Science.gov

Sample records for kinetic kill vehicle

  1. Duel between an ASAT with multiple-kill vehicles and a space-based weapons platform with kinetic-energy weapons. Final report, Oct 84-Dec 85

    SciTech Connect

    Cutchis, P.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical model is described for a duel between a ground-based anti-satellite (ASAT) and a spaced-based weapons platform defending itself with kinetic energy weapons. The ASAT carries 1-6 kill vehicles and the space platform may first attack the ASAT booster with 1-3 defense missiles. If the ASAT kill vehicles collectively survive the boost phase, they are each subject to a post-boost phase attack consisting of 1-3 defense missiles. A formula for the probability of killing the space platform with a single ASAT launch is derived as a function of the vehicle reliabilities, target detection probabilities, kill probabilities, and number of participating vehicles. Formulas are also given for kill probabilities if the space platform defends itself with a high-energy laser or with both high-energy laser and defense missiles. Illustrative examples are calculated for the case in which the space platform is defended by defense missiles only. It is assumed that all offense and defense reliabilities, detection probabilities, and kill probabilities are equal to 0.90. A sensitivity analysis illustrates the effect of a variation in any one of the assumed parameters on the probability of killing the space platform when all other parameters are held equal to 0.90. It is shown that the survivability of the space platform is crucially dependent on a capability to destroy the ASAT booster before it can deploy its miniature kill vehicles. Improvement in parameter values above the 0.9 level, if shared equally by both the ASAT offense and space platform defense, will favor the platform defense.

  2. Unique digital imagery interface between a silicon graphics computer and the kinetic kill vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulator (KHILS) wideband infrared scene projector (WISP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Ricky A.; Moren, Stephen E.; Skalka, Marion S.

    1998-07-01

    Providing a flexible and reliable source of IR target imagery is absolutely essential for operation of an IR Scene Projector in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment. The Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) at Eglin AFB provides the capability, and requisite interfaces, to supply target IR imagery to its Wideband IR Scene Projector (WISP) from three separate sources at frame rates ranging from 30 - 120 Hz. Video can be input from a VCR source at the conventional 30 Hz frame rate. Pre-canned digital imagery and test patterns can be downloaded into stored memory from the host processor and played back as individual still frames or movie sequences up to a 120 Hz frame rate. Dynamic real-time imagery to the KHILS WISP projector system, at a 120 Hz frame rate, can be provided from a Silicon Graphics Onyx computer system normally used for generation of digital IR imagery through a custom CSA-built interface which is available for either the SGI/DVP or SGI/DD02 interface port. The primary focus of this paper is to describe our technical approach and experience in the development of this unique SGI computer and WISP projector interface.

  3. Kinetics of killing Listeria monocytogenes by macrophages: rapid killing accompanying phagocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, W.A.

    1983-08-01

    The kinetics of bactericidal activity of activated macrophages can be precisely described by a mathematical model in which phagocytosis, killing, digestion, and release of degraded bacterial material are considered to occur continuously. To gain a better understanding of these events, I have determined the period of time between first contact of bacteria with macrophages and the onset of killing. Activated rat peritoneal macrophages were incubated for various times up to 15 min with Listeria monocytogenes previously labeled with /sup 3/H-thymidine and the unassociated bacteria removed by two centrifugations through a density interface. Both cell-associated radioactivity and cell-associated viable bacteria, determined as colony forming units after sonication of the cell pellet, increased with time of incubation. However, the specific viability of these bacteria, expressed as the ratio of number of viable bacteria per unit radioactivity declined with time, as an approximate inverse exponential, after a lag period of 2.9 +/- 0.8 min. Evidence is given that other possible causes for this decline in specific viability, other than death of the bacteria, such as preferential ingestion of dead Listeria, clumping of bacteria, variations in autolytic activity, or release of Listericidins are unlikely. I conclude therefore that activated macrophages kill Listeria approximately 3 min after the cell and the bacterium first make contact.

  4. Genius Sand: A Miniature Kill Vehicle Technology to Support Boost Phase Intercepts and Midcourse Engagements

    SciTech Connect

    Ledebuhr, A.G.; Ng, L.C.; Kordas, J.F.; Jones, M.S.; McMahon, D.H.

    2002-06-30

    This paper summarizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) approach to a proposed Technology Demonstration program for the development of a new class of miniature kill vehicles (MKVs), that they have termed Genius Sand (GS). These miniaturized kinetic kill vehicles offer new capabilities for boost phase intercept (BPI) missions, as well as midcourse intercepts and the defeat of advanced countermeasures. The specific GS MKV properties will depend on the choice of mission application and system architecture, as well as the level of coordinated or autonomous operations in these missions. In general the GS MKVs will mass from between 1 to 5 kilograms and have several hundred meters per second of {Delta}v and be capable of several g's of acceleration. Based on the results of their previous study effort, they believe that it is feasible to develop and integrate the required technologies into a fully functional GS MKV prototype within the scope of a three-year development effort. They will discuss some of the system architecture trades and applicable technologies that can be applied in an operational MKV system, as a guide to focus any technology demonstration program. They will present the results of a preliminary 6DOF analysis to determine the minimum capabilities of an MKV system. They also will discuss a preliminary design configuration of a 2 kg GS MKV that has between 300-500 m/s of {Delta}v and has at least 2-g's of acceleration capability. They believe a successful GS MKV development effort will require not only a comprehensive component miniaturization program, but a rapid hardware prototyping process, and the ability to utilize high fidelity ground testing methodologies.

  5. Electric Vehicles Mileage Extender Kinetic Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jivkov, Venelin; Draganov, Vutko; Stoyanova, Yana

    2015-03-01

    The proposed paper considers small urban vehicles with electric hybrid propulsion systems. Energy demands are examined on the basis of European drive cycle (NEUDC) and on an energy recuperation coefficient and are formulated for description of cycle energy transfers. Numerical simulation results show real possibilities for increasing in achievable vehicle mileage at the same energy levels of a main energy source - the electric battery. Kinetic energy storage (KES), as proposed to be used as an energy buffer and different structural schemes of the hybrid propulsion system are commented. Minimum energy levels for primary (the electric battery) and secondary (KES) sources are evaluated. A strategy for reduced power flows control is examined, and its impact on achievable vehicle mileage is investigated. Results show an additional increase in simulated mileage at the same initial energy levels.

  6. Kinetic-dependent Killing of Oral Pathogens with Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Backlund, C J; Worley, B V; Sergesketter, A R; Schoenfisch, M H

    2015-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing silica nanoparticles were synthesized via the co-condensation of tetramethyl orthosilicate with aminosilanes and subsequent conversion of secondary amines to N-diazeniumdiolate NO donors. A series of ~150 nm NO-releasing particles with different NO totals and release kinetics (i.e., half-lives) were achieved by altering both the identity and mol% composition of the aminosilane precursors. Independent of identical 2 h NO-release totals, enhanced antibacterial action was observed against the periodontopathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis with extended NO-release kinetics at pH 7.4. Negligible bactericidal effect was observed against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans at pH 7.4, even when using NO-releasing silica particles with greater NO-release totals. However, antibacterial activity was observed against S. mutans at lower pH (6.4). This result was attributed to more rapid proton-initiated decomposition of the N-diazeniumdiolate NO donors and greater NO-release payloads. The data suggest a differential sensitivity to NO between cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria with implications for the future development of NO-releasing oral care therapeutics. PMID:26078424

  7. Two-Lesion Kinetic Model of Double-Strand Break Rejoining and Cell Killing

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Robert D. )

    2000-11-01

    To better link biochemical processing of the DSB to cell killing, a two-lesion kinetic (TLK) model is proposed. In the TLK model, the family of all possible DSBs is sub-divided into simple and complex DSBs, and each kind of DSB may have its own repair characteristics. A unique aspect of the TLK model is that break-ends associated with both kinds of DSB are allowed to interact in pairwise fashion to form irreversible lethal and non-lethal damages. To test the performance of the TLK model, non-linear optimization methods are used to calibrate the model based on CHO cell survival data for an extensive set of single-dose and split-dose exposure conditions. Then, some of the postulated mechanisms of action are tested by comparing measured and predicted estimates of the initial DSB yield and the rate of DSB rejoining. TLK model predictions of CHO survival and the initial DSB yield and rejoining rate are all shown to be in good agreement with the measured data. Studies suggest a yield of about 25 DSB Gy-1 cell-1. About 20 DSB Gy-1 cell-1 are rejoined quickly (15-minute repair half-time), and 4 to 6 DSB Gy-1 cell-1 are rejoined very slowly (10 to 15 hour repair half-time). Both the slow- and fast-rejoining DSBs make a substantial contribution to the radiation killing of CHO cells. Although the TLK model provides a much more satisfactory formalism to relate biochemical processing of the DSB to cell killing than earlier kinetic models, some small differences among the measured and predicted CHO survival and DSB rejoining data suggest that additional factors and processes not considered in the present work may affect biochemical processing of the DSB and, hence, cell killing.

  8. Type, size and age of vehicles driven by teenage drivers killed in crashes during 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-04-01

    Given teenagers' elevated crash rates, it is especially important that their vehicles have key safety features and good crash protection. A profile of vehicles driven by teenagers killed in crashes was developed. Data on vehicles of drivers ages 15-17 and ages 35-50 who died in crashes during 2008-2012 were obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Using vehicle identification numbers, the vehicle make, model and model year were identified. 29% of fatally injured teenagers were driving mini or small cars, 82% were driving vehicles at least 6?years old, and 48% were driving vehicles at least 11?years old. Compared with middle-aged drivers, teenagers' vehicles more often were small or mini cars or older vehicles. Few teenagers' vehicles had electronic stability control or side airbags as standard features. Parents should consider safety when choosing vehicles for their teenagers. PMID:25525130

  9. Studies on the kinetics of killing and the proposed mechanism of action of microemulsions against fungi.

    PubMed

    Al-Adham, Ibrahim S I; Ashour, Hana; Al-Kaissi, Elham; Khalil, Enam; Kierans, Martin; Collier, Phillip J

    2013-09-15

    Microemulsions are physically stable oil/water clear dispersions, spontaneously formed and thermodynamically stable. They are composed in most cases of water, oil, surfactant and cosurfactant. Microemulsions are stable, self-preserving antimicrobial agents in their own right. The observed levels of antimicrobial activity associated with microemulsions may be due to the direct effect of the microemulsions themselves on the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. The aim of this work is to study the growth behaviour of different microbes in presence of certain prepared physically stable microemulsion formulae over extended periods of time. An experiment was designed to study the kinetics of killing of a microemulsion preparation (17.3% Tween-80, 8.5% n-pentanol, 5% isopropyl myristate and 69.2% sterile distilled water) against selected test microorganisms (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Rhodotorula spp.). Secondly, an experiment was designed to study the effects of the microemulsion preparation on the cytoplasmic membrane structure and function of selected fungal species by observation of 260 nm component leakage. Finally, the effects of the microemulsion on the fungal membrane structure and function using S. pombe were studied using transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the prepared microemulsions are stable, effective antimicrobial systems with effective killing rates against C. albicans, A. niger, S. pombe and Rhodotorula spp. The results indicate a proposed mechanism of action of significant anti-membrane activity, resulting in the gross disturbance and dysfunction of the cytoplasmic membrane structure which is followed by cell wall modifications, cytoplasmic coagulation, disruption of intracellular metabolism and cell death. PMID:23830945

  10. Antibody Fc engineering improves frequency and promotes kinetic boosting of serial killing mediated by NK cells.

    PubMed

    Romain, Gabrielle; Senyukov, Vladimir; Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Merouane, Amine; Kelton, William; Liadi, Ivan; Mahendra, Ankit; Charab, Wissam; Georgiou, George; Roysam, Badrinath; Lee, Dean A; Varadarajan, Navin

    2014-11-20

    The efficacy of most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting tumor antigens results primarily from their ability to elicit potent cytotoxicity through effector-mediated functions. We have engineered the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) mAb, HuM195, targeting the leukemic antigen CD33, by introducing the triple mutation Ser293Asp/Ala330Leu/Ile332Glu (DLE), and developed Time-lapse Imaging Microscopy in Nanowell Grids to analyze antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity kinetics of thousands of individual natural killer (NK) cells and mAb-coated target cells. We demonstrate that the DLE-HuM195 antibody increases both the quality and the quantity of NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity by endowing more NK cells to participate in cytotoxicity via accrued CD16-mediated signaling and by increasing serial killing of target cells. NK cells encountering targets coated with DLE-HuM195 induce rapid target cell apoptosis by promoting simultaneous conjugates to multiple target cells and induce apoptosis in twice the number of target cells within the same period as the wild-type mAb. Enhanced target killing was also associated with increased frequency of NK cells undergoing apoptosis, but this effect was donor-dependent. Antibody-based therapies targeting tumor antigens will benefit from a better understanding of cell-mediated tumor elimination, and our work opens further opportunities for the therapeutic targeting of CD33 in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:25232058

  11. Utilization of rotor kinetic energy storage for hybrid vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-05-03

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine, the power system comprises an electric machine (12) further comprising a first excitation source (47), a permanent magnet rotor (28) and a magnetic coupling rotor (26) spaced from the permanent magnet rotor and at least one second excitation source (43), the magnetic coupling rotor (26) also including a flywheel having an inertial mass to store kinetic energy during an initial acceleration to an operating speed; and wherein the first excitation source is electrically connected to the second excitation source for power cycling such that the flywheel rotor (26) exerts torque on the permanent magnet rotor (28) to assist braking and acceleration of the permanent magnet rotor (28) and consequently, the vehicle. An axial gap machine and a radial gap machine are disclosed and methods of the invention are also disclosed.

  12. Time-kill kinetics of oritavancin and comparator agents against Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Arhin, Francis F; McKay, Geoffrey A; Beaulieu, Sylvain; Sarmiento, Ingrid; Parr, Thomas R; Moeck, Gregory

    2009-12-01

    The activity of oritavancin in vitro against recent clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, including antibiotic-resistant strains, was characterised by determination of broth microdilution minimal inhibitory concentrations as well as time-kill assays. Ten clinical isolates of S. pyogenes, three of which were resistant to erythromycin, as well as one reference S. pyogenes strain were tested. In the time-kill assays, oritavancin and the comparators vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, penicillin, erythromycin and daptomycin were tested at static concentrations approximating their free peak (fC(max)) and free trough (fC(min)) concentrations in plasma when administered at approved doses for skin and skin-structure infections. At its fC(max) predicted from a 200 mg dose in humans, oritavancin exerted bactericidal activity (> or = 3 log kill relative to the starting inoculum) within 15 min to 3 h against all tested strains. Daptomycin exhibited bactericidal activity at its fC(max) for all but one strain; time to cidality was between 15 min and 6 h. At fC(min), only oritavancin was bactericidal against all the tested strains. Oritavancin displayed concentration-dependent killing of all isolates in vitro. Oritavancin was more rapidly bactericidal than the comparators at physiologically relevant concentrations against all strains tested. These data support the potential utility of oritavancin in infections with contemporary isolates of S. pyogenes, including drug-resistant strains. PMID:19818587

  13. From the Kinetic Energy Recovery System to the Thermo-Hydraulic Hybrid Motor Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Guta, Dragos; Dumitrescu, Catalin

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents some theoretical and experimental results obtained by the Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute INOE 2000-IHP with its partners, regarding the creating of one hydraulic system able to recovering the kinetic energy of the motor vehicles, in the braking phases, and use this recovered energy in the starting and accelerating phases. Also, in the article is presented a testing stand, which was especially designed for testing the hydraulic system for recovery the kinetic energy. Through mounting of the kinetic energy recovering hydraulic system, on one motor vehicle, this vehicle became a thermo-hydraulic hybrid vehicle. Therefore, the dynamic behavior was analyzed for the whole hybrid motor vehicle, which includes the energy recovery system. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the possible performances of the hybrid vehicle and that the kinetic energy recovery hydraulic systems are good means to increase energy efficiency of the road motor vehicles and to decrease of the fuel consumption.

  14. Adaptive resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced by aminoglycosides and killing kinetics in a rabbit endocarditis model.

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Y Q; Caillon, J; Kergueris, M F; Drugeon, H; Baron, D; Potel, G; Bayer, A S

    1997-01-01

    Adaptive resistance following the first exposure to aminoglycosides is a recently described in vitro phenomenon in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other aerobic gram-negative bacilli. We investigated the in vivo relevance of adaptive resistance in P. aeruginosa following a single dose of amikacin in the experimental rabbit endocarditis model. Rabbits with P. aeruginosa endocarditis received either no therapy (control) or a single intravenous (i.v.) dose of amikacin (80 mg/kg of body weight) at 24 h postinfection, after which they were sacrificed at 5, 8, 12, 16, or 24 h postdose. Excised aortic vegetations were subsequently exposed ex vivo to amikacin at 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 times the MIC for 90 min. In vivo adaptive resistance was identified when amikacin-induced pseudomonal killing within excised aortic vegetations was less in animals receiving single-dose amikacin in vivo than in vegetations from control animals not receiving amikacin in vivo. Maximal adaptive resistance occurred between 8 and 16 h after the in vivo amikacin dose, with complete refractoriness to ex vivo killing by amikacin seen at 12 h postdose. By 24 h postdose, bacteria within excised vegetations had partially recovered their initial amikacin susceptibility. In a parallel treatment study, we demonstrated that amikacin given once daily (but not twice daily) at a total dose of 80 mg/kg i.v. for 1-day treatment significantly reduced pseudomonal densities within aortic vegetations versus those in untreated controls. When therapy was continued for 3 days with the same total daily dose (80 mg/kg/day), amikacin given once or twice daily significantly reduced intravegetation pseudomonal densities versus those in controls. However, amikacin given once daily was still more effective than the twice-daily regimen. These data confirm the induction of aminoglycoside adaptive resistance in vivo and further support the advantages of once-daily aminoglycoside dosing regimens in the treatment of serious pseudomonal infections. PMID:9087497

  15. Tissue distribution and kinetics of endogenous porphyrins synthesized after topical application of ALA in different vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Casas, A; Fukuda, H; Batlle, A M del C

    1999-01-01

    The use of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) is gaining increasing attention for photosensitization in photodynamic therapy of superficially localized tumours. The aim of this work was to determine the kinetics of porphyrin generation in tissues after topical application of ALA delivered in different vehicles on the skin overlying the tumour and normal skin of mice. Maximal accumulation was found in tumour 3 h after ALA application in both cream and lotion preparations. Normal and overlying tumour skin tissues showed different kinetic patterns, reflecting histological changes when the latter is invaded by tumour cells. Liver, kidney, spleen and blood porphyrins also raised from basal levels, showing that ALA and/or ALA-induced porphyrins reach all tissues after topical application. During the first 24 h of ALA topical application, precursors and porphyrins are excreted by both urine and faeces. ALA lotion applied on the skin overlying the tumour induced higher accumulation of tumoural porphyrins than cream, and lotion applied on normal skin appeared to be the most efficient upon inducing total body porphyrins. This work has demonstrated the great influence of the formulation of ALA vehicle on penetration through the skin. Knowledge of the kinetics of porphyrin generation after different conditions of ALA application is needed for the optimization of diagnosis and phototherapy in human tumours. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10487606

  16. Bactericidal activity, absence of serum effect, and time-kill kinetics of ceftazidime-avibactam against ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Keepers, Tiffany R; Gomez, Marcela; Celeri, Chris; Nichols, Wright W; Krause, Kevin M

    2014-09-01

    Avibactam, a non-?-lactam ?-lactamase inhibitor with activity against extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs), KPC, AmpC, and some OXA enzymes, extends the antibacterial activity of ceftazidime against most ceftazidime-resistant organisms producing these enzymes. In this study, the bactericidal activity of ceftazidime-avibactam against 18 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and 15 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, including wild-type isolates and ESBL, KPC, and/or AmpC producers, was evaluated. Ceftazidime-avibactam MICs (0.016 to 32 ?g/ml) were lower than those for ceftazidime alone (0.06 to ?256 ?g/ml) against all isolates except for 2 P. aeruginosa isolates (1 blaVIM-positive isolate and 1 blaOXA-23-positive isolate). The minimum bactericidal concentration/MIC ratios of ceftazidime-avibactam were ?4 for all isolates, indicating bactericidal activity. Human serum and human serum albumin had a minimal effect on ceftazidime-avibactam MICs. Ceftazidime-avibactam time-kill kinetics were evaluated at low MIC multiples and showed time-dependent reductions in the number of CFU/ml from 0 to 6 h for all strains tested. A ?3-log10 decrease in the number of CFU/ml was observed at 6 h for all Enterobacteriaceae, and a 2-log10 reduction in the number of CFU/ml was observed at 6 h for 3 of the 6 P. aeruginosa isolates. Regrowth was noted at 24 h for some of the isolates tested in time-kill assays. These data demonstrate the potent bactericidal activity of ceftazidime-avibactam and support the continued clinical development of ceftazidime-avibactam as a new treatment option for infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa, including isolates resistant to ceftazidime by mechanisms dependent on avibactam-sensitive ?-lactamases. PMID:24957838

  17. Bactericidal Activity, Absence of Serum Effect, and Time-Kill Kinetics of Ceftazidime-Avibactam against ?-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Marcela; Celeri, Chris; Nichols, Wright W.; Krause, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Avibactam, a non-?-lactam ?-lactamase inhibitor with activity against extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs), KPC, AmpC, and some OXA enzymes, extends the antibacterial activity of ceftazidime against most ceftazidime-resistant organisms producing these enzymes. In this study, the bactericidal activity of ceftazidime-avibactam against 18 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and 15 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, including wild-type isolates and ESBL, KPC, and/or AmpC producers, was evaluated. Ceftazidime-avibactam MICs (0.016 to 32 ?g/ml) were lower than those for ceftazidime alone (0.06 to ?256 ?g/ml) against all isolates except for 2 P. aeruginosa isolates (1 blaVIM-positive isolate and 1 blaOXA-23-positive isolate). The minimum bactericidal concentration/MIC ratios of ceftazidime-avibactam were ?4 for all isolates, indicating bactericidal activity. Human serum and human serum albumin had a minimal effect on ceftazidime-avibactam MICs. Ceftazidime-avibactam time-kill kinetics were evaluated at low MIC multiples and showed time-dependent reductions in the number of CFU/ml from 0 to 6 h for all strains tested. A ?3-log10 decrease in the number of CFU/ml was observed at 6 h for all Enterobacteriaceae, and a 2-log10 reduction in the number of CFU/ml was observed at 6 h for 3 of the 6 P. aeruginosa isolates. Regrowth was noted at 24 h for some of the isolates tested in time-kill assays. These data demonstrate the potent bactericidal activity of ceftazidime-avibactam and support the continued clinical development of ceftazidime-avibactam as a new treatment option for infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa, including isolates resistant to ceftazidime by mechanisms dependent on avibactam-sensitive ?-lactamases. PMID:24957838

  18. Killing Coyotes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Conger, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Presents different viewpoints concerning the federal government's Animal Damage Control (ADC) Program cited as responsible for killing millions of predators. Critics provide evidence of outdated and inhumane methods exemplified in the coyote killings. The ADC emphasizes new, nonlethal methods of controlling animals cited as "noxious." (MCO)

  19. Killing begets killing: evidence from a bug-killing paradigm that initial killing fuels subsequent killing.

    PubMed

    Martens, Andy; Kosloff, Spee; Greenberg, Jeff; Landau, Mark J; Schmader, Toni

    2007-09-01

    Killing appears to perpetuate itself even in the absence of retaliation. This phenomenon may occur in part as a means to justify prior killing and so ease the threat of prior killing. In addition, this effect should arise particularly when a killer perceives similarity to the victims because similarity should exacerbate threat from killing. To examine these ideas, the authors developed a bug-killing paradigm in which they manipulated the degree of initial bug killing in a "practice task" to observe the effects on subsequent self-paced killing during a timed "extermination task." In Studies 1 and 2, for participants reporting some similarity to bugs, inducing greater initial killing led to more subsequent self-paced killing. In Study 3, after greater initial killing, more subsequent self-paced killing led to more favorable affective change. Implications for understanding lethal human violence are discussed. PMID:17565050

  20. Killing Range

    PubMed Central

    Asal, Victor; Rethemeyer, R. Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level. PMID:25838603

  1. Killing fetuses and killing newborns.

    PubMed

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2013-05-01

    The argument for the moral permissibility of killing newborns is a challenge to liberal positions on abortion because it can be considered a reductio of their defence of abortion. Here I defend the liberal stance on abortion by arguing that the argument for the moral permissibility of killing newborns on ground of the social, psychological and economic burden on the parents recently put forward by Giubilini and Minerva is not valid; this is because they fail to show that newborns cannot be harmed and because there are morally relevant differences between fetuses and newborns. PMID:23637456

  2. Kinetics of killing Listeria monocytogenes by macrophages: correlation of /sup 3/H-DNA release from labeled bacteria and changes in numbers of viable organisms by mathematical model

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, W.A.

    1982-12-01

    Conventional methods of assessing antibacterial activities of macrophages by viable counting are limited by the precision of the statistics and are difficult to interpret quantitatively because of unrestrained extracellular growth of bacteria. An alternative technique based on the release of radioactive DNA from labeled bacteria has been offered as overcoming these drawbacks. To assess it for use with macrophages I have made a correlation with the conventional viable counting method using a mathematical model. Opsonized Listeria monocytogenes labeled with /sup 3/H-thymidine were exposed to rat macrophages for periods up to 4 hr. Numbers of viable bacteria determined after sonication increased exponentially in the absence of live cells and this growth rate was progressively inhibited by increasing numbers of macrophages. After a lag period of 30-60 min soluble /sup 3/H appeared in the supernatant, the amount increasing with time and numbers of macrophages. To correlate these data I developed a mathematical model that considered that changes in numbers of viable organisms were due to the difference between rates of 1) growth of extracellular bacteria and 2) killing within the macrophage. On the basis of this model curves of best fit to the viable counts data were used to predict the release of radioactivity, assuming that death of a bacterium led to the total release of its label. These predictions and the experimental data agreed well, the lag period of 30-60 min between death of the bacterium and release of radioactivity being consistent with intracellular digestion. Release of soluble radioactivity appears to be an accurate reflection of the number of bacteria killed within the macrophage.

  3. Kinetic Monte Carlo study of the type1/type 2 choice in apoptosis elucidates selective killing of cancer cells under death ligand induction

    E-print Network

    Raychaudhuri, Subhadip

    2015-01-01

    Death ligand mediated apoptotic activation is a mode of programmed cell death that is widely used in cellular and physiological situations. Interest in studying death ligand induced apoptosis has increased due to the promising role of recombinant soluble forms of death ligands (mainly recombinant TRAIL) in anti-cancer therapy. A clear elucidation of how death ligands activate the type 1 and type 2 apoptotic pathways in healthy and cancer cells may help develop better chemotherapeutic strategies. In this work, we use kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to address the problem of type 1/ type 2 choice in death ligand mediated apoptosis of cancer cells. Our study provides insights into the activation of membrane proximal death module that results from complex interplay between death and decoy receptors. Relative abundance of death and decoy receptors was shown to be a key parameter for activation of the initiator caspases in the membrane module. Increased concentration of death ligands frequently increased the type 1...

  4. Killing Tensors and Symmetries

    E-print Network

    David Garfinkle; E. N. Glass

    2010-03-10

    A new method is presented for finding Killing tensors in spacetimes with symmetries. The method is used to find all the Killing tensors of Melvin's magnetic universe and the Schwarzschild vacuum. We show that they are all trivial. The method requires less computation than solving the full Killing tensor equations directly, and it can be used even when the spacetime is not algebraically special.

  5. Planning a dynamic kill

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.

    1996-05-01

    This article discusses the methodology, design philosophy, and guidelines for planning a dynamic-kill operation for a wild well. The topics covered are two methods of computer analysis for designing dynamic-kill requirements, the design process, determining the pumping spread, and the pitfalls that a designer faces in planning a dynamic kill.

  6. Irreducible Killing Tensors from Third Rank Killing-Yano Tensors

    E-print Network

    Florian Catalin Popa; Ovidiu Tintareanu-Mircea

    2006-12-30

    We investigate higher rank Killing-Yano tensors showing that third rank Killing-Yano tensors are not always trivial objects being possible to construct irreducible Killing tensors from them. We give as an example the Kimura IIC metric were from two rank Killing-Yano tensors we obtain a reducible Killing tensor and from third rank Killing-Yano tensors we obtain three Killing tensors, one reducible and two irreducible.

  7. PAYCOS - A multidisciplinary design optimization tool for hypersonic vehicle design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbe, J. R.

    1992-09-01

    The Payload Conceptual Sizing Code (PAYCOS), developed at Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC), is a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) code for hypersonic maneuvering reentry and kinetic kill vehicle concept design. The purpose of PAYCOS is to rapidly perform concept sizing, concept evaluation, and associated trade studies for supersonic and hypersonic maneuvering vehicles. PAYCOS is a multidisciplinary analysis code that allows the engineer to determine the best geometric configuration for each design through parametric trade studies and mathematical optimization. This paper presents a brief overview of PAYCOS, with an emphasis on the Optimization Module. The paper concludes with a list of 'lessons learned' for those seeking to implement MDO.

  8. Ion-kill dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  9. Bacterial Growth Kinetics under a Novel Flexible Methacrylate Dressing Serving as a Drug Delivery Vehicle for Antiseptics

    PubMed Central

    Forstner, Christina; Leitgeb, Johannes; Schuster, Rupert; Dosch, Verena; Kramer, Axel; Cutting, Keith F.; Leaper, David J.; Assadian, Ojan

    2013-01-01

    A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal®) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth kinetics in combination with three antiseptics was investigated in an in vitro porcine wound model. Standardized in vitro wounds were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and divided into six groups: no dressing (negative control), methacrylate dressing alone, and combinations with application of 0.02% Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), 0.4% PHMB, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine, 7.7 mg/mL Povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine), and 0.1% Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) + 2% phenoxyethanol. Bacterial load per gram tissue was measured over five days. The highest reduction was observed with PVP-iodine at 24 h to log10 1.43 cfu/g, followed by OCT at 48 h to log10 2.41 cfu/g. Whilst 0.02% PHMB resulted in a stable bacterial load over 120 h to log10 4.00 cfu/g over 120 h, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine inhibited growth during the first 48 h, with slightly increasing bacterial numbers up to log10 5.38 cfu/g at 120 h. These results indicate that this flexible methacrylate dressing can be loaded with various antiseptics serving as drug delivery system. Depending on the selected combination, an individually shaped and controlled antibacterial effect may be achieved using the same type of wound dressing. PMID:23698780

  10. Killing Initial Data

    E-print Network

    R. Beig; Piotr T. Chrusciel

    1996-04-22

    We study space-time Killing vectors in terms of their "lapse and shift" relative to some spacelike slice. We give a necessary and sufficient condition in order for these lapse-shift pairs, which we call Killing initial data (KID'S), to form a Lie algebra under the bracket operation induced by the Lie commutator of vector fields on space-time. This result is applied to obtain a theorem on the periodicity of orbits for a class of Killing vector fields in asymptotically flat space-times.

