Sample records for kinetic kill vehicle

  1. Developments at the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrer, Robert Lee, Jr.; Thompson, Rhoe A.; Coker, Charles F.

    1999-07-01

    The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) sponsored the development of the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the- Loop Simulator (KHILS) to provide a comprehensive ground test capability for end game performance evaluation of BMDO interceptor concepts. Since its inception in 1986, the KHILS facility has been on the forefront of HWIL test technology development. This development has culminated in closed-loop testing involving large format resistive element projection arrays, 3D scene rendering systems, and real-time high fidelity phenomenology codes. Each of these components has been integrated into a real-time environment that allows KHILS to perform dynamic closed-loop testing of BMDO interceptor systems or subsystems. Ongoing activities include the integration of multiple resistor arrays into both a cold chamber and flight motion simulator environment, increasing the update speed of existing arrays to 180 Hz, development of newer 200 Hz snapshot resistor arrays, design of next generation 1024 X 1024 resistor arrays, development of a 1000 Hz seeker motion stage, integration of a resistor array into an RF chamber, and development of advanced real-time plume flow-field codes. This paper describes these activities and test results of the major facility components.

  2. Duel between an ASAT with multiple-kill vehicles and a space-based weapons platform with kinetic-energy weapons. Final report, Oct 84Dec 85

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cutchis

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical model is described for a duel between a ground-based anti-satellite (ASAT) and a spaced-based weapons platform defending itself with kinetic energy weapons. The ASAT carries 1-6 kill vehicles and the space platform may first attack the ASAT booster with 1-3 defense missiles. If the ASAT kill vehicles collectively survive the boost phase, they are each subject to a

  3. Duel between an ASAT with multiple-kill vehicles and a space-based weapons platform with kinetic-energy weapons. Final report, Oct 84-Dec 85

    SciTech Connect

    Cutchis, P.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical model is described for a duel between a ground-based anti-satellite (ASAT) and a spaced-based weapons platform defending itself with kinetic energy weapons. The ASAT carries 1-6 kill vehicles and the space platform may first attack the ASAT booster with 1-3 defense missiles. If the ASAT kill vehicles collectively survive the boost phase, they are each subject to a post-boost phase attack consisting of 1-3 defense missiles. A formula for the probability of killing the space platform with a single ASAT launch is derived as a function of the vehicle reliabilities, target detection probabilities, kill probabilities, and number of participating vehicles. Formulas are also given for kill probabilities if the space platform defends itself with a high-energy laser or with both high-energy laser and defense missiles. Illustrative examples are calculated for the case in which the space platform is defended by defense missiles only. It is assumed that all offense and defense reliabilities, detection probabilities, and kill probabilities are equal to 0.90. A sensitivity analysis illustrates the effect of a variation in any one of the assumed parameters on the probability of killing the space platform when all other parameters are held equal to 0.90. It is shown that the survivability of the space platform is crucially dependent on a capability to destroy the ASAT booster before it can deploy its miniature kill vehicles. Improvement in parameter values above the 0.9 level, if shared equally by both the ASAT offense and space platform defense, will favor the platform defense.

  4. Unique digital imagery interface between a silicon graphics computer and the kinetic kill vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulator (KHILS) wideband infrared scene projector (WISP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricky A. Erickson; Stephen A. Moren; Marion S. Skalka

    1998-01-01

    Providing a flexible and reliable source of IR target imagery is absolutely essential for operation of an IR Scene Projector in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment. The Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) at Eglin AFB provides the capability, and requisite interfaces, to supply target IR imagery to its Wideband IR Scene Projector (WISP) from three separate sources at frame rates

  5. Advanced gel propulsion controls for kill vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. K. Yasuhara; A. Olson; S. Finato

    1993-01-01

    A gel propulsion control concept for tactical applications is reviewed, and the status of the individual component technologies currently under development at the Aerojet Propulsion Division is discussed. It is concluded that a gel propellant Divert and Attitude Control Subsystem (DACS) provides a safe, insensitive munitions compliant alternative to current liquid Theater Missile Defense (TMD) DACS approaches. The gel kill

  6. Characteristics of vehicle-animal crashes in which vehicle occupants are killed.

    PubMed

    Williams, Allan F; Wells, Joann K

    2005-03-01

    During the past 10 years almost 1,500 people have been killed in motor vehicle collisions with animals. Police reports on 147 fatal vehicle-animal crashes during 2000-2002 were obtained from nine states. The goal was to determine common crash types, types of animals involved, and steps that could be taken to reduce the crashes and injuries. Seventy-seven percent of the struck animals were deer, but six other types of animals were involved including small ones such as dogs. Eighty percent of the crashes were single-vehicle events. In most of these cases a motorcycle struck an animal and the rider came off the vehicle, or a passenger vehicle struck an animal and then ran off the road; in a few cases the animal went through the windshield. Multiple-vehicle crashes included vehicles striking deer that went through the windshields of oncoming vehicles, vehicles striking animals and then colliding with other vehicles, and vehicles striking animals that subsequently were struck by other vehicles. Crashes occurred primarily in rural areas, on roads with 55 mph or higher speed limits, during evening or nighttime hours, and in darkness. Greater application of deer-vehicle collision countermeasures known to be effective is needed, but it is noteworthy that a majority of fatalities occurred from subsequent collisions with other vehicles or objects, not from animal contacts. Sixty-five percent of motorcyclists killed were not wearing helmets, and 60% of vehicle occupants killed were unbelted; many of these fatalities would not have occurred with proper protection. PMID:15823876

  7. Characteristics of Vehicle-Animal Crashes in Which Vehicle Occupants Are Killed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan F. Williams; JoAnn K. Wells

    2005-01-01

    During the past 10 years almost 1,500 people have been killed in motor vehicle collisions with animals. Police reports on 147 fatal vehicle–animal crashes during 2000–2002 were obtained from nine states. The goal was to determine common crash types, types of animals involved, and steps that could be taken to reduce the crashes and injuries. Seventy-seven percent of the struck

  8. Genius Sand: A Miniature Kill Vehicle Technology to Support Boost Phase Intercepts and Midcourse Engagements

    SciTech Connect

    Ledebuhr, A.G.; Ng, L.C.; Kordas, J.F.; Jones, M.S.; McMahon, D.H.

    2002-06-30

    This paper summarizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) approach to a proposed Technology Demonstration program for the development of a new class of miniature kill vehicles (MKVs), that they have termed Genius Sand (GS). These miniaturized kinetic kill vehicles offer new capabilities for boost phase intercept (BPI) missions, as well as midcourse intercepts and the defeat of advanced countermeasures. The specific GS MKV properties will depend on the choice of mission application and system architecture, as well as the level of coordinated or autonomous operations in these missions. In general the GS MKVs will mass from between 1 to 5 kilograms and have several hundred meters per second of {Delta}v and be capable of several g's of acceleration. Based on the results of their previous study effort, they believe that it is feasible to develop and integrate the required technologies into a fully functional GS MKV prototype within the scope of a three-year development effort. They will discuss some of the system architecture trades and applicable technologies that can be applied in an operational MKV system, as a guide to focus any technology demonstration program. They will present the results of a preliminary 6DOF analysis to determine the minimum capabilities of an MKV system. They also will discuss a preliminary design configuration of a 2 kg GS MKV that has between 300-500 m/s of {Delta}v and has at least 2-g's of acceleration capability. They believe a successful GS MKV development effort will require not only a comprehensive component miniaturization program, but a rapid hardware prototyping process, and the ability to utilize high fidelity ground testing methodologies.

  9. Speed kills: ineffective avian escape responses to oncoming vehicles.

    PubMed

    DeVault, Travis L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Seamans, Thomas W; Lima, Steven L; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2015-02-22

    Animal-vehicle collisions cause high levels of vertebrate mortality worldwide, and what goes wrong when animals fail to escape and ultimately collide with vehicles is not well understood. We investigated alert and escape behaviours of captive brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in response to virtual vehicle approaches of different sizes and at speeds ranging from 60 to 360 km h(-1). Alert and flight initiation distances remained similar across vehicle speeds, and accordingly, alert and flight initiation times decreased at higher vehicle speeds. Thus, avoidance behaviours in cowbirds appeared to be based on distance rather than time available for escape, particularly at 60-150 km h(-1); however, at higher speeds (more than or equal to 180 km h(-1)) no trend in response behaviour was discernible. As vehicle speed increased, cowbirds did not have enough time to assess the approaching vehicle, and cowbirds generally did not initiate flight with enough time to avoid collision when vehicle speed exceeded 120 km h(-1). Although potentially effective for evading predators, the decision-making process used by cowbirds in our study appears maladaptive in the context of avoiding fast-moving vehicles. Our methodological approach and findings provide a framework to assess how novel management strategies could affect escape rules, and the sensory and cognitive abilities animals use to avoid vehicle collisions. PMID:25567648

  10. Patterns of Amphotericin B Killing Kinetics against Seven Candida Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilia Canton; Javier Peman; Miguel Gobernado; Angel Viudes; Ana Espinel-Ingroff

    2004-01-01

    In a previous study tolerance to amphotericin B (AMB) was found among Candida parapsilosis and C. dubliniensis strains by seeding the whole volumes of wells used for MIC determinations, and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) for non-C. albicans Candida strains were demonstrated to be above the levels safely achievable in serum. As an extension of that study, we performed time-kill assays

  11. Kinetic-dependent Killing of Oral Pathogens with Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Backlund, C J; Worley, B V; Sergesketter, A R; Schoenfisch, M H

    2015-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing silica nanoparticles were synthesized via the co-condensation of tetramethyl orthosilicate with aminosilanes and subsequent conversion of secondary amines to N-diazeniumdiolate NO donors. A series of ~150 nm NO-releasing particles with different NO totals and release kinetics (i.e., half-lives) were achieved by altering both the identity and mol% composition of the aminosilane precursors. Independent of identical 2 h NO-release totals, enhanced antibacterial action was observed against the periodontopathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis with extended NO-release kinetics at pH 7.4. Negligible bactericidal effect was observed against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans at pH 7.4, even when using NO-releasing silica particles with greater NO-release totals. However, antibacterial activity was observed against S. mutans at lower pH (6.4). This result was attributed to more rapid proton-initiated decomposition of the N-diazeniumdiolate NO donors and greater NO-release payloads. The data suggest a differential sensitivity to NO between cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria with implications for the future development of NO-releasing oral care therapeutics. PMID:26078424

  12. Two-Lesion Kinetic Model of Double-Strand Break Rejoining and Cell Killing

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Robert D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2000-11-01

    To better link biochemical processing of the DSB to cell killing, a two-lesion kinetic (TLK) model is proposed. In the TLK model, the family of all possible DSBs is sub-divided into simple and complex DSBs, and each kind of DSB may have its own repair characteristics. A unique aspect of the TLK model is that break-ends associated with both kinds of DSB are allowed to interact in pairwise fashion to form irreversible lethal and non-lethal damages. To test the performance of the TLK model, non-linear optimization methods are used to calibrate the model based on CHO cell survival data for an extensive set of single-dose and split-dose exposure conditions. Then, some of the postulated mechanisms of action are tested by comparing measured and predicted estimates of the initial DSB yield and the rate of DSB rejoining. TLK model predictions of CHO survival and the initial DSB yield and rejoining rate are all shown to be in good agreement with the measured data. Studies suggest a yield of about 25 DSB Gy-1 cell-1. About 20 DSB Gy-1 cell-1 are rejoined quickly (15-minute repair half-time), and 4 to 6 DSB Gy-1 cell-1 are rejoined very slowly (10 to 15 hour repair half-time). Both the slow- and fast-rejoining DSBs make a substantial contribution to the radiation killing of CHO cells. Although the TLK model provides a much more satisfactory formalism to relate biochemical processing of the DSB to cell killing than earlier kinetic models, some small differences among the measured and predicted CHO survival and DSB rejoining data suggest that additional factors and processes not considered in the present work may affect biochemical processing of the DSB and, hence, cell killing.

  13. Synergism, killing kinetics, and antimicrobial susceptibility of group A and B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Baker, C N; Thornsberry, C; Facklam, R R

    1981-05-01

    The susceptibility of 110 group A and 179 group B streptococci to 25 antimicrobics was tested by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion tests. Representative strains were used in killing kinetics, penicillin-gentamicin synergy, and minimal bactericidal concentration tests. Group A streptococci were more susceptible than group B streptococci to 17 of the 25 antimicrobics tested. Group A and B streptococci were killed at the same rate if the amount of penicillin used was equivalent to their respective penicillin minimal inhibitory concentrations. Synergism was demonstrated for both group A and B streptococci when penicillin was used at concentrations equal to each respective minimal inhibitory concentration and subinhibitory concentration of gentamicin. This synergy could be demonstrated best using minimal bactericidal concentrations obtained by culturing 3- and 6-h cultures from the microdilution checkerboard tests rather than from 24-h subcultures. A greater synergistic effect was achieved by adding penicillin first and then adding gentamicin rather than in the reverse order, or simultaneously. PMID:7027921

  14. Antibody Fc engineering improves frequency and promotes kinetic boosting of serial killing mediated by NK cells.

    PubMed

    Romain, Gabrielle; Senyukov, Vladimir; Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Merouane, Amine; Kelton, William; Liadi, Ivan; Mahendra, Ankit; Charab, Wissam; Georgiou, George; Roysam, Badrinath; Lee, Dean A; Varadarajan, Navin

    2014-11-20

    The efficacy of most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting tumor antigens results primarily from their ability to elicit potent cytotoxicity through effector-mediated functions. We have engineered the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) mAb, HuM195, targeting the leukemic antigen CD33, by introducing the triple mutation Ser293Asp/Ala330Leu/Ile332Glu (DLE), and developed Time-lapse Imaging Microscopy in Nanowell Grids to analyze antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity kinetics of thousands of individual natural killer (NK) cells and mAb-coated target cells. We demonstrate that the DLE-HuM195 antibody increases both the quality and the quantity of NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity by endowing more NK cells to participate in cytotoxicity via accrued CD16-mediated signaling and by increasing serial killing of target cells. NK cells encountering targets coated with DLE-HuM195 induce rapid target cell apoptosis by promoting simultaneous conjugates to multiple target cells and induce apoptosis in twice the number of target cells within the same period as the wild-type mAb. Enhanced target killing was also associated with increased frequency of NK cells undergoing apoptosis, but this effect was donor-dependent. Antibody-based therapies targeting tumor antigens will benefit from a better understanding of cell-mediated tumor elimination, and our work opens further opportunities for the therapeutic targeting of CD33 in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:25232058

  15. From the Kinetic Energy Recovery System to the Thermo-Hydraulic Hybrid Motor Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Guta, Dragos; Dumitrescu, Catalin

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents some theoretical and experimental results obtained by the Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute INOE 2000-IHP with its partners, regarding the creating of one hydraulic system able to recovering the kinetic energy of the motor vehicles, in the braking phases, and use this recovered energy in the starting and accelerating phases. Also, in the article is presented a testing stand, which was especially designed for testing the hydraulic system for recovery the kinetic energy. Through mounting of the kinetic energy recovering hydraulic system, on one motor vehicle, this vehicle became a thermo-hydraulic hybrid vehicle. Therefore, the dynamic behavior was analyzed for the whole hybrid motor vehicle, which includes the energy recovery system. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the possible performances of the hybrid vehicle and that the kinetic energy recovery hydraulic systems are good means to increase energy efficiency of the road motor vehicles and to decrease of the fuel consumption.

  16. Adaptive resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced by aminoglycosides and killing kinetics in a rabbit endocarditis model.

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Y Q; Caillon, J; Kergueris, M F; Drugeon, H; Baron, D; Potel, G; Bayer, A S

    1997-01-01

    Adaptive resistance following the first exposure to aminoglycosides is a recently described in vitro phenomenon in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other aerobic gram-negative bacilli. We investigated the in vivo relevance of adaptive resistance in P. aeruginosa following a single dose of amikacin in the experimental rabbit endocarditis model. Rabbits with P. aeruginosa endocarditis received either no therapy (control) or a single intravenous (i.v.) dose of amikacin (80 mg/kg of body weight) at 24 h postinfection, after which they were sacrificed at 5, 8, 12, 16, or 24 h postdose. Excised aortic vegetations were subsequently exposed ex vivo to amikacin at 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 times the MIC for 90 min. In vivo adaptive resistance was identified when amikacin-induced pseudomonal killing within excised aortic vegetations was less in animals receiving single-dose amikacin in vivo than in vegetations from control animals not receiving amikacin in vivo. Maximal adaptive resistance occurred between 8 and 16 h after the in vivo amikacin dose, with complete refractoriness to ex vivo killing by amikacin seen at 12 h postdose. By 24 h postdose, bacteria within excised vegetations had partially recovered their initial amikacin susceptibility. In a parallel treatment study, we demonstrated that amikacin given once daily (but not twice daily) at a total dose of 80 mg/kg i.v. for 1-day treatment significantly reduced pseudomonal densities within aortic vegetations versus those in untreated controls. When therapy was continued for 3 days with the same total daily dose (80 mg/kg/day), amikacin given once or twice daily significantly reduced intravegetation pseudomonal densities versus those in controls. However, amikacin given once daily was still more effective than the twice-daily regimen. These data confirm the induction of aminoglycoside adaptive resistance in vivo and further support the advantages of once-daily aminoglycoside dosing regimens in the treatment of serious pseudomonal infections. PMID:9087497

  17. Antimicrobial surfaces containing cationic nanoparticles: how immobilized, clustered, and protruding cationic charge presentation affects killing activity and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bing; Jiang, Ying; Nüsslein, Klaus; Rotello, Vincent M; Santore, Maria M

    2015-01-01

    This work examines how the antimicrobial (killing) activity of net-negative surfaces depends on the presentation of antimicrobial cationic functionality: distributed versus clustered, and flat clusters versus raised clusters. Specifically, the ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus by sparsely distributed 10 nm cationic nanoparticles, immobilized on a negative surface and backfilled with a PEG (polyethylene glycol) brush, was compared with that for a dense layer of the same immobilized nanoparticles. Additionally, sparsely distributed 10 nm poly-L-lysine (PLL) coils, adsorbed to a surface to produce flat cationic "patches" and backfilled with a PEG brush were compared to a saturated adsorbed layer of PLL. The latter resembled classical uniformly cationic antimicrobial surfaces. The protrusion of the cationic clusters substantially influenced killing but the surface concentration of the clusters had minor impact, as long as bacteria adhered. When surfaces were functionalized at the minimum nanoparticle and patch densities needed for bacterial adhesion, killing activity was substantial within 30 min and nearly complete within 2 h. Essentially identical killing was observed on more densely functionalized surfaces. Surfaces containing protruding (by about 8 nm) nanoparticles accomplished rapid killing (at 30 min) compared with surfaces containing similarly cationic but flat features (PLL patches). Importantly, the overall surface density of cationic functionality within the clusters was lower than reported thresholds for antimicrobial action. Also surprising, the nanoparticles were far more deadly when surface-immobilized compared with free in solution. These findings support a killing mechanism involving interfacial stress. PMID:25480668

  18. Thermal Stability and Hydrogen Release Kinetics of Ammonia Borane Under Vehicle Storage Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rassat, Scot D.; Smith, R. Scott; Aardahl, Christopher L.; Autrey, Thomas; Chin, Arthur A.; Magee, Joseph W.; VanSciver, Gary R.; Lipiecki, Frank J.

    2006-09-01

    Ammonia borane (AB) is a promising chemical hydrogen storage material for H2 powered fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs) owing to its considerable hydrogen density and stability under typical ambient conditions. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Targets for on-board hydrogen storage systems in 2015 provide a requirement for operating temperatures in full-sun exposure as high as 60°C (50°C by 2010) [1]. The purpose of this work is to investigate the thermal stability of solid AB during storage on-board a FCV at 40 to 60°C. Calorimeter measurements and calculation models are used to estimate AB thermal stability and H2 release kinetics under isothermal, adiabatic, and cooled storage conditions as a function of storage time, temperature, and AB purity.

  19. Killing Range

    PubMed Central

    Asal, Victor; Rethemeyer, R. Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level. PMID:25838603

  20. Killing Tensors and Conformal Killing Tensors from Conformal Killing Vectors

    E-print Network

    Raffaele Rani; S. Brian Edgar; Alan Barnes

    2003-03-12

    Koutras has proposed some methods to construct reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors (which are, in general, irreducible) when a pair of orthogonal conformal Killing vectors exist in a given space. We give the completely general result demonstrating that this severe restriction of orthogonality is unnecessary. In addition we correct and extend some results concerning Killing tensors constructed from a single conformal Killing vector. A number of examples demonstrate how it is possible to construct a much larger class of reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors than permitted by the Koutras algorithms. In particular, by showing that all conformal Killing tensors are reducible in conformally flat spaces, we have a method of constructing all conformal Killing tensors (including all the Killing tensors which will in general be irreducible) of conformally flat spaces using their conformal Killing vectors.

  1. Killing Tensors from Conformal Killing Vectors

    E-print Network

    A. Barnes; S. B. Edgar; R. Rani

    2002-12-03

    Some years ago Koutras presented a method of constructing a conformal Killing tensor from a pair of orthogonal conformal Killing vectors. When the vector associated with the conformal Killing tensor is a gradient, a Killing tensor (in general irreducible) can then be constructed. In this paper it is shown that the severe restriction of orthogonality is unnecessary and thus it is possible that many more Killing tensors can be constructed in this way. We also extend, and in one case correct, some results on Killing tensors constructed from a single conformal Killing vector. Weir's result that, for flat space, there are 84 independent conformal Killing tensors, all of which are reducible, is extended to conformally flat spacetimes. In conformally flat spacetimes it is thus possible to construct all the conformal Killing tensors and in particular all the Killing tensors (which in general will not be reducible) from conformal Killing vectors.

  2. Effects of vehicle on the uptake and elimination kinetics of capsaicinoids in human skin in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn K. Pershing; Christopher A. Reilly; Judy L. Corlett; Dennis J. Crouch

    2004-01-01

    While the physiologic and molecular effects of capsaicinoids have been extensively studied in various model systems by a variety of administration routes, little is known about the uptake and elimination kinetic profiles in human skin following topical exposure. The present study evaluated the uptake and elimination kinetics of capsaicinoids in human stratum corneum following a single topical exposure to 3%

  3. DSMC Simulation of Entry Vehicle Flowfields Using a Collision-Based Chemical Kinetics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmoth, R. G.; VanGilder, D. B.; Papp, J. L.

    2011-05-01

    A study of high-altitude, nonequilibrium flows about an Orion Command Module (CM) is conducted using the collision-based chemical kinetics approach introduced by Bird in 2008. DSMC simulations are performed for Earth entry flow conditions and show significant differences in molecular dissociation in the shock layer from those obtained using traditional temperature-based procedures with an attendant reduction in the surface heat flux. Reaction rates derived from equilibrium simulations are also presented for selected reactions relevant to entry flow kinetics, and comparisons to various experimental and theoretical results are presented.

