component of the given one, which satisfies a decoupled equation. For

G. F. Torres del Castillo

1985-01-01

128

Killing spinors and SYM on curved spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct two families of globally supersymmetric counterparts of standard Poincaré supersymmetric SYM theories on curved space-times admitting Killing spinors, in all dimensions less than six and eight, respectively. The former differs from the standard theory only by mass terms for the fermions and scalars and modified supersymmetry transformation rules, the latter in addition has cubic Chern-Simons like couplings for

Matthias Blau; Abdus Salam

2000-01-01

129

Killing spinors for the bosonic string  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtain the effective action for the bosonic string with arbitrary Yang-Mills fields, up to the ?? order, in general dimensions. The form of the action is determined by the requirement that the action admit well-defined Killing spinor equations, whose projected integrability conditions give rise to the full set of equations of motion. The success of the construction suggests that

H. Lü; Zhao-Long Wang

2012-01-01

130

New brane solutions from Killing spinor equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent paper, we have pointed out a relation between the Killing spinor and Einstein equations. Using this relation, new brane solutions of D=11 and D=10 type IIB supergravity theories are constructed. It is shown that in a brane solution, the flat world-volume directions, the smeared transverse directions and the sphere located at a fixed radial distance can be

Ali Kaya

2000-01-01

131

The Ultimate Buzz Kill Mosquito Control  

E-print Network

, ditches, and culverts free of weeds and trash so the water can drain properly. Change water in birdbaths adult mosquitoes will not hide there. Make sure ornamental ponds have fish that will feed on mosquito Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) Mosquito Dunks Mosquito Quick Kill Granules NOT harmful to fish

Johnson, Eric E.

132

How to Make a Killing Jar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Biodiversity Counts illustration shows students how to make a simple killing jar to preserve arthropods for further study. As the labeled drawing shows, all that's needed is a jar with a lid, tape for reinforcement, a few drops of ethyl acetate, and a paper towel.

133

School Shootings; Standards Kill Students and Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School shootings have been in the news of late. People ponder what occurs in classrooms today. Why would a young person wish to take a life? Within educational institutions, the killings are a concern. In our dire attempt to teach the children and ensure student success, it seems many of our offspring are lost. Some students feel separate from…

Angert, Betsy L.

2008-01-01

134

Mass killings and detection of impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highly energetic bolide impacts occur and their flux is known. For larger bodies the energy release is greater than for any other short-term global phenomenon. Such impacts produce or release a large variety of shock induced changes including major atmospheric, sedimentologic, seismic and volcanic events. These events must necessarily leave a variety of records in the stratigraphic column, including mass killings resulting in major changes in population density and reduction or extinction of many taxonomic groups, followed by characteristic patterns of faunal and flora replacement. Of these effects, mass killings, marked by large-scale loss of biomass, are the most easily detected evidence in the field but must be manifest on a near-global scale. Such mass killings that appear to be approximately synchronous and involve disappearance of biomass at a bedding plane in many sedimentologically independent sections globally suggest a common cause and probable synchroneity. Mass killings identify an horizon which may be examined for evidence of cause. Geochemical markers may be ephemeral and absence may not be significant. There appears to be no reason why ongoing phenomena such as climate and sea-level changes are primary causes of anomolous episodic events.

Mclaren, Digby J.

1988-01-01

135

killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine  

E-print Network

killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine FluMist Thomas Francis, Jr. National Institutes of Michigan's Rackham Auditorium and watched Thomas Francis Jr. announce to the world that the polio vaccine petitioned to spend a year or two in Francis's lab. Indeed, Jonas Salk, developer of the Salk polio vac- cine

Shyy, Wei

136

Surveillance technology If looks could kill  

E-print Network

Surveillance technology If looks could kill Oct 23rd 2008 From The Economist print edition Security experts reckon the latest technology can detect hostile intentions before something bad happens. Unless several times over the course of a few days without getting on a train. Is that suspicious? Possibly

Davis, James W.

137

Electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

Not Available

1990-03-01

138

Underground blowout killed with quick snubbing operation  

SciTech Connect

A shallow underground blowout off the island of Trinidad required quick action and the importing of snubbing equipment to kill the well and avert cratering the sea floor beneath the platform. The blowout was controlled in 16 days. The blowout at Trintomar's Pelican platform on the east coast of Trinidad posed a most challenging well control problem. Most of the service companies with equipment to control the well were not available in this relatively remote area. Because of the high gas and condensate flow rates and high pressure, the blowout at the Pelican platform had the potential to destroy the entire platform, endanger the lives of many crew members, result in the loss of natural resources, and interrupt the supply of natural gas to the island of Trinidad. The paper discusses the Pelican platform, the underground blowout, temperature survey, the kill plan, and snubbing operations.

Grace, R. (Grace, Shursen, Moore and Associates Inc., Amarillo, TX (United States)); Stanislaus, G. (Trinmar Ltd., Point Fortin (Trinidad and Tobago)); Cudd, B. (Cudd Pressure Control, Woodward, OK (United States))

1993-10-18

139

Conformal Killing Tensors and covariant Hamiltonian Dynamics  

E-print Network

A covariant algorithm for deriving the conserved quantities for natural Hamiltonian systems is combined with the non-relativistic framework of Eisenhart, and of Duval, in which the classical trajectories arise as geodesics in a higher dimensional space-time, realized by Brinkmann manifolds. Conserved quantities which are polynomial in the momenta can be built using time-dependent conformal Killing tensors with flux. The latter are associated with terms proportional to the Hamiltonian in the lower dimensional theory and with spectrum generating algebras for higher dimensional quantities of order $1$ and $2$ in the momenta. Illustrations of the general theory include the Runge-Lenz vector for planetary motion with a time-dependent gravitational constant $G(t)$, motion in a time-dependent electromagnetic field of a certain form, quantum dots, the H\\'enon-Heiles and Holt systems, respectively, providing us with Killing tensors of rank that ranges from one to six.

M. Cariglia; G. W. Gibbons; J. -W. van Holten; P. A. Horvathy; P. -M. Zhang

2014-04-13

140

11. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF KILLING FLOOR ON LEVEL 4; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF KILLING FLOOR ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD SPLITTERS' PLATFORMS - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

141

A More Effective Kill Shot through Proper Forehand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most important skills for the beginning racquetball player to acquire is a high velocity kill shot. Factors necessary in making a good kill shot are described, and drills for teaching this skill are presented. (JN)

Stoner, Clarence

1981-01-01

142

Parallel and Killing Spinors on Spin c Manifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

:  We describe all simply connected Spinc manifolds carrying parallel and real Killing spinors. In particular we show that every Sasakian manifold (not necessarily\\u000a Einstein) carries a canonical Spinc structure with Killing spinors.

Andrei Moroianu

1997-01-01

143

GENERALIZED KILLING SPINORS ON EINSTEIN MANIFOLDS ANDREI MOROIANU, UWE SEMMELMANN  

E-print Network

GENERALIZED KILLING SPINORS ON EINSTEIN MANIFOLDS ANDREI MOROIANU, UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. We study generalized Killing spinors on compact Einstein manifolds with posi- tive scalar curvature. This problem is related to the existence compact Einstein hypersurfaces in manifolds with parallel spinors

Semmelmann, Uwe

144

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart...

2010-01-01

145

9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.213 Section 113.213 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213...

2013-01-01

146

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart...

2012-01-01

147

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline...

2014-01-01

148

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

...2014-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart...

2014-01-01

149

9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

... false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.213 Section 113.213 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213...

2014-01-01

150

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline...

2012-01-01

151

9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian...

2011-01-01

152

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

... false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus...

2014-01-01

153

9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian...

2012-01-01

154

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus...

2011-01-01

155

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus...

2013-01-01

156

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart...

2011-01-01

157

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline...

2011-01-01

158

9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

...Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian...

2014-01-01

159

9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.213 Section 113.213 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213...

2011-01-01

160

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline...

2010-01-01

161

9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian...

2013-01-01

162

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus...

2012-01-01

163

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline...

2012-01-01

164

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline...

2010-01-01

165

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline...

2013-01-01

166

9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian...

2010-01-01

167

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline...

2011-01-01

168

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline...

2013-01-01

169

9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.213 Section 113.213 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213...

2012-01-01

170

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart...

2013-01-01

171

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline...

2014-01-01

172

AGE AND CONDITION OF DEER KILLED BY PREDATORS AND AUTOMOBILES  

E-print Network

) and white-tailed deer (0. uirginianus) killed by mountain lions (Felti concolor), coyotes (Cants Zatrans and white-tailed deer killed by mountain lions, coyotes, and automobiles from December through March, 1969

Harris, Richard B.

173

Kinetic Atom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys the research of scientists like Joule, Kelvin, Maxwell, Clausius, and Boltzmann as it comments on the basic conceptual issues involved in the development of a more precise kinetic theory and the idea of a kinetic atom. (Author/SK)

Wilson, David B.

1981-01-01

174

Integration without integration: New Killing spinor spacetimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-conformally flat spacetimes admitting a non-null two-index Killing spinor are investigated by means of the Geroch-Held-Penrose formalism. Claims appearing in the literature that such spacetimes are all explicitly known are incorrect. This was shown in [5] for the family where, in the canonical frame, the spin coefficients rho or mu, vanish. Here the general case with non-vanishing rho, mu, pi

Norbert Van den Bergh

2010-01-01

175

Integration without integration: New Killing spinor spacetimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-conformally flat spacetimes admitting a non-null two-index Killing spinor are investigated by means of the Geroch-Held-Penrose formalism. Claims appearing in the literature that such spacetimes are all explicitly known are incorrect. This was shown in [5] for the family where, in the canonical frame, the spin coefficients ? or ?, vanish. Here the general case with non-vanishing ?, ?, ?

Norbert Van den Bergh

2010-01-01

176

Generalized Killing spinors in dimension 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the intrinsic geometry of hypersurfaces in Calabi-Yau manifolds of\\u000areal dimension 6 and, more generally, SU(2)-structures on 5-manifolds defined\\u000aby a generalized Killing spinor. We prove that in the real analytic case, such\\u000aa 5-manifold can be isometrically embedded as a hypersurface in a Calabi-Yau\\u000amanifold in a natural way. We classify nilmanifolds carrying invariant\\u000astructures of this

Diego Conti; Simon Salamon

2007-01-01

177

Killing spinors of some supergravity solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compute explicitly the Killing spinors of some ten dimensional supergravity solutions. We begin with a 10d metric of the form IR1,3 × Y6, where Y6 is either the singular conifold or any of its resolutions. Then, we move on to the Klebanov-Witten and Klebanov-Tseytlin backgrounds, both constructed over the singular conifold; and we also study the Klebanov- Strassler solution,

Daniel Arean Fraga

178

Type-IIB Killing spinors and calibrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we derive the full set of differential equations and some algebraic relations for p-forms constructed from type IIB Killing spinors. These equations are valid for the most general type IIB supersymmetric backgrounds which have a non-zero NS-NS 3-form field strength, H, and non-zero R-R field strengths, G(1), G(3) and G(5). Our motivation is to use these equations

Emily J. Hackett-Jones; Douglas J. Smith

2004-01-01

179

Killing spinors of some supergravity solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compute explicitly the Killing spinors of some ten dimensional supergravity solutions. We begin with a 10d metric of the form $\\\\RR^{1,3}\\\\times{\\\\cal Y}_6$, where ${\\\\cal Y}_6$ is either the singular conifold or any of its resolutions. Then, we move on to the Klebanov-Witten and Klebanov-Tseytlin backgrounds, both constructed over the singular conifold; and we also study the Klebanov-Strassler solution, built

Daniel Arean

2006-01-01

180

Killed Vaccines: Cholera, Typhoid, and Plague  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As reviewed in previous chapters of this work, the earliest vaccines were of the live variety, either based on a naturally\\u000a occurring weaker version of pathogen, as with Jenner’s use of cowpox, or the laboratory-manipulated, attenuated forms of anthrax\\u000a and rabies employed by his vaccine heir, Pasteur. The next important concept in vaccine science, killed vaccines, was introduced\\u000a in animals

Charles C. J. Carpenter; Richard B. Hornick

181

Killing of microorganisms by pulsed electric fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lethal effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on suspensions of various bacteria, yeast, and spores in buffer solutions and\\u000a liquid foodstuffs were examined. Living-cell counts of vegetative cell types were reduced by PEF treatment by up to more than\\u000a four orders of magnitude (> 99.99%). On the other hand, endoand ascospores were not inactivated or killed to any great extent.

T. Grahl; H. Märkl

1996-01-01

182

Monoclonal antibody targets, kills leukemia cells  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego Moores Cancer Center have identified a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets and directly kills chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. The findings, published in the online Early Edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on March 25, 2013 represent a potential new therapy for treating at least some patients with CLL, the most common type of blood cancer in the United States.

183

The form of Killing vectors in expanding HH spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Killing vector structure of those spaces of complexified general relativity known as expanding hyperheavens is investigated using the methods of spinor calculus. The Killing equations for all left-algebraically degenerate Einstein vacuum spaces are completely integrated. Using the available gauge freedom, the resulting homothetic and isometric Killing vectors are classified in an invariant way according to Petrov–Penrose type. A total

Stephanie A. Sonnleitner; J. D. Finley

1982-01-01

184

Killing Spinors and Superparticles in Anti-de Sitter Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of Killing spinors in AdS2 space is examined in detail and the supersymmetry algebra of this space in spinors and Killing vectors is constructed. The supersymmetric mechanics corresponding to this superalgebra is constructed, and the similarity of Killing spinors and supercharges is revealed.

Orekhov, K. A.

2014-07-01

185

7Dimensional compact Riemannian manifolds with Killing spinors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a link between Einstein-Sasakian structures and Killing spinors we prove a general construction principle of odd-dimensional Riemannian manifolds with real Killing spinors. In dimensionn=7 we classify all compact Riemannian manifolds with two or three Killing spinors. Finally we classify nonflat 7-dimensional Riemannian manifolds with parallel spinor fields.

Thomas Friedrich; Ines Kath

1990-01-01

186

Geometric aspects of transversal Killing spinors on Riemannian flows  

E-print Network

Geometric aspects of transversal Killing spinors on Riemannian flows Nicolas Ginoux #3; , Georges Habib y Abstract. We study a Killing spinor type equation on spin Riemannian flows. We prove Classification: 53C12, 53C27 Key words: Foliations, Spin Geometry 1 Introduction Killing spinors on Riemannian

Recanati, Catherine

187

Geometric aspects of transversal Killing spinors on Riemannian flows  

E-print Network

Geometric aspects of transversal Killing spinors on Riemannian flows Nicolas Ginoux , Georges Habib Abstract. We study a Killing spinor type equation on spin Riemannian flows. We prove integrability Classification: 53C12, 53C27 Key words: Foliations, Spin Geometry 1 Introduction Killing spinors on Riemannian

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

188

A note on real Killing spinors in Weyl geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note is dedicated to the real Killing equation on three-dimensional Weyl manifolds. Any manifold admitting a real Killing spinor of weight 0 satisfies the conditions of a Gauduchon–Tod geometry. Conversely, any simply connected Gauduchon–Tod geometry has a two-dimensional space of solutions of the real Killing equation on the spinor bundle of weight 0.

Volker Buchholz

2000-01-01

189

Road-Killed Animals as Resources for Ecological Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes 19 literature sources identifying road-killed vertebrates and frequency of kill by numbers. Examples of how these animals can be incorporated into curricula (integrating biology, society, people, and values) are given, followed by an illustrated example of how a road-killed raccoon's skull demonstrated a human/wildlife interaction prior…

Adams, Clark E.

1983-01-01

190

Killing Vector Fields of Standard Static Space-times  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider Killing vector fields on standard static space-times and obtain equations for a vector field on a standard static space-time to be Killing. We also provide a characterization of Killing vector fields on standard static space-times with compact Riemannian parts.

Fernando Dobarro; Bulent Unal

2008-01-01

191

7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section...Foreign Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which...its surface has a set green color caused by excessive heat in...tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule...

2012-01-01

192

7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section...Foreign Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which...its surface has a set green color caused by excessive heat in...tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule...

2011-01-01

193

7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section...Foreign Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which...its surface has a set green color caused by excessive heat in...tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule...

2013-01-01

194

It's Not Just Conflict That Motivates Killing of Orangutans  

PubMed Central

We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents’ active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI) and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI). These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed. PMID:24130707

Davis, Jacqueline T.; Mengersen, Kerrie; Abram, Nicola K.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wells, Jessie A.; Meijaard, Erik

2013-01-01

195

9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus...Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed...

2013-01-01

196

9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.  

...Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus...Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed...

2014-01-01

197

9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus...Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed...

2011-01-01

198

9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus...Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed...

2012-01-01

199

Effect of Silicon on the Desulfurization of Al-Killed Steels: Part I. Mathematical Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations suggest that increased silicon levels improve ladle desulfurization of aluminum-killed steel. While the overall desulfurization reaction of Al-killed steels does not show a direct role of silicon in desulfurization, model calculations are presented which test the idea that silicon suppresses the reduction of silica which can consume aluminum at the slag/metal interface. Consumption of aluminum would increase the oxygen potential at the slag/metal interface and decrease the sulfur partition coefficient between slag and metal. The model considers the coupled reactions of the reduction of silica, iron oxide, and manganese oxide in the slag and desulfurization of the steel by aluminum. The results show that silicon can indeed suppress consumption of aluminum at the slag/metal interface by side reactions other than desulfurization, with silicon affecting both the kinetics and the equilibrium of desulfurization.

Roy, Debdutta; Pistorius, Petrus Christiaan; Fruehan, Richard J.

2013-10-01

200

The form of Killing vectors in expanding scriptscript spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Killing vector structure of those spaces of complexified general relativity known as expanding hyperheavens is investigated using the methods of spinor calculus. The Killing equations for all left-algebraically degenerate Einstein vacuum spaces are completely integrated. Using the available gauge freedom, the resulting homothetic and isometric Killing vectors are classified in an invariant way according to Petrov-Penrose type. A total of four distinct kinds of isometric Killing vectors and three distinct kinds of homothetic Killing vectors are found. A master Killing vector equation is found which gives the form that the Lie derivative of the metric potential function W must take in order that it admit a given Killing vector.

Sonnleitner, Stephanie A.; Finley, J. D., III

1982-01-01

201

Evaluation of terminally guided reentry vehicle effectiveness against undefended hard targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis examines the effectiveness of various reentry vehicle configurations when they are targeted against buried, hard targets. The configurations are based on the reentry vehicle parameters of yield and CEP as well as the number of reentry vehicles per missile. An examination of the ground shock and overpressure kill radii resulted in the use of overpressure as the hard target kill mechanism. The methodology developed to examine reentry vehicle effectiveness was programmed on a Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV. The methodology allows variations in CEP, weapon system reliability, weapon yield, and number of reentry vehicles per missile, and the desired kill level. The measure of effectiveness of each reentry vehicle configuration is the number of missiles required to achieve a desired kill level on a user defined target matrix. The results of the methodology were generalized with a set of exponential equations. Each equation is based on a desired kill level and a fixed number of reentry vehicles per missile. A sensitivity analysis on the various configurations revealed the relative impact of equal percentage changes in the factors used in this study.

Auclair, P. F.

1982-03-01

202

Myeloperoxidase Selectively Binds and Selectively Kills Microbes ? †  

PubMed Central

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is reported to selectively bind to bacteria. The present study provides direct evidence of MPO binding selectivity and tests the relationship of selective binding to selective killing. The microbicidal effectiveness of H2O2 and of OCl? was compared to that of MPO plus H2O2. Synergistic microbicidal action was investigated by combining Streptococcus sanguinis, a H2O2-producing microbe showing low MPO binding, with high-MPO-binding Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa without exogenous H2O2, with and without MPO, and with and without erythrocytes (red blood cells [RBCs]). Selectivity of MPO microbicidal action was conventionally measured as the MPO MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) for 82 bacteria including E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and viridans streptococci. Both H2O2 and OCl? destroyed RBCs at submicrobicidal concentrations. Nanomolar concentrations of MPO increased H2O2 microbicidal action 1,000-fold. Streptococci plus MPO produced potent synergistic microbicidal action against all microbes tested, and RBCs caused only a small decrease in potency without erythrocyte damage. MPO directly killed H2O2-producing S. pyogenes but was ineffective against non-H2O2-producing E. faecalis. The MPO MICs and MBCs for E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus were significantly lower than those for E. faecalis. The streptococcal studies showed much higher MIC/MBC results, but such testing required lysed horse blood-supplemented medium, thus preventing valid comparison of these results to those for the other microbes. E. faecalis MPO binding is reportedly weak compared to binding of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus but strong compared to binding of streptococci. Selective MPO binding results in selective killing. PMID:20974824

Allen, Robert C.; Stephens, Jackson T.

2011-01-01

203

What Killed The Dinosaurs?: The Great Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents theories about why the dinosaurs became extinct. The first page provides background information covering not only the "great dying" at the K-T boundary but also the mass extinction at the end of the Paleozoic Era. The author covers six factors that complicate the study of mass extinction including time resolution, the Signor-Lipps Effect, and falsifiability. A link then takes the reader to a second page where invalid extinction hypotheses are explained. These range from "hay fever killed the dinosaurs" to "the dinosaurs just faded away," (no causation implied). The final link leads us to current thinking about extinction including volcanism, plate tectonics, and the Alvarez Hypothesis.

Hutchinson, John

204

The killing efficiency of soft iron shot  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A cooperative research effort between the ammunition industry and the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is aimed at finding a suitable non-toxic substitute for lead shot. A contract study by an independent research organization evaluated ways of coating or detoxifying lead shot or replacing it with another metal. As a result of that study, the only promising candidate is soft iron. Previous tests of hard iron shot had suggested that its killing effectiveness was poor at longer ranges due to the lower density. In addition, its hardness caused excessive damage to shotgun barrels. A unique, automated shooting facility was constructed at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to test the killing effectiveness of soft iron shot under controlled conditions. Tethered game-farm mallards were transported across a shooting point in a manner simulating free flight. A microswitch triggered a mounted shotgun so that each shot was 'perfect.' A soft iron shot, in Number 4 size, was produced by the ammunition industry and loaded in 12-gauge shells to give optimum ballistic performance. Commercial loads of lead shot in both Number 4 and Number 6 size were used for comparison. A total of 2,010 ducks were shot at ranges of 30 to 65 yards and at broadside and head-on angles in a statistically designed procedure. The following data were recorded for each duck: time until death, broken wing or leg bones, and number of embedded shot. Those ducks not killed outright were held for 10 days. From these data, ducks were categorized as 'probably bagged,' 'probably lost cripples,' or survivors. The test revealed that the killing effectiveness of this soft iron shot was superior to its anticipated performance and close to that obtained with commercial lead loads containing an equal number of pellets. Bagging a duck, in terms of rapid death or broken wing, was primarily dependent on the probability of a shot striking that vital area, and therefore a function of range. There was no indication that iron shot would result in greater crippling loss. Despite the apparent effectiveness of this iron shot, transition to its use in waterfowl hunting is not now possible. The sample used for this test was produced by a laboratory procedure that is unsuitable for manufacture. There is no process for producing soft iron shot in the quantities needed. Industry is doing its best to resolve this problem.

Andrews, R.; Longcore, J.R.

1969-01-01

205

MIC and time-kill studies of antipneumococcal activity of GV 118819X (sanfetrinem) compared with those of other agents.  

PubMed Central

Agar dilution MIC methodology was used to test the activities of GV 118819X (sanfetrinem), ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefpodoxime, loracarbef, levofloxacin, clarithromycin, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and vancomycin against 53 penicillin-susceptible, 84 penicillin-intermediate and 74 penicillin-resistant pneumococci isolated in the United States. GV 118819X was the most active oral beta-lactam, with MIC at which 50% of the isolates were inhibited (MIC50)/MIC90 values of 0.008/0.03, 0.06/0.5, and 0.5/1.0 micrograms/ml against penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate, and -resistant stains, respectively. Amoxicillin and amoxicillin in the presence of clavulanate (2:1) were the second most-active oral beta-lactams, followed by ampicillin and cefpodoxime; loracarbef was not active against penicillin-intermediate and -resistant strains. Clarithromycin was most active against penicillin-susceptible strains but was less active against intermediate and resistant stains. All pneumococcal stains were inhibited by ceftriaxone and imipenem at MICs of < or = 4.0 and < or = 1.0 micrograms/ml, respectively. The activities of levofloxacin and vancomycin were unaffected by penicillin susceptibility. Time-kill studies of three penicillin-susceptible, three penicillin-intermediate, and three penicillin-resistant pneumococci showed that all compounds, at the broth microdilution MIC, yielded 99.9% killing of all strains after 24 h. Kinetic patterns of all oral beta-lactams, ceftriaxone, and vancomycin were similar relative to the MIC, with 90% killing of all strains first observed after 12 h. However, killing by amoxicillin-clavulanate, imipenem, and levofloxacin was slightly faster and that by clarithromycin was slower than that by the above-described drugs. At 2 x the MIC, more strains were killed earlier than was the case at the MIC, but the pattern seen at the MIC prevailed. When MICs and kill kinetics were combined, sanfetrinem was the most active oral antipneumococcal agent in this study. PMID:8980771

Spangler, S K; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

1997-01-01

206

New Brane Solutions from Killing Spinor Equations  

E-print Network

In a recent paper, we have pointed out a relation between the Killing spinor and Einstein equations. Using this relation, new brane solutions of D=11 and D=10 type IIB supergravity theories are constructed. It is shown that in a brane solution, the flat world-volume directions, the smeared transverse directions and the sphere located at a fixed radial distance can be replaced with any Lorentzian Ricci flat, Euclidean Ricci flat and Einstein manifolds, respectively. The solution obtained in this fashion is supersymmetric when the Ricci flat and Einstein manifolds have Killing spinors. We generalize intersecting brane solutions, in which M5, M2 and D3-branes also wrap over the cycles determined by the K\\"{a}hler forms of Ricci flat K\\"{a}hler manifolds. New, singular, Ricci flat manifolds as (generalized) cones over the U(1) bundles over Ricci flat K\\"{a}hler spaces are constructed. These manifolds have covariantly constant spinors and give rise to new, supersymmetric, Ricci flat compactifications of non-gauged supergravity theories. We find M2 and D3-brane solutions, which asymptotically approach these singular vacua.