  11. FISH KILLS, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data related to fish kills in North Carolina are collected and stored in tables on the Web at the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources. http://www.esb.enr.state.nc.us/Fishkill/fishkill00.htm

  12. Quaternionic Killing Spinors , U. Semmelmann

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    Quaternionic Killing Spinors W. Kramer , U. Semmelmann , G. Weingart Mathematisches Institut der Killing equation and show that the only symmetric quaternionic K¨ahler manifolds with smallest possible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3 Weitzenb¨ock Formulas 6 4 The Quaternionic Killing Equation 9 5 The Killing Curvature on Wolf

  13. Susceptibility testing of Candida albicans isolated from oropharyngeal mucosa of HIV+ patients to fluconazole, amphotericin B and Caspofungin. killing kinetics of caspofungin and amphotericin B against fluconazole resistant and susceptible isolates

    PubMed Central

    de Aquino Lemos, Janine; Costa, Carolina Rodrigues; de Araújo, Crystiane Rodrigues; Souza, Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    A clear understanding of the pharmacodynamic properties of antifungal agents is important for the adequate treatment of fungal infections like candidiasis. For certain antifungal agents, the determination of Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) and time kill curve could be clinically more relevant than the determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). In this study, MIC and MFC to fluconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against C. albicans isolates and the killing patterns obtained with caspofungin and amphotericin B against susceptible and resistant strains to fluconazole were determined. The results of MICs showed that all C. albicans isolates were highly susceptible to amphotericin B, but two isolates were fluconazole resistant. The comparative analysis between MIC and MFC showed that MFC of fluconazole was fourfold higher than MIC in 41.9% of the C. albicans isolates. Same values of MFC and MIC of amphotericin B and caspofungin were found for 71% of the isolates. Correlation between time kill curves and MFC of amphotericin B and caspofungin against all 4 isolates tested was observed. The caspofungin killing effect was more evident at MFC in 6 hours of incubation than at MIC in this time, suggesting dependence of concentration. The similarity of results of time-kill curve and MFC values indicate that determination of MFC is an alternative for the detection of the fungicidal activity of these drugs. PMID:24031337

  14. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117...801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a...bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries:...

  15. Children Who Kill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1999-01-01

    Two recent books, "When Good Kids Kill," by Michael D. Kelleher, and "Lost Boys," by James Garbarino, explore how children become killers and suggest ways to reduce our high-pressure society's epidemic levels of youth violence. Physically or psychologically distant parents and unaffirmative media messages are negative influences. (MLH)

  16. Killing vectors and anisotropy

    E-print Network

    J. P. Krisch; E. N. Glass

    2009-08-03

    We consider an action that can generate fluids with three unequal stresses for metrics with a spacelike Killing vector. The parameters in the action are directly related to the stress anisotropies. The field equations following from the action are applied to an anisotropic cosmological expansion and an extension of the Gott-Hiscock cosmic string.

  17. Simultaneous Evaluation of Safety, Acceptability, Pericoital Kinetics, and Ex Vivo Pharmacodynamics Comparing Four Rectal Microbicide Vehicle Candidates.

    PubMed

    Leyva, Francisco; Fuchs, Edward J; Bakshi, Rahul; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Ventuneac, Ana; Yue, Chen; Caffo, Brian; Du, Yong; Torbenson, Michael; Li, Liye; Mullin, Gerald; Lee, Linda; Rohan, Lisa; Anton, Peter A; Hendrix, Craig W

    2015-11-01

    Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection with tenofovir-containing regimens is effective, but plagued by poor adherence in some studies. Options for safe, effective, and acceptable PrEP products, especially for men and women at risk of HIV via receptive anal intercourse (RAI), are needed. We performed a randomized, partially blinded, first-in-human evaluation of four candidate rectal microbicide vehicles-aqueous gel, aqueous fluid, lipid gel, and lipid fluid-to select a prototype for further clinical development. Eight seronegative participants received three doses of each product with each dose separated by at least 2 weeks: one dose was given alone without simulated RAI in clinic, another dose was followed by simulated RAI in clinic, and another dose was self-administered at home in the context of RAI with a partner. Assessments included safety, acceptability, colon histology, ex vivo HIV infectivity of colon tissue explants, and colonic luminal distribution of vehicle and HIV surrogates. Adverse events were all mild and mainly sigmoidoscopy associated. There were minor differences in colon distribution of products and little effect of RAI. Vehicle distribution covered 95% (±7% standard deviation) of the distribution of an HIV surrogate in the colonic lumen. The lipid fluid vehicle increased HIV colon tissue infectability 5-fold [log10 p24 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.08, 1.28)] and aqueous gel provided 6-fold protection [log10 p24 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.20, 1.41)] compared to no product baseline. Colon permeability of lipid vehicles was more than 10-fold greater than aqueous vehicles. All products received similar acceptability ratings, though trends favored the gel products. Intensive simultaneous assessment of safety and toxicity, luminal and tissue distribution, ex vivo HIV infectivity, and product acceptability in relevant sexual contexts provided clear differentiation among candidate gels very early in product development. We selected the aqueous gel for further development as a rectal microbicide vehicle. PMID:26066390

  18. Instantons and Killing spinors

    E-print Network

    Derek Harland; Christoph Nölle

    2011-09-20

    We investigate instantons on manifolds with Killing spinors and their cones. Examples of manifolds with Killing spinors include nearly Kaehler 6-manifolds, nearly parallel G_2-manifolds in dimension 7, Sasaki-Einstein manifolds, and 3-Sasakian manifolds. We construct a connection on the tangent bundle over these manifolds which solves the instanton equation, and also show that the instanton equation implies the Yang-Mills equation, despite the presence of torsion. We then construct instantons on the cones over these manifolds, and lift them to solutions of heterotic supergravity. Amongst our solutions are new instantons on even-dimensional Euclidean spaces, as well as the well-known BPST, quaternionic and octonionic instantons.

  19. Universitat Regensburg Imaginary Kahlerian killing

    E-print Network

    Regensburg, Universität - Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät I

    Universit¨at Regensburg Mathematik Imaginary K¨ahlerian killing spinors I Nicolas Ginoux and Uwe Semmelmann Preprint Nr. 11/2011 #12;Imaginary K¨ahlerian Killing spinors I Nicolas Ginoux and Uwe Semmelmann manifolds admitting non-trivial imaginary K¨ahlerian Killing spinors. 1 Introduction Let (M2n , g, J) a K

  20. Symplectic Killing spinors Svatopluk Krysl

    E-print Network

    Krysl, Svatopluk

    Symplectic Killing spinors Svatopluk Kr´ysl Charles University, Sokolovsk´a 83, Praha 8, Czech Killing spinor fields for this structure are sections of the symplectic spinor bundle satisfying a certain a necessary condition satisfied by a symplectic Killing spinor field. The advantage of this condition consists

  1. Killing spinor initial data sets

    E-print Network

    Alfonso García-Parrado Gómez-Lobo; Juan A. Valiente Kroon

    2007-12-20

    A 3+1 decomposition of the twistor and valence-2 Killing spinor equation is made using the space spinor formalism. Conditions on initial data sets for the Einstein vacuum equations are given so that their developments contain solutions to the twistor and/or Killing equations. These lead to the notions of twistor and Killing spinor initial data. These notions are used to obtain a characterisation of initial data sets whose development are of Petrov type N or D.

  2. Kill operation requires thorough analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.

    1995-05-15

    Full control of a blowout well requires a properly designed post-capping kill operation because failures in regaining well control usually occur during the kill operation, not during capping. Capping (the installation of pressure control or diverter equipment on the wellhead) is generally very reliable in gaining control of a blowout well. The following techniques are some of the viable means of killing blowout wells once the capping assemblies are in place: direct shut in of the flow; bullheading; momentum kill; volumetric control for migration of fluids or lubrication after migration ceases; and dynamic kills (friction-based dynamic kills or mass flow rate kills) The objective of most post-capping operations is to stop the flow and put the well under hydrostatic control. The means of killing a blowout once capping assemblies are in place should be chosen with care to avoid problems such as cratering, equipment failure, and underground blowouts. The particular circumstances and well integrity will dictate which kill method will be the most viable. Each of these five methods are explained.

  3. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117...Requirements New York § 117.801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a)...

  4. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117...Requirements New York § 117.801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a)...

  5. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117...Requirements New York § 117.801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a)...

  6. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117...Requirements New York § 117.801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a)...

  7. How electroshock weapons kill!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2010-03-01

    Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

  8. Optimal planning and control for hazard avoidance of front-wheel steered ground vehicles

    E-print Network

    Peters, Steven C. (Steven Conrad)

    2012-01-01

    Hazard avoidance is an important capability for safe operation of robotic vehicles at high speed. It is also an important consideration for passenger vehicle safety, as thousands are killed each year in passenger vehicle ...

  9. Pfiesteria shumwayae kills fish by micropredation not

    E-print Network

    .............................................................. Pfiesteria shumwayae kills fish, acute fish kills and human disease in mid-Atlantic USA estuaries1­7 . However, Pfies- teria toxins have never been isolated or characterized8 . We investigated mechanisms by which P. shumwayae kills fish

  10. Conformal Killing forms on Riemannian manifolds Habilitationsschrift

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    Conformal Killing forms on Riemannian manifolds Habilitationsschrift zur Feststellung der Lehrbef Conformal Killing Forms 9 1.1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2 Killing tensors and first integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2

  11. Notes on Super Killing Tensors

    E-print Network

    P. S. Howe; U. Lindström

    2015-11-14

    The notion of a Killing tensor is generalised to a superspace setting. Conserved quantities associated with these are defined for superparticles and Poisson brackets are used to define a supersymmetric version of the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. Superconformal Killing tensors in flat superspaces are studied for spacetime dimensions 3,4,5,6 and 10. These tensors are also presented in analytic superspaces and super-twistor spaces for 3,4 and 6 dimensions. Algebraic structures associated with superconformal Killing tensors are also briefly discussed

  12. Notes on Super Killing Tensors

    E-print Network

    P. S. Howe; U. Lindström

    2015-11-29

    The notion of a Killing tensor is generalised to a superspace setting. Conserved quantities associated with these are defined for superparticles and Poisson brackets are used to define a supersymmetric version of the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. Superconformal Killing tensors in flat superspaces are studied for spacetime dimensions 3,4,5,6 and 10. These tensors are also presented in analytic superspaces and super-twistor spaces for 3,4 and 6 dimensions. Algebraic structures associated with superconformal Killing tensors are also briefly discussed

  13. Notes on Super Killing Tensors

    E-print Network

    Howe, P S

    2015-01-01

    The notion of a Killing tensor is generalised to a superspace setting. Conserved quantities associated with these are defined for superparticles and Poisson brackets are used to define a supersymmetric version of the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. Superconformal Killing tensors in flat superspaces are studied for spacetime dimensions 3,4,5,6 and 10. These tensors are also presented in analytic superspaces and super-twistor spaces for 3,4 and 6 dimensions. Algebraic structures associated with superconformal Killing tensors are also briefly discussed

  14. Killing Horizons as Equipotential Hypersurfaces

    E-print Network

    Ivica Smoli?

    2012-09-11

    In this note we present a new proof that Killing horizons are equipotential hypersurfaces for the electric and the magnetic scalar potential, that makes no use of gravitational field equations or the assumption about the existence of bifurcation surface.

  15. Phantom metrics with Killing spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, W. A.

    2015-11-01

    We study metric solutions of Einstein-anti-Maxwell theory admitting Killing spinors. The analogue of the IWP metric which admits a space-like Killing vector is found and is expressed in terms of a complex function satisfying the wave equation in flat (2 + 1)-dimensional space-time. As examples, electric and magnetic Kasner spaces are constructed by allowing the solution to depend only on the time coordinate. Euclidean solutions are also presented.

  16. Phantom Metrics With Killing Spinors

    E-print Network

    W. A. Sabra

    2015-07-16

    We study metric solutions of Einstein-anti-Maxwell theory admitting Killing spinors. The analogue of the IWP metric which admits a space-like Killing vector is found and is expressed in terms of a complex function satisfying the wave equation in flat (2+1)-dimensional space-time. As examples, electric and magnetic Kasner spaces are constructed by allowing the solution to depend only on the time coordinate. Euclidean solutions are also presented.

  17. Phantom Metrics With Killing Spinors

    E-print Network

    Sabra, W A

    2015-01-01

    We study metric solutions of Einstein-anti-Maxwell theory admitting Killing spinors. The analogue of the IWP metric which admits a space-like Killing vector is found and is expressed in terms of a complex function satisfying the wave equation in flat (2+1)-dimensional space-time. As examples, electric and magnetic Kasner spaces are constructed by allowing the solution to depend only on the time coordinate. Euclidean solutions are also presented.

  18. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  19. Killing Symmetries as Hamiltonian Constraints

    E-print Network

    Lusanna, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The existence of a Killing symmetry in a gauge theory is equivalent to the addition of extra Hamiltonian constraints in its phase space formulation, which imply restrictions both on the Dirac observables (the gauge invariant physical degrees of freedom) and on the gauge freedom. When there is a time-like Killing vector field only pure gauge electromagnetic fields survive in Maxwell theory in Minkowski space-time , while in ADM canonical gravity in asymptotically Minkowskian space-times only inertial effects without gravitational waves survive.

  20. Quasilocal rotating conformal Killing horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Ayan; Ghosh, Avirup

    2015-08-01

    The formulation of quasilocal conformal Killing horizons (CKH) is extended to include rotation. This necessitates that the horizon be foliated by 2-spheres which may be distorted. Matter degrees of freedom which fall through the horizon are represented by a real scalar field. We show that these rotating CKHs also admit a first law in differential form.

  1. Does Assessment Kill Student Creativity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2005-01-01

    Does assessment kill creativity? In this article, creativity is defined and discussed and an overview of creativity and motivational research is provided to describe how assessment practices can influence students' creativity. Recommendations for protecting creativity when assessing students also are provided.

  2. Killing in Okaraygua: An Inspector Irronogaray Mystery

    E-print Network

    Levine, Stuart

    2012-09-05

    stream_size 857 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Killing in Okaraygua_abstract.pdf.txt stream_source_info Killing in Okaraygua_abstract.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...-1 1 Citation: Levine, Stuart. (2012) Killing in Okaraygua: An Inspector Irronogaray Mystery [Kindle Edition]. Amazon Digital Services, Amazon.com. Published version: http://www.amazon.com/Killing-Okaraygua-Inspector-Irronogaray- ebook...

  3. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  4. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  5. Harmonic Functions of Subordinate Killed Brownian Motion

    E-print Network

    Vondraèek, Zoran

    Harmonic Functions of Subordinate Killed Brownian Motion J. Glover, Z. Pop-Stojanovic, M. Rao, H is intrinsic ultracontractive, all nonnegative harmonic functions of the subordinate killed Brownian motion harmonic functions of the subordinate killed Brownian motion in D. AMS 2000 Mathematics Subject

  6. Imaginary Kahlerian Killing spinors I Nicolas Ginoux

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    Imaginary K¨ahlerian Killing spinors I Nicolas Ginoux and Uwe Semmelmann February 19, 2012 Abstract-trivial imaginary K¨ahlerian Killing spinors. 1 Introduction Let (M2n , g, J) a K¨ahler manifold of real dimension 2¨ahler manifold and C. A pair (, ) of sections of M is called an -K¨ahlerian Killing spinor if and only

  7. KILLING SPINORS ON LORENTZIAN MANIFOLDS CHRISTOPH BOHLE

    E-print Network

    KILLING SPINORS ON LORENTZIAN MANIFOLDS CHRISTOPH BOHLE Abstract. The aim of this paper is to describe some results concerning the geometry of Lorentzian manifolds admitting Killing spinors. We prove that there are imaginary Killing spinors on simply connected Lorentzian Einstein{Sasaki manifolds. In the Riemannian case

  8. EXTRINSIC KILLING SPINORS OUSSAMA HIJAZI AND SEBASTI

    E-print Network

    Henri Poincaré -Nancy-Université, Université

    EXTRINSIC KILLING SPINORS OUSSAMA HIJAZI AND SEBASTI #19; AN MONTIEL Abstract. Under intrinsic that there is an isomorphism between the restriction to the boundary of parallel spinors and extrinsic Killing spinors of non-negative Killing constant. As a corollary, we prove that a complete Ricci- at spin manifold with mean

  9. Did Vertigo Kill America's Forgotten Astronaut?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Merlin, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    On November 15, 1967, U.S. Air Force test pilot Major Michael J. Adams was killed while flying the X-15 rocket-propelled research vehicle in a parabolic spaceflight profile. This flight was part of a joint effort with NASA. An electrical short in one of the experiments aboard the vehicle caused electrical transients, resulting in excessive workload by the pilot. At altitude Major Adams inappropriately initiated a flat spin that led to a series of unusual aircraft attitudes upon atmospheric re-entry, ultimately causing structural failure of the airframe. Major Adams was known to experience vertigo (i.e. spatial disorientation) while flying the X-15, but all X-15 pilots most likely experienced vertigo (i.e. somatogravic, or "Pitch-Up", illusion) as a normal physiologic response to the accelerative forces involved. Major Adams probably experienced vertigo to a greater degree than did others, since prior aeromedical testing for astronaut selection at Brooks AFB revealed that he had an unusually high degree of labyrinthine sensitivity. Subsequent analysis reveals that after engine burnout, and through the zenith of the flight profile, he likely experienced the oculoagravic ("Elevator") illusion. Nonetheless, painstaking investigation after the mishap revealed that spatial disorientation (Type II, Recognized) was NOT the cause, but rather, a contributing factor. The cause was in fact the misinterpretation of a dual-use flight instrument (i.e. Loss of Mode Awareness), resulting in confusion between yaw and roll indications, with subsequent flight control input that was inappropriate. Because of the altitude achieved on this flight, Major Adams was awarded Astronaut wings posthumously. Understanding the potential for spatial disorientation, particularly the oculoagravic illusion, associated with parabolic spaceflight profiles, and understanding the importance of maintaining mode awareness in the context of automated cockpit design, are two lessons that have direct application to the commercial space industry today.

  10. Killing-Yano tensors in spaces admitting a hypersurface orthogonal Killing vector

    E-print Network

    David Garfinkle; E. N. Glass

    2013-02-25

    Methods are presented for finding Killing-Yano tensors, conformal Killing-Yano tensors, and conformal Killing vectors in spacetimes with a hypersurface orthogonal Killing vector. These methods are similar to a method developed by the authors for finding Killing tensors. In all cases one decomposes both the tensor and the equation it satisfies into pieces along the Killing vector and pieces orthogonal to the Killing vector. Solving the separate equations that result from this decomposition requires less computing than integrating the original equation. In each case, examples are given to illustrate the method.

  11. Killing(-Yano) tensors in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervonyi, Yuri; Lunin, Oleg

    2015-09-01

    We construct the Killing(-Yano) tensors for a large class of charged black holes in higher dimensions and study general properties of such tensors, in particular, their behavior under string dualities. Killing(-Yano) tensors encode the symmetries beyond isometries, which lead to insights into dynamics of particles and fields on a given geometry by providing a set of conserved quantities. By analyzing the eigenvalues of the Killing tensor, we provide a prescription for constructing several conserved quantities starting from a single object, and we demonstrate that Killing tensors in higher dimensions are always associated with ellipsoidal coordinates. We also determine the transformations of the Killing(-Yano) tensors under string dualities, and find the unique modification of the Killing-Yano equation consistent with these symmetries. These results are used to construct the explicit form of the Killing(-Yano) tensors for the Myers-Perry black hole in arbitrary number of dimensions and for its charged version.

  12. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus,...

  13. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus,...

  14. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section...Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be...

  15. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section...Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be...

  16. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section...Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be...

  17. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section...Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be...

  18. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section...Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be...

  19. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.212 Section...Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be...

  20. How To Kill a Penguin

    E-print Network

    Ulrich Haisch

    2007-06-23

    Within constrained minimal-flavor-violation the large destructive flavor-changing Z-penguin managed to survive eradication so far. We give a incisive description of how to kill it using the precision measurements of the Z -> b anti-b pseudo observables. The derived stringent range for the non-standard contribution to the universal Inami-Lim function C leads to tight two-sided limits for the branching ratios of all Z-penguin dominated flavor-changing K- and B-decays.

  1. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  2. Killing tensors in pp-wave spacetimes

    E-print Network

    Aidan J Keane; Brian O J Tupper

    2010-11-29

    The formal solution of the second order Killing tensor equations for the general pp-wave spacetime is given. The Killing tensor equations are integrated fully for some specific pp-wave spacetimes. In particular, the complete solution is given for the conformally flat plane wave spacetimes and we find that irreducible Killing tensors arise for specific classes. The maximum number of independent irreducible Killing tensors admitted by a conformally flat plane wave spacetime is shown to be six. It is shown that every pp-wave spacetime that admits an homothety will admit a Killing tensor of Koutras type and, with the exception of the singular scale-invariant plane wave spacetimes, this Killing tensor is irreducible.

  3. Teleparallel Killing Vectors of Spherically Symmetric Spacetimes

    E-print Network

    M. Sharif; Bushra Majeed

    2009-05-20

    In this paper, Killing vectors of spherically spacetimes have been evaluated in the context of teleparallel theory of gravitation. Further, we investigate the Killing vectors of the Friedmann metrics. It is found that for static spherically spacetimes the number of Killing vectors turn out to be \\emph{seven} while for the Friedmann models, we obtain \\emph{six} teleparallel Killing vectors. The results are then compared with those of General Relativity. We conclude that both of these descriptions of gravity do not provide the consistent results in general. However, these results may coincide under certain conditions for a particular spacetime.

  4. A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.

  5. 75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ...Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0355] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from...

  6. 75 FR 62469 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ...Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0907] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from...

  7. The killing consensus : homicide detectives, police that kill and organized crime in São Paulo, Brazil

    E-print Network

    Willis, Graham Arthur Neill, 1979-

    2013-01-01

    Policing is widely understood, empirically and theoretically, as a core function of the state. Much of the knowledge presumes that police are the only body that may kill and arbitrate killing, routinely and without retaliation ...

  8. Peeling the onion: an heuristic overview of hit-to-kill missile defense in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaCroix, Len; Kurzius, Shelby

    2005-03-01

    Researchers engaged in the development of infrared detector technologies may well benefit from a broader understanding of their products from the perspective of the end-user. An appreciation of how this technology is to be used by system designers, many of whom possess only a rudimentary understanding of quantum physics, is highly germane. Answers to questions like: "What device technology will be employed," "How will the device be used?" and "What are the impacts on signal-to-noise?" are of critical importance. In this paper, some of the fundamentals of hit-to-kill missile defense technology are examined in a largely non-mathematical context. From its "Star Wars" inception during the Reagan administration, to today"s Missile Defense Agency, the core requirement of missile defense has not changed - find the threat and destroy it before it reaches its destination. This fundamental requirement, while conceptually straightforward, is extraordinarily difficult to satisfy, and is almost exclusively dependent on our ability to detect and designate a relatively small, very fast-moving, room-temperature object, at great distances, and usually in a severe environment of shock and vibration further clouded by error and uncertainty. With an obvious bias toward passive IR detection and associated focal plane array characteristics, the flight of a fictitious interceptor is followed from launch to impact. At various points along the interceptor"s trajectory, a "peel the onion" approach is utilized to expose increasingly detailed layers of behavior, including the eventual release of the kinetic kill vehicle, and its autonomous flight to a body-to-body impact with its target. Various sources of error and their impact on the success of the mission are examined, and an overall understanding of the key features of the infrared seeker and its critical role in missile defense are ultimately developed.

  9. Kinetic Energy Anti-Satellite Weapon System (KE ASAT WS)

    SciTech Connect

    Stegmaier, J.T.; Grannan, M.J. )

    1992-03-01

    The KE ASAT WS which aimed at providing capabilities to negate satellites in space and deny ability to collect critical land and ocean surveillance data is presented. The KE ASAT WS includes two subsystems: the missile subsystem consisting of a kill vehicle, a three-stage booster, and a launcher; and the weapon control subsystem consisting of the mission control element, battery control center, and communication network. The KEASAT missile is a ground launched KE weapon utilizing 'hit to kill' instead of an explosive warhead, and the kill vehicle is based on a visible light seeker for target detection.

  10. Approximate Killing Vectors on S^2

    E-print Network

    Gregory B. Cook; Bernard F. Whiting

    2007-06-01

    We present a new method for computing the best approximation to a Killing vector on closed 2-surfaces that are topologically S^2. When solutions of Killing's equation do not exist, this method is shown to yield results superior to those produced by existing methods. In addition, this method appears to provide a new tool for studying the horizon geometry of distorted black holes.

  11. Bull heading to kill live gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Oudeman, P.; Avest, D. ter; Grodal, E.O.; Asheim, H.A.; Meissner, R.J.H.

    1994-12-31

    To kill a live closed-in gas well by bull heading down the tubing, the selected pump rate should be high enough to ensure efficient displacement of the gas into the formation (i.e., to avoid the kill fluid bypassing the gas). On the other hand, the pressures that develop during bull heading at high rate must not exceed wellhead pressure rating, tubing or casing burst pressures or the formation breakdown gradient, since this will lead, at best, to a very inefficient kill job. Given these constraints, the optimum kill rate, requited hydraulic horsepower, density and type of kill fluids have to be selected. For this purpose a numerical simulator has been developed, which predicts the sequence of events during bull heading. Pressures and flow rates in the well during the kill job are calculated, taking to account slip between the gas and kill fluid, hydrostatic and friction pressure drop, wellbore gas compression and leak-off to the formation. Comparison with the results of a dedicated field test demonstrates that these parameters can be estimated accurately. Example calculations will be presented to show how the simulator can be used to identify an optimum kill scenario.

  12. Momentum kill procedure can quickly control blowouts

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.D. ); Moore, P. )

    1993-08-30

    The momentum kill method can help in quickly regaining control of a blowing well, providing the blowing well rate and fluid properties can be estimated reasonably. The momentum of the kill fluid counteracts and overcomes the flowing momentum of formation fluids. In other words, sufficient mud density pumped at a sufficient rate is directed into the flow stream to force the escaping fluid column back into the well bore. Sufficient kill fluid hydrostatic pressure must be stacked'' in the hole so that the well remains dead after the operation. The momentum kill is not a panacea for all blowouts. An assessment must be made of the potential problems unique to this method, and certain requirements must be met if the technique is to be successful. The paper discusses some of the considerations for evaluating the use of the momentum kill method.

  13. On pseudo-Riemannian manifolds with many Killing spinors

    E-print Network

    Cortés, Vicente

    On pseudo-Riemannian manifolds with many Killing spinors D.V. Alekseevsky and V. Cort Killing spinors with the same Killing number, unless n 1 (mod 4) and s 3 (mod 4). We also prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits k+ independent Killing spinors with Killing number and k- independent

  14. GENERALIZED KILLING SPINORS ON SPHERES ANDREI MOROIANU, UWE SEMMELMANN

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    GENERALIZED KILLING SPINORS ON SPHERES ANDREI MOROIANU, UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. We study generalized Killing spinors on round spheres Sn . We show that on the standard sphere S8 any generalized Killing spinor has to be an ordinary Killing spinor. Moreover we classify generalized Killing spinors

  15. Killing cells by targeting mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Manchado, E; Guillamot, M; Malumbres, M

    2012-01-01

    Cell cycle deregulation is a common feature of human cancer. Tumor cells accumulate mutations that result in unscheduled proliferation, genomic instability and chromosomal instability. Several therapeutic strategies have been proposed for targeting the cell division cycle in cancer. Whereas inhibiting the initial phases of the cell cycle is likely to generate viable quiescent cells, targeting mitosis offers several possibilities for killing cancer cells. Microtubule poisons have proved efficacy in the clinic against a broad range of malignancies, and novel targeted strategies are now evaluating the inhibition of critical activities, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 1, Aurora or Polo kinases or spindle kinesins. Abrogation of the mitotic checkpoint or targeting the energetic or proteotoxic stress of aneuploid or chromosomally instable cells may also provide further benefits by inducing lethal levels of instability. Although cancer cells may display different responses to these treatments, recent data suggest that targeting mitotic exit by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex generates metaphase cells that invariably die in mitosis. As the efficacy of cell–cycle targeting approaches has been limited so far, further understanding of the molecular pathways modulating mitotic cell death will be required to move forward these new proposals to the clinic. PMID:22223105

  16. Kinetic Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David

    1993-01-01

    Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for kinetic determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.

  17. Spacetime Encodings III - Second Order Killing Tensors

    E-print Network

    Jeandrew Brink

    2009-11-09

    This paper explores the Petrov type D, stationary axisymmetric vacuum (SAV) spacetimes that were found by Carter to have separable Hamilton-Jacobi equations, and thus admit a second-order Killing tensor. The derivation of the spacetimes presented in this paper borrows from ideas about dynamical systems, and illustrates concepts that can be generalized to higher- order Killing tensors. The relationship between the components of the Killing equations and metric functions are given explicitly. The origin of the four separable coordinate systems found by Carter is explained and classified in terms of the analytic structure associated with the Killing equations. A geometric picture of what the orbital invariants may represent is built. Requiring that a SAV spacetime admits a second-order Killing tensor is very restrictive, selecting very few candidates from the group of all possible SAV spacetimes. This restriction arises due to the fact that the consistency conditions associated with the Killing equations require that the field variables obey a second-order differential equation, as opposed to a fourth-order differential equation that imposes the weaker condition that the spacetime be SAV. This paper introduces ideas that could lead to the explicit computation of more general orbital invariants in the form of higher-order Killing Tensors.

  18. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine,...

  19. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine,...

  20. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  1. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus...

  2. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus...

  3. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  4. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  5. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  6. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  7. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  8. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  9. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  10. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus...

  11. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  12. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    SciTech Connect

    Groeger, Josua

    2014-09-15

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  13. Killing Vector Fields and Superharmonic Field Theories

    E-print Network

    Josua Groeger

    2013-01-23

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, referred to as superharmonic action, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of the superharmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  14. Teleparallel Killing Vectors of the Einstein Universe

    E-print Network

    M. Sharif; M. Jamil Amir

    2007-08-27

    In this short paper we establish the definition of the Lie derivative of a second rank tensor in the context of teleparallel theory of gravity and also extend it for a general tensor of rank $p+q$. This definition is then used to find Killing vectors of the Einstein universe. It turns out that Killing vectors of the Einstein universe in the teleparallel theory are the same as in General Relativity.

  15. Hazardous materials in Fresh Kills landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschhorn, J.S.

    1997-12-31

    No environmental monitoring and corrective action programs can pinpoint multiple locations of hazardous materials the total amount of them in a large landfill. Yet the consequences of hazardous materials in MSW landfills are considerable, in terms of public health concerns, environmental damage, and cleanup costs. In this paper a rough estimation is made of how much hazardous material may have been disposed in Fresh Kills landfill in Staten Island, New York. The logic and methods could be used for other MSW landfills. Fresh Kills has frequently been described as the world`s largest MSW landfill. While records of hazardous waste disposal at Fresh Kills over nearly 50 years of operation certainly do not exist, no reasonable person would argue with the conclusion that large quantities of hazardous waste surely have been disposed at Fresh Kills, both legally and illegally. This study found that at least 2 million tons of hazardous wastes and substances have been disposed at Fresh Kills since 1948. Major sources are: household hazardous waste, commercial RCRA hazardous waste, incinerator ash, and commercial non-RCRA hazardous waste, governmental RCRA hazardous waste. Illegal disposal of hazardous waste surely has contributed even more. This is a sufficient amount to cause serious environmental contamination and releases, especially from such a landfill without an engineered liner system, for example. This figure is roughly 1% of the total amount of waste disposed in Fresh Kills since 1948, probably at least 200 million tons.