  4. Killing Tensors and Symmetries

    E-print Network

    David Garfinkle; E. N. Glass

    2010-03-10

    A new method is presented for finding Killing tensors in spacetimes with symmetries. The method is used to find all the Killing tensors of Melvin's magnetic universe and the Schwarzschild vacuum. We show that they are all trivial. The method requires less computation than solving the full Killing tensor equations directly, and it can be used even when the spacetime is not algebraically special.

  5. Planning a dynamic kill

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W. [Abel Engineering, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This article discusses the methodology, design philosophy, and guidelines for planning a dynamic-kill operation for a wild well. The topics covered are two methods of computer analysis for designing dynamic-kill requirements, the design process, determining the pumping spread, and the pitfalls that a designer faces in planning a dynamic kill.

  6. Parameters of bacterial killing and regrowth kinetics and antimicrobial effect examined in terms of area under the concentration-time curve relationships: action of ciprofloxacin against Escherichia coli in an in vitro dynamic model.

    PubMed Central

    Firsov, A A; Vostrov, S N; Shevchenko, A A; Cornaglia, G

    1997-01-01

    Although many parameters have been described to quantitate the killing and regrowth of bacteria, substantial shortcomings are inherent in most of them, such as low sensitivity to pharmacokinetic determinants of the antimicrobial effect, an inability to predict a total effect, insufficient robustness, and uncertain interrelations between the parameters that prevent an ultimate determination of the effect. To examine different parameters, the kinetics of killing and regrowth of Escherichia coli (MIC, 0.013 microg/ml) were studied in vitro by simulating a series of ciprofloxacin monoexponential pharmacokinetic profiles. Initial ciprofloxacin concentrations varied from 0.02 to 19.2 microg/ml, whereas the half-life of 4 h was the same in all experiments. The following parameters were calculated and estimated: the time to reduce the initial inoculum (N0) 10-, 100-, and 1,000-fold (T90%, T99%, and T99.9%, respectively), the rate constant of bacterial elimination (k(elb)), the nadir level (Nmin) in the viable count (N)-versus-time (t) curve, the time to reach Nmin (t(min)), the numbers of bacteria that survived (Ntau) by the end of the observation period (tau), the area under the bacterial killing and regrowth curve (log N(A)-t curve) from the zero point (time zero) to tau (AUBC), the area above this curve (AAC), the area between the control growth curve (log N(C)-t curve) and the bacterial killing and regrowth curve (log N(A)-t curve) from the zero point to tau (ABBC) or to the time point when log N(A) reaches the maximal values observed in the log N(C)-t curve (I(E); intensity of the effect), and the time shift between the control growth and regrowth curves (T(E); duration of the effect). Being highly sensitive to the AUC, I(E), and T(E) showed the most regular AUC relationships: the effect expressed by I(E) or T(E) increased systematically when the AUC or initial concentration of ciprofloxacin rose. Other parameters, especially T90%, T99%, T99.9%, t(min), and log N0 - log Nmin = delta log Nmin, related to the AUC less regularly and were poorly sensitive to the AUC. T(E) proved to be the best predictor and t(min) proved to be the worst predictor of the total antimicrobial effect reflected by I(E). Distinct feedback relationships between the effect determination and the experimental design were demonstrated. It was shown that unjustified shortening of the observation period, i.e., cutting off the log N(A)-t curves, may lead to the degeneration of the AUC-response relationships, as expressed by log N0 - log Ntau = delta log Ntau, AUBC, AAC, or ABBC, to a point where it gives rise to the false idea of an AUC- or concentration-independent effect. Thus, use of I(E) and T(E) provides the most unbiased, robust, and comprehensive means of determining the antimicrobial effect. PMID:9174184

  7. Advances in cryo-vacuum test capabilities for dual-band sensors at the kinetic kill vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulation (KHILS) facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhoe A. Thompson; W. Larry Herald; Thomas P. Bergin; Steven A. Marlow; Eric W. Glattke

    2004-01-01

    The KHILS Vacuum Cold Chamber (KVACC) has formed the basis for a comprehensive test capability for newly developed dual-band infrared sensors. Since initial delivery in 1995, the KVACC chamber and its support systems have undergone a number of upgrades, maturing into a valuable test asset and technology demonstrator for missile defense systems. Many leading edge test technologies have been consolidated

  8. Advances in cryo-vacuum test capabilities for dual-band sensors at the kinetic kill vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulation (KHILS) facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Rhoe A.; Herald, W. Larry; Bergin, Thomas P.; Marlow, Steven A.; Glattke, Eric W.

    2004-08-01

    The KHILS Vacuum Cold Chamber (KVACC) has formed the basis for a comprehensive test capability for newly developed dual-band infrared sensors. Since initial delivery in 1995, the KVACC chamber and its support systems have undergone a number of upgrades, maturing into a valuable test asset and technology demonstrator for missile defense systems. Many leading edge test technologies have been consolidated during the past several years, demonstrating the level of fidelity achievable in tomorrow's missile test facilities. These technologies include resistive array scene projectors, sub-pixel non-linear spatial calibration and coupled two-dimensional radiometric calibration techniques, re-configurable FPGA based calibration electronics, dual-band beam-combination and collimation optics, a closed-cycle multi-chamber cryo-vacuum environment, personal computer (PC) based scene generation systems and a surrounding class-1000 clean room environment. The purpose of this paper is to describe this unique combination of technologies and the capability it represents to the hardware-in-the-loop community.

  9. Point-spread function and MTF characterization of the kinetic-kill-vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulation (KHILS) infrared-laser scene projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Terri L.; Boreman, Glenn D.; Ducharme, Alfred D.; Rapp, Ronald J.

    1993-08-01

    A Scophony Infrared Scene Projector (IRSP) is being used at Wright Laboratories Armament Directorate, Guided Interceptor Technology Branch, Eglin AFB, to evaluate thermal-imaging guidance systems. This hardware-in-the-loop testing system reduces the number of necessary field trials and has potential for in-laboratory simulation where the performance of entire seeker systems can be analyzed. The performance of an optical system, in terms of such characteristics as wavefront error, resolution, and transfer factor, can be measured with knowledge of the system MTF and PSF performance. A slow-scan calibration system was used to measure an image plane of the IRSP under three separate configurations of the system. MTFs and PSFs were derived for the IRSP without the use of the scatter screen, with the scatter screen in place, and with the scatter screen rotating.

  10. Irreducible Killing Tensors from Third Rank Killing-Yano Tensors

    E-print Network

    Florian Catalin Popa; Ovidiu Tintareanu-Mircea

    2006-12-30

    We investigate higher rank Killing-Yano tensors showing that third rank Killing-Yano tensors are not always trivial objects being possible to construct irreducible Killing tensors from them. We give as an example the Kimura IIC metric were from two rank Killing-Yano tensors we obtain a reducible Killing tensor and from third rank Killing-Yano tensors we obtain three Killing tensors, one reducible and two irreducible.

  11. Bacterial Growth Kinetics under a Novel Flexible Methacrylate Dressing Serving as a Drug Delivery Vehicle for Antiseptics

    PubMed Central

    Forstner, Christina; Leitgeb, Johannes; Schuster, Rupert; Dosch, Verena; Kramer, Axel; Cutting, Keith F.; Leaper, David J.; Assadian, Ojan

    2013-01-01

    A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal®) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth kinetics in combination with three antiseptics was investigated in an in vitro porcine wound model. Standardized in vitro wounds were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and divided into six groups: no dressing (negative control), methacrylate dressing alone, and combinations with application of 0.02% Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), 0.4% PHMB, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine, 7.7 mg/mL Povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine), and 0.1% Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) + 2% phenoxyethanol. Bacterial load per gram tissue was measured over five days. The highest reduction was observed with PVP-iodine at 24 h to log10 1.43 cfu/g, followed by OCT at 48 h to log10 2.41 cfu/g. Whilst 0.02% PHMB resulted in a stable bacterial load over 120 h to log10 4.00 cfu/g over 120 h, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine inhibited growth during the first 48 h, with slightly increasing bacterial numbers up to log10 5.38 cfu/g at 120 h. These results indicate that this flexible methacrylate dressing can be loaded with various antiseptics serving as drug delivery system. Depending on the selected combination, an individually shaped and controlled antibacterial effect may be achieved using the same type of wound dressing. PMID:23698780

  12. Bacterial Growth Kinetics under a Novel Flexible Methacrylate Dressing Serving as a Drug Delivery Vehicle for Antiseptics.

    PubMed

    Forstner, Christina; Leitgeb, Johannes; Schuster, Rupert; Dosch, Verena; Kramer, Axel; Cutting, Keith F; Leaper, David J; Assadian, Ojan

    2013-01-01

    A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal®) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth kinetics in combination with three antiseptics was investigated in an in vitro porcine wound model. Standardized in vitro wounds were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and divided into six groups: no dressing (negative control), methacrylate dressing alone, and combinations with application of 0.02% Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), 0.4% PHMB, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine, 7.7 mg/mL Povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine), and 0.1% Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) + 2% phenoxyethanol. Bacterial load per gram tissue was measured over five days. The highest reduction was observed with PVP-iodine at 24 h to log10 1.43 cfu/g, followed by OCT at 48 h to log10 2.41 cfu/g. Whilst 0.02% PHMB resulted in a stable bacterial load over 120 h to log10 4.00 cfu/g over 120 h, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine inhibited growth during the first 48 h, with slightly increasing bacterial numbers up to log10 5.38 cfu/g at 120 h. These results indicate that this flexible methacrylate dressing can be loaded with various antiseptics serving as drug delivery system. Depending on the selected combination, an individually shaped and controlled antibacterial effect may be achieved using the same type of wound dressing. PMID:23698780

  13. Ion-kill dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  14. BB Guns Can Kill

    MedlinePLUS

    U.S. CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION • (800) 638-2772 • www.cpsc.gov • www.SaferProducts.gov BB Guns Can Kill BB guns can kill ... second, can increase this risk. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission has reports of about 4 deaths per ...

  15. Cloning, killing, and identity.

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, J

    1999-01-01

    One potentially valuable use of cloning is to provide a source of tissues or organs for transplantation. The most important objection to this use of cloning is that a human clone would be the sort of entity that it would be seriously wrong to kill. I argue that entities of the sort that you and I essentially are do not begin to exist until around the seventh month of fetal gestation. Therefore to kill a clone prior to that would not be to kill someone like you or me but would be only to prevent one of us from existing. And even after one of us begins to exist, the objections to killing it remain comparatively weak until its psychological capacities reach a certain level of maturation. These claims support the permissibility of killing a clone during the early stages of its development in order to use its organs for transplantation. PMID:10226909

  16. Trip based optimal power management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using gas-kinetic traffic flow model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiuming Gong; Yaoyu Li; Zhong-Ren Peng

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), utilizing more battery power, is considered a next-generation hybrid electric vehicles with great promise of higher fuel economy. The charge-depletion mode is more appropriate for the power management of PHEV, i.e. the state of charge (SOC) is expected to drop to a low threshold when the vehicle reaches the destination of the trip. Global

  17. HOW NEUTROPHILS KILL MICROBES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony W. Segal

    2005-01-01

    ? Abstract Neutrophils provide the first line of defense of the innate immune,sys- tem by phagocytosing, killing, and digesting bacteria and fungi. Killing was previously believed to be accomplished,by oxygen,free radicals and other reactive oxygen,species generated by the NADPH oxidase, and by oxidized halides produced by myeloperoxi- dase. We now,know,this is incorrect. The oxidase pumps,electrons into the phagocytic vacuole, thereby

  18. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117...801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a...bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries:...

  19. Roles of antibodies and complement in phagocytic killing of enterococci.

    PubMed Central

    Arduino, R C; Murray, B E; Rakita, R M

    1994-01-01

    The contributions of complement and antibodies to polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-mediated killing of enterococci were investigated with pooled normal human serum (PNHS) or immune human sera (IHS) from patients with serious enterococcal infections. Each IHS containing antienterococcal antibodies demonstrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting (immunoblotting) was examined with the enterococcus strain isolated from the same patient. PNHS promoted PMN-mediated killing of enterococci similar to that for IHS. PMN-mediated killing was consistently abrogated after preopsonization with heat-inactivated PNHS, but some heat-inactivated IHS supported neutrophil bactericidal activity. Inhibition of the classical pathway of complement by chelation of either PNHS or IHS with Mg-EGTA [Mg-ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid] did not alter PMN-mediated killing, suggesting that activation of the alternative pathway of complement is sufficient to promote killing of enterococci by PMNs. PMN-mediated killing assays were also performed with normal rabbit serum and immune rabbit serum against enterococci. Preopsonization with heat-inactivated immune rabbit serum resulted in PMN-mediated killing of enterococci, which was ablated after adsorption of the serum with the same isolate used for immunization. The influence of different phenotypic enterococcal traits on neutrophil-mediated killing was also investigated. Similar kinetics of killing were observed for derivatives of Enterococcus faecalis strains regardless of resistance to antimicrobial agents or production of beta-lactamase, hemolysin, gelatinase, or surface proteins involved in the aggregative response to pheromones. In summary, PMN-mediated killing of enterococci appears to depend primarily on complement activation by either the classical or the alternative pathway. Human antienterococcal antibodies generated during infection variably promoted neutrophil bactericidal activity, while antibody raised in a rabbit supported PMN-mediated killing of the organism examined. Finally, the different phenotypic properties of E. faecalis examined did not influence the neutrophil-mediated killing of these organisms. Images PMID:8112874

  20. Redshifts and Killing Vectors

    E-print Network

    Alex Harvey; Engelbert L. Schucking; Eugene J. Surowitz

    2005-08-31

    Courses in introductory special and general relativity have increasingly become part of the curriculum for upper-level undergraduate physics majors and master's degree candidates. One of the topics rarely discussed is symmetry, particularly in the theory of general relativity. The principal tool for its study is the Killing vector. We provide an elementary introduction to the concept of a Killing vector field, its properties, and as an example of its utility apply these ideas to the rigorous determination of gravitational and cosmological redshifts.

  1. The Fish Kill Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Erica F. Kosal

    2004-02-01

    In this case, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities and learn about the complex life cycle of the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria.

  2. Killing vectors and anisotropy

    E-print Network

    J. P. Krisch; E. N. Glass

    2009-08-03

    We consider an action that can generate fluids with three unequal stresses for metrics with a spacelike Killing vector. The parameters in the action are directly related to the stress anisotropies. The field equations following from the action are applied to an anisotropic cosmological expansion and an extension of the Gott-Hiscock cosmic string.

  3. Killing vectors and anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    We consider an action that can generate fluids with three unequal stresses for metrics with a spacelike Killing vector. The parameters in the action are directly related to the stress anisotropies. The field equations following from the action are applied to an anisotropic cosmological expansion and an extension of the Gott-Hiscock cosmic string.

  4. How killer cells kill.

    PubMed

    Young, J D; Cohn, Z A

    1988-01-01

    Killer lymphocytes, the commandos of the immune system, attack tumor cells and cells infected by viruses. They kill by secreting protein molecules that link to form pores in target cells; the cells promptly leak to death. Study of the process may make it possible to improve the killers' efficiency in fighting cancer and such viral infections as AIDS. PMID:3051347

  5. How does the type of vehicle influence the in vitro skin absorption and elimination kinetics of terpenes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Cal

    2006-01-01

    Terpenes are widely used in the topical dermal preparations, cosmetics and toiletries and also in the experimental dermopharmacy, as penetration enhancers. Terpenes do not need to penetrate into viable skin tissue and this event is not even desired. The aim of this study was to investigate skin absorption and elimination kinetics of two terpenes, namely linalool and terpinen-4-ol, incorporated in

  6. Universitat Regensburg Imaginary Kahlerian killing

    E-print Network

    Regensburg, Universität - Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät I

    Universit¨at Regensburg Mathematik Imaginary K¨ahlerian killing spinors I Nicolas Ginoux and Uwe Semmelmann Preprint Nr. 11/2011 #12;Imaginary K¨ahlerian Killing spinors I Nicolas Ginoux and Uwe Semmelmann manifolds admitting non-trivial imaginary K¨ahlerian Killing spinors. 1 Introduction Let (M2n , g, J) a K

  7. SUPERSYMMETRIC KILLING STRUCTURES FRANK KLINKER

    E-print Network

    Klinker, Frank

    SUPERSYMMETRIC KILLING STRUCTURES FRANK KLINKER Abstract. In this text we combine the notions definition of supersymmetric Killing structures. The latter combines subspaces of vector fields and spinor, the so called Killing equations. This discussion naturally leads to the question whether we can B

  8. Skew Killing spinors Georges Habib

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Skew Killing spinors Georges Habib , Julien Roth Abstract In this paper, we study the existence of a skew Killing spinor (see the definition below) on 2 and 3-dimensional Riemannian spin manifolds. We constructions (see [4, 6] for results in this topic). A -Killing spinor is a smooth section of the spinor

  9. Instantons and Killing spinors

    E-print Network

    Derek Harland; Christoph Nölle

    2011-09-20

    We investigate instantons on manifolds with Killing spinors and their cones. Examples of manifolds with Killing spinors include nearly Kaehler 6-manifolds, nearly parallel G_2-manifolds in dimension 7, Sasaki-Einstein manifolds, and 3-Sasakian manifolds. We construct a connection on the tangent bundle over these manifolds which solves the instanton equation, and also show that the instanton equation implies the Yang-Mills equation, despite the presence of torsion. We then construct instantons on the cones over these manifolds, and lift them to solutions of heterotic supergravity. Amongst our solutions are new instantons on even-dimensional Euclidean spaces, as well as the well-known BPST, quaternionic and octonionic instantons.

  10. How lymphocytes kill.

    PubMed

    Young, L H; Liu, C C; Joag, S; Rafii, S; Young, J D

    1990-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells are potent killers of target cells. These lymphocytes have large cytoplasmic granules containing cytotoxic peptides and other factors. Several of these molecules have been isolated and their functions elucidated. These molecules may be directly involved in the killing of virus-infected and transformed cells as well as in the development of cell-mediated autoimmune disorders. PMID:2184743

  11. Charged Conformal Killing Spinors

    E-print Network

    Andree Lischewski

    2014-08-10

    We study the twistor equation on pseudo-Riemannian $Spin^c-$manifolds whose solutions we call charged conformal Killing spinors (CCKS). We derive several integrability conditions for the existence of CCKS and study their relations to spinor bilinears. A construction principle for Lorentzian manifolds admitting CCKS with nontrivial charge starting from CR-geometry is presented. We obtain a partial classification result in the Lorentzian case under the additional assumption that the associated Dirac current is normal conformal and complete the Classification of manifolds admitting CCKS in all dimensions and signatures $\\leq 5$ which has recently been initiated in the study of supersymmetric field theories on curved space.

  12. Killing the competition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Daly; Margo Wilson

    1990-01-01

    Sex- and age-specific rates of killing unrelated persons of one’s own sex were computed for Canada (1974–1983), England\\/Wales\\u000a (1977–1986), Chicago (1965–1981), and Detroit (1972) from census information and data archives of all homicides known to police.\\u000a Patterns in relation to sex and age were virtually identical among the four samples, although the rates varied enormously\\u000a (from 3.7 per million citizens

  13. Killing Horizons and Spinors

    E-print Network

    Bruno Carneiro da Cunha; Amilcar de Queiroz

    2014-06-19

    We study the near horizon geometry of generic Killing horizons constructing suitable coordinates and taking the appropriate scaling limit. We are able to show that the geometry will always show an enhancement of symmetries, and, in the extremal case, will develop a causally disconnected "throat" as expected. We analyze the implications of this to the Kerr/CFT conjecture and the attractor mechanism. We are also able to construct a set of special (pure) spinors associated with the horizon structure using their interpretation as maximally isotropic planes. The structure generalizes the usual reduced holonomy manifold in an interesting way and may be fruitful to the search of new types of compactification backgrounds.

  14. Optimal planning and control for hazard avoidance of front-wheel steered ground vehicles

    E-print Network

    Peters, Steven C. (Steven Conrad)

    2012-01-01

    Hazard avoidance is an important capability for safe operation of robotic vehicles at high speed. It is also an important consideration for passenger vehicle safety, as thousands are killed each year in passenger vehicle ...

  15. Kill operation requires thorough analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W. [Wild Well Control Inc., Spring, TX (United States)

    1995-05-15

    Full control of a blowout well requires a properly designed post-capping kill operation because failures in regaining well control usually occur during the kill operation, not during capping. Capping (the installation of pressure control or diverter equipment on the wellhead) is generally very reliable in gaining control of a blowout well. The following techniques are some of the viable means of killing blowout wells once the capping assemblies are in place: direct shut in of the flow; bullheading; momentum kill; volumetric control for migration of fluids or lubrication after migration ceases; and dynamic kills (friction-based dynamic kills or mass flow rate kills) The objective of most post-capping operations is to stop the flow and put the well under hydrostatic control. The means of killing a blowout once capping assemblies are in place should be chosen with care to avoid problems such as cratering, equipment failure, and underground blowouts. The particular circumstances and well integrity will dictate which kill method will be the most viable. Each of these five methods are explained.

  16. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Kill Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Brinkmann; Ulrike Reichard; Christian Goosmann; Beatrix Fauler; Yvonne Uhlemann; David S. Weiss; Yvette Weinrauch; Arturo Zychlinsky

    2004-01-01

    Neutrophils engulf and kill bacteria when their antimicrobial granules fuse with the phagosome. Here, we describe that, upon activation, neutrophils release granule proteins and chromatin that together form extracellular fibers that bind Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. These neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) degrade virulence factors and kill bacteria. NETs are abundant in vivo in experimental dysentery and spontaneous human appendicitis, two

  17. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117...Requirements New York § 117.801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a)...

  18. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117...Requirements New York § 117.801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a)...

  19. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117...Requirements New York § 117.801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a)...

  20. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117...Requirements New York § 117.801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a)...

  1. How electroshock weapons kill!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2010-03-01

    Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

  2. Conformal Killing forms on Riemannian manifolds Habilitationsschrift

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    Conformal Killing forms on Riemannian manifolds Habilitationsschrift zur Feststellung der Lehrbef Conformal Killing Forms 9 1.1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2 Killing tensors and first integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2

  3. TWISTOR AND KILLING SPINORS IN LORENTZIAN GEOMETRY

    E-print Network

    Baum, Helga

    ___________________________________________________________________ TWISTOR AND KILLING* *urs de Killing lorentziens. Apr`es quelques pr'eliminaires sur les spineurs twist* *eurs- neurs de Killing r'eels. En particulier, on obtient un Theor`eme de splitt* *ing global pour les

  4. Pfiesteria shumwayae kills fish by micropredation not

    E-print Network

    .............................................................. Pfiesteria shumwayae kills fish, acute fish kills and human disease in mid-Atlantic USA estuaries1­7 . However, Pfies- teria toxins have never been isolated or characterized8 . We investigated mechanisms by which P. shumwayae kills fish

  5. Real Killing spinors and holonomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Bär

    1993-01-01

    We give a description of all complete simply connected Riemannian manifolds carrying real Killing spinors. Furthermore, we present a construction method for manifolds with the exceptional holonomy groupsG2 and Spin(7).