Ali Kaya

2000-04-27

207

Space vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space vehicle having an improved ascent configuration for use in traveling in space is presented. Components of the vehicle are: (1) a winged orbiter having an elongater fuselage and rearwardly directed main engines fixed to the fuselage; (2) an elongated tank assembly of an improved configuration disposed forwardly of the fuselage and connected with the main engines of the vehicle for supplying liquid propellants; and (3) a booster stage comprising a pair of integrated solid rocket boosters connected with the orbiter immediately beneath the fuselage and extended in substantial parallelism.

Vonpragenau, G. L. (inventor)

1975-01-01

208

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

209

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

210

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

Box, W.D.

1998-08-11

211

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

Box, W.D.

1997-02-11

212

Hypervelocity impact flash for missile-defense kill assessment and engagement analysis : experiments on Z.  

SciTech Connect

Kill assessment continues to be a major problem for the nation's missile defense program. A potential approach for addressing this issue involves spectral and temporal analysis of the short-time impact flash that occurs when a kill vehicle intercepts and engages a target missile. This can provide identification of the materials involved in the impact event, which will, in turn, yield the data necessary for target identification, engagement analysis, and kill assessment. This report describes the first phases of a project under which we are providing laboratory demonstrations of the feasibility and effectiveness of this approach. We are using two major Sandia facilities, the Z-Pinch accelerator, and the two- and three-stage gas guns at the Shock Thermodynamics and Applied Research (STAR) facility. We have looked at the spectral content of impact flash at velocities up to 25 km/s on the Z-Pinch machine to establish the capability for spectroscopy for these types of events, and are looking at similar experiments at velocities from 6 to 11 km/s on the gas guns to demonstrate a similar capability for a variety of research-oriented and applied materials. The present report describes only the work performed on the Z machine.

Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Reinhart, William Dodd; Lawrence, Raymond Jeffery Jr.; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra; Kelly, Daniel P.

2005-07-01

213

The geometry of D = 11 null Killing spinors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine the necessary and sufficient conditions on the metric and the four-form for the most general bosonic supersymmetric configurations of D=11 supergravity which admit a null Killing spinor i.e. a Killing spinor which can be used to construct a null Killing vector. This class covers all supersymmetric time-dependent configurations and completes the classification of the most general supersymmetric configurations

Jerome P. Gauntlett; Jan B. Gutowski; Stathis Pakis

2003-01-01

214

The geometry of D = 11 null Killing spinors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the necessary and sufficient conditions on the metric and the four-form for the most general bosonic supersymmetric configurations of D=11 supergravity which admit a null Killing spinor i.e. a Killing spinor which can be used to construct a null Killing vector. This class covers all supersymmetric time-dependent configurations and completes the classification of the most general supersymmetric configurations initiated in hep-th/0212008.

Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Gutowski, Jan B.; Pakis, Stathis

2003-12-01

215

The Geometry of D=11 Null Killing Spinors  

E-print Network

We determine the necessary and sufficient conditions on the metric and the four-form for the most general bosonic supersymmetric configurations of D=11 supergravity which admit a null Killing spinor i.e. a Killing spinor which can be used to construct a null Killing vector. This class covers all supersymmetric time-dependent configurations and completes the classification of the most general supersymmetric configurations initiated in hep-th/0212008.

Jerome P. Gauntlett; Jan B. Gutowski; Stathis Pakis

2003-11-13

216

The geometry of D = 11 null Killing spinors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine the necessary and sufficient conditions on the metric and the four-form for the most general bosonic supersymmetric configurations of D = 11 supergravity which admit a null Killing spinor i.e. a Killing spinor which can be used to construct a null Killing vector. This class covers all supersymmetric time-dependent configurations and completes the classification of the most general

Jerome P. Gauntlett; Jan B. Gutowski; Stathis Pakis

2003-01-01

217

The holonomy of the supercovariant connection and Killing spinors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the holonomy of the supercovariant connection for M-theory backgrounds with N Killing spinors reduces to a subgroup of SL(32-N,Bbb R)ltimes(oplusNBbb R32-N). We use this to give the necessary and sufficient conditions for a background to admit N Killing spinors. We show that there is no topological obstruction for the existence of up to 22 Killing spinors in

George Papadopoulos; Dimitrios Tsimpis

2003-01-01

218

Killing spinors and supersymmetry on AdS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we construct several supersymmetric theories on AdS5 background. We discuss the proper definition of the Killing equation for the symplectic Majorana spinors required in AdS5 supersymmetric theories. We find that the symplectic Killing spinor equation involves a matrix M in the USp(2N) indices whose role was not recognized previously. Using the correct Killing spinors we explicitly confirm

Eugene Shuster

1999-01-01

219

Antimicrobial Peptide Killing of African Trypanosomes  

PubMed Central

Summary The diseases caused by trypanosomes are medically and economically devastating to the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Parasites of the genus Trypanosoma, infect both humans, causing African sleeping sickness, and livestock, causing Nagana. The development of effective treatment strategies has suffered from the severe side effects of approved drugs, resistance and major difficulties in delivering drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are ubiquitous components of immune defense and are being rigorously pursued as novel sources of new therapeutics for a variety of pathogens. Here we review the role of antimicrobial peptides in the innate immune response of the tsetse fly to African trypanosomes, catalogue trypanocidal antimicrobial peptides from diverse organisms and highlight the susceptibility of bloodstream form African trypanosomes to killing by unconventional toxic peptides. PMID:21517904

Harrington, John M.

2011-01-01

220

Autonomous vehicles  

SciTech Connect

There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

Meyrowitz, A.L. [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States)] [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States); Blidberg, D.R. [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States)] [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States); Michelson, R.C. [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States)] [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States); [International Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems, Smyrna, GA (United States)

1996-08-01

221

Kinetic Energy Anti-Satellite Weapon System (KE ASAT WS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The KE ASAT WS which aimed at providing capabilities to negate satellites in space and deny ability to collect critical land and ocean surveillance data is presented. The KE ASAT WS includes two subsystems: the missile subsystem consisting of a kill vehicle, a three-stage booster, and a launcher; and the weapon control subsystem consisting of the mission control element, battery

J. T. Stegmaier; M. J. Grannan

1992-01-01

222

Enzyme Kinetics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resrouce provides detailed protocols for performing a laboratory exercise in enzyme kinetics. The activity of enzymes are characterized both by reaction rates and the effect of different concentrations of substrates.

Carl Stiefbold (University of Oregon;); Karen Sprague (University of Oregon;); Will Goodwin (University of Oregon;); Sam Donovan (University of Oregon;); Vicki Chandler (University of Oregon;)

1998-01-01

223

9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PLATFORMS IN FOREGROUND WERE USED BY SPLITTERS, TRIMMERS AND GOVERNMENT INSPECTORS; SKINNING TABLE RAN ALONG THE WINDOWS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

224

Killing of bacteria during solar eclipse and its biological implications.  

PubMed

Enhanced killing of bacteria was obtained by radiation reaching the earth during total solar eclipse (February 16, 1980) than during the corresponding time of a normal day (February 26, 1980). The killing was not due to the formation of sunlight induced photoproducts of tryptophan. The damage to the bacteria exposed to sunlight could be repaired by photoreactivation. PMID:6359236

Banerjee, S K; Chatterjee, S N

1983-01-01

225

On pseudo-Riemannian manifolds with many Killing spinors  

E-print Network

]k. For k = 1 we obtain conformal Killing vector fields. Using the above correspondence, we proveOn pseudo-Riemannian manifolds with many Killing spinors D.V. Alekseevsky and V. Cort of the real spinor bundle. We prove that M is locally ho- mogeneous if it admits more than 3 4 N independent

Cortés, Vicente

226

Imaginary Killing spinors on (2, n ? 2)-manifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we prove that a (2, n ? 2)-manifold admitting an imaginary Killing spinor with nontrivial Dirac current, is at least locally a codimension one\\u000a warped product with a special warping function. Hence, a (2, 2)-manifold admitting such an imaginary Killing spinor is Einstein\\u000a iff it is conformally flat.

M. Shafiee; Y. Bahrampour

2009-01-01

227

On pseudo-Riemannian manifolds with many Killing spinors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let M be a pseudo-Riemannian spin manifold of dimension n and signature s and denote by N the rank of the real spinor bundle. We prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits more than 34N independent Killing spinors with the same Killing number, unless n ? 1 (mod 4) and s ? 3 (mod 4). We also prove

D. V. Alekseevsky; V. Cortés

2009-01-01

228

Parallel and Killing Spinors on Spinc Andrei Moroianu1  

E-print Network

Parallel and Killing Spinors on Spinc Manifolds Andrei Moroianu1 Institut f¨ur reine Mathematik simply connected Spinc manifolds carrying parallel and real Killing spinors. In particular we show spinors. 1 Introduction The classification of irreducible simply connected spin manifolds with parallel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

229

GENERALIZED KILLING SPINORS ON EINSTEIN MANIFOLDS ANDREI MOROIANU, UWE SEMMELMANN  

E-print Network

GENERALIZED KILLING SPINORS ON EINSTEIN MANIFOLDS ANDREI MOROIANU, UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. We study generalized Killing spinors on compact Einstein manifolds with pos- itive scalar curvature. This problem is related to the existence of compact Einstein hyper- surfaces in manifolds with parallel spinors

Semmelmann, Uwe

230

Life After Fresh Kills: Moving Beyond New York City's  

E-print Network

now faces: Increasing costs: Contracts negotiated for disposal after Fresh Kills will impose significant cost increases on City taxpayers as waste disposal charges rise from the $42 per ton cost disposal plan and the impact of the Fresh Kills landfill closing. The report concludes that New York City

Columbia University

231

Control of Influenza and Poliomyelitis with Killed Virus Vaccines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses control of poliomyelitis and influenza by live and killed virus vaccines. Considered are the etiological agents, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiology of each disease. Reviews recent scientific studies of the diseases. Recommends use of killed virus vaccines in controlling both diseases. (CS)

Salk, Jonas; Salk, Darrell

1977-01-01

232

Who Killed Parliamentary Government By Dr. Gary Levy  

E-print Network

Who Killed Parliamentary Government By Dr. Gary Levy Editor, Canadian Parliamentary Review Paper and Regina University January 11, 2011 #12;Who Killed Parliamentary Government? The title despite our great debt to Professor Smith for his work on Parliament I am going to disagree somewhat

Peak, Derek

233

7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

234

Microwave irradiation for rapid killing and fixing of plant tissue  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation by microwaves allows for rapid killing and fixing of plant tissue, with excellent cellular integrity for histological examination. One or two exposures to microwaves for three seconds in formalin/acetic acid/alcohol gave good preservation of nuclei, chloroplasts, and other plant structures. The microwave method offers a considerable saving of time over traditional methods for killing and fixing plant tissue.

Walsh, G.E.; Bohannon, P.M.; Wessinger-Duvall, P.B.

1989-01-01

235

Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Lysosomal Killing of Cryptococcus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death.

Hole, Camaron R.; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L.; Wozniak, Karen L.

2012-10-01

236

Optimization of weapon-target pairings based on kill probabilities.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a novel optimization algorithm for assigning weapons to targets based on desired kill probabilities. For the given weapons, targets, and desired kill probabilities, our optimization algorithm assigns weapons to targets that satisfy the desired kill probabilities and minimize the overkill. The minimization of overkill assures that any proper subset of the weapons assigned to a target results in a kill probability that is less than the desired kill probability on such a target. Computational results for up to 120 weapons and 120 targets indicate that the performance of this algorithm yields an average improvement in quality of solutions of 26.8% over the greedy algorithms, whereas execution times remained on the order of milliseconds. PMID:24273148

Bogdanowicz, Zbigniew R; Tolano, Antony; Patel, Ketula; Coleman, Norman P

2013-12-01

237

Electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic advantages of electric vehicles (EVs) are: (a) no emissions at the point of their operation, (b) very low emissions, if the energy is produced in normal power stations, (c) lower energy consumption compared to conventional cars, and (d) very low noise during operation. Their main disadvantage is the limited driving range due to the limited capacity of the

D. Naunin

1996-01-01

238

Vehicle emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Air pollution in the United States is a major problem; transportation plays a major role in air pollution. This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, provides students with data on pollution caused by vehicles. Pollutants covered include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and lead, among others. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

239

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (115 Newhaven Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1994-01-01

240

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

241

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

Box, W.D.

1994-03-15

242

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

Box, W.D.

1996-03-12

243

Novel innate cancer killing activity in humans  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, we pilot tested an in vitro assay of cancer killing activity (CKA) in circulating leukocytes of 22 cancer cases and 25 healthy controls. Methods Using a human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa, as target cells, we compared the CKA in circulating leukocytes, as effector cells, of cancer cases and controls. The CKA was normalized as percentages of total target cells during selected periods of incubation time and at selected effector/target cell ratios in comparison to no-effector-cell controls. Results Our results showed that CKA similar to that of our previous study of SR/CR mice was present in human circulating leukocytes but at profoundly different levels in individuals. Overall, males have a significantly higher CKA than females. The CKA levels in cancer cases were lower than that in healthy controls (mean ± SD: 36.97 ± 21.39 vs. 46.28 ± 27.22). Below-median CKA was significantly associated with case status (odds ratio = 4.36; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.06, 17.88) after adjustment of gender and race. Conclusions In freshly isolated human leukocytes, we were able to detect an apparent CKA in a similar manner to that of cancer-resistant SR/CR mice. The finding of CKA at lower levels in cancer patients suggests the possibility that it may be of a consequence of genetic, physiological, or pathological conditions, pending future studies with larger sample size. PMID:21813015

2011-01-01

244

Mouse oocyte killing by neutrons: target considerations  

SciTech Connect

Highly radiosensitive primordial mouse oocytes, the principal cells at genetic risk in the female, have been studied using 0.43-MeV neutrons. Analysis of the survival curve (D/sub 37/ = 0.055 Gy) indicates that the diameter of the radiosensitive target (assumed spherical and of unit density) is larger than that of the nucleus but not of the oocyte, implicating a non-nuclear but sub-cellular target. This is consistent with results from /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporated in DNA. Our efforts to identify the extraordinarily radiosensitive lethality target in these primordial oocytes suggest it is the plasma membrane. Monte Carlo calculations for 0.43-MeV neutrons show that at the D/sub 37/ only a single proton recoil will traverse the plasma membrane, consistent with the observed exponential survival curve. A highly sensitive non-DNA target for mouse oocyte killing may importantly influence interpretations of genetic mutation data from mice and their use in estimating genetic risk in humans. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Straume, T.; Dobson, R.L.

1985-04-01

245

Killing, letting die and moral perception.  

PubMed

There are a number of arguments that purport to show, in general terms, that there is no difference between killing and letting die. These are used to justify active euthanasia on the basis of the reasons given for allowing patients to die. I argue that the general and abstract arguments fail to take account of the complex and particular situations which are found in the care of those with terminal illness. When in such situations, there are perceptions and intuitions available that do not easily find propositional form but lead most of those whose practice is in the care of the dying to resist active euthanasia. I make a plea for their intuitions to be heeded above the sterile voice of abstract premises and arguments by examining the completeness of the outline form of the pro-euthanasia argument. In doing so, I make use of Nussbaum's discussion of moral perception and general claims to be found in the literature of moral particularism. PMID:11654118

Gillett, Grant

1994-10-01

246

On pseudo-Riemannian manifolds with many Killing spinors  

SciTech Connect

Let M be a pseudo-Riemannian spin manifold of dimension n and signature s and denote by N the rank of the real spinor bundle. We prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits more than (3/4)N independent Killing spinors with the same Killing number, unless n {identical_to} 1(mod 4) and s {identical_to} 3(mod 4). We also prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits k{sub +} independent Killing spinors with Killing number {lambda} and k{sub -} independent Killing spinors with Killing number -{lambda} such that k{sub +}+k{sub -}>(3/2)N, unless n {identical_to} s {identical_to} 3(mod 4). Similarly, a pseudo-Riemannian manifold with more than (3/4)N independent conformal Killing spinors is conformally locally homogeneous. For (positive or negative) definite metrics, the bounds (3/4)N and (3/2)N in the above results can be relaxed to (1/2)N and N, respectively. Furthermore, we prove that a pseudo-Riemannnian spin manifold with more than (3/4)N parallel spinors is flat and that (1/4)N parallel spinors suffice if the metric is definite. Similarly, a Riemannnian spin manifold with more than (3/8)N Killing spinors with the Killing number {lambda}(set-membership sign)R has constant curvature 4{lambda}{sup 2}. For Lorentzian or negative definite metrics the same is true with the bound (1/2)N. Finally, we give a classification of (not necessarily complete) Riemannian manifolds admitting Killing spinors, which provides an inductive construction of such manifolds.

Alekseevsky, D. V. [University of Edinburgh and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences JCMB, The King's Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Cortes, V. [Department Mathematik und Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik Universitaet Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 55, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

2009-02-02

247

Killing vectors in asymptotically flat space-times. I. Asymptotically translational Killing vectors and the rigid positive energy theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study Killing vector fields in asymptotically flat space-times. We prove the following result, implicitly assumed in the uniqueness theory of stationary black holes. If the conditions of the rigidity part of the positive energy theorem are met, then in such space-times there are no asymptotically null Killing vector fields except if the initial data set can be embedded in

Robert Beig; Piotr T. Chrusciel

1996-01-01

248

“Who Kills Whom” RevisitedA Sociological Study of Variation in the Sex Ratio of Spouse Killings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the extraordinarily high ratio of females to males who kill domestic partners in the United States. Using a theoretical perspective conceptualizing violence between intimates as a form of self-help social control and as involving a pattern of sex-specific motives, the authors developed an explanatory model of variance in the rates of female and male spouse killing and

DeaAnn K. Gauthier; William B. Bankston

2004-01-01

249

The use of stable isotope ratio analysis to distinguish multiple prey kill events from mass kill events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeologists working with prey animal bonebeds are interested in determining whether the animals were obtained through a single, mass kill event or instead accumulated over time from multiple hunting events. This is often difficult to determine. The author investigated the use of stable isotope ratio analysis to distinguish accumulations of individuals derived from multiple populations from mass kills of individuals

Jack N. Fenner

2008-01-01

250

On Killing vector fields and Newman-Penrose constants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymptotically flat space-times with one Killing vector field are studied. The Killing equations are solved asymptotically using polyhomogeneous expansions (i.e., series in powers of 1/r and ln r), and solved order by order. The solution to the leading terms of these expansions yields the asymptotic form of the Killing vector field. The possible classes of Killing fields are discussed by analyzing their orbits on null infinity. The integrability conditions of the Killing equations are used to obtain constraints on the components of the Weyl tensor (?0,?1,?2) and on the shear (?). The behavior of the solutions to the constraint equations is studied. It is shown that for Killing fields that are non-supertranslational the characteristics of the constraint equations are the orbits of the restriction of the Killing field to null infinity. As an application, the particular case of boost-rotation symmetric space-times is considered. The constraints on ?0 are used to study the behavior of the coefficients that give rise to the Newman-Penrose constants, if the space-time is non-polyhomogeneous, or the logarithmic Newman-Penrose constants, if the space-time is polyhomogeneous.

Kroon, Juan Antonio Valiente

2000-02-01

251

Kill a brand, keep a customer.  

PubMed

Most brands don't make much money. Year after year, businesses generate 80% to 90% of their profits from less than 20% of their brands. Yet most companies tend to ignore loss-making brands, unaware of the hidden costs they incur. That's because executives believe it's easy to erase a brand; they have only to stop investing in it, they assume, and it will die a natural death. But they're wrong. When companies drop brands clumsily, they antagonize loyal customers: Research shows that seven times out of eight, when firms merge two brands, the market share of the new brand never reaches the combined share of the two original ones. It doesn't have to be that way. Smart companies use a four-step process to kill brands methodically. First, CEOs make the case for rationalization by getting groups of senior executives to conduct joint audits of the brand portfolio. These audits make the need to prune brands apparent throughout the organization. In the next stage, executives need to decide how many brands will be retained, which they do either by setting broad parameters that all brands must meet or by identifying the brands they need in order to cater to all the customer segments in their markets. Third, executives must dispose of the brands they've decided to drop, deciding in each case whether it is appropriate to merge, sell, milk, or just eliminate the brand outright. Finally, it's critical that executives invest the resources they've freed to grow the brands they've retained. Done right, dropping brands will result in a company poised for new growth from the source where it's likely to be found--its profitable brands. PMID:14712547

Kumar, Nirmalya

2003-12-01

252

Can nanomedicines kill cancer stem cells?  

PubMed

Most tumors are heterogeneous and many cancers contain small population of highly tumorigenic and intrinsically drug resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). Like normal stem cell, CSCs have the ability to self-renew and differentiate to other tumor cell types. They are believed to be a source for drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. CSCs often overexpress drug efflux transporters, spend most of their time in non-dividing G0 cell cycle state, and therefore, can escape the conventional chemotherapies. Thus, targeting CSCs is essential for developing novel therapies to prevent cancer relapse and emerging of drug resistance. Nanocarrier-based therapeutic agents (nanomedicines) have been used to achieve longer circulation times, better stability and bioavailability over current therapeutics. Recently, some groups have successfully applied nanomedicines to target CSCs to eliminate the tumor and prevent its recurrence. These approaches include 1) delivery of therapeutic agents (small molecules, siRNA, antibodies) that affect embryonic signaling pathways implicated in self-renewal and differentiation in CSCs, 2) inhibiting drug efflux transporters in an attempt to sensitize CSCs to therapy, 3) targeting metabolism in CSCs through nanoformulated chemicals and field-responsive magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, and 4) disruption of multiple pathways in drug resistant cells using combination of chemotherapeutic drugs with amphiphilic Pluronic block copolymers. Despite clear progress of these studies the challenges of targeting CSCs by nanomedicines still exist and leave plenty of room for improvement and development. This review summarizes biological processes that are related to CSCs, overviews the current state of anti-CSCs therapies, and discusses state-of-the-art nanomedicine approaches developed to kill CSCs. PMID:24120657

Zhao, Yi; Alakhova, Daria Y; Kabanov, Alexander V

2013-11-01

253

Can Nanomedicines Kill Cancer Stem Cells?  

PubMed Central

Most tumors are heterogeneous and many cancers contain small population of highly tumorigenic and intrinsically drug resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). Like normal stem cell, CSCs have ability to self-renew and differentiate to other tumor cell types. They are believed to be a source for drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. CSCs often overexpress drug efflux transporters, spend most of their time in non-dividing G0 cell cycle state, and therefore, can escape the conventional chemotherapies. Thus, targeting CSCs is essential for developing novel therapies to prevent cancer relapse and emerging of drug resistance. Nanocarrier-based therapeutic agents (nanomedicines) have been used to achieve longer circulation times, better stability and bioavailability over current therapeutics. Recently, some groups have successfully applied nanomedicines to target CSCs to eliminate the tumor and prevent its recurrence. These approaches include 1) delivery of therapeutic agents (small molecules, siRNA, antibodies) that affect embryonic signaling pathways implicated in self-renewal and differentiation in CSCs, 2) inhibiting drug efflux transporters in an attempt to sensitize CSCs to therapy, 3) targeting metabolism in CSCs through nanoformulated chemicals and field-responsive magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, and 4) disruption of multiple pathways in drug resistant cells using combination of chemotherapeutic drugs with amphiphilic Pluronic block copolymers. Despite clear progress of these studies the challenges of targeting CSCs by nanomedicines still exist and leave plenty of room for improvement and development. This review summarizes biological processes that are related to CSCs, overviews the current state of anti-CSCs therapies, and discusses state-of-the-art nanomedicine approaches developed to kill CSCs. PMID:24120657

Zhao, Yi; Alakhova, Daria Y.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

2014-01-01

254

A Construction of Killing Spinors on S^n  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive simple general expressions for the explicit Killing spinors on the\\u000an-sphere, for arbitrary n. Using these results we also construct the Killing\\u000aspinors on various AdS x Sphere supergravity backgrounds, including AdS_5 x\\u000aS^5$, AdS_4 x S^7 and AdS_7 x S^4. In addition, we extend previous results to\\u000aobtain the Killing spinors on the hyperbolic spaces H^n.

H. Lu; C. N. Pope; J. Rahmfeld

1998-01-01

255

THE RATE OF KILLING OF CLADOCERANS AT HIGHER TEMPERATURES  

PubMed Central

In spite of obvious possible sources of disturbance, the "velocity of killing" of organisms at supranormal temperatures, properly determined, tends to adhere to the Arrhenius equation for relation to temperature. Over certain ranges of temperature the relationship between log velocity of killing and 1/T° abs. is linear. Interpreted as due to the thermal denaturing of protein, it is possible that differences between the temperature characteristics for the killing process in closely related forms may be suggestive in regard to the mechanism of the denaturing. The temperature limits within which the linear relationships appear may be classed among those temperature levels which are critical temperatures for protoplasmic organization. PMID:19872376

Brown, L. A.; Crozier, W. J.