  16. Killing of Brucella abortus by bovine serum.

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, L B; Blau, K; Inzana, T J; Nielsen, K H; Jacobson, R H; Corbeil, R R; Winter, A J

    1988-01-01

    Studies of the serum bactericidal system in bovine brucellosis were undertaken to investigate the role of the humoral immune response in protection of cattle against the facultative intracellular parasite Brucella abortus. Fresh sera from normal control cattle, infected cattle, and cattle immunized with B. abortus cell envelopes were collected before treatment and during the course of immunization or infection. Normal fresh bovine serum or fresh agammaglobulinemic serum from colostrum-deprived calves was effective in killing smooth virulent B. abortus 2308, but rough strains RB51 (a rough mutant of strain 2308) and 45/20 were much more sensitive to serum. The difference in susceptibility to serum was shown to be correlated with differences in lipopolysaccharide chemotype, with the more resistant strain 2308 having O polysaccharide and the more susceptible strains 45/20 and RB51 lacking O side chains. By treatment of fresh serum with MgCl2 and EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid] killing was shown to occur via the classical pathway of complement activation. When antibody to B. abortus was present, killing of strain RB51 increased but killing of smooth strain 2308 decreased. The earliest antibody response in serum from infected animals did not interfere with killing. When affinity-purified bovine immunoglobulins specific for B. abortus smooth lipopolysaccharide were added to fresh normal bovine serum, immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2 isotypes blocked killing but IgM and IgA isotypes did not. Thus, it appears that serum from previously unexposed animals or animals early during infection can kill smooth B. abortus, an appropriate defense mechanism before the organism becomes intracellular. At later stages of infection, blocking antibodies predominate. Images PMID:3141287

  17. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  18. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  19. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  20. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  1. 9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213 Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed... established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production....

  2. 9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213 Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed... established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production....

  3. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  4. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  5. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  6. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the World Health Organization... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall...

  7. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the World Health Organization... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall...

  8. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  9. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  10. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  11. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the World Health Organization... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall...

  12. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  13. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the World Health Organization... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall...

  14. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  15. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  16. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  17. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  18. 9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213 Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed... established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production....

  19. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  20. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  1. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the World Health Organization... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall...

  2. Approximate Killing Vectors for Computing Spin in Black-Hole

    E-print Network

    Cook, Greg

    Approximate Killing Vectors for Computing Spin in Black-Hole Initial Data and Evolutions Gregory B-local definition: e.g. Brown & York[2] or Ashtekar & Krishnan[1] S = - 1 8 BH Kiji sj hd2 x i = i CK : Killing vector of ~hij conformal Killing vector of hij i AKV : Approximate Killing vector of hij ­ Greg Cook

  3. Timelike Killing Fields and Relativistic Statisti-cal Mechanics

    E-print Network

    Klein, David

    Timelike Killing Fields and Relativistic Statisti- cal Mechanics David Klein1 and Peter Collas2 For spacetimes with timelike Killing fields, we introduce a "Fermi-Walker- Killing" coordinate system and use examples are given in Kerr spacetime. KEY WORDS: Statistical mechanics; Relativistic ideal gas; Killing

  4. Approximate Killing Vectors and Black-Hole Diagnostics

    E-print Network

    Cook, Greg

    Approximate Killing Vectors and Black-Hole Diagnostics Gregory B. Cook Wake Forest University[2] or Ashtekar & Krishnan[1] S = - 1 8 BH Kiji sj hd2 x i = i CK : Killing vector of ~hij conformal Killing vector of hij i AKV : Approximate Killing vector of hij ­ Greg Cook ­ (WFU Physics) 1 #12

  5. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... of the occupants that are killed in crashes between heavy trucks and passenger vehicles are passenger... Design Rule (ADR) 65/00--Maximum Road Speed Limiting for Heavy Goods Vehicles and Heavy Omnibuses specifies the devices or systems used to limit the maximum road speed of heavy goods vehicles....

  6. 75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  7. 75 FR 62469 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  8. Kill fluid for oil field operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sydansk, R.D.

    1990-08-14

    This patent describes a process employing a kill fluid to substantially reduce the volumetric flow of formation fluid into a wellbore penetrating a formation containing the formation fluid below an earthen surface. It comprises: admixing components of a continuous flowing gel at the surface comprising of water-soluble carboxylate-containing polymer, a complex capable of crosslinking the polymer and formed of at least one electropositive chromium III species and at least one electronegative carboxylatespecies, and an aqueous solvent for the polymer and the complex; crosslinking the polymer and the complex to form the gel, wherein the kill fluid comprises the gel; placing a volume of the kill fluid in the wellbore sufficient to create a hydrostatic head which exerts a kill fluid pressure against the formation fluid substantially equal to or greater than the formation fluid pressure and thereby substantially reduces the volumetric flow of the formation fluid into the wellbore; performing an oil field operation after placing the volume of the kill fluid in the wellbore; and removing the gel from the wellbore to substantially restore the volumetric flow of the formation fluid into the wellbore.

  9. Kinetic Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David B.

    1981-01-01

    Surveys the research of scientists like Joule, Kelvin, Maxwell, Clausius, and Boltzmann as it comments on the basic conceptual issues involved in the development of a more precise kinetic theory and the idea of a kinetic atom. (Author/SK)

  10. Strain ŽP - the first bacterial conjugation-based "kill"-"anti-kill" antimicrobial system.

    PubMed

    Star?i? Erjavec, Marjanca; Petkovšek, Živa; Kuznetsova, Marina V; Maslennikova, Irina L; Žgur-Bertok, Darja

    2015-11-01

    As multidrug resistant bacteria pose one of the greatest risks to human health new alternative antibacterial agents are urgently needed. One possible mechanism that can be used as an alternative to traditional antibiotic therapy is transfer of killing agents via conjugation. Our work was aimed at providing a proof of principle that conjugation-based antimicrobial systems are possible. We constructed a bacterial conjugation-based "kill"-"anti-kill" antimicrobial system employing the well known Escherichia coli probiotic strain Nissle 1917 genetically modified to harbor a conjugative plasmid carrying the "kill" gene (colicin ColE7 activity gene) and a chromosomally encoded "anti-kill" gene (ColE7 immunity gene). The constructed strain acts as a donor in conjugal transfer and its efficiency was tested in several types of conjugal assays. Our results clearly demonstrate that conjugation-based antimicrobial systems can be highly efficient. PMID:26436830

  11. Integration without integration: New Killing spinor spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Bergh, Norbert

    2010-05-01

    Non-conformally flat spacetimes admitting a non-null two-index Killing spinor are investigated by means of the Geroch-Held-Penrose formalism. Claims appearing in the literature that such spacetimes are all explicitly known are incorrect. This was shown in [5] for the family where, in the canonical frame, the spin coefficients ? or ?, vanish. Here the general case with non-vanishing ?, ?, ? and ? is re-considered. It is shown that the construction in [4] hinges on the tacit assumption that certain integrability conditions hold, implying two algebraic relations for the spin coefficients and the components of the Ricci spinor. All (conformal classes of) spacetimes, in which one of these conditions is violated, are obtained by invariant integration. The resulting classes are each other's Sachs transform and are characterised by one free function. They admit in general no Killing vectors, but still admit a conformal gauge (different from the trivial unitary gauge) in which a Killing tensor exists.

  12. 'Total disability' and the wrongness of killing.

    PubMed

    Omelianchuk, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Walter Sinnott-Armstrong and Franklin G Miller recently argued that the wrongness of killing is best explained by the harm that comes to the victim, and that 'total disability' best explains the nature of this harm. Hence, killing patients who are already totally disabled is not wrong. I maintain that their notion of total disability is ambiguous and that they beg the question with respect to whether there are abilities left over that remain relevant for the goods of personhood and human worth. If these goods remain, then something more is lost in death than in 'total disability,' and their explanation of what makes killing wrong comes up short. But if total disability is equivalent with death, then their argument is an interesting one. PMID:25323315

  13. Cytotoxic Killing and Immune Evasion by Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Cliburn; George, Andrew J. T.; Stark, Jaroslav

    2007-07-01

    The interaction between the immune system and pathogens is a complex one, with pathogens constantly developing new ways of evading destruction by the immune system. The immune system's task is made even harder when the pathogen in question is an intra-cellular one (such as a virus or certain bacteria) and it is necessary to kill the infected host cell in order to eliminate the pathogen. This causes damage to the host, and such killing therefore needs to be carefully controlled, particularly in tissues with poor regenerative potential, or those involved in the immune response itself. Host cells therefore possess repair mechanisms which can counteract killing by immune cells. These in turn can be subverted by pathogens which up-regulate the resistance of infected cells to killing. In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that this repair process plays an important role in determining the efficacy of evasion and escape from immune control. We model a situation where cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells kill pathogen-infected and tumour cells by directed secretion of preformed granules containing perforin and granzymes. Resistance to such killing can be conferred by the expression of serine protease inhibitors (serpins). These are utilized by several virally infected and tumour cells, as well as playing a role in the protection of host bystander, immune and immuneprivileged cells. We build a simple stochastic model of cytotoxic killing, where serpins can neutralize granzymes stoichiometrically by forming an irreversible complex, and the survival of the cell is determined by the balance between serpin depletion and replenishment, which in its simplest form is equivalent to the well known shot noise process. We use existing analytical results for this process, and additional simulations to analyse the effects of repair on cytotoxic killing. We then extend the model to the case of a replicating target cell population, which gives a branching process coupled to shot noise. We show how the process of repair can have a major impact on the dynamics of pathogen evasion and escape of tumour cells from immune surveillance

  14. HIV transcription is induced with cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1993-11-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evident in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

  15. Approximate Killing Fields as an Eigenvalue Problem

    E-print Network

    Christopher Beetle

    2008-08-12

    Approximate Killing vector fields are expected to help define physically meaningful spins for non-symmetric black holes in general relativity. However, it is not obvious how such fields should be defined geometrically. This paper relates a definition suggested recently by Cook and Whiting to an older proposal by Matzner, which seems to have been overlooked in the recent literature. It also describes how to calculate approximate Killing fields based on these proposals using an efficient scheme that could be of immediate practical use in numerical relativity.

  16. Killing Spinors for the Bosonic String

    E-print Network

    H. Lu; Zhao-Long Wang

    2011-06-08

    We obtain the effective action for the bosonic string with arbitrary Yang-Mills fields, up to the \\alpha' order, in general dimensions. The form of the action is determined by the requirement that the action admit well-defined Killing spinor equations, whose projected integrability conditions give rise to the full set of equations of motion. The success of the construction suggests that the hidden "pseudo-supersymmetry" associated with the Killing spinor equations may be a property of the bosonic string itself.

  17. Killing spinors of some supergravity solutions

    E-print Network

    Daniel Arean

    2006-05-30

    We compute explicitly the Killing spinors of some ten dimensional supergravity solutions. We begin with a 10d metric of the form $\\RR^{1,3}\\times{\\cal Y}_6$, where ${\\cal Y}_6$ is either the singular conifold or any of its resolutions. Then, we move on to the Klebanov-Witten and Klebanov-Tseytlin backgrounds, both constructed over the singular conifold; and we also study the Klebanov-Strassler solution, built over the deformed conifold. Finally, we determine the form of the Killing spinors for the non-commutative deformation of the Maldacena-N\\'u\\~nez geometry.

  18. Timelike Killing Fields and Relativistic Statistical Mechanics

    E-print Network

    David Klein; Peter Collas

    2008-12-12

    For spacetimes with timelike Killing fields, we introduce a "Fermi-Walker-Killing" coordinate system and use it to prove a Liouville Theorem for an appropriate volume element of phase space for a statistical mechanical system of particles. We derive an exact relativistic formula for the Helmholtz free energy of an ideal gas and compare it, for a class of spacetimes, to its Newtonian analog, derived both independently and as the Newtonian limit of our formula. We also find the relativistic thermodynamic equation of state. Specific examples are given in Kerr spacetime.

  19. School Shootings; Standards Kill Students and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angert, Betsy L.

    2008-01-01

    School shootings have been in the news of late. People ponder what occurs in classrooms today. Why would a young person wish to take a life? Within educational institutions, the killings are a concern. In our dire attempt to teach the children and ensure student success, it seems many of our offspring are lost. Some students feel separate from…

  20. MECHANISM BY WHICH AMMONIUM FERTILIZERS KILL LARKSPUR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental concerns of using pesticides on public lands have greatly reduced the use of herbicides to control tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi). Alternative methods of control have used ammonium sulfate placed in the crown of individual plants to kill larkspur. The objective of this study was ...

  1. Can Vet Schools Teach without Killing Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a protest by students at the University of Illinois (Urbana) College of Veterinary Medicine over the killing of animals that led to temporary curtailing of lethal animal experiments. Examines the conflict between animal rights groups and some faculty who are openly skeptical about the effectiveness of alternatives to the hands-on…

  2. Axial Current, Killing Vector and Newtonian Gravity

    E-print Network

    Prasanta Mahato

    2011-02-22

    Starting from the multiplicative torsion approach of gravity and assuming a Killing vector to be proportional to the axial-vector matter current, here we derive Newton's law of gravity where the logarithm of the proportionality factor has been found to be the potential function.

  3. Killing spinors on supersymmetric P-branes

    E-print Network

    Rodrigo Aros; Mauricio Romo

    2007-10-07

    A class of p-brane solutions for supersymmetric gravity theories with negative cosmological constant are proposed and analyzed. The solutions are purely bosonic and contain a worldsheet and a transverse section. The classification relays on the number of intrinsic Killing spinors on the worldsheet and the transverse section. A explicit discussion of the classification is performed for the four dimensional worldsheet case.

  4. Integrating Poetry and "To Kill a Mockingbird."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolley, Susan Arpajian

    2002-01-01

    Outlines a method of teaching "To Kill a Mockingbird" along with the study of poetry. Notes that this method allows students to consider the themes of courage and developing compassion. Concludes that teaching such a multigenre unit allows students to look for connections among fact and fiction, the past and present, their own lives and…

  5. Killing Hitler: A Writer's Journey and Angst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Describes the author's experiences in preparing a talk that "evokes the specter" of Adolf Hitler and in writing an historical account of a British plot to kill Hitler. Address the question of why the British allowed him to live that final year of the war. Muses on why scholars write, and the impact of violence and terrorism. (SG)

  6. The Cult of KILL in Adolescent Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelty, Jean McClure

    1975-01-01

    The author attempted to create an awareness of the representative fiction which is read by adolescents in order to dramatize the high regard, however misguided, our society places on the cult of violence and killing as part of youth's initiation into the adult world. (Author/RK)

  7. Homothetic Killing Vectors in Expanding HH-Spaces with Lambda

    E-print Network

    Adam Chudecki

    2011-04-18

    Conformal Killing equations and their integrability conditions for expanding hyperheavenly spaces with Lambda in spinorial formalism are studied. It is shown that any conformal Killing vector reduces to homothetic or isometric Killing vector. Reduction of respective Killing equation to one master equation is presented. Classification of homothetic and isometric Killing vectors is given. Type [D]x[any] is analysed in details and some expanding HH complex metrics of types [III, N]x[III, N] with Lambda admitting isometric Killing vectors are found.

  8. Killing Spinors and Related Symmetries in Six Dimensions

    E-print Network

    Batista, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Benefiting from the index spinorial formalism, the Killing spinor equation is integrated in six-dimensional spacetimes. The integrability conditions for the existence of a Killing spinor are worked out and the Killing spinors are classified in two algebraic types, in the first type the scalar curvature of the spacetime must be negative, while in the second type the spacetime must be an Einstein manifold. In addition, the equations that define Killing-Yano (KY) and closed conformal Killing-Yano (CCKY) tensors are expressed in the index notation and, as consequence, all non-vanishing KY and CCKY tensors that can be generated from a Killing spinor are made explicit.

  9. Killing Spinors and Related Symmetries in Six Dimensions

    E-print Network

    Carlos Batista

    2015-12-17

    Benefiting from the index spinorial formalism, the Killing spinor equation is integrated in six-dimensional spacetimes. The integrability conditions for the existence of a Killing spinor are worked out and the Killing spinors are classified in two algebraic types, in the first type the scalar curvature of the spacetime must be negative, while in the second type the spacetime must be an Einstein manifold. In addition, the equations that define Killing-Yano (KY) and closed conformal Killing-Yano (CCKY) tensors are expressed in the index notation and, as consequence, all non-vanishing KY and CCKY tensors that can be generated from a Killing spinor are made explicit.

  10. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings

    PubMed Central

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Methods Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event. Conclusions We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015). We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001). All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings. PMID:26135941

  11. Leukemic cell killing by samarium-153 labeled antisense oligodeoxynucleotide probes

    SciTech Connect

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Ghafouripour, A.K.; Willem, L.

    1994-05-01

    The c-myc oncogene is amplified in leukemia and cancer of colon, breast and lung, making the c-myc mRNA a suitable cytoplasmic receptor-like target for therapy of proliferation. The kinetics of uptake of Sm-153 labeled antisense (AS), sense (SN, control) and oxo and thio, derivatives by lymphocytic leukemic cells (P388) was evaluated. The 15-mer oligonucleotide sequence for the initiation-codon domain was synthesized, [sense (SN) and antisense (AS) phosphodiester (O) and monothioester (S)] aminolinked with a 6-carbon spacer and coupled to DTPA-isothiocyanate (1/10) and aliquots (10 {mu}g) were lyophilized. Sm-l 53 (100-500 {mu}Ci) was chelated to probe; unbound Sm-153 radionuclide was removed by size-exclusion chromatography (TSK-300 column). Aliquots of 1-100 {mu}Ci (0.1-1.0 {mu}g) of Sm-153 chloride, Sm-153 sense, antisense probes and unlabeled DTPA-antisense carrier were added to P388 cells (1.1X{sup 6} cell/ml) in exponentially growing phase in RPMI media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and incubated at 37{degrees}C for 10 days. Dose-dependence on cell-killing was studied by incubating with 1, 10, 50, 100 {mu}Ci of Sm-153 antisense probe in same media. Cells killed were estimated by staining with Trypan Blue. Cell-counts in all samples were performed with a light microscope. The cell-killing with probes and carrier is in the following sequence: Sm-153 antisense > antisense carrier > Sm-153 chloride > sense carrier. Selected unique sequences may provide new radionuclide-carrier to induce double-strand DNA-breaks in proliferative cells. Being closer to nucleus, the mRNA-probe duplex may be more effective for tumor therapy than radiolabeled peptides and antibodies binding membrane-antigens. This new radiolabeled oligonucleotide-mRNA hybridization technique in intact cells may permit therapy of other cancer cells and solid tumors with amplified oncogenes.

  12. Myeloid derived suppressor cells as a vehicle for tumor-specific oncolytic viral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Eisenstein, Samuel; Coakley, Brian A.; Briley-Saebo, Karen; Ma, Ge; Meseck, Marcia; Ward, Stephen; Divino, Celia; Woo, Savio; Chen, Shu-Hsia; Pan, Ping-Ying

    2013-01-01

    One of the several impediments to effective oncolytic virus therapy of cancer remains a lack of tumor-specific targeting. Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature myeloid cells induced by tumor factors in tumor-bearing hosts. The biodistribution kinetics of MDSC and other immune cell types in a murine hepatic colon cancer model was investigated through the use of tracking markers and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MDSCs were superior to other immune cell types in preferential migration to tumors in comparison to other tissues. Based on this observation, we engineered a strain of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), an oncolytic rhabdovirus, that bound MDSCs and used them as a delivery vehicle. Improving VSV binding efficiency to MDSCs extended the long-term survival of mice bearing metastatic colon tumors, compared to systemic administration of wild-type VSV alone. Survival was further extended by multiple injections of the engineered virus without significant toxicity. Notably, direct tumor killing was accentuated by promoting MDSC differentiation towards the classically activated M1-like phenotype. Our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for using MDSCs to facilitate and enhance the tumor-killing activity of tumor-targeted oncolytic therapeutics. PMID:23536556

  13. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing epidermal tumors (warts) obtained from a bovine. Each serial shall meet the requirements prescribed in this section and any serial...

  14. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing epidermal tumors (warts) obtained from a bovine. Each serial shall meet the requirements prescribed in this section and any serial...

  15. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing epidermal tumors (warts) obtained from a bovine. Each serial shall meet the requirements prescribed in this section and any serial...

  16. GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND - Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Island, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  17. Conformal killing tensors and covariant Hamiltonian dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; Holten, J.-W. van; Horvathy, P. A.; Zhang, P.-M.

    2014-12-15

    A covariant algorithm for deriving the conserved quantities for natural Hamiltonian systems is combined with the non-relativistic framework of Eisenhart, and of Duval, in which the classical trajectories arise as geodesics in a higher dimensional space-time, realized by Brinkmann manifolds. Conserved quantities which are polynomial in the momenta can be built using time-dependent conformal Killing tensors with flux. The latter are associated with terms proportional to the Hamiltonian in the lower dimensional theory and with spectrum generating algebras for higher dimensional quantities of order 1 and 2 in the momenta. Illustrations of the general theory include the Runge-Lenz vector for planetary motion with a time-dependent gravitational constant G(t), motion in a time-dependent electromagnetic field of a certain form, quantum dots, the Hénon-Heiles and Holt systems, respectively, providing us with Killing tensors of rank that ranges from one to six.

  18. Conformal killing tensors and covariant Hamiltonian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariglia, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; van Holten, J.-W.; Horvathy, P. A.; Zhang, P.-M.

    2014-12-01

    A covariant algorithm for deriving the conserved quantities for natural Hamiltonian systems is combined with the non-relativistic framework of Eisenhart, and of Duval, in which the classical trajectories arise as geodesics in a higher dimensional space-time, realized by Brinkmann manifolds. Conserved quantities which are polynomial in the momenta can be built using time-dependent conformal Killing tensors with flux. The latter are associated with terms proportional to the Hamiltonian in the lower dimensional theory and with spectrum generating algebras for higher dimensional quantities of order 1 and 2 in the momenta. Illustrations of the general theory include the Runge-Lenz vector for planetary motion with a time-dependent gravitational constant G(t), motion in a time-dependent electromagnetic field of a certain form, quantum dots, the Hénon-Heiles and Holt systems, respectively, providing us with Killing tensors of rank that ranges from one to six.

  19. Deprivations, futures and the wrongness of killing

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, D.

    2001-01-01

    In my essay, Why abortion is immoral, I criticised discussions of the morality of abortion in which the crucial issue is whether fetuses are human beings or whether fetuses are persons. Both argument strategies are inadequate because they rely on indefensible assumptions. Why should being a human being or being a person make a moral difference? I argued that the correct account of the morality of abortion should be based upon a defensible account of why killing children and adults is wrong. I claimed that what makes killing us wrong is that our premature deaths deprive us of our futures of value, that is, the goods of life we would have experienced had we survived. This account of the wrongness of killing explains why killing is one of the worst of crimes and how killing greatly harms the victim. It coheres with the attitudes of those with cancer or HIV facing premature death. It explains why we believe it is wrong to kill infants (as personhood theories do not). It does not entail that it wrongs a human being to end her life if she is in persistent vegetative state or if her future must consist only of unbearable physical suffering and she wants to die (as sanctity of human life theories do not). This account of the wrongness of killing implies (with some defensible additional assumptions) that abortion is immoral because we were fetuses once and we know those fetuses had futures of value. Mark Brown claims that this potential future of value account is unsound because it implies that we have welfare rights to what we need to stay alive that most people would reject. I argue that Brown is incorrect in two ways: a welfare right to what we need to stay alive is not directly implied by my account and, in addition, most of us do believe that dependent human beings have substantial welfare rights to what they need to stay alive. Brown argues that depriving us of a future of value of which we have mental representations both is a better explanation of the wrongness of killing and does not imply that abortion is immoral. I reply that (a) if Brown's arguments against my view were sound, those arguments could be easily adapted to show that his view is unsound as well and (b) Brown's view is both ambiguous and unsound on any interpretation. The most popular class of pro-choice argument strategies appeals to the view that some or all fetuses lack either a mental state or function or a capacity for a mental state or function necessary for possession of the right to life. Desires, interests, sentience, various concepts, moral agency, and rationality have all been suggested as candidates for this crucial mental role. Brown's analysis is one member of this class of strategies. I believe that it is possible to show that none of these strategies is reasonable. However, there are so many of these strategies that the required argument demands something more like a book and less like a short essay. The argument of the following essay is a piece of this larger argument. Key Words: Abortion • future of value • Mark Brown • Don Marquis • the right to life • welfare rights PMID:11731597

  20. 78 FR 43063 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Arthur Kill, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Arthur Kill, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard... District, has issued a temporary deviation from the regulations governing the operation of the Arthur Kill AK Railroad Bridge across Arthur Kill, mile 11.6, between Staten Island, New York and Elizabeth,...

  1. AGE AND CONDITION OF DEER KILLED BY PREDATORS AND AUTOMOBILES

    E-print Network

    Harris, Richard B.

    AGE AND CONDITION OF DEER KILLED BY PREDATORS AND AUTOMOBILES BART W. O'GARA, U.S. Fish), and automobiles from De- cember through March, 1969-81 in western Montana. Predators killed prime-aged animals and automobiles killed (G = 41.4, P

  2. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set green... tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule 23.)...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set green... tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule 23.)...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set green... tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule 23.)...

  5. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set green... tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule 23.)...

  6. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set green... tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule 23.)...

  7. Road-Killed Animals as Resources for Ecological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Clark E.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes 19 literature sources identifying road-killed vertebrates and frequency of kill by numbers. Examples of how these animals can be incorporated into curricula (integrating biology, society, people, and values) are given, followed by an illustrated example of how a road-killed raccoon's skull demonstrated a human/wildlife interaction prior…

  8. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  9. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  10. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine... Newcastle disease virus supplied by or approved by Veterinary Services and the vaccinates observed each...

  11. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  12. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine... Newcastle disease virus supplied by or approved by Veterinary Services and the vaccinates observed each...

  13. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  14. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine... Newcastle disease virus supplied by or approved by Veterinary Services and the vaccinates observed each...

  15. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine... Newcastle disease virus supplied by or approved by Veterinary Services and the vaccinates observed each...

  16. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine... Newcastle disease virus supplied by or approved by Veterinary Services and the vaccinates observed each...

  17. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section...Foreign Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which...its surface has a set green color caused by excessive heat in...tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section...Foreign Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which...its surface has a set green color caused by excessive heat in...tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section...Foreign Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which...its surface has a set green color caused by excessive heat in...tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section...Foreign Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which...its surface has a set green color caused by excessive heat in...tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section...Foreign Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which...its surface has a set green color caused by excessive heat in...tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule...

  3. Life After Fresh Kills: Moving Beyond New York City's

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Life After Fresh Kills: Moving Beyond New York City's Current Waste Management Plan Policy disposal plan and the impact of the Fresh Kills landfill closing. The report concludes that New York City cost increases and environmental degradation. Specifically, after the closing of Fresh Kills, the City

  4. Classification of spacetimes according to conformal Killing vectors

    E-print Network

    K. Saifullah

    2008-10-17

    Conformal Killing vectors (CKVs) preserve the spacetime metric up to a factor. Homothetic vectors and Killing vectors are special cases of CKVs. Classification of some classes of spacetimes on the basis of CKVs give interesting results showing how homothetic and Killing vectors which form subsets of the set of CKVs can be recovered as a result of the above classification.

  5. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for...

  6. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  7. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for vaccine production. All serials...

  8. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  9. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for vaccine production. All serials...

  10. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for vaccine production. All serials...

  11. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for...

  12. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  13. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for...

  14. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  15. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  16. Immune Response to Orally Administered Killed MAP in Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine whether orally administered heat-killed MAP could induce a protective immune response in calves. Newborn male dairy calves were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatment groups: Heat killed MAP only (n=2), live MAP challenge only (n=4), heat killed MAP fo...

  17. Killing Vector Fields of Standard Static Space-times

    E-print Network

    Fernando Dobarro; Bulent Unal

    2008-01-30

    We consider Killing vector fields on standard static space-times and obtain equations for a vector field on a standard static space-time to be Killing. We also provide a characterization of Killing vector fields on standard static space-times with compact Riemannian parts.

  18. KILLING FORMS ON QUATERNIONKAHLER MANIFOLDS ANDREI MOROIANU AND UWE SEMMELMANN

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    KILLING FORMS ON QUATERNION­K¨AHLER MANIFOLDS ANDREI MOROIANU AND UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. We show that every Killing p­form on a compact quaternion­K¨ahler man- ifold has to be parallel for p 2. 2000­locally symmetric Riemannian structures. Recall that twistor (resp. Killing) 1­forms are duals of conformal (resp

  19. GENERALIZED KILLING SPINORS ON EINSTEIN MANIFOLDS ANDREI MOROIANU, UWE SEMMELMANN

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    GENERALIZED KILLING SPINORS ON EINSTEIN MANIFOLDS ANDREI MOROIANU, UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. We study generalized Killing spinors on compact Einstein manifolds with pos- itive scalar curvature Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 53C25, 53C27, 53C40, 83C05 Keywords: generalized Killing spinors

  20. Tools and Technology Article Methods for Locating African Lion Kills

    E-print Network

    Getz, Wayne M.

    Tools and Technology Article Methods for Locating African Lion Kills Using Global Positioning. Identification of large carnivore kill sites using Global Positioning System (GPS) data is gaining popularity. We (Panthera leo) kill sites from 1,477 investigated GPS clusters. Ratio of distance moved 24 hours before

  1. Killing forms on Quaternion-Kahler manifolds Corrigendum

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    Killing forms on Quaternion-K¨ahler manifolds ­ Corrigendum ­ Andrei Moroianu and Uwe Semmelmann The aim of this note is to fill a gap in the proof of Theorem 6.1 in [1] - stating that every Killing p is essential. For m = 1, the quaternionic projective space HP1 S4 carries non-parallel Killing 2-forms and 3

  2. Conformal Killing forms on Riemannian manifolds Uwe Semmelmann

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    Conformal Killing forms on Riemannian manifolds Uwe Semmelmann February 19, 2012 Abstract Conformal Killing forms are a natural generalization of conformal vector fields on Riemannian manifolds the existence of conformal Killing forms on nearly K¨ahler and weak G2-manifolds. Moreover, we give a complete

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nafcillin enhances innate immune-mediated killing

    E-print Network

    Nizet, Victor

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nafcillin enhances innate immune-mediated killing of methicillin, and nafcillin in particular, significantly increased killing of S. aureus by selected HDPs from keratinocytes, neutrophils, and platelets. This finding correlated with enhanced killing of MRSA by whole blood, neutrophils

  4. Designing surfaces that kill bacteria on contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiller, Joerg C.; Liao, Chun-Jen; Lewis, Kim; Klibanov, Alexander M.