  6. Phantom Metrics With Killing Spinors

    E-print Network

    Sabra, W A

    2015-01-01

    We study metric solutions of Einstein-anti-Maxwell theory admitting Killing spinors. The analogue of the IWP metric which admits a space-like Killing vector is found and is expressed in terms of a complex function satisfying the wave equation in flat (2+1)-dimensional space-time. As examples, electric and magnetic Kasner spaces are constructed by allowing the solution to depend only on the time coordinate. Euclidean solutions are also presented.

  7. Phantom Metrics With Killing Spinors

    E-print Network

    W. A. Sabra

    2015-07-16

    We study metric solutions of Einstein-anti-Maxwell theory admitting Killing spinors. The analogue of the IWP metric which admits a space-like Killing vector is found and is expressed in terms of a complex function satisfying the wave equation in flat (2+1)-dimensional space-time. As examples, electric and magnetic Kasner spaces are constructed by allowing the solution to depend only on the time coordinate. Euclidean solutions are also presented.

  8. Angular momentum and Killing potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, E. N.

    1996-01-01

    When the Penrose-Goldberg (PG) superpotential is used to compute the angular momentum of an axial symmetry, the Killing potential Q??(?) for that symmetry is needed. Killing potentials used in the PG superpotential must satisfy Penrose's equation. It is proved for the Schwarzschild and Kerr solutions that the Penrose equation does not admit a Q??(?) at finite r and therefore the PG superpotential can only be used to compute angular momentum asymptotically.

  9. Harmonic Functions of Subordinate Killed Brownian Motion

    E-print Network

    Vondraèek, Zoran

    Harmonic Functions of Subordinate Killed Brownian Motion J. Glover, Z. Pop-Stojanovic, M. Rao, H of subordinate killed Brownian motion in a domain D. We first prove that, when the killed Brownian semigroup in D is intrinsic ultracontractive, all nonnegative harmonic functions of the subordinate killed Brownian motion

  10. The influence of body-size and diet on road-kill trends in mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika L. BarthelmessMargot; Margot S. Brooks

    2010-01-01

    Roads negatively impact animals in a variety of ways. One of the most obvious impacts is vehicle-induced mortality. We have\\u000a little understanding of the patterns and rates of road mortality for mammals. The aims of this study were to determine representative\\u000a road-kill rates for local mammal species, compare road-kill rates between mammals of different sizes and diets, and compare\\u000a patterns

  11. KILLING SILKWORM COCOONS BY IRRADIATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsetskhladze

    1962-01-01

    The results of investigations of silkworm cocoon killing by irradiation ; are given. It is shown that the method is a very perspective one. Its ; industrial realization will give both increased raw silk yield and improved ; dynamometric characteristics of silk thread. (auth);

  12. Does Assessment Kill Student Creativity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2005-01-01

    Does assessment kill creativity? In this article, creativity is defined and discussed and an overview of creativity and motivational research is provided to describe how assessment practices can influence students' creativity. Recommendations for protecting creativity when assessing students also are provided.

  13. Quaternionic Killing Spinors , U. Semmelmann

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    Quaternionic Killing Spinors W. Kramer , U. Semmelmann , G. Weingart Mathematisches Institut der on quaternionic K¨ahler manifolds. In the present article we study the limiting case, i. e. manifolds where the lower bound is attained as an eigenvalue. We give an equivalent formulation in terms of a quaternionic

  14. The geometry of D = 11 Killing spinors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerome P. Gauntlett; Stathis Pakis

    2003-01-01

    We propose a way to classify all supersymmetric configurations of D=11 supergravity using the G-structures defined by the Killing spinors. We show that the most general bosonic geometries admitting a Killing spinor have at least a local SU(5) or an (Spin(7)l × R8) × R structure, depending on whether the Killing vector constructed from the Killing spinor is timelike or

  15. ccsd00002799, KILLING FORMS ON SYMMETRIC SPACES

    E-print Network

    ccsd­00002799, version 1 ­ 7 Sep 2004 KILLING FORMS ON SYMMETRIC SPACES FLORIN BELGUN, ANDREI MOROIANU AND UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. Killing forms on Riemannian manifolds are di#11;erential forms whose space carries a non{parallel Killing p{form (p #21; 2) if and only if it isometric to a Riemannian

  16. KILLING SPINORS ON LORENTZIAN MANIFOLDS CHRISTOPH BOHLE

    E-print Network

    KILLING SPINORS ON LORENTZIAN MANIFOLDS CHRISTOPH BOHLE Abstract. The aim of this paper is to describe some results concerning the geometry of Lorentzian manifolds admitting Killing spinors. We prove that there are imaginary Killing spinors on simply connected Lorentzian Einstein{Sasaki manifolds. In the Riemannian case

  17. Imaginary Kahlerian Killing spinors I Nicolas Ginoux

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    Imaginary K¨ahlerian Killing spinors I Nicolas Ginoux and Uwe Semmelmann February 19, 2012 Abstract-trivial imaginary K¨ahlerian Killing spinors. 1 Introduction Let (M2n , g, J) a K¨ahler manifold of real dimension 2¨ahler manifold and C. A pair (, ) of sections of M is called an -K¨ahlerian Killing spinor if and only

  18. EXTRINSIC KILLING SPINORS OUSSAMA HIJAZI AND SEBASTI

    E-print Network

    Henri Poincaré -Nancy-Université, Université

    EXTRINSIC KILLING SPINORS OUSSAMA HIJAZI AND SEBASTI #19; AN MONTIEL Abstract. Under intrinsic that there is an isomorphism between the restriction to the boundary of parallel spinors and extrinsic Killing spinors of non-negative Killing constant. As a corollary, we prove that a complete Ricci- at spin manifold with mean

  19. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  20. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  1. Did Vertigo Kill America's Forgotten Astronaut?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Merlin, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    On November 15, 1967, U.S. Air Force test pilot Major Michael J. Adams was killed while flying the X-15 rocket-propelled research vehicle in a parabolic spaceflight profile. This flight was part of a joint effort with NASA. An electrical short in one of the experiments aboard the vehicle caused electrical transients, resulting in excessive workload by the pilot. At altitude Major Adams inappropriately initiated a flat spin that led to a series of unusual aircraft attitudes upon atmospheric re-entry, ultimately causing structural failure of the airframe. Major Adams was known to experience vertigo (i.e. spatial disorientation) while flying the X-15, but all X-15 pilots most likely experienced vertigo (i.e. somatogravic, or "Pitch-Up", illusion) as a normal physiologic response to the accelerative forces involved. Major Adams probably experienced vertigo to a greater degree than did others, since prior aeromedical testing for astronaut selection at Brooks AFB revealed that he had an unusually high degree of labyrinthine sensitivity. Subsequent analysis reveals that after engine burnout, and through the zenith of the flight profile, he likely experienced the oculoagravic ("Elevator") illusion. Nonetheless, painstaking investigation after the mishap revealed that spatial disorientation (Type II, Recognized) was NOT the cause, but rather, a contributing factor. The cause was in fact the misinterpretation of a dual-use flight instrument (i.e. Loss of Mode Awareness), resulting in confusion between yaw and roll indications, with subsequent flight control input that was inappropriate. Because of the altitude achieved on this flight, Major Adams was awarded Astronaut wings posthumously. Understanding the potential for spatial disorientation, particularly the oculoagravic illusion, associated with parabolic spaceflight profiles, and understanding the importance of maintaining mode awareness in the context of automated cockpit design, are two lessons that have direct application to the commercial space industry today.

  2. Proteasomes Control Caspase-1 Activation in Anthrax Lethal Toxin-mediated Cell Killing*S

    E-print Network

    Brojatsch, Jürgen

    Proteasomes Control Caspase-1 Activation in Anthrax Lethal Toxin-mediated Cell Killing*S Received, MAPKK cleavage is insufficient for LT killing and is possibly not even required for this process (17). In the mouse model, the susceptibility of antigen-presenting cells to LT killing is strain

  3. Killing(-Yano) Tensors in String Theory

    E-print Network

    Chervonyi, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    We construct the Killing(-Yano) tensors for a large class of charged black holes in higher dimensions and study general properties of such tensors, in particular, their behavior under string dualities. Killing(-Yano) tensors encode the symmetries beyond isometries, which lead to insights into dynamics of particles and fields on a given geometry by providing a set of conserved quantities. By analyzing the eigenvalues of the Killing tensor, we provide a prescription for constructing several conserved quantities starting from a single object, and we demonstrate that Killing tensors in higher dimensions are always associated with ellipsoidal coordinates. We also determine the transformations of the Killing(-Yano) tensors under string dualities, and find the unique modification of the Killing-Yano equation consistent with these symmetries. These results are used to construct the explicit form of the Killing(-Yano) tensors for the Myers-Perry black hole in arbitrary number of dimensions and for its charged version.

  4. Hot gas engine and vehicle drive system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. W. Jr

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus is described for providing auxiliary power and braking to a vehicle including an electric monitoring system for the automatic control of the auxiliary power and braking and for the recovery of kinetic energy. The apparatus consists of: (a) a vehicle having at least one tire and a drive shaft; (b) an engine connected to the vehicle for powering

  5. Desert Dust Kills Florida Fish

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) article discusses the connection between dust storms in Africa, and red tides along the Florida coast. Red tides are blooms of toxic algae that kill fish, birds, and mammals, as well as cause health problems in humans. Storm activity in the Sahara Desert region kicks up topsoil that winds transport into the Gulf of Mexico. These clouds fertilize the water with iron, which bacteria named Trichodesmium use to create nitrogen. The nitrogen makes the water a friendly environment for the toxic algae. This article discusses this process and research that is going on to help solve the problem. Audio version is available as well.

  6. How To Kill a Penguin

    E-print Network

    Ulrich Haisch

    2007-06-23

    Within constrained minimal-flavor-violation the large destructive flavor-changing Z-penguin managed to survive eradication so far. We give a incisive description of how to kill it using the precision measurements of the Z -> b anti-b pseudo observables. The derived stringent range for the non-standard contribution to the universal Inami-Lim function C leads to tight two-sided limits for the branching ratios of all Z-penguin dominated flavor-changing K- and B-decays.

  7. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  8. Killing tensors in pp-wave spacetimes

    E-print Network

    Aidan J Keane; Brian O J Tupper

    2010-11-29

    The formal solution of the second order Killing tensor equations for the general pp-wave spacetime is given. The Killing tensor equations are integrated fully for some specific pp-wave spacetimes. In particular, the complete solution is given for the conformally flat plane wave spacetimes and we find that irreducible Killing tensors arise for specific classes. The maximum number of independent irreducible Killing tensors admitted by a conformally flat plane wave spacetime is shown to be six. It is shown that every pp-wave spacetime that admits an homothety will admit a Killing tensor of Koutras type and, with the exception of the singular scale-invariant plane wave spacetimes, this Killing tensor is irreducible.

  9. RELATIVE VULNERABILITY OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE INFECTED MULE DEER TO VEHICLE COLLISIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline E. Krumm; Mary M. Conner; Michael W. Miller

    2005-01-01

    We estimated chronic wasting disease (CWD) prevalence among vehicle-killed mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in select data analysis units (DAUs) in northern Colorado, USA, and compared these with estimated CWD prevalence among mule deer of the same sex sampled in the vicinity of collision sites to assess relative vulnerability of CWD-infected individuals to vehicle collisions. Twenty-five of 171 vehicle-killed mule deer

  10. The Lie Algebra of Local Killing Fields

    E-print Network

    Richard Atkins

    2009-09-18

    We present an algebraic procedure that finds the Lie algebra of the local Killing fields of a smooth metric. In particular, we determine the number of independent local Killing fields about a given point on the manifold. Spaces of constant curvature and locally symmetric spaces are also discussed. Furthermore, we obtain a complete classification of the Lie algebra of local Killing fields for surfaces in terms of conditions upon the Gauss curvature.

  11. Teleparallel Killing Vectors of Spherically Symmetric Spacetimes

    E-print Network

    M. Sharif; Bushra Majeed

    2009-05-20

    In this paper, Killing vectors of spherically spacetimes have been evaluated in the context of teleparallel theory of gravitation. Further, we investigate the Killing vectors of the Friedmann metrics. It is found that for static spherically spacetimes the number of Killing vectors turn out to be \\emph{seven} while for the Friedmann models, we obtain \\emph{six} teleparallel Killing vectors. The results are then compared with those of General Relativity. We conclude that both of these descriptions of gravity do not provide the consistent results in general. However, these results may coincide under certain conditions for a particular spacetime.

  12. Timelike Killing spinors in seven dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, Marco; Conamhna, Oisin A.P. Mac [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-15

    We employ the G-structure formalism to study supersymmetric solutions of minimal and SU(2) gauged supergravities in seven dimensions admitting Killing spinors with an associated timelike Killing vector. The most general such Killing spinor defines a SU(3) structure. We deduce necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a timelike Killing spinor on the bosonic fields of the theories, and find that such configurations generically preserve one out of 16 supersymmetries. Using our general supersymmetric ansatz we obtain numerous new solutions, including squashed or deformed anti-de Sitter solutions of the gauged theory, and a large class of Goedel-like solutions with closed timelike curves.

  13. A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.

  14. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  15. Finding Ultimate Limits of Performance for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward D. Tate; Stephen P. Boyd

    Hybrid electric vehicles are seen as a solution to improving fuel economy and reducing pollution emissions from automobiles. By recovering kinetic energy during braking and optimizing the engine operation to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, a hybrid vehicle can outperform a traditional vehicle. In designing a hybrid vehicle, the task of finding optimal component sizes and an appropriate control strategy

  16. Kinetic Energy Anti-Satellite Weapon System (KE ASAT WS)

    SciTech Connect

    Stegmaier, J.T.; Grannan, M.J. (U.S. Army, Strategic Defense Command, Huntsville, AL (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The KE ASAT WS which aimed at providing capabilities to negate satellites in space and deny ability to collect critical land and ocean surveillance data is presented. The KE ASAT WS includes two subsystems: the missile subsystem consisting of a kill vehicle, a three-stage booster, and a launcher; and the weapon control subsystem consisting of the mission control element, battery control center, and communication network. The KEASAT missile is a ground launched KE weapon utilizing 'hit to kill' instead of an explosive warhead, and the kill vehicle is based on a visible light seeker for target detection.

  17. 75 FR 62469 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ...Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0907] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from...

  18. 75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ...Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0355] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from...

  19. The killing consensus : homicide detectives, police that kill and organized crime in São Paulo, Brazil

    E-print Network

    Willis, Graham Arthur Neill, 1979-

    2013-01-01

    Policing is widely understood, empirically and theoretically, as a core function of the state. Much of the knowledge presumes that police are the only body that may kill and arbitrate killing, routinely and without retaliation ...

  20. Approximate Killing Vectors on S^2

    E-print Network

    Gregory B. Cook; Bernard F. Whiting

    2007-06-01

    We present a new method for computing the best approximation to a Killing vector on closed 2-surfaces that are topologically S^2. When solutions of Killing's equation do not exist, this method is shown to yield results superior to those produced by existing methods. In addition, this method appears to provide a new tool for studying the horizon geometry of distorted black holes.

  1. Bull heading to kill live gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Oudeman, P.; Avest, D. ter; Grodal, E.O.; Asheim, H.A.; Meissner, R.J.H.

    1994-12-31

    To kill a live closed-in gas well by bull heading down the tubing, the selected pump rate should be high enough to ensure efficient displacement of the gas into the formation (i.e., to avoid the kill fluid bypassing the gas). On the other hand, the pressures that develop during bull heading at high rate must not exceed wellhead pressure rating, tubing or casing burst pressures or the formation breakdown gradient, since this will lead, at best, to a very inefficient kill job. Given these constraints, the optimum kill rate, requited hydraulic horsepower, density and type of kill fluids have to be selected. For this purpose a numerical simulator has been developed, which predicts the sequence of events during bull heading. Pressures and flow rates in the well during the kill job are calculated, taking to account slip between the gas and kill fluid, hydrostatic and friction pressure drop, wellbore gas compression and leak-off to the formation. Comparison with the results of a dedicated field test demonstrates that these parameters can be estimated accurately. Example calculations will be presented to show how the simulator can be used to identify an optimum kill scenario.

  2. Momentum kill procedure can quickly control blowouts

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.D. (Southern International Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)); Moore, P. (Preston L. Moore and Associates Inc., Norman, OK (United States))

    1993-08-30

    The momentum kill method can help in quickly regaining control of a blowing well, providing the blowing well rate and fluid properties can be estimated reasonably. The momentum of the kill fluid counteracts and overcomes the flowing momentum of formation fluids. In other words, sufficient mud density pumped at a sufficient rate is directed into the flow stream to force the escaping fluid column back into the well bore. Sufficient kill fluid hydrostatic pressure must be stacked'' in the hole so that the well remains dead after the operation. The momentum kill is not a panacea for all blowouts. An assessment must be made of the potential problems unique to this method, and certain requirements must be met if the technique is to be successful. The paper discusses some of the considerations for evaluating the use of the momentum kill method.

  3. On pseudo-Riemannian manifolds with many Killing spinors

    E-print Network

    Cortés, Vicente

    On pseudo-Riemannian manifolds with many Killing spinors D.V. Alekseevsky and V. Cort Killing spinors with the same Killing number, unless n 1 (mod 4) and s 3 (mod 4). We also prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits k+ independent Killing spinors with Killing number and k- independent

  4. GENERALIZED KILLING SPINORS ON SPHERES ANDREI MOROIANU, UWE SEMMELMANN

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    GENERALIZED KILLING SPINORS ON SPHERES ANDREI MOROIANU, UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. We study generalized Killing spinors on round spheres Sn . We show that on the standard sphere S8 any generalized Killing spinor has to be an ordinary Killing spinor. Moreover we classify generalized Killing spinors

  5. OPTIMAL CONTROL APPLIED TO COMPETING CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC CELL-KILL STRATEGIES

    E-print Network

    Sontag, Eduardo

    OPTIMAL CONTROL APPLIED TO COMPETING CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC CELL-KILL STRATEGIES K. RENEE FISTER AND JOHN for chemotherapy. In particular, we investigate the qualitative differences between three different cell-kill models: log- kill hypothesis (cell-kill is proportional to mass); Norton­Simon hypothesis (cell-kill

  6. Electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Riezenman

    1992-01-01

    The renewed interest in electric vehicles (EVs) in the wake of the California Air Resources Board mandate that 2% of the vehicles lighter than 3750 lb (1700 kg) sold by each manufacturer in that state in 1998 be zero-emission vehicles is examined. The reasons why replacing an internal combustion vehicle (ICV) with an electrically powered equivalent greatly reduces air pollution,

  7. Bacteriophage-aided intracellular killing of engulfed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sandeep; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2014-05-01

    Phages are known to effectively kill extracellularly multiplying bacteria as they do not have the ability of intracellular penetration within the animal cells. However, the present manuscript focuses on studying the impact of surface-adsorbed phage particles on the killing of engulfed Staphylococcus aureus inside phagocytic cells. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were isolated and cultured, followed by evaluation of their ability of bacterial uptake and killing. The intracellular killing potential of macrophages in the presence of unadsorbed free phage as well as phage adsorbed onto S. aureus 43300 was studied. Phage added alone to macrophage preparation did not influence intracellular killing of engulfed S. aureus by macrophages. However, phage adsorbed onto host bacterial cells (utilizing host bacteria as a vehicle to carry the lytic phage into the phagocytic compartment) brought about time-dependent and titre-dependent significant reduction in the number of viable intracellular cocci. Phage particles that shuttled inside the macrophage along with bacteria also significantly reduced cytotoxic damage caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). This in turn enhanced the bactericidal killing potential of phagocytic cells. In earlier studies the inability of phages to kill intracellular bacteria has been thought to be a major drawback of phage therapy. For the first time results of this study confirm the killing ability of the broad host range lytic phage MR-5 of both extracellular as well as intracellular engulfed S. aureus inside macrophages. This approach shall not only restrict intracellular proliferation of staphylococci within the myeloid cells but also protect the host from further relapse of infection and treatment failures. PMID:24633444

  8. Kinetic Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David

    1993-01-01

    Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for kinetic determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.

  9. Spacetime Encodings III - Second Order Killing Tensors

    E-print Network

    Jeandrew Brink

    2009-11-09

    This paper explores the Petrov type D, stationary axisymmetric vacuum (SAV) spacetimes that were found by Carter to have separable Hamilton-Jacobi equations, and thus admit a second-order Killing tensor. The derivation of the spacetimes presented in this paper borrows from ideas about dynamical systems, and illustrates concepts that can be generalized to higher- order Killing tensors. The relationship between the components of the Killing equations and metric functions are given explicitly. The origin of the four separable coordinate systems found by Carter is explained and classified in terms of the analytic structure associated with the Killing equations. A geometric picture of what the orbital invariants may represent is built. Requiring that a SAV spacetime admits a second-order Killing tensor is very restrictive, selecting very few candidates from the group of all possible SAV spacetimes. This restriction arises due to the fact that the consistency conditions associated with the Killing equations require that the field variables obey a second-order differential equation, as opposed to a fourth-order differential equation that imposes the weaker condition that the spacetime be SAV. This paper introduces ideas that could lead to the explicit computation of more general orbital invariants in the form of higher-order Killing Tensors.

  10. Killing in Okaraygua: An Inspector Irronogaray Mystery

    E-print Network

    Levine, Stuart

    2012-09-05

    1 Citation: Levine, Stuart. (2012) Killing in Okaraygua: An Inspector Irronogaray Mystery [Kindle Edition]. Amazon Digital Services, Amazon.com. Published version: http://www.amazon.com/Killing-Okaraygua-Inspector-Irronogaray- ebook.../dp/B0096TUC9K/ref=sr_1_9?ie=UTF8&qid=1347294990&sr=8-9&keywords=Stuart+Levine Description: Killing in Okaraygua is an historical novel as well as a murder mystery that takes place in an imaginary Latin American nation in the 1980s. The characters found...

  11. Electrohydraulic vehicle drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, E.W. Jr.

    1988-06-28

    A power system is described for a vehicle comprising: a battery source for driving a DC electric motor mechanically coupled to a fluid pump which pressurizes a fluid for actuating a fluid motor that is operatively connected to reciprocate a worm screw gear assembly which rotates an output shaft connected to axles which drive the wheels of a vehicle, an auxiliary power device for operating an alternator to generate electricity and means for recovering kinetic energy. The auxiliary power device includes means for supplying compressed air or steam to an air or steam motor which is operatively connected to a second worm screw gear assembly which drives an output shaft connected to the alternator for generating electricity, and wherein the kinetic energy recovery means includes an air pump connected between the axles and frame of the vehicle chassis so that vehicular movement actuates the air pump for compressing air for storage and also a worm screw gear driven alternator assembly connected between the axle and frame of the vehicle chassis for generating electricity during vehicular movement.