1927-01-01

256

PFIESTERIA SHUMWAYAE KILLS FISH BY MICROPREDATION NOT ECOTOXIN SECRETION  

EPA Science Inventory

Massive fish kills in mid-Atlantic USA estuaries involving several million Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus,have been attributed to dinoflagellates of the toxic Pfiesteria complex (TPC). Potent ichthyotoxins secreted during Pfiesteria blooms are thought to be responsible fo...

257

7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of...

2010-01-01

258

Surface structure influences contact killing of bacteria by copper  

PubMed Central

Copper kills bacteria rapidly by a mechanism that is not yet fully resolved. The antibacterial property of copper has raised interest in its use in hospitals, in place of plastic or stainless steel. On the latter surfaces, bacteria can survive for days or even weeks. Copper surfaces could thus provide a powerful accessory measure to curb nosocomial infections. We here investigated the effect of the copper surface structure on the efficiency of contact killing of Escherichia coli, an aspect which so far has received very little attention. It was shown that electroplated copper surfaces killed bacteria more rapidly than either polished copper or native rolled copper. The release of ionic copper was also more rapid from electroplated copper compared to the other materials. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria nudged into the grooves between the copper grains of deposited copper. The findings suggest that, in terms of contact killing, more efficient copper surfaces can be engineered. PMID:24740976

Zeiger, Marco; Solioz, Marc; Edongué, Hervais; Arzt, Eduard; Schneider, Andreas S

2014-01-01

259

Killing superalgebra deformations of ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore Lie superalgebra deformations of the Killing superalgebras of some ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. We prove the rigidity of the Poincaré superalgebras in types I, IIA and IIB, as well as of the Killing superalgebra of the Freund Rubin vacuum of type IIB supergravity. We also prove rigidity of the Killing superalgebras of the NS5-, D0-, D3-, D4- and D5-branes, whereas we exhibit the possible deformations of the D1-, D2-, D6- and D7-brane Killing superalgebras, as well as of that of the type II fundamental string solutions. We relate the superalgebra deformations of the D2- and D6-branes to those of the (delocalized) M2-brane and the Kaluza Klein monopole, respectively. The good behaviour under Kaluza Klein reduction suggests that the deformed superalgebras ought to have a geometric interpretation.

Figueroa-O'Farrill, José; Vercnocke, Bert

2007-12-01

260

Scientists Report New Lead in How Anthrax Kills Cells  

Cancer.gov

For years scientists have known that anthrax bacillus produces a toxin containing a deadly protein called lethal factor. However, researchers have never been able to identify how lethal factor kills cells.

261

Flat deformation of a spacetime admitting two commuting Killing fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that, given an analytic Lorentzian metric on a 4-manifold, gab, which admits two Killing vector fields, there exists a local deformation law ?ab = a gab + b Hab, where Hab is a two-dimensional projector, such that ?ab is flat and admits the same Killing vectors. We also characterize the particular case when the projector Hab coincides with the quotient metric. We apply some of our results to general stationary axisymmetric spacetimes.

Llosa, Josep; Carot, Jaume

2010-12-01

262

On the infinitesimal isometries of manifolds with Killing spinors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the Lie algebra of infinitesimal isometries of seven-dimensional simply connected manifolds with Killing spinors. We obtain some splitting theorems for the action of this algebra on the space of Killing spinors, and as a corollary we prove that there is no infinitesimal isometry of constant length on a seven-dimensional 3-Sasakian manifold (not isometric to a space form) except

Andrei Moroianu

2000-01-01

263

Approximate Killing vectors on S{sup 2}  

SciTech Connect

We present a new method for computing the best approximation to a Killing vector on closed 2-surfaces that are topologically S{sup 2}. When solutions of Killing's equation do not exist, this method is shown to yield results superior to those produced by existing methods. In addition, this method appears to provide a new tool for studying the horizon geometry of distorted black holes.

Cook, Gregory B. [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27006 (United States); Whiting, Bernard F. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

2007-08-15

264

Spinorial geometry and Killing spinor equations of 6-D supergravity  

E-print Network

We solve the Killing spinor equations of 6-dimensional (1,0)-supergravity coupled to any number of tensor, vector and scalar multiplets in all cases. The isotropy groups of Killing spinors are $Sp(1)\\cdot Sp(1)\\ltimes \\bH (1)$, $U(1)\\cdot Sp(1)\\ltimes \\bH (2)$, $Sp(1)\\ltimes \\bH (3,4)$, $Sp(1) (2)$, $U(1) (4)$ and $\\{1\\} (8)$, where in parenthesis is the number of supersymmetries preserved in each case. If the isotropy group is non-compact, the spacetime admits a parallel null 1-form with respect to a connection with torsion the 3-form field strength of the gravitational multiplet. The associated vector field is Killing and the 3-form is determined in terms of the geometry of spacetime. The $Sp(1)\\ltimes \\bH$ case admits a descendant solution preserving 3 out of 4 supersymmetries due to the hyperini Killing spinor equation. If the isotropy group is compact, the spacetime admits a natural frame constructed from 1-form spinor bi-linears. In the $Sp(1)$ and U(1) cases, the spacetime admits 3 and 4 parallel 1-forms with respect to the connection with torsion, respectively. The associated vector fields are Killing and under some additional restrictions the spacetime is a principal bundle with fibre a Lorentzian Lie group. The conditions imposed by the Killing spinor equations on all other fields are also determined.

Mehmet Akyol; George Papadopoulos

2010-10-13

265

Spinorial geometry and Killing spinor equations of 6D supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve the Killing spinor equations of six-dimensional (1, 0)-supergravity coupled to any number of tensor, vector and scalar multiplets in all cases. The isotropy groups of Killing spinors are Sp(1)\\cdot Sp(1)\\ltimes {\\bb H}(1), U(1)\\cdot Sp(1)\\ltimes {\\bb H}(2), Sp(1)\\ltimes {\\bb H}(3,4), Sp(1)(2), U(1)(4) and {1}(8), where in parenthesis is the number of supersymmetries preserved in each case. If the isotropy group is non-compact, the spacetime admits a parallel null 1-form with respect to a connection with torsion given by the 3-form field strength of the gravitational multiplet. The associated vector field is Killing and the 3-form is determined in terms of the geometry of spacetime. The Sp(1)\\ltimes {\\bb H} case admits a descendant solution preserving three out of four supersymmetries due to the hyperini Killing spinor equation. If the isotropy group is compact, the spacetime admits a natural frame constructed from 1-form spinor bi-linears. In the Sp(1) and U(1) cases, the spacetime admits three and four parallel 1-forms with respect to the connection with torsion, respectively. The associated vector fields are Killing and under some additional restrictions the spacetime is a principal bundle with fibre a Lorentzian Lie group. The conditions imposed by the Killing spinor equations on all other fields are also determined.

Akyol, M.; Papadopoulos, G.

2011-05-01

266

Vehicle barrier  

DOEpatents

A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

Hirsh, Robert A. (Bethel Park, PA)

1991-01-01

267

Systemic delivery of fusogenic membrane glycoprotein-expressing neural stem cells to selectively kill tumor cells.  

PubMed

Intravenously injected neural stem cells (NSCs) can infiltrate both primary and metastatic tumor sites; thus, they are attractive tumor-targeting vehicles for delivering anticancer agents. However, because the systemic distribution of the injected NSCs involves normal organs and might induce off-target actions leading to unintended side effects, clinical applications of this approach is impeded. Given that the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) can promote the formation of multinucleated syncytia to kill cells in a pH-dependent manner, we engineered a pH sensor of VSV-G and generated a novel VSV-G mutant that efficiently promotes syncytium formation at the tumor extracellular pH (pHe) but not at pH 7.4. Using transduced NSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), the VSV-G mutant was delivered into mice with metastatic breast cancers in the lung through tail vein injection. Compared with the conventional stem cell-based gene therapy that uses the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) suicide gene, this treatment did not display toxicity to normal non-targeted organs while retaining therapeutic effects in tumor-bearing organs. Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of a new approach for achieving tumor-selective killing effects following systemic stem cell administration. Its potential in stem cell-based gene therapy for metastatic cancer is worthy of further exploration. PMID:23752308

Zhu, Detu; Lam, Dang Hoang; Purwanti, Yovita Ida; Goh, Sal Lee; Wu, Chunxiao; Zeng, Jieming; Fan, Weimin; Wang, Shu

2013-08-01

268

Systemic Delivery of Fusogenic Membrane Glycoprotein-expressing Neural Stem Cells to Selectively Kill Tumor Cells  

PubMed Central

Intravenously injected neural stem cells (NSCs) can infiltrate both primary and metastatic tumor sites; thus, they are attractive tumor-targeting vehicles for delivering anticancer agents. However, because the systemic distribution of the injected NSCs involves normal organs and might induce off-target actions leading to unintended side effects, clinical applications of this approach is impeded. Given that the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) can promote the formation of multinucleated syncytia to kill cells in a pH-dependent manner, we engineered a pH sensor of VSV-G and generated a novel VSV-G mutant that efficiently promotes syncytium formation at the tumor extracellular pH (pHe) but not at pH 7.4. Using transduced NSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), the VSV-G mutant was delivered into mice with metastatic breast cancers in the lung through tail vein injection. Compared with the conventional stem cell-based gene therapy that uses the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) suicide gene, this treatment did not display toxicity to normal non-targeted organs while retaining therapeutic effects in tumor-bearing organs. Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of a new approach for achieving tumor-selective killing effects following systemic stem cell administration. Its potential in stem cell-based gene therapy for metastatic cancer is worthy of further exploration. PMID:23752308

Zhu, Detu; Lam, Dang Hoang; Purwanti, Yovita Ida; Goh, Sal Lee; Wu, Chunxiao; Zeng, Jieming; Fan, Weimin; Wang, Shu

2013-01-01

269

Targeted Killing and Just War: Reconciling Kill-Capture Missions, International Law, and the Combatant Civilian Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses how kill-capture missions can be reconciled with the underlying principles of just war theory. Part I of this paper outlines the traditional just war combatant-civilian framework and the basic legal doctrines currently thought to apply to targeted killing. Part II advances a new conception of the traditional combatant-civilian framework that incorporates the third category of alternative belligerents

Louis H. Guard

2012-01-01

270

Energy efficient passenger vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use. The vehicle basically comprises a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules, namely body, solar, and

Dessert

1983-01-01

271

The involvement of drugs in drivers of motor vehicles killed in Australian road traffic crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-center case-control study was conducted on 3398 fatally-injured drivers to assess the effect of alcohol and drug use on the likelihood of them being culpable. Crashes investigated were from three Australian states (Victoria, New South Wales and Western Australia). The control group of drug- and alcohol-free drivers comprised 50.1% of the study population. A previously validated method of responsibility

Olaf H. Drummer; Jim Gerostamoulos; Helen Batziris; Mark Chu; John Caplehorn; Michael D. Robertson; Philip Swann

2004-01-01

272

VEHICLE FUEL Informing Consumers,  

E-print Network

TIRES AND PASSENGER VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY Informing Consumers, Improving Performance TRANSPORTATION and Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy Informing Consumers, Improving Performance NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL and passenger vehicle fuel economy : informing consumers, improving performance / Committee for the National

273

Forestry Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power Pack II provides an economical means of moving a power source into remote roadless forest areas. It was developed by Prof. Miles and his associates, working in cooperation with the University of California's Department of Forestry. The team combined its own design of an all-terrain vehicle with a suspension system based on the NASA load equalization technology. Result is an intermediate-sized unit which carries a power source and the powered tools to perform a variety of forest management tasks which cannot be done economically with current equipment. Power Pack II can traverse very rough terrain and climb a 60 degree slope; any one of the wheels can move easily over an obstacle larger than itself. Work is being done on a more advanced Power Pack III.

1982-01-01

274

Kinetic Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains two Physlets that are able to share data using their common superclass, SApplet. The Molecular Physlet is able to tag a particle as a data source. In particular, any tagged particle can deliver x, y, vx, and vy values to a data listener. This script tags two particles and assigns these data sources to two different series in the DataGraph Physlet. The connection can show any analytic function of the position and velocity components including the particle speed or kinetic energy.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-09

275

Honor killing attitudes amongst adolescents in Amman, Jordan.  

PubMed

The present study examines attitudes towards honor crimes amongst a sample of 856 ninth grade students (mean age?=?14.6, SD?=?0.56) from 14 schools in Amman, Jordan. Descriptive findings suggest that about 40% of boys and 20% of girls believe that killing a daughter, sister, or wife who has dishonored the family can be justified. A number of theoretically meaningful predictors were examined: Findings suggest that attitudes in support of honor killings are more likely amongst adolescents who have collectivist and patriarchal world views, believe in the importance of female chastity amongst adolescents, and morally neutralize aggressive behavior in general. Findings for parental harsh discipline are mixed: While the father's harsh discipline is predictive of honor killing attitudes, the mother's behavior is not. Furthermore, support for honor killing is stronger amongst male adolescents and adolescents for low education backgrounds. After controlling for other factors religion and the intensity of religious beliefs are not associated with support for honor killings. Models were tested separately for male and female respondents and suggested no systematic differences in predictors. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23744567

Eisner, Manuel; Ghuneim, Lana

2013-01-01

276

July/August 2012 Newsletter Subscriptions Bee-Kill Survey USDA APHIS Survey Canadian Nosema Studies  

E-print Network

to their formal bee kill report solicitation prompted the US EPA Pesticide Program Dialog Committee (PPDC) Crops and Pesticide- related Bee Kills (3) Economic Impacts and Bee-Kill Investigations (4) Additional ________________________________________________________________________________ Newsletter Subscriptions Bee-Kill Survey USDA APHIS Survey Canadian Nosema Studies

Ferrara, Katherine W.

277

ccsd-00002799,version1-7Sep2004 KILLING FORMS ON SYMMETRIC SPACES  

E-print Network

. Keywords: Killing forms, symmetric spaces. 1. Introduction There are two equivalent definitions of Killing vector fields on Riemannian manifolds. A vector field X is Killing if its local flow consists, ANDREI MOROIANU AND UWE SEMMELMANN Proposition 1.2. A symmetric space admitting real Killing spinors

Boyer, Edmond

278

KILLING SPINORS IN SUPERGRAVITY WITH 4-FLUXES ILKA AGRICOLA AND THOMAS FRIEDRICH  

E-print Network

KILLING SPINORS IN SUPERGRAVITY WITH 4-FLUXES ILKA AGRICOLA AND THOMAS FRIEDRICH Abstract. We study#12;ed geometrically. Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. Killing Spinors with 4-Fluxes on 3-Sasakian Manifolds 3 3. Killing Spinors with 4-Fluxes on Nearly Parallel G 2 -Manifolds 5 4. Killing Spinors with 4

Friedrich, Thomas

279

Nice guys finish last : A critical review of Killed in the Line of Duty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, the FBI published the report Killed in the Line of Duty: A Study of Selected Felonious Killings of Law Enforcement Officers. This study of 51 incidents in which law enforcement officers were killed, reported on the personality and characteristics of those who murder law enforcement officers, the types of officers who were killed and factors which contribute to

William R. King; Beth A. Sanders

1997-01-01

280

Aerodynamics of road vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This introduction to aerodynamic aspects of motor vehicle design will be of use both to vehicle designers and students of automobile engineering. Content covers vehicle systems, ventilation and aerodynamic design to reduce drag and increase stability of cars, commercial vehicles and PSVs. Topics considered include automobile aerodynamics; some fundamentals of fluid mechanics; performance of cars and light vans; aerodynamic drag of passenger cars; driving stability in sidewinds; operation, safety and comfort; high-performance vehicle aerodynamics; commercial vehicles; engine cooling systems; heating, ventilation and air conditioning of motor vehicles; wind tunnels for automobile aerodynamics; measuring and testing techniques; and numerical methods for computation of flow around road vehicles.

Hucho, W.H.

1987-01-01

281

Control instrumentation for wellheads and mud kill system  

SciTech Connect

This work describes the wellhead and mud kill system instrumentation installed at the Mobile Oil Indonesia Arun natural gas field in N. Sumatra. The first part describes the controls and instrumentation associated with the field production wells. The philosophy behind the design of the pressure controls and pressure protection system is discussed, including details of the layout and operation of the various wellhead control panels. The second part of the study covers the well kill system at Arun and in particular describes the instrumentation and control equipment. A full description is given of the pressure and flow monitoring system and of the problems encountered when measuring the flow rate of well kill mud. The remote controls necessary for the system are described also.

Giles, A.J.

1982-01-01

282

Killing-Yano equations and G-structures  

E-print Network

We solve the Killing-Yano equation on manifolds with a $G$-structure for $G=SO(n), U(n), SU(n), Sp(n)\\cdot Sp(1), Sp(n), G_2$ and $Spin(7)$. Solutions include nearly-K\\"ahler, weak holonomy $G_2$, balanced SU(n) and holonomy $G$ manifolds. As an application, we find that particle probes on $AdS_4\\times X$ compactifications of type IIA and 11-dimensional supergravity admit a ${\\cal W}$-type of symmetry generated by the fundamental forms. We also explore the ${\\cal W}$-symmetries of string and particle actions in heterotic and common sector supersymmetric backgrounds. In the heterotic case, the generators of the ${\\cal W}$-symmetries completely characterize the solutions of the gravitino Killing spinor equation, and the structure constants of the ${\\cal W}$-symmetry algebra depend on the solution of the dilatino Killing spinor equation.

G. Papadopoulos

2007-12-04

283

Phagocytosis and killing of salmonella typhimurium by peritoneal exudate cells.  

PubMed Central

Normal peritoneal cells from conventional, germfree, or nu/nu mice readily killed opsonized salmonellae, an observation that suggests that this activity in the normal peritoneal cavity may not be dependent on either environmental antigenic stimulation or T-cell mediation. In contrast, peritoneal cells elicited 4 days after injection with thioglycolate medium failed to kill opsonized salmonellae but appeared to be highly phagocytic. Peritoneal cells from thioglycolate-treated mice could be induced to kill opsonized salmonellae by giving the mice a primary footpad injection and a secondary intraperitoneal injection of Corynebacterium parvum. This activation by C. parvum appeared to be thymus dependent, since it did not occur in nu/nu mice. PMID:7024128

Briles, D E; Lehmeyer, J; Forman, C

1981-01-01

284

Inflatable kill packers used in working over Kuwaiti wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on inflatable packers which are being used with great success in post-well capping workover operations in Kuwait oil fields. In mid-January, about one kill packer was being run per day. Use is expected to increase in March when a second post-capping crew arrives. Of several thousand unconventional ideas submitted to Kuwait Oil Co. (KOC) for controlling the well fires left in the aftermath of lst year's Gulf War, only about a dozen were actually used. Inflatable kill packers, designed and manufactured by Baker Service Tools and marketed by Baker Oil Tools, were one of the ideas that proved effective. The kill packers are modifications of Baker's inflatable packers that have successfully been used in capping producers on many blowouts throughout the world, including the Piper Alpha disaster in the North Sea and the Saga blowout offshore Norway.

Miller, D. (Baker Oil Tools, Houston, TX (US)); Conover, G. (Baker Service Tools, Houston, TX (US))

1992-03-09

285

Adenosine receptor antagonists effect on plasma-enhanced killing.  

PubMed

Previous studies demonstrated that naive plasma has inherent capabilities to enhance bacterial opsonization and phagocyte killing, but not all plasma is equally effective. This raised the question of whether plasma constituents other than opsonins may play a role. Adenosine receptor antagonists have been shown to modulate cytokine response and survival in mice after a bacterial challenge. We investigated whether selective adenosine receptor blockade would influence the ability of naive plasma to effectively control bacterial growth. Colonic bacteria- and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages and neutrophils were obtained from naive mice. Stock murine plasma from naive was purchased and categorized as having high plasma-enhanced bacterial killing capacity using our previously described methods. Bacteria and plasma were incubated to allow for opsonization and then added to macrophages previously exposed to selected adenosine receptor antagonists: ZM 241385: A2A, MRS1754: A2B, DPCPX: A1, and MRS1220: A3. The final mixture was plated on blood agar plates in aerobic and anaerobic conditions and bacterial colony-forming units quantified after 24 h. This study demonstrated that exogenous adenosine was able to significantly decrease phagocyte killing of cecal bacteria. Blocking adenosine receptors with selective antagonists altered the bacterial killing capacity of plasma. Selectively blocking the A1, A2A, or A2B receptors proved most beneficial at reversing the effect of adenosine. Consistent with previous work, only macrophage killing of bacteria could be modulated by adenosine receptor blockade because neutrophils were unaffected. These data demonstrate that adenosine decreases macrophage killing of enteric bacteria and that this effect is mediated through the adenosine receptors. PMID:24089004

Bauzá, Gustavo; Moitra, Rituparna; Remick, Daniel

2014-01-01

286

Binding and killing of bacteria by bismuth subsalicylate.  

PubMed Central

Bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) is a compound without significant aqueous solubility that is widely used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. BSS was able to bind bacteria of diverse species, and these bound bacteria were subsequently killed. A 4-log10 reduction of viable bacteria occurred within 4 h after a 10 mM aqueous suspension of BSS was inoculated with 2 x 10(6) Escherichia coli cells per ml. Binding and killing were dependent on the levels of inoculated bacteria, and significant binding but little killing of the exposed bacteria occurred at an inoculum level of 2 x 10(9) E. coli per ml. Intracellular ATP decreased rapidly after exposure of E. coli to 10 mM BSS and, after 30 min, was only 1% of the original level. Extracellular ATP increased after exposure to BSS, but the accumulation of extracellular ATP was not sufficient to account for the loss of intracellular ATP. The killing of bacteria exposed to BSS may have been due to cessation of ATP synthesis or a loss of membrane integrity. Bactericidal activity of BSS was also investigated in a simulated gastric juice at pH 3. Killing of E. coli at this pH was much more rapid than at pH 7 and was apparently due to salicylate released by the conversion of BSS to bismuth oxychloride. It is proposed that the binding and killing observed for BSS contribute to the efficacy of this compound against gastrointestinal infections such as traveler's diarrhea. PMID:2694949

Sox, T E; Olson, C A

1989-01-01

287

Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.  

PubMed

Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803

Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

2014-04-01

288

Motor vehicle-related deaths - United States, 2005 and 2009.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death for children, teenagers, and young adults in the United States. In 2009, approximately 36,000 persons were killed in motor vehicle crashes, and racial/ethnic minorities were affected disproportionally. Approximately 4.3% of all American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) deaths and 3.3% of all Hispanic deaths were attributed to crashes, whereas crashes were the cause of death for <1.7% of blacks, whites, and Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PI). PMID:24264511

West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

2013-11-22

289

Spinorial geometry and Killing spinor equations of 6D supergravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We solve the Killing spinor equations of six-dimensional (1, 0)-supergravity coupled to any number of tensor, vector and scalar multiplets in all cases. The isotropy groups of Killing spinors are Sp(1)\\\\cdot Sp(1)\\\\ltimes {\\\\bb H}(1), U(1)\\\\cdot Sp(1)\\\\ltimes {\\\\bb H}(2), Sp(1)\\\\ltimes {\\\\bb H}(3,4), Sp(1)(2), U(1)(4) and {1}(8), where in parenthesis is the number of supersymmetries preserved in each case. If the isotropy

M. Akyol; G. Papadopoulos

2011-01-01

290

Spinorial geometry and Killing spinor equations of 6-D supergravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We solve the Killing spinor equations of 6-dimensional (1,0)-supergravity\\u000acoupled to any number of tensor, vector and scalar multiplets in all cases. The\\u000aisotropy groups of Killing spinors are $Sp(1)\\\\cdot Sp(1)\\\\ltimes \\\\bH (1)$,\\u000a$U(1)\\\\cdot Sp(1)\\\\ltimes \\\\bH (2)$, $Sp(1)\\\\ltimes \\\\bH (3,4)$, $Sp(1) (2)$, $U(1)\\u000a(4)$ and $\\\\{1\\\\} (8)$, where in parenthesis is the number of supersymmetries\\u000apreserved in each case. If

Mehmet Akyol; George Papadopoulos

2010-01-01

291

SMART BOMBS, SERIAL KILLING, AND THE RAPTURE: RT BOMBS, SERIAL KILLING, AND THE RAPTURE: RT BOMBS, SERIAL KILLING, The Vanishing Bodies of Imperial Apocalypticism  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. One of the most well-publicized hypotheses regarding the terror of 9\\/11 is the notion that religious fantasies played a major role in inspiring the militants of al-Qaeda to launch their suicide attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Only irrational fanatics could have been capable of killing themselves for the sake of taking thousands of innocent lives

Peter Yoonsuk Paik

292

CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY University and Private Vehicles  

E-print Network

.............................................................................................6 Motor Vehicle Accidents..........................................................................9 Motor Vehicle Liability Insurance

Ponce, V. Miguel

293

Green Vehicle Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is geared toward consumers to help them choose the most fuel-efficient and clean vehicles. Users can download vehicle lists, look up vehicle ratings, learn more about reducing vehicle pollution, and use the links section to find further information. This is a timely site for a period when Americans might well want to think about reducing their dependence on oil.

2001-01-01

294

> 070131-073Vehicle  

E-print Network

on collaborative control ofAutonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and Autonomous-The design and development of the Swordfish Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) system is discussed. Swordfish Terms-Autonomous Surface Vehicles, ocean robotics, marine science operations, unmanned survey vessels. I

Marques, Eduardo R. B.