    2001-05-01

    Poly(4-vinyl-N-alkylpyridinium bromide) was covalently attached to glass slides to create a surface that kills airborne bacteria on contact. The antibacterial properties were assessed by spraying aqueous suspensions of bacterial cells on the surface, followed by air drying and counting the number of cells remaining viable (i.e., capable of growing colonies). Amino glass slides were acylated with acryloyl chloride, copolymerized with 4-vinylpyridine, and N-alkylated with different alkyl bromides (from propyl to hexadecyl). The resultant surfaces, depending on the alkyl group, were able to kill up to 94 ± 4% of Staphylococcus aureus cells sprayed on them. A surface alternatively created by attaching poly(4-vinylpyridine) to a glass slide and alkylating it with hexyl bromide killed 94 ± 3% of the deposited S. aureus cells. On surfaces modified with N-hexylated poly(4-vinylpyridine), the numbers of viable cells of another Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, as well as of the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, dropped more than 100-fold compared with the original amino glass. In contrast, the number of viable bacterial cells did not decline significantly after spraying on such common materials as ceramics, plastics, metals, and wood.

  5. The conformal Killing equation on forms -- prolongations and applications

    E-print Network

    A. Rod Gover; Josef Silhan

    2006-01-31

    We construct a conformally invariant vector bundle connection such that its equation of parallel transport is a first order system that gives a prolongation of the conformal Killing equation on differential forms. Parallel sections of this connection are related bijectively to solutions of the conformal Killing equation. We construct other conformally invariant connections, also giving prolongations of the conformal Killing equation, that bijectively relate solutions of the conformal Killing equation on $k$-forms to a twisting of the conformal Killing equation on (k - l)-forms for various integers l. These tools are used to develop a helicity raising and lowering construction in the general setting and on conformally Einstein manifolds.

  6. Electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

  7. Dynamic kill: controlling wild wells a new way

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, E.M.; Soeiinah, E.

    1981-10-01

    Dynamic kill describes a technique for terminating a blowout utilizing flowing frictional pressure to supplement the hydrostatic pressure of the kill fluid being injected through the relief well and up the blowing well. Therefore, a lighter kill fluid such as water can be implemented. The objective is to allow a blowout to be killed without breaking down the formation so the maximum amount of fluid can be circulated through the relief well by not losing fluid to a fractured formation. This allows optimum control during the kill operation and stable communication between the two wells. By allowing more fluid to be applied to the kill through one relief well, dynamic kill also increases the probability that one relief well will be sufficient. When the well is dynamically dead, the initial kill fluid, which will usually be too light to hold the well dead in a static condition, is replaced with a heavier kill mud. In fact, three weights of mud may be required to allow control during the transition from low density initial dynamic kill mud to heavy final kill mud. 5 refs.

  8. Inverse Kinetics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-03-20

    Given the space-independent, one energy group reactor kinetics equations and the initial conditions, this prgram determines the time variation of reactivity required to produce the given input of flux-time data.

  9. Armored Vehicle 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    accurate vehicle state estimates for simple ground vehicles are identi ed and the bene ts of integrated estimation and control are investigated. It is demonstrated that considering estimation accuracy is essential to produce e cient guidance and control... an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) [12], [22], [33], [42]. The primary interest of this portion of research lies in the integration of estimation and control to provide e cient, accurate guidance. It has been well documented that additional accelerations...

  10. Killing-Yano forms and Killing tensors on a warped space

    E-print Network

    Krtous, Pavel; Kolar, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We formulate several criteria under which the symmetries associated with the Killing and Killing-Yano tensors on the base space can be lifted to the symmetries of the full warped geometry. The procedure is explicitly illustrated on several examples, providing new prototypes of spacetimes admitting such tensors. In particular, we study a warped product of two Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes and show that it gives rise to a new class of highly symmetric vacuum (with cosmological constant) black hole solutions that inherit many of the properties of the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS geometry.

  11. Geometry of Killing spinors in neutral signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemm, Dietmar; Nozawa, Masato

    2015-09-01

    We classify the supersymmetric solutions of minimal N = 2 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with neutral signature. They are distinguished according to the sign of the cosmological constant and whether the vector field constructed as a bilinear of the Killing spinor is null or non-null. In neutral signature the bilinear vector field can be spacelike, which is a new feature not arising in Lorentzian signature. In the {{? }}\\lt 0 non-null case, the canonical form of the metric is described by a fibration over a three-dimensional base space that has {{U}}(1) holonomy with torsion. We find that a generalized monopole equation determines the twist of the bilinear Killing field, which is reminiscent of an Einstein-Weyl structure. If, moreover, the electromagnetic field strength is self-dual, one gets the Kleinian signature analogue of the Przanowski-Tod class of metrics, namely a pseudo-hermitian spacetime determined by solutions of the continuous Toda equation, conformal to a scalar-flat pseudo-Kähler manifold, and admitting in addition a charged conformal Killing spinor. In the {{? }}\\lt 0 null case, the supersymmetric solutions define an integrable null Kähler structure. In the {{? }}\\gt 0 non-null case, the manifold is a fibration over a Lorentzian Gauduchon-Tod base space. Finally, in the {{? }}\\gt 0 null class, the metric is contained in the Kundt family, and it turns out that the holonomy is reduced to {Sim}(1)× {Sim}(1). There appear no self-dual solutions in the null class for either sign of the cosmological constant.

  12. Micro-sociology of mass rampage killings.

    PubMed

    Collins, Randall

    2014-01-01

    Spectacular but very rare violent events such as mass killings by habitual non-criminals cannot be explained by factors which are very widespread, such as possession of firearms, being a victim of bullying, an introvert, or a career failure. A stronger clue is clandestine preparation of attack by one or two individuals, against randomly chosen representatives of a hated collective identity. Mass killers develop a deep back-stage, obsessed with planning their attack, overcoming social inferiority and isolation by an emotion of clandestine excitement. PMID:25179819

  13. Targeting the Checkpoint to Kill Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Benada, Jan; Macurek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatments such as radiotherapy and most of the chemotherapies act by damaging DNA of cancer cells. Upon DNA damage, cells stop proliferation at cell cycle checkpoints, which provides them time for DNA repair. Inhibiting the checkpoint allows entry to mitosis despite the presence of DNA damage and can lead to cell death. Importantly, as cancer cells exhibit increased levels of endogenous DNA damage due to an excessive replication stress, inhibiting the checkpoint kinases alone could act as a directed anti-cancer therapy. Here, we review the current status of inhibitors targeted towards the checkpoint effectors and discuss mechanisms of their actions in killing of cancer cells. PMID:26295265

  14. Triops (Entomostraca) eggs killed only by boiling.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, D B

    1968-07-19

    Temporary rainpools near Khartoum, Sudan, are inhabited by the notostracan crustacean Triops which completes its life cycle within 4 weeks. The annual rains fall in late summer, and throughout the winter and early summer the eggs of Triops remain in the dried mud or dust where they may be exposed to temperatures up to 80 degrees C. Laboratory experiments show that they can withstand temperatures up to within 1 degrees C of boiling, but are killed in partial vacuum by 70 degrees C, at atmospheric pressure by 100 degrees C, or under pressure by 105 degrees C. Exposure to high temperature seems to be necessary to break the egg diapause. PMID:5690518

  15. Progress at Fresh Kills improving water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Londres, E.J.

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that in December 1987, the federal district court in Nevada issued a consent order forcing New York City (NYC) to improve its handling of solid waste and reduce the discharge of solid waste into the surrounding waterway. Implementation of the consent order by NYC resulted in many improvements in the transport of solid waste from the Marine Transfer Station (MTS) to Fresh Kills Landfill. The end result was a marked reduction in solid waste discharge and an improvement in water quality along the New Jersey shore areas.

  16. The killing efficiency of soft iron shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, R.; Longcore, J.R.

    1969-01-01

    A cooperative research effort between the ammunition industry and the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is aimed at finding a suitable non-toxic substitute for lead shot. A contract study by an independent research organization evaluated ways of coating or detoxifying lead shot or replacing it with another metal. As a result of that study, the only promising candidate is soft iron. Previous tests of hard iron shot had suggested that its killing effectiveness was poor at longer ranges due to the lower density. In addition, its hardness caused excessive damage to shotgun barrels. A unique, automated shooting facility was constructed at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to test the killing effectiveness of soft iron shot under controlled conditions. Tethered game-farm mallards were transported across a shooting point in a manner simulating free flight. A microswitch triggered a mounted shotgun so that each shot was 'perfect.' A soft iron shot, in Number 4 size, was produced by the ammunition industry and loaded in 12-gauge shells to give optimum ballistic performance. Commercial loads of lead shot in both Number 4 and Number 6 size were used for comparison. A total of 2,010 ducks were shot at ranges of 30 to 65 yards and at broadside and head-on angles in a statistically designed procedure. The following data were recorded for each duck: time until death, broken wing or leg bones, and number of embedded shot. Those ducks not killed outright were held for 10 days. From these data, ducks were categorized as 'probably bagged,' 'probably lost cripples,' or survivors. The test revealed that the killing effectiveness of this soft iron shot was superior to its anticipated performance and close to that obtained with commercial lead loads containing an equal number of pellets. Bagging a duck, in terms of rapid death or broken wing, was primarily dependent on the probability of a shot striking that vital area, and therefore a function of range. There was no indication that iron shot would result in greater crippling loss. Despite the apparent effectiveness of this iron shot, transition to its use in waterfowl hunting is not now possible. The sample used for this test was produced by a laboratory procedure that is unsuitable for manufacture. There is no process for producing soft iron shot in the quantities needed. Industry is doing its best to resolve this problem.

  17. Descent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, Y. I.

    1985-01-01

    The creation of descent vehicles marked a new stage in the development of cosmonautics, involving the beginning of manned space flight and substantial progress in space research on the distant bodies of the Solar System. This booklet describes these vehicles and their structures, systems, and purposes. It is intended for the general public interested in modern problems of space technology.

  18. The ability of insect-killing fungi to kill pecan aphids under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is need for efficacious biocontrol agents for pecan aphids in commercial orchards. We determined the virulence (killing power) of several beneficial fungi to pecan aphids. We tested three species (kinds) of fungi: 1) Isaria fumosorosea (two strains of this species were tested: ARSEF 3581 a...

  19. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall not exceed five minutes. If a train moving toward the bridge has crossed the home signal for the bridge before the request to open the bridge is given, that train may continue across the bridge, but.... (c) The draw of the Borden Avenue Bridge, mile 1.2, across Dutch Kills at Queens, shall open...

  20. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall not exceed five minutes. If a train moving toward the bridge has crossed the home signal for the bridge before the request to open the bridge is given, that train may continue across the bridge, but.... (c) The draw of the Borden Avenue Bridge, mile 1.2, across Dutch Kills at Queens, shall open...

  1. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shall not exceed five minutes. If a train moving toward the bridge has crossed the home signal for the bridge before the request to open the bridge is given, that train may continue across the bridge, but.... (c) The draw of the Borden Avenue Bridge, mile 1.2, across Dutch Kills at Queens, shall open...

  2. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shall not exceed five minutes. If a train moving toward the bridge has crossed the home signal for the bridge before the request to open the bridge is given, that train may continue across the bridge, but.... (c) The draw of the Borden Avenue Bridge, mile 1.2, across Dutch Kills at Queens, shall open...

  3. Laser killing of blastomeres in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Walston, Timothy; Hardin, Jeff

    2010-12-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans embryo is particularly amenable to microscopy and embryological studies because of its short developmental time, transparent shell, and nonpigmented cells. Within the embryo, contacts between cells often establish the polarization of neighboring cells. Blastomere isolation and recombination experiments have led to a wealth of understanding of the events in the four-cell C. elegans embryo. However, identifying individual blastomeres after isolation at stages past the four-cell stage is limited. In addition, removal of blastomeres from their native surroundings can interfere with many cell contacts besides the contacts of interest. An alternative approach for studying cell interactions within the C. elegans embryo is to use laser ablation of individual cells. Laser ablation can be used to kill one of two cells in contact with each other to understand what happens when a cell no longer signals to its neighbor. Additionally, killing a cell that is between two cells that will eventually contact each other can result in the corpse of the cell forming a steric barrier between the cells, preventing the contact. This protocol describes laser ablation of embryos mounted on an agar mount. PMID:21123430

  4. Hypervelocity impact flash for missile-defense kill assessment and engagement analysis : experiments on Z.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Reinhart, William Dodd; Lawrence, Raymond Jeffery Jr.; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2005-07-01

    Kill assessment continues to be a major problem for the nation's missile defense program. A potential approach for addressing this issue involves spectral and temporal analysis of the short-time impact flash that occurs when a kill vehicle intercepts and engages a target missile. This can provide identification of the materials involved in the impact event, which will, in turn, yield the data necessary for target identification, engagement analysis, and kill assessment. This report describes the first phases of a project under which we are providing laboratory demonstrations of the feasibility and effectiveness of this approach. We are using two major Sandia facilities, the Z-Pinch accelerator, and the two- and three-stage gas guns at the Shock Thermodynamics and Applied Research (STAR) facility. We have looked at the spectral content of impact flash at velocities up to 25 km/s on the Z-Pinch machine to establish the capability for spectroscopy for these types of events, and are looking at similar experiments at velocities from 6 to 11 km/s on the gas guns to demonstrate a similar capability for a variety of research-oriented and applied materials. The present report describes only the work performed on the Z machine.

  5. Fatal falls and jumps from motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Williams, A F; Goins, S E

    1981-03-01

    In 1978, 345 persons were killed in the United States in jumps and falls from non-crashing motor vehicles: 64 per cent fell; 15 per cent jumped; and it was not known whether the other 21 per cent jumped or fell. Two hundred and one people had been traveling on the exterior of vehicles, especially truck beds, and almost all of these people fell from their vehicles. The other 144 fatalities involved people in passenger compartments. Many of the falls from compartments occurred when occupants opened doors, or when vehicles changed direction. Seventy-seven per cent of those who fell from passenger compartments were males, and 44 per cent were less than five years old. Among those who jumped from vehicle compartments, 62 per cent were women and all were older than 14 years. Fatal falls and jumps from vehicles could be reduced in a variety of ways. These include legislation to prohibit travel on vehicle exteriors, designing vehicles so that doors cannot be opened when in motion, improving door designs, installing signals that provide warning if doors are not closed completely, and using occupant restraints. PMID:7468860

  6. The eyeball killer: serial killings with postmortem globe enucleation.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Julie; Ross, Karen F; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Peacock, Elizabeth; Linch, Charles A; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    Although serial killings are relatively rare, they can be the cause of a great deal of anxiety while the killer remains at-large. Despite the fact that the motivations for serial killings are typically quite complex, the psychological analysis of a serial killer can provide valuable insight into how and why certain individuals become serial killers. Such knowledge may be instrumental in preventing future serial killings or in solving ongoing cases. In certain serial killings, the various incidents have a variety of similar features. Identification of similarities between separate homicidal incidents is necessary to recognize that a serial killer may be actively killing. In this report, the authors present a group of serial killings involving three prostitutes who were shot to death over a 3-month period. Scene and autopsy findings, including the unusual finding of postmortem enucleation of the eyes, led investigators to recognize the serial nature of the homicides. PMID:25682709

  7. Killing tensors with nonvanishing Haantjes torsion and integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiganov, Andrey V.

    2015-07-01

    The second-order integrable Killing tensor with simple eigenvalues and vanishing Haantjes torsion is the key ingredient in construction of Liouville integrable systems of Stäckel type. We present two examples of the integrable systems on three-dimensional Euclidean space associated with the second-order Killing tensors possessing nontrivial torsion. Integrals of motion for these integrable systems are the second- and fourth-order polynomials in momenta, which are constructed using a special family of the Killing tensors.

  8. Killing sections and sigma models with Lie algebroid targets

    E-print Network

    Bruce, Andrew James

    2015-01-01

    We define and examine the notion of a Killing section of a Riemannian Lie algebroid as a natural generalisation of a Killing vector field. We show that the various expression for a vector field to be Killing naturally generalise to the setting of Lie algebroids. As an application we examine the internal symmetries of a class of sigma models for which the target space is a Riemannian Lie algebroid. Critical points of these sigma models are interpreted as generalised harmonic maps.

  9. Killing Symmetries in $\\mathcal{H}$-Spaces with $?$

    E-print Network

    Adam Chudecki; Maciej Przanowski

    2013-03-05

    All Killing symmetries in complex $\\mathcal{H}$-spaces with $\\Lambda$ in terms of the Pleba\\'nski - Robinson - Finley coordinate system are found. All $\\mathcal{H}$-metrics with $\\Lambda$ admitting a null Killing vector are explicitly given. It is shown that the problem of non-null Killing vector reduces to looking for solution of the Boyer - Finley - Pleba\\'nski (Toda field) equation

  10. Killing sections and sigma models with Lie algebroid targets

    E-print Network

    Andrew James Bruce

    2015-06-25

    We define and examine the notion of a Killing section of a Riemannian Lie algebroid as a natural generalisation of a Killing vector field. We show that the various expression for a vector field to be Killing naturally generalise to the setting of Lie algebroids. As an application we examine the internal symmetries of a class of sigma models for which the target space is a Riemannian Lie algebroid. Critical points of these sigma models are interpreted as generalised harmonic maps.

  11. Birkhoff theorem and conformal Killing-Yano tensors

    E-print Network

    Joan Josep Ferrando; Juan Antonio Sáez

    2015-05-13

    We analyze the main geometric conditions imposed by the hypothesis of the Jebsen-Birkhoff theorem. We show that the result (existence of an additional Killing vector) does not necessarily require a three-dimensional isometry group on two-dimensional orbits but only the existence of a conformal Killing-Yano tensor. In this approach the (additional) isometry appears as the known invariant Killing vector that the ${\\cal D}$-metrics admit.

  12. Black Hole Spacetimes with Killing-Yano Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiz?ák, David

    2010-03-01

    We present a brief overview of black hole spacetimes admitting Killing-Yano tensors. In vacuum these include Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics and certain black brane solutions. In the presence of matter fields, (conformal) Killing-Yano symmetries are known to exist for the Plebanski-Demianski solution and (trivially) for any spacetime with spherical symmetry. Special attention is devoted to generalized Killing-Yano tensors of black holes in minimal gauged supergravity Several aspects directly related to the existence of Killing-Yano tensors--such as the Kerr-Schild form, algebraic type of spacetimes, and separability of field equations--are also briefly discussed.

  13. Advancements in dynamic kill calculations for blowout wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kouba, G.E. . Production Fluids Div.); MacDougall, G.R. ); Schumacher, B.W. . Information Technology Dept.)

    1993-09-01

    This paper addresses the development, interpretation, and use of dynamic kill equations. To this end, three simple calculation techniques are developed for determining the minimum dynamic kill rate. Two techniques contain only single-phase calculations and are independent of reservoir inflow performance. Despite these limitations, these two methods are useful for bracketing the minimum flow rates necessary to kill a blowing well. For the third technique, a simplified mechanistic multiphase-flow model is used to determine a most-probable minimum kill rate.

  14. Do Killing-Yano tensors form a Lie Algebra?

    E-print Network

    David Kastor; Sourya Ray; Jennie Traschen

    2007-05-03

    Killing-Yano tensors are natural generalizations of Killing vectors. We investigate whether Killing-Yano tensors form a graded Lie algebra with respect to the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. We find that this proposition does not hold in general, but that it does hold for constant curvature spacetimes. We also show that Minkowski and (anti)-deSitter spacetimes have the maximal number of Killing-Yano tensors of each rank and that the algebras of these tensors under the SN bracket are relatively simple extensions of the Poincare and (A)dS symmetry algebras.

  15. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-04-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism.

  16. Geometry of Killing spinors in neutral signature

    E-print Network

    Dietmar Klemm; Masato Nozawa

    2015-09-09

    We classify the supersymmetric solutions of minimal $N=2$ gauged supergravity in four dimensions with neutral signature. They are distinguished according to the sign of the cosmological constant and whether the vector field constructed as a bilinear of the Killing spinor is null or non-null. In neutral signature the bilinear vector field can be spacelike, which is a new feature not arising in Lorentzian signature. In the $\\Lambda0$ non-null case, the manifold is a fibration over a Lorentzian Gauduchon-Tod base space. Finally, in the $\\Lambda>0$ null class, the metric is contained in the Kundt family, and it turns out that the holonomy is reduced to ${\\rm Sim}(1)\\times{\\rm Sim}(1)$. There appear no self-dual solutions in the null class for either sign of the cosmological constant.

  17. On the Lie subalgebra of Killing-Milne and Killing-Cartan vector fields in Newtonian spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamel, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    The Galilean (and more generally Milne) invariance of Newtonian theory allows for Killing vector fields of a general kind, whereby the Lie derivative of a field is not required to vanish but only to be cancellable by some infinitesimal Galilean (respectively Milne) gauge transformation. In this paper, it is shown that both the Killing-Milne vector fields, which preserve the background Newtonian spacetime structure and the Killing-Cartan vector fields, which in addition preserve the gravitational field, form a Lie subalgebra.

  18. How Do Cytotoxic Lymphocytes Kill Cancer Cells?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Anel, Alberto; Pardo, Julián

    2015-11-15

    In the past few years, cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a safe and effective alternative for treatment of cancers that do not respond to classical treatments, including those types with high aggressiveness. New immune modulators, such as cytokines, blockers of CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4) and PD-1(programmed cell death protein 1)/PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1), and interaction or adoptive cell therapy, have been developed and approved to treat solid and hematologic carcinomas. In these scenarios, cytotoxic lymphocytes (CL), mainly cytotoxic T cells (Tc) and natural killer (NK) cells, are ultimately responsible for killing the cancer cells and eradicating the tumor. Extensive studies have been conducted to assess how Tc and NK cells get activated and recognize the cancer cell. In contrast, few studies have focused on the effector molecules used by CLs to kill cancer cells during cancer immunosurveillance and immunotherapy. In this article, the two main pathways involved in CL-mediated tumor cell death, granule exocytosis (perforin and granzymes) and death ligands, are briefly introduced, followed by a critical discussion of the molecules involved in cell death during cancer immunosurveillance and immunotherapy. This discussion also covers unexpected consequences of proinflammatory and survival effects of granzymes and death ligands and recent experimental evidence indicating that perforin and granzymes of CLs can activate nonapoptotic pathways of cell death, overcoming apoptosis defects and chemoresistance. The consequences of apoptosis versus other modalities of cell death for an effective treatment of cancer by modulating the patient immune system are also briefly discussed. Clin Cancer Res; 21(22); 5047-56. ©2015 AACR.See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Cell Death and Cancer Therapy." PMID:26567364

  19. Controlled cell killing by a recombinant nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus.

    PubMed

    Parks, Griffith D; Young, Virginia A; Koumenis, Constantinos; Wansley, Elizabeth K; Layer, Jennifer L; Cooke, Kelly M

    2002-02-01

    In most tissue culture cell lines tested, infection with the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5) results in very little cell death. To determine if SV5 could be used as a vector for controlled killing of tumor cells, a recombinant SV5 (rSV5-TK) was constructed to encode the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) gene. MDBK cells infected with rSV5-TK showed a time-dependent loss of viability when infected cells were cultured in the presence of the prodrug acyclovir (ACV) or ganciclovir (GCV) while no significant toxicity was observed in the absence of prodrug. Cells infected with a control rSV5 expressing GFP and cultured with prodrug showed only a slight reduction in growth rate and little cell death. Time-lapse video microscopy of rSV5-TK-infected MDBK cells that were cultured in the presence of ACV showed an accumulation of cells with morphological effects characteristic of apoptotic cell death. An MDBK cell line persistently infected with rSV5-TK retained long-term expression of TK and sensitivity to prodrug-mediated cell killing that were comparable to those found in an acute infection. Titration experiments showed that the rSV5-TK plus GCV combination resulted in cell death for all mouse and human cell lines tested, although the kinetics and efficiency of cell death varied between cell types. Our results demonstrating controlled cell killing by a recombinant paramyxovirus support the use of negative-strand RNA viruses as therapeutic vectors for targeted killing of cancer cells. PMID:11853412

  20. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  1. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  2. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  3. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  4. Microwave irradiation for rapid killing and fixing of plant tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, G.E.; Bohannon, P.M.; Wessinger-Duvall, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation by microwaves allows for rapid killing and fixing of plant tissue, with excellent cellular integrity for histological examination. One or two exposures to microwaves for three seconds in formalin/acetic acid/alcohol gave good preservation of nuclei, chloroplasts, and other plant structures. The microwave method offers a considerable saving of time over traditional methods for killing and fixing plant tissue.

  5. The Seal Killing Controversy: What Are the Facts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffer, Victor B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the seal controversy using the harp and Alaska fur seals to illustrate the two distinct issues, i.e., conservation (the effect of killing upon the animal population); and two, morality (the effect of killing upon the human spirit). Factual information combines with personal philosophy. (LK)

  6. 9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PLATFORMS IN FOREGROUND WERE USED BY SPLITTERS, TRIMMERS AND GOVERNMENT INSPECTORS; SKINNING TABLE RAN ALONG THE WINDOWS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  7. Control of Influenza and Poliomyelitis with Killed Virus Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salk, Jonas; Salk, Darrell

    1977-01-01

    Discusses control of poliomyelitis and influenza by live and killed virus vaccines. Considered are the etiological agents, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiology of each disease. Reviews recent scientific studies of the diseases. Recommends use of killed virus vaccines in controlling both diseases. (CS)

  8. Cytotoxic Cells Kill Intracellular Bacteria through Granulysin-Mediated

    E-print Network

    Kirchhausen, Tomas

    granzymes into bacteria to kill diverse bacterial strains. In Escherichia coli, granzymes cleave electronCytotoxic Cells Kill Intracellular Bacteria through Granulysin-Mediated Delivery of Granzymes. What hap- pens to intracellular bacteria during this process is unclear. Human, but not rodent

  9. 9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.213 Section 113.213 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines §...

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING SECONDARY KILL OF THE GERMAN COCKROACH (DICTYOPTERA

    E-print Network

    Wang, Changlu

    153 FACTORS AFFECTING SECONDARY KILL OF THE GERMAN COCKROACH (DICTYOPTERA: BLATTELLIDAE) BY GEL of Forestry, Nanning, Guangxi 530022, China Abstract Secondary kill of the German cockroach, Blattella of four cockroach gel baits against various developmental stages of a laboratory (Jwax) and a field (Dorie

  11. PDE5 Inhibitors Enhance Celecoxib Killing in Multiple Tumor Types

    PubMed Central

    BOOTH, LAURENCE; ROBERTS, JANE L.; CRUICKSHANKS, NICHOLA; TAVALLAI, SEYEDMEHRAD; WEBB, TIMOTHY; SAMUEL, PETER; CONLEY, ADAM; BINION, BRITTANY; YOUNG, HAROLD F.; POKLEPOVIC, ANDREW; SPIEGEL, SARAH; DENT, PAUL

    2015-01-01

    The present studies determined whether clinically relevant phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors interacted with a clinically relevant NSAID, celecoxib, to kill tumor cells. Celecoxib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to kill multiple tumor cell types. Celecoxib and sildenafil killed ex vivo primary human glioma cells as well as their associated activated microglia. Knock down of PDE5 recapitulated the effects of PDE5 inhibitor treatment; the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME suppressed drug combination toxicity. The effects of celecoxib were COX2 independent. Over-expression of c-FLIP-s or knock down of CD95/FADD significantly reduced killing by the drug combination. CD95 activation was dependent on nitric oxide and ceramide signaling. CD95 signaling activated the JNK pathway and inhibition of JNK suppressed cell killing. The drug combination inactivated mTOR and increased the levels of autophagy and knock down of Beclin1 or ATG5 strongly suppressed killing by the drug combination. The drug combination caused an ER stress response; knock down of IRE1?/XBP1 enhanced killing whereas knock down of eIF2?/ATF4/CHOP suppressed killing. Sildenafil and celecoxib treatment suppressed the growth of mammary tumors in vivo. Collectively our data demonstrate that clinically achievable concentrations of celecoxib and sildenafil have the potential to be a new therapeutic approach for cancer. PMID:25303541

  12. 78 FR 43063 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Arthur Kill, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ...Kill, mile 11.6, between Staten Island, New York and Elizabeth, New Jersey. Under this temporary deviation the bridge may...Kill, mile 11.6, between Staten Island, New York and Elizabeth, New Jersey has a vertical clearance in the closed...

  13. Male Brown-headed Cowbird Attacks and Kills a Nestling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    I observed a male Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) attack and kill a nestling of an unidentified passerine in a grassland field in Day County, South Dakota, in June 2000. The killing or removal of nestlings by female cowbirds has been reported by others, but this behavior has not been documented previously in male cowbirds.

  14. Null conformal Killing-Yano tensors and Birkhoff theorem

    E-print Network

    Ferrando, Joan Josep

    2015-01-01

    We study the space-times admitting a null conformal Killing-Yano tensor whose divergence defines a Killing vector. We analyze the similitudes and differences with the recently studied non null case (Gen. Relativ. Grav. (2015) {\\bf 47} 1911). The results by Barnes concerning the Birkhoff theorem for the case of null orbits are analyzed and generalized.

  15. Null conformal Killing-Yano tensors and Birkhoff theorem

    E-print Network

    Joan Josep Ferrando; Juan Antonio Sáez

    2015-12-22

    We study the space-times admitting a null conformal Killing-Yano tensor whose divergence defines a Killing vector. We analyze the similitudes and differences with the recently studied non null case (Gen. Relativ. Grav. (2015) {\\bf 47} 1911). The results by Barnes concerning the Birkhoff theorem for the case of null orbits are analyzed and generalized.

  16. 7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  17. PDE5 inhibitors enhance celecoxib killing in multiple tumor types.

    PubMed

    Booth, Laurence; Roberts, Jane L; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Tavallai, Seyedmehrad; Webb, Timothy; Samuel, Peter; Conley, Adam; Binion, Brittany; Young, Harold F; Poklepovic, Andrew; Spiegel, Sarah; Dent, Paul

    2015-05-01

    The present studies determined whether clinically relevant phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors interacted with a clinically relevant NSAID, celecoxib, to kill tumor cells. Celecoxib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to kill multiple tumor cell types. Celecoxib and sildenafil killed ex vivo primary human glioma cells as well as their associated activated microglia. Knock down of PDE5 recapitulated the effects of PDE5 inhibitor treatment; the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME suppressed drug combination toxicity. The effects of celecoxib were COX2 independent. Over-expression of c-FLIP-s or knock down of CD95/FADD significantly reduced killing by the drug combination. CD95 activation was dependent on nitric oxide and ceramide signaling. CD95 signaling activated the JNK pathway and inhibition of JNK suppressed cell killing. The drug combination inactivated mTOR and increased the levels of autophagy and knock down of Beclin1 or ATG5 strongly suppressed killing by the drug combination. The drug combination caused an ER stress response; knock down of IRE1?/XBP1 enhanced killing whereas knock down of eIF2?/ATF4/CHOP suppressed killing. Sildenafil and celecoxib treatment suppressed the growth of mammary tumors in vivo. Collectively our data demonstrate that clinically achievable concentrations of celecoxib and sildenafil have the potential to be a new therapeutic approach for cancer. PMID:25303541

  18. Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Lysosomal Killing of Cryptococcus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hole, Camaron R.; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L.; Wozniak, Karen L.

    2012-10-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death.

  19. On pseudo-Riemannian manifolds with many Killing spinors

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseevsky, D. V.; Cortes, V.