  12. Wildlife road-kills on three major roads in north-eastern New South Wales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brendan D. Taylor; Ross L. Goldingay

    2004-01-01

    Abstract. Although vehicle-induced mortality of wildlife is well known on roads throughout Australia, few empirical studies describe the extent of this mortality or assess the potential effects on wildlife populations. We recorded 529 roadkills of 53 vertebrate species along a 100-km circuit of three major roads during 20 weekly surveys across winter, spring and summer. This equates to 0.3 road-kills

  13. Quantum integrability of quadratic Killing tensors

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, C.; Valent, G. [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS, Luminy, Case 907, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et des Hautes Energies, 2, Place Jussieu, F-75251 Paris Cedex 5 (France)

    2005-05-01

    Quantum integrability of classical integrable systems given by quadratic Killing tensors on curved configuration spaces is investigated. It is proven that, using a 'minimal' quantization scheme, quantum integrability is ensured for a large class of classic examples.

  14. Teleparallel Killing Vectors of the Einstein Universe

    E-print Network

    M. Sharif; M. Jamil Amir

    2007-08-27

    In this short paper we establish the definition of the Lie derivative of a second rank tensor in the context of teleparallel theory of gravity and also extend it for a general tensor of rank $p+q$. This definition is then used to find Killing vectors of the Einstein universe. It turns out that Killing vectors of the Einstein universe in the teleparallel theory are the same as in General Relativity.

  15. Killing Vector Fields and Superharmonic Field Theories

    E-print Network

    Josua Groeger

    2013-01-23

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, referred to as superharmonic action, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of the superharmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  16. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    SciTech Connect

    Groeger, Josua, E-mail: groegerj@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Mathematik, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  17. Hazardous materials in Fresh Kills landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschhorn, J.S. [Hirschhorn and Associates, Wheaton, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31

    No environmental monitoring and corrective action programs can pinpoint multiple locations of hazardous materials the total amount of them in a large landfill. Yet the consequences of hazardous materials in MSW landfills are considerable, in terms of public health concerns, environmental damage, and cleanup costs. In this paper a rough estimation is made of how much hazardous material may have been disposed in Fresh Kills landfill in Staten Island, New York. The logic and methods could be used for other MSW landfills. Fresh Kills has frequently been described as the world`s largest MSW landfill. While records of hazardous waste disposal at Fresh Kills over nearly 50 years of operation certainly do not exist, no reasonable person would argue with the conclusion that large quantities of hazardous waste surely have been disposed at Fresh Kills, both legally and illegally. This study found that at least 2 million tons of hazardous wastes and substances have been disposed at Fresh Kills since 1948. Major sources are: household hazardous waste, commercial RCRA hazardous waste, incinerator ash, and commercial non-RCRA hazardous waste, governmental RCRA hazardous waste. Illegal disposal of hazardous waste surely has contributed even more. This is a sufficient amount to cause serious environmental contamination and releases, especially from such a landfill without an engineered liner system, for example. This figure is roughly 1% of the total amount of waste disposed in Fresh Kills since 1948, probably at least 200 million tons.

  18. Approximate Killing Vectors for Computing Spin in Black-Hole

    E-print Network

    Cook, Greg

    Approximate Killing Vectors for Computing Spin in Black-Hole Initial Data and Evolutions Gregory B-local definition: e.g. Brown & York[2] or Ashtekar & Krishnan[1] S = - 1 8 BH Kiji sj hd2 x i = i CK : Killing vector of ~hij conformal Killing vector of hij i AKV : Approximate Killing vector of hij ­ Greg Cook

  19. Approximate Killing Vectors and Black-Hole Diagnostics

    E-print Network

    Cook, Greg

    Approximate Killing Vectors and Black-Hole Diagnostics Gregory B. Cook Wake Forest University[2] or Ashtekar & Krishnan[1] S = - 1 8 BH Kiji sj hd2 x i = i CK : Killing vector of ~hij conformal Killing vector of hij i AKV : Approximate Killing vector of hij ­ Greg Cook ­ (WFU Physics) 1 #12

  20. Potassium Channels Mediate Killing by Human Natural Killer Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyanne Schlichter; Neil Sidell; Susumu Hagiwara

    1986-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood spontaneously recognize and kill a wide variety of target cells. It has been suggested that ion channels are involved in the killing process because there is a Ca-dependent stage and because killing by presensitized cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which in many respects resembles NK killing, is associated with changes in K and Na

  1. Kill fluid for oil field operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sydansk, R.D.

    1990-08-14

    This patent describes a process employing a kill fluid to substantially reduce the volumetric flow of formation fluid into a wellbore penetrating a formation containing the formation fluid below an earthen surface. It comprises: admixing components of a continuous flowing gel at the surface comprising of water-soluble carboxylate-containing polymer, a complex capable of crosslinking the polymer and formed of at least one electropositive chromium III species and at least one electronegative carboxylatespecies, and an aqueous solvent for the polymer and the complex; crosslinking the polymer and the complex to form the gel, wherein the kill fluid comprises the gel; placing a volume of the kill fluid in the wellbore sufficient to create a hydrostatic head which exerts a kill fluid pressure against the formation fluid substantially equal to or greater than the formation fluid pressure and thereby substantially reduces the volumetric flow of the formation fluid into the wellbore; performing an oil field operation after placing the volume of the kill fluid in the wellbore; and removing the gel from the wellbore to substantially restore the volumetric flow of the formation fluid into the wellbore.

  2. Most cross-sex killings involve the killing of a spouse (Daly & Wilson, 1999). With occasional exceptions, men far out-

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    Most cross-sex killings involve the killing of a spouse (Daly & Wilson, 1999). With occasional, 1988; Dobash & Dobash, 1979). These killings present a puzzle for social scientists: Why would, 1988). According to this hypothesis, the risk of getting killed is a function of the frequency

  3. Motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Y.; Sano, S.

    1986-04-15

    An improvement in a motor vehicle is described including: a vehicle body; a front road wheel disposed in the front part of the vehicle body; a rear road wheel disposed in the rear part of the vehicle body; an engine for driving at least either of the front and rear road wheels; and a steering wheel for steering at least either of the front and rear road wheels; comprising: detection means connected to the vehicle for detecting the transverse sliding angle of the vehicle body; and display means connected to the detection means for visually displaying the moving direction of the vehicle body on the basis of an output of the detection means; and the detection means comprises a first sensor for detecting the advancing speed of the vehicle, a second sensor for detecting the transverse acceleration of the vehicle, a third sensor for detecting the yawing velocity of the vehicle, and a processor for calculating the transverse sliding angle on the basis of the advancing speed, the transverse acceleration and the yawing velocity.

  4. Extracellular killing of inhaled pneumococci in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Coonrod, J.D.; Marple, S.; Holmes, G.P.; Rehm, S.R.

    1987-12-01

    Early clearance of inhaled Staphylococcus aureus is believed to be caused by phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. In murine models inhaled pneumococci are cleared even more rapidly than S. aureus. Conventional opsonins appear to play no role in this clearance, and recently it has been shown that murine alveolar lining material contains free fatty acids and other soluble factors that are directly bactericidal for pneumococci. To determine whether non-phagocytic factors are involved in pneumococcal clearance, we compared the site of killing of inhaled pneumococci and S. aureus in rats using histologic methods and bronchoalveolar lavage. Spontaneous lysis of pneumococci was prevented by use of autolysin-defective pneumococci or by substitution of ethanolamine for choline in the cell wall. Histologic studies showed that the percent of inhaled staphylococci associated with alveolar macrophages always exceeded the percent of staphylococci cleared, whereas there was little association of pneumococci with macrophages during clearance. Analysis of the intracellular or extracellular location of iron 59 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats that had inhaled aerosols of /sup 59/Fe-labeled bacteria suggested that staphylococci were killed predominantly in macrophages and pneumococci in the extracellular space. When /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci or staphylococci were ingested and killed by macrophages in vitro, the /sup 59/Fe remained with the macrophages, suggesting that the extracellular location of /sup 59/Fe during pneumococcal killing in vivo was not caused by rapid turnover of /sup 59/Fe in macrophages. Studies of the site of killing of inhaled type 25 pneumococci labeled exclusively in the cell wall with carbon 14-ethanolamine confirmed the results obtained with /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci. Thus, early killing of inhaled pneumococci, unlike staphylococci, appears to take place outside of macrophages.

  5. Approximate Killing Fields as an Eigenvalue Problem

    E-print Network

    Christopher Beetle

    2008-08-12

    Approximate Killing vector fields are expected to help define physically meaningful spins for non-symmetric black holes in general relativity. However, it is not obvious how such fields should be defined geometrically. This paper relates a definition suggested recently by Cook and Whiting to an older proposal by Matzner, which seems to have been overlooked in the recent literature. It also describes how to calculate approximate Killing fields based on these proposals using an efficient scheme that could be of immediate practical use in numerical relativity.

  6. Killing spinors of some supergravity solutions

    E-print Network

    Daniel Arean

    2006-05-30

    We compute explicitly the Killing spinors of some ten dimensional supergravity solutions. We begin with a 10d metric of the form $\\RR^{1,3}\\times{\\cal Y}_6$, where ${\\cal Y}_6$ is either the singular conifold or any of its resolutions. Then, we move on to the Klebanov-Witten and Klebanov-Tseytlin backgrounds, both constructed over the singular conifold; and we also study the Klebanov-Strassler solution, built over the deformed conifold. Finally, we determine the form of the Killing spinors for the non-commutative deformation of the Maldacena-N\\'u\\~nez geometry.

  7. Killing Spinors for the Bosonic String

    E-print Network

    H. Lu; Zhao-Long Wang

    2011-06-08

    We obtain the effective action for the bosonic string with arbitrary Yang-Mills fields, up to the \\alpha' order, in general dimensions. The form of the action is determined by the requirement that the action admit well-defined Killing spinor equations, whose projected integrability conditions give rise to the full set of equations of motion. The success of the construction suggests that the hidden "pseudo-supersymmetry" associated with the Killing spinor equations may be a property of the bosonic string itself.

  8. HIV transcription is induced with cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    1993-11-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evident in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

  9. Internet Resources on Genocide and Mass Killings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Internet Resources on Genocide and Mass Killings is an extensive compilation of primary materials and annotated links related to "twentieth-century genocidal and mass man-made killing occurrences." Divided into fifteen sections, subject coverage includes topics such as The Jewish Holocaust, War Crimes and Criminals, Yugoslavia and Kosovo, among others. Most of the original documents in the compilation have been uploaded to the site, facilitating navigation and research. Documents not residing at the site are linked via succinct annotations. The compilation is searchable and updated continuously by its creator Dr. Stuart D. Stein, Senior Lecturer in Sociology and Social Psychology at the University of West England.

  10. Cytotoxic Killing and Immune Evasion by Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Cliburn; George, Andrew J. T.; Stark, Jaroslav

    2007-07-01

    The interaction between the immune system and pathogens is a complex one, with pathogens constantly developing new ways of evading destruction by the immune system. The immune system's task is made even harder when the pathogen in question is an intra-cellular one (such as a virus or certain bacteria) and it is necessary to kill the infected host cell in order to eliminate the pathogen. This causes damage to the host, and such killing therefore needs to be carefully controlled, particularly in tissues with poor regenerative potential, or those involved in the immune response itself. Host cells therefore possess repair mechanisms which can counteract killing by immune cells. These in turn can be subverted by pathogens which up-regulate the resistance of infected cells to killing. In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that this repair process plays an important role in determining the efficacy of evasion and escape from immune control. We model a situation where cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells kill pathogen-infected and tumour cells by directed secretion of preformed granules containing perforin and granzymes. Resistance to such killing can be conferred by the expression of serine protease inhibitors (serpins). These are utilized by several virally infected and tumour cells, as well as playing a role in the protection of host bystander, immune and immuneprivileged cells. We build a simple stochastic model of cytotoxic killing, where serpins can neutralize granzymes stoichiometrically by forming an irreversible complex, and the survival of the cell is determined by the balance between serpin depletion and replenishment, which in its simplest form is equivalent to the well known shot noise process. We use existing analytical results for this process, and additional simulations to analyse the effects of repair on cytotoxic killing. We then extend the model to the case of a replicating target cell population, which gives a branching process coupled to shot noise. We show how the process of repair can have a major impact on the dynamics of pathogen evasion and escape of tumour cells from immune surveillance

  11. Anuran road-kills neighboring a peri-urban reserve in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Igor Pfeifer; Teixeira, Fernanda Zimmermann; Colombo, Patrick; Coelho, Artur Vicente Pfeifer; Kindel, Andreas

    2012-12-15

    Mortality from road-kills may figure among the important causes of decline in amphibian populations and species extinctions worldwide. Evaluation of the magnitude, composition, and temporal and spatial distributions of amphibian road-kills is a key step for mitigation planning, especially in peri-urban reserves. Once a month for 16 months, we surveyed, on foot, a 4.4 km section of state road ERS-389 bordering the Itapeva reserve in the southern Atlantic Forest. We recorded 1433 anuran road-kills and estimated a mortality rate of 9002 road-kills/km/year. The species most often recorded were the largest ones: Leptodactylus latrans, Rhinella icterica, Leptodactylus gracilis and Hypsiboas faber; 54.5% of the carcasses could not be identified. Anuran mortality was concentrated in summer, and was associated with temperature, rainfall and photoperiod. Leptodactylus road-kills were strongly influenced by vehicle traffic, probably because of its high abundance during the entire study period. Road-kill hotspots differed for anurans as a group and for single species, and we found an association among spatial patterns of mortality and types of land cover, distance from the nearest waterbody, roadside ditches, and artificial light. Traffic should be banned temporarily during periods of high mortality, which can be forecasted based on meteorological data. A comprehensive mitigation approach should take into account hotspots of all anuran records, and also of target species for selecting locations for amphibian passages and fencing. Roadside ditches, artificial waterbodies, and conventional street lights should be reduced as much as possible, since they may represent ecological traps for anuran populations. PMID:22858802

  12. Mothers who killed or attempted to kill their child: life circumstances, childhood abuse, and types of killing.

    PubMed

    Haapasalo, J; Petäjä, S

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the life circumstances, childhood abuse, and types of homicidal acts of 48 mothers who killed/attempted to kill their child(ren) under age 12 between 1970-96 in Finland. Data on the mothers'life stresses, psychological problems, and childhood abuse were collected from mental state examination (MSE) reports. The cases were divided into 15 neonaticides and 33 mothers who killed an older child. Childhood abuse was documented in 63% of the mothers' MSE reports. Qualitative analysis identified neonaticides,joint homicide-suicide attempts, impulsive aggression, psychotic acts, postpartum depression, and abusive acts. Nonlinear principal components analysis showed that different variables were related to the neonaticide and non-neonaticide cases. We concluded that despite differences in the psychosocial profiles of neonaticides and other maternal homicidal acts the cycle of violence perspective can be applied to both cases, even though it may not be a sufficient explanation for maternal child killings. PMID:10606431

  13. killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine FluMist Thomas Francis, Jr. National Institutes of Health live-virus influenza vaccine Hunein Maassab Jonas Salk Type-A virus trivalent cold that Maassab's innovative, trivalent, cold- adapted influenza vaccine, FluMist, which uses live but weakened

  14. How do cytotoxic lymphocytes kill their targets?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sujan Shresta; Christine TN Pham; Dori A Thomas; Timothy A Graubert; Timothy J Ley

    1998-01-01

    CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes, natural killer cells and lymphokine-activated killer cells depend primarily on the perforin\\/granzyme system to kill their targets, while CD4+ T cells utilize Fas and other mechanisms to induce cell death. The molecular mechanisms used by these pathways to induce target cell apoptosis may converge on common death substrates.

  15. Killing spinors on supersymmetric P-branes

    E-print Network

    Rodrigo Aros; Mauricio Romo

    2007-10-07

    A class of p-brane solutions for supersymmetric gravity theories with negative cosmological constant are proposed and analyzed. The solutions are purely bosonic and contain a worldsheet and a transverse section. The classification relays on the number of intrinsic Killing spinors on the worldsheet and the transverse section. A explicit discussion of the classification is performed for the four dimensional worldsheet case.

  16. School Shootings; Standards Kill Students and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angert, Betsy L.

    2008-01-01

    School shootings have been in the news of late. People ponder what occurs in classrooms today. Why would a young person wish to take a life? Within educational institutions, the killings are a concern. In our dire attempt to teach the children and ensure student success, it seems many of our offspring are lost. Some students feel separate from…

  17. Axial Current, Killing Vector and Newtonian Gravity

    E-print Network

    Prasanta Mahato

    2011-02-22

    Starting from the multiplicative torsion approach of gravity and assuming a Killing vector to be proportional to the axial-vector matter current, here we derive Newton's law of gravity where the logarithm of the proportionality factor has been found to be the potential function.

  18. Mass killings and detection of impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaren, Digby J.

    1988-01-01

    Highly energetic bolide impacts occur and their flux is known. For larger bodies the energy release is greater than for any other short-term global phenomenon. Such impacts produce or release a large variety of shock induced changes including major atmospheric, sedimentologic, seismic and volcanic events. These events must necessarily leave a variety of records in the stratigraphic column, including mass killings resulting in major changes in population density and reduction or extinction of many taxonomic groups, followed by characteristic patterns of faunal and flora replacement. Of these effects, mass killings, marked by large-scale loss of biomass, are the most easily detected evidence in the field but must be manifest on a near-global scale. Such mass killings that appear to be approximately synchronous and involve disappearance of biomass at a bedding plane in many sedimentologically independent sections globally suggest a common cause and probable synchroneity. Mass killings identify an horizon which may be examined for evidence of cause. Geochemical markers may be ephemeral and absence may not be significant. There appears to be no reason why ongoing phenomena such as climate and sea-level changes are primary causes of anomolous episodic events.

  19. Killing Hitler: A Writer's Journey and Angst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Describes the author's experiences in preparing a talk that "evokes the specter" of Adolf Hitler and in writing an historical account of a British plot to kill Hitler. Address the question of why the British allowed him to live that final year of the war. Muses on why scholars write, and the impact of violence and terrorism. (SG)

  20. The Ultimate Buzz Kill Mosquito Control

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric E.

    : egg, larva, pupa, and adult. 2. Mosquitoes lay groups of eggs on the surface of water or at the base larvae. Unused swimming pools should be drained and kept dry during the mosquito season. Larval ControlThe Ultimate Buzz Kill Mosquito Control Biology Lesson 1. All mosquitoes pass through 4 life stages

  1. Peanut Roaster Temperatures Relative to Salmonella Kill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ARS, Market Quality and Handling Research Unit, Raleigh NC 27695 In response to the limited peanut butter contamination incident of 2006/7, studies were initiated to examine the effect of various time and temperature protocols on log kill levels for Salmonella on peanuts. The objective of the work ...

  2. Homothetic Killing Vectors in Expanding HH-Spaces with Lambda

    E-print Network

    Adam Chudecki

    2011-04-18

    Conformal Killing equations and their integrability conditions for expanding hyperheavenly spaces with Lambda in spinorial formalism are studied. It is shown that any conformal Killing vector reduces to homothetic or isometric Killing vector. Reduction of respective Killing equation to one master equation is presented. Classification of homothetic and isometric Killing vectors is given. Type [D]x[any] is analysed in details and some expanding HH complex metrics of types [III, N]x[III, N] with Lambda admitting isometric Killing vectors are found.

  3. Descent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, Y. I.

    1985-01-01

    The creation of descent vehicles marked a new stage in the development of cosmonautics, involving the beginning of manned space flight and substantial progress in space research on the distant bodies of the Solar System. This booklet describes these vehicles and their structures, systems, and purposes. It is intended for the general public interested in modern problems of space technology.

  4. Vehicle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Perspectives of the subpanel on expendable launch vehicle structures and cryotanks are: (1) new materials which provide the primary weight savings effect on vehicle mass/size; (2) today's investment; (3) typically 10-20 years to mature and fully characterize new materials.

  5. Vehicle systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Bales; Tom Modlin; Jack Suddreth; Tom Wheeler; Darrel R. Tenney; Ernest O. Bayless; W. Barry Lisagor; Donald A. Bolstad; Harold Croop; J. Dyer

    1993-01-01

    Perspectives of the subpanel on expendable launch vehicle structures and cryotanks are: (1) new materials which provide the primary weight savings effect on vehicle mass\\/size; (2) today's investment; (3) typically 10-20 years to mature and fully characterize new materials.