295

Energy efficient passenger vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use comprised of a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship is described. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules: body, solar, and two

Dessert

1980-01-01

296

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data  

EIA Publications

Annual data released on the number of on-road alternative fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles made available by both the original equipment manufacturers and aftermarket vehicle conversion facilities. Data on the use of alternative fueled vehicles and the amount of fuel they consume is also available.

2013-01-01

297

Electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the energy utilization of gasoline and battery-electric powered special purpose vehicles is discussed along with the impact of electric cars on national energy consumption, the development of electric vehicles in Japan, the applicability of safety standards to electric and hybrid-vehicles, and crashworthiness tests on two electric vehicles. Aspects of energy storage are explored, taking into account a

L. J. Jacovides; E. P. Cornell; R. Kirk

1981-01-01

298

Remote vehicle controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A remote control system is disclosed for use with vehicles having radios. A first vehicle has a controller attached to the radio for use in sending signals to a second vehicle. The second, remotely controlled, vehicle has a receiver connected to the vehicle radio which receives commands from the first radio to effect the desired motion and action of the second vehicle. The receiver and controller have circuitry which allows them to be reprogrammed to function on various military vehicles and also be attached to the different radio systems in use by the U.S. Military.

Schmitz, John J.

1992-06-01

299

Karo-kari: a form of honour killing in pakistan.  

PubMed

Karo-Kari is a type of premeditated honour killing, which originated in rural and tribal areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The homicidal acts are primarily committed against women who are thought to have brought dishonour to their family by engaging in illicit pre-marital or extra-marital relations. In order to restore this honour, a male family member must kill the female in question. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature other sources on karo-kari and related forms of honour killing or violence against women. Media and non-governmental organization reports were utilized for case studies and analysis. Although legally proscribed, socio-cultural factors and gender role expectations have given legitimacy to karo-kari within some tribal communities. In addition to its persistence in areas of Pakistan, there is evidence that karo-kari may be increasing in incidence in other parts of the world in association with migration. Moreover, perpetrators of ;honour killings' often have motives outside of female adultery. Analysis of the socio-cultural and psycho-pathological factors associated with the practice of karo-kari can guide the development of prevention strategies. PMID:19091732

Patel, Sujay; Gadit, Amin Muhammad

2008-12-01

300

Evolutionary Biology Bioscene 3 Evolution Kills: A Web Resource for  

E-print Network

-causing bacteria evolve antibiotic resistance. To help rectify this situation, we have developed a laboratoryEvolutionary Biology Bioscene 3 Evolution Kills: A Web Resource for Instructors of Evolutionary that demonstrates how evolution can be taught as a participatory, investigative science at the undergraduate college

Antonovics, Janis

301

Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants  

PubMed Central

Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ?8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ?40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ?3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M.; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P.

2014-01-01

302

Saying the Unsaid: Girl Killing and the Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although students in Jonesboro, Arkansas, repeatedly claimed that the March 1998 killing of four schoolgirls and a teacher was motivated by a rejected boy's desire for revenge, reporters and authorities dismissed this explanation and gender's role in the crime. Closer analysis suggests opportunities and difficulties for educators who want…

Perlstein, Daniel

1998-01-01

303

Killing for Girls: Predation Play and Female Empowerment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predation games--games in which the player is actively encouraged and often required to hunt and kill in order to survive--have historically been the purview of male players. Females, though now much more involved in digital games than before, generally play games that stress traditionally feminine values such as socializing with others, shopping,…

Bertozzi, Elena

2012-01-01

304

Quantum theory of space-times with one killing field  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the canonical quantization of Einstein gravity for space-times with one killing vector field. They use the new canonical variables introduced by Ashtekar. Both the connection and loop space representations for the quantum theory are considered. The authors find that the physical state space has a characterization in terms of equivalence classed of Eulerian graphs.

Husain, V. (Syracuse Univ., NY (USA). Dept. of Physics); Pullin, J. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1990-04-20

305

Population genetics of the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis  

E-print Network

Population genetics of the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Jess A. T. Morgan comparison of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis isolates from an intensively studied region of frog decline-host specificity, little correlation between fungal genotype and geography, local frog extirpation by a single

California at Berkeley, University of

306

Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1  

E-print Network

#12;#12;Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1 Code Red 2 settles into weekly pattern Nimda enters the ecosystem Code Red 2 dies off as programmed CR 1 returns thanks to bad clocks #12;Code Red 2 dies off as programmed Nimda hums along, slowly cleaned up With its predator gone, Code Red 1 comes back, still

Paxson, Vern

307

Plasmodium berghei Resists Killing by Reactive Oxygen Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are widely believed to kill malarial parasites. C57BL\\/6 mice injected with P. berghei inocula incubated with supraphysiological doses of NO (<150 M) or with peroxynitrite (220 M), however, exhibited parasitemia similar to that seen with those given control inocula, and there was no difference in disease development. Only treatment of inocula with NO doses nearing saturation

Peter Sobolewski; Irene Gramaglia; John A. Frangos; Marcos Intaglietta; Henri van der Heyde

2005-01-01

308

Spin structures and killing spinors on lens spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine the values of m and p for which a lens space Zpm-1 admits a spin structure. We prove that the only lens spaces (with dimension > 3) admitting a maximal number of linearly independent Killing spinors are the real projective spaces P4k-1(R). Aspirant au Fonds National Belge de la Recherche Scientifique.

A. Franc

1987-01-01

309

Supersymmetric Solutions with Fluxes from Algebraic Killing Spinors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a general framework for constructing supersymmetric solutions in the presence of non-trivial fluxes of tensor gauge fields. This technique involves making a general Ansatz for the metric and then defining the Killing spinors in terms of very simple projectors on the spinor fields. These projectors and, through them, the spinors, are determined algebraically in terms of the metric

Chethan N. Gowdigere; Dennis Nemeschansky; Nicholas P. Warner

2003-01-01

310

A note on simple applications of the Killing Spinor Identities  

E-print Network

We show how the Killing Spinor Identities (KSI) can be used to reduce the number of independent equations of motion that need to be checked explicitly to make sure that a supersymmetric configuration is a classical supergravity solution. We also show how the KSI can be used to compute BPS relations between masses and charges.

Jorge Bellorin; Tomas Ortin

2005-01-31

311

IIB solutions with N>28 Killing spinors are maximally supersymmetric  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that all IIB supergravity backgrounds which admit more than 28 Killing spinors are maximally supersymmetric. In particular, we find that for all N>28 backgrounds the supercovariant curvature vanishes, and that the quotients of maximally supersymmetric backgrounds either preserve all 32 or N<29 supersymmetries.

U. Gran; J. Gutowski; G. Papadopoulos; D. Roest

2007-01-01

312

A note on simple applications of the Killing spinor identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how the Killing Spinor Identities (KSI) can be used to reduce the number of independent equations of motion that need to be checked explicitly to make sure that a supersymmetric configuration is a classical supergravity solution. We also show how the KSI can be used to compute BPS relations between masses and charges.

Jorge Bellorín; Tomás Ortín

2005-01-01

313

Tools and Technology Article Methods for Locating African Lion Kills  

E-print Network

Tools and Technology Article Methods for Locating African Lion Kills Using Global Positioning-traveled data, cluster durations, and environmental factors to predict occurrence of 234 female African lion, Funston et al. 2001, Broomhall et al. 2003, Bissett and Bernard 2007). In African lions (Panthera leo

Getz, Wayne M.

314

Project tracks tiny germ that's killing mighty oaks Peter Fimrite  

E-print Network

in wake of anti- gay tirade 2. SF police officer kills biting dog 3. Lululemon pulls yoga pants -- too, or about six-tenths of a mile, of a diseased tree are considered to be at high risk of becoming infected

California at Berkeley, University of

315

Too Much Protein May Kill Brain Cells As Parkinson's Progresses  

MedlinePLUS

... Too much protein may kill brain cells as Parkinson’s progresses NIH-funded study on key Parkinson’s gene finds a possible new target for monitoring ... discovered how the most common genetic cause of Parkinson’s disease destroys brain cells and devastates many patients ...

316

Calcium-activated DNA fragmentation kills immature thymocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoid hormones kill immature thymocytes by activating a self-destructive process that involves exten- sive DNA fragmentation. It has been demonstrated that thymocyte suicide is dependent on an early, sustained increase in cytosolic Ca2 concentration, and new protein synthesis, but the biochemical lesion that leads to cell death has not been established. To determine whether endonuclease activation or activation of another

DAVID J. MCCONKEY; PIA HARTZELL; PIERLUIGI NICOTERA; STEN ORRENIUS

317

Complement-Mediated Killing of Microtumors in Vitro  

PubMed Central

Complement-mediated lysis of cancer cells growing in three-dimensional aggregates involves factors that are not associated with the killing of cells in suspension. We have used multicellular tumor spheroids established from breast carcinoma (T47D) and ovarian teratocarcinoma (PA-1) cell lines as models to study complement-mediated destruction of micrometastases and small solid tumors. We found that significant killing of microtumors treated with an antitumor antibody and a specific monoclonal antibody (YTH53.1) against the complement lysis inhibitor protectin (CD59) started to occur after a 1 to 2-hour lag phase. After an overnight incubation, the microtumors became totally infiltrated by the YTH53.1 monoclonal antibody and C1q, whereas C3 and C5b-9 penetrated as a frontier to the peripheral cell layers. A 51Cr release assay showed that during a 24-hour pulsed treatment with complement, 33% of cells in the spheroids were killed, and the average tumor volume decreased by 28%. According to propidium iodide staining, complement exposure resulted in killing and peeling off of the outermost tumor cells. PMID:9736033

Hakulinen, Juha; Meri, Seppo

1998-01-01

318

Evolution Operators for Linearly Polarized Two-Killing Cosmological Models  

E-print Network

We give a general procedure to obtain non perturbative evolution operators in closed form for quantized linearly polarized two Killing vector reductions of general relativity with a cosmological interpretation. We study the representation of these operators in Fock spaces and discuss in detail the conditions leading to unitary evolutions.

J. Fernando Barbero G.; Daniel Gómez Vergel; Eduardo J. S. Villaseñor

2006-06-15

319

Binary black hole spacetimes with a helical Killing vector  

E-print Network

Binary black hole spacetimes with a helical Killing vector, which are discussed as an approximation for the early stage of a binary system, are studied in a projection formalism. In this setting the four dimensional Einstein equations are equivalent to a three dimensional gravitational theory with a $SL(2,\\mathbb{C})/SO(1,1)$ sigma model as the material source. The sigma model is determined by a complex Ernst equation. 2+1 decompositions of the 3-metric are used to establish the field equations on the orbit space of the Killing vector. The two Killing horizons of spherical topology which characterize the black holes, the cylinder of light where the Killing vector changes from timelike to spacelike, and infinity are singular points of the equations. The horizon and the light cylinder are shown to be regular singularities, i.e. the metric functions can be expanded in a formal power series in the vicinity. The behavior of the metric at spatial infinity is studied in terms of formal series solutions to the linearized Einstein equations. It is shown that the spacetime is not asymptotically flat in the strong sense to have a smooth null infinity under the assumption that the metric tends asymptotically to the Minkowski metric. In this case the metric functions have an oscillatory behavior in the radial coordinate in a non-axisymmetric setting, the asymptotic multipoles are not defined. The asymptotic behavior of the Weyl tensor near infinity shows that there is no smooth null infinity.

C. Klein

2004-10-19

320

Why Kill Politicians? A Rational Choice Analysis of Political Assassinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of history a large number of politicians has been assassinated. A rational choice analysis is used to distinguish the expected marginal benefits of killing, and the marginal cost of attacking a politician. The comparative analysis of various equilibria helps us to gain insights into specific historical events. The analysis suggests that ? in addition to well-known security

Bruno S. Frey

2007-01-01

321

Exogenous myeloperoxidase enhances bacterial phagocytosis and intracellular killing by macrophages.  

PubMed Central

It is well documented that myeloperoxidase (MyPo) contributes to the bacterial activities of neutrophils and monocytes. Since mature macrophages (M phi) are devoid of this enzyme, its participation in M phi-mediated phagocytes and bacterial killing has not been completely defined. The present study demonstrates the exogenously added MyPo, at physiological levels, enhances both phagocytosis and killing of Escherichia coli. Murine peritoneal M phi were exposed to various concentrations of MyPo for different time intervals. Viable opsonized E. coli was added either prior to or after addition of MyPo. Thioglycolate-induced but not resident M pho exhibited an increase in the number of phagocytizing cells. Both resident and thioglycolate-induced M phi demonstrated increased bactericidal activity. Physiological levels of soluble MyPo also induced a significant increase in chemiluminescence. Since luminol-dependent chemiluminescence measures reactive oxygen intermediate production, studies were done to determine whether superoxide anion or H2O2 was involved in MyPo-induced M pho killing. Both superoxide dismutase and catalase ablated MyPo-induced bactericidal activity. The above data suggest that soluble MyPo, released from neutrophils at a site of infection or inflammation, can enhance both phagocytosis and killing of microorganisms. PMID:7622228

Lincoln, J A; Lefkowitz, D L; Cain, T; Castro, A; Mills, K C; Lefkowitz, S S; Moguilevsky, N; Bollen, A

1995-01-01

322

Copper as a magic bullet for targeted microbial killing.  

PubMed

The innate toxicity of copper can be exploited as an antimicrobial. In this issue of Chemistry & Biology Festa and colleagues report the use of QBP, a prochelator form of the metal-chelate 8-hydroxyquinolone, which allows for targeted copper-dependent microbial killing at sites of infection. PMID:25126988

Cavet, Jennifer S

2014-08-14

323

A bacteriolytic agent that detects and kills Bacillus anthracis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dormant and durable spore form of Bacillus anthracis is an ideal biological weapon of mass destruction. Once inhaled, spores are transported by alveolar macrophages to lymph nodes surrounding the lungs, where they germinate; subsequent vegetative expansion causes an overwhelming flood of bacteria and toxins into the blood, killing up to 99% of untreated victims. Natural and genetically engineered antibiotic-resistant

Raymond Schuch; Daniel Nelson; Vincent A. Fischetti

2002-01-01

324

The Design of Intelligent Control System for Well Killing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choke killing is a common method to control well kick and implement well pressure control of oil and gas in the process of drilling. By adjusting choke valve opening, casing pressure and standpipe pressure can be controlled to maintain pressure balance in well and prevent well blowout. In this design, fuzzy control and expert experiences are effectively applied in parameter

Gong Jie; Mei Dacheng; He Zhimin; Ding Peng

2010-01-01

325

Suite violence: Why managers muder and corporations kill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the area of organizational deviance leading to avoidable death, injury and harm. Corporate activity creates a large number of victims and yet this area is neglected in the literature. Evidence indicates that business kills, maims and poisons; that we are dealing with organizational deviance; but that iy is difficult, legally and organizationally, to pin down precisely the

Maurice Punch

2000-01-01

326

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nafcillin enhances innate immune-mediated killing  

E-print Network

to daptomycin was used to treat refractory methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia against MRSA were examined in vitro and in vivo. Exposures to -lactam antimicrobials in general, neutrophils, and platelets. This finding correlated with enhanced killing of MRSA by whole blood, neutrophils

Nizet, Victor

327

Mass impacts on fuel economies of conventional vs. hybrid electric vehicles.  

SciTech Connect

The strong correlation between vehicle weight and fuel economy for conventional vehicles (CVs) is considered common knowledge, and the relationship of mass reduction to fuel consumption reduction for conventional vehicles (CVs) is often cited without separating effects of powertrain vs. vehicle body (glider), nor on the ground of equivalent vehicle performance level. This paper challenges the assumption that this relationship is easily summarized. Further, for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) the relationship between mass, performance and fuel consumption is not the same as for CVs, and vary with hybrid types. For fully functioning (all wheel regeneration) hybrid vehicles, where battery pack and motor(s) have enough power and energy storage, a very large fraction of kinetic energy is recovered and engine idling is effectively eliminated. This paper assesses two important impacts of shifting from conventional to hybrid vehicles in terms of the mass vs. fuel economy relationship - (1) significant improvements in fuel economy with little or no change in mass, and (2) once a switch to hybrid powertrains has been made, the effectiveness of mass reduction in improving fuel economy will be diminished relative to conventional vehicles. In this paper, we discuss vehicle tractive load breakdowns and impacts of hybridization on vehicle efficiency, discuss capture of kinetic energy by conversion to electrical energy via regenerative braking, assess benefits of shutting off the engine when the vehicle does not require power, and investigate energy losses associated with vehicle mass.

An, F.; Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

2004-01-01

328

Lipid Peroxidation in the Killing of Phagocytized Pneumococci  

PubMed Central

To directly examine the role of hydrogen peroxide in the killing of bacteria after ingestion by granulocytes, we have studied some of the events of phagocytosis of a mutant strain of pneumococci which is relatively deficient in peroxide production. The hydrogen peroxide-deficient pneumococci and the otherwise identical wild type were grown with [14C]arachidonic and [3H]palmitic acid labels to label their lipids with unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, respectively. They were then incubated with both normal and chronic granulomatous disease granulocytes. The rates of ingestion and bacterial killing and the stability of fatty acids in the cell-bacteria complex were followed. Radioactive carbon dioxide released from glucose was also independently followed to measure glucose oxidation. Ingestion was similar for all cell-bacteria combinations. Chronic granulomatous disease cells killed the peroxide-positive wild pneumococci much more effectively (20-fold) than the peroxide-deficient mutant. Normal cells killed both peroxide-positive and -negative strains effectively. A considerable loss of [14C]arachidonic acid (?40%) consistent with lipid peroxidation of this unsaturated fatty acid was observed in all normal cells and in chronic granulomatous disease cells with peroxide-positive pneumococci. However, no loss of [14C]arachidonic acid occurred in chronic granulomatous disease cells with the peroxide-deficient pneumococci. No loss tritiated palmitic acid occurred in any cell-bacteria combination. Glucose oxidation was impaired in the chronic granulomatous disease cells in comparison to normal cells at rest and was especially impaired in chronic granulomatous disease cells ingesting the peroxide-deficient mutant pneumococci. This defect was partially corrected after phagocytosis of the peroxide-positive strain. These data directly support the hypothesis that bacterial killing is partially dependent upon an intact peroxide-generating system in the leukocyte-bacteria complex. Moreover, they indicate that bacterial lipid peroxidation is associated with the generation of peroxide during phagocytosis. Finally, they suggest that such peroxidation may contribute to effective phagocytic bacterial killing. PMID:4154921

Shohet, S. B.; Pitt, J.; Baehner, R. L.; Poplack, D. G.

1974-01-01

329

Requirements for the Crash Protection of Older Vehicle Passengers  

PubMed Central

This study compares injury outcomes in vehicle crashes involving different age groups of belted passengers. Two datasets were considered. Firstly, UK national data revealed that younger passengers are much more likely to be involved in crashes per million miles travelled compared to older passengers although older passengers are much more likely to be killed or seriously injured compared to younger passengers. Secondly, in-depth vehicle crash injury data were examined to determine some of the underlying reasons for the enhanced injury risk amongst older passengers. In crashes of approximately equal severity, the older passenger group were significantly more likely to be fatally injured in frontal crashes (p<0.001). However young passengers were as equally likely to be killed in struck-side crashes compared to the older group. The results also showed that older passengers sustained more serious injuries to the chest region in frontal crashes compared with the younger aged group (p<0.0001) and it is this body region that is particularly problematic. When the data were analysed further, it was found that a large proportion of passengers were female and that in the majority of cases, the seat belt was responsible for injury. Since by the year 2030, 1 in 4 persons will be aged over 65 in most OECD countries, the results suggest a need for intervention through vehicle design including in-vehicle crashworthiness systems that take into account reduced tolerance to impact with ageing. PMID:12941224

Morris, Andrew; Welsh, Ruth; Hassan, Ahamedali

2003-01-01

330

Control instrumentation for wellheads and mud-kill systems. [Indonesia  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the instrumentation and control systems used on the wellheads and mud-kill systems at the Mobil Oil Arun natural gas field, situated onshore in the province of Aceh, North Sumatra, Indonesia. It points out that two blowouts in the Arun field provided valuable experience in evaluating both equipment and systems in terms of design, reliability, and application for this type of field service. It also examines operations at a carbonate reef containing an estimated 15 Tcf (0.42x10/sub 12/ m/sub 3/) gas at approximately 7,000 psig (48 263 kPa) and 360/sup 0/F (182/sup 0/C). The focus is on the design and installation of the control systems associated with the wellhead and mud-kill systems and the problems encounted during the past 5 yrs are highlighted.

Giles, A.J.

1983-08-01

331

9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false General requirements for killed virus vaccines. 113.200 Section 113...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General...

2011-01-01

332

9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.  

...false General requirements for killed virus vaccines. 113.200 Section 113...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General...

2014-01-01

333

9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false General requirements for killed virus vaccines. 113.200 Section 113...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General...

2013-01-01

334

9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false General requirements for killed virus vaccines. 113.200 Section 113...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General...

2012-01-01

335

Supergravity solutions and superalgebras with sixteen killing spinors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that for in order for a type IIB supergravity half-BPS solution to be asymptotic to AdS5 x S5, it must have an invariance superalgebra which is a subalgebra of PSU(2, 2|4) and has 16 Killing spinors. Similarly, for an M-theory half-BPS solution to be asymptotic to AdS7 x S4 or AdS4 x S7, it must have an invariance

Darya Romanovna Krym

2009-01-01

336

Killing spinors and supersymmetric AdS orbifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the behaviour of Killing spinors on AdS5 under various discrete symmetries of the spacetime. In this way we discover a number of supersymmetric orbifolds, reproducing the known ones and adding a few novel ones to the list. These orbifolds break the SO(4,2) invariance of AdS5 down to subgroups. We also make some comments on the non-compact Stiefel manifold

Bahniman Ghosh; Sunil Mukhi

1999-01-01

337

Supersymmetric Solutions with Fluxes from Algebraic Killing Spinors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a general framework for constructing supersymmetric\\u000asolutions in the presence of non-trivial fluxes of tensor gauge fields.\\u000aThis technique involves making a general Ansatz for the metric and then\\u000adefining the Killing spinors in terms of very simple projectors on the spinor\\u000afields. These projectors and, through them, the spinors, are determined\\u000aalgebraically in terms of the metric

Chethan N. Gowdigere; Dennis Nemeschansky; Nicholas P. Warner

2003-01-01

338

Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 ?g/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200 ± 50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200 ± 50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 ?g/mL) or lower (20 ?g/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 ?g/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations.

Cheng, Dengfeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Guoxin; Shi, Hongcheng

2014-04-01

339

Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 ?g/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200?±?50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200?±?50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 ?g/mL) or lower (20 ?g/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 ?g/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations. PMID:24872797

2014-01-01

340

Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells.  

PubMed

Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 ?g/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200?±?50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200?±?50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 ?g/mL) or lower (20 ?g/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 ?g/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations. PMID:24872797

Cheng, Dengfeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Guoxin; Shi, Hongcheng

2014-01-01

341

Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

1996-08-01

342

Social networking in vehicles  

E-print Network

In-vehicle, location-aware, socially aware telematic systems, known as Flossers, stand to revolutionize vehicles, and how their drivers interact with their physical and social worlds. With Flossers, users can broadcast and ...

Liang, Philip Angus

2006-01-01

343

Surface Acoustic Waves Enhance Neutrophil Killing of Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria that play a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria and are the leading cause of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections on indwelling catheters and medical prosthetic devices. Failure to resolve these biofilm infections may necessitate the surgical removal of the prosthetic device which can be debilitating and costly. Recent studies have shown that application of surface acoustic waves to catheter surfaces can reduce the incidence of infections by a mechanism that has not yet been clarified. We report here the effects of surface acoustic waves (SAW) on the capacity of human neutrophils to eradicate S. epidermidis bacteria in a planktonic state and within biofilms. Utilizing a novel fibrin gel system that mimics a tissue-like environment, we show that SAW, at an intensity of 0.3 mW/cm2, significantly enhances human neutrophil killing of S. epidermidis in a planktonic state and within biofilms by enhancing human neutrophil chemotaxis in response to chemoattractants. In addition, we show that the integrin CD18 plays a significant role in the killing enhancement observed in applying SAW. We propose from out data that this integrin may serve as mechanoreceptor for surface acoustic waves enhancing neutrophil chemotaxis and killing of bacteria. PMID:23936303

Loike, John D.; Plitt, Anna; Kothari, Komal; Zumeris, Jona; Budhu, Sadna; Kavalus, Kaitlyn; Ray, Yonatan; Jacob, Harold

2013-01-01

344

Effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

SciTech Connect

The effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated, using male Long-Evans rats exposed to 1% lead acetate in the drinking water for varying periods of time to achieve blood lead levels ranging from 20-200 ..mu..g/dl. Studies of PMN bacterial and fungal killing activity, chemotaxis and phagocytosis demonstrated that: 1) bactericidal activity of PMN from rats exposed to lead was not altered; 2) chemotactic activity remained within normal limits; 3) the phagocytic ability of the PMN also remained unaltered. In addition to these normal findings, one major abnormality was demonstrated: a significant decrease in the ability of PMN from rats exposed to lead to kill Candida albicans. This defect was not related to age or to length of exposure. It could not be produced by addition of lead to the test system in vitro. Further investigation revealed significant decreases in PMN glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase activities. These data support two possible mechanisms for the abnormal fungicidal activity of PMN from lead-exposed rats: decrease in ability to reduce oxygen to active metabolites, or reduction in myeloperoxidase activity due to diminshed synthesis of the heme moiety required for its function.