    2009-02-02

    Let M be a pseudo-Riemannian spin manifold of dimension n and signature s and denote by N the rank of the real spinor bundle. We prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits more than (3/4)N independent Killing spinors with the same Killing number, unless n {identical_to} 1(mod 4) and s {identical_to} 3(mod 4). We also prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits k{sub +} independent Killing spinors with Killing number {lambda} and k{sub -} independent Killing spinors with Killing number -{lambda} such that k{sub +}+k{sub -}>(3/2)N, unless n {identical_to} s {identical_to} 3(mod 4). Similarly, a pseudo-Riemannian manifold with more than (3/4)N independent conformal Killing spinors is conformally locally homogeneous. For (positive or negative) definite metrics, the bounds (3/4)N and (3/2)N in the above results can be relaxed to (1/2)N and N, respectively. Furthermore, we prove that a pseudo-Riemannnian spin manifold with more than (3/4)N parallel spinors is flat and that (1/4)N parallel spinors suffice if the metric is definite. Similarly, a Riemannnian spin manifold with more than (3/8)N Killing spinors with the Killing number {lambda}(set-membership sign)R has constant curvature 4{lambda}{sup 2}. For Lorentzian or negative definite metrics the same is true with the bound (1/2)N. Finally, we give a classification of (not necessarily complete) Riemannian manifolds admitting Killing spinors, which provides an inductive construction of such manifolds.

  20. KILLING FORMS ON G2 AND Spin7MANIFOLDS UWE SEMMELMANN

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    KILLING FORMS ON G2­ AND Spin7­MANIFOLDS UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. Killing forms on Riemannian that on a compact manifold with holonomy G2 or Spin7 any Killing form has to be parallel. The main tool, 58J50 1. Introduction Killing forms are a natural generalization of Killing vector fields

  1. Autonomous vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrowitz, A.L.; Blidberg, D.R.; Michelson, R.C.

    1996-08-01

    There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

  2. Combinatorial stresses kill pathogenic Candida species

    PubMed Central

    Kaloriti, Despoina; Tillmann, Anna; Cook, Emily; Jacobsen, Mette; You, Tao; Lenardon, Megan; Ames, Lauren; Barahona, Mauricio; Chandrasekaran, Komelapriya; Coghill, George; Goodman, Daniel; Gow, Neil A. R.; Grebogi, Celso; Ho, Hsueh-Lui; Ingram, Piers; McDonagh, Andrew; De Moura, Alessandro P. S.; Pang, Wei; Puttnam, Melanie; Radmaneshfar, Elahe; Romano, Maria Carmen; Silk, Daniel; Stark, Jaroslav; Stumpf, Michael; Thiel, Marco; Thorne, Thomas; Usher, Jane; Yin, Zhikang; Haynes, Ken; Brown, Alistair J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic microbes exist in dynamic niches and have evolved robust adaptive responses to promote survival in their hosts. The major fungal pathogens of humans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, are exposed to a range of environmental stresses in their hosts including osmotic, oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Significant efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the adaptive responses to each of these stresses. In the wild, cells are frequently exposed simultaneously to combinations of these stresses and yet the effects of such combinatorial stresses have not been explored. We have developed a common experimental platform to facilitate the comparison of combinatorial stress responses in C. glabrata and C. albicans. This platform is based on the growth of cells in buffered rich medium at 30°C, and was used to define relatively low, medium and high doses of osmotic (NaCl), oxidative (H 2O2) and nitrosative stresses (e.g., dipropylenetriamine (DPTA)-NONOate). The effects of combinatorial stresses were compared with the corresponding individual stresses under these growth conditions. We show for the first time that certain combinations of combinatorial stress are especially potent in terms of their ability to kill C. albicans and C. glabrata and/or inhibit their growth. This was the case for combinations of osmotic plus oxidative stress and for oxidative plus nitrosative stress. We predict that combinatorial stresses may be highly signif cant in host defences against these pathogenic yeasts. PMID:22463109

  3. f(R)-gravity from Killing Tensors

    E-print Network

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos

    2015-01-01

    We consider $f\\left( R\\right) $-gravity in a Friedmann-Lema\\^{\\i}tre-Robertson-Walker spacetime with zero spatial curvature. We apply the Killing tensors of the minisuperspace in order to specify the functional form of $f\\left( R\\right) $ and the field equations to be invariant under Lie-B\\"{a}cklund transformations which are linear in the momentum (contact symmetries). Consequently, the field equations to admit quadratic conservation laws given by Noether's Theorem. We find three new integrable $f\\left( R\\right) $ models, for which with the application of the conservation laws we reduce the field equations to a system of two first-order ordinary differential equations. For each model we study the evolution of the cosmological fluid. Where we find that for the one integrable model the cosmological fluid has an equation of state parameter, in which in the latter there is a linear behavior in terms of the scale factor which describes the CPL parametric dark energy model.

  4. Psychological traits underlying different killing methods among Malaysian male murderers.

    PubMed

    Kamaluddin, Mohammad Rahim; Shariff, Nadiah Syariani; Nurfarliza, Siti; Othman, Azizah; Ismail, Khaidzir H; Mat Saat, Geshina Ayu

    2014-04-01

    Murder is the most notorious crime that violates religious, social and cultural norms. Examining the types and number of different killing methods that used are pivotal in a murder case. However, the psychological traits underlying specific and multiple killing methods are still understudied. The present study attempts to fill this gap in knowledge by identifying the underlying psychological traits of different killing methods among Malaysian murderers. The study adapted an observational cross-sectional methodology using a guided self-administered questionnaire for data collection. The sampling frame consisted of 71 Malaysian male murderers from 11 Malaysian prisons who were selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were also asked to provide the types and number of different killing methods used to kill their respective victims. An independent sample t-test was performed to establish the mean score difference of psychological traits between the murderers who used single and multiple types of killing methods. Kruskal-Wallis tests were carried out to ascertain the psychological trait differences between specific types of killing methods. The results suggest that specific psychological traits underlie the type and number of different killing methods used during murder. The majority (88.7%) of murderers used a single method of killing. Multiple methods of killing was evident in 'premeditated' murder compared to 'passion' murder, and revenge was a common motive. Examples of multiple methods are combinations of stabbing and strangulation or slashing and physical force. An exception was premeditated murder committed with shooting, when it was usually a single method, attributed to the high lethality of firearms. Shooting was also notable when the motive was financial gain or related to drug dealing. Murderers who used multiple killing methods were more aggressive and sadistic than those who used a single killing method. Those who used multiple methods or slashing also displayed a higher level of minimisation traits. Despite its limitations, this study has provided some light on the underlying psychological traits of different killing methods which is useful in the field of criminology. PMID:24763234

  5. Protein chlorination in neutrophil phagosomes and correlation with bacterial killing.

    PubMed

    Green, Jessie N; Kettle, Anthony J; Winterbourn, Christine C

    2014-12-01

    Neutrophils ingest and kill bacteria within phagocytic vacuoles. We investigated where they produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) following phagocytosis by measuring conversion of protein tyrosine residues to 3-chlorotyrosine. We also examined how varying chloride availability affects the relationship between HOCl formation in the phagosome and bacterial killing. Phagosomal proteins, isolated following ingestion of opsonized magnetic beads, contained 11.4 Cl-Tyr per thousand tyrosine residues. This was 12 times higher than the level in proteins from the rest of the neutrophil and ~6 times higher than previously recorded for protein from ingested bacteria. These results indicate that HOCl production is largely localized to the phagosomes and a substantial proportion reacts with phagosomal protein before reaching the microbe. This will in part detoxify the oxidant but should also form chloramines which could contribute to the killing mechanism. Neutrophils were either suspended in chloride-free gluconate buffer or pretreated with formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, a procedure that has been reported to deplete intracellular chloride. These treatments, alone or in combination, decreased both chlorination in phagosomes and killing of Staphylococcus aureus by up to 50%. There was a strong positive correlation between the two effects. Killing was predominantly oxidant and myeloperoxidase dependent (88% inhibition by diphenylene iodonium and 78% by azide). These results imply that lowering the chloride concentration limits HOCl production and oxidative killing. They support a role for HOCl generation, rather than an alternative myeloperoxidase activity, in the killing process. PMID:25236747

  6. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...General requirements for killed virus vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 ...STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an...

  7. Disruption of Chemically Killed Bacterial Cells by a Synthetic Zeolite

    PubMed Central

    Wistreich, George A.; Lechtman, Max D.; Baker, Richard F.; Bartholomew, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The applicability of a synthetic zeolite (type 4A, Union Carbide Corp., Linde Div., New York, N.Y.) as a disruptive agent in a procedure for the preparation of pure bacterial cell wall fractions from a variety of phenol-killed gram-negative, gram-positive, and acid-fast bacteria was demonstrated. The disruptive effect was found to be limited with formaldehyde-killed gram-positive cells and most gram-positive cocci killed either by phenol or formaldehyde. Images PMID:4110424

  8. HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Panozzo, J.; Chang-Liu, C.-M.; Libertin, C.R.

    1996-11-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct`, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {Gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

  9. Iontophoresis and chloride-containing compounds: parameters required for killing.

    PubMed

    Davis, C P; Wagel, N; Anderson, M D; Warren, M M

    1993-10-01

    Fungi, and gram-positive and gram-negative organisms were susceptible to iontophoretic killing in simple media. Iontophoresis did not depend on electrode type but did require chloride-containing compounds in the medium. All organisms could be killed efficiently if chloride-containing compounds (for example sodium chloride and calcium chloride) were present in physiological concentrations. Effectiveness of iontophoretic killing could be reduced by nonphysiologically elevated concentrations of other substances (for example creatinine and albumin). The data suggest that iontophoresis should function well in urine, since chloride-containing compounds are present in adequate concentrations even if some naturally occurring compounds, such as creatinine or albumin, are elevated. PMID:8371382

  10. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  11. Special Killing forms on toric Sasaki-Einstein manifolds

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Slesar; Mihai Visinescu; Gabriel Eduard Vilcu

    2014-09-29

    In this paper we study the interplay between complex coordinates on the Calabi-Yau metric cone and the special Killing forms on the toric Sasaki-Einstein manifold. In the general case we give a procedure to locally construct the special Killing forms. In the final part we exemplify the general scheme in the case of the $5-$dimensional $Y^{p,q}$ spaces, identifying the additional special Killing 2-forms which were previously obtained by the second author of the present paper, but with a different method, in [Mod. Phys. Lett. A 27 (2012) 1250217].

  12. Can Nanomedicines Kill Cancer Stem Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi; Alakhova, Daria Y.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Most tumors are heterogeneous and many cancers contain small population of highly tumorigenic and intrinsically drug resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). Like normal stem cell, CSCs have ability to self-renew and differentiate to other tumor cell types. They are believed to be a source for drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. CSCs often overexpress drug efflux transporters, spend most of their time in non-dividing G0 cell cycle state, and therefore, can escape the conventional chemotherapies. Thus, targeting CSCs is essential for developing novel therapies to prevent cancer relapse and emerging of drug resistance. Nanocarrier-based therapeutic agents (nanomedicines) have been used to achieve longer circulation times, better stability and bioavailability over current therapeutics. Recently, some groups have successfully applied nanomedicines to target CSCs to eliminate the tumor and prevent its recurrence. These approaches include 1) delivery of therapeutic agents (small molecules, siRNA, antibodies) that affect embryonic signaling pathways implicated in self-renewal and differentiation in CSCs, 2) inhibiting drug efflux transporters in an attempt to sensitize CSCs to therapy, 3) targeting metabolism in CSCs through nanoformulated chemicals and field-responsive magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, and 4) disruption of multiple pathways in drug resistant cells using combination of chemotherapeutic drugs with amphiphilic Pluronic block copolymers. Despite clear progress of these studies the challenges of targeting CSCs by nanomedicines still exist and leave plenty of room for improvement and development. This review summarizes biological processes that are related to CSCs, overviews the current state of anti-CSCs therapies, and discusses state-of-the-art nanomedicine approaches developed to kill CSCs. PMID:24120657

  13. Laser Microbial Killing and Biofilm Disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krespi, Yosef P.; Kizhner, Victor

    2009-06-01

    Objectives: To analyze the ability of NIR lasers to reduce bacterial load and demonstrate the capability of fiber-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser disrupting biofilm. Study Design: NIR diode laser was tested in vitro and in vivo using pathogenic microorganisms (S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa). In addition biofilms were grown from clinical Pseudomonas isolates and placed in culture plates, screws, tympanostomy tubes and PET sutures. Methods: In the animal experiments acute rhinosinusitis model was created by packing the rabbit nose with bacteria soaked solution. The nasal pack was removed in two days and nose was exposed to laser irradiation. A 940 nm diode laser with fiber diffuser was used. Nasal cultures were obtained before and after the laser treatments. Animals were sacrificed fifteen days following laser treatment and bacteriologic/histologic results analyzed. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser generated shockwave pulses were delivered on biofilm using special probes over culture plates, screws, tubes, and PET sutures for the biofilm experiments. Results: Average of two log bacteria reduction was achieved with NIR laser compared to controls. Histologic studies demonstrated preservation of tissue integrity without significant damage to mucosa. Biofilms were imaged before, during and after treatment using a confocal microscope. During laser-generated shockwave application, biofilm was initially seen to oscillate and eventually break off. Large and small pieces of biofilm were totally and instantly removed from the surface to which they were attached in seconds. Conclusions: Significant bacterial reduction was achieved with NIR laser therapy in this experimental in vitro and animal study. In addition we disrupted Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and special probes generating plasma and shockwave. This new and innovative method of bacteria killing and biofilm disruption without injuring host tissue may have clinical application in the future.

  14. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  15. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  16. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  17. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (115 Newhaven Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  18. Blood and Oil: Vehicle Characteristics in Relation to Fatality Risk and Fuel Economy

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Leon S.

    2006-01-01

    I examined the potential for a lower risk of death compatible with increased fuel economy among 67 models of 1999–2002 model year cars, vans, and sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) during the calendar years 2000 to 2004. The odds of death for drivers and all persons killed in vehicle collisions were related to vehicle weight, size, stability, and crashworthiness. I calculated that fatality rates would have been 28% lower and fuel use would have been reduced by 16% if vehicle weights had been reduced to the weight of vehicles with the lowest weight per size, where size is measured by the lateral distance needed to perform a 180-degree turn. If, in addition, all vehicles had crashworthiness and stability equal to those of the top-rated vehicles, more than half the deaths involving passenger cars, vans, and SUVs could have been prevented by vehicle modifications. PMID:17018814

  19. 9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.207 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan,...

  20. 9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.207 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan,...

  1. On the Lie subalgebra of Killing-Milne and Killing-Cartan vector fields in Newtonian space-time

    E-print Network

    N. Chamel

    2014-12-18

    The Galilean (and more generally Milne) invariance of Newtonian theory allows for Killing vector fields of a general kind, whereby the Lie derivative of a field is not required to vanish but only to be cancellable by some infinitesimal Galilean (respectively Milne) gauge transformation. In this paper, it is shown that both the Killing-Milne vector fields, which preserve the background Newtonian space-time structure, and the Killing-Cartan vector fields, which in addition preserve the gravitational field, form a Lie subalgebra.

  2. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect.

    PubMed

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-01-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism. PMID:25906433

  3. The Variety of Integrable Killing Tensors on the 3-Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöbel, Konrad

    2014-07-01

    Integrable Killing tensors are used to classify orthogonal coordinates in which the classical Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be solved by a separation of variables. We completely solve the Nijenhuis integrability conditions for Killing tensors on the sphere S^3 and give a set of isometry invariants for the integrability of a Killing tensor. We describe explicitly the space of solutions as well as its quotient under isometries as projective varieties and interpret their algebro-geometric properties in terms of Killing tensors. Furthermore, we identify all Stäckel systems in these varieties. This allows us to recover the known list of separation coordinates on S^3 in a simple and purely algebraic way. In particular, we prove that their moduli space is homeomorphic to the associahedron K_4.

  4. Prevent Tipping Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Emergencies Prevent Tipping Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children The nation’s emergency physicians handle tragic situations ... Emergency Physicians. “Every parent or guardian of a young child should look around their homes and imagine ...

  5. Hidden symmetries and killing tensors on curved spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ianus, S.; Visinescu, M.; Vilcu, G. E.

    2010-11-15

    Higher-order symmetries corresponding to Killing tensors are investigated. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and nonstandard supersymmetries is pointed out. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures as dynamical algebras or even infinite dimensional algebras or superalgebras. The general results are applied to space-times which appear in modern studies. One presents the infinite dimensional superalgebra of Dirac type operators on the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space that can be seen as a twisted loop algebra. The existence of the conformal Killing-Yano tensors is investigated for some spaces with mixed 3-Sasakian structures.

  6. PFIESTERIA SHUMWAYAE KILLS FISH BY MICROPREDATION NOT ECOTOXIN SECRETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Massive fish kills in mid-Atlantic USA estuaries involving several million Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus,have been attributed to dinoflagellates of the toxic Pfiesteria complex (TPC). Potent ichthyotoxins secreted during Pfiesteria blooms are thought to be responsible fo...

  7. Why Are Bad Products So Hard to Kill?

    E-print Network

    Simester, Duncan

    It is puzzling that firms often continue to invest in product development projects when they should know that demand will be low. We argue that bad products are hard to kill because firms face an inherent conflict when ...

  8. Killing superalgebra deformations of ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds

    E-print Network

    José Figueroa-O'Farrill; Bert Vercnocke

    2007-08-28

    We explore Lie superalgebra deformations of the Killing superalgebras of some ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. We prove the rigidity of the Poincare superalgebras in types I, IIA and IIB, as well as of the Killing superalgebra of the Freund-Rubin vacuum of type IIB supergravity. We also prove rigidity of the Killing superalgebras of the NS5, D0, D3, D4 and D5 branes, whereas we exhibit the possible deformations of the D1, D2, D6 and D7 brane Killing superalgebras, as well as of that of the type II fundamental string solutions. We relate the superalgebra deformations of the D2 and D6 branes to those of the (delocalised) M2 brane and the Kaluza-Klein monopole, respectively. The good behaviour under Kaluza-Klein reduction suggests that the deformed superalgebras ought to have a geometric interpretation.

  9. Drought and Beetle-Killed Piñon Pines in Arizona

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Drought and beetle-killed piñon pines in Walnut Canyon National Monument near Flagstaff, Arizona, amid some surviving trees. Forest drought stress is highly correlated with mortality from poor growth, bark beetle outbreaks, and high-severity fire....

  10. Drought and Beetle-Killed Piñon Pines in Arizona

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Drought and beetle-killed piñon pines in Walnut Canyon National Monument near Flagstaff, Arizona, amid a few surviving trees. Forest drought stress is strongly correlated with tree mortality from poor growth, bark beetle outbreaks, and high-severity fire....

  11. Conformal Killing vector fields and a virial theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariñena, José F.; Gheorghiu, Irina; Martínez, Eduardo; Santos, Patrícia

    2014-11-01

    The virial theorem is formulated both intrinsically and in local coordinates for a Lagrangian system of a mechanical type on a Riemann manifold. An important case studied in this paper is that of an affine virial function associated with a vector field on the configuration manifold. The special cases of a virial function associated with a Killing, a homothetic, and a conformal Killing vector field are considered and the corresponding virial theorems are established for these types of functions.

  12. Flat deformation of a spacetime admitting two Killing fields

    E-print Network

    Josep Llosa; Jaume Carot

    2010-05-10

    It is shown that given an analytic Lorentzian metric on a 4-manifold, $g$, which admits two Killing vector fields, then it exists a local deformation law $\\eta = a g + b H$, where $H$ is a 2-dimensional projector, such that $\\eta$ is flat and admits the same Killing vectors. We also characterize the particular case when the projector $H$ coincides with the quotient metric. We apply some of our results to general stationary axisymmetric spacetimes

  13. Role of nitric oxide and superoxide in Giardia lamblia killing.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P D; Assreuy, J

    1997-01-01

    Giardia lamblia trophozoites were incubated for 2 h with activated murine macrophages, nitric oxide (NO) donors or a superoxide anion generator (20 mU/ml xanthine oxidase plus 1 mM xanthine). Activated macrophages were cytotoxic to Giardia trophozoites (approximately 60% dead trophozoites). The effect was inhibited (> 90%) by an NO synthase inhibitor (200 microM) and unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD, 300 U/ml). Giardia trophozoites were killed by the NO donors, S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in a dose-dependent manner (LD50 300 and 50 microM, respectively). A dual NO-superoxide anion donor, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), did not have a killing effect in concentrations up to 1 mM. However, when SOD (300 U/ml) was added simultaneously with SIN-1 to Giardia, a significant trophozoite-killing effect was observed (approximately 35% dead trophozoites at 1 mM). The mixtures of SNAP or SNP with superoxide anion, which yields peroxynitrite, abolished the trophozoite killing induced by NO donors. Authentic peroxynitrite only killed trophozoites at very high concentrations (3 mM). These results indicate that NO accounts for Giardia trophozoites killing and this effect is not mediated by peroxynitrite. PMID:9222410

  14. Systemic Delivery of Fusogenic Membrane Glycoprotein-expressing Neural Stem Cells to Selectively Kill Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Detu; Lam, Dang Hoang; Purwanti, Yovita Ida; Goh, Sal Lee; Wu, Chunxiao; Zeng, Jieming; Fan, Weimin; Wang, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Intravenously injected neural stem cells (NSCs) can infiltrate both primary and metastatic tumor sites; thus, they are attractive tumor-targeting vehicles for delivering anticancer agents. However, because the systemic distribution of the injected NSCs involves normal organs and might induce off-target actions leading to unintended side effects, clinical applications of this approach is impeded. Given that the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) can promote the formation of multinucleated syncytia to kill cells in a pH-dependent manner, we engineered a pH sensor of VSV-G and generated a novel VSV-G mutant that efficiently promotes syncytium formation at the tumor extracellular pH (pHe) but not at pH 7.4. Using transduced NSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), the VSV-G mutant was delivered into mice with metastatic breast cancers in the lung through tail vein injection. Compared with the conventional stem cell-based gene therapy that uses the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) suicide gene, this treatment did not display toxicity to normal non-targeted organs while retaining therapeutic effects in tumor-bearing organs. Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of a new approach for achieving tumor-selective killing effects following systemic stem cell administration. Its potential in stem cell-based gene therapy for metastatic cancer is worthy of further exploration. PMID:23752308

  15. Vehicle Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-01-01

    UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

  16. Kinetic Resolution Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Kinetic

    E-print Network

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    Kinetic Resolution Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Kinetic Resolution with Ambient Air toward developing enantioselective oxidation reactions in the presence of catalytic palladium, we of secondary alcohols.[1­3] Our system employed a simple protocol involving a commercially available palladium

  17. Wound healing properties and kill kinetics of Clerodendron splendens G. Don, a Ghanaian wound healing plant

    PubMed Central

    Gbedema, Stephen Y.; Emelia, Kisseih; Francis, Adu; Kofi, Annan; Eric, Woode

    2010-01-01

    As part of our general objective of investigating indigenous plants used in wound healing in Ghana, we hereby report our findings from some in vitro and in vivo studies related to wound healing activities of Clerodendron splendens G. Don (Verbanaceae). Methanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant was tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Micrococcus flavus, as well as resistant strains of Staph. aureus SA1199B, RN4220 and XU212), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteous mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Candida albicans using the micro-well dilution method. Survivor–time studies of the microorganisms, radical scavenging activity using 2,2’-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and various in vivo wound healing activity studies were also conducted on the extract. The extract exhibited biostatic action against all the test microorganisms with a Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) ranging between 64 and 512 ?g/ml and a free radical scavenging property with an IC50 value of 103.2 ?g/ml. The results of the in vivo wound healing tests showed that upon application of C. splendens ointment, there was a reduction in the epithelization period from 26.7 days (control) to 13.6 days along with a marked decrease in the scar area from 54.2 mm2 (control) to 25.2 mm2. Significant increase in the tensile strength and hydroxyproline content were also observed as compared to the control and was comparable to nitrofurazone. The above results appear to justify the traditional use of C. splendens in wound healing and treatment of skin infections in Ghana. PMID:21808542

  18. Wound healing properties and kill kinetics of Clerodendron splendens G. Don, a Ghanaian wound healing plant.

    PubMed

    Gbedema, Stephen Y; Emelia, Kisseih; Francis, Adu; Kofi, Annan; Eric, Woode

    2010-03-01

    As part of our general objective of investigating indigenous plants used in wound healing in Ghana, we hereby report our findings from some in vitro and in vivo studies related to wound healing activities of Clerodendron splendens G. Don (Verbanaceae). Methanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant was tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Micrococcus flavus, as well as resistant strains of Staph. aureus SA1199B, RN4220 and XU212), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteous mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Candida albicans using the micro-well dilution method. Survivor-time studies of the microorganisms, radical scavenging activity using 2,2'-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and various in vivo wound healing activity studies were also conducted on the extract. The extract exhibited biostatic action against all the test microorganisms with a Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) ranging between 64 and 512 ?g/ml and a free radical scavenging property with an IC(50) value of 103.2 ?g/ml. The results of the in vivo wound healing tests showed that upon application of C. splendens ointment, there was a reduction in the epithelization period from 26.7 days (control) to 13.6 days along with a marked decrease in the scar area from 54.2 mm(2) (control) to 25.2 mm(2). Significant increase in the tensile strength and hydroxyproline content were also observed as compared to the control and was comparable to nitrofurazone. The above results appear to justify the traditional use of C. splendens in wound healing and treatment of skin infections in Ghana. PMID:21808542

  19. Interventions to reduce risks associated with vehicle incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Vernick, Jon S; Tung, Gregory J; Kromm, Jonathan N

    2012-01-01

    Occupants of smaller, lighter passenger cars are more likely to be killed or injured in collisions with larger, heavier sport utility vehicles and light trucks than in collisions with other cars. Interventions are needed to reduce this vehicle "incompatibility" and its consequences. The authors conducted a systematic literature review to identify evaluations of interventions to reduce incompatibility. They reviewed engineering, biomedical, and other technical literature. To be included, a study must have 1) evaluated an intervention to reduce vehicle incompatibility, or its consequences, in a crash; 2) reported new research; and 3) been published in English from 1990 to 2010. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Interventions were designed to reduce the aggressivity of larger vehicles or improve the crashworthiness of smaller vehicles. Effective interventions included 1) modified bumper heights, 2) improved side strength of smaller vehicles, 3) side-impact air bags, 4) changes to vehicle stiffness, and 5) modifications of other front-end structures. Some of the interventions shown to be effective are now in wide use. However, others have yet to be required by regulators or voluntarily agreed to by manufacturers. If larger, heavier vehicles remain on the nation's roads, countermeasures will be needed to reduce risks for occupants of other vehicles. PMID:21926064

  20. Characterization of UV-peroxide killing of bacterial spores.

    PubMed

    Reidmiller, Jeffrey S; Baldeck, Jeremiah D; Rutherford, Glen C; Marquis, Robert E

    2003-07-01

    Advantage is taken in many sterilization processes, especially for food packaging materials, of the synergy between H2O2 and UV irradiation for spore killing. The nature of the synergy is currently not well defined in terms of targets and mechanisms. We found that under some experimental conditions, the synergistic killing of spores of Bacillus megaterium ATCC 19213 appeared to be mainly UV-enhanced peroxide killing, while under other conditions, it appeared to be mainly peroxide-enhanced UV killing. Lethal combinations of H2O2 and UV irradiation for spores resulted in only modest increases in auxotrophic mutations among survivors, indicative of little DNA damage, in contrast to higher mutation levels after dry-heat damage at 115 degrees C. However, the combination of UV light and peroxide did lead to major inactivation of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that was used to monitor the damage to bacterial protein. Synergistic UV-H2O2 killing was reduced by agents such as pyruvate, thiosulfate, and iron or copper cations, which appeared to act at least in part by reacting chemically with H2O2, and was only slightly affected by the use of UV light at a wavelength of 222 nn rather than 254 nm. Hydrogen peroxide treatment can precede UV irradiation for synergistic killing by some hours with an interim of drying for spores of Bacillus subtilis A, a spore type used commonly for the validation of aseptic processes. Synergistic killing of dried spores or those in suspensions was accelerated at higher temperatures (50 degrees C) rather than at lower temperatures (25 degrees C). PMID:12870758

  1. Resource dispersion and consumer dominance: scavenging at wolf-and hunter-killed carcasses

    E-print Network

    Getz, Wayne M.

    REPORT Resource dispersion and consumer dominance: scavenging at wolf- and hunter-killed carcasses with the remains of their kills. Carrion from hunter kills is highly aggregated in time and space whereas carrion from wolf kills is more dispersed in both time and space. We estimated the total amount of carrion

  2. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  3. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  4. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  5. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  6. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  7. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  8. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  9. July/August 2012 Newsletter Subscriptions Bee-Kill Survey USDA APHIS Survey Canadian Nosema Studies

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    ________________________________________________________________________________ Newsletter Subscriptions Bee-Kill Survey USDA APHIS Survey Canadian Nosema Studies, but instead of Subscribe, you use the Unsubscribe. Bee-Kill Survey on Acute Bee Kills Limited response to their formal bee kill report solicitation prompted the US EPA Pesticide Program Dialog Committee (PPDC

  10. Syntactic and Semantic Discrepancies among the Verbs for `kill' in English, Chinese and Thai

    E-print Network

    Syntactic and Semantic Discrepancies among the Verbs for `kill' in English, Chinese and Thai language, i.e. the verbs meaning `kill' in English, Chinese and Thai. Specifically, it examines: (A) X kill Y dead, and (B) X kill Y but Y not die. The different syntactic properties among

  11. CAN I KILL MY YOUNGER SELF? TIME TRAVEL AND THE RETRO-SUICIDE PARADOX

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    1 CAN I KILL MY YOUNGER SELF? TIME TRAVEL AND THE RETRO-SUICIDE PARADOX Peter B. M. Vranas vranas shooting my younger self (YS); then apparently I can kill him--I can commit retro-suicide. But to kill him would be to change the past, so how can I kill him? The standard solution to this paradox understands

  12. Quaternionic Killing Spinors W. Kramer , U. Semmelmann y , G. Weingart z

    E-print Network

    Weingart, Gregor

    Quaternionic Killing Spinors W. Kramer #3; , U. Semmelmann y , G. Weingart z Mathematisches in terms of a quaternionic Killing equation and show that the only symmetric quaternionic Kahler manifolds Weitzenbock Formulas 6 4 The Quaternionic Killing Equation 9 5 The Killing Curvature on Wolf Spaces 13 5

  13. Vehicle barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hirsh, Robert A. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

  14. Antigen specific killing assay using CFSE labeled target cells.

    PubMed

    Durward, Marina; Harms, Jerome; Splitter, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) can be used to easily and quickly label a cell population of interest for in vivo investigation. This labeling has classically been used to study proliferation and migration. In the method presented here, we have shortened the timeline after adoptive transfer to look at survival and killing of epitope specific CFSE labeled target cells. The level of specific killing of a CD8 + T cell clone can indicate the quality of the response, as their quantity may be misleading. Specific CD8+ T cells can become functionally exhausted over time with a decline in cytokine production and killing. Also, certain CD8 + T cell clones may not kill as well as others with differing TCR specificities. For effective Cell Mediated Immunity (CMI), antigens must be identified that produce not only adequate numbers of responding T cells, but also functionally robust responding T cells. Here we assess the percent cell specific killing of two peptide specific T cell clones in BALB/c mice. PMID:21085108

  15. Honor killing attitudes amongst adolescents in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Manuel; Ghuneim, Lana

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines attitudes towards honor crimes amongst a sample of 856 ninth grade students (mean age?=?14.6, SD?=?0.56) from 14 schools in Amman, Jordan. Descriptive findings suggest that about 40% of boys and 20% of girls believe that killing a daughter, sister, or wife who has dishonored the family can be justified. A number of theoretically meaningful predictors were examined: Findings suggest that attitudes in support of honor killings are more likely amongst adolescents who have collectivist and patriarchal world views, believe in the importance of female chastity amongst adolescents, and morally neutralize aggressive behavior in general. Findings for parental harsh discipline are mixed: While the father's harsh discipline is predictive of honor killing attitudes, the mother's behavior is not. Furthermore, support for honor killing is stronger amongst male adolescents and adolescents for low education backgrounds. After controlling for other factors religion and the intensity of religious beliefs are not associated with support for honor killings. Models were tested separately for male and female respondents and suggested no systematic differences in predictors. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23744567

  16. Killing and Noether Symmetries of Plane Symmetric Spacetime

    E-print Network

    M. Farasat Shamir; Adil Jhangeer; Akhlaq Ahmad Bhatti

    2015-06-26

    This paper is devoted to investigate the Killing and Noether symmetries of static plane symmetric spacetime. For this purpose, five different cases have been discussed. The Killing and Noether symmetries of Minkwoski spacetime in cartesian coordinates are calculated as a special case and it is found that Lie algebra of the Lagrangian is 10 and 17 dimensional respectively. The symmetries of Taub's universe, anti-deSitter universe, self similar solutions of in?finite kind for parallel perfect fluid case and self similar solutions of infinite kind for parallel dust case are also explored. In all the cases, the Noether generators are calculated in the presence of gauge term. All these examples justify the conjecture that Killing symmetries form a subalgebra of Noether symmetries [1].