  6. Prevalence of alcohol and drugs among motorcycle riders killed in road crashes in Norway during 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Gjerde, Hallvard

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of alcohol and drugs in blood samples from motorcycle riders who died in road crashes in Norway from 2001 to 2010. An additional aim was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and drugs in blood samples from fatally injured motorcycle riders and car drivers who died during the same time period. Blood samples from motorcycle riders who died within 24h after the accident (n=207, 63% of all killed riders), were analysed for alcohol, psychoactive drugs (medicinal and illicit drugs). The cut-off concentrations for alcohol and drugs findings in blood samples (i.e., the drug concentrations above which a finding was regarded as positive) were set according to the legislative limits under the Norwegian Road Traffic Act. Results were assessed in relation to age, sex, time of the day and week, and single versus multiple-vehicle accidents. Alcohol or drugs were found in 27.1 percent of all investigated riders. For riders killed in single or multiple-vehicle accidents, alcohol or drugs were found in 44.6 and 15.3 percent, respectively. Alcohol was the most frequently found substance for all age groups and most prevalent in samples from riders below 25 years who died in single-vehicle accidents (45.8 percent). Drugs were most often found among riders between 25 and 34 years (19.6 percent in total and 25.9% for those killed in single-vehicle crashes). The prevalence of alcohol or drugs was highest among riders killed in single-vehicle accidents during weekend days and nights (60.9 and 65.2 percent). Alcohol and drugs were less often found in samples from killed motorcycles riders than in samples from car and van drivers (40.2 percent). For single-vehicle accidents, the total prevalence of alcohol or drugs among killed motorcycles riders and car drivers was 44.6 percent and 63.8 percent, respectively. The same pattern of alcohol and drugs was found among the two groups, except that the prevalence among motorcycle riders was lower compared to car drivers in all age groups and time periods, which may be related to the fact that they are more vulnerable for fatal injury compared to car drivers in similar accidents. PMID:25932788

  7. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings

    PubMed Central

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Methods Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event. Conclusions We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015). We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001). All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings. PMID:26135941

  8. Challenging the political assumption that "Guns don't kill people, crazy people kill people!".

    PubMed

    Hodges, Heath J; Scalora, Mario J

    2015-05-01

    Presumptions that mental illness is causally tied to firearm violence and that guns are too easily acquired by such persons have given rise to laws that categorically restrict people with mental health concerns from exercising a Constitutional right. Underlying these reforms appears to be a revised idiom, "Guns don't kill people-crazy people kill people." The purpose of this commentary is to address these assumptions and provide suggestions for managing this critical threat. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25985106

  9. Membrane Fas Ligand Kills Human Peripheral Blood T Lymphocytes, and Soluble Fas Ligand Blocks the Killing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Sud; Hideo Hashimoto; Masato Tanaka; Takahiro Ochi; Shigekazu Nagata

    2010-01-01

    Summary It has been believed that the Fas expressed on human peripheral blood T cells (PBT) is non- functional, because these cells are insensitive to agonistic anti-Fas\\/Apo-1 mAbs that efficiently kill in vitro-activated T cells and many Fas-expressing cell lines. Here, we demonstrate that membrane-bound Fas ligand (FasL) kills both fresh and in vitro-activated PBT, indicating that the Fas expressed

  10. Leukemic cell killing by samarium-153 labeled antisense oligodeoxynucleotide probes

    SciTech Connect

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Ghafouripour, A.K.; Willem, L. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    The c-myc oncogene is amplified in leukemia and cancer of colon, breast and lung, making the c-myc mRNA a suitable cytoplasmic receptor-like target for therapy of proliferation. The kinetics of uptake of Sm-153 labeled antisense (AS), sense (SN, control) and oxo and thio, derivatives by lymphocytic leukemic cells (P388) was evaluated. The 15-mer oligonucleotide sequence for the initiation-codon domain was synthesized, [sense (SN) and antisense (AS) phosphodiester (O) and monothioester (S)] aminolinked with a 6-carbon spacer and coupled to DTPA-isothiocyanate (1/10) and aliquots (10 {mu}g) were lyophilized. Sm-l 53 (100-500 {mu}Ci) was chelated to probe; unbound Sm-153 radionuclide was removed by size-exclusion chromatography (TSK-300 column). Aliquots of 1-100 {mu}Ci (0.1-1.0 {mu}g) of Sm-153 chloride, Sm-153 sense, antisense probes and unlabeled DTPA-antisense carrier were added to P388 cells (1.1X{sup 6} cell/ml) in exponentially growing phase in RPMI media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and incubated at 37{degrees}C for 10 days. Dose-dependence on cell-killing was studied by incubating with 1, 10, 50, 100 {mu}Ci of Sm-153 antisense probe in same media. Cells killed were estimated by staining with Trypan Blue. Cell-counts in all samples were performed with a light microscope. The cell-killing with probes and carrier is in the following sequence: Sm-153 antisense > antisense carrier > Sm-153 chloride > sense carrier. Selected unique sequences may provide new radionuclide-carrier to induce double-strand DNA-breaks in proliferative cells. Being closer to nucleus, the mRNA-probe duplex may be more effective for tumor therapy than radiolabeled peptides and antibodies binding membrane-antigens. This new radiolabeled oligonucleotide-mRNA hybridization technique in intact cells may permit therapy of other cancer cells and solid tumors with amplified oncogenes.

  11. 11. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF KILLING FLOOR ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF KILLING FLOOR ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD SPLITTERS' PLATFORMS - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  12. GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND - Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Island, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  13. Motor vehicle fatalities in the United States construction industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Ore; David E Fosbroke

    1997-01-01

    A death certificate-based surveillance system was used to identify 2144 work-related motor vehicle fatalities among civilian workers in the United States construction industry over the years 1980–92. Construction workers were twice as likely to be killed by a motor vehicle as the average worker, with an annual crude mortality rate of 2.3\\/100?000 workers. Injury prevention efforts in construction have had

  14. Killing Potentials with Geodesic Gradients on Kahler Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Derdzinski, Andrzej

    Killing Potentials with Geodesic Gradients on K¨ahler Surfaces ANDRZEJ DERDZINSKI ABSTRACT. We classify compact K¨ahler surfaces with nonconstant Killing potentials such that all integral curves of their gradients are reparametrized geodesics. 1. INTRODUCTION Let be a Killing potential on a K¨ahler manifold (M

  15. GENERALIZED KILLING SPINORS ON EINSTEIN MANIFOLDS ANDREI MOROIANU, UWE SEMMELMANN

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    GENERALIZED KILLING SPINORS ON EINSTEIN MANIFOLDS ANDREI MOROIANU, UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. We study generalized Killing spinors on compact Einstein manifolds with pos- itive scalar curvature Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 53C25, 53C27, 53C40, 83C05 Keywords: generalized Killing spinors

  16. KILLING FORMS ON QUATERNIONKAHLER MANIFOLDS ANDREI MOROIANU AND UWE SEMMELMANN

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    KILLING FORMS ON QUATERNION­K¨AHLER MANIFOLDS ANDREI MOROIANU AND UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. We show that every Killing p­form on a compact quaternion­K¨ahler man- ifold has to be parallel for p 2. 2000­locally symmetric Riemannian structures. Recall that twistor (resp. Killing) 1­forms are duals of conformal (resp

  17. GENERALIZED KILLING SPINORS ON EINSTEIN MANIFOLDS ANDREI MOROIANU, UWE SEMMELMANN

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    GENERALIZED KILLING SPINORS ON EINSTEIN MANIFOLDS ANDREI MOROIANU, UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. We study generalized Killing spinors on compact Einstein manifolds with posi- tive scalar curvature Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 53C25, 53C27, 53C40, 83C05 Keywords: generalized Killing spinors

  18. Killing Vector Fields of Standard Static Space-times

    E-print Network

    Fernando Dobarro; Bulent Unal

    2008-01-30

    We consider Killing vector fields on standard static space-times and obtain equations for a vector field on a standard static space-time to be Killing. We also provide a characterization of Killing vector fields on standard static space-times with compact Riemannian parts.

  19. QUASISTATIONARY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR ONE-DIMENSIONAL DIFFUSIONS WITH KILLING

    E-print Network

    Evans, Steven N.

    QUASISTATIONARY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR ONE-DIMENSIONAL DIFFUSIONS WITH KILLING DAVID STEINSALTZ AND STEVEN N. EVANS Abstract. We extend some results on the convergence of one-dimensional diffusions killed at the boundary, conditioned on extended survival, to the case of general killing on the interior. We show, under

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nafcillin enhances innate immune-mediated killing

    E-print Network

    Nizet, Victor

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nafcillin enhances innate immune-mediated killing of methicillin, and nafcillin in particular, significantly increased killing of S. aureus by selected HDPs from keratinocytes, neutrophils, and platelets. This finding correlated with enhanced killing of MRSA by whole blood, neutrophils

  1. CONFORMAL KILLING SPINORS AND THE HOLONOMY PROBLEM IN LORENTZIAN GEOMETRY

    E-print Network

    Baum, Helga

    CONFORMAL KILLING SPINORS AND THE HOLONOMY PROBLEM IN LORENTZIAN GEOMETRY ­ A SURVEY OF NEW RESULTS ­ HELGA BAUM Abstract. This paper is a survey of recent results about conformal Killing spinors will focus on a special class of geometries admitting conformal Killing spinors ­ on Brinkmann spaces

  2. CONFORMAL KILLING SPINORS AND THE HOLONOMY PROBLEM IN LORENTZIAN GEOMETRY

    E-print Network

    Baum, Helga

    CONFORMAL KILLING SPINORS AND THE HOLONOMY PROBLEM IN LORENTZIAN GEOMETRY -- A SURVEY OF NEW RESULTS -- HELGA BAUM # Abstract. This paper is a survey of recent results about conformal Killing spinors will focus on a special class of geometries admitting conformal Killing spinors -- on Brinkmann spaces

  3. Classification of spacetimes according to conformal Killing vectors

    E-print Network

    K. Saifullah

    2008-10-17

    Conformal Killing vectors (CKVs) preserve the spacetime metric up to a factor. Homothetic vectors and Killing vectors are special cases of CKVs. Classification of some classes of spacetimes on the basis of CKVs give interesting results showing how homothetic and Killing vectors which form subsets of the set of CKVs can be recovered as a result of the above classification.

  4. Parallel and Killing Spinors on Spinc Andrei Moroianu1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Parallel and Killing Spinors on Spinc Manifolds Andrei Moroianu1 Institut f¨ur reine Mathematik simply connected Spinc manifolds carrying parallel and real Killing spinors. In particular we show that every Sasakian manifold (not necessarily Einstein) carries a canonical Spinc structure with Killing

  5. ON CONFORMAL KILLING SYMMETRIC TENSOR FIELDS ON RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS

    E-print Network

    Sharafutdinov, Vladimir

    ON CONFORMAL KILLING SYMMETRIC TENSOR FIELDS ON RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS N. S. DAIRBEKOV AND V. A. SHARAFUTDINOV Abstract. A vector field on a Riemannian manifold is called conformal Killing if it gen- erates one-parameter group of conformal transformation. The class of conformal Killing symmetric tensor

  6. Killing forms on Quaternion-Kahler manifolds Corrigendum

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Killing forms on Quaternion-K¨ahler manifolds ­ Corrigendum ­ Andrei Moroianu and Uwe Semmelmann The aim of this note is to fill a gap in the proof of Theorem 6.1 in [1] - stating that every Killing p is essential. For m = 1, the quaternionic projective space HP1 S4 carries non-parallel Killing 2-forms and 3

  7. Conformal Killing forms on Riemannian manifolds Uwe Semmelmann

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    Conformal Killing forms on Riemannian manifolds Uwe Semmelmann February 19, 2012 Abstract Conformal Killing forms are a natural generalization of conformal vector fields on Riemannian manifolds the existence of conformal Killing forms on nearly K¨ahler and weak G2-manifolds. Moreover, we give a complete

  8. KILLING FORMS ON QUATERNIONKAHLER MANIFOLDS ANDREI MOROIANU AND UWE SEMMELMANN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    KILLING FORMS ON QUATERNION­K¨AHLER MANIFOLDS ANDREI MOROIANU AND UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. We show that every Killing p­form on a compact quaternion­K¨ahler man- ifold has to be parallel for p 2. 2000­locally symmetric Riemannian structures. Recall that twistor (resp. Killing) 1­forms are duals of conformal (resp

  9. Conformal Killing symmetric tensor fields on a Riemannian manifold

    E-print Network

    Sharafutdinov, Vladimir

    Conformal Killing symmetric tensor fields on a Riemannian manifold Vladimir Sharafutdinov Sobolev Abstract A conformal Killing vector field on a Riemannian manifold is a vector field generating a one-parameter group of conformal transformations. We generalize the differential equation of conformal Killing vector

  10. Inhomogeneous problems Q. How do you kill a blue elephant?

    E-print Network

    DeTurck, Dennis

    Inhomogeneous problems Q. How do you kill a blue elephant? A. With a blue elephant gun Q. How do you kill a pink elephant? A. Squeeze its trunk until it turns blue, and then shoot it with a blue elephant gun. Q. How do you kill a white elephant? A. Tickle it pink, then squeeze its trunk until it turns

  11. It's not just conflict that motivates killing of orangutans.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jacqueline T; Mengersen, Kerrie; Abram, Nicola K; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wells, Jessie A; Meijaard, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents' active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI) and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI). These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed. PMID:24130707

  12. Potential Theory of Special Subordinators and Subordinate Killed Stable Processes

    E-print Network

    Vondraèek, Zoran

    Potential Theory of Special Subordinators and Subordinate Killed Stable Processes Renming Song their potential theory. Then we study the potential theory of processes obtained by subordinating a killed-to-one correspondence between the nonnegative harmonic functions of the killed symmetric stable process and the non

  13. Tools and Technology Article Methods for Locating African Lion Kills

    E-print Network

    Getz, Wayne M.

    Tools and Technology Article Methods for Locating African Lion Kills Using Global Positioning. Identification of large carnivore kill sites using Global Positioning System (GPS) data is gaining popularity. We (Panthera leo) kill sites from 1,477 investigated GPS clusters. Ratio of distance moved 24 hours before

  14. Structural equations for Killing tensors of arbitrary rank* Thomas Wolf

    E-print Network

    Wolf, Thomas

    Structural equations for Killing tensors of arbitrary rankABFB. The FA are the components of a Killing tensor Ki1...irof arbitrary rank r * *and its symmetrized numerically the number of non-trivial Killing tensors using n* *umerical values for the Riemann tensor

  15. 138 RestoRative Commons Fresh Kills site; an aerial

    E-print Network

    138 RestoRative Commons Fresh Kills site; an aerial view, looking north. IMAGE usEd wIth p New York City Department of City Planning Fresh Kills Park, Staten Island, NY The rehabilitation for--or has substantive involvement in--the redevelopment. A project such as the making of Fresh Kills

  16. Road-Killed Animals as Resources for Ecological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Clark E.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes 19 literature sources identifying road-killed vertebrates and frequency of kill by numbers. Examples of how these animals can be incorporated into curricula (integrating biology, society, people, and values) are given, followed by an illustrated example of how a road-killed raccoon's skull demonstrated a human/wildlife interaction prior…

  17. Conformal killing tensors and covariant Hamiltonian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariglia, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; van Holten, J.-W.; Horvathy, P. A.; Zhang, P.-M.

    2014-12-01

    A covariant algorithm for deriving the conserved quantities for natural Hamiltonian systems is combined with the non-relativistic framework of Eisenhart, and of Duval, in which the classical trajectories arise as geodesics in a higher dimensional space-time, realized by Brinkmann manifolds. Conserved quantities which are polynomial in the momenta can be built using time-dependent conformal Killing tensors with flux. The latter are associated with terms proportional to the Hamiltonian in the lower dimensional theory and with spectrum generating algebras for higher dimensional quantities of order 1 and 2 in the momenta. Illustrations of the general theory include the Runge-Lenz vector for planetary motion with a time-dependent gravitational constant G(t), motion in a time-dependent electromagnetic field of a certain form, quantum dots, the Hénon-Heiles and Holt systems, respectively, providing us with Killing tensors of rank that ranges from one to six.

  18. Conformal Killing Tensors and covariant Hamiltonian Dynamics

    E-print Network

    M. Cariglia; G. W. Gibbons; J. -W. van Holten; P. A. Horvathy; P. -M. Zhang

    2014-10-31

    A covariant algorithm for deriving the conserved quantities for natural Hamiltonian systems is combined with the non-relativistic framework of Eisenhart, and of Duval, in which the classical trajectories arise as geodesics in a higher dimensional space-time, realized by Brinkmann manifolds. Conserved quantities which are polynomial in the momenta can be built using time-dependent conformal Killing tensors with flux. The latter are associated with terms proportional to the Hamiltonian in the lower dimensional theory and with spectrum generating algebras for higher dimensional quantities of order $1$ and $2$ in the momenta. Illustrations of the general theory include the Runge-Lenz vector for planetary motion with a time-dependent gravitational constant $G(t)$, motion in a time-dependent electromagnetic field of a certain form, quantum dots, the H\\'enon-Heiles and Holt systems, respectively, providing us with Killing tensors of rank that ranges from one to six.

  19. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  20. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  1. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  2. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  3. Killing of microorganisms by pulsed electric fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Grahl; H. Märkl

    1996-01-01

    Lethal effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on suspensions of various bacteria, yeast, and spores in buffer solutions and\\u000a liquid foodstuffs were examined. Living-cell counts of vegetative cell types were reduced by PEF treatment by up to more than\\u000a four orders of magnitude (> 99.99%). On the other hand, endoand ascospores were not inactivated or killed to any great extent.

  4. Death receptor-induced cell killing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Thorburn

    2004-01-01

    Apoptosis pathways activated by death receptors of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family such as Fas, TNFR1, or the TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5 are implicated in diverse diseases. These are also the best-understood apoptosis pathways and many of our ideas about apoptosis regulation come from studying these pathways. Cell killing from such receptors occurs because of recruitment to the

  5. HIV transcription is induced with cell killing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Woloschak; S. Schreck; Chin-Mei Chang-Liu; J. Panozzo; C. R. Libertin

    1993-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evident in viable (but not necessarily cell

  6. Geometry of Killing spinors in neutral signature

    E-print Network

    Dietmar Klemm; Masato Nozawa

    2015-04-21

    We classify the supersymmetric solutions of minimal $N=2$ gauged supergravity in four dimensions with neutral signature. They are distinguished according to the sign of the cosmological constant and whether the vector field constructed as a bilinear of the Killing spinor is null or non-null. In neutral signature the bilinear vector field can be spacelike, which is a new feature not arising in Lorentzian signature. In the $\\LambdaKilling field, which is reminiscent of an Einstein-Weyl structure. If, moreover, the electromagnetic field strength is self-dual, one gets the Kleinian signature analogue of the Przanowski-Tod class of metrics, namely a pseudo-hermitian spacetime determined by solutions of the continuous Toda equation, conformal to a scalar-flat pseudo-K\\"ahler manifold, and admitting in addition a charged conformal Killing spinor. In the $\\Lambda0$ non-null case, the manifold is a fibration over a Lorentzian Gauduchon-Tod base space. Finally, in the $\\Lambda>0$ null class, the metric is contained in the Kundt family, and it turns out that the holonomy is reduced to ${\\rm Sim}(1)\\times{\\rm Sim}(1)$. There appear no self-dual solutions in the null class for either sign of the cosmological constant.

  7. HIV transcription is induced with cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Panozzo, J. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States). Dept. of Pathology; Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Previous work has shown that HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct are induced to express chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) following exposure to DNA-damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation, {gamma} rays, neutrons, and others. In this report, the authors demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evidence in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Other agents which caused no cell killing (such as heat-shock for up to 2 h, treatment with metronidazole, exposure to sunlight, vitamin C treatment, and others) had no effect on HIV-LTR induction. These results suggest that HIV transcription is induced as a consequence of the turn on of a cellular death or apoptotic pathway.

  8. Vehicle Occupant Head Distance Extraction Method using StereoVision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sooyoung Ha; Sang-ho Ahn; Young-choon Kim; Mu-yeon Kim; Soo-yeon Son; Kuhn-il Lee

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the development of airbag system has improved the safety of the occupants. However, the car occupant can be often killed by improper airbag operation. Robust detection of vehicle occupant posture is necessary for a safer intelligent airbag deployment system. This paper presents a stereo- based method of estimating the posture of the occupant. Utilizing the disparity images

  9. The conformal Killing equation on forms -- prolongations and applications

    E-print Network

    A. Rod Gover; Josef Silhan

    2006-01-31

    We construct a conformally invariant vector bundle connection such that its equation of parallel transport is a first order system that gives a prolongation of the conformal Killing equation on differential forms. Parallel sections of this connection are related bijectively to solutions of the conformal Killing equation. We construct other conformally invariant connections, also giving prolongations of the conformal Killing equation, that bijectively relate solutions of the conformal Killing equation on $k$-forms to a twisting of the conformal Killing equation on (k - l)-forms for various integers l. These tools are used to develop a helicity raising and lowering construction in the general setting and on conformally Einstein manifolds.

  10. Time-kill behavior against eight bacterial species and cytotoxicity of antibacterial monomers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Weir, Michael D.; Fouad, Ashraf F.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) the antibacterial activity of two antibacterial monomers, dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) and dimethylammoniumethyl dimethacrylate (DMAEDM), against eight different species of oral pathogens for the first time; (2) the cytotoxicity of DMAEDM and DMADDM. Methods DMAEDM and DMADDM were synthesized by reacting a tertiary amine group with an organo-halide. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against eight species of bacteria were tested. Time-kill determinations were performed to examine the bactericidal kinetics. Cytotoxicity of monomers on human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was assessed using a methyl thiazolyltetrazolium assay and live/dead viability assay. Results DMADDM showed strong bactericidal activity against all bacteria, with MIC of 1.2 to 9.8?g/mL. DMAEDM had MIC of 20 to 80mg/mL. Time-kill determinations indicated that DMADDM and DMAEDM had rapid killing effects against eight species of bacteria, and eliminated all bacteria in 30min at the concentration of 4-fold MBC. Median lethal concentration for DMADDM and DMAEDM was between 20 to 40?g/mL, which was 20-fold higher than 1 to 2?g/mL for BisGMA control. Conclusions DMAEDM and DMADDM were tested in time-kill assay against eight species of oral bacteria for the first time. Both were effective in bacteria-inhibition, but DMADDM had a higher potency than DMAEDM. Different killing efficacy was found against different bacteria species. DMAEDM and DMADDM had much lower cytotoxicity than BisGMA. Therefore, DMADDM and DMAEDM are promising for use in bonding agents and other restorative/preventive materials to combat a variety of oral pathogens. PMID:23876930

  11. Dynamic kill: controlling wild wells a new way

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, E.M.; Soeiinah, E.

    1981-10-01

    Dynamic kill describes a technique for terminating a blowout utilizing flowing frictional pressure to supplement the hydrostatic pressure of the kill fluid being injected through the relief well and up the blowing well. Therefore, a lighter kill fluid such as water can be implemented. The objective is to allow a blowout to be killed without breaking down the formation so the maximum amount of fluid can be circulated through the relief well by not losing fluid to a fractured formation. This allows optimum control during the kill operation and stable communication between the two wells. By allowing more fluid to be applied to the kill through one relief well, dynamic kill also increases the probability that one relief well will be sufficient. When the well is dynamically dead, the initial kill fluid, which will usually be too light to hold the well dead in a static condition, is replaced with a heavier kill mud. In fact, three weights of mud may be required to allow control during the transition from low density initial dynamic kill mud to heavy final kill mud. 5 refs.

  12. Kinetic Energy Anti-Satellite Weapon System (KE ASAT WS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Stegmaier; M. J. Grannan

    1992-01-01

    The KE ASAT WS which aimed at providing capabilities to negate satellites in space and deny ability to collect critical land and ocean surveillance data is presented. The KE ASAT WS includes two subsystems: the missile subsystem consisting of a kill vehicle, a three-stage booster, and a launcher; and the weapon control subsystem consisting of the mission control element, battery

  13. Autonomous vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrowitz, A.L. [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States)] [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States); Blidberg, D.R. [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States)] [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States); Michelson, R.C. [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States)] [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States); [International Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems, Smyrna, GA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

  14. Vehicle structure

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, E.A.

    1984-05-01

    There is provided a vehicle which includes a frame, a steerable wheel mounted on the frame and at least one further wheel mounted for free rotation on the frame. A flywheel is mounted for rotation adjacent one of the wheels. The vehicle includes means for imparting rotation to the flywheel, and a clutch plate rotatably and coaxially mounted adjacent the same wheel to which the flywheel is adjacent. Speed-reduction means allows rotation of the flywheel to rotate the clutch plate at a faster rate than the flywheel, and a frictionless clutch is provided between the clutch plate and the adjacent wheel.

  15. Micro-sociology of mass rampage killings.

    PubMed

    Collins, Randall

    2014-01-01

    Spectacular but very rare violent events such as mass killings by habitual non-criminals cannot be explained by factors which are very widespread, such as possession of firearms, being a victim of bullying, an introvert, or a career failure. A stronger clue is clandestine preparation of attack by one or two individuals, against randomly chosen representatives of a hated collective identity. Mass killers develop a deep back-stage, obsessed with planning their attack, overcoming social inferiority and isolation by an emotion of clandestine excitement. PMID:25179819

  16. Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces?