Silberstein, C.F.

1984-01-01

345

Default risk modeling with position-dependent killing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion in a linear potential in the presence of position-dependent killing is used to mimic a default process. Different assumptions regarding transport coefficients, initial conditions, and elasticity of the killing measure lead to diverse models of bankruptcy. One “stylized fact” is fundamental for our consideration: empirically default is a rather rare event, especially in the investment grade categories of credit ratings. Hence, the action of killing may be considered as a small parameter. In a number of special cases we derive closed-form expressions for the entire term structure of the cumulative probability of default, its hazard rate, and intensity. Comparison with historical data on aggregate global corporate defaults confirms the validity of the perturbation method for estimations of long-term probability of default for companies with high credit quality. On a single company level, we implement the derived formulas to estimate the one-year likelihood of default of Enron on a daily basis from August 2000 to August 2001, three months before its default, and compare the obtained results with forecasts of traditional structural models.

Katz, Yuri A.

2013-04-01

346

Spatial patterns and factors influencing small vertebrate fauna road-kill aggregations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the spatial patterns and factors influencing small terrestrial vertebrate road-kill aggregations in the Bow River Valley, Alberta, Canada. We surveyed roads varying in traffic volume, configuration and adjacent landscape attributes for road-kills between 1997 and 2000. The spatial pattern of road-kills was described using neighbour K statistics. We investigated the importance of road-kills at three taxonomic levels using

Anthony P Clevenger; Bryan Chruszcz; Kari E Gunson

2003-01-01

347

Review Essay: The Murderer Next Door: Why the Mind is Designed to Kill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buss postulates that the human mind has developed adaptations for killing (killing or homicide modules), that murder is qualitatively different from all other forms of violence, and that homicidal ideation (fantasies) almost invariably precedes carried-out kills, and he claims that Daly & Wilson’s slip-up argument fails because premeditated mate (spouse, partner) killing cannot result from the mere slip-ups central to

Johan M. G. van der Dennen

2006-01-01

348

Automotive Vehicle Driving Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The automotive vehicle dynamics is related to the movements of automotive vehicles - automobiles, vans, trucks, buses, coaches,\\u000a and special-purpose vehicles – on on\\/off-road surfaces. The movements of relevance are ride and turning as well as acceleration\\u000a (driving) and deceleration (braking). The forces affecting on the vehicle from the tyres, gravity, and aerodynamics, resolve\\u000a dynamic behaviour.

B. T. Fijalkowski

349

Comparison of killing of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by pure singlet oxygen. [Salmonella typhimurium; Escherichia coli; Sarcina lutea; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus lactis; Streptococcus faecalis  

SciTech Connect

Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were found to display different sensitivities to pure singlet oxygen generated outside of cells. Killing curves for Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli strains were indicative of multihit killing, whereas curves for Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis, and Streptococcus faecalis exhibited single-hit kinetics. The S. typhimurium deep rough strain TA1975, which lacks nearly all of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide coat and manifests concomitant enhancement of penetration by some exogenous substances, responded to singlet oxygen with initially faster inactivation than did the S. typhimurium wild-type strain, although the maximum rates of killing appeared to be quite similar. The structure of the cell wall thus plays an important role in susceptibility to singlet oxygen. The outer membrane-lipopolysaccharide portion of the gram-negative cell wall initially protects the bacteria from extracellular singlet oxygen, although it may also serve as a source for secondary reaction products which accentuate the rates of cell killing. S. typhimurium and E. coli strains lacking the cellular antioxidant, glutathione, showed no difference from strains containing glutathione in response to the toxic effects of singlet oxygen. Strains of Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus that contained carotenoids, however, were far more resistant to singlet oxygen lethality than were both carotenoidless mutants of the same species and other gram-positive species lacking high levels of protective carotenoids.

Dahl, T.A.; Midden, W.R. (Bowling Green State Univ., OH (USA)); Hartman, P.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

1989-04-01

350

Motor Vehicle Record Procedure Objective  

E-print Network

Motor Vehicle Record Procedure Objective Outline the procedure for obtaining motor vehicle record (MVR) through Fleet Services. Vehicle Operator Policy 3. Operators with 7 or more points on their motor vehicle record

Kirschner, Denise

351

Suspension apparatus for vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suspension apparatus is described for a vehicle provided between a pair of left and right wheels of the vehicle and the vehicle body, comprising: telescopic members integrally connected to suspension springs and expanded and contracted by means of fluid pressure, fluid passages for feeding fluid pressurized by a pump to the telescopic members and discharging the fluid from the

H. Fujita; K. Honma; M. Ogawa

1987-01-01

352

Lunar material transport vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis

Charles D. Fisher; Douglas Lyons; W. Allen Wilkins Jr.; Harry C. Whitehead Jr.

1988-01-01

353

Green Vehicle Guide  

MedlinePLUS

What is a Green Vehicle? What you drive, how you drive, and what fuel you use can impact both the environment and your pocketbook. Learn ... and increases emissions? See More » Search for SmartWay Vehicles Find the cleanest, most fuel efficient vehicle that ...

354

Electric Vehicle Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

Moore, Pam

2011-01-01

355

An assessment of the potential environmental impact of electric and hybrid-electric vehicles in Texas  

E-print Network

and batteries as storage devices for electrical energy. Although EVs use batteries as their sole source of energy, the EV powertrain can convert vehicle motion (kinetic energy) back into electrical energy through regenerative braking and consequently recharge... and batteries as storage devices for electrical energy. Although EVs use batteries as their sole source of energy, the EV powertrain can convert vehicle motion (kinetic energy) back into electrical energy through regenerative braking and consequently recharge...

Kim, Jung-Woo

2012-06-07

356

Killing of Escherichia coli by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the presence of Bacteroides fragilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effect of Bacteroides fragilis on the in vitro killing of Escherichia coli by polymorphonuclear leucocytes was studied with two pairs of E coli and B fragilis isolated from human wound infections. Both B fragilis strains behaved similarly: they inhibited the killing of one E coli strain, while the killing of the other E coli strain was not affected.

W A Vel; F Namavar; A M Verweij-van Vught; A N Pubben; D M MacLaren

1985-01-01

357

KILLING FORMS ON SYMMETRIC SPACES FLORIN BELGUN, ANDREI MOROIANU AND UWE SEMMELMANN  

E-print Network

. Introduction There are two equivalent definitions of Killing vector fields on Riemannian manifolds. A vector admitting real Killing spinors is locally confor- mally flat. To see that Theorem 1.1 implies Proposition 1.2, we recall the fact that a manifold M which carries Killing spinors is locally irreducible (cf. [1

Semmelmann, Uwe

358

KILLING SPINOR EQUATIONS IN DIMENSION 7 AND GEOMETRY OF INTEGRABLE G 2 -MANIFOLDS  

E-print Network

KILLING SPINOR EQUATIONS IN DIMENSION 7 AND GEOMETRY OF INTEGRABLE G 2 -MANIFOLDS THOMAS FRIEDRICH of the Killing spinor equation and express the Riemannian scalar curvature of the solution in terms, parallel spinors and Riemannian scalar curvature 4 5. Solutions to the Killing spinor equations

Friedrich, Thomas

359

Eigenvalues of the Dirac Operator, Twistors and Killing Spinors on Riemannian Manifolds  

E-print Network

Eigenvalues of the Dirac Operator, Twistors and Killing Spinors on Riemannian T (see Penrose [51 ]). A special type of twistor spinors are (generalized) Killing spinors _ satis function f : Mn !CI. Indeed, the Dirac operator D(_) for a Killing spinor equals D(_) = -nf_ and thus we

Baum, Helga

360

Eigenvalues of the Dirac Operator, Twistors and Killing Spinors on Riemannian Manifolds  

E-print Network

Eigenvalues of the Dirac Operator, Twistors and Killing Spinors on Riemannian Manifolds Helga Baum type of twistor spinors are (generalized) Killing spinors / satis­ fying the equation rX/ = f \\Delta X(/) for a Killing spinor equals D(/) = \\Gammanf / and thus we obtain rX/ + 1 n X \\Delta D/ = f \\Delta X \\Delta

Baum, Helga

361

What Makes State Leaders Brutal? Examining Grievances and Mass Killing during Civil War  

Microsoft Academic Search

What makes state leaders enmeshed in civil war commit mass killings against their own populations? This article explores this question by synthesizing grievances and mass killing. It investigates how factors or contexts that breed or exacerbate grievances can trigger state-sponsored mass killing during civil war. Severe political and economic marginalization and a history of intense armed conflict can engender staunch

Dongsuk Kim

2010-01-01

362

CAN I KILL MY YOUNGER SELF? TIME TRAVEL AND THE RETRO-SUICIDE PARADOX  

E-print Network

1 CAN I KILL MY YOUNGER SELF? TIME TRAVEL AND THE RETRO-SUICIDE PARADOX Peter B. M. Vranas vranas shooting my younger self (YS); then apparently I can kill him--I can commit retro-suicide. But to kill him

Fitelson, Branden

363

40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed...

2011-07-01

364

40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed...

2012-07-01

365

40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed...

2010-07-01

366

40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed...

2013-07-01

367

Ariane transfer vehicle scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA's Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is a vehicle design concept for the transfer of payloads from Ariane 5 launch vehicle orbit insertion to a space station, on the basis of the Ariane 5 program-developed Upper Stage Propulsion Module and Vehicle Equipment Bay. The ATV is conceived as a complement to the Hermes manned vehicle for lower cost unmanned carriage of logistics modules and other large structural elements, as well as waste disposal. It is also anticipated that the ATV will have an essential role in the building block transportation logistics of any prospective European space station.

Deutscher, Norbert; Cougnet, Claude

1990-10-01

368

Target vehicle developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To effectively test Ballistic Missile Defense systems, realistic targets are needed for demonstration and validation, which would effectively balance the contradictory requirements of cost effectiveness and precise targeting. This paper describes a family of target vehicles developed for that purpose, which provides a high degree of hardware and procedural commonality, while covering a broad range of performance requirements. The target vehicles can be readily adapted to a variety of Theater Missile Defense sensors and interceptor test requirements. The target vehicles can also be used for phenomenology experiments. The paper describes the target vehicle design, the target vehicle motors, the payload module bus modular subsystems, the mission unique subsystems, and launch operations.

Schoneman, Scott R.; Knoblach, Gerald

1993-06-01

369

Vehicle capture system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primex Aerospace Company, under contract with the U.S. Army Armament Research Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC), has developed a portable vehicle capture system for use at vehicle checkpoints. Currently when a vehicle does not stop at a checkpoint, there are three possible reactions: let the vehicle go unchallenged, pursue the vehicle or stop the vehicle with lethal force. This system provides a non-lethal alternative that will stop and contain the vehicle. The system is completely portable with the heaviest component weighing less than 120 pounds. It can be installed with no external electrical power or permanent anchors required. In its standby mode, the system does not impede normal traffic, but on command erects a barrier in less than 1.5 seconds. System tests have been conducted using 5,100 and 8.400 pound vehicles, traveling at speeds up to 45 mph. The system is designed to minimize vehicle damage and occupant injury, typically resulting in deceleration forces of less than 2.5 gs on the vehicle. According to the drivers involved in tests at 45 mph, the stopping forces feel similar to a panic stop with the vehicle brakes locked. The system is completely reusable and be rapidly reset.

Tacke, Kenneth L.

1998-12-01

370

Ares Launch Vehicles Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 2005, the Ares Projects have been building the nation s next generation of crew and cargo launch vehicles. As part of the Constellation Program, the Ares vehicles will enable astronauts in the Orion crew exploration vehicle and Altair lunar lander to reach the Moon and beyond. These vehicles draw upon hardware and experienced developed over 50 years of exploration, while also incorporating technology and management practices from today. Ares is concentrating on building the Ares I crew launch vehicle to ensure America s continued ability to send crews to the International Space Station. Progress has been made on design, fabrication, and testing for the first stage, upper stage, upper stage engine, and integrated vehicle. This presentation will provide an overview of the Ares launch vehicles architecture, milestone progress, and top project risks.

Vanhooser, Teresa

2009-01-01

371

A Scope for the Research and Development Activities on Electric Vehicle Technology in Pune City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ever increasing prices of petroleum products and serious environmental pollution problems have accelerated the development of non-polluting electric and hybrid vehicles during last few decades. The new technology of battery operated electric vehicles is likely to replace conventional IC engine automobile technology soon. Pune is a major automobile hub of India. Tata Motors, Bajaj Auto, Kinetic engineering etc. have

V. Gulhane; M. R. Tarambale; Y. P. Nerkar

2006-01-01

372

Viral kinetics and mathematical models.  

PubMed

Mathematical models can provide insights into the dynamics of viral diseases. Methods that were introduced to analyze human immunodeficiency virus dynamics in vivo can be modified to give insights into hepatitis C virus (HCV) dynamics, the mechanisms of action of interferon, and the consequences of giving different dosages of interferon. Patients received doses of 5, 10, or 15 mIU of interferon daily for 14 days followed by maintenance therapy of 5 mIU daily until day 90. HCV-RNA levels in serum dropped rapidly over the first 1 to 2 days of therapy. Comparing the kinetics of this response with mathematical models suggests that interferon acts by blocking the production or release of HCV virions from infected cells. The analysis further indicates that a daily dose of 5 mIU blocks approximately 80% of HCV production, and doses of 10 and 15 mIU block approximately 95% of HCV production. The serum level of HCV is approximately constant before treatment is initiated. Our model suggests that in order to maintain this constant level, on average, approximately 1 trillion virions are produced and cleared daily in an untreated HCV-infected person. The acute, rapid clearance of HCV, which occurs over the first 2 days of therapy, is followed by a slower phase of serum HCV decline. The rate of the second-phase decline may reflect the rate at which HCV-producing cells are killed, possibly by immune responses. Additional studies are needed to evaluate more fully the kinetics of the second-phase decline as well as its dose dependence and its predictive power with regard to eradication of HCV. PMID:10653457

Perelson, A S

1999-12-27

373

Kaluza-Klein consistency, Killing vectors and Kähler spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We make a detailed investigation of all spaces Qn1...nNq1...qN of the form of U(1) bundles over arbitrary products ?iCPni of complex projective spaces, with arbitrary winding numbers qi over each factor in the base. Special cases, including Q1111 (sometimes known as T11), Q111111 and Q2132, are relevant for compactifications of type IIB and D = 11 supergravity. Remarkable `conspiracies' allow consistent Kaluza-Klein S5, S4 and S7 sphere reductions of these theories that retain all the Yang-Mills fields of the isometry group in a massless truncation. We prove that such conspiracies do not occur for the reductions on the Qn1...nNq1...qN spaces, and that it is inconsistent to make a massless truncation in which the non-Abelian SU(ni + 1) factors in their isometry groups are retained. In the course of proving this we derive many properties of the spaces Qn1...nNq1...qN of more general utility. In particular, we show that they always admit Einstein metrics, and that the spaces where qi = (ni + 1)/l all admit two Killing spinors. We also obtain an iterative construction for real metrics on CPn, and construct the Killing vectors on Qn1...nNq1...qN in terms of scalar eigenfunctions on CPni. We derive bounds that allow us to prove that certain Killing-vector identities on spheres, necessary for consistent Kaluza-Klein reductions, are never satisfied on Qn1...nNq1...qN.

Hoxha, P.; Martinez-Acosta, R. R.; Pope, C. N.

2000-10-01

374

New fish-killing alga in coastal Delaware produces neurotoxins.  

PubMed

Ten fish mortality events, involving primarily Atlantic menhaden, occurred from early July through September 2000 in several bays and creeks in Delaware, USA. Two events involved large mortalities estimated at 1-2.5 million fish in Bald Eagle Creek, Rehoboth Bay. Samples from Indian Inlet (Bethany Beach), open to the Atlantic, as well as from an enclosed area of massive fish kills at nearby Bald Eagle Creek and Torque Canal were collected and sent to our laboratory for analysis. Microscopic examination of samples from the fish kill site revealed the presence of a single-cell Raphidophyte alga Chattonella cf. verruculosa at a maximum density of 1.04 x 10(7) cells/L. Naturally occurring brevetoxins were also detected in the bloom samples. Besides the Chattonella species, no other known brevetoxin-producing phytoplankton were present. Chromatographic, immunochemical, and spectroscopic analyses confirmed the presence of brevetoxin PbTx-2, and PbTx-3 and -9 were confirmed by chromatographic and immunochemical analyses. This is the first confirmed report in the United States of brevetoxins associated with an indigenous bloom in temperate Atlantic estuarine waters and of C. cf. verruculosa as a resident toxic organism implicated in fish kills in this area. The bloom of Chattonella continued throughout September and eventually declined in October. By the end of October C. cf. verruculosa was no longer seen, nor was toxin measurable in the surface waters. The results affirm that to avoid deleterious impacts on human and ecosystem health, increased monitoring is needed for brevetoxins and organism(s) producing them, even in areas previously thought to be unaffected. PMID:12003749

Bourdelais, Andrea J; Tomas, Carmelo R; Naar, Jerome; Kubanek, Julia; Baden, Daniel G

2002-05-01

375

Well control equations modified for slim-hole kill operations  

SciTech Connect

Conventional well control equations modified to account for high annular pressure losses can improve well control in slimhole drilling. Previous solutions to the slim-hole well kill problem depended on unpracticed dynamic techniques in which neither the position and volume of the influx nor the pressure applied to the well bore is precisely known. One of the major barriers to the introduction of slim-hole drilling technology to oil field operations was perceived to be the difficulty of maintaining safe standards of well control There are two basic problems with using conventional methods on slim holes: Because of the reduced kick tolerance in a well with a small annular capacity, the kick detection system must be able to detect a relatively small influx of approximately 1 bbl. Conventional well kill techniques, such as the wait-and-weight method, depend on the annular pressure losses being a small fraction of the total circulating system pressure loss. A small overbalance is thereby maintained without causing fluid losses in the open hole. This assumption of low friction losses in the annulus is often not valid in slim-hole wells. The forces occurring during a well kill operation were analyzed to develop the modified well control equations for slim holes. Several other well control situations unique to slim holes were considered: the effect of annular friction pressure losses that are greater than the shut-in casing pressure, the effects of these high pressures on maximum allowable anticipated surface pressure, and the behavior of surface circulating systems.

Prince, P.K. (BP Exploration Operating Co. Ltd., Uxbridge (United Kingdom)); Cowell, E.E. (EC Well Control, Aberdeen, MD (United States))

1993-09-27

376

Specifically targeting ERK1 or ERK2 kills Melanoma cells  

PubMed Central

Background Overcoming the notorious apoptotic resistance of melanoma cells remains a therapeutic challenge given dismal survival of patients with metastatic melanoma. However, recent clinical trials using a BRAF inhibitor revealed encouraging results for patients with advanced BRAF mutant bearing melanoma, but drug resistance accompanied by recovery of phospho-ERK (pERK) activity present challenges for this approach. While ERK1 and ERK2 are similar in amino acid composition and are frequently not distinguished in clinical reports, the possibility they regulate distinct biological functions in melanoma is largely unexplored. Methods Rather than indirectly inhibiting pERK by targeting upstream kinases such as BRAF or MEK, we directly (and near completely) reduced ERK1 and ERK2 using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to achieve sustained inhibition of pERK1 and/or pERK2. Results and discussion Using A375 melanoma cells containing activating BRAFV600E mutation, silencing ERK1 or ERK2 revealed some differences in their biological roles, but also shared roles by reduced cell proliferation, colony formation in soft agar and induced apoptosis. By contrast, chemical mediated inhibition of mutant BRAF (PLX4032) or MEK (PD0325901) triggered less killing of melanoma cells, although they did inhibit proliferation. Death of melanoma cells by silencing ERK1 and/or ERK2 was caspase dependent and accompanied by increased levels of Bak, Bad and Bim, with reduction in p-Bad and detection of activated Bax levels and loss of mitochondrial membrane permeability. Rare treatment resistant clones accompanied silencing of either ERK1 and/or ERK2. Unexpectedly, directly targeting ERK levels also led to reduction in upstream levels of BRAF, CRAF and pMEK, thereby reinforcing the importance of silencing ERK as regards killing and bypassing drug resistance. Conclusions Selectively knocking down ERK1 and/or ERK2 killed A375 melanoma cells and also increased the ability of PLX4032 to kill A375 cells. Thus, a new therapeutic window is open for future clinical trials in which agents targeting ERK1 and ERK2 should be considered in patients with melanoma. PMID:22277029

2012-01-01

377

Killing and allowing to die in medical practice.  

PubMed Central

This paper examines some of the issues related to the distinction between acts and omissions. It discusses the difficulties involved in deciding whether there is any moral significance in this distinction, particularly when it is applied to cases which involve killing or allowing to die. The paper shows how this problem relates to some of the current issues in medical ethics. It examines the issues raised by the widely publicised cases of selective treatment of handicapped children and argues that such decisions are taken and have to be taken in the context of wider ethical theories. PMID:6234397

Slack, A

1984-01-01

378

Bifundamental Fuzzy 2-Sphere and Fuzzy Killing Spinors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review our construction of a bifundamental version of the fuzzy 2-sphere and its relation to fuzzy Killing spinors, first obtained in the context of the ABJM membrane model. This is shown to be completely equivalent to the usual (adjoint) fuzzy sphere. We discuss the mathematical details of the bifundamental fuzzy sphere and its field theory expansion in a model-independent way. We also examine how this new formulation affects the twisting of the fields, when comparing the field theory on the fuzzy sphere background with the compactification of the 'deconstructed' (higher dimensional) field theory.

Nastase, Horatiu; Papageorgakis, Constantinos

2010-07-01

379

Attachment of killed Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells and membranes to erythrocytes  

SciTech Connect

To correlate viability with attachment capacity, Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells harvested at different growth phases and treated by various agents were tested for their capacity to attach to human erythrocytes. The results show that viability per se is not essential for M. gallisepticum attachment to erythrocytes, as cells killed by ultraviolet irradiation and membranes isolated by lysing M. gallisepticum cells by various means retained attachment capacity. However, treatment of the mycoplasmas by protein-denaturing agents, such as heart, glutaraldehyde, or prolonged exposure to low pH, drastically affected or even abolished attachment, supporting the protein nature of the mycoplasma membrane components responsible for specific binding to the sialoglycoprotein receptors on the erythrocytes.

Banai, M.; Kahane, I.; Feldner, J.; Razin, S.

1981-11-01

380

Selective killing of T lymphocytes by phototoxic liposomes  

SciTech Connect

Two-fold specificity in drug delivery obtained through the localized activation of drugs by physical means and the attachment of drugs to proteins that bind to target cells might be used for highly selective cancer chemotherapy or for immunosuppression. Toward this end, a monoclonal antibody against an antigen on the surface of T lymphocytes was covalently attached to liposomes containing a phototoxic drug, pyrene, bound to the lipid bilayer. When unfractionated peripheral blood lymphocytes, or B- and T-cell lines, were irradiated after treatment with these liposomes, T cells were killed while B cells were spared, demonstrating the validity of the approach in a simple in vitro assay.

Yemul, S.; Berger, C.; Estabrook, A.; Suarez, S.; Edelson, R.; Bayley, H.

1987-01-01

381

Selective stabilization of images acquired by unmanned ground vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the problem of selective stabilization of images acquired by a camera mounted on a vehicle navigating a rough terrain. Selective stabilization is defined here as the separation of rotational components into smooth and residual oscillatory rotations. We consider both kinematic and kinetic models suitable for capturing these phenomena and achieve their separation. A scheme for detecting the

Y. S. Yao; R. Chellapa

1997-01-01

382

Initial development of a flapping propelled unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studied the swimming modes of aquatic animals, then the development and experiment of a flapping propelled, radio-controlled UUV are described. The vehicle consists of a pair of flexible flapping wings as propeller; a pare of elevators and a rudder at the end of the shell provide the hydro-kinetic force for attitude control. The UUV prototype has a 70

Yicun Xu; Guanghua Zong; Shusheng Bi; Jun Gao

2007-01-01

383

Saporin 6 conjugated to monoclonal antibody selectively kills human melanoma cells.  

PubMed

A novel human melanoma specific immunotoxin is described, which has been produced utilizing the murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) Ep2, IgG2a isotype, recognizing an epitope of the glycoprotein/proteoglycan high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen. mAb Ep2 has been chemically conjugated by a disulphide bond, using the bifunctional reagent SPDP, to the plant toxin Saporin 6 (SAP) extracted from seeds of Saponaria officinalis. Cytotoxicity studies performed in vitro on melanoma cells have shown that Ep2/SAP immunotoxin efficiently kills antigen expressing cells and that its IC50 is approximately 1 x 10(-10) M, while not affecting the viability of antigen-negative melanoma cells at doses as high as 1 x 10(-7) M, therefore indicating a therapeutic index of Ep2/SAP immunotoxin higher than 1000. Kinetic studies have demonstrated that protein synthesis inhibition by Ep2/SAP is rapidly achieved, since a 90% reduction is observed within 3.1 h, and that this inhibitory activity is apparently first order with time. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity of the immunoconjugate is not dependent, and is not influenced by, the presence in the culture medium of the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine. PMID:1823624

Tecce, R; Nicotra, M R; Fraioli, R; Cuomo, M; Trizio, D; Natali, P G

1991-01-01

384

41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?  

... What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34...REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle Identification §...