  17. Killing and Noether Symmetries of Plane Symmetric Spacetime

    E-print Network

    Shamir, M Farasat; Bhatti, Akhlaq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to investigate the Killing and Noether symmetries of static plane symmetric spacetime. For this purpose, five different cases have been discussed. The Killing and Noether symmetries of Minkwoski spacetime in cartesian coordinates are calculated as a special case and it is found that Lie algebra of the Lagrangian is 10 and 17 dimensional respectively. The symmetries of Taub's universe, anti-deSitter universe, self similar solutions of in?finite kind for parallel perfect fluid case and self similar solutions of infinite kind for parallel dust case are also explored. In all the cases, the Noether generators are calculated in the presence of gauge term. All these examples justify the conjecture that Killing symmetries form a subalgebra of Noether symmetries [1].

  18. QFT on homothetic Killing twist deformed curved spacetimes

    E-print Network

    Alexander Schenkel

    2011-04-21

    We study the quantum field theory (QFT) of a free, real, massless and curvature coupled scalar field on self-similar symmetric spacetimes, which are deformed by an abelian Drinfel'd twist constructed from a Killing and a homothetic Killing vector field. In contrast to deformations solely by Killing vector fields, such as the Moyal-Weyl Minkowski spacetime, the equation of motion and Green's operators are deformed. We show that there is a *-algebra isomorphism between the QFT on the deformed and the formal power series extension of the QFT on the undeformed spacetime. We study the convergent implementation of our deformations for toy-models. For these models it is found that there is a *-isomorphism between the deformed Weyl algebra and a reduced undeformed Weyl algebra, where certain strongly localized observables are excluded. Thus, our models realize the intuitive physical picture that noncommutative geometry prevents arbitrary localization in spacetime.

  19. [Effect of niclosamide spreading oil on killing schistosome cercariae].

    PubMed

    Peng, Guo-Hua; Hu, Zhu-Hua; Bao, Zi-Ping; Zhou, Yi-Sheng; Xiong, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Hai-Ying'; Guo, Jia-Gang

    2012-06-01

    Dechlorinated water (100 ml, 30 degrees C) was put into a plate (diameter 15 cm), and 1% niclosamide spreading oil 5 microl was added, then a ring of Schistosoma japonicum cercariae were picked up to the plate. The time of killing all the cercariae was observed at three time points (immediately, 24, 48 h), and the dechlorinated water was used as control. The results showed that schistosome cercariae were all killed in three minutes by 1% niclosamide spreading oil at the three time points. The cercaria-killing effects of each time point were not significantly different (F = 0.062, P > 0.05). The cercariae were alive in the control in 48 h. PMID:23012973

  20. Killing-Yano equations and G-structures

    E-print Network

    G. Papadopoulos

    2008-04-28

    We solve the Killing-Yano equation on manifolds with a $G$-structure for $G=SO(n), U(n), SU(n), Sp(n)\\cdot Sp(1), Sp(n), G_2$ and $Spin(7)$. Solutions include nearly-K\\"ahler, weak holonomy $G_2$, balanced SU(n) and holonomy $G$ manifolds. As an application, we find that particle probes on $AdS_4\\times X$ compactifications of type IIA and 11-dimensional supergravity admit a ${\\cal W}$-type of symmetry generated by the fundamental forms. We also explore the ${\\cal W}$-symmetries of string and particle actions in heterotic and common sector supersymmetric backgrounds. In the heterotic case, the generators of the ${\\cal W}$-symmetries completely characterize the solutions of the gravitino Killing spinor equation, and the structure constants of the ${\\cal W}$-symmetry algebra depend on the solution of the dilatino Killing spinor equation.

  1. Conformal Killing Vectors Of Plane Symmetric Four Dimensional Lorentzian Manifolds

    E-print Network

    Khan, Suhail; Bokhari, Ashfaque H; Khan, Gulzar Ali; Mathematics, Department of; Peshawar, University of; Pakhtoonkhwa, Peshawar Khyber; Pakistan.,; Petroleum, King Fahd University of; Minerals,; 31261, Dhahran; Arabia, Saudi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate conformal Killing's vectors (CKVs) admitted by some plane symmetric spacetimes. Ten conformal Killing's equations and their general forms of CKVs are derived along with their conformal factor. The existence of conformal Killing's symmetry imposes restrictions on the metric functions. The conditions imposing restrictions on these metric functions are obtained as a set of integrability conditions. Considering the cases of time-like and inheriting CKVs, we obtain spacetimes admitting plane conformal symmetry. Integrability conditions are solved completely for some known non-conformally flat and conformally flat classes of plane symmetric spacetimes. A special vacuum plane symmetric spacetime is obtained, and it is shown that for such a metric CKVs are just the homothetic vectors (HVs). Among all the examples considered, there exists only one case with a six dimensional algebra of special CKVs admitting one proper CKV. In all other examples of non-conformally flat metrics, no proper ...

  2. Inflatable kill packers used in working over Kuwaiti wells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. ); Conover, G. )

    1992-03-09

    This paper reports on inflatable packers which are being used with great success in post-well capping workover operations in Kuwait oil fields. In mid-January, about one kill packer was being run per day. Use is expected to increase in March when a second post-capping crew arrives. Of several thousand unconventional ideas submitted to Kuwait Oil Co. (KOC) for controlling the well fires left in the aftermath of lst year's Gulf War, only about a dozen were actually used. Inflatable kill packers, designed and manufactured by Baker Service Tools and marketed by Baker Oil Tools, were one of the ideas that proved effective. The kill packers are modifications of Baker's inflatable packers that have successfully been used in capping producers on many blowouts throughout the world, including the Piper Alpha disaster in the North Sea and the Saga blowout offshore Norway.

  3. Vehicle Systems Integration Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Vehicle Systems Integration Laboratory Shaping America's mobility future #12;Using Advanced request or project requirement in vehicle systems integration. The Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research on limited budgets and engineering resources. ORNL's Vehicle Systems Integration (VSI) Laboratory was created

  4. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803

  5. Human neutrophils dump Candida glabrata after intracellular killing.

    PubMed

    Essig, Fabian; Hünniger, Kerstin; Dietrich, Stefanie; Figge, Marc Thilo; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    Interaction between fungal pathogens and human phagocytes can lead to remarkably variable outcomes, ranging from intracellular killing to prolonged survival and replication of the pathogen in the host cell. Using live cell imaging we observed primary human neutrophils that release phagocytosed Candida glabrata yeast cells after intracellular killing. This process, for which we propose the name "dumping", adds a new outcome to phagocyte-fungus interaction which may be of potential immunological importance as it allows professional antigen presenting cells to take up and process neutrophil-inactivated pathogens that in their viable state are able to evade intracellular degradation in these cells. PMID:26385824

  6. Forestry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Power Pack II provides an economical means of moving a power source into remote roadless forest areas. It was developed by Prof. Miles and his associates, working in cooperation with the University of California's Department of Forestry. The team combined its own design of an all-terrain vehicle with a suspension system based on the NASA load equalization technology. Result is an intermediate-sized unit which carries a power source and the powered tools to perform a variety of forest management tasks which cannot be done economically with current equipment. Power Pack II can traverse very rough terrain and climb a 60 degree slope; any one of the wheels can move easily over an obstacle larger than itself. Work is being done on a more advanced Power Pack III.

  7. Killing vectors in asymptotically flat space-times: I. Asymptotically translational Killing vectors and the rigid positive energy theorem

    E-print Network

    R. Beig; Piotr T. Chrusciel

    1996-10-17

    We study Killing vector fields in asymptotically flat space-times. We prove the following result, implicitly assumed in the uniqueness theory of stationary black holes. If the conditions of the rigidity part of the positive energy theorem are met, then in such space-times there are no asymptotically null Killing vector fields except if the initial data set can be embedded in Minkowski space-time. We also give a proof of the non-existence of non-singular (in an appropriate sense) asymptotically flat space-times which satisfy an energy condition and which have a null ADM four-momentum, under conditions weaker than previously considered.

  8. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Forecasts Final report

    E-print Network

    ............................................................................................................................44 Propane...................................................................................................................................... 45 Passenger Propane Vehicles ...............................................................................................................................46 Commercial Propane Vehicles

  9. Copper as a magic bullet for targeted microbial killing.

    PubMed

    Cavet, Jennifer S

    2014-08-14

    The innate toxicity of copper can be exploited as an antimicrobial. In this issue of Chemistry & Biology Festa and colleagues report the use of QBP, a prochelator form of the metal-chelate 8-hydroxyquinolone, which allows for targeted copper-dependent microbial killing at sites of infection. PMID:25126988

  10. Evolution Operators for Linearly Polarized Two-Killing Cosmological Models

    E-print Network

    J. Fernando Barbero G.; Daniel Gómez Vergel; Eduardo J. S. Villaseñor

    2006-06-15

    We give a general procedure to obtain non perturbative evolution operators in closed form for quantized linearly polarized two Killing vector reductions of general relativity with a cosmological interpretation. We study the representation of these operators in Fock spaces and discuss in detail the conditions leading to unitary evolutions.

  11. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    PubMed

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ? 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ? 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ? 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

  12. Conformal killing vectors of plane symmetric four dimensional lorentzian manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Suhail; Hussain, Tahir; Bokhari, Ashfaque H.; Khan, Gulzar Ali

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate conformal Killing vectors (CKVs) admitted by some plane symmetric spacetimes. Ten conformal Killing's equations and their general forms of CKVs are derived along with their conformal factor. The existence of conformal Killing symmetry imposes restrictions on the metric functions. The conditions imposing restrictions on these metric functions are obtained as a set of integrability conditions. Considering the cases of time-like and inheriting CKVs, we obtain spacetimes admitting plane conformal symmetry. Integrability conditions are solved completely for some known non-conformally flat and conformally flat classes of plane symmetric spacetimes. A special vacuum plane symmetric spacetime is obtained, and it is shown that for such a metric CKVs are just the homothetic vectors (HVs). Among all the examples considered, there exists only one case with a six dimensional algebra of special CKVs admitting one proper CKV. In all other examples of non-conformally flat metrics, no proper CKV is found and CKVs are either HVs or Killing's vectors (KVs). In each of the three cases of conformally flat metrics, a fifteen dimensional algebra of CKVs is obtained of which eight are proper CKVs.

  13. 20. Bronx Kill Bridge with Hell Gate Bridge in background. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Bronx Kill Bridge with Hell Gate Bridge in background. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  14. 22. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  15. 21. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  16. Pfiesteria shumwayae kills fish by micropredation not exotoxin secretion.

    PubMed

    Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Lovko, Vincent J; Shields, Jeffrey D; Reece, Kimberly S; Mason, Patrice L; Haas, Leonard W; Walker, Calvin C

    2002-08-29

    Pfiesteria piscicida and P. shumwayae reportedly secrete potent exotoxins thought to cause fish lesion events, acute fish kills and human disease in mid-Atlantic USA estuaries. However, Pfiesteria toxins have never been isolated or characterized. We investigated mechanisms by which P. shumwayae kills fish using three different approaches. Here we show that larval fish bioassays conducted in tissue culture plates fitted with polycarbonate membrane inserts exhibited mortality (100%) only in treatments where fish and dinospores were in physical contact. No mortalities occurred in treatments where the membrane prevented contact between dinospores and fish. Using differential centrifugation and filtration of water from a fish-killing culture, we produced 'dinoflagellate', 'bacteria' and 'cell-free' fractions. Larval fish bioassays of these fractions resulted in mortalities (60-100% in less than 24 h) only in fractions containing live dinospores ('whole water', 'dinoflagellate'), with no mortalities in 'cell-free' or 'bacteria'-enriched fractions. Videomicrography and electron microscopy show dinospores swarming toward and attaching to skin, actively feeding, and rapidly denuding fish of epidermis. We show here that our cultures of actively fish-killing P. shumwayae do not secrete potent exotoxins; rather, fish mortality results from micropredatory feeding. PMID:12198545

  17. Killing for Girls: Predation Play and Female Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertozzi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Predation games--games in which the player is actively encouraged and often required to hunt and kill in order to survive--have historically been the purview of male players. Females, though now much more involved in digital games than before, generally play games that stress traditionally feminine values such as socializing with others, shopping,…

  18. Tree-Killing Las Conchas Fire in New Mexico

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientist Craig D. Allen observes the results of the extensive, tree-killing fire that consumed almost all above-ground biomass in this part of the Las Conchas Fire burn area in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico. Photo taken in late August 2011, two months post-fire. Forest drought stress is high...

  19. Ricci-flat spacetimes admitting higher rank Killing tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariglia, Marco; Galajinsky, Anton

    2015-05-01

    Ricci-flat spacetimes of signature (2 , q) with q = 2 , 3 , 4 are constructed which admit irreducible Killing tensors of rank-3 or rank-4. The construction relies upon the Eisenhart lift applied to Drach's two-dimensional integrable systems which is followed by the oxidation with respect to free parameters. In four dimensions, some of our solutions are anti-self-dual.

  20. Pseudomonas Exotoxin A: optimized by evolution for effective killing

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Marta; Wolf, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE) is the most toxic virulence factor of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review describes current knowledge about the intoxication pathways of PE. Moreover, PE represents a remarkable example for pathoadaptive evolution, how bacterial molecules have been structurally and functionally optimized under evolutionary pressure to effectively impair and kill their host cells. PMID:26441897

  1. [Animal welfare aspects of the killing of fish].

    PubMed

    Bernoth, E M; Wormuth, H J

    1990-04-01

    According to the Animal Protection Law (1986) fish are to be killed by methods which do not cause pain. However, the regulations do not cover the killing of non-food fish. A questionnaire, conducted among 85 fish scientists, revealed that single fish should be killed by a blow on the head, and larger numbers by electrical methods or by use of chemicals. Decapitation was proposed for eels. A regulation from 1936 stipulates the methods for the slaughtering of food fish. Mechanical or electrical stunning is compulsory except for eel and flatfish. The questionnaire showed that in general the present legal regulations are sufficient for the slaughtering of fish with the exception of eels. The commercially available apparatus for stunning and killing do not always fulfill the requirements of animal protection, slaughtering technology and safety for the user. Official testing of these apparatus as well as the evaluation of new methods--like CO2-stunning--are necessary in order to prevent the use of methods which are feasible, but do not fulfill animal welfare, especially for eel. PMID:2351049

  2. Licence to Kill: About Accreditation Issues and James Bond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheele, Ko

    2004-01-01

    Accreditation has become something of a hot topic in higher education. In Europe it has been described as a 'Licence to Kill'. The James Bond metaphor is particularly illustrative when reflecting on quality assurance challenges in higher education. Publications on this subject in recent years reveal that the array of issues associated with…

  3. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants

    PubMed Central

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M.; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ?8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ?40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ?3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

  4. What Is John Dewey Doing in "To Kill a Mockingbird"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Harper Lee's novel "To Kill a Mockingbird" is taught in countless public schools and is beloved by many teachers and future teachers. Embedded within this novel--interestingly--is a strong criticism of an approach to education mockingly referred to as the "Dewey Decimal System." In this essay I explore Lee's criticism of…

  5. The Fish Kill Mystery: Learning about Aquatic Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosal, Erica F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a case where students can learn about aquatic communities. In this case, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process, they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities. They also learn about the complex life cycle of the dinoflagellate…

  6. Conformal Killing Vectors Of Plane Symmetric Four Dimensional Lorentzian Manifolds

    E-print Network

    Suhail Khan; Tahir Hussain; Ashfaque H. Bokhari; Gulzar Ali Khan; Department of Mathematics; University of Peshawar; Peshawar Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa; Pakistan.; Department of Mathematics; King Fahd University of Petroleum; Minerals; Dhahran 31261; Saudi Arabia

    2015-10-22

    In this paper, we investigate conformal Killing's vectors (CKVs) admitted by some plane symmetric spacetimes. Ten conformal Killing's equations and their general forms of CKVs are derived along with their conformal factor. The existence of conformal Killing's symmetry imposes restrictions on the metric functions. The conditions imposing restrictions on these metric functions are obtained as a set of integrability conditions. Considering the cases of time-like and inheriting CKVs, we obtain spacetimes admitting plane conformal symmetry. Integrability conditions are solved completely for some known non-conformally flat and conformally flat classes of plane symmetric spacetimes. A special vacuum plane symmetric spacetime is obtained, and it is shown that for such a metric CKVs are just the homothetic vectors (HVs). Among all the examples considered, there exists only one case with a six dimensional algebra of special CKVs admitting one proper CKV. In all other examples of non-conformally flat metrics, no proper CKV is found and CKVs are either HVs or Killing's vectors (KVs). In each of the three cases of conformally flat metrics, a fifteen dimensional algebra of CKVs is obtained of which eight are proper CKVs.

  7. RESEARCH ARTICLE The Evolution of Reduced Microbial Killing

    E-print Network

    Riley, Margaret

    RESEARCH ARTICLE The Evolution of Reduced Microbial Killing Jan A. C. Vriezen, Michael Valliere interaction is the evolution of a powerful arsenal of biological weapons. Perhaps the most studied of these are colicins, plasmid-based toxins produced by and active against Escherichia coli. The present study

  8. Population genetics of the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    E-print Network

    Population genetics of the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Jess A. T. Morgan comparison of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis isolates from an intensively studied region of frog decline-host specificity, little correlation between fungal genotype and geography, local frog extirpation by a single

  9. Mass impacts on fuel economies of conventional vs. hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    An, F.; Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2004-01-01

    The strong correlation between vehicle weight and fuel economy for conventional vehicles (CVs) is considered common knowledge, and the relationship of mass reduction to fuel consumption reduction for conventional vehicles (CVs) is often cited without separating effects of powertrain vs. vehicle body (glider), nor on the ground of equivalent vehicle performance level. This paper challenges the assumption that this relationship is easily summarized. Further, for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) the relationship between mass, performance and fuel consumption is not the same as for CVs, and vary with hybrid types. For fully functioning (all wheel regeneration) hybrid vehicles, where battery pack and motor(s) have enough power and energy storage, a very large fraction of kinetic energy is recovered and engine idling is effectively eliminated. This paper assesses two important impacts of shifting from conventional to hybrid vehicles in terms of the mass vs. fuel economy relationship - (1) significant improvements in fuel economy with little or no change in mass, and (2) once a switch to hybrid powertrains has been made, the effectiveness of mass reduction in improving fuel economy will be diminished relative to conventional vehicles. In this paper, we discuss vehicle tractive load breakdowns and impacts of hybridization on vehicle efficiency, discuss capture of kinetic energy by conversion to electrical energy via regenerative braking, assess benefits of shutting off the engine when the vehicle does not require power, and investigate energy losses associated with vehicle mass.

  10. A Note on Teleparallel Killing Symmetries in Three Dimensional Circularly Symmetric Static Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Suhail; Hussain, Tahir; Ali Khan, Gulzar; Ali, Amjad

    2015-08-01

    In this article we investigate Killing vectors in three dimensional Lorentzian manifold for circularly symmetric static spacetime in the presence of torsion. Teleparallel Killing equations are obtained and then solved by using some algebraic and direct integration techniques. This study reveals that the above spacetime admit two, three, four, five or six teleparallel Killing vectors. We compare our results with the available results in general relativity where the same spacetime admit two, three, four or six Killing vectors. It turns out that the teleparallel Killing vectors are different from Killing vectors in general relativity for the same spacetime.

  11. Massachusetts Electric Vehicle Efforts

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    ,500 for full battery electric vehicle (BEV) and $5,000 for plug- in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) · FinancialMassachusetts Electric Vehicle Efforts Christine Kirby, MassDEP ZE-MAP Meeting October 24, 2014 #12 · Provide Clean Air · Grow the Clean Energy Economy · Electric vehicles are a key part of the solution #12

  12. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  13. Effect of Silicon on Desulfurization of Aluminum-killed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Debdutta

    Recent reports have suggested that silicon has a beneficial effect on the rate of desulfurization of Al-killed steel. This effect is difficult to understand looking at the overall desulfurization reaction which does not include silicon. However an explanation is proposed by taking into account the (SiO2)/[Si] equilibrium in which some Al reaching the slag-metal interface is used in reducing the SiO2 in the slag. This reaction can be suppressed to some extent if the silicon content of the metal is increased and in doing so, more Al will be available at the slag-metal interface for the desulfurization reaction and this would increase the rate of the desulfurization reaction. A model was developed, assuming the rates are controlled by mass transfer, taking into account the coupled reactions of the reduction of silica, and other unstable oxides, namely iron oxide and manganese oxide, in the slag and desulfurization reaction in the steel by aluminum. The model predicts that increasing silicon increases the rate and extent of desulfurization. Plant data was analyzed to obtain rough estimates of ladle desulfurization rates and also used to validate the model predictions. Experiments have been conducted on a kilogram scale of material in an induction furnace to test the hypothesis. The major conclusions of the study are as follows: The rate and extent of desulfurization improve with increasing initial silicon content in the steel; the effect diminishes at silicon contents higher than approximately 0.2% and with increasing slag basicity. This was confirmed with kilogram-scale laboratory experiments. The effects of the silicon content in the steel (and of initial FeO and MnO in the slag) largely arise from the dominant effects of these reactions on the equilibrium aluminum content of the steel: as far as aluminum consumption or pick-up is concerned, the Si/SiO2 reaction dominates, and desulfurization has only a minor effect on aluminum consumption. The rate is primarily controlled by mass transfer in the metal and slag phase mass transfer has a minor effect on the overall desulfurization kinetics. The model results are in agreement with the experimental data for the change in sulfur, silicon and aluminum contents with time which renders credibility to the underlying hypothesis of the kinetic model. Although the change of sulfur content with time is not very sensitive to the activity data source, the change of aluminum and silicon contents with time depend on the activity data source. The experimental results demonstrate that if the silicon content in the steel is high enough, the silicon can reduce the alumina from the slag and thus the steel melt will pick up aluminum. This can cause significant savings in aluminum consumption. For most of the slag compositions used in the experiments, the overall mass transfer is only limited by the steel phase and the slag phase mass transfer can be neglected for most practical cases. Mass balance calculations in the experiments support the basis of the model and also show that with respect to aluminum consumption, silica reduction is the main aluminum consuming (or production) reaction and the desulfurization reaction is only a secondary consumer of aluminum. Results from the plant trials conducted to test the effect of silicon on ladle desulfurization show that the rate and extent of desulfurization increase with the increase of the initial Si content, so in the ladle refining process, adding all the silicon in the beginning with the aluminum and the fluxes will be beneficial and could save considerable processing time at the ladle. The aluminum consumption for the heats with silicon added in the beginning (both in terms of the Al added to the steel and as slag deoxidants) is considerably lower compared to the cases where the silicon is added at the end. However, on a relative cost term, aluminum and silicon are similarly priced so substitution would not offer a major cost advantage.

  14. Comparison of killing of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by pure singlet oxygen. [Salmonella typhimurium; Escherichia coli; Sarcina lutea; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus lactis; Streptococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, T.A.; Midden, W.R. ); Hartman, P.E. )

    1989-04-01

    Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were found to display different sensitivities to pure singlet oxygen generated outside of cells. Killing curves for Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli strains were indicative of multihit killing, whereas curves for Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis, and Streptococcus faecalis exhibited single-hit kinetics. The S. typhimurium deep rough strain TA1975, which lacks nearly all of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide coat and manifests concomitant enhancement of penetration by some exogenous substances, responded to singlet oxygen with initially faster inactivation than did the S. typhimurium wild-type strain, although the maximum rates of killing appeared to be quite similar. The structure of the cell wall thus plays an important role in susceptibility to singlet oxygen. The outer membrane-lipopolysaccharide portion of the gram-negative cell wall initially protects the bacteria from extracellular singlet oxygen, although it may also serve as a source for secondary reaction products which accentuate the rates of cell killing. S. typhimurium and E. coli strains lacking the cellular antioxidant, glutathione, showed no difference from strains containing glutathione in response to the toxic effects of singlet oxygen. Strains of Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus that contained carotenoids, however, were far more resistant to singlet oxygen lethality than were both carotenoidless mutants of the same species and other gram-positive species lacking high levels of protective carotenoids.

  15. Incorporating kinetic aspects of

    E-print Network

    Tutorial: Incorporating kinetic aspects of RF current drive in MHD simulation J. Pratt, E kinetic aspects of RF current drive in MHD simulation with a focus on ECCD stabilization of tearing modes J. Pratt, E. Westerhof Lorentz Workshop: Modeling Kinetic Aspects of Global MHD Modes 4 Dec 2013

  16. Geometrical Gyro-Kinetic

    E-print Network

    Frénod, Emmanuel

    The Geometrical Gyro-Kinetic Approximation Emmanuel Frénod Introduction : The two parameters Jiao Tong University The Geometrical Gyro-Kinetic Approximation Emmanuel Frénod1 May, 24th - 2013 Joint.frenod@univ-ubs.fr http://web.univ-ubs.fr/lmam/frenod/index.html Emmanuel Frénod The Geometrical Gyro-Kinetic

  17. Fundamental electrode kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elder, J. P.

    1968-01-01

    Report presents the fundamentals of electrode kinetics and the methods used in evaluating the characteristic parameters of rapid-charge transfer processes at electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The concept of electrode kinetics is outlined, followed by the principles underlying the experimental techniques for the investigation of electrode kinetics.

  18. Conformal Yano-Killing tensors for the Taub-NUT metric

    E-print Network

    Jacek Jezierski; Maciej ?ukasik

    2006-10-18

    Symmetric conformal Killing tensors and (skew-symmetric) conformal Yano-Killing tensors for Euclidean Taub-NUT metric are given in explicit form. Relations between Yano and CYK tensors in terms of conformal rescaling are discussed.

  19. 76 FR 45690 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Raritan River, Arthur Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ...Arthur Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island, NY and Elizabeth, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule...across Arthur Kill between Staten Island, New York and Elizabeth, New Jersey. This final rule provides relief to the...

  20. 76 FR 16715 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Raritan River, Arthur Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ...Arthur Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island, NY and Elizabeth, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed...across Arthur Kill between Staten Island, New York and Elizabeth, New Jersey. This proposed rule would provide relief...

  1. Gossip, Scandal, Shame and Honor Killing: A Case for Social Constructionism and Hegemonic Discourse

    E-print Network

    Awwad, Amani

    2001-04-01

    ) perceived honor killing to be linked to Islam, specifically to the Koran. However, other experts perceive the phenomenon of-honor killing to be a complex social phenomenon closely related to the patriarchal system aimed at controlling and dominating women...

  2. On Killing vector fields of a homogeneous and isotropic universe in closed model

    E-print Network

    Ruslan Sharipov

    2007-08-19

    Killing vector fields of a closed homogeneous and isotropic universe are studied. It is shown that in general case there is no time-like Killing vector fields in such a universe. Two exceptional cases are revealed.

  3. Classification of the Killing Vectors in Nonexpanding HH-Spaces with Lambda

    E-print Network

    Adam Chudecki

    2011-11-11

    Conformal Killing equations and their integrability conditions for nonexpanding hyperheavenly spaces with Lambda are studied. Reduction of ten Killing equations to one master equation is presented. Classification of homothetic and isometric Killing vectors in nonexpanding hyperheavenly spaces with Lambda and homothetic Killing vectors in heavenly spaces is given. Some nonexpanding complex metrics of types [III,N]x[N] are found. A simple example of Lorentzian real slice of the type [N]x[N] is explicitly given.

  4. Spacetimes with Killing tensors. [for Einstein-Maxwell fields with certain spinor indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughston, L. P.; Sommers, P.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of the Killing equation and the Killing tensor are discussed. A conformal Killing tensor is of interest inasmuch as it gives rise to a quadratic first integral for null geodesic orbits. The Einstein-Maxwell equations are considered together with the Bianchi identity and the conformal Killing tensor. Two examples for the application of the considered relations are presented, giving attention to the charged Kerr solution and the charged C-metric.

  5. Alternate vehicles for engine/vehicle optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatasubramanyam, G.; Martin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    The space shuttle main engine, full flow staged combustion, integrated modular engine concept, split expander, and expander bleed rocket engine cycles were studied for use on Single-Stage-to-Orbit fully reusable vehicles. The vehicle uses vertical take-off and horizontal landing and liquid hydrogen rockets for propulsion. The PROPSIZE computer code was modified for use on the available computers. Vehicle sizing was done after trajectory optimization for various engine designs. The various rocket engine cycles were compared and it was found that the full flow staged combustion cycle had the lowest vehicle dry mass. The split expander cycle could have advantages in safety and cooling which could make it the preferred choice in some cases. Comparison to previous work with two-stage heavy-lift vehicles showed that the same ranking of the cycles was found for both vehicle concepts.

  6. Alternate vehicles for engine/vehicle optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatasubramanyam, G.; Martin, James A.

    1993-06-01

    The space shuttle main engine, full flow staged combustion, integrated modular engine concept, split expander, and expander bleed rocket engine cycles were studied for use on Single-Stage-to-Orbit fully reusable vehicles. The vehicle uses vertical take-off and horizontal landing and liquid hydrogen rockets for propulsion. The PROPSIZE computer code was modified for use on the available computers. Vehicle sizing was done after trajectory optimization for various engine designs. The various rocket engine cycles were compared and it was found that the full flow staged combustion cycle had the lowest vehicle dry mass. The split expander cycle could have advantages in safety and cooling which could make it the preferred choice in some cases. Comparison to previous work with two-stage heavy-lift vehicles showed that the same ranking of the cycles was found for both vehicle concepts.

  7. Geometric properties of stationary and axisymmetric Killing horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoom, Andrey A.