    PubMed Central

    Santo, Christophe Espírito; Lam, Ee Wen; Elowsky, Christian G.; Quaranta, Davide; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important first steps for revealing the molecular sensitive targets in cells lethally challenged by exposure to copper surfaces and provide a scientific explanation for the use of copper surfaces as antimicrobial agents for supporting public hygiene. PMID:21148701

  17. Real-Time Highway Traffic Condition Assessment Framework Using Vehicle-Infrastructure Integration (VII) With Artificial Intelligence (AI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongchang Ma; Mashrur Chowdhury; Adel Sadek; Mansoureh Jeihani

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for real-time highway traffic condition assessment using vehicle kinetic information, which is likely to be made available from vehicle-infrastructure integration (VII) systems, in which vehicle and infrastructure agents communicate to improve mobility and safety. In the proposed VII framework, the vehicle onboard equipment and roadside units (RSUs) collaboratively work, supported by an artificial intelligence (AI)

  18. In vitro killing of melanoma by liposome-delivered intracellular irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pikul, S.S. II; Parks, N.J.; Schneider, P.D.

    1987-12-01

    To better understand and optimize the mechanism of alpha particle killing of tumors, an in vitro model utilizing liposomes as carrier vehicles was developed to study the killing of melanoma via intracellular alpha-irradiation. The radionuclide /sup 212/Pb (lead), with its 10.6-hour half-life and alpha-emitting daughter /sup 212/Bi (bismuth), was encapsulated in liposomes to achieve the intracellular irradiation of melanoma cells in culture. In dose-response experiments, B16F10 mouse melanoma cells were incubated with liposomes /sup 212/Pb//sup 212/Bi bound to dextran 70. Plating efficiency and growth of the melanoma cells cultured on gridded petri dishes after incubation were compared with controls at 24 and 48 hours. Greater than 85% cell killing occurred by 48 hours, with administered radioactivity levels of 1.6 dpm/mumol of lipid/cell, which corresponds to intracellular delivery of five to seven alpha particles per cell. These alpha doses can be exceeded in vivo with recirculation or in a perfusion circuit, and more efficient cytotoxic action may be possible.

  19. Alzheimer changes are common in aged drivers killed in single car crashes and at intersections.

    PubMed

    Viitanen, M; Johansson, K; Bogdanovic, N; Berkowicz, A; Druid, H; Eriksson, A; Krantz, P; Laaksonen, H; Sandler, H; Saukko, P; Thiblin, I; Winblad, B; Kalimo, H

    1998-09-28

    With increasing age, diseases affecting the cognitive functions are more frequent. These diseases may increase the risk for fatal car crashes. We analyzed the frequency of neuropathological alterations characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (i.e. neuritic and diffuse plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles) in two association areas of the brain, parietal and frontal cerebral cortex, from 98 fatally injured aged drivers. In the age groups of 65-75 and over 75 years of age, 50% and 72% of the drivers, respectively, had neuritic plaques in either parietal and/or frontal cortex. In 14% of all killed drivers the number of neuritic plaques reached the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) age-related histologic score C, which indicates the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and an additional 33% had score B, which suggests the diagnosis of AD. Neuropathological AD changes were most common in the brains of drivers killed in single vehicle crashes, followed by multivehicle crashes at intersections and least common in multivehicle crashes elsewhere, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. In a great majority (80-85%) of cases the killed aged driver was the guilty party of the crash. The results imply, that incipient AD may contribute to fatal crashes of aged drivers, and therefore the forensic autopsy of these victims should include neuropathological examination. PMID:9854829

  20. Hypervelocity impact flash for missile-defense kill assessment and engagement analysis : experiments on Z.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Reinhart, William Dodd; Lawrence, Raymond Jeffery Jr.; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2005-07-01

    Kill assessment continues to be a major problem for the nation's missile defense program. A potential approach for addressing this issue involves spectral and temporal analysis of the short-time impact flash that occurs when a kill vehicle intercepts and engages a target missile. This can provide identification of the materials involved in the impact event, which will, in turn, yield the data necessary for target identification, engagement analysis, and kill assessment. This report describes the first phases of a project under which we are providing laboratory demonstrations of the feasibility and effectiveness of this approach. We are using two major Sandia facilities, the Z-Pinch accelerator, and the two- and three-stage gas guns at the Shock Thermodynamics and Applied Research (STAR) facility. We have looked at the spectral content of impact flash at velocities up to 25 km/s on the Z-Pinch machine to establish the capability for spectroscopy for these types of events, and are looking at similar experiments at velocities from 6 to 11 km/s on the gas guns to demonstrate a similar capability for a variety of research-oriented and applied materials. The present report describes only the work performed on the Z machine.

  1. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  2. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  3. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (115 Newhaven Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  4. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  5. Vehicle emissions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

    2004-01-01

    Air pollution in the United States is a major problem; transportation plays a major role in air pollution. This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, provides students with data on pollution caused by vehicles. Pollutants covered include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and lead, among others. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  6. Vehicle Systems Panel deliberations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Bales; Tom Modlin; Jack Suddreth; Tom Wheeler; Darrel R. Tenney; Ernest O. Bayless; W. Barry Lisagor; Donald A. Bolstad; Harold Croop; J. Dyer

    1993-01-01

    The Vehicle Systems Panel addressed materials and structures technology issues related to launch and space vehicle systems not directly associated with the propulsion or entry systems. The Vehicle Systems Panel was comprised of two subpanels - Expendable Launch Vehicles & Cryotanks (ELVC) and Reusable Vehicles (RV). Tom Bales, LaRC, and Tom Modlin, JSC, chaired the expendable and reusable vehicles subpanels,

  7. Killing sections and sigma models with Lie algebroid targets

    E-print Network

    Bruce, Andrew James

    2015-01-01

    We define and examine the notion of a Killing section of a Riemannian Lie algebroid as a natural generalisation of a Killing vector field. We show that the various expression for a vector field to be Killing naturally generalise to the setting of Lie algebroids. As an application we examine the internal symmetries of a class of sigma models for which the target space is a Riemannian Lie algebroid. Critical points of these sigma models are interpreted as generalised harmonic maps.

  8. Killing Symmetries in $\\mathcal{H}$-Spaces with $?$

    E-print Network

    Adam Chudecki; Maciej Przanowski

    2013-03-05

    All Killing symmetries in complex $\\mathcal{H}$-spaces with $\\Lambda$ in terms of the Pleba\\'nski - Robinson - Finley coordinate system are found. All $\\mathcal{H}$-metrics with $\\Lambda$ admitting a null Killing vector are explicitly given. It is shown that the problem of non-null Killing vector reduces to looking for solution of the Boyer - Finley - Pleba\\'nski (Toda field) equation

  9. Birkhoff theorem and conformal Killing-Yano tensors

    E-print Network

    Ferrando, Joan Josep

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the main geometric conditions imposed by the hypothesis of the Jebsen-Birkhoff theorem. We show that the result (existence of an additional Killing vector) does not necessarily require a three-dimensional isometry group on two-dimensional orbits but only the existence of a conformal Killing-Yano tensor. In this approach the (additional) isometry appears as the known invariant Killing vector that the ${\\cal D}$-metrics admit.

  10. Birkhoff theorem and conformal Killing-Yano tensors

    E-print Network

    Joan Josep Ferrando; Juan Antonio Sáez

    2015-05-13

    We analyze the main geometric conditions imposed by the hypothesis of the Jebsen-Birkhoff theorem. We show that the result (existence of an additional Killing vector) does not necessarily require a three-dimensional isometry group on two-dimensional orbits but only the existence of a conformal Killing-Yano tensor. In this approach the (additional) isometry appears as the known invariant Killing vector that the ${\\cal D}$-metrics admit.

  11. Killing sections and sigma models with Lie algebroid targets

    E-print Network

    Andrew James Bruce

    2015-06-25

    We define and examine the notion of a Killing section of a Riemannian Lie algebroid as a natural generalisation of a Killing vector field. We show that the various expression for a vector field to be Killing naturally generalise to the setting of Lie algebroids. As an application we examine the internal symmetries of a class of sigma models for which the target space is a Riemannian Lie algebroid. Critical points of these sigma models are interpreted as generalised harmonic maps.

  12. Birkhoff theorem and conformal Killing-Yano tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrando, Joan Josep; Sáez, Juan Antonio

    2015-06-01

    We analyze the main geometric conditions imposed by the hypothesis of the Jebsen-Birkhoff theorem. We show that the result (existence of an additional Killing vector) does not necessarily require a three-dimensional isometry group on two-dimensional orbits but only the existence of a conformal Killing-Yano tensor. In this approach the (additional) isometry appears as the known invariant Killing vector that the -metrics admit.

  13. Do Killing-Yano tensors form a Lie Algebra?

    E-print Network

    David Kastor; Sourya Ray; Jennie Traschen

    2007-05-03

    Killing-Yano tensors are natural generalizations of Killing vectors. We investigate whether Killing-Yano tensors form a graded Lie algebra with respect to the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. We find that this proposition does not hold in general, but that it does hold for constant curvature spacetimes. We also show that Minkowski and (anti)-deSitter spacetimes have the maximal number of Killing-Yano tensors of each rank and that the algebras of these tensors under the SN bracket are relatively simple extensions of the Poincare and (A)dS symmetry algebras.

  14. Advancements in dynamic kill calculations for blowout wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kouba, G.E. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States). Production Fluids Div.); MacDougall, G.R. (Chevron Canada Resources Ltd., Slave Lake, (Canada)); Schumacher, B.W. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States). Information Technology Dept.)

    1993-09-01

    This paper addresses the development, interpretation, and use of dynamic kill equations. To this end, three simple calculation techniques are developed for determining the minimum dynamic kill rate. Two techniques contain only single-phase calculations and are independent of reservoir inflow performance. Despite these limitations, these two methods are useful for bracketing the minimum flow rates necessary to kill a blowing well. For the third technique, a simplified mechanistic multiphase-flow model is used to determine a most-probable minimum kill rate.

  15. Kinetic energy management in road traffic injury prevention: a call for action.

    PubMed

    Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Bigdeli, Maryam; Saadat, Soheil; Mohammadi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    By virtue of their variability, mass and speed have important roles in transferring energies during a crash incidence (kinetic energy). The sum of kinetic energy is important in determining an injury severity and that is equal to one half of the vehicle mass multiplied by the square of the vehicle speed. To meet the Vision Zero policy (a traffic safety policy) prevention activities should be focused on vehicle speed management. Understanding the role of kinetic energy will help to develop measures to reduce the generation, distribution, and effects of this energy during a road traffic crash. Road traffic injury preventive activities necessitate Kinetic energy management to improve road user safety. PMID:24284810

  16. Kinetic energy management in road traffic injury prevention: a call for action

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Bigdeli, Maryam; Saadat, Soheil; Mohammadi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: By virtue of their variability, mass and speed have important roles in transferring energies during a crash incidence (kinetic energy). The sum of kinetic energy is important in determining an injury severity and that is equal to one half of the vehicle mass multiplied by the square of the vehicle speed. To meet the Vision Zero policy (a traffic safety policy) prevention activities should be focused on vehicle speed management. Understanding the role of kinetic energy will help to develop measures to reduce the generation, distribution, and effects of this energy during a road traffic crash. Road traffic injury preventive activities necessitate Kinetic energy management to improve road user safety. PMID:24284810

  17. Geometry of Killing spinors in neutral signature

    E-print Network

    Klemm, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    We classify the supersymmetric solutions of minimal $N=2$ gauged supergravity in four dimensions with neutral signature. They are distinguished according to the sign of the cosmological constant and whether the vector field constructed as a bilinear of the Killing spinor is null or non-null. In neutral signature the bilinear vector field can be spacelike, which is a new feature not arising in Lorentzian signature. In the $\\Lambda0$ non-null case, the manifold is a fibration over a Lorentzian Gauduchon-Tod base space. Finally, in the $\\Lambda>0$ null class, the metric is contained in the Kundt family, and it turns out that the holonomy is reduced to ${\\rm Sim}(1)\\times{\\rm Sim}(1)$. There appear no self-dual solutions in the null class for either sign of the cosmological constant.

  18. Killing Reduction of 5-Dimensional Spacetimes

    E-print Network

    Xuejun Yang; Yongge Ma; Jianbing Shao; Wei Zhou

    2003-07-25

    In a 5-dimensional spacetime ($M,g_{ab}$) with a Killing vector field $\\xi ^a$ which is either everywhere timelike or everywhere spacelike, the collection of all trajectories of $\\xi ^a$ gives a 4-dimensional space $S$. The reduction of ($M,g_{ab}$) is studied in the geometric language, which is a generalization of Geroch's method for the reduction of 4-dimensional spacetime. A 4-dimensional gravity coupled to a vector field and a scalar field on $S$ is obtained by the reduction of vacuum Einstein's equations on $M$, which gives also an alternative description of the 5-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory. Besides the symmetry-reduced action from the Hilbert action on $M$, an alternative action of the fields on $S$ is also obtained, the variations of which lead to the same fields equations as those reduced from the vacuum Einstein equation on $M$.

  19. Optimization of power management in an hybrid electric vehicle using dynamic programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura V. Pérez; Guillermo R. Bossio; Diego Moitre; Guillermo O. García

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are those powered from two different sources. Typically, they are equipped with an internal combustion engine, and also with an electrical storage system, such as a bank of batteries or ultra-capacitors. While braking, these vehicles may convert kinetic energy to electrical energy and send it back to the electrical storage system (regenerative braking). The whole vehicle system

  20. A Simple in vitro PK/PD Model System to Determine Time-Kill Curves of Drugs against Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Budha, Nageshwar R.; Lee, Robin B.; Hurdle, Julian G.; Lee, Richard E.; Meibohm, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    In vivo tuberculosis is exposed to continually changing drug concentrations for which static minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing may be a poor surrogate. While in vitro approaches to determine time-kill curves for antibiotics have been widely applied in assessing antimicrobial activity against fast growing microorganisms, their availability and application for slow growing microorganisms including M. tuberculosis has so far been scarce. Thus, we developed a novel simple in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model for establishing time-kill curves and applied it for evaluating the antimicrobial activity of different dosing regimens of isoniazid (INH) against Mycobacterium bovis BCG as a surrogate for virulent M. tuberculosis. In the in vitro model M. bovis BCG was exposed to INH concentration-time profiles as usually encountered during multiple dose therapy with 25, 100 and 300 mg/day in humans who are fast or slow INH metabolizers. Bacterial killing was followed over time by determining viable counts and the resulting time-kill data was analyzed using a semimechanistic PK/PD model with an adaptive IC50 function to describe the emergence of insensitive populations of bacteria over the course of treatment. In agreement with previous studies, the time-kill data suggest that AUC0-24/MIC is the PK/PD index that is the most explanatory of the antimicrobial effect of INH. The presented in vitro PK/PD model and associated modeling approach were able to characterize the time-kill kinetics of INH in M. bovis BCG, and may in general serve as a potentially valuable, low cost tool for the assessment of antibacterial activity in slow growing organisms in drug development and applied pharmacotherapy. PMID:19748318

  1. Male Brown-headed Cowbird Attacks and Kills a Nestling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    I observed a male Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) attack and kill a nestling of an unidentified passerine in a grassland field in Day County, South Dakota, in June 2000. The killing or removal of nestlings by female cowbirds has been reported by others, but this behavior has not been documented previously in male cowbirds.

  2. 7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  3. 9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PLATFORMS IN FOREGROUND WERE USED BY SPLITTERS, TRIMMERS AND GOVERNMENT INSPECTORS; SKINNING TABLE RAN ALONG THE WINDOWS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  4. Microwave irradiation for rapid killing and fixing of plant tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, G.E.; Bohannon, P.M.; Wessinger-Duvall, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation by microwaves allows for rapid killing and fixing of plant tissue, with excellent cellular integrity for histological examination. One or two exposures to microwaves for three seconds in formalin/acetic acid/alcohol gave good preservation of nuclei, chloroplasts, and other plant structures. The microwave method offers a considerable saving of time over traditional methods for killing and fixing plant tissue.

  5. Rickettsia associated with male-killing in a buprestid beetle

    E-print Network

    Werren, John H.

    bacterium that causes male-killing in an unrelated ladybird beetle species. Low levels of parthenogenesisRickettsia associated with male-killing in a buprestid beetle EILLEEN T. LAWSON , TIMOTHY A populations of the buprestid leaf-mining beetle, Brachys tessellatus, from central South Carolina, USA, show

  6. Quaternionic Killing Spinors W. Kramer*, U. Semmelmanny, G. Weingartz

    E-print Network

    Weingart, Gregor

    Quaternionic Killing Spinors W. Kramer*, U bound for the spectrum of the Dirac opera* *tor on quaternionic K"ahler manifolds. In the present as an eigenvalue. We give an equivalent formulation in terms of a* * quaternionic Killing equation and show

  7. Quasistationary distributions for one-dimensional diffusions with killing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Steinsaltz; Steven N. Evans

    2004-01-01

    We extend some results on the convergence of one-dimensional diffusions killed at the boundary, conditioned on extended survival, to the case of general killing on the interior. We show, under fairly general conditions, that a diffusion conditioned on long survival either runs off to infinity almost surely, or almost surely converges to a quasistationary distribution given by the lowest eigenfunction

  8. Controlling the Pine-Killing Woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, with Nematodes

    E-print Network

    Chapter 12 Controlling the Pine-Killing Woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, with Nematodes Robin A. Bedding Abstract The pine-killing woodwasp Sirex noctilio, a native to Eurasia/Morocco, was accidentally introduced are described for liberating nematodes in pine plantations. The nematode has caused major crashes in S. noctilio

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Kills Caenorhabditis elegans by Cyanide Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LARRY A. GALLAGHER; COLIN MANOIL

    2001-01-01

    In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aerugi- nosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a

  10. PDE5 Inhibitors Enhance Celecoxib Killing in Multiple Tumor Types

    PubMed Central

    BOOTH, LAURENCE; ROBERTS, JANE L.; CRUICKSHANKS, NICHOLA; TAVALLAI, SEYEDMEHRAD; WEBB, TIMOTHY; SAMUEL, PETER; CONLEY, ADAM; BINION, BRITTANY; YOUNG, HAROLD F.; POKLEPOVIC, ANDREW; SPIEGEL, SARAH; DENT, PAUL

    2015-01-01

    The present studies determined whether clinically relevant phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors interacted with a clinically relevant NSAID, celecoxib, to kill tumor cells. Celecoxib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to kill multiple tumor cell types. Celecoxib and sildenafil killed ex vivo primary human glioma cells as well as their associated activated microglia. Knock down of PDE5 recapitulated the effects of PDE5 inhibitor treatment; the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME suppressed drug combination toxicity. The effects of celecoxib were COX2 independent. Over-expression of c-FLIP-s or knock down of CD95/FADD significantly reduced killing by the drug combination. CD95 activation was dependent on nitric oxide and ceramide signaling. CD95 signaling activated the JNK pathway and inhibition of JNK suppressed cell killing. The drug combination inactivated mTOR and increased the levels of autophagy and knock down of Beclin1 or ATG5 strongly suppressed killing by the drug combination. The drug combination caused an ER stress response; knock down of IRE1?/XBP1 enhanced killing whereas knock down of eIF2?/ATF4/CHOP suppressed killing. Sildenafil and celecoxib treatment suppressed the growth of mammary tumors in vivo. Collectively our data demonstrate that clinically achievable concentrations of celecoxib and sildenafil have the potential to be a new therapeutic approach for cancer. PMID:25303541

  11. Synergy of human neutrophils with fluconazole in killing Candida species.

    PubMed

    Brummer, E; Stevens, D A

    1996-01-01

    The killing of Candida species by human neutrophils in a long-term 24-h assay and possible synergy with fluconazole (FCZ) for killing was investigated. The test medium (TM) consisted of RPMI-1640, penicillin and streptomycin (P/S), and 10% fresh autologous serum. TM alone was highly fungistatic for Candida species compared to TM without serum. When neutrophils were cocultured in TM with Candida species for 24 h the inoculum colony-forming units (CFU) were always significantly reduced (killing) by 58 to 99%. FCZ was tested over a range of 1-500 micrograms/ml, and though almost always fungistatic itself, it synergized with neutrophils for significantly increased killing of C. albicans (isolate Sh27) (P < 0.01) and C. albicans (isolate 94-20) (P < 0.05). Killing of non-albicans Candida species was so efficient in the absence of FCZ that demonstration of synergy with FCZ was difficult. PMID:8981777

  12. KILLING FORMS ON G2 AND Spin7MANIFOLDS UWE SEMMELMANN

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    KILLING FORMS ON G2­ AND Spin7­MANIFOLDS UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. Killing forms on Riemannian that on a compact manifold with holonomy G2 or Spin7 any Killing form has to be parallel. The main tool, 58J50 1. Introduction Killing forms are a natural generalization of Killing vector fields

  13. On pseudo-Riemannian manifolds with many Killing spinors

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseevsky, D. V. [University of Edinburgh and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences JCMB, The King's Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Cortes, V. [Department Mathematik und Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik Universitaet Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 55, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-02-02

    Let M be a pseudo-Riemannian spin manifold of dimension n and signature s and denote by N the rank of the real spinor bundle. We prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits more than (3/4)N independent Killing spinors with the same Killing number, unless n {identical_to} 1(mod 4) and s {identical_to} 3(mod 4). We also prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits k{sub +} independent Killing spinors with Killing number {lambda} and k{sub -} independent Killing spinors with Killing number -{lambda} such that k{sub +}+k{sub -}>(3/2)N, unless n {identical_to} s {identical_to} 3(mod 4). Similarly, a pseudo-Riemannian manifold with more than (3/4)N independent conformal Killing spinors is conformally locally homogeneous. For (positive or negative) definite metrics, the bounds (3/4)N and (3/2)N in the above results can be relaxed to (1/2)N and N, respectively. Furthermore, we prove that a pseudo-Riemannnian spin manifold with more than (3/4)N parallel spinors is flat and that (1/4)N parallel spinors suffice if the metric is definite. Similarly, a Riemannnian spin manifold with more than (3/8)N Killing spinors with the Killing number {lambda}(set-membership sign)R has constant curvature 4{lambda}{sup 2}. For Lorentzian or negative definite metrics the same is true with the bound (1/2)N. Finally, we give a classification of (not necessarily complete) Riemannian manifolds admitting Killing spinors, which provides an inductive construction of such manifolds.