2014-01-01

385

NaAlH4 -- Carbon Aerogel: Kinetic Enhancement of a Complex Hydride by Nanoporous Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex hydrides promise high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage densities, but considerable modification of their thermodynamic and kinetic properties will be required in order to make them feasible for on-vehicle applications. Catalyst additions to achieve fast hydrogen cycling kinetics have been studied for more than a decade. More recently, the concept of nanoconfinement has been explored as a means to

Frederick Pinkerton

2011-01-01

386

Potential and kinetic energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between potential and kinetic energy? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to kinetic and potential energy. The law of conservation of energy is explained, using the example of turning natural gas into electricity. Definitions and examples of potential energy and kinetic energy are provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

387

Vehicle underbody fairing  

DOEpatents

A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA); Salari, Kambiz (Livermore, CA); McCallen, Rose (Livermore, CA)

2010-11-09

388

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is to increase the body of knowledge as well as the awareness and acceptance of electric drive and other advanced technology vehicles (ATV). The AVTA accomplishes this goal by testing ATVs on test tracks and dynamometers (Baseline Performance testing), as well as in real-world applications (Fleet and Accelerated Reliability testing and public demonstrations). This enables the AVTA to provide Federal and private fleet managers, as well as other potential ATV users, with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance and infrastructure needs so they can make informed decisions about acquiring and operating ATVs. The ATVs currently in testing include vehicles that burn gaseous hydrogen (H2) fuel and hydrogen/CNG (H/CNG) blended fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE), and hybrid electric (HEV), urban electric, and neighborhood electric vehicles. The AVTA is part of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

James Francfort

2004-06-01

389

Electric vehicle parametric analysis  

SciTech Connect

During the period from 1990 to 1995, the automobile manufacturers of Europe, America, and Japan have been responsive to the need to re-evaluate the battery electric vehicle (EV) an a zero emission vehicle, and have released key design specifications and vehicle performance characteristics for more than thirty electric vehicles displayed at the: 55th IAA International Motor Show in Frankfurt, NAIAS`95 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, and the 30th International Motor Show in Tokyo. This paper includes a comparative parametric correlation analysis of these key design parameters which include: vehicle test mass, tire coefficients, overall aerodynamic drag and skin friction drag coefficients, equivalent flat plate frontal area, length to hydraulic diameter ratio, peak tractive force, peak traction motor power, and battery energy storage capacity. The conclusions show that the automobile manufacturers have achieved dramatic improvements in many of these key design parameters, and as a result the battery electric vehicle now promises to have a brighter future.

Wyczalek, F.A. [FW Lilly Inc., Bloomfield Hills, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

390

ROBUST SCALABLE VEHICLE CONTROL VIA NON-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE DYNAMICS  

E-print Network

- 1 - ROBUST SCALABLE VEHICLE CONTROL VIA NON-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE DYNAMICS S. Brennan & A. Alleyne published sets of Vehicle Dynamics reveals a normal distribution about a line through - space. The normal the variation magnitudes in the vehicle system dynamics before a new vehicle is built. An additional but related

Brennan, Sean

391

in the Inclusions in Si-Mn-killed Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic equilibria between CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2-MgO(-MnO) slag and Fe-1.5 mass pct Mn-0.5 mass pct Si-0.5 mass pct Cr melt was investigated at 1873 K (1600 °C) in order to understand the effect of slag composition on the concentration of Al2O3 in the inclusions in Si-Mn-killed steels. The composition of the inclusions were mainly equal to (mol pct MnO)/(mol pct SiO2) = 0.8(±0.06) with Al2O3 content that was increased from about 10 to 40 mol pct by increasing the basicity of slag (CaO/SiO2 ratio) from about 0.7 to 2.1. The concentration ratio of the inclusion components, , and the activity ratio of the steel components, , showed a good linear relationship on a logarithmic scale, indicating that the activity coefficient ratio of the inclusion components, , was not significantly changed. From the slag-steel-inclusion multiphase equilibria, the concentration of Al2O3 in the inclusions was expressed as a linear function of the activity ratio of the slag components, on a logarithmic scale. Consequently, a compositional window of the slag for obtaining inclusions with a low liquidus temperature in the Si-Mn-killed steel treated in an alumina ladle is recommended.

Park, Jun Seok; Park, Joo Hyun

2014-06-01

392

Killing for the state: the darkest side of American nursing.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to bring to the attention of the international nursing community the discrepancy between a pervasive 'caring' nursing discourse and a most unethical nursing practice in the United States. In this article, we present a duality: the conflict in American prisons between nursing ethics and the killing machinery. The US penal system is a setting in which trained healthcare personnel practice the extermination of life. We look upon the sanitization of deathwork as an application of healthcare professionals' skills and knowledge and their appropriation by the state to serve its ends. A review of the states' death penalty statutes shows that healthcare workers are involved in the capital punishment process and shielded by American laws (and to a certain extent by professional boards through their inaction). We also argue that the law's language often masks that involvement; and explain how states further that duplicity behind legal formalisms. In considering the important role healthcare providers, namely nurses and physicians, play in administering death to the condemned, we assert that nurses and physicians are part of the states' penal machinery in America. Nurses and physicians (as carriers of scientific knowledge, and also as agents of care) are intrinsic to the American killing enterprise. Healthcare professionals who take part in execution protocols are state functionaries who approach the condemned body as angels of death: they constitute an extension of the state which exercises its sovereign power over captive prisoners. PMID:12622799

Holmes, Dave; Federman, Cary

2003-03-01

393

Control instrumentation for wellheads and mud-kill systems. [Indonesia  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the instrumentation and control systems used on the wellheads and mud-kill systems at the Mobil Oil Arun natural gas field, situated onshore in the province of Aceh, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The reservoir is a carbonate reef containing an estimated 15 Tcf (0.42 X 10/sup 12/ m/sup 3/) gas at approximately 7,000 psig (48 263 kPa) and 360/sup 0/F (182/sup 0/C). The wellstream from the field is separated into natural gas, condensate liquid, and water. The gas and condensate are then shipped through separate pipelines to the Arun liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility at Lho' Seumawe, about 40 mi (25 km) away on the northeastern coast of Sumatra. After liquefaction the LNG is shipped by tanker to Japan. The field was discovered in 1971 and became operational in 1977. The LNG delivery contract complied with the Japanese calls for regular delivery; thus continuity of supply to the LNG plant was of paramount importance for meeting transportation and supply schedules. Two actual blowouts in the Arun field have provided valuable experience in evaluating both equipment and systems in terms of design, reliability, and application for this type of field service. This paper concentrates on the design and installation of the control systems associated with the wellhead and mud-kill systems and highlights the problems encountered during the past five years.

Giles, A.J.

1983-08-01

394

Emotional and coping responses to serial killings. The Gainesville murders.  

PubMed

Forensic experts have focused more on the psychological profile of a serial killer rather than on the pronounced effects on the community at large. Coping with a stressful event is thought to influence emotional states. However, little empirical understanding of this process exists. The present study examined changes in psychological factors 9 days after the occurrence of serial killings in a college community. Multivariate analyses of variance conducted on the variables of stress, anxiety, physical symptoms, and depression revealed a significant difference between the group tested after the murders and a cross-sectional cohort group. Univariate analyses revealed that the study class was significantly more depressed compared with the cohort group. The study class was also significantly more depressed compared with their own responses 1 year before the killings. For both classes, depression was significantly correlated with certain coping styles, including escape-avoidance and accept responsibility. Results have implications for certain coping behaviors (i.e., avoidant behaviors), such as that leaving the community may have been maladaptive and perhaps diverted attention from the more necessary active problem-solving behaviors (e.g., increasing security) in addition to increasing depression. PMID:8320543

Norvell, N K; Cornell, C E; Limacher, M C

1993-07-01

395

Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phenazines that Kill Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic microbes employ a variety of methods to overcome host defenses, including the production and dispersal of molecules that are toxic to their hosts. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is a pathogen of a diverse variety of hosts including mammals and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we identify three small molecules in the phenazine class that are produced by P. aeruginosa strain PA14 that are toxic to C. elegans. We demonstrate that 1-hydroxyphenazine, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, and pyocyanin are capable of killing nematodes in a matter of hours. 1-hydroxyphenazine is toxic over a wide pH range, whereas the toxicities of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyocyanin are pH-dependent at non-overlapping pH ranges. We found that acidification of the growth medium by PA14 activates the toxicity of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, which is the primary toxic agent towards C. elegans in our assay. Pyocyanin is not toxic under acidic conditions and 1-hydroxyphenazine is produced at concentrations too low to kill C. elegans. These results suggest a role for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in mammalian pathogenesis because PA14 mutants deficient in phenazine production have been shown to be defective in pathogenesis in mice. More generally, these data demonstrate how diversity within a class of metabolites could affect bacterial toxicity in different environmental niches. PMID:23300454

Cezairliyan, Brent; Vinayavekhin, Nawaporn; Grenfell-Lee, Daniel; Yuen, Grace J.; Saghatelian, Alan; Ausubel, Frederick M.

2013-01-01

396

Effectiveness of live or killed plague vaccines in man  

PubMed Central

While the safety of the available live plague vaccine EV 76 (Paris) continues to be the subject of further study, the USP formol-killed, virulent Pasteurella pestis (Yersinia pestis) suspension capable of protecting 60% of non-human primates, particularly Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus), warrants further clinical tests and field trials. Inoculated in a dosage of 2×109 killed plague bacilli (1 ml), followed by a booster of 400 million organisms (0.2 ml) in 1-3 months, this vaccine stimulates the appearance of passive mouse-protection antibodies (below an index of 10) and passive haemagglutinins in 60%-65% of human subjects. Recent experiences in Viet-Nam demonstrate that personnel vaccinated with the USP vaccine, although frequently exposed, enjoy almost complete freedom from the disease. One of the 4 known and confirmed cases of bubonic plague in North Americans occurred in an unvaccinated individual. Among individuals inoculated with the USP vaccine, 2 confirmed cases of pneumonic plague and 1 case of asymptomatic pharyngeal plague have been recorded. The incidence of plague in the Republic of Viet-Nam during the past 3 years is estimated at 13 263 cases in a population in part vaccinated with a live plague which exhibited inadequate immunogenic efficacy in experimental tests. PMID:4988692

Meyer, K. F.

1970-01-01

397

Innate immune lectins kill bacteria expressing blood group antigen.  

PubMed

The expression of ABO(H) blood group antigens causes deletion of cells that generate self-specific antibodies to these antigens but this deletion limits adaptive immunity toward pathogens bearing cognate blood group antigens. To explore potential defense mechanisms against such pathogens, given these limitations in adaptive immunity, we screened for innate proteins that could recognize human blood group antigens. Here we report that two innate immune lectins, galectin-4 (Gal-4) and Gal-8, which are expressed in the intestinal tract, recognize and kill human blood group antigen-expressing Escherichia coli while failing to alter the viability of other E. coli strains or other Gram-negative or Gram-positive organisms both in vitro and in vivo. The killing activity of both Gal-4 and Gal-8 is mediated by their C-terminal domains, occurs rapidly and independently of complement and is accompanied by disruption of membrane integrity. These results demonstrate that innate defense lectins can provide immunity against pathogens that express blood group-like antigens on their surface. PMID:20154696

Stowell, Sean R; Arthur, Connie M; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Lilian C; Gourdine, Jean-Philippe; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Ju, Tongzhong; Molinaro, Ross J; Rivera-Marrero, Carlos; Xia, Baoyun; Smith, David F; Cummings, Richard D

2010-03-01

398

The unstructured domain of colicin N kills Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Bacteria often produce toxins which kill competing bacteria. Colicins, produced by and toxic to Escherichia coli bacteria are three-domain proteins so efficient that one molecule can kill a cell. The C-terminal domain carries the lethal activity and the central domain is required for surface receptor binding. The N-terminal domain, required for translocation across the outer membrane, is always intrinsically unstructured. It has always been assumed therefore that the C-terminal cytotoxic domain is required for the bactericidal activity. Here we report the unexpected finding that in isolation, the 90-residue unstructured N-terminal domain of colicin N is cytotoxic. Furthermore it causes ion leakage from cells but, unlike known antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with this property, shows no membrane binding behaviour. Finally, its activity remains strictly dependent upon the same receptor proteins (OmpF and TolA) used by full-length colicin N. This mechanism of rapid membrane disruption, via receptor mediated binding of a soluble peptide, may reveal a new target for the development of highly specific antibacterials. PMID:23672584

Johnson, Christopher L; Ridley, Helen; Pengelly, Robert J; Salleh, Mohd Zulkifli; Lakey, Jeremy H

2013-01-01

399

Killing of gram-negative bacteria by lactoferrin and lysozyme.  

PubMed Central

Although lactoferrin has antimicrobial activity, its mechanism of action is not full defined. Recently we have shown that the protein alters the Gram-negative outer membrane. As this membrane protects Gram-negative cells from lysozyme, we have studied whether lactoferrin's membrane effect could enhance the antibacterial activity of lysozyme. We have found that while each protein alone is bacteriostatic, together they can be bactericidal for strains of V. cholerae, S. typhimurium, and E. coli. The bactericidal effect is dose dependent, blocked by iron saturation of lactoferrin, and inhibited by high calcium levels, although lactoferrin does not chelate calcium. Using differing media, the effect of lactoferrin and lysozyme can be partially or completely inhibited; the degree of inhibition correlating with media osmolarity. Transmission electron microscopy shows that E. coli cells exposed to lactoferrin and lysozyme at 40 mOsm become enlarged and hypodense, suggesting killing through osmotic damage. Dialysis chamber studies indicate that bacterial killing requires direct contact with lactoferrin, and work with purified LPS suggests that this relates to direct LPS-binding by the protein. As lactoferrin and lysozyme are present together in high levels in mucosal secretions and neutrophil granules, it is probable that their interaction contributes to host defense. Images PMID:1918365

Ellison, R T; Giehl, T J

1991-01-01

400

Unmanned submarine vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An unmanned self-propelled submarine vehicle is provided with a material exchanger-container having a vertical axis of symmetry aligned with both the vehicle's center of gravity and its center of volume. The exchanger-container has a moveable diaphragm which divides the interior into two compartments, a lower ballast compartment equipped with an unloading apparatus and an upper compartment adapted to receive collected material. Ballast is unloaded during material loading to maintain the weight of the vehicle constant during loading.

Hervieu

1984-05-15

401

Vehicle telematics platform.  

E-print Network

??Telematics combines communications and information technology to provide location, mapping, traffic, weather, entertainment and internet connectivity to motor vehicles. Similar to the recent developments in… (more)

Perera, Leander

2012-01-01

402

Routing Vehicles with Ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

403

Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

1983-01-01

404

Unmanned guided vehicle system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned guided vehicles (UGV) require the ability to visually understand the objects contained within their operating environments in order to locally guide vehicles along a globally determined route. Several large scale programs have been funded over the past decade that have created multimillion dollar prototype vehicles incapable of functioning outside of their initial test track environment. This paper describes the Unmanned Guided Vehicle System (UGVS) developed for the US Army Missile Command for operation in natural terrain. The goal of UGVS is to develop a real-time system adaptive to a range of terrain environments (e.g. roads, open fields, wooded clearings, forest areas) and seasonal conditions (e.g., fall, winter, summer, spring). UGVS consists of two primary processing activities. First, the UGVS vision system is tasked with determining the location of gravel roads in video imagery, detecting obstacles in the vehicles path, identifying distant road spurs, and assigning a classification confidence to each image component. Second, the guidance and navigation system computes the global route the vehicle should pursue, utilizes image classification results to determine obstructions in the local vehicle path, computes navigation commands to drive the vehicle around hazardous obstacles, correlates visual road spur cues with global route digital maps, and provides the navigation commands to move the vehicle forward. Results of UGVS working in a variety terrain environments are presented to reinforce system concepts.

Gilmore, John F.; Forbes, Harold; Payne, Kevin; Elibiary, Khalid J.

1995-06-01

405

Accident externality and vehicle size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle mass is a crucial factor for the distribution of injuries between occupants in involved vehicles in a two-vehicle crash. A larger vehicle mass protects the occupants in the vehicle while on the same time inflicts a higher injury risk on the occupants in the collision partner. This mass externality can be internalized to reach a situation where the drivers

Lina Jonsson; Gunnar Lindberg

2009-01-01

406

Overview of Electrified Vehicle Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains a chart describing the components of electrified vehicle systems based on the vehicle drive system. Vehicle drive systems in the chart include conventional internal combustion engine, start/stop, mild hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), medium HEV, full HEV, plug-in series HEV, and battery electric vehicle. The chart is provided in both .jpg and .ppt (PowerPoint) formats.

Center for Advanced Automotive Technology (CAAT)

407

Lifting Body Flight Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

Barret, Chris

1998-01-01

408

Potential roles for DNA replication and repair functions in cell killing by streptomycin.  

PubMed

The aminoglycoside streptomycin binds to ribosomes to promote mistranslation and eventual inhibition of translation. Streptomycin kills bacteria, whereas many other non-aminoglycoside inhibitors of translation do not. Because mistranslation is now known to affect DNA replication, we asked if hydroxyurea, a specific inhibitor of DNA synthesis, affects killing, and find that hydroxyurea significantly attenuates killing by streptomycin. We find that the hydroxyl radical scavengers d-mannitol and thiourea have either no effect or only a modest protective effect. The iron chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl eliminated killing by streptomycin, but further investigation revealed that it blocks streptomycin uptake. Prior treatment of cells with low-levels of methyl methanesulfonate to induce the adaptive response to alkylation leads to a significant attenuation of killing, which, together with the hydroxyurea effect, suggests roles for DNA replication and repair functions in cell killing by streptomycin. PMID:23958411

Humayun, M Zafri; Ayyappan, Vasudevan

2013-09-01

409

Intelligent vehicle applications worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent vehicles are an application in which the words “intelligent autonomous systems” represent not only an important research topic but also a strategic solution to the mobility problems that may arise in the coming years. Vehicles that can move autonomously and navigate in everyday traffic, on highways, and in urban and unstructured scenarios will become a reality in the next

R. Bishop

2000-01-01

410

Vehicle Dynamics and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system topics covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire models and tire-road friction

Rajesh Rajamani

2006-01-01

411

ELECTRIC VEHICLES MODELLING AND  

E-print Network

and Optimization of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine Used for Light Electric Vehicle 177 Daniel Fodorean Drive System from Physical Principles for Electric Vehicle Propulsion Applications 233 Richard A. Guinee Chapter 12 Multiobjective Optimal Design of an Inverter Fed Axial Flux Permanent Magnet In-Wheel Motor

Schaltz, Erik

412

Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

413

Vehicle barrier systems  

SciTech Connect

The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper. 2 tabs.

Sena, P.A.

1986-01-01

414

Vehicle barrier systems  

SciTech Connect

The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

Sena, P.A.

1986-01-01

415

Vehicle barrier systems  

SciTech Connect

The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment, and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

Sena, P.A.

1986-01-01

416

Nuclear air cushion vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

Anderson, J. L.

1973-01-01

417

Age and Sex Composition of Seals Killed by Polar Bears in the Eastern Beaufort Sea  

PubMed Central

Background Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n?=?650) and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida) lairs (n?=?1396) observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985–2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation. Principal Findings Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2%) while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344) of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344). Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344) of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007–2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ?21 years (60/121), and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n?=?78). The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r2?=?0.30, P?=?0.04), but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P?=?0.37). Conclusions/Significance Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender. PMID:22829949

Pilfold, Nicholas W.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Stirling, Ian; Richardson, Evan; Andriashek, Dennis

2012-01-01

418

Relating fish kills to upwellings and wind patterns in the Salton Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the extreme eutrophication of the Salton Sea has been associated with massive fish kills and associated bird\\u000a kills. Analysis of the magnitude and direction of high wind events indicates that major fish kills are preceded by strong\\u000a and persistent wind events, with a 24-h accumulated wind magnitude above a critical threshold of approximately 90 m\\/s. Twelve\\u000a of

B. Marti-Cardona; T. E. Steissberg; S. G. Schladow; S. J. Hook

419

Relating fish kills to upwellings and wind patterns in the Salton Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the extreme eutrophication of the Salton Sea has been associated with massive fish kills and associated bird\\u000a kills. Analysis of the magnitude and direction of high wind events indicates that major fish kills are preceded by strong\\u000a and persistent wind events, with a 24-h accumulated wind magnitude above a critical threshold of approximately 90 m\\/s. Twelve\\u000a of the

B. Marti-Cardona; T. E. Steissberg; S. G. Schladow; S. J. Hook

2008-01-01

420

Killing-Yano Tensors of Valence-2 in the Standard Kaluza-Klein Theory  

E-print Network

This work is constructed on two main concepts: Killing-Yano symmetry and the Kaluza-Klein theory. Those concepts are reviewed in the first three chapters. In the fourth chapter firstly Killing-Yano equations of valence-2 are obtained for a general 5-dimensional metric and then reduced for the Minkowski metric. It is seen that in order to save the existence of Killing-Yano tensors with the fifth components some conditions must be satisfied

Ali Nur Nurbaki

2011-08-09

421

Intelligent Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle mission Planning; Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations. The representative IVHM technologies for computer platform using heterogeneous communication, 3) coupled electromagnetic oscillators for enhanced communications, 4) Linux-based real-time systems, 5) genetic algorithms, 6) Bayesian Networks, 7) evolutionary algorithms, 8) dynamic systems control modeling, and 9) advanced sensing capabilities. This paper presents IVHM technologies developed under NASA's NFFP pilot project and the integration of these technologies forms the framework for IIVM.

Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

2005-01-01

422

Lunar material transport vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

1988-01-01

423

Lunar material transport vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

1988-03-01

424

Dust Mitigation Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes the development and demonstration of an apparatus, called a dust mitigation vehicle, for reducing the amount of free dust on the surface of the Moon. The dust mitigation vehicle would be used to pave surfaces on the Moon to prevent the dust from levitating or adhering to surfaces. The basic principle of operation of these apparatuses is to use a lens or a dish mirror to concentrate solar thermal radiation onto a small spot to heat lunar regolith. In the case of the prototype dust mitigation vehicle, a Fresnel lens was used to heat a surface layer of regolith sufficiently to sinter or melt dust grains into a solid mass. The prototype vehicle has demonstrated paving rates up to 1.8 square meters per day. The proposed flight design of the dust mitigation vehicle is also described.

Cardiff, Eric H.

2011-01-01

425

Benzothiazinones Kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Blocking Arabinan Synthesis  

PubMed Central

New drugs are required to counter the tuberculosis (TB) pandemic. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of 1,3-benzothiazin-4-ones (BTZs), a new class of antimycobacterial agents that kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro, ex vivo, and in mouse models of TB. Using genetics and biochemistry, we identified the enzyme decaprenylphosphoryl-?-d-ribose 2?-epimerase as a major BTZ target. Inhibition of this enzymatic activity abolishes the formation of decaprenylphosphoryl arabinose, a key precursor that is required for the synthesis of the cell-wall arabinans, thus provoking cell lysis and bacterial death. The most advanced compound, BTZ043, is a candidate for inclusion in combination therapies for both drug-sensitive and extensively drug-resistant TB. PMID:19299584

Makarov, Vadim; Manina, Giulia; Mikusova, Katarina; Möllmann, Ute; Ryabova, Olga; Saint-Joanis, Brigitte; Dhar, Neeraj; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; Buroni, Silvia; Lucarelli, Anna Paola; Milano, Anna; De Rossi, Edda; Belanova, Martina; Bobovska, Adela; Dianiskova, Petronela; Kordulakova, Jana; Sala, Claudia; Fullam, Elizabeth; Schneider, Patricia; McKinney, John D.; Brodin, Priscille; Christophe, Thierry; Waddell, Simon; Butcher, Philip; Albrethsen, Jakob; Rosenkrands, Ida; Brosch, Roland; Nandi, Vrinda; Bharath, Sowmya; Gaonkar, Sheshagiri; Shandil, Radha K.; Balasubramanian, Venkataraman; Balganesh, Tanjore; Tyagi, Sandeep; Grosset, Jacques; Riccardi, Giovanna; Cole, Stewart T.

2011-01-01

426

Invariant Killing spinors in 11D and type II supergravities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present all isotropy groups and associated ? groups, up to discrete identifications of the component connected to the identity, of spinors of 11-dimensional and type II supergravities. The ? groups are products of a Spin group and an R-symmetry group of a suitable lower dimensional supergravity theory. Using the case of SU(4)-invariant spinors as a paradigm, we demonstrate that the ? groups, and so the R-symmetry groups of lower dimensional supergravity theories arising from compactifications, have disconnected components. These lead us to discrete symmetry groups reminiscent of R-parity. We examine the role of disconnected components of the ? groups in the choice of Killing spinor representatives and in the context of compactifications.

Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

2009-08-01

427

Invariant Killing spinors in 11D and type II supergravities  

E-print Network

We present all isotropy groups and associated $\\Sigma$ groups, up to discrete identifications of the component connected to the identity, of spinors of eleven-dimensional and type II supergravities. The $\\Sigma$ groups are products of a Spin group and an R-symmetry group of a suitable lower dimensional supergravity theory. Using the case of SU(4)-invariant spinors as a paradigm, we demonstrate that the $\\Sigma$ groups, and so the R-symmetry groups of lower-dimensional supergravity theories arising from compactifications, have disconnected components. These lead to discrete symmetry groups reminiscent of R-parity. We examine the role of disconnected components of the $\\Sigma$ groups in the choice of Killing spinor representatives and in the context of compactifications.

U. Gran; J. Gutowski; G. Papadopoulos

2008-02-14

428

Manners of killing and rituals in Apulian mafia murders.  