    2015-01-01

    We study some geometric properties of Killing horizons in four-dimensional stationary and axisymmetric space-times with an electromagnetic field and a cosmological constant. Using a (1 +1 +2 ) space-time split, we construct relations between the space-time Riemann tensor components and the components of the Riemann tensor corresponding to the horizon surface. The Einstein equations allow to derive the space-time scalar curvature invariants—Kretschmann, Chern-Pontryagin, and Euler—on the two-dimensional spacelike horizon surface. The derived relations generalize the relations known for Killing horizons of static and axisymmetric four-dimensional space-times. We also present the generalization of Hartle's curvature formula.

  8. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2003-11-01

    The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

  9. It’s Not Just Conflict That Motivates Killing of Orangutans

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jacqueline T.; Mengersen, Kerrie; Abram, Nicola K.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wells, Jessie A.; Meijaard, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents’ active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI) and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI). These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed. PMID:24130707

  10. 77 FR 10960 - Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and Wards Islands, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and... establishing a temporary security zone on the waters of the East River and Bronx Kill, in the vicinity of... is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the East River and Bronx Kill when public...

  11. Topics in Representation Theory: The Killing Form, Reflections and Classification of Root

    E-print Network

    Woit, Peter

    algebras the Killing form is non-degenerate. For semi-simple Lie groups the Killing form can be used Theorem 1. For g the Lie algebra of a compact semisimple Lie group, the Killing form K is strictly negative definite on g, i.e. for any X = 0, K(X, X) Lie algebra of a semi

  12. MATH 223A NOTES 2011 LIE ALGEBRAS 17 5. Semisimple Lie algebras and the Killing form

    E-print Network

    Igusa, Kiyoshi

    MATH 223A NOTES 2011 LIE ALGEBRAS 17 5. Semisimple Lie algebras and the Killing form This section follows Procesi's book on Lie Groups. We will define semisimple Lie algebras and the Killing form over any subfield F C. (1) L is semisimple. (2) L has no nonzero abelian ideals. (3) The Killing form

  13. High-prevalence male-killing Wolbachia in the buttery Acraea encedana

    E-print Network

    Jiggins, Francis

    High-prevalence male-killing Wolbachia in the butter¯y Acraea encedana F. M. JIGGINS,* G. D. D Stephenson Way, London NW1 2HE UK Introduction Maternally inherited genetic elements which kill males during on the ladybird beetles (Cocci- nellidae) and in this group several generalizations have become apparent. Male-killing

  14. 77 FR 10960 - Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and Wards Islands, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ...1625-AA87 Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and Wards Islands, NY AGENCY...the waters of the East River and Bronx Kill, in the vicinity of Randalls and Wards...from a portion of the East River and Bronx Kill when public officials are scheduled...

  15. 33 CFR 165.T01-0727 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ. 165.T01-0727 Section...T01-0727 Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ. (a) Regulated area...Reach, and Gulfport Reach in the Arthur Kill; bounded in the northeast by a line drawn from position...

  16. Spills, Fills, and Kills An Architecture for Reducing Register-Memory Traffic

    E-print Network

    Dally, William J.

    1 Spills, Fills, and Kills An Architecture for Reducing Register-Memory Traffic Mattan Erez Brian P, and kill instructions to access this space. These instructions facilitate compiler name generation while space, fill instructions access values bound to particular spill names, and kill instructions discard

  17. 76 FR 52569 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ...1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...on the navigable waters of the Arthur Kill in New York and New Jersey. This temporary...operations being conducted in the Arthur Kill. In November 2010, Northeast...

  18. 77 FR 1023 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ...1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...in the navigable waters of the Arthur Kill in New York and New Jersey. The amendment...second to address the RNA in the Arthur Kill. An earlier TIR added the basic RNA...

  19. Rotenone selectively kills serotonergic neurons through a microtubule-dependent mechanism

    E-print Network

    Feng, Jian

    Rotenone selectively kills serotonergic neurons through a microtubule-dependent mechanism Yong Ren that rotenone also selectively killed serotonergic neurons in midbrain neuronal cultures. Its selective toxicity- cine caused vesicle accumulation in the soma and killed serotonergic neurons through a mechanism

  20. 33 CFR 165.T01-0727 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ. 165.T01-0727 Section...T01-0727 Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ. (a) Regulated area...Reach, and Gulfport Reach in the Arthur Kill; bounded in the northeast by a line drawn from position...

  1. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  2. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  3. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  4. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  5. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  6. POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES FILLED WITH STEAM-EXPLODED WOOD FIBERS FROM BEETLE-KILLED LOBLOLLY PINE

    E-print Network

    Wang, Siqun

    POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES FILLED WITH STEAM-EXPLODED WOOD FIBERS FROM BEETLE-KILLED LOBLOLLY PINE of Tennessee Knoxville, TN 37996 (Received October 2005) ABSTRACT Beetle-killed loblolly pine chips were steam. Keywords: Beetle-killed pine, steam explosion, polypropylene composite, compatibilizer, flexural prop

  7. Assessing the influence of preypredator ratio, prey age structure and packs size on wolf kill rates

    E-print Network

    1 Assessing the influence of prey­predator ratio, prey age structure and packs size on wolf kill predation theory assumes that prey density is the primary determinant of kill rate. More recently, the ratio of prey-to-predator has been shown to be a better predictor of kill rate. However, the selective behavior

  8. KILLING FORMS ON SYMMETRIC SPACES FLORIN BELGUN, ANDREI MOROIANU AND UWE SEMMELMANN

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    KILLING FORMS ON SYMMETRIC SPACES FLORIN BELGUN, ANDREI MOROIANU AND UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. Killing forms on Riemannian manifolds are differential forms whose co- variant derivative is totally skew­symmetric. We show that a compact simply con- nected symmetric space carries a non­parallel Killing p­form (p 2

  9. Two male-killing Wolbachia strains coexist within a population of the buttery

    E-print Network

    Jiggins, Francis

    Two male-killing Wolbachia strains coexist within a population of the butter¯y Acraea encedonDepartment of Biology, University College London, 4 Stevenson Way, London, NW1 2HE, U.K. Inherited bacteria that kill encedon and A. encedana are both infected by the same strain of male-killing Wolbachia

  10. GENERALIZED KILLING SPINORS AND LAGRANGIAN GRAPHS ANDREI MOROIANU AND UWE SEMMELMANN

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    GENERALIZED KILLING SPINORS AND LAGRANGIAN GRAPHS ANDREI MOROIANU AND UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. We study generalized Killing spinors on the standard sphere S3 , which turn out to be related to Lagrangian Killing spinors, Lagrangian embeddings, geodesic vector fields 1. Introduction In this article we

  11. KILLING OF TARGET CELLS DUE TO RADON PROGENY IN THE HUMAN LUNG

    E-print Network

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    KILLING OF TARGET CELLS DUE TO RADON PROGENY IN THE HUMAN LUNG B. M. F. Lau1 , D. Nikezic1,2 and K the linear energy transfer in the target cell nuclei. Killing of target cells was also taken into account in the cell nuclei, the absorbed dose, which causes cell-killing is discarded in the final calculations

  12. KILLING SPINORS IN SUPERGRAVITY WITH 4-FLUXES ILKA AGRICOLA AND THOMAS FRIEDRICH

    E-print Network

    Friedrich, Thomas

    KILLING SPINORS IN SUPERGRAVITY WITH 4-FLUXES ILKA AGRICOLA AND THOMAS FRIEDRICH Abstract. We study the spinorial Killing equation of supergravity involving a tor- sion 3-form T as well as a ux 4-form F that it singles out a very special choice of numerical parameters in the Killing equation, which can also be justi

  13. Killing of Caenorhabditis elegans by Cryptococcus neoformans as a model of yeast pathogenesis

    E-print Network

    Ausubel, Frederick M.

    Killing of Caenorhabditis elegans by Cryptococcus neoformans as a model of yeast pathogenesis.However,thehumanpathogenicyeastCryptococcusneoformans killed C. elegans, and the C. neoformans polysaccharide capsule as well as several C. neoformans genes previously shown to be involved in mammalian virulence were also shown to play a role in C. elegans killing

  14. Weighted sums of orthogonal polynomials related to birth-death processes with killing

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    Weighted sums of orthogonal polynomials related to birth-death processes with killing Erik A. van polynomials arising in the analysis of birth-death processes with killing. Motivated by problems: birth-death process with killing, orthogonal polynomials, quasi- stationary distribution 2000

  15. The Parallel Break Construct or How to Kill an Activity Tree

    E-print Network

    Feitelson, Dror

    The Parallel Break Construct or How to Kill an Activity Tree Yair I. Friedman Dror G. Feitelson is identifying the subtree of activities that should be killed. Three algo­ rithms were designed for this purpose parallelism. keywords: forced termination, kill, pbreak, pcontinue, return, parallel activities 1 Introduction

  16. Evidence for kill-butchery events of early Upper Paleolithic age at Kostenki, Russia

    E-print Network

    Holliday, Vance T.

    Evidence for kill-butchery events of early Upper Paleolithic age at Kostenki, Russia John F in revised form 3 December 2009 Accepted 4 December 2009 Keywords: Zooarchaeology Kill-butchery sites Eastern of kill-butchery assemblages. Excavations at Kostenki 12 in 2002­2003 uncovered a large quantity

  17. f-symbols, Killing tensors and conserved Bel-type currents

    E-print Network

    Ovidiu Tintareanu-Mircea

    2010-12-24

    In the framework of the General Relativity we show that from three generalizations of Killing vector fields, namely f-symbols, symmetric St\\"{a}ckel-Killing and antisymmetric Killing-Yano tensors, some conserved currents can be obtained through adequate contractions of the above mentioned objects with rank four tensors having the properties of Bel or Bel-Robinson tensors in Einstein spaces.

  18. September 2006 397Notes TEMPERATURE-CAUSED FISH KILL IN A FLOWING

    E-print Network

    Wilde, Gene

    September 2006 397Notes TEMPERATURE-CAUSED FISH KILL IN A FLOWING GREAT PLAINS RIVER BART W. DURHAM the fish kill to high water temperature, which reached 38.0 C on this day. RESUMEN El 9 de julio del 2002. The purpose of this pa- per is to describe observations of a fish kill in a flowing warmwater stream that we

  19. UNIT KILLING VECTOR FIELDS ON NEARLY KAHLER ANDREI MOROIANU, PAULANDI NAGY AND UWE SEMMELMANN

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    UNIT KILLING VECTOR FIELDS ON NEARLY K¨AHLER MANIFOLDS ANDREI MOROIANU, PAUL­ANDI NAGY AND UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. We study 6-dimensional nearly K¨ahler manifolds admitting a Killing vec- tor field by the existence of some (at least locally defined) real Killing spinor [13]. Combining these properties

  20. Killing Tensors and Conserved Quantities of a Relativistic Particle in External Fields

    E-print Network

    Takahisa Igata; Tatsuhiko Koike; Hideki Ishihara

    2010-03-03

    We generalize Killing equations to a test particle system which is subjected to external force. We relax the conservation condition by virtue of reparametrization invariance of a particle orbit. As a result, we obtain generalized Killing equations which have hierarchical structure on the top of which a conformal Killing equation exists.

  1. Killing of Targets by CD8+ T Cells in the Mouse Spleen

    E-print Network

    de Boer, Rob J.

    Killing of Targets by CD8+ T Cells in the Mouse Spleen Follows the Law of Mass Action Vitaly V the rate at which individual CD8z effector and memory T cells kill target cells in the mouse spleen. Using of epitope-specific CD8z T cells. We find that the killing of targets follows the law of mass- action, i

  2. Landscape Associations of Road-killed Virginia Opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in Central Massachusetts

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Landscape Associations of Road-killed Virginia Opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in Central of road-killed animals to investigate landscape features associated with the presence of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in central Massachusetts. Volunteers noted road- killed opossums on their daily

  3. Am. MidI. Nat. 135:53-59 Are Road Kills Valid Indicators of Armadillo

    E-print Network

    Loughry, Jim

    Am. MidI. Nat. 135:53-59 Are Road Kills Valid Indicators of Armadillo Population Structure? w. J this assumption by comparing data on population structure derived from road-killed armadillos with those obtained-0015 ABSTRACT.-Wecollected 3 yr of data on road-killed nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus

  4. Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 ?g/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200?±?50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200?±?50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 ?g/mL) or lower (20 ?g/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 ?g/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations. PMID:24872797

  5. [The vegetarian appeal and killing animals. An ethical challenge].

    PubMed

    Luy, J; Hildebrandt, G; von Mickwitz, G

    2001-01-01

    The demand for renunciation of killing animals has already been discussed by mankind since ancient times. Many arguments for and against this demand have accumulated in the meantime. The reproaches of the vegetarians repeatedly forced the ones who eat meat to justify their diet. Today most of these historical justifications however have to be rejected because of lacking plausibility. Many of the vegetarian arguments on the other hand must be rejected for similar reasons as well. Remaining as morally convincing is the demand for doing the killing absolutely painless and without frightening the animals, which was already formulated for example by Kant and Schopenhauer. Arguments which consider this way of killing as still immoral belong in a broad sense to the "anthropocentric" animal ethics. They do not belong to what is called in Germany "pathocentric" animal ethics, because an animal that is killed without being frightened or tortured, has not suffered, for it hasn't consciously realized anything like danger or harm. We do even argue that these animals are not harmed at all, because it seems senseless to talk about harm without negative conscious phenomena. To push ahead a ban on animal slaughter for moral reasons could be itself morally wrong because it would disturb indirectly many people's conscious well-being without being justified by protecting an animal's conscious well-being. It is however possible to derive from a general duty not to make animals suffer (pathocentric animal ethics) a duty to boycott food of animal origin if these animals had to suffer during their lives. PMID:11505802

  6. Gauge-covariant extensions of Killing tensors and conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Holten, Jan-Willem

    2015-04-01

    In classical and quantum mechanical systems on manifolds with gauge-field fluxes, constants of motion are constructed from gauge-covariant extensions of Killing vectors and tensors. This construction can be carried out using a manifestly covariant procedure, in terms of covariant phase space with a covariant generalization of the Poisson brackets, c.q. quantum commutators. Some examples of this construction are presented.

  7. Killing - An algebraic computational package for Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa Bernardes, Esmerindo

    2000-07-01

    The KILLING package is a set of algebraic computational procedures to manipulate elements of representation theory for classical, exceptional and deformed Lie algebras. It is divided in two major parts: (1) The Roots & Weights formalism to classify all semisimple Lie algebras and their irreducible representations, and (2) The Gelfand-Tsetlin method to construct explicitly the irreducible representations of classical Lie algebras, including the deformed unitary Lie algebras.

  8. Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Evans, William C.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, earth scientists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The USGS continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

  9. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

    1996-08-01

    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  10. Charged Particles Kill Pathogens and Round Up Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    To keep plants fresh longer in space, Marshall Space Flight Center awarded funding to the University of Wisconsin-Madison to develop a titanium oxide-based device that reduced the amount of decay-inducing ethylene gas in the air. Electrolux (now Dallas-based Aerus Holdings) furthered the technology by developing an air purification product that kills pathogens both in the atmosphere and on surfaces.

  11. Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Dengfeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Guoxin; Shi, Hongcheng

    2014-04-01

    Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 ?g/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200 ± 50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200 ± 50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 ?g/mL) or lower (20 ?g/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 ?g/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations.

  12. From coprophagy to predation: a dung beetle that kills millipedes

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Trond H.; Lopera, Alejandro; Forsyth, Adrian; Génier, François

    2009-01-01

    The dung beetle subfamily Scarabaeinae is a cosmopolitan group of insects that feed primarily on dung. We describe the first case of an obligate predatory dung beetle and contrast its behaviour and morphology with those of its coprophagous sympatric congeners. Deltochilum valgum Burmeister killed and consumed millipedes in lowland rainforest in Peru. Ancestral ball-rolling behaviour shared by other canthonine species is abandoned, and the head, hind tibiae and pygidium of D. valgum are modified for novel functions during millipede predation. Millipedes were killed by disarticulation, often through decapitation, using the clypeus as a lever. Beetles killed millipedes much larger than themselves. In pitfall traps, D. valgum was attracted exclusively to millipedes, and preferred injured over uninjured millipedes. Morphological similarities placing D. valgum in the same subgenus with non-predatory dung-feeding species suggest a major and potentially rapid behavioural shift from coprophagy to predation. Ecological transitions enabling the exploitation of dramatically atypical niches, which may be more likely to occur when competition is intense, may help explain the evolution of novel ecological guilds and the diversification of exceptionally species-rich groups such as insects. PMID:19158030

  13. Evolution of early male-killing in horizontally transmitted parasites.

    PubMed

    Bernhauerová, Veronika; Berec, Lud?k; Maxin, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Early male-killing (MK) bacteria are vertically transmitted reproductive parasites which kill male offspring that inherit them. Whereas their incidence is well documented, characteristics allowing originally non-MK bacteria to gradually evolve MK ability remain unclear. We show that horizontal transmission is a mechanism enabling vertically transmitted bacteria to evolve fully efficient MK under a wide range of host and parasite characteristics, especially when the efficacy of vertical transmission is high. We also show that an almost 100% vertically transmitted and 100% effective male-killer may evolve from a purely horizontally transmitted non-MK ancestor, and that a 100% efficient male-killer can form a stable coexistence only with a non-MK bacterial strain. Our findings are in line with the empirical evidence on current MK bacteria, explain their high efficacy in killing infected male embryos and their variability within and across insect taxa, and suggest that they may have evolved independently in phylogenetically distinct species. PMID:26538596

  14. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms

    PubMed Central

    Binnebose, Andrea M.; Haughney, Shannon L.; Martin, Richard; Imerman, Paula M.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Bellaire, Bryan H.

    2015-01-01

    Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold) when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment. PMID:26496201

  15. Antimicrobial metallic copper surfaces kill Staphylococcus haemolyticus via membrane damage

    PubMed Central

    Santo, Christophe Espírito; Quaranta, Davide; Grass, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    Recently, copper (Cu) in its metallic form has regained interest for its antimicrobial properties. Use of metallic Cu surfaces in worldwide hospital trials resulted in remarkable reductions in surface contaminations. Yet, our understanding of why microbes are killed upon contact to the metal is still limited and different modes of action have been proposed. This knowledge, however, is crucial for sustained use of such surfaces in hospitals and other hygiene-sensitive areas. Here, we report on the molecular mechanisms by which the Gram-positive Staphylococcus haemolyticus is inactivated by metallic Cu. Staphylococcus haemolyticus was killed within minutes on Cu but not on stainless steel demonstrating the antimicrobial efficacy of metallic Cu. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis and in vivo staining with Coppersensor-1 indicated that cells accumulated large amounts of Cu ions from metallic Cu surfaces contributing to lethal damage. Mutation rates of Cu- or steel-exposed cells were similarly low. Instead, live/dead staining indicated cell membrane damage in Cu- but not steel-exposed cells. These findings support a model of the cellular targets of metallic Cu toxicity in bacteria, which suggests that metallic Cu is not genotoxic and does not kill via DNA damage. In contrast, membranes constitute the likely Achilles’ heel of Cu surface-exposed cells. PMID:22950011

  16. Sorafenib and HDAC inhibitors synergize to kill CNS tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yong; Yacoub, Adly; Hamed, Hossein A.; Poklepovic, Andrew; Tye, Gary W.; Grant, Steven; Dent, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The present studies were designed to determine whether the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib (Nexavar) interacted with histone deacetylase inhibitors to kill glioblastoma and medulloblastoma cells. In a dose-dependent fashion sorafenib lethality was enhanced in multiple genetically disparate primary human glioblastoma isolates by the HDAC inhibitor sodium valproate (Depakote). Drug exposure reduced phosphorylation of p70 S6K and of mTOR. Similar data to that with valproate were also obtained using the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat (Zolinza). Sorafenib and valproate also interacted to kill medulloblastoma and PNET cell lines. Treatment with sorafenib and HDAC inhibitors radio-sensitized both GBM and medulloblastoma cell lines. Knock down of death receptor (CD95) expression protected GBM cells from the drug combination, as did overexpression of c-FLIP-s, BCL-XL and dominant negative caspase 9. Knock down of PDGFR? recapitulated the effect of sorafenib in combination with HDAC inhibitors. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the combination of sorafenib and HDAC inhibitors kills through activation of the extrinsic pathway, and could represent a useful approach to treat CNS-derived tumors. PMID:22406992

  17. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms.

    PubMed

    Binnebose, Andrea M; Haughney, Shannon L; Martin, Richard; Imerman, Paula M; Narasimhan, Balaji; Bellaire, Bryan H

    2015-10-01

    Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold) when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment. PMID:26496201

  18. Almost-Killing conserved currents: a general mass function

    E-print Network

    Milton Ruiz; Carlos Palenzuela; Carles Bona

    2013-12-12

    A new class of conserved currents, describing non-gravitational energy-momentum density, is presented. The proposed currents do not require the existence of a (timelike) Killing vector, and are not restricted to spherically symmetric spacetimes (or similar ones, in which the Kodama vector can be defined). They are based instead on almost-Killing vectors, which could in principle be defined on generic spacetimes. We provide local arguments, based on energy density profiles in highly simplified (stationary, rigidly-rotating) star models, which confirm the physical interest of these 'almost-Killing currents'. A mass function is defined in this way for the spherical case, qualitatively different from the Hern\\'andez-Misner mass function. An elliptic equation determining the new mass function is derived for the Tolman-Bondi spherically symmetric dust metrics, including a simple solution for the Oppenheimer-Schneider collapse. The equations for the non-symmetric case are shown to be of a mixed elliptic-hyperbolic nature.

  19. Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.

    PubMed

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-05-01

    The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis. PMID:25229871

  20. Relief-well requirements to kill a high-rate gas blowout from a deepwater reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Warriner, R.A. ); Cassity, T.G. )

    1988-12-01

    Relief-well requirements were investigated for a dynamic kill of a high-rate gas blowout from a deepwater reservoir to define any necessary special procedures or equipment. Results of the investigation show that a high injection rate and a special-design large-diameter injection riser are required to dynamically kill such a blowout with seawater. The injection riser is necessary to limit surface pump pressure during the high-rate kill operation. Procedures to complete the kill operation hydrostatically with heavy fluid following the dynamic kill are outlined.

  1. Social networking in vehicles

    E-print Network

    Liang, Philip Angus

    2006-01-01

    In-vehicle, location-aware, socially aware telematic systems, known as Flossers, stand to revolutionize vehicles, and how their drivers interact with their physical and social worlds. With Flossers, users can broadcast and ...

  2. Identification and Structural Analysis of an l-Asparaginase Enzyme from Guinea Pig with Putative Tumor Cell Killing Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Schalk, Amanda M.; Nguyen, Hien-Anh; Rigouin, Coraline; Lavie, Arnon

    2014-01-01

    The initial observation that guinea pig serum kills lymphoma cells marks the serendipitous discovery of a new class of anti-cancer agents. The serum cell killing factor was shown to be an enzyme with l-asparaginase (ASNase) activity. As a direct result of this observation, several bacterial l-asparaginases were developed and are currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of the subset of hematological malignancies that are dependent on the extracellular pool of the amino acid asparagine. As drugs, these enzymes act to hydrolyze asparagine to aspartate, thereby starving the cancer cells of this amino acid. Prior to the work presented here, the precise identity of this guinea pig enzyme has not been reported in the peer-reviewed literature. We discovered that the guinea pig enzyme annotated as H0W0T5_CAVPO, which we refer to as gpASNase1, has the required low Km property consistent with that possessed by the cell-killing guinea pig serum enzyme. Elucidation of the ligand-free and aspartate complex gpASNase1 crystal structures allows a direct comparison with the bacterial enzymes and serves to explain the lack of l-glutaminase activity in the guinea pig enzyme. The structures were also used to generate a homology model for the human homolog hASNase1 and to help explain its vastly different kinetic properties compared with gpASNase1, despite a 70% sequence identity. Given that the bacterial enzymes frequently present immunogenic and other toxic side effects, this work suggests that gpASNase1 could be a promising alternative to these bacterial enzymes. PMID:25320094

  3. Reducibility of valence-3 Killing tensors in Weyl's class of stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes play an important role in astrophysics, particularly in the theory of neutron stars and black holes. The static vacuum subclass of these spacetimes is known as Weyl's class, and contains the Schwarzschild spacetime as its most prominent example. This paper is going to study the space of Killing tensor fields of valence 3 for spacetimes of Weyl's class. Killing tensor fields play a crucial role in physics since they are in correspondence to invariants of the geodesic motion (i.e. constants of the motion). It will be proven that in static and axially symmetric vacuum spacetimes the space of Killing tensor fields of valence 3 is generated by Killing vector fields and quadratic Killing tensor fields. Using this result, it will be proven that for the family of Zipoy-Voorhees metrics, valence-3 Killing tensor fields are always generated by Killing vector fields and the metric.

  4. Broadening the future of value account of the wrongness of killing.

    PubMed

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2015-11-01

    On Don Marquis's future of value account of the wrongness of killing, 'what makes it wrong to kill those individuals we all believe it is wrong to kill, is that killing them deprives them of their future of value'. Marquis has recently argued for a narrow interpretation of his future of value account of the wrongness of killing and against the broad interpretation that I had put forward in response to Carson Strong. In this article I argue that the narrow view is problematic because it violates some basic principles of equality and because it allows for some of the very killing that Marquis sets out to condemn; further, I argue that the chief reason why Marquis chooses the narrow view over the broad view-namely that the broad view would take the killing of some non-human animals to be also wrong-should rather be considered a welcome upshot of the broad view. PMID:25608793

  5. Electric Vehicle Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  6. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  7. Automotive vehicle sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  8. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  9. Washington State Electric Vehicle

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    and equipment with electricity or biofuel to the "extent practicable" by June 2015 1. The vehicle is dueWashington State Electric Vehicle Implementation Bryan Bazard Maintenance and Alternate Fuel Technology Manager #12;Executive Order 14-04 Requires the procurement of electric vehicles where

  10. Solar space vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.E.

    1982-10-19

    This invention relates to space vehicle where solar energy is used to generate steam, which in turn, propels the vehicle in space. A copper boiler is provided and a novel solar radiation condensing means is used to focus the sunlight on said boiler. Steam generated in said boiler is exhausted to the environment to provide a thrust for the vehicle.

  11. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  12. Solar Powered Commuter Vehicle Sponsored by: Andy Schoenberg, Ph.D. of SunzeeCar LLC. ; Advisor: Kent Udell, Ph. D.

    E-print Network

    van den Berg, Jur

    Solar Powered Commuter Vehicle Sponsored by: Andy Schoenberg, Ph.D. of SunzeeCar LLC. ; Advisor was incorporated into the currentg y p Solar Powered Commuter Vehicle. The systemy consists of a pedal, master if regenerative braking isy g insufficient to stop the vehicle. Results: On average, 59% of the kinetic energy

  13. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1983-02-22

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use. The vehicle basically comprises a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules, namely body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  14. Killed oral cholera vaccines: history, development and implementation challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Maria Liza Antoinette; Aldaba, Josephine G.; Nair, G. Balakrish

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is still a major global health problem, affecting mainly people living in unsanitary conditions and who are at risk for outbreaks of cholera. During the past decade, outbreaks are increasingly reported from more countries. From the early killed oral cholera vaccine, rapid improvements in vaccine development occurred as a result of a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, pathogenesis of cholera infection and immunity. The newer-generation oral killed cholera vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in field trials conducted in cholera endemic areas. Likewise, they have been shown to be protective when used during outbreak settings. Aside from providing direct protection to vaccinated individuals, recent studies have demonstrated that these killed oral vaccines also confer indirect protection through herd immunity. Although new-generation oral cholera vaccines should not be considered in isolation from other preventive approaches in countries where they are most needed, especially improved water quality and sanitation, these vaccines serve as immediately available public health tools for preventing further morbidity and mortality from cholera. However, despite its availability for more than two decades, use of these vaccines has not been optimized. Although there are limitations of the currently available oral cholera vaccines, recent data show that the vaccines are safe, feasible to use even in difficult circumstances and able to provide protection in various settings. Clear identification of the areas and target population groups who will benefit from the use of the cholera vaccines will be required and strategies to facilitate accessibility and usage of these vaccines in these areas and population groups will need to be developed. PMID:25177492

  15. Vehicle/engine integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. P.; Vinopal, T. J.; Florence, D. E.; Michel, R. W.; Brown, J. R.; Bergeron, R. P.; Weldon, V. A.

    1984-04-01

    VEHICLE/ENGINE Integration Issues are explored for orbit transfer vehicles (OTV's). The impact of space basing and aeroassist on VEHICLE/ENGINE integration is discussed. The AOTV structure and thermal protection subsystem weights were scaled as the vehicle length and surface was changed. It is concluded that for increased allowable payload lengths in a ground-based system, lower length-to-diameter (L/D) is as important as higher mixture ration (MR) in the range of mid L/D ATOV's. Scenario validity, geometry constraints, throttle levels, reliability, and servicing are discussed in the context of engine design and engine/vehicle integration.

  16. 11/12/12 Climate change could kill off pandas -Telegraph 1/2www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/earthnews/9670194/Climate-change-could-kill-off-pandas.html

    E-print Network

    11/12/12 Climate change could kill off pandas - Telegraph 1/2www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/earthnews/9670194/Climate-change-could-kill-off-pandas.html Climate change could kill off pandas Climate change Change, focused on the Qinling Mountains in Shaanxi Province, #12;11/12/12 Climate change could kill off

  17. Sabretoothed Carnivores and the Killing of Large Prey

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Ki; Norman, David; Werdelin, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Sabre-like canines clearly have the potential to inflict grievous wounds leading to massive blood loss and rapid death. Hypotheses concerning sabretooth killing modes include attack to soft parts such as the belly or throat, where biting deep is essential to generate strikes reaching major blood vessels. Sabretoothed carnivorans are widely interpreted as hunters of larger and more powerful prey than that of their present-day nonsabretoothed relatives. However, the precise functional advantage of the sabretooth bite, particularly in relation to prey size, is unknown. Here, we present a new point-to-point bite model and show that, for sabretooths, depth of the killing bite decreases dramatically with increasing prey size. The extended gape of sabretooths only results in considerable increase in bite depth when biting into prey with a radius of less than ?10 cm. For sabretooths, this size-reversed functional advantage suggests predation on species within a similar size range to those attacked by present-day carnivorans, rather than “megaherbivores” as previously believed. The development of the sabretooth condition appears to represent a shift in function and killing behaviour, rather than one in predator-prey relations. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how sabretoothed carnivorans are likely to have evolved along a functionally continuous trajectory: beginning as an extension of a jaw-powered killing bite, as adopted by present-day pantherine cats, followed by neck-powered biting and thereafter shifting to neck-powered shear-biting. We anticipate this new insight to be a starting point for detailed study of the evolution of pathways that encompass extreme specialisation, for example, understanding how neck-powered biting shifts into shear-biting and its significance for predator-prey interactions. We also expect that our model for point-to-point biting and bite depth estimations will yield new insights into the behaviours of a broad range of extinct predators including therocephalians (gorgonopsian + cynodont, sabretoothed mammal-like reptiles), sauropterygians (marine reptiles) and theropod dinosaurs. PMID:22039403

  18. Analysis of murine cellular receptors for tumor-killing factor

    SciTech Connect

    Ohsawa, F.; Natori, S.