  14. Vehicle barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hirsh, Robert A. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

  15. REGISTRANT INFORMATION VEHICLE INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Wlodawer, Alexander

    REGISTRANT INFORMATION VEHICLE INFORMATION Vehicle Make: Vehicle Model:: Vehicle Year:Body Style: Vehicle Color: VIN # : LICENSE INFORMATION Tag # : Expiration Date :State : INSURANCE INFORMATION Policy OrganizationCategoryGrade / Rank StateDOB Sex Race Height Weight Eye Color Hair Color Driver's License

  16. Unmanned Vehicle Situation Awareness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Adams

    This paper presents the concept of unmanned vehicle situation awareness and provides a discussion of how unmanned vehicle situation awareness can be defined based upon human situation awareness. A broadly accepted human situation awareness definition is directly applied to the notion of unmanned vehicle situation awareness. The paper also discusses unique unmanned vehicle aspects that will influence unmanned vehicle situation

  17. Managing Threat, Cost, and Incentive to Kill: The Short- and Long-Term Effects of Intervention in Mass Killings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathman, Jacob D.; Wood, Reed M.

    2011-01-01

    How do third-party interventions affect the severity of mass killings? The authors theorize that episodes of mass killing are the consequence of two factors: (1) the threat perceptions of the perpetrators and (2) the cost of implementing genocidal policies relative to other alternatives. To reduce genocidal hostilities, interveners must address…

  18. The use of stable isotope ratio analysis to distinguish multiple prey kill events from mass kill events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack N. Fenner

    2008-01-01

    Archaeologists working with prey animal bonebeds are interested in determining whether the animals were obtained through a single, mass kill event or instead accumulated over time from multiple hunting events. This is often difficult to determine. The author investigated the use of stable isotope ratio analysis to distinguish accumulations of individuals derived from multiple populations from mass kills of individuals

  19. Buprenorphine kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy E S Bullingham; Henry J McQuay; Andrew Moore; Martin R D Bennett

    1980-01-01

    Buprenorphine kinetics was determined in surgical patients using radioimmunoassay. Buprenorphine was measured in the plasma of 24 patients who had received 0.3 mg buprenorphine intraoperatively. After 3 hr 10 of these patients then received a further 0.3 mg buprenorphine intravenously for postoperative pain relief, and 11 patients were given 0.3 mg intramuscularly: again, plasma levels were measured for 3 hr.

  20. Glochidioboside Kills Pathogenic Bacteria by Membrane Perturbation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heejeong; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Lee, Dong Gun

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of glochidioboside and determine its mechanism of action. Glochidioboside has been reported to be isolated from some plants but the underlying biological properties have remained largely obscure until now. To identify the antibacterial activity of all biological properties, pathogenic bacteria susceptibility test was performed, and the result shows that the compound displays remarkable antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria not to mention general pathogen. To demonstrate membrane disruption and depolarization, SYTOX green and bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol were used with Escherichia coli O157, and indicated that glochidioboside affected cytoplasmic membranes by permeabilization and depolarization, respectively. Calcein efflux was evident in a membrane model that encapsulated fluorescent dye, and supported the hypothesis of a membrane-active mechanism. To confirm the release of intracellular matrix owing to membrane damage, the movements of potassium ion were observed; the results indicated that the cells treated with glochidioboside leaked potassium ion, thus the damage induced by the compounds lead to leaking intracellular components. We propose that glochidioboside kills pathogenic bacteria via perturbation of integrity of the membrane. PMID:25820208

  1. Combinatorial stresses kill pathogenic Candida species.

    PubMed

    Kaloriti, Despoina; Tillmann, Anna; Cook, Emily; Jacobsen, Mette; You, Tao; Lenardon, Megan; Ames, Lauren; Barahona, Mauricio; Chandrasekaran, Komelapriya; Coghill, George; Goodman, Daniel; Gow, Neil A R; Grebogi, Celso; Ho, Hsueh-Lui; Ingram, Piers; McDonagh, Andrew; de Moura, Alessandro P S; Pang, Wei; Puttnam, Melanie; Radmaneshfar, Elahe; Romano, Maria Carmen; Silk, Daniel; Stark, Jaroslav; Stumpf, Michael; Thiel, Marco; Thorne, Thomas; Usher, Jane; Yin, Zhikang; Haynes, Ken; Brown, Alistair J P

    2012-10-01

    Pathogenic microbes exist in dynamic niches and have evolved robust adaptive responses to promote survival in their hosts. The major fungal pathogens of humans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, are exposed to a range of environmental stresses in their hosts including osmotic, oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Significant efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the adaptive responses to each of these stresses. In the wild, cells are frequently exposed simultaneously to combinations of these stresses and yet the effects of such combinatorial stresses have not been explored. We have developed a common experimental platform to facilitate the comparison of combinatorial stress responses in C. glabrata and C. albicans. This platform is based on the growth of cells in buffered rich medium at 30°C, and was used to define relatively low, medium and high doses of osmotic (NaCl), oxidative (H(2)O(2)) and nitrosative stresses (e.g., dipropylenetriamine (DPTA)-NONOate). The effects of combinatorial stresses were compared with the corresponding individual stresses under these growth conditions. We show for the first time that certain combinations of combinatorial stress are especially potent in terms of their ability to kill C. albicans and C. glabrata and/or inhibit their growth. This was the case for combinations of osmotic plus oxidative stress and for oxidative plus nitrosative stress. We predict that combinatorial stresses may be highly significant in host defences against these pathogenic yeasts. PMID:22463109

  2. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    Papers on the following subjects are presented: (1) multivariable flight control synthesis and literal robustness analysis for an aeroelastic vehicles; (2) numerical and literal aeroelastic-vehicle-model reduction for feedback control synthesis; and (3) dynamics of aerospace vehicles.

  3. Generalized Killing-Yano equations in D=5 gauged supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiz?ák, David; Kunduri, Hari K.; Yasui, Yukinori

    2009-07-01

    We propose a generalization of the (conformal) Killing-Yano equations relevant to D=5 minimal gauged supergravity. The generalization stems from the fact that the dual of the Maxwell flux, the 3-form ?F, couples naturally to particles in the background as a ‘torsion’. Killing-Yano tensors in the presence of torsion preserve most of the properties of the standard Killing-Yano tensors — exploited recently for the higher-dimensional rotating black holes of vacuum gravity with cosmological constant. In particular, the generalized closed conformal Killing-Yano 2-form gives rise to the tower of generalized closed conformal Killing-Yano tensors of increasing rank which in turn generate the tower of Killing tensors. An example of a generalized Killing-Yano tensor is found for the Chong-Cveti?-Lü-Pope black hole spacetime [Z.W. Chong, M. Cvetic, H. Lu, C.N. Pope, hep-th/0506029]. Such a tensor stands behind the separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi, Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations in this background.

  4. Protein chlorination in neutrophil phagosomes and correlation with bacterial killing.

    PubMed

    Green, Jessie N; Kettle, Anthony J; Winterbourn, Christine C

    2014-12-01

    Neutrophils ingest and kill bacteria within phagocytic vacuoles. We investigated where they produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) following phagocytosis by measuring conversion of protein tyrosine residues to 3-chlorotyrosine. We also examined how varying chloride availability affects the relationship between HOCl formation in the phagosome and bacterial killing. Phagosomal proteins, isolated following ingestion of opsonized magnetic beads, contained 11.4 Cl-Tyr per thousand tyrosine residues. This was 12 times higher than the level in proteins from the rest of the neutrophil and ~6 times higher than previously recorded for protein from ingested bacteria. These results indicate that HOCl production is largely localized to the phagosomes and a substantial proportion reacts with phagosomal protein before reaching the microbe. This will in part detoxify the oxidant but should also form chloramines which could contribute to the killing mechanism. Neutrophils were either suspended in chloride-free gluconate buffer or pretreated with formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, a procedure that has been reported to deplete intracellular chloride. These treatments, alone or in combination, decreased both chlorination in phagosomes and killing of Staphylococcus aureus by up to 50%. There was a strong positive correlation between the two effects. Killing was predominantly oxidant and myeloperoxidase dependent (88% inhibition by diphenylene iodonium and 78% by azide). These results imply that lowering the chloride concentration limits HOCl production and oxidative killing. They support a role for HOCl generation, rather than an alternative myeloperoxidase activity, in the killing process. PMID:25236747

  5. Potassium channels mediate killing by human natural killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichter, L.; Sidell N.; Hagiwara, S.

    1986-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood spontaneously recognize and kill a wide variety of target cells. It has been suggested that ion channels are involved in the killing process because there is a Ca-dependent stage and because killing by presensitized cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which in many respects resembles NK killing, is associated with changes in K and Na transport in the target cell. Using the whole-cell variation of the patch-clamp technique, the authors found a voltage-dependent potassium (K/sup +/) current in NK cells. The K/sup +/ current was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the K-channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and quinidine and by the traditional Ca-channel blockers verapamil and Cd/sup 2 +/. They tested the effects of ion-channel blockers on killing of two commonly used target cell lines: K562, which is derived from a human myeloid leukemia, and U937, which is derived from a human histiocytic leukemia. Killing of K562 target cells, determined in a standard /sup 51/Cr-release assay, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by verapamil, quinidine, Cd/sup 2 +/, and 4-aminopyridine at concentrations comparable to those that blocked the K/sup +/ current in NK cells. In K562 target cells only a voltage-dependent Na= current was found and it was blocked by concentrations of tetrodotoxin that had no effect on killing. Killing of U937 target cells was also inhibited by the two ion-channel blockers tested, quinidine and verapamil. In this cell line only a small K/sup +/ current was found that was similar to the one in NK cells. The findings show that there are K channels in NK cells and that these channels play a necessary role in the killing process.

  6. THE RATE OF KILLING OF CLADOCERANS AT HIGHER TEMPERATURES

    PubMed Central

    Brown, L. A.; Crozier, W. J.

    1927-01-01

    In spite of obvious possible sources of disturbance, the "velocity of killing" of organisms at supranormal temperatures, properly determined, tends to adhere to the Arrhenius equation for relation to temperature. Over certain ranges of temperature the relationship between log velocity of killing and 1/T° abs. is linear. Interpreted as due to the thermal denaturing of protein, it is possible that differences between the temperature characteristics for the killing process in closely related forms may be suggestive in regard to the mechanism of the denaturing. The temperature limits within which the linear relationships appear may be classed among those temperature levels which are critical temperatures for protoplasmic organization. PMID:19872376

  7. Special Killing forms on toric Sasaki-Einstein manifolds

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Slesar; Mihai Visinescu; Gabriel Eduard Vilcu

    2014-09-29

    In this paper we study the interplay between complex coordinates on the Calabi-Yau metric cone and the special Killing forms on the toric Sasaki-Einstein manifold. In the general case we give a procedure to locally construct the special Killing forms. In the final part we exemplify the general scheme in the case of the $5-$dimensional $Y^{p,q}$ spaces, identifying the additional special Killing 2-forms which were previously obtained by the second author of the present paper, but with a different method, in [Mod. Phys. Lett. A 27 (2012) 1250217].

  8. Reducibility of Killing tensors in d>4 NHEK geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyavsky, Dmitry

    2014-09-01

    An extremal rotating black hole in arbitrary dimension, along with time translations and rotations, possesses a number of hidden symmetries characterized by the second rank Killing tensors. As is known, in the near horizon limit the isometry group of the metric is enhanced to include the conformal factor SO(2,1). It is demonstrated that for the near horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry in arbitrary dimension one of the Killing tensors decomposes into a quadratic combination of the Killing vectors corresponding to the conformal group, while the remaining ones are functionally independent.

  9. HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Schreck, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)][South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Panozzo, J. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States); Chang-Liu, C.-M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct`, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {Gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

  10. Forestry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Power Pack II provides an economical means of moving a power source into remote roadless forest areas. It was developed by Prof. Miles and his associates, working in cooperation with the University of California's Department of Forestry. The team combined its own design of an all-terrain vehicle with a suspension system based on the NASA load equalization technology. Result is an intermediate-sized unit which carries a power source and the powered tools to perform a variety of forest management tasks which cannot be done economically with current equipment. Power Pack II can traverse very rough terrain and climb a 60 degree slope; any one of the wheels can move easily over an obstacle larger than itself. Work is being done on a more advanced Power Pack III.

  11. Kinetic Theory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wolfgang Christian

    This page contains two Physlets that are able to share data using their common superclass, SApplet. The Molecular Physlet is able to tag a particle as a data source. In particular, any tagged particle can deliver x, y, vx, and vy values to a data listener. This script tags two particles and assigns these data sources to two different series in the DataGraph Physlet. The connection can show any analytic function of the position and velocity components including the particle speed or kinetic energy.

  12. On the Lie subalgebra of Killing-Milne and Killing-Cartan vector fields in Newtonian space-time

    E-print Network

    N. Chamel

    2014-12-18

    The Galilean (and more generally Milne) invariance of Newtonian theory allows for Killing vector fields of a general kind, whereby the Lie derivative of a field is not required to vanish but only to be cancellable by some infinitesimal Galilean (respectively Milne) gauge transformation. In this paper, it is shown that both the Killing-Milne vector fields, which preserve the background Newtonian space-time structure, and the Killing-Cartan vector fields, which in addition preserve the gravitational field, form a Lie subalgebra.

  13. Killing superalgebra deformations of ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds

    E-print Network

    José Figueroa-O'Farrill; Bert Vercnocke

    2007-08-28

    We explore Lie superalgebra deformations of the Killing superalgebras of some ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. We prove the rigidity of the Poincare superalgebras in types I, IIA and IIB, as well as of the Killing superalgebra of the Freund-Rubin vacuum of type IIB supergravity. We also prove rigidity of the Killing superalgebras of the NS5, D0, D3, D4 and D5 branes, whereas we exhibit the possible deformations of the D1, D2, D6 and D7 brane Killing superalgebras, as well as of that of the type II fundamental string solutions. We relate the superalgebra deformations of the D2 and D6 branes to those of the (delocalised) M2 brane and the Kaluza-Klein monopole, respectively. The good behaviour under Kaluza-Klein reduction suggests that the deformed superalgebras ought to have a geometric interpretation.

  14. (M-theory-)Killing spinors on symmetric spaces

    E-print Network

    Hustler, Noel

    2015-01-01

    We show how the theory of invariant principal bundle connections for reductive homogeneous spaces can be applied to determine the holonomy of generalised Killing spinor covariant derivatives of the form $D= \

  15. Hidden symmetries and killing tensors on curved spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ianus, S. [University of Bucharest, Department of Mathematics (Romania); Visinescu, M., E-mail: mvisin@theory.nipne.r [Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Department of Theoretical Physics (Romania); Vilcu, G. E. [Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (Romania)

    2010-11-15

    Higher-order symmetries corresponding to Killing tensors are investigated. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and nonstandard supersymmetries is pointed out. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures as dynamical algebras or even infinite dimensional algebras or superalgebras. The general results are applied to space-times which appear in modern studies. One presents the infinite dimensional superalgebra of Dirac type operators on the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space that can be seen as a twisted loop algebra. The existence of the conformal Killing-Yano tensors is investigated for some spaces with mixed 3-Sasakian structures.

  16. Male-killing bacteria in insects: mechanisms, incidence, and implications.

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, G. D.; Jiggins, F. M.

    2000-01-01

    Bacteria that are vertically transmitted through female hosts and kill male hosts that inherit them were first recorded in insects during the 1950s. Recent studies have shown these "male-killers" to be diverse and have led to a reappraisal of the biology of many groups of bacteria. Rickettsia, for instance, have been regarded as human pathogens transmitted by arthropods. The finding of a male-killing Rickettsia obligately associated with an insect suggests that the genus' members may be primarily associated with arthropods and are only sometimes pathogens of vertebrates. We examined both how killing of male hosts affects the dynamics of inherited bacteria and how male-killing bacteria affect their host populations. Finally, we assessed the potential use of these microorganisms in the control of insect populations. PMID:10905965

  17. Why Are Bad Products So Hard to Kill?

    E-print Network

    Simester, Duncan

    It is puzzling that firms often continue to invest in product development projects when they should know that demand will be low. We argue that bad products are hard to kill because firms face an inherent conflict when ...

  18. Surface structure influences contact killing of bacteria by copper

    PubMed Central

    Zeiger, Marco; Solioz, Marc; Edongué, Hervais; Arzt, Eduard; Schneider, Andreas S

    2014-01-01

    Copper kills bacteria rapidly by a mechanism that is not yet fully resolved. The antibacterial property of copper has raised interest in its use in hospitals, in place of plastic or stainless steel. On the latter surfaces, bacteria can survive for days or even weeks. Copper surfaces could thus provide a powerful accessory measure to curb nosocomial infections. We here investigated the effect of the copper surface structure on the efficiency of contact killing of Escherichia coli, an aspect which so far has received very little attention. It was shown that electroplated copper surfaces killed bacteria more rapidly than either polished copper or native rolled copper. The release of ionic copper was also more rapid from electroplated copper compared to the other materials. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria nudged into the grooves between the copper grains of deposited copper. The findings suggest that, in terms of contact killing, more efficient copper surfaces can be engineered. PMID:24740976

  19. Drought and Beetle-Killed Piñon Pines in Arizona

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Drought and beetle-killed piñon pines in Walnut Canyon National Monument near Flagstaff, Arizona, amid some surviving trees. Forest drought stress is highly correlated with mortality from poor growth, bark beetle outbreaks, and high-severity fire....

  20. Drought and Beetle-Killed Piñon Pines in Arizona

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Drought and beetle-killed piñon pines in Walnut Canyon National Monument near Flagstaff, Arizona, amid a few surviving trees. Forest drought stress is strongly correlated with tree mortality from poor growth, bark beetle outbreaks, and high-severity fire....

  1. Conformal Killing vector fields and a virial theorem

    E-print Network

    José F. Cariñena; Irina Gheorghiu; Eduardo Martínez; Patrícia Santos

    2014-10-08

    The virial theorem is formulated both intrinsically and in local coordinates for a Lagrangian system of mechanical type on a Riemann manifold. An import case studied in this paper is that of an affine virial function associated to a vector field on the configuration manifold. The special cases of a virial function associated to a Killing, a homothetic and a conformal Killing vector field are considered and the corresponding virial theorems are established for this type of functions.

  2. Approximate Killing vectors on S{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Gregory B. [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27006 (United States); Whiting, Bernard F. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    We present a new method for computing the best approximation to a Killing vector on closed 2-surfaces that are topologically S{sup 2}. When solutions of Killing's equation do not exist, this method is shown to yield results superior to those produced by existing methods. In addition, this method appears to provide a new tool for studying the horizon geometry of distorted black holes.

  3. Flat deformation of a spacetime admitting two Killing fields

    E-print Network

    Josep Llosa; Jaume Carot

    2010-05-10

    It is shown that given an analytic Lorentzian metric on a 4-manifold, $g$, which admits two Killing vector fields, then it exists a local deformation law $\\eta = a g + b H$, where $H$ is a 2-dimensional projector, such that $\\eta$ is flat and admits the same Killing vectors. We also characterize the particular case when the projector $H$ coincides with the quotient metric. We apply some of our results to general stationary axisymmetric spacetimes

  4. Killing of bacteria with electric pulses of high field strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hfilsheger; J. Potel; E.-G. Niemann

    1981-01-01

    Summary Bacteria of the typeE. coli K12 have been treated in experiments using high-voltage pulses of short time (µs) as a killing agent. The role of different experimental parameters has been studied: kind of electrolyte, concentration, length of pulses, field strength, pH and temperature. Electrolytes with bivalent cations were found to reduce the lethal action. The relative rate of killed

  5. Superoxide Dismutase Protects Escherichia coli against Killing by Human Serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Mcmanus; P. D. Josephy

    1995-01-01

    To assess the role of superoxide dismutase in protecting Escherichia coli from killing by human serum and neutrophils, we constructed isogenic, smooth-lipopolysaccharide K-12 strains, either sod wild-type, ?sodA, or ?sodA?sodB. The ?sodA?sodB strain was killed by serum much more readily than either the wild-type or ?sodA strain. After allowing for this serum sensitivity difference, the ?sodA?sodB strain also showed increased

  6. Conformal Killing vector fields and a virial theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariñena, José F.; Gheorghiu, Irina; Martínez, Eduardo; Santos, Patrícia

    2014-11-01

    The virial theorem is formulated both intrinsically and in local coordinates for a Lagrangian system of a mechanical type on a Riemann manifold. An important case studied in this paper is that of an affine virial function associated with a vector field on the configuration manifold. The special cases of a virial function associated with a Killing, a homothetic, and a conformal Killing vector field are considered and the corresponding virial theorems are established for these types of functions.

  7. Are Road Kills Valid Indicators of Armadillo Population Structure?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. LOUGHRY; COLLEEN M. McDONOUGH

    Wecollected 3 yr of data on road-killed nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) to determine if these individuals were representative of the population as a whole. Comparisons between road kills and an adjacent live-caught population revealed no differences in sex ratios or the reproductive condition of adult females. However, there was a significant difference in the age structure of the two groups,

  8. On completeness of orbits of Killing vector fields

    E-print Network

    Piotr T. Chrusciel

    1993-04-21

    A Theorem is proved which reduces the problem of completeness of orbits of Killing vector fields in maximal globally hyperbolic, say vacuum, space--times to some properties of the orbits near the Cauchy surface. In particular it is shown that all Killing orbits are complete in maximal developements of asymptotically flat Cauchy data, or of Cauchy data prescribed on a compact manifold. This result gives a significant strengthening of the uniqueness theorems for black holes.

  9. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING NORTHWEST; A PORTION OF THE SCALDING TANK IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT, CENTER; CONCRETE PYLONS AT LOWER RIGHT SUPPORTED BY SCRAPING MACHINE; FINAL SCRAPING WAS DONE BY WORKERS STANDING ON ELEVATED PLATFORMS AT LEFT; BATHTUB-SHAPED CART NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO WAS USED TO TRANSPORT OFFAL TO RENDERING AREAS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  10. Solar powered vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomei

    1986-01-01

    A solar powered vehicle is described which consists of: an electric motor for propelling the vehicle; electric storage batteries mounted within the vehicle for providing electrical power to the electric motor; and solar panel means mounted on the exterior of the vehicle and electrically connected to the storage batteries for converting incident solar radiation into electricity for charging the batteries;

  11. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    Annual data released on the number of on-road alternative fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles made available by both the original equipment manufacturers and aftermarket vehicle conversion facilities. Data on the use of alternative fueled vehicles and the amount of fuel they consume is also available.

  12. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  13. Green Vehicle Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is geared toward consumers to help them choose the most fuel-efficient and clean vehicles. Users can download vehicle lists, look up vehicle ratings, learn more about reducing vehicle pollution, and use the links section to find further information. This is a timely site for a period when Americans might well want to think about reducing their dependence on oil.