PubMed

The Apulian (South of Italy) territory saw the birth of a criminal organization called Sacra Corona Unita (SCU, United Holy Crown) which transformed the rules of traditional mafia organizations. This work examined 83 victims of the SCU between 1980 and 2000. The bodies were mainly of SCU members and in some cases, of police and law enforcement officers and other citizens caught in the crossfire. Some of these were discovered; thanks to the collaboration of "repented" SCU members who became police informers. The condition of the bodies varied in relation to the date and manner of killing. In some cases anthropometric research methods were necessary. In 73% of the cases, lesions of the head were the only marks left on the body. In conclusion, the existence of some social aspects connected with the symbolisms and membership rites that characterized the origin, evolution, and decline of the SCU is stressed. PMID:19486252

De Donno, Antonio; Santoro, Valeria; Rossi, Anna Paola; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Introna, Francesco

2009-07-01

429

Activation of AMPK Enhances Neutrophil Chemotaxis and Bacterial Killing  

PubMed Central

An inability of neutrophils to eliminate invading microorganisms is frequently associated with severe infection and may contribute to the high mortality rates associated with sepsis. In the present studies, we examined whether metformin and other 5? adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators affect neutrophil motility, phagocytosis and bacterial killing. We found that activation of AMPK enhanced neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro and in vivo, and also counteracted the inhibition of chemotaxis induced by exposure of neutrophils to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In contrast, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of AMPK?1 or blockade of AMPK activation through treatment of neutrophils with the AMPK inhibitor compound C diminished neutrophil chemotaxis. In addition to their effects on chemotaxis, treatment of neutrophils with metformin or aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) improved phagocytosis and bacterial killing, including more efficient eradication of bacteria in a mouse model of peritonitis-induced sepsis. Immunocytochemistry showed that, in contrast to LPS, metformin or AICAR induced robust actin polymerization and distinct formation of neutrophil leading edges. Although LPS diminished AMPK phosphorylation, metformin or AICAR was able to partially decrease the effects of LPS/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) engagement on downstream signaling events, particularly LPS-induced I?B? degradation. The I?B kinase (IKK) inhibitor PS-1145 diminished I?B? degradation and also prevented LPS-induced inhibition of chemotaxis. These results suggest that AMPK activation with clinically approved agents, such as metformin, may facilitate bacterial eradication in sepsis and other inflammatory conditions associated with inhibition of neutrophil activation and chemotaxis. PMID:24091934

Park, Dae Won; Jiang, Shaoning; Tadie, Jean-Marc; Stigler, William S; Gao, Yong; Deshane, Jessy; Abraham, Edward; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W

2013-01-01

430

Chromogenic Assay Measuring Opsonophagocytic Killing Capacities of Antipneumococcal Antisera  

PubMed Central

Assays measuring opsonophagocytic killing capacity of immune sera are good surrogate assays for assessing pneumococcal vaccine responses, but they are tedious to perform primarily because the enumeration of surviving bacteria requires the counting of individual bacterial colonies. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a simple and rapid chromogenic assay for estimating the number of surviving bacteria. In this method, the conventional opsonophagocytic killing assays were performed in microtiter wells with differentiated HL-60 cells as phagocytes. At the end of the assay the reaction mixture was cultured for an additional 4.5 h to increase the number of bacteria. After the short culture, XTT (3,3?-[1{(phenylamino)carbonyl}-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) and coenzyme Q were added to the wells and the optical density at 450 nm was measured. Our study shows that changes in the optical density were proportional to the number of CFU of live bacteria in the wells. Also, the number of bacteria at the end of the 4.5-h culture was found to be proportional to the original number of bacteria in the wells. When the performance of the chromogenic assay was evaluated by measuring the opsonizing titers of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6B and 19F, the sensitivity and precision of the new method were similar to those of the conventional opsonization assay employing the colony counting method. Furthermore, the results of this chromogenic assay obtained with 33 human sera correlate well with those obtained with the conventional colony counting method (R > 0.90) for the two serotypes (6B and 19F). Thus, this simple chromogenic assay would be useful in rapidly measuring the capacities of antisera to opsonize pneumococci. PMID:11329452

Lin, J. S.; Park, M. K.; Nahm, M. H.

2001-01-01

431

Mars manned transportation vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighting from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Faymon, Karl A.

1989-01-01

432

The Kill Date as a Management Tool for Cover Cropping Success  

PubMed Central

Integrating cover crops (CC) in rotations provides multiple ecological services, but it must be ensured that management does not increase pre-emptive competition with the subsequent crop. This experiment was conducted to study the effect of kill date on: (i) CC growth and N content; (ii) the chemical composition of residues; (iii) soil inorganic N and potentially mineralizable N; and (iv) soil water content. Treatments were fallow and a CC mixture of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and vetch (Vicia sativa L.) sown in October and killed on two different dates in spring. Above-ground biomass and chemical composition of CC were determined at harvest, and ground cover was monitored based on digital image analysis. Soil mineral N was determined before sowing and after killing the CC, and potentially mineralizable N was measured by aerobic incubation at the end of the experiment. Soil water content was monitored daily to a depth of 1.1 m using capacitance sensors. Under the present conditions of high N availability, delaying kill date increased barley above-ground biomass and N uptake from deep soil layers; little differences were observed in vetch. Postponing kill date increased the C/N ratio and the fiber content of plant residues. Ground cover reached >80% by the first kill date (?1250°C days). Kill date was a means to control soil inorganic N by balancing the N retained in the residue and soil, and showed promise for mitigating N losses. The early kill date decreased the risk of water and N pre-emptive competition by reducing soil depletion, preserving rain harvested between kill dates and allowing more time for N release in spring. The soil potentially mineralizable N was enhanced by the CC and kill date delay. Therefore kill date is a crucial management variable for maximizing the CC benefits in agricultural systems. PMID:25296333

Alonso-Ayuso, Maria; Gabriel, Jose Luis; Quemada, Miguel

2014-01-01

433

Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J. H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

2013-09-01

434

The kill date as a management tool for cover cropping success.  

PubMed

Integrating cover crops (CC) in rotations provides multiple ecological services, but it must be ensured that management does not increase pre-emptive competition with the subsequent crop. This experiment was conducted to study the effect of kill date on: (i) CC growth and N content; (ii) the chemical composition of residues; (iii) soil inorganic N and potentially mineralizable N; and (iv) soil water content. Treatments were fallow and a CC mixture of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and vetch (Vicia sativa L.) sown in October and killed on two different dates in spring. Above-ground biomass and chemical composition of CC were determined at harvest, and ground cover was monitored based on digital image analysis. Soil mineral N was determined before sowing and after killing the CC, and potentially mineralizable N was measured by aerobic incubation at the end of the experiment. Soil water content was monitored daily to a depth of 1.1 m using capacitance sensors. Under the present conditions of high N availability, delaying kill date increased barley above-ground biomass and N uptake from deep soil layers; little differences were observed in vetch. Postponing kill date increased the C/N ratio and the fiber content of plant residues. Ground cover reached >80% by the first kill date (?1250°C days). Kill date was a means to control soil inorganic N by balancing the N retained in the residue and soil, and showed promise for mitigating N losses. The early kill date decreased the risk of water and N pre-emptive competition by reducing soil depletion, preserving rain harvested between kill dates and allowing more time for N release in spring. The soil potentially mineralizable N was enhanced by the CC and kill date delay. Therefore kill date is a crucial management variable for maximizing the CC benefits in agricultural systems. PMID:25296333

Alonso-Ayuso, María; Gabriel, José Luis; Quemada, Miguel

2014-01-01

435

Blast resistant vehicle seat  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

Ripley, Edward B

2013-02-12

436

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

437

ROBUST SCALABLE VEHICLE CONTROL VIA NON-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE DYNAMICS  

E-print Network

ROBUST SCALABLE VEHICLE CONTROL VIA NON-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE DYNAMICS S. Brennan & A. Alleyne Dept in the system dynamics before a new vehicle is built. An additional but related problem is that the notion, IL 61801 ABSTRACT A temporal and spatial re-parameterization of the well- known linear vehicle

Brennan, Sean

438

Therapies with diverse mechanisms of action kill cells by a similar exponential process in advanced cancers.  

PubMed

Successful cancer treatments are generally defined as those that decrease tumor quantity. In many cases, this decrease occurs exponentially, with deviations from a strict exponential being attributed to a growing fraction of drug-resistant cells. Deviations from an exponential decrease in tumor quantity can also be expected if drugs have a nonuniform spatial distribution inside the tumor, for example, because of interstitial pressure inside the tumor. Here, we examine theoretically different models of cell killing and analyze data from clinical trials based on these models. We show that the best description of clinical outcomes is by first-order kinetics with exponential decrease of tumor quantity. We analyzed the total tumor quantity in a diverse group of clinical trials with various cancers during the administration of different classes of anticancer agents and in all cases observed that the models that best fit the data describe the decrease of the sensitive tumor fraction exponentially. The exponential decrease suggests that all drug-sensitive cancer cells have a single rate-limiting step on the path to cell death. If there are intermediate steps in the path to cell death, they are not rate limiting in the observational time scale utilized in clinical trials--tumor restaging at 6- to 8-week intervals. On shorter time scales, there might be intermediate steps, but the rate-limiting step is the same. Our analysis, thus, points to a common pathway to cell death for cancer cells in patients. See all articles in this Cancer Research section, "Physics in Cancer Research." PMID:25183789

Blagoev, Krastan B; Wilkerson, Julia; Stein, Wilfred D; Yang, James; Bates, Susan E; Fojo, Tito

2014-09-01

439

Competitive Performance Assessment of Dynamic Vehicle Routing  

E-print Network

Competitive Performance Assessment of Dynamic Vehicle Routing Technologies Using Sequential to implement more sophisticated Dynamic Vehicle Routingsophisticated Dynamic Vehicle Routing Technologies (DVR decision systems #12;Dynamic Vehicle Routing Technologies have toDynamic Vehicle Routing Technologies have

Marcotte, Patrice

440

Analysis of a novel mild air hybrid engine technology, RegenEBD, for buses and commercial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel cost-effective mild air hybrid engine concept for buses and commercial vehicles, RegenEBD, is presented. This air hybrid technology is designed to convert kinetic energy into pneumatic energy of the compressed air stored in the air tank normally installed on such vehicles. The compressed air can then be used to drive an air starter to achieve

Cho-Yu Lee; Hua Zhao; Tom Ma

2012-01-01

441

Immunoglobulin M-dependent classical complement pathway activation in killing of Pentatrichomonas hominis.  

PubMed Central

Complement pathway activity in the killing of Pentatrichomonas hominis was investigated in this study. At 10(5) organisms per ml, P. hominis was completely killed by the presence of 1% normal human serum. In contrast, no killing effect on P. hominis was observed when specific antibodies were absorbed or when the complement was destroyed. Moreover, Mg2+-ethylene glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-treated serum had no killing effect on P. hominis, while serum heated at 50 degrees C or treated with zymosan killed P. hominis as well as did normal human serum. Further study using gel filtration (Sephacryl S-300) and affinity chromatography (protein A) revealed that immunoglobulin M (IgM; 20 micrograms/ml) alone was responsible for the complement activation in the killing of P. hominis, but both IgA (24 micrograms/ml) and IgG (180 micrograms/ml) had no effect on complement-mediated lysis. On the other hand, IgG at 1,260 micrograms/ml completely inhibited complement-mediated killing by IgM, suggesting that a blocking factor is present in IgG. The results of this study indicate that a mechanism of IgM-dependent classical complement pathway activation contributes to the killing effect of normal human serum on P. hominis. PMID:2917791

Shaio, M F; Chen, J G

1989-01-01

442

Bax/Bak action in mitochondria. These agents release Ca2+ themselves and kill  

E-print Network

67 Bax/Bak action in mitochondria. These agents release Ca2+ themselves and kill more efficiently or Bak in mitochondria, and both ER Ca2+ and Bax/Bak levels mod- ulate their killing potency. The Bax and Bax/Bak indeed coregulate ER Ca2+. The Scorrano et al. study defines a new role for the ER-mitochondria

Latham, Peter

443

Killing of Targets by CD8+ T Cells in the Mouse Spleen  

E-print Network

Killing of Targets by CD8+ T Cells in the Mouse Spleen Follows the Law of Mass Action Vitaly V the rate at which individual CD8z effector and memory T cells kill target cells in the mouse spleen. Using from the mouse lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in mouse spleens with varying numbers

Utrecht, Universiteit

444

ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS IN AN EXPERIMENTAL TESTING PIPE SYSTEM FOR AN INHIBITOR OF MUSSEL KILL  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive series of 16 laboratory experiments demonstrated that the presence of vinyl tubing within a recirculating pipe system was responsible for lowering zebra mussel kill following treatment with the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. All vinyl tubing was replaced in all testing units with silicone tubing, and high mussel kill (>95%) was then obtained.

Daniel P. Molloy

2003-06-04

445

Mathematical Modeling of Oxygen Transport, Cell Killing and Cell Decision Making in Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer  

E-print Network

Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for simulation of the molecular interactions leading to cell death in time domain;#12;Mathematical Modeling of Oxygen Transport, Cell Killing and Cell Decision Making in Photodynamic Therapy Killing and Cell Decision making in Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer by Ioannis Gkigkitzis APPROVED BY

446

Killing Spinors for the Bosonic String and the Kaluza-Klein Theory with Scalar Potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper consists mainly of two parts. In the first part, we obtain well-defined Killing spinor equations for the low-energy effective action of the bosonic string with the conformal anomaly term. We show that the conformal anomaly term is the only scalar potential that one can add into the action that is consistent with the Killing spinor equations. In the

Haishan Liu; H. Lu; Zhao-Long Wang

2011-01-01

447

The impact of killing and injuring others on mental health symptoms among police officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between killing or seriously injuring someone in the line of duty and mental health symptoms in a sample of police officers (N = 400) who were first assessed during academy training and at five additional time points over three years. We found that nearly 10% of police officers reported having to kill or seriously injure someone in

Irina Komarovskaya; Shira Maguen; Shannon E. McCaslin; Thomas J. Metzler; Anita Madan; Adam D. Brown; Isaac R. Galatzer-Levy; Clare Henn-Haase; Charles R. Marmar

2011-01-01

448

High-prevalence male-killing Wolbachia in the butterfly Acraea encedana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inherited bacteria which kill males during early development are widely distributed throughout the insects, but have been little studied outside of a single family of beetles, the Coccinellidae. We have investigated a male-killing bacterium discovered in the butterfly Acraea encedana. This bacterium belongs to the genus Wolbachia and is identical in wsp gene sequence to a male-killer in the closely

F. M. J IGGINS; C. E. D OLMAN

2000-01-01

449

FACTORS AFFECTING SECONDARY KILL OF THE GERMAN COCKROACH (DICTYOPTERA: BLATTELLIDAE) BY GEL BAITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary kill of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L)., by baits was reported to increase the overall control efficacy of bait products. However, most studies have been based on laboratory strains and small nymphs. We compared the secondary kill of four cockroach gel baits against various developmental stages of a laboratory (Jwax) and a field (Dorie) strain B. germanica. The

CHANGLU WANG; X. YANG; M. A. EL-NOUR

450

The butterfly Danaus chrysippus is infected by a male-killing Spiroplasma bacterium  

E-print Network

male offspring. Such bacteria will spread if male death benefits the female siblings who transmit 1999; accepted 6 December 1999) SUMMARY Many insects carry maternally inherited bacteria which kill, male-killers, Mycoplasma, Danaus chrysippus. INTRODUCTION Maternally inherited bacteria which kill

Jiggins, Francis

451

Killing technique of North American badgers preying on Richardson's ground squirrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcasses of 13 Richardson's ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) cached during autumn by North American badgers (Taxidea taxus) in southern Alberta, Canada, were inspected to determine the capture and killing technique. Regardless of prey size (251-651 g) or torpor status (normothermic or torpid), badgers killed ground squir - rels with a single grasping bite directed dorsally or laterally to the thorax.

Gail R. Michener; Andrew N. Iwaniuk

2001-01-01

452

Killing scalar of non-linear ?-model on G/H realizing the classical exchange algebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Poisson brackets for non-linear ?-models on G/H are set up on the light-like plane. A quantity which transforms irreducibly by the Killing vectors, called Killing scalar, is constructed in an arbitrary representation of G. It is shown to satisfy the classical exchange algebra.

Aoyama, Shogo

2014-10-01

453

Killing Forms on the Five-Dimensional Einstein-Sasaki Y(p, q) Spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the complete set of Killing-Yano tensors on the five-dimensional Einstein-Sasaki Y(p, q) spaces. Two new Killing-Yano tensors are identified, associated with the complex volume form of the Calabi-Yau metric cone. The corresponding hidden symmetries are not anomalous and the geodesic equations are superintegrable.

Visinescu, Mihai

2012-12-01

454

Mothers Who Kill Their Offspring: Testing Evolutionary Hypothesis in a 110-Case Italian Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This research aimed to identify incidents of mothers in Italy killing their own children and to test an adaptive evolutionary hypothesis to explain their occurrence. Methods: 110 cases of mothers killing 123 of their own offspring from 1976 to 2010 were analyzed. Each case was classified using 13 dichotomic variables. Descriptive…

Camperio Ciani, Andrea S.; Fontanesi, Lilybeth

2012-01-01

455

REGISTRANT INFORMATION VEHICLE INFORMATION  

E-print Network

OrganizationCategoryGrade / Rank StateDOB Sex Race Height Weight Eye Color Hair Color Driver's License: Vehicle Color: VIN # : LICENSE INFORMATION Tag # : Expiration Date :State : INSURANCE INFORMATION Policy

Wlodawer, Alexander

456

Experimental Semiautonomous Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semiautonomous rover vehicle serves as testbed for evaluation of navigation and obstacle-avoidance techniques. Designed to traverse variety of terrains. Concepts developed applicable to robots for service in dangerous environments as well as to robots for exploration of remote planets. Called Robby, vehicle 4 m long and 2 m wide, with six 1-m-diameter wheels. Mass of 1,200 kg and surmounts obstacles as large as 1 1/2 m. Optimized for development of machine-vision-based strategies and equipped with complement of vision and direction sensors and image-processing computers. Front and rear cabs steer and roll with respect to centerline of vehicle. Vehicle also pivots about central axle, so wheels comply with almost any terrain.

Wilcox, Brian H.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Litwin, Todd E.; Matthies, Larry H.; Cooper, Brian K.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Gat, Erann; Gennery, Donald B.; Firby, Robert J.; Miller, David P.; Loch, John L.; Slack, Marc G.

1993-01-01

457

Remotely Operated Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from the Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) Center, learn how some students are putting to work both technical skills as well as soft skills, such as teamwork and problem solving, in creating underwater remotely operated vehicles.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-10-25

458

All terrain vehicle.  

PubMed

MSOs (management service organizations) offer health systems and physicians a flexible, resilient vehicle for integration. But they work much better when providers tailor them carefully to their markets and give them a clear mission. PMID:10169733

Guzzetta, D C

1997-01-01

459

Electric Vehicles 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation was developed by a member of MITâs electric vehicle team and provides a basic overview of electric and hybrid electric vehicle (EV and HEV) history, operation, challenges, and advantages. Discussed is EV/HEV history dating from 1830- 2010, the operation of EV/HEV systems (networking and sourcing of power throughout components), challenges (ranges, energy equivalence, consumer acceptance, charge time, grid integration, and cost), advantages (energy efficiency, fuel cost, and emissions), meeting challenges (convenient charging and improving technology), EV/HEV vehicles today (Chevrolet Volt, Tesla Roadster, and Fisker Karma), and MITâs electric vehicle team (projects, awards, and competitions). For more info on the MIT team visit http://web.mit.edu/evt/.

Technology, Massachusetts I.

460

Nuclear air cushion vehicles.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

Anderson, J. L.

1973-01-01

461

Emergency Brake for Tracked Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Caliper brake automatically stops tracked vehicle as vehicle nears end of travel. Bar on vehicle, traveling to right, dislodges block between brake pads. Pads then press against bar, slowing vehicle by friction. Emergencybraking system suitable for elevators, amusement rides and machine tools.

Green, G. L.; Hooper, S. L.

1986-01-01

462

Control of Unmanned Surface Vehicles  

E-print Network

Control of Unmanned Surface Vehicles Experiments in Vehicle Following · By Marco Bibuli, Massimo are extended to execute the task of vehicle fol- lowing in the case of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). Indeed surveillance, warfare, and defense applications, foresee the cooperation of networked heterogeneous manned/unmanned

Boyer, Edmond

463

Suspension apparatus for vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A suspension apparatus is described for a vehicle provided between a pair of left and right wheels of the vehicle and the vehicle body, comprising: telescopic members integrally connected to suspension springs and expanded and contracted by means of fluid pressure, fluid passages for feeding fluid pressurized by a pump to the telescopic members and discharging the fluid from the telescopic members, controlling valves provided in the fluid passages, each valve having a cylindrical inner valve member, a cylindrical outer valve member rotatably fitted on the inner valve member and a main body containing and supporting the inner and outer valve members for rotation respectively, means for connecting each inner valve member to a steering mechanism to rotate the inner valve member in accordance with the movement of the steering mechanism, and means for connecting each outer valve member to one of the telescopic members to rotate the outer valve member in accordance with the movement of the telescopic member relative to the vehicle body, whereby the controlling valves are connected to the steering mechanism and to the telescopic members to control the valves not only with respect to the steering but also with respect to the movement of the telescopic members relative to the vehicle body so that the vehicle body is caused to decline toward turning center side due to telescopic movement of the telescopic members in accordance with a steering operation.

Fujita, H.; Honma, K.; Ogawa, M.

1987-04-21

464

from a conventional vehicle  

E-print Network

Abstract. This paper presents a HEV modelling and simulation that incorporates both energy management system (EMS) controller and vehicle dynamics controller (VDC) which was converted from a conventional vehicle. Prior to building the HEV model, a vehicle dynamics experiment was conducted purposely to validate to base model created in ADAMS/Car. The base and HEV vehicle model was built in ADAMS/Car whilst the controller which includes the EMS and VDC was built in MATLAB/Simulink by utilising the Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). The HEV model and its controllers were analyzed for its performance and characteristics using co-simulation environment between ADAMS/Car and MATLAB/Simulink. Initially, separate sets of simulations were performed to test the operations of the vehicle dynamic controller and energy management controller. The model was found to have improved in handling characteristics and the results from EMS controller was found to be in close agreement with the results of the model simulated using ADVISOR. Later, an integrated simulation set was conducted with two controllers functioning concurrently and an additional simulation concentrating on the fuel usage during cornering was conducted. The results revealed that the HEV model has shown some improvement in term of fuel consumption and handling in comparison to the base model. The results obtained from the simulations revealed that the HEV model converted from a conventional vehicle proposed in this research was a success.

Masri Bin Baharom; Mohd Syaifuddin Mohd

2012-01-01

465

Space robot simulator vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

1985-01-01

466

Upgraded demonstration vehicle task report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vehicle/battery performance capabilities and interface problems that occurred when upgraded developmental batteries were integrated with upgraded versions of comercially available electric vehicles were investigated. Developmental batteries used included nickel zinc batteries, a nickel iron battery, and an improved lead acid battery. Testing of the electric vehicles and upgraded batteries was performed in the complete vehicle system environment to characterize performance and identify problems unique to the vehicle/battery system. Constant speed tests and driving schedule range tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer. The results from these tests of the upgraded batteries and vehicles were compared to performance capabilities for the same vehicles equipped with standard batteries.

Bryant, J.; Hardy, K.; Livingston, R.; Sandberg, J.

1981-01-01

467

Vital signs: health burden and medical costs of nonfatal injuries to motor vehicle occupants - United States, 2012.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury and death. Previous research has shown that motor vehicle crashes result in substantial mortality, with 22,912 motor vehicle occupants killed in 2012 in the United States, and an estimated 265,000 years of potential life lost in 2011 (CDC's Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System [WISQARS], unpublished data, 2014). The estimated medical cost of such fatalities was $226 million. Because the burden of nonfatalinjuries caused by motor vehicle crashes has been less well documented, this report estimates the U.S. health burden and medical and work loss costs of nonfatal motor vehicle crash injuries; the most recent available data on emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations were examined. PMID:25299606

Bergen, Gwen; Peterson, Cora; Ederer, David; Florence, Curtis; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo; Xu, Likang

2014-10-10

468

Fluconazole Assists Berberine To Kill Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

It was found in our previous study that berberine (BBR) and fluconazole (FLC) used concomitantly exhibited a synergism against FLC-resistant Candida albicans in vitro. The aim of the present study was to clarify how BBR and FLC worked synergistically and the underlying mechanism. Antifungal time-kill curves indicated that the synergistic effect of the two drugs was BBR dose dependent rather than FLC dose dependent. In addition, we found that BBR accumulated in C. albicans cells, especially in the nucleus, and resulted in cell cycle arrest and significant change in the transcription of cell cycle-related genes. Besides BBR, other DNA intercalators, including methylene blue, sanguinarine, and acridine orange, were all found to synergize with FLC against FLC-resistant C. albicans. Detection of intracellular BBR accumulation by fluorescence measurement showed that FLC played a role in increasing intracellular BBR concentration, probably due to its effect in disrupting the fungal cell membrane. Similar to the case with FLC, other antifungal agents acting on the cell membrane were able to synergize with BBR. Interestingly, we found that the efflux of intracellular BBR was FLC independent but strongly glucose dependent and associated with the drug efflux pump Cdr2p. These results suggest that BBR plays a major antifungal role in the synergism of FLC and BBR, while FLC plays a role in increasing the intracellular BBR concentration. PMID:24060867

Li, De-Dong; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Da-Zhi; Quan, Hua; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Hu, Dan-Dan; Li, Ming-Bang; Zhao, Lan-Xue; Zhu, Liang-Hua

2013-01-01

469

Rapid Kill--Novel Endodontic Sealer and Enterococcus faecalis  

PubMed Central

With growing concern over bacterial resistance, the identification of new antimicrobial means is paramount. In the oral cavity microorganisms are essential to the development of periradicular diseases and are the major causative factors associated with endodontic treatment failure. As quaternary ammonium compounds have the ability to kill a wide array of bacteria through electrostatic interactions with multiple anionic targets on the bacterial surface, it is likely that they can overcome bacterial resistance. Melding these ideas, we investigated the potency of a novel endodontic sealer in limiting Enterococcus faecalis growth. We used a polyethyleneimine scaffold to synthesize nano-sized particles, optimized for incorporation into an epoxy-based endodontic sealer. The novel endodontic sealer was tested for its antimicrobial efficacy and evaluated for biocompatibility and physical eligibility. Our results show that the novel sealer foundation affixes the nanoparticles, achieving surface bactericidal properties, but at the same time impeding nanoparticle penetration into eukaryotic cells and thereby mitigating a possible toxic effect. Moreover, adequate physical properties are maintained. The nanosized quaternary amine particles interact within minutes with bacteria, triggering cell death across wide pH values. Throughout this study we demonstrate a new antibacterial perspective for endodontic sealers; a novel antibacterial, effective and safe antimicrobial means. PMID:24223159

Zaltsman, Nathan; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Abramovitz, Itzhak; Davidi, Michael Perez; Weiss, Ervin I.