    1987-01-01

    Receptors for tumor-killing factor (TKF) on the surface of murine cells were analyzed using radioiodinated TKF. Not only sensitive cells but also insensitive cells were found to have specific receptors. Among the sensitive cells, no clear relation was observed between the number of receptors on the cell surface and sensitivity to TKF. Compounds affecting microfilaments (cytochalasin B and D) and microtubules (colchicine and Colcemid) significantly inhibited cytolysis of sensitive cells induced by receptor-bound TKF. It is concluded that internalization of receptor-bound TKF is a prerequisite for triggering cytolysis.

  19. Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Gerlach, Terrance M.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Evans, William C.; Colvard, Elizabeth M.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Rogie, John D.; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, geologists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

  20. Infinitesimal moduli for the Strominger system and generalized Killing spinors

    E-print Network

    Mario Garcia-Fernandez; Roberto Rubio; Carl Tipler

    2015-03-25

    We construct the space of infinitesimal variations for the Strominger system and an obstruction space to integrability, using elliptic operator theory. Motivated by physics, we provide refinements of these finite-dimensional vector spaces using generalized geometry and establish a comparison with previous work by de la Ossa--Svanes and Anderson--Grey--Sharpe. Finally, we propose a unifying framework for metrics with $SU(3)$-holonomy and solutions of the Strominger system, by means of generalized Killing spinors equations on a Courant algebroid.

  1. (M-theory-)Killing spinors on symmetric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hustler, Noel; Lischewski, Andree

    2015-08-01

    We show how the theory of invariant principal bundle connections for reductive homogeneous spaces can be applied to determine the holonomy of generalised Killing spinor covariant derivatives of the form D = ? + ? in a purely algebraic and algorithmic way, where ? : TM ? ??(TM) is a left-invariant homomorphism. Specialising this to the case of symmetric M-theory backgrounds (i.e., (M, g, F) with (M, g) an eleven-dimensional Lorentzian (locally) symmetric space and F an invariant closed 4-form), we derive several criteria for such a background to preserve some supersymmetry and consequently find all supersymmetric symmetric M-theory backgrounds.

  2. Armoured fighting vehicle injuries in peacetime.

    PubMed

    Whelan, T R

    1990-10-01

    A year-long prospective study of injuries caused by armoured fighting vehicles on exercises in West Germany revealed that 2 soldiers were killed. Another 41 needed hospital admission for treatment of injuries of the lower limb (16), upper limb (15), head (8) and back (2). Tank loader/signallers were peculiarly susceptible to severe leg injuries, due to the ankle being trapped and twisted by the turret rotating within the hull. Insecure, falling hatch covers accounted for many of the hand, head and back injuries. Soldiers in training need to be made more aware of these particular hazards. Reduced caution would make injuries such as these more common during armoured warfare, and their statistics should be included in casualty estimates. PMID:2266525

  3. Vehicle Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Vehicle Systems Panel addressed materials and structures technology issues related to launch and space vehicle systems not directly associated with the propulsion or entry systems. The Vehicle Systems Panel was comprised of two subpanels - Expendable Launch Vehicles & Cryotanks (ELVC) and Reusable Vehicles (RV). Tom Bales, LaRC, and Tom Modlin, JSC, chaired the expendable and reusable vehicles subpanels, respectively, and co-chaired the Vehicle Systems Panel. The following four papers are discussed in this section: (1) Net Section components for Weldalite Cryogenic Tanks, by Don Bolstad; (2) Build-up Structures for Cryogenic Tanks and Dry Bay Structural Applications, by Barry Lisagor; (3) Composite Materials Program, by Robert Van Siclen; (4) Shuttle Technology (and M&S Lessons Learned), by Stan Greenberg.

  4. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1980-01-01

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use comprised of a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship is described. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules: body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  5. Light controllable surface coating for effective photothermal killing of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Han; Kang, Eun Bi; Jeong, Chan Jin; Sharker, Shazid Md; In, Insik; Park, Sung Young

    2015-07-22

    Although the electronic properties of conducting films have been widely explored in optoelectronic fields, the optical absorption abilities of surface-coated films for photothermal conversion have been relatively less explored in the production of antibacterial coatings. Here, we present catechol-conjugated poly(vinylpyrrolidone) sulfobetaine (PVPS) and polyaniline (PANI) tightly linked by ionic interaction (PVPS:PANI) as a novel photothermal antibacterial agent for surface coating, which can absorb broadband near-infrared (NIR) light. Taking advantage of the NIR light absorption, this coating film can release eminent photothermal heat for the rapid killing of surface bacteria. The NIR light triggers a sharp rise in photothermal heat, providing the rapid and effective killing of 99.9% of the Gram-positive and -negative bacteria tested within 3 min of NIR light exposure when used at the concentration of 1 mg/mL. Although considerable progress has been made in the design of antibacterial coatings, the user control of NIR-irradiated rapid photothermal destruction of surface bacteria holds increasing attention beyond the traditional boundaries of typical antibacterial surfaces. PMID:26101891

  6. Protecting the normal in order to better kill the cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bingya; Ezeogu, Lewis; Zellmer, Lucas; Yu, Baofa; Xu, Ningzhi; Joshua Liao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the only option for oncologists when a cancer has widely spread to different body sites. However, almost all currently available chemotherapeutic drugs will eventually encounter resistance after their initial positive effect, mainly because cancer cells develop genetic alterations, collectively coined herein as mutations, to adapt to the therapy. Some patients may still respond to a second chemo drug, but few cases respond to a third one. Since it takes time for cancer cells to develop new mutations and then select those life-sustaining ones via clonal expansion, “run against time for mutations to emerge” should be a crucial principle for treatment of those currently incurable cancers. Since cancer cells constantly change to adapt to the therapy whereas normal cells are stable, it may be a better strategy to shift our focus from killing cancer cells per se to protecting normal cells from chemotherapeutic toxicity. This new strategy requires the development of new drugs that are nongenotoxic and can quickly, in just hours or days, kill cancer cells without leaving the still-alive cells with time to develop mutations, and that should have their toxicities confined to only one or few organs, so that specific protections can be developed and applied. PMID:26177855

  7. Effectiveness of live or killed plague vaccines in man

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, K. F.

    1970-01-01

    While the safety of the available live plague vaccine EV 76 (Paris) continues to be the subject of further study, the USP formol-killed, virulent Pasteurella pestis (Yersinia pestis) suspension capable of protecting 60% of non-human primates, particularly Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus), warrants further clinical tests and field trials. Inoculated in a dosage of 2×109 killed plague bacilli (1 ml), followed by a booster of 400 million organisms (0.2 ml) in 1-3 months, this vaccine stimulates the appearance of passive mouse-protection antibodies (below an index of 10) and passive haemagglutinins in 60%-65% of human subjects. Recent experiences in Viet-Nam demonstrate that personnel vaccinated with the USP vaccine, although frequently exposed, enjoy almost complete freedom from the disease. One of the 4 known and confirmed cases of bubonic plague in North Americans occurred in an unvaccinated individual. Among individuals inoculated with the USP vaccine, 2 confirmed cases of pneumonic plague and 1 case of asymptomatic pharyngeal plague have been recorded. The incidence of plague in the Republic of Viet-Nam during the past 3 years is estimated at 13 263 cases in a population in part vaccinated with a live plague which exhibited inadequate immunogenic efficacy in experimental tests. PMID:4988692

  8. Viscoelastic Muds---Top-Kill in Rapidly Flowing Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Jonathan

    2011-04-01

    The attempted ``top-kill'' of the blown out Macondo (Deepwater Horizon) oil well by pumping a dense drilling ``mud'', i.e., a slurry of dense minerals, from above failed. This failure may be attributed to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the gravity driven counterflow between the descending ``mud'' and the rapidly upwelling crude oil. The instability produced turbulence that dispersed the denser fluid into small packets (if miscible with the oil) or droplets (if immiscible). Estimates from turbulence theory imply that the packets or droplets are so small (sub-mm) that their settling speed in the oil is less than the upwelling speed, with the consequence that the ``mud'' is spat out of the well, as observed, rather than descending to fill the bottom of the well bore and providing the hdyrodstatic head required to ``kill'' the well. The addition of a shear-thickening or viscoelastic polymer to the ``mud'' may suppress the turbulence and prevent its dispersal. Laboratory experiments with viscoelastic surrogate ``muds'' show complete turbulence suppression at the relevant speeds, with the viscoelastic fluid descending as a coherent slug. These experiments find several new phenomena. At high flow rates there is a viscoelastic analogue of the viscous buckling instability. At low flow rates suppression of the Plateau-Rayleigh instability combined with the dependence of viscous flow rate on diameter leads to the formation of globules on a looping filament. I thank LLNL, where the experimental work was done, for hospitality.

  9. Photoacoustically-guided photothermal killing of mosquitoes targeted by nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Foster, Stephen R; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Totten, Daniel C; Beneš, Helen; Shmookler Reis, Robert J; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2014-07-01

    In biomedical applications, nanoparticles have demonstrated the potential to eradicate abnormal cells in small localized pathological zones associated with cancer or infections. Here, we introduce a method for nanotechnology-based photothermal (PT) killing of whole organisms considered harmful to humans or the environment. We demonstrate that laser-induced thermal, and accompanying nano- and microbubble phenomena, can injure or kill C. elegans and mosquitoes fed carbon nanotubes, gold nanospheres, gold nanoshells, or magnetic nanoparticles at laser energies that are safe for humans. In addition, a photoacoustic (PA) effect was used to control nanoparticle delivery. Through the integration of this technique with molecular targeting, nanoparticle clustering, magnetic capturing and spectral sharpening of PA and PT plasmonic resonances, our laser-based PA-PT nano-theranostic platform can be applied to detection and the physical destruction of small organisms and carriers of pathogens, such as malaria vectors, spiders, bed bugs, fleas, ants, locusts, grasshoppers, phytophagous mites, or other arthropod pests, irrespective of their resistance to conventional treatments. PMID:23450780

  10. Advantages and disadvantages of killed and live poliomyelitis vaccines*

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Joseph L.

    1978-01-01

    Decision-making on the use of poliomyelitis vaccines in the WHO Expanded Immunization Programme, and particularly in the developing nations, needs to be based on an understanding of the epidemiology of poliomyelitis in different parts of the globe. Even with two safe and effective kinds of poliomyelitis vaccine available, poliomyelitis has by no means been eradicated from the world. In developed countries that are considered well-vaccinated, certain sectors of the population may be inadequately protected against risk of infection by indigenous or imported wild polioviruses. In developing nations that are in transition toward an epidemic phase of poliomyelitis, wild polioviruses will continue to be a threat until thorough immunization is established and maintained. Killed-virus poliomyelitis vaccines have proved to be effective in certain countries that have used them exclusively; these are small countries with excellent public health systems, where coverage by the killed vaccine has been wide and frequent. Live vaccines, administered to hundreds of millions of persons during the past decade, have also been remarkably safe and effective. However, in certain warm-climate countries induction of antibodies in a satisfactorily high proportion of vaccinees has been difficult to accomplish. The advantages and disadvantages of each kind of poliomyelitis vaccine need to be weighed with respect to the particular setting in which a vaccine has been or will be used. PMID:307445

  11. Human and mouse macrophages collaborate with neutrophils to kill larval Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed

    Bonne-Année, Sandra; Kerepesi, Laura A; Hess, Jessica A; O'Connell, Amy E; Lok, James B; Nolan, Thomas J; Abraham, David

    2013-09-01

    Macrophages are multifunctional cells that are active in TH1- and TH2-mediated responses. In this study, we demonstrate that human and mouse macrophages collaborate with neutrophils and complement to kill the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis in vitro. Infection of mice with worms resulted in the induction of alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) within the peritoneal cavity. These cells killed the worms in vivo and collaborated with neutrophils and complement during the in vitro killing process. AAM generated in vitro killed larvae more rapidly than naive macrophages, which killed larvae after a longer time period. In contrast, classically activated macrophages were unable to kill larvae either in vitro or in vivo. This study adds macrophages to the armamentarium of immune components that function in elimination of parasitic helminths and demonstrate a novel function by which AAM control large extracellular parasites. PMID:23798541

  12. Killing-Yano Tensors of Valence-2 in the Standard Kaluza-Klein Theory

    E-print Network

    Ali Nur Nurbaki

    2011-08-11

    This work is constructed on two main concepts: Killing-Yano symmetry and the Kaluza-Klein theory. Those concepts are reviewed in the first three chapters. In the fourth chapter firstly Killing-Yano equations of valence-2 are obtained for a general 5-dimensional metric and then reduced for the Minkowski metric. It is seen that in order to save the existence of Killing-Yano tensors with the fifth components some conditions must be satisfied

  13. A composition theorem for parity kill number Ryan O'Donnell

    E-print Network

    O'Donnell, Ryan

    A composition theorem for parity kill number Ryan O'Donnell Carnegie Mellon University Xiaorui Sun[f] and DT [f]. C min[f] is the parity kill number of f, the fewest number of parities on the input variables one has to fix in order to "kill" f, i.e. to make it constant. DT [f] is the depth of the shortest

  14. Null Killing vectors and geometry of null strings in Einstein spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudecki, Adam

    2014-04-01

    Einstein complex spacetimes admitting null Killing or null homothetic Killing vectors are studied. Such vectors define totally null and geodesic 2-surfaces called the null strings or twistor surfaces. Geometric properties of these null strings are discussed. It is shown, that spaces considered are hyperheavenly spaces (-spaces) or, if one of the parts of the Weyl tensor vanishes, heavenly spaces (-spaces). The explicit complex metrics admitting null Killing vectors are found. Some Lorentzian and ultrahyperbolic slices of these metrics are discussed.

  15. A Sequential Model of Host Cell Killing and Phagocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Sateriale, Adam; Huston, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is responsible for invasive intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis. The virulence of Entamoeba histolytica is strongly correlated with the parasite's capacity to effectively kill and phagocytose host cells. The process by which host cells are killed and phagocytosed follows a sequential model of adherence, cell killing, initiation of phagocytosis, and engulfment. This paper presents recent advances in the cytolytic and phagocytic processes of Entamoeba histolytica in context of the sequential model. PMID:21331284

  16. Vehicle underbody fairing

    DOEpatents

    Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA); Salari, Kambiz (Livermore, CA); McCallen, Rose (Livermore, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

  17. Electric vehicle parametric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1995-12-31

    During the period from 1990 to 1995, the automobile manufacturers of Europe, America, and Japan have been responsive to the need to re-evaluate the battery electric vehicle (EV) an a zero emission vehicle, and have released key design specifications and vehicle performance characteristics for more than thirty electric vehicles displayed at the: 55th IAA International Motor Show in Frankfurt, NAIAS`95 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, and the 30th International Motor Show in Tokyo. This paper includes a comparative parametric correlation analysis of these key design parameters which include: vehicle test mass, tire coefficients, overall aerodynamic drag and skin friction drag coefficients, equivalent flat plate frontal area, length to hydraulic diameter ratio, peak tractive force, peak traction motor power, and battery energy storage capacity. The conclusions show that the automobile manufacturers have achieved dramatic improvements in many of these key design parameters, and as a result the battery electric vehicle now promises to have a brighter future.

  18. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2004-06-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is to increase the body of knowledge as well as the awareness and acceptance of electric drive and other advanced technology vehicles (ATV). The AVTA accomplishes this goal by testing ATVs on test tracks and dynamometers (Baseline Performance testing), as well as in real-world applications (Fleet and Accelerated Reliability testing and public demonstrations). This enables the AVTA to provide Federal and private fleet managers, as well as other potential ATV users, with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance and infrastructure needs so they can make informed decisions about acquiring and operating ATVs. The ATVs currently in testing include vehicles that burn gaseous hydrogen (H2) fuel and hydrogen/CNG (H/CNG) blended fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE), and hybrid electric (HEV), urban electric, and neighborhood electric vehicles. The AVTA is part of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  19. CNG vehicles emerge

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Interest in alternative fuel options for vehicles fluctuates with the availability and price structure of gasoline and diesel fuels. Of several feasible concepts that have been developed and tested, one has been in existence for more than half a century - compressed natural gas (CNG). With current technology, CNG offers an economical, safe, and ecological alternative for a large number of on-the-road vehicles. CNG fuel system characteristics and the present and future market for natural gas vehicles are discussed.

  20. Classic reaction kinetics can explain complex patterns of antibiotic action

    PubMed Central

    zur Wiesch, P. Abel; Abel, S.; Gkotzis, S.; Ocampo, P.; Engelstädter, J.; Hinkley, T.; Magnus, C.; Waldor, M. K.; Udekwu, K.; Cohen, T.

    2015-01-01

    Finding optimal dosing strategies for treating bacterial infections is extremely difficult, and improving therapy requires costly and time-intensive experiments. To date, an incomplete mechanistic understanding of drug effects has limited our ability to make accurate quantitative predictions of drug-mediated bacterial killing and impeded the rational design of antibiotic treatment strategies. Three poorly understood phenomena complicate predictions of antibiotic activity: post-antibiotic growth suppression, density-dependent antibiotic effects, and persister cell formation. Here, we show that chemical binding kinetics alone are sufficient to explain these three phenomena, using single cell data and time-kill curves of Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae exposed to a variety of antibiotics in combination with a theoretical model that links chemical reaction kinetics to bacterial population biology. Our model reproduces existing observations, has a high predictive power across different experimental setups (R2= 0.86), and makes several testable predictions, which we verified in new experiments and by analysing published data from a clinical trial on tuberculosis therapy. While a variety of biological mechanisms have previously been invoked to explain post-antibiotic growth suppression, density-dependent antibiotic effects, and especially persister cell formation, our findings reveal that a simple model which considers only binding kinetics provides a parsimonious and unifying explanation for these three complex, phenotypically distinct behaviours. Current antibiotic and other chemotherapeutic regimens are often based on trial-and-error or expert opinion. Our ‘chemical reaction kinetics’-based approach may inform new strategies, that are based on rational design. PMID:25972005

  1. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  2. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  3. The culpability of drivers killed in New Zealand road crashes and their use of alcohol and other drugs.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Helen; Moar, Rosemary; Pirie, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    Over a period of five years, blood samples were taken from 1046 drivers killed as a result of a motor vehicle crash on New Zealand roads. These were analysed for the presence of alcohol and a range of both illicit drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs. Driver culpability was determined for all crashes. The control group of drug- and alcohol-free drivers comprised 52.2% of the study population. Drivers positive for psychoactive drugs were more likely to be culpable (odds ratio (OR) 3.5, confidence interval (CI) 95% 2.4-5.2) than the control group. Driver culpability exhibited the expected positive association with alcohol use (OR 13.7, 95% CI 4.3-44) and with combined alcohol and cannabis use (OR 6.9, 95% CI 3.0-16). There was only a weak positive association between cannabis use (with no other drug) and culpability (OR 1.3, CI 95% 0.8-2.3). Furthermore, the OR for drivers with blood tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations greater than 5 ng/mL was lower (OR 1.0, CI 95% 0.4-2.4) than drivers with blood THC concentrations less than 2 ng/mL (OR 3.1, CI 95% 0.9-10). This is inconsistent with results reported by other studies where a significant increase in crash risk was found with blood THC levels greater than 5 ng/mL. In this study, there were very few drivers who had used a single drug, other than cannabis or alcohol. Therefore, from this study, it is not possible to comment on any relationship between opioid, stimulant or sedative drug use and an increased risk of being killed in a crash for the drivers using these drugs. The results from a multivariate analysis indicate that driver gender, age group and licence status, (P=0.022, P=0.016, P=0.026, respectively), the type of vehicle being driven (P=0.013), the number of vehicles in the crash (P<0.001), the blood alcohol concentration of the driver (P<0.001) and the use of any drug other than alcohol and cannabis (P=0.044), are all independently associated with culpability. PMID:24636874

  4. Medicolegal investigation of political killings in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, J L; Gruschow, J; Stover, E

    1989-06-17

    An axiom of Thomas Hobbes states that "people are never more helpless than when the force meant to protect their rights turns against them." Hobbes' axiom holds true today, with Amnesty International reporting that hundreds of thousands have been murdered by their governments. This article examines the medicolegal aspects of an investigation into the deaths of two Salvadoran peasants who were reportedly tortured and executed by soldiers in February 1988. One of the authors, Thomsen, participated in the investigation as a court-ordered expert, and as a representative of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of a Salvadoran legal aid organization. His necropsy findings are reported with observations and comments. The article concludes with suggestions for initiatives that might be undertaken by individual physicians and institutions to improve the quality and impartiality of medicolegal investigations into political killings. PMID:2567385

  5. Cancer cell-selective killing polymer/copper combination.

    PubMed

    He, Huacheng; Altomare, Diego; Ozer, Ufuk; Xu, Hanwen; Creek, Kim; Chen, Hexin; Xu, Peisheng

    2015-12-15

    Chemotherapy has been adopted for cancer treatment for decades. However, its efficacy and safety are frequently compromised by the multidrug-resistance of cancer cells and the poor cancer cell selectivity of anticancer drugs. Hereby, we report a combination of a pyridine-2-thiol containing polymer and copper which can effectively kill a wide spectrum of cancer cells, including drug resistant cancer cells, while sparing normal cells. The polymer nanoparticle enters cells via an exofacial thiol facilitated route, and releases active pyridine-2-thiol with the help of intracellularly elevated glutathione (GSH). Due to their high GSH level, cancer cells are more vulnerable to the polymer/copper combination. In addition, RNA microarray analysis revealed that the treatment can reverse cancer cells' upregulated oncogenes (CIRBP and STMN1) and downregulated tumor suppressor genes (CDKN1C and GADD45B) to further enhance the selectivity for cancer cells. PMID:26568413

  6. Development of Al-killed/Ti stabilized steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Ledesma, A. L.; Aguilar-Mendez, M. A.; Rodriguez-Diaz, R. A.; >G Aramburo,

    2015-01-01

    Several Al-killed/Ti-stabilized low carbon steels were developed in a Mexican steel industry with the aim of obtaining an interstitial free steel for automotive applications. The steelmaking route involved the use of 100% sponge iron which was feed into an electric arc furnace, vacuum degassed, ladle treated and continuously casted. The resulting slabs were then hot rolled at 1100 °C and coiled at 650 °C. Then, the steel plates were cold rolled at room temperature and sheets annealed at 700 °C. As-cast micro structure showed the presence of ?-ferrite with titanium nitrides in matrix and grain boundaries while in the ashot rolled condition, elongated grains showed the presence of titanium nitrides, titanium sulfides and titanium carbosulfides. The annealed sheets showed, additionally to the other precipitates, the presence of titanium carbides. Microstructure, texture, the Lankford ratio and mechanical properties of fully recrystallized coils fulfilled the target properties established by the automobile industry.

  7. Roadblocks on the kill curve: Testing the Raup hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    The documented presence of two large (???100-km diameter), possibly coeval impact craters of late Eocene age, requires modification of the impact-kill curve proposed by David M. Raup. Though the estimated meteorite size for each crater alone is large enough to have produced considerable global environmental stress, no horizons of mass mortality or pulsed extinction are known to be associated with either crater or their ejecta deposits. Thus, either there is no fixed relationship between extinction magnitude and crater diameter, or a meteorite that would produce a crater of >100-km diameter is required to raise extinction rates significantly above a ???5% background level. Both impacts took place ???1-2 m.y. before the "Terminal Eocene Event"( =early Oligocene pulsed extinction). Their collective long-term environmental effects, however, may have either delayed that extinction pulse or produced threshold conditions necessary for it to take place.

  8. Could giant basin-forming impacts have killed Martian dynamo?

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, W; Jiang, W; Roberts, J; Frey, H V

    2014-01-01

    The observed strong remanent crustal magnetization at the surface of Mars suggests an active dynamo in the past and ceased to exist around early to middle Noachian era, estimated by examining remagnetization strengths in extant and buried impact basins. We investigate whether the Martian dynamo could have been killed by these large basin-forming impacts, via numerical simulation of subcritical dynamos with impact-induced thermal heterogeneity across the core-mantle boundary. We find that subcritical dynamos are prone to the impacts centered on locations within 30° of the equator but can easily survive those at higher latitudes. Our results further suggest that magnetic timing places a strong constraint on postimpact polar reorientation, e.g., a minimum 16° polar reorientation is needed if Utopia is the dynamo killer. PMID:26074641

  9. Internal Time Formalism for Spacetimes with Two Killing Vectors

    E-print Network

    Joseph D. Romano; Charles G. Torre

    1995-09-28

    The Hamiltonian structure of spacetimes with two commuting Killing vector fields is analyzed for the purpose of addressing the various problems of time that arise in canonical gravity. Two specific models are considered: (i) cylindrically symmetric spacetimes, and (ii) toroidally symmetric spacetimes, which respectively involve open and closed universe boundary conditions. For each model canonical variables which can be used to identify points of space and instants of time, {\\it i.e.}, internally defined spacetime coordinates, are identified. To do this it is necessary to extend the usual ADM phase space by a finite number of degrees of freedom. Canonical transformations are exhibited that identify each of these models with harmonic maps in the parametrized field theory formalism. The identifications made between the gravitational models and harmonic map field theories are completely gauge invariant, that is, no coordinate conditions are needed. The degree to which the problems of time are resolved in these models is discussed.

  10. Kinetic Boundary Layers and FluidKinetic Coupling in Semiconductors

    E-print Network

    Schmeiser, Christian

    Kinetic Boundary Layers and Fluid­Kinetic Coupling in Semiconductors Pierre Degond 1 and Christian, kinetic boundary layers are analyzed and higher order accurate boundary conditions are constructed are derived. As an application, interface conditi­ ons for the fluid­kinetic coupling in a domain

  11. Pyruvate Protects Pathogenic Spirochetes from H2O2 Killing

    PubMed Central

    Troxell, Bryan; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Bourret, Travis J.; Zeng, Melody Yue; Blum, Janice; Gherardini, Frank; Hassan, Hosni M.; Yang, X. Frank

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic spirochetes cause clinically relevant diseases in humans and animals, such as Lyme disease and leptospirosis. The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the causative agent of leptospirosis, Leptospria interrogans, encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their enzootic cycles. This report demonstrated that physiologically relevant concentrations of pyruvate, a potent H2O2 scavenger, and provided passive protection to B. burgdorferi and L. interrogans against H2O2. When extracellular pyruvate was absent, both spirochetes were sensitive to a low dose of H2O2 (?0.6 µM per h) generated by glucose oxidase (GOX). Despite encoding a functional catalase, L. interrogans was more sensitive than B. burgdorferi to H2O2 generated by GOX, which may be due to the inherent resistance of B. burgdorferi because of the virtual absence of intracellular iron. In B. burgdorferi, the nucleotide excision repair (NER) and the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathways were important for survival during H2O2 challenge since deletion of the uvrB or the mutS genes enhanced its sensitivity to H2O2 killing; however, the presence of pyruvate fully protected ?uvrB and ?mutS from H2O2 killing further demonstrating the importance of pyruvate in protection. These findings demonstrated that pyruvate, in addition to its classical role in central carbon metabolism, serves as an important H2O2 scavenger for pathogenic spirochetes. Furthermore, pyruvate reduced ROS generated by human neutrophils in response to the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist zymosan. In addition, pyruvate reduced neutrophil-derived ROS in response to B. burgdorferi, which also activates host expression through TLR2 signaling. Thus, pathogenic spirochetes may exploit the metabolite pyruvate, present in blood and tissues, to survive H2O2 generated by the host antibacterial response generated during infection. PMID:24392147

  12. Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps.

    PubMed

    Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

    2014-04-01

    Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism. PMID:24281548

  13. Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps

    PubMed Central

    Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism. PMID:24281548

  14. Can Pulp Fibroblasts Kill Cariogenic Bacteria? Role of Complement Activation.

    PubMed

    Jeanneau, C; Rufas, P; Rombouts, C; Giraud, T; Dejou, J; About, I

    2015-12-01

    Complement system activation has been shown to be involved in inflammation and regeneration processes that can be observed within the dental pulp after moderate carious decay. Studies simulating carious injuries in vitro have shown that when human pulp fibroblasts are stimulated by lipoteichoic acid (LTA), they synthetize all complement components. Complement activation leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), which is known for its bacterial lytic effect. This work was designed to find out whether human pulp fibroblasts can kill Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis via complement activation. First, histological staining of carious tooth sections showed that the presence of S. mutans correlated with an intense MAC staining. Next, to simulate bacterial infection in vitro, human pulp fibroblasts were incubated in serum-free medium with LTA. Quantification by an enzymatic assay showed a significant increase of MAC formation on bacteria grown in this LTA-conditioned medium. To determine whether the MAC produced by pulp fibroblasts was functional, bacteria sensitivity to LTA-conditioned medium was evaluated using agar well diffusion assay and succinyl dehydrogenase (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide [MTT]) assay. Both assays showed that S. mutans and S. sanguinis were sensitive to LTA-conditioned medium. Finally, to evaluate whether MAC formation on cariogenic bacteria, by pulp fibroblasts, can be directly induced by the presence of these bacteria, a specific coculture model of human pulp fibroblasts and bacteria was developed. Immunofluorescence revealed an intense MAC labeling on bacteria after direct contact with pulp fibroblasts. The observed MAC formation and its lethal effects were significantly reduced when CD59, an inhibitor of MAC formation, was added. Our findings demonstrate that the MAC produced by LTA-stimulated pulp fibroblasts is functional and can kill S. mutans and S. sanguinis. Taken together, these data clearly highlight the function of pulp fibroblasts in destroying cariogenic bacteria. PMID:26464397

  15. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and ? > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when ? < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when ? ? 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  16. WHAT IS A KINETIC EQUATION ? WHY DO WE NEED A KINETIC THEORY ? WHEN DO WE USE KINETIC EQUATIONS ? HILBERT'S 6TH PRO Introduction to kinetic equations and their

    E-print Network

    Kim, Yong Jung

    WHAT IS A KINETIC EQUATION ? WHY DO WE NEED A KINETIC THEORY ? WHEN DO WE USE KINETIC EQUATIONS A KINETIC THEORY ? WHEN DO WE USE KINETIC EQUATIONS ? HILBERT'S 6TH PRO Outline What is a kinetic equation ? Why do we need a kinetic theory ? When do we use kinetic equations ? Hilbert's 6th problem

  17. A "Stationery" Kinetics Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, L.; Goberdhansingh, A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple redox reaction that occurs between potassium permanganate and oxalic acid that can be used to prepare an interesting disappearing ink for demonstrating kinetics for introductory chemistry. Discusses laboratory procedures and factors that influence disappearance times. (CW)

  18. Chemical Kinetics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.

  19. Lifting Body Flight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1998-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

  20. Killing-Yano Forms of a Class of Spherically Symmetric Space-Times I: A Unified Generation of Killing Vector Fields

    E-print Network

    O. Acik; U. Ertem; M. Onder; A. Vercin

    2008-03-23

    Killing-Yano one forms (duals of Killing vector fields) of a class of spherically symmetric space-times characterized by four functions are derived in a unified and exhaustive way. For well-known space-times such as those of Minkowski, Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstrom, Robertson-Walker and several forms of de Sitter, these forms arise as special cases in a natural way. Besides its two well-known forms, four more forms of de Sitter space-time are also established with ten independent Killing vector fields for which four different time evolution regimes can explicitly be specified by the symmetry requirement. A family of space-times in which metric characterizing functions are of the general form and admitting six or seven independent Killing vector fields is presented.