2013-01-01

470

Geometries with Killing Spinors and Supersymmetric AdS Solutions  

E-print Network

The seven and nine dimensional geometries associated with certain classes of supersymmetric $AdS_3$ and $AdS_2$ solutions of type IIB and D=11 supergravity, respectively, have many similarities with Sasaki-Einstein geometry. We further elucidate their properties and also generalise them to higher odd dimensions by introducing a new class of complex geometries in $2n+2$ dimensions, specified by a Riemannian metric, a scalar field and a closed three-form, which admit a particular kind of Killing spinor. In particular, for $n\\ge 3$, we show that when the geometry in $2n+2$ dimensions is a cone we obtain a class of geometries in $2n+1$ dimensions, specified by a Riemannian metric, a scalar field and a closed two-form, which includes the seven and nine-dimensional geometries mentioned above when $n=3,4$, respectively. We also consider various ansatz for the geometries and construct infinite classes of explicit examples for all $n$.

Jerome P. Gauntlett; Nakwoo Kim

2007-10-13

471

Nanotechnology for the detection and kill of circulating tumor cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represent a surrogate biomarker of hematogenous metastases and thus could be considered as a `liquid biopsy' which reveals metastasis in action. But it is absolutely a challenge to detect CTCs due to their extreme rarity. At present, the most common principle is to take advantage of the epithelial surface markers of CTCs which attach to a specific antibody. Antibody-magnetic nanobeads combine with the epithelial surface markers, and then the compound is processed by washing, separation, and detection. However, a proportion of CTC antigen expressions are down-regulated or lost in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus, this part of CTCs cannot be detected by classical detection methods such as CellSearch. To resolve this problem, some multiple-marker CTC detections have been developed rapidly. Additionally, nanotechnology is a promising approach to kill CTCs with high efficiency. Implantable nanotubes coated with apoptosis-promoting molecules improve the disease-free survival and overall survival. The review introduces some novel CTC detection techniques and therapeutic methods by virtue of nanotechnology to provide a better knowledge of the progress about CTC study.

Gao, Yang; Yuan, Zhou

2014-09-01

472

Nanotechnology for the detection and kill of circulating tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represent a surrogate biomarker of hematogenous metastases and thus could be considered as a ‘liquid biopsy’ which reveals metastasis in action. But it is absolutely a challenge to detect CTCs due to their extreme rarity. At present, the most common principle is to take advantage of the epithelial surface markers of CTCs which attach to a specific antibody. Antibody-magnetic nanobeads combine with the epithelial surface markers, and then the compound is processed by washing, separation, and detection. However, a proportion of CTC antigen expressions are down-regulated or lost in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus, this part of CTCs cannot be detected by classical detection methods such as CellSearch. To resolve this problem, some multiple-marker CTC detections have been developed rapidly. Additionally, nanotechnology is a promising approach to kill CTCs with high efficiency. Implantable nanotubes coated with apoptosis-promoting molecules improve the disease-free survival and overall survival. The review introduces some novel CTC detection techniques and therapeutic methods by virtue of nanotechnology to provide a better knowledge of the progress about CTC study.

2014-01-01

473

'Killing the angel in the house': creativity, femininity and aggression.  

PubMed

The author brings to bear an art historical perspective on the psychoanalytic understanding of creativity as an object relationship, proposing that the creative endeavour is determined by a wider, more complex network of internal and external object relationships than is usually assumed. The workings of tradition, language, contemporary practices, methods and materials are explored. Creative block is considered in the context of the determining relationships, with particular reference to the role of aggression. The position of the latter within psychoanalytic theories of creativity is surveyed and it is proposed that aggression has a pivotal place not primarily in instituting sublimation, reparation or reaction formation but simply because the processes of creativity demand it. Virginia Woolf's image of 'Killing the Angel in the House' is analysed and used to track the implications of gender, focusing on the concept of the muse. It is pointed out that traditionally, the fear, guilt and anxiety associated with aggressive creativity has been mediated by the muse, which is compared to the internal good object. Drawing on art history, artists' statements, and clinical material, the author illustrates the disparate means by which the presence of 'muse' can be internalised to infuse the relationships that constitute creativity. PMID:9777453

Parker, R

1998-08-01

474

Vehicle Modeling and Verification of CNG-Powered Transit Buses  

E-print Network

Vehicle Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Locked Vehicle Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1.2.2 Unlocked Vehicle Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hedrick, J. K.; Ni, A.

2004-01-01

475

The driver of a sports utility vehicle that overturned last April, killing a Virginia Tech freshman, was con-  

E-print Network

Krueger, 18, who died May 4 from irreversible brain damage. She was comatose and had been on life support fire code can result in up to six months in jail and a $2,500 fine, said Wayne Garst, who enforces

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

476

76 FR 34692 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego...NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC,...

2011-06-14

477

76 FR 36910 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego...NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power [[Page 36911

2011-06-23

478

76 FR 36914 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego...NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC,...

2011-06-23

479

50 CFR 21.42 - Authority to issue depredating orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. 21.42 Section 21.42 ...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. Upon the receipt of evidence clearly showing that migratory game birds have accumulated in such...

2011-10-01

480

50 CFR 21.42 - Authority to issue depredating orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. 21.42 Section 21.42 ...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. Upon the receipt of evidence clearly showing that migratory game birds have accumulated in such...

2012-10-01

481

50 CFR 21.42 - Authority to issue depredating orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. 21.42 Section 21.42 ...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. Upon the receipt of evidence clearly showing that migratory game birds have accumulated in such...

2013-10-01

482

50 CFR 21.42 - Authority to issue depredating orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. 21.42 Section 21.42 ...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. Upon the receipt of evidence clearly showing that migratory game birds have accumulated in such...

2010-10-01

483

Retrofiting survivability of military vehicles  

SciTech Connect

In Iraq the terrain was such that vehicles could be distributed horizontally, which reduced the effectiveness of mines. In the mountainous terrain of Pakistan and Afghanistan vehicles are forced to use the few, passable roads, which are dirt and easily seeded with plentiful, cheap, intelligent mines. It is desirable to reduce the losses to such mines, preferably by retrofit means that do not greatly increase weight or cost or reduce maneuverability. V-bottom vehicles - A known approach to reducing vulnerability is the Buffalo, a large vehicle developed by South Africa to address mine warfare. It has large tires, high axles, and a reinforced, v-shaped bottom that deflects the blast from explosions below. It is developed and tested in combat, but is expensive and has reduced off-road mobility. The domestic MRAP has similar cost and mobility issue. The addition of v-shaped blast deflectors to vehicles such as Humvees could act much as the deflector on a Buffalo, but a Humvee is closer to the ground, so the explosive's expansion would be reduced. The deflector would also reduce a Humvee's clearance for rough terrain, and a deflector of adequate thickness to address the blast by itself could further increase cost and reduce mobility. Reactive armor is developed and has proven effective against shaped and explosive charges from side or top attack. It detects their approach, detonates, and defeats them by interfering with jet formation. If the threat was a shaped charge from below, they would be a logical choice. But the bulk of the damage to Humvees appears to be from the blast from high explosive mines for which the colliding shock from reactive armor could increase that from the explosive. Porous materials such as sand can strongly attenuate the kinetic energy and pressure of a strong shock. Figure 1 shows the kinetic energy (KE), momentum (Mu), velocity (u), and mass (M) of a spherically expanding shock as functions of radius for a material with a porosity of 0.5. Over the range from 0.5 to 4.5 cm the shock KE is attenuated by a factor of {approx}70, while its momentum is changed little. The shock and particle velocity falls by a factor of 200 while the mass increases by a factor of 730. In the limit of very porous media u {approx} 1/M, so KE {approx} 1/M, which falls by a factor of {approx}600, while momentum Mu does not change at all. Figure 2 shows the KE, Mu, u, and M for a material with a porosity of 1.05, for which the KE changes little. In the limit of media of very low porosity, u {approx} 1/{radical}M, so KE is constant while Mu {approx} {radical}M, which increases by a factor of 15. Thus, if the goal is to reduce the peak pressure from strong explosions below, very porous materials, which strongly reduce pressure but do not increase momentum, are preferred to non-porous materials, which amplify momentum but do not decrease pressure. These predictions are in qualitative accord with the results of experiments at Los Alamos in which projectiles from high velocity, large caliber cannons were stopped by one to two sandbags. The studies were performed primarily to determine the effectiveness of sand in stopping fragments of various sizes, but could be extended to study sand's effectiveness in attenuating blast pressure. It would also be useful to test the above predictions on the effectiveness of media with higher porosity. Water barriers have been discussed but not deployed in previous retrofit survivability studies for overseas embassies. They would detect the flash from the mine detonation below, trigger a thin layer of explosive above a layer of water, and drive water droplets into the approaching blast wave. The blast loses energy in evaporating the droplets and loses momentum in slowing them. Under favorable conditions that could attenuate the pressure in the blast enough to prevent the penetration or disruption of the vehicle. However, such barriers would depend on prompt and reliable detonation detection and water droplet dispersal, which have not been tested. There is a large literature on the theoretical effec

Canavan, Gregory H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

484

Commuting symmetry operators of the Dirac equation, Killing-Yano and Schouten-Nijenhuis brackets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we derive the most general first-order symmetry operator commuting with the Dirac operator in all dimensions and signatures. Such an operator splits into Clifford even and Clifford odd parts which are given in terms of odd Killing-Yano and even closed conformal Killing-Yano inhomogeneous forms, respectively. We study commutators of these symmetry operators and give necessary and sufficient conditions under which they remain of the first-order. In this specific setting we can introduce a Killing-Yano bracket, a bilinear operation acting on odd Killing-Yano and even closed conformal Killing-Yano forms, and demonstrate that it is closely related to the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. An important nontrivial example of vanishing Killing-Yano brackets is given by Dirac symmetry operators generated from the principal conformal Killing-Yano tensor [hep-th/0612029]. We show that among these operators one can find a complete subset of mutually commuting operators. These operators underlie separability of the Dirac equation in Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes in all dimensions [arXiv:0711.0078].

Cariglia, Marco; Krtouš, Pavel; Kubiz?ák, David

2011-07-01

485

Effect of concanavalin A on intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human phagocytes.  

PubMed Central

This study concerns the influence of concanavalin A (Con A) on phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes and granulocytes. Con A binds to S. aureus, monocytes, and granulocytes, and is not opsonic. Con A stimulates the killing of intracellular serum opsonized S. aureus by monocytes, but not by granulocytes. This stimulation of intracellular killing was inhibited by alpha-methyl-mannoside, indicating that the process occurs via Con A specific membrane binding sites. Unlike (tetravalent) Con A, divalent succinyl-Con A does not stimulate intracellular killing, indicating that the lectin valency is important for this stimulation. Con A bound to Sephadex particles, that can not be ingested by monocytes, does not stimulate intracellular killing of S. aureus either, although it, like free Con A, stimulates H2O2 production. Pre-incubation of monocytes with Con A inhibited Fc gamma and C3b-mediated ingestion of S. aureus as well as stimulation of the killing by serum. Divalent Con A had no effect on these functions. This inhibition by Con A is in all probability due to a steric impedance of Con A with respect to the interaction of IgG and C3b with their membrane receptors. Fluorescence techniques showed that Con A was localized on the membrane and in the cytoplasm of the monocytes, whereas granulocytes had only membrane bound lectin. Taken together, these findings suggest that cell penetration by the lectin is obligatory for the stimulation of intracellular killing. PMID:6239718

Leijh, P C; van Zwet, T L; van Furth, R

1984-01-01

486

A qualitative analysis of the experience and impact of killing in hand-to-hand combat.  

PubMed

A growing body of research suggests that killing during military combat is closely associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as a number of other adverse mental health related conditions (e.g., dissociative experiences, violent behavior, functional impairment). This article provides first-person perspectives on the experiences and impact of killing by service members with the goal of expanding our understanding of the impact of taking a life during war. In audio-recorded phenomenological interviews, 9 service members described their experiences and the subsequent impact of killing during hand-to-hand combat. A description, supported by participant quotations, was constructed to represent the participants' experiences. Results suggest the experience and aftermath of taking a life in hand-to-hand combat was disturbing, psychologically stressful, and necessitated some form of coping after the event. Service members who killed in hand-to-hand combat viewed their actions as necessary to preserve their life and that killing in hand-to-hand combat was more emotionally taxing than killing by shooting. Our findings may help to improve providers' understanding of service members' first-person experiences of killing in hand-to-hand combat and thus provide the basis for the development of a connected and genuine relationship with such military clients. PMID:25158640

Jensen, Peter R; Simpson, Duncan

2014-08-01

487

Space vehicle concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several concepts of chemical-propulsion Space Vehicles (SVs) for manned Mars landing missions are presented. For vehicle sizing purposes, several specific missions were chosen from opportunities in the late 1990's and early 2000's, and a vehicle system concept is then described which is applicable to the full range of missions and opportunities available. In general, missions utilizing planetary opposition alignments can be done with smaller vehicles than those utilizing planetary opposition alignments. The conjunction missions have a total mission time of about 3 years, including a required stay-time of about 60 days. Both types of missions might be desirable during a Mars program, the opposition type for early low-risk missions and/or for later unmanned cargo missions, and the conjunction type for more extensive science/exploration missions and/or for Mars base activities. Since the opposition missions appeared to drive the SV size more severely, there were probably more cases examined for them. Some of the concepts presented utilize all-propulsive braking, some utilize and all aerobraking approach, and some are hybrids. Weight statements are provided for various cases. Most of the work was done on 0-g vehicle concepts, but partial-g and 1-g concepts are also provided and discussed. Several options for habitable elements are shown, such as large-diameter modules and space station (SS) types of modules.

Tucker, Michael; Meredith, Oliver; Brothers, Bobby

1986-01-01

488

Distributed Propulsion Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

Kim, Hyun Dae

2010-01-01

489

Optimization of gold nanostructers for laser killing of cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the first applications of gold nanoshells (Halas and co-workers, 2003), nanospheres and nanosphere clusters (Anderson and co-workers, 2003; Zharov and co-workers, 2003) to the cancer cell diagnostics and laser killing of cancer cells (LKCC) have been reported. However, to be clinically relevant, existing technologies must overcome fundamental problems related with limitations of current understanding the relationship between the nanoparticle/cluster parameters (size, shape, particle/cluster structure, etc.) and the efficiency of LKCC therapy, as well as with limitations of the available methods for synthesis and in situ characterization of new advanced nanoparticles and clusters with unique synergistic properties which are crucial for selective LKCC therapy. Here we report on preliminary simulation results aimed at finding the optimal cluster structures for maximal absorption efficiency of laser radiation. We consider also alternative possibilities related with using gold nanorods and nanoshells instead of spherical particles. Two types of nanostructures are studied: (1) bioconjugates of single nanoparticles (spheres, nanoshells, and nanorods); (2); linear chains, 2D lattice arrays, and 3D clusters of gold spheres or conjugates that mimic aggregation of nanoparticles on or within cancer cells. By using the generalized multiparticle Mie solution and different versions of the cluster T-matrix method, we calculated the absorption efficiency of nanostructures under study. The gold nanoshells and nanorods with tunable spectral resonances are shown to be more effective photothermal labels as compared to usual solid gold spheres. In the case of 1D-3D clusters, the interparticle separations and short linear chain fragments are the main structural parameters determining the absorption efficiency

Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Zharov, Vladimir P.; Melnikov, Andrei G.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

2006-06-01

490

"Is Cybermedicine Killing You?" - The Story of a Cochrane Disaster  

PubMed Central

This editorial briefly reviews the series of unfortunate events that led to the publication, dissemination, and eventual retraction of a flawed Cochrane systematic review on interactive health communication applications (IHCAs), which was widely reported in the media with headlines such as "Internet Makes Us Sick," "Knowledge May Be Hazardous to Web Consumers' Health," "Too Much Advice Can Be Bad for Your Health," "Click to Get Sick?" and even "Is Cybermedicine Killing You?" While the media attention helped to speed up the identification of errors, leading to a retraction of the review after only 13 days, a paper published in this issue of JMIR by Rada shows that the retraction, in contrast to the original review, remained largely unnoticed by the public. We discuss the three flaws of the review, which include (1) data extraction and coding errors, (2) the pooling of heterogeneous studies, and (3) a problematic and ambiguous scope and, possibly, some overlooked studies. We then discuss "retraction ethics" for researchers, editors/publishers, and journalists. Researchers and editors should, in the case of retractions, match the aggressiveness of the original dissemination campaign if errors are detected. It is argued that researchers and their organizations may have an ethical obligation to track down journalists who reported stories on the basis of a flawed study and to specifically ask them to publish an article indicating the error. Journalists should respond to errors or retractions with reports that have the same prominence as the original story. Finally, we look at some of the lessons for the Cochrane Collaboration, which include (1) improving the peer-review system by routinely sending out pre-prints to authors of the original studies, (2) avoiding downplay of the magnitude of errors if they occur, (3) addressing the usability issues of RevMan, and (4) making critical articles such as retraction notices open access. PMID:15998612

Kummervold, Per Egil

2005-01-01

491

Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy to Kill Gram-negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a new promising strategy to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms such as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The search for new approaches that can kill bacteria but do not induce the appearance of undesired drug-resistant strains suggests that PDT may have advantages over traditional antibiotic therapy. PDT is a non-thermal photochemical reaction that involves the simultaneous presence of visible light, oxygen and a dye or photosensitizer (PS). Several PS have been studied for their ability to bind to bacteria and efficiently generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon photostimulation. ROS are formed through type I or II mechanisms and may inactivate several classes of microbial cells including Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are typically characterized by an impermeable outer cell membrane that contains endotoxins and blocks antibiotics, dyes, and detergents, protecting the sensitive inner membrane and cell wall. This review covers significant peer-reviewed articles together with US and World patents that were filed within the past few years and that relate to the eradication of Gram-negative bacteria via PDI or PDT. It is organized mainly according to the nature of the PS involved and includes natural or synthetic food dyes; cationic dyes such as methylene blue and toluidine blue; tetrapyrrole derivatives such as phthalocyanines, chlorins, porphyrins, chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll derivatives; functionalized fullerenes; nanoparticles combined with different PS; other formulations designed to target PS to bacteria; photoactive materials and surfaces; conjugates between PS and polycationic polymers or antibodies; and permeabilizing agents such as EDTA, PMNP and CaCl2. The present review also covers the different laboratory animal models normally used to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections with antimicrobial PDT. PMID:23550545

Sperandio, Felipe F; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R

2013-01-01

492

(1,0) superconformal theories in six dimensions and Killing spinor equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve the Killing spinor equations of 6-dimensional (1,0) superconformal theories in all cases. In particular, we derive the conditions on the fields imposed by the Killing spinor equations and demonstrate that these depend on the isotropy group of the Killing spinors. We focus on the models proposed by Samtleben et al in [11, 12] and find that there are solutions preserving 1,2, 4 and 8 supersymmetries. We also explore the solutions which preserve 4 supersymmetries and find that many models admit string and 3-brane solitons as expected from the M-brane intersection rules. The string solitons are smooth regulated by the moduli of instanton configurations.

Akyol, M.; Papadopoulos, G.

2012-07-01

493

Sl(2,R)-Duality Covariance of Killing Spinors in Axion-Dilaton Black Holes  

E-print Network

Under $SL(2,R)$ electric-magnetic duality transformations the Bogomolnyi bound of dilaton-axion black holes is known to be invariant. In this paper we show that this invariance corresponds to the covariance of the $N=4$ supersymmetry transformation rules and their parameters. In particular this implies that Killing spinors transform covariantly into Killing spinors. As an example, we work out completely the case of the largest known family of axion-dilaton black holes which is $SL(2,R)$-invariant, finding the Killing spinors with the announced properties.

Tomás Ortín

1994-04-07

494

Assured Crew Return Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The developmental status is discussed regarding the 'lifeboat' vehicle to enhance the safety of the crew on the Space Station Freedom (SSF). NASA's Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) is intended to provide a means for returning the SSF crew to earth at all times. The 'lifeboat' philosophy is the key to managing the development of the ACRV which further depends on matrixed support and total quality management for implementation. The risk of SSF mission scenarios are related to selected ACRV mission requirements, and the system and vehicle designs are related to these precepts. Four possible ACRV configurations are mentioned including the lifting-body, Apollo shape, Discoverer shape, and a new lift-to-drag concept. The SCRAM design concept is discussed in detail with attention to the 'lifeboat' philosophy and requirements for implementation.

Stone, D. A.; Craig, J. W.; Drone, B.; Gerlach, R. H.; Williams, R. J.

1991-01-01

495

Aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle which includes an aerobraking device which also serves as a heat shield in the shape of a raked-off elliptic or circular cone with a circular or elliptical base, and with an ellipsoid or other blunt shape nose. The aerobraking device is fitted with a toroid-like skirt and is integral with the support structure of the propulsion system and other systems of the space vehicle. The vehicle is intended to be transported in components to a space station in lower earth orbit where it is assembled for use as a transportation system from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit and return. Conventional guidance means are included for autonomous flight.

Scott, Carl D. (Inventor); Nagy, Kornel (Inventor); Roberts, Barney B. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Kroll, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Gamble, Joe (Inventor)

1989-01-01

496

Personnel emergency carrier vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A personnel emergency carrier vehicle is disclosed which includes a vehicle frame supported on steerable front wheels and driven rear wheels. A supply of breathing air is connected to quick connect face mask coupling and umbilical cord couplings for supplying breathing air to an injured worker or attendant either with or without a self-contained atmospheric protection suit for protection against hazardous gases at an accident site. A non-sparking hydraulic motion is utilized to drive the vehicle and suitable direction and throttling controls are provided for controlling the delivery of a hydraulic driving fluid from a pressurized hydraulic fluid accumulator. A steering axis is steerable through a handle to steer the front wheels through a linkage assembly.

Owens, Lester J. (inventor); Fedor, Otto H. (inventor)

1987-01-01

497

Smart Vehicle System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach to overcome the accidental problem happens in the night, while the driver is drunk or feels sleepy. This system controls the speed of the vehicle at steep turns. It is designed, to provide the information to the driver, whether the next turn is right/left, is there any traffic jam or land sliding in the coming way. It also assists during heavy rains and mist conditions. It may be implemented by using computer or by using a dedicated microcontroller. If we have a group of vehicles connected with the system then we can locate them by using the cameras, at different places. Information regarding any vehicle can be transmitted anywhere using Internet provided at the monitoring system, so as to prevent accidents or provide information during any calamity.

Pahadiya, Pallavi; Gupta, Rajni

2010-11-01

498

Vehicle brake testing system  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a force measuring system capable of measuring forces associated with vehicle braking and of evaluating braking performance. The disclosure concerns an invention which comprises a first row of linearly aligned plates, a force bearing surface extending beneath and beside the plates, vertically oriented links and horizontally oriented links connecting each plate to a force bearing surface, a force measuring device in each link, a transducer coupled to each force measuring device, and a computing device coupled to receive an output signal from the transducer indicative of measured force in each force measuring device. The present invention may be used for testing vehicle brake systems.

Stevens, Samuel S [Harriman, TN; Hodgson, Jeffrey W [Lenoir City, TN

2002-11-19

499

Ariane Transfer Vehicle status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA has since 1987 conducted studies for an Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV) that will be able to bridge the distance between the Ariane 5 launch vehicle and orbiting elements which must be serviced. ATV's reference mission involves the logistical support of the Space Station Freedom through transport of such items as unpressurized carriers or pressurized modules. After an attached period of up to six months at the Station, the ATV can remove a cargo of the Station's waste products for disposal. A conceptual development history of the ATV is presented with emphasis on the ESA/NASA common design criteria that had to be addressed to arrive at a suitable ATV architecture.

Bonnal, Christophe; Theillier, Francis; Salt, David J.

1990-10-01

500

BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

None

2010-07-01