  14. The involvement of drugs in drivers of motor vehicles killed in Australian road traffic crashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf H. Drummer; Jim Gerostamoulos; Helen Batziris; Mark Chu; John Caplehorn; Michael D. Robertson; Philip Swann

    2004-01-01

    A multi-center case-control study was conducted on 3398 fatally-injured drivers to assess the effect of alcohol and drug use on the likelihood of them being culpable. Crashes investigated were from three Australian states (Victoria, New South Wales and Western Australia). The control group of drug- and alcohol-free drivers comprised 50.1% of the study population. A previously validated method of responsibility

  15. Mass impacts on fuel economies of conventional vs. hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    An, F.; Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2004-01-01

    The strong correlation between vehicle weight and fuel economy for conventional vehicles (CVs) is considered common knowledge, and the relationship of mass reduction to fuel consumption reduction for conventional vehicles (CVs) is often cited without separating effects of powertrain vs. vehicle body (glider), nor on the ground of equivalent vehicle performance level. This paper challenges the assumption that this relationship is easily summarized. Further, for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) the relationship between mass, performance and fuel consumption is not the same as for CVs, and vary with hybrid types. For fully functioning (all wheel regeneration) hybrid vehicles, where battery pack and motor(s) have enough power and energy storage, a very large fraction of kinetic energy is recovered and engine idling is effectively eliminated. This paper assesses two important impacts of shifting from conventional to hybrid vehicles in terms of the mass vs. fuel economy relationship - (1) significant improvements in fuel economy with little or no change in mass, and (2) once a switch to hybrid powertrains has been made, the effectiveness of mass reduction in improving fuel economy will be diminished relative to conventional vehicles. In this paper, we discuss vehicle tractive load breakdowns and impacts of hybridization on vehicle efficiency, discuss capture of kinetic energy by conversion to electrical energy via regenerative braking, assess benefits of shutting off the engine when the vehicle does not require power, and investigate energy losses associated with vehicle mass.

  16. THE PRECISE TAIL BEHAVIOR OF THE TOTAL PROGENY OF A KILLED BRANCHING RANDOM WALK

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE PRECISE TAIL BEHAVIOR OF THE TOTAL PROGENY OF A KILLED BRANCHING RANDOM WALK ELIE AIDEKON line with a killing barrier at zero: starting from a nonnegative point, particles reproduce and move independently, but are killed when they touch the negative half-line. The population of the killed branching

  17. July/August 2012 Newsletter Subscriptions Bee-Kill Survey USDA APHIS Survey Canadian Nosema Studies

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    ________________________________________________________________________________ Newsletter Subscriptions Bee-Kill Survey USDA APHIS Survey Canadian Nosema Studies, but instead of Subscribe, you use the Unsubscribe. Bee-Kill Survey on Acute Bee Kills Limited response to their formal bee kill report solicitation prompted the US EPA Pesticide Program Dialog Committee (PPDC

  18. Cell kill kinetics and cell cycle effects of taxol on human and hamster ovarian cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narima M. Lopes; Earl G. Adams; Thomas W. Pitts; Bijoy K. Bhuyan

    1993-01-01

    Taxol is a clinically active anticancer drug, which exerts its cytotoxicity by the unique mechanism of polymerizing tubulin monomers into microtubules and stabilizing microtubules. Our studies with ovarian (hamster CHO and human A2780) cells showed that taxol is a phase-specific agent that is much more cytotoxic to mitotic cells than interphase cells. First, the dose-survival pattern of taxol resembled that

  19. Wound healing properties and kill kinetics of Clerodendron splendens G. Don, a Ghanaian wound healing plant

    PubMed Central

    Gbedema, Stephen Y.; Emelia, Kisseih; Francis, Adu; Kofi, Annan; Eric, Woode

    2010-01-01

    As part of our general objective of investigating indigenous plants used in wound healing in Ghana, we hereby report our findings from some in vitro and in vivo studies related to wound healing activities of Clerodendron splendens G. Don (Verbanaceae). Methanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant was tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Micrococcus flavus, as well as resistant strains of Staph. aureus SA1199B, RN4220 and XU212), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteous mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Candida albicans using the micro-well dilution method. Survivor–time studies of the microorganisms, radical scavenging activity using 2,2’-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and various in vivo wound healing activity studies were also conducted on the extract. The extract exhibited biostatic action against all the test microorganisms with a Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) ranging between 64 and 512 ?g/ml and a free radical scavenging property with an IC50 value of 103.2 ?g/ml. The results of the in vivo wound healing tests showed that upon application of C. splendens ointment, there was a reduction in the epithelization period from 26.7 days (control) to 13.6 days along with a marked decrease in the scar area from 54.2 mm2 (control) to 25.2 mm2. Significant increase in the tensile strength and hydroxyproline content were also observed as compared to the control and was comparable to nitrofurazone. The above results appear to justify the traditional use of C. splendens in wound healing and treatment of skin infections in Ghana. PMID:21808542

  20. Alternate vehicles for engine/vehicle optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatasubramanyam, G.; Martin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    The space shuttle main engine, full flow staged combustion, integrated modular engine concept, split expander, and expander bleed rocket engine cycles were studied for use on Single-Stage-to-Orbit fully reusable vehicles. The vehicle uses vertical take-off and horizontal landing and liquid hydrogen rockets for propulsion. The PROPSIZE computer code was modified for use on the available computers. Vehicle sizing was done after trajectory optimization for various engine designs. The various rocket engine cycles were compared and it was found that the full flow staged combustion cycle had the lowest vehicle dry mass. The split expander cycle could have advantages in safety and cooling which could make it the preferred choice in some cases. Comparison to previous work with two-stage heavy-lift vehicles showed that the same ranking of the cycles was found for both vehicle concepts.

  1. Requirements for the crash protection of older vehicle passengers.

    PubMed

    Morris, Andrew; Welsh, Ruth; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2003-01-01

    This study compares injury outcomes in vehicle crashes involving different age groups of belted passengers. Two datasets were considered. Firstly, UK national data revealed that younger passengers are much more likely to be involved in crashes per million miles travelled compared to older passengers although older passengers are much more likely to be killed or seriously injured compared to younger passengers. Secondly, in-depth vehicle crash injury data were examined to determine some of the underlying reasons for the enhanced injury risk amongst older passengers. In crashes of approximately equal severity, the older passenger group were significantly more likely to be fatally injured in frontal crashes (p<0.001). However young passengers were as equally likely to be killed in struck-side crashes compared to the older group. The results also showed that older passengers sustained more serious injuries to the chest region in frontal crashes compared with the younger aged group (p<0.0001) and it is this body region that is particularly problematic. When the data were analysed further, it was found that a large proportion of passengers were female and that in the majority of cases, the seat belt was responsible for injury. Since by the year 2030, 1 in 4 persons will be aged over 65 in most OECD countries, the results suggest a need for intervention through vehicle design including in-vehicle crashworthiness systems that take into account reduced tolerance to impact with ageing. PMID:12941224

  2. Immunology 101 Killing in acute viral infections Killing in chronic viral infections Appendix I Appendix II Extra Mathematical models of CD8 T cell responses

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    Immunology 101 Killing in acute viral infections Killing in chronic viral infections Appendix I in vivo Vitaly V. Ganusov Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM, USA 1 / 55 #12;Immunology 101 1 Immunology 101 Immune system 2 Killing in acute viral infections Experimental details Model 3

  3. Killing-Yano equations and G-structures

    E-print Network

    G. Papadopoulos

    2008-04-28

    We solve the Killing-Yano equation on manifolds with a $G$-structure for $G=SO(n), U(n), SU(n), Sp(n)\\cdot Sp(1), Sp(n), G_2$ and $Spin(7)$. Solutions include nearly-K\\"ahler, weak holonomy $G_2$, balanced SU(n) and holonomy $G$ manifolds. As an application, we find that particle probes on $AdS_4\\times X$ compactifications of type IIA and 11-dimensional supergravity admit a ${\\cal W}$-type of symmetry generated by the fundamental forms. We also explore the ${\\cal W}$-symmetries of string and particle actions in heterotic and common sector supersymmetric backgrounds. In the heterotic case, the generators of the ${\\cal W}$-symmetries completely characterize the solutions of the gravitino Killing spinor equation, and the structure constants of the ${\\cal W}$-symmetry algebra depend on the solution of the dilatino Killing spinor equation.

  4. Killing and Noether Symmetries of Plane Symmetric Spacetime

    E-print Network

    Shamir, M Farasat; Bhatti, Akhlaq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to investigate the Killing and Noether symmetries of static plane symmetric spacetime. For this purpose, five different cases have been discussed. The Killing and Noether symmetries of Minkwoski spacetime in cartesian coordinates are calculated as a special case and it is found that Lie algebra of the Lagrangian is 10 and 17 dimensional respectively. The symmetries of Taub's universe, anti-deSitter universe, self similar solutions of in?finite kind for parallel perfect fluid case and self similar solutions of infinite kind for parallel dust case are also explored. In all the cases, the Noether generators are calculated in the presence of gauge term. All these examples justify the conjecture that Killing symmetries form a subalgebra of Noether symmetries [1].

  5. Killing and Noether Symmetries of Plane Symmetric Spacetime

    E-print Network

    M. Farasat Shamir; Adil Jhangeer; Akhlaq Ahmad Bhatti

    2015-06-26

    This paper is devoted to investigate the Killing and Noether symmetries of static plane symmetric spacetime. For this purpose, five different cases have been discussed. The Killing and Noether symmetries of Minkwoski spacetime in cartesian coordinates are calculated as a special case and it is found that Lie algebra of the Lagrangian is 10 and 17 dimensional respectively. The symmetries of Taub's universe, anti-deSitter universe, self similar solutions of in?finite kind for parallel perfect fluid case and self similar solutions of infinite kind for parallel dust case are also explored. In all the cases, the Noether generators are calculated in the presence of gauge term. All these examples justify the conjecture that Killing symmetries form a subalgebra of Noether symmetries [1].

  6. Reactive oxygen species-mediated bacterial killing by B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kovács, István; Horváth, Magdolna; Lányi, Árpád; Pethe?, Gábor L; Geiszt, Miklós

    2015-06-01

    Regulated production of ROS is mainly attributed to Nox family enzymes. In neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages, Nox2 has a crucial role in bacterial killing, and the absence of phagocytic ROS production leads to the development of CGD. Expression of Nox2 was also described in B lymphocytes, where the role of the enzyme is still poorly understood. Here, we show that peritoneal B cells, which were shown recently to possess phagocytic activity, have a high capacity to produce ROS in a Nox2-dependent manner. In phagocytosing B cells, intense intraphagosomal ROS production is detected. Finally, by studying 2 animal models of CGD, we demonstrate that phagocyte oxidase-deficient B cells have a reduced capacity to kill bacteria. Our observations extend the number of immune cell types that produce ROS to kill pathogens. PMID:25821233

  7. Almost-Killing conserved currents: A general mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Milton; Palenzuela, Carlos; Bona, Carles

    2014-01-01

    A new class of conserved currents, describing nongravitational energy-momentum density, is presented. The proposed currents do not require the existence of a (timelike) Killing vector, and are not restricted to spherically symmetric spacetimes (or similar ones, in which the Kodama vector can be defined). They are based instead on almost-Killing vectors, which could in principle be defined on generic spacetimes. We provide local arguments, based on energy density profiles in highly simplified (stationary, rigidly rotating) star models, which confirm the physical interest of these almost-Killing currents. A mass function is defined in this way for the spherical case, qualitatively different from the Hernández-Misner mass function. An elliptic equation determining the new mass function is derived for the Tolman-Bondi spherically symmetric dust metrics, including a simple solution for the Oppenheimer-Snyder collapse. The equations for the nonsymmetric case are shown to be of a mixed elliptic-hyperbolic nature.

  8. Killing and Noether Symmetries of Plane Symmetric Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, M. Farasat; Jhangeer, Adil; Bhatti, Akhlaq Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    This paper is devoted to investigate the Killing and Noether symmetries of static plane symmetric spacetime. For this purpose, five different cases have been discussed. The Killing and Noether symmetries of Minkowski spacetime in cartesian coordinates are calculated as a special case and it is found that Lie algebra of the Lagrangian is 10 and 17 dimensional respectively. The symmetries of Taub's universe, anti-deSitter universe, self similar solutions of infinite kind for parallel perfect fluid case and self similar solutions of infinite kind for parallel dust case are also explored. In all the cases, the Noether generators are calculated in the presence of gauge term. All these examples justify the conjecture that Killing symmetries form a subalgebra of Noether symmetries (Bokhari et al. in Int. J. Theor. Phys. 45:1063, 2006).

  9. Inflatable kill packers used in working over Kuwaiti wells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. (Baker Oil Tools, Houston, TX (US)); Conover, G. (Baker Service Tools, Houston, TX (US))

    1992-03-09

    This paper reports on inflatable packers which are being used with great success in post-well capping workover operations in Kuwait oil fields. In mid-January, about one kill packer was being run per day. Use is expected to increase in March when a second post-capping crew arrives. Of several thousand unconventional ideas submitted to Kuwait Oil Co. (KOC) for controlling the well fires left in the aftermath of lst year's Gulf War, only about a dozen were actually used. Inflatable kill packers, designed and manufactured by Baker Service Tools and marketed by Baker Oil Tools, were one of the ideas that proved effective. The kill packers are modifications of Baker's inflatable packers that have successfully been used in capping producers on many blowouts throughout the world, including the Piper Alpha disaster in the North Sea and the Saga blowout offshore Norway.

  10. QFT on homothetic Killing twist deformed curved spacetimes

    E-print Network

    Schenkel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We study the quantum field theory (QFT) of a free, real and massless scalar field on self-similar symmetric spacetimes, which are deformed by an abelian Drinfel'd twist constructed from a Killing and a homothetic Killing vector field. In contrast to deformations solely by Killing vector fields, such as the Moyal-Weyl Minkowski spacetime, the equation of motion and Green's operators are deformed. We show that there is a *-algebra isomorphism between the QFT on the deformed and the formal power series extension of the QFT on the undeformed spacetime. We study the convergent implementation of our deformations for toy-models. For these models it is found that there is a *-isomorphism between the deformed Weyl algebra and a reduced undeformed Weyl algebra, where certain strongly localized observables are excluded. Thus, our models realize the intuitive physical picture that noncommutative geometry prevents arbitrary localization in spacetime.

  11. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jacovides, L.J.; Cornell, E.P.; Kirk, R.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the energy utilization of gasoline and battery-electric powered special purpose vehicles is discussed along with the impact of electric cars on national energy consumption, the development of electric vehicles in Japan, the applicability of safety standards to electric and hybrid-vehicles, and crashworthiness tests on two electric vehicles. Aspects of energy storage are explored, taking into account a review of battery systems for electrically powered vehicles, the dynamic characterization of lead-acid batteries for vehicle applications, nickel-zinc storage batteries as energy sources for electric vehicles, and a high energy tubular battery for a 1800 kg payload electric delivery van. Subjects considered in connection with drive systems include the drive system of the DOE near-term electric vehicle, a high performance AC electric drive system, an electromechanical transmission for hybrid vehicle power trains, and a hybrid vehicle for fuel economy. Questions of vehicle development are examined, giving attention to the Electrovair electric car, special purpose urban cars, the system design of the electric test vehicle, a project for city center transport, and a digital computer program for simulating electric vehicle performance.

  12. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803

  13. Polymers used to direct kill fluids to blowout

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, J.W.; Holditch, S.A.

    1988-08-01

    In many reservoirs, it is difficult to establish communication between a relief well and a blowout well because of high fluid loss between the wells. In such cases, the polymer kill technique can be an important method to establish the required communication. This method will only work in very high permeability or fractured, vugular formations. However, these reservoirs are most likely to blowout at rates that will need a relief well. Once communication has been established, cheaper, less-viscous fluids can then be used to perform a dynamic kill. After this succeeds, drilling mud or other heavy fluids can be pumped to contain the well.

  14. Intelligent pothole repair vehicle 

    E-print Network

    Minocher Homji, Ruzbeh Adi

    2006-10-30

    This thesis presents an endeavor to design and construct a prototype of an automated road repair vehicle called the Intelligent Pothole Repair Vehicle (IPRV). The IPRV is capable of automatically detecting and filling ...

  15. Solar space vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.E.

    1982-10-19

    This invention relates to space vehicle where solar energy is used to generate steam, which in turn, propels the vehicle in space. A copper boiler is provided and a novel solar radiation condensing means is used to focus the sunlight on said boiler. Steam generated in said boiler is exhausted to the environment to provide a thrust for the vehicle.

  16. Solar space vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to space vehicle where solar energy is used to generate steam, which in turn, propels the vehicle in space. A copper boiler is provided and a novel solar radiation condensing means is used to focus the sunlight on said boiler. Steam generated in said boiler is exhausted to the environment to provide a thrust for the vehicle.

  17. Automotive vehicle sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  18. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2012-01-01

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  19. Evolution Operators for Linearly Polarized Two-Killing Cosmological Models

    E-print Network

    J. Fernando Barbero G.; Daniel Gómez Vergel; Eduardo J. S. Villaseñor

    2006-06-15

    We give a general procedure to obtain non perturbative evolution operators in closed form for quantized linearly polarized two Killing vector reductions of general relativity with a cosmological interpretation. We study the representation of these operators in Fock spaces and discuss in detail the conditions leading to unitary evolutions.

  20. Calcium-activated DNA fragmentation kills immature thymocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID J. MCCONKEY; PIA HARTZELL; PIERLUIGI NICOTERA; STEN ORRENIUS

    Glucocorticoid hormones kill immature thymocytes by activating a self-destructive process that involves exten- sive DNA fragmentation. It has been demonstrated that thymocyte suicide is dependent on an early, sustained increase in cytosolic Ca2 concentration, and new protein synthesis, but the biochemical lesion that leads to cell death has not been established. To determine whether endonuclease activation or activation of another

  1. Binary black hole spacetimes with a helical Killing vector

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften, Inselstrasse 22, 04103, Leipzig (Germany)

    2004-12-15

    Binary black hole spacetimes with a helical Killing vector, which are discussed as an approximation for the early stage of a binary system, are studied in a projection formalism. In this setting the four-dimensional Einstein equations are equivalent to a three-dimensional gravitational theory with a SL(2,R)/SO(1,1) sigma model as the material source. The sigma model is determined by a complex Ernst equation. 2+1 decompositions of the three-metric are used to establish the field equations on the orbit space of the Killing vector. The two Killing horizons of spherical topology which characterize the black holes, the cylinder of light where the Killing vector changes from timelike to spacelike, and infinity are singular points of the equations. The horizon and the light cylinder are shown to be regular singularities, i.e., the metric functions can be expanded in a formal power series in the vicinity. The behavior of the metric at spatial infinity is studied in terms of formal series solutions to the linearized Einstein equations. It is shown that the spacetime is not asymptotically flat in the strong sense to have a smooth null infinity under the assumption that the metric tends asymptotically to the Minkowski metric. In this case the metric functions have an oscillatory behavior in the radial coordinate in a nonaxisymmetric setting, the asymptotic multipoles are not defined. The asymptotic behavior of the Weyl tensor near infinity shows that there is no smooth null infinity.

  2. Partner Killing by Men in Cohabiting and Marital Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Todd K.; Mouzos, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Using a national-level U.S. database, T. K. Shackelford (2001) calculated rates of uxoricide (the murder of a woman by her romantic partner) by relationship type (cohabiting or marital), by ages of the partners, and by the age difference between partners. Women in cohabiting relationships were 9 times more likely to be killed by their partner than…

  3. Methods for quantifying phagocytosis and bacterial killing by human neutrophils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark B. Hampton; Christine C. Winterbourn

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews a variety of methods available for quantifying phagocytosis and bacterial killing by neutrophils. We outline the advantages and disadvantages of each technique, with the selection of a technique for research or analytical purposes being dependent on the information required and the resources available. A detailed protocol is provided for a comprehensive microbiological technique that measures both phagocytosis

  4. Just War and Robots' Killings Thomas W. Simpson

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Mark

    1 Just War and Robots' Killings Thomas W. Simpson Associate Professor of Philosophy and Public systems--`killer robots'--be used in war? There is a growing campaign in favour of an international on an implicitly consequentialist basis. Our task is to defend the permissibility of killer robots, and indeed

  5. Targeted Killing in U.S. Counterterrorism Strategy and Law

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Targeted killing, particularly through the use of missiles fired from Predator drone aircraft, has become an important, and internationally controversial, part of the US war against al Qaeda in Pakistan and other places. The Obama administration, both during the campaign and in its first months in office, has publicly embraced the strategy as a form of counterterrorism. This paper argues,

  6. Anthrax Toxin Receptor 2Dependent Lethal Toxin Killing In Vivo

    E-print Network

    Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    Anthrax Toxin Receptor 2­Dependent Lethal Toxin Killing In Vivo Heather M. Scobie1,2 , Darran J Jolla, California, United States of America Anthrax toxin receptors 1 and 2 (ANTXR1 and ANTXR2) have by residue D683 of the protective antigen (PA) subunit of anthrax toxin. The receptor-bound metal ion and PA

  7. Karo-kari: a form of honour killing in pakistan.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sujay; Gadit, Amin Muhammad

    2008-12-01

    Karo-Kari is a type of premeditated honour killing, which originated in rural and tribal areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The homicidal acts are primarily committed against women who are thought to have brought dishonour to their family by engaging in illicit pre-marital or extra-marital relations. In order to restore this honour, a male family member must kill the female in question. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature other sources on karo-kari and related forms of honour killing or violence against women. Media and non-governmental organization reports were utilized for case studies and analysis. Although legally proscribed, socio-cultural factors and gender role expectations have given legitimacy to karo-kari within some tribal communities. In addition to its persistence in areas of Pakistan, there is evidence that karo-kari may be increasing in incidence in other parts of the world in association with migration. Moreover, perpetrators of ;honour killings' often have motives outside of female adultery. Analysis of the socio-cultural and psycho-pathological factors associated with the practice of karo-kari can guide the development of prevention strategies. PMID:19091732

  8. Male-killing Wolbachia in two species of insect

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, G. D. D.; Jiggins, F. M.; Schulenburg, J. H. G. von der; Bertrand, D.; West, S. A.; Goriacheva, I. I.; Zakharov, I. A.; Werren, J. H.; Stouthamer, R.; Majerus, M. E. N.

    1999-01-01

    The inherited bacterium Wolbachia spreads through the manipulation of host reproduction, and has been suggested to be an important factor in arthropod evolution, from host speciation to the evolution of sex-determination systems. Past work has shown that members of this group may produce cytoplasmic incompatibility, feminize genetically male hosts, and induce host parthenogenesis. Here, we report an expansion of the range of reproductive manipulations produced by members of this clade, recording Wolbachia strains that kill male hosts during embryogenesis in two host species, the ladybird Adalia bipunctata, and the butterfly Acraea encedon. Both male-killing bacteria belong to the B group of Wolbachia. However, phylogenetic analyses were unable to resolve whether the bacteria in the two species are monophyletic, or represent independent origins of male-killing among the B-group Wolbachia. We also found significant divergence within the wsp gene of Wolbachia strains found in different A. bipunctata individuals, suggesting this host species contains two Wolbachia strains, diverged in wsp sequence but monophyletic. Our observations reinforce the notion that Wolbachia may be an important agent driving arthropod evolution, and corroborates previous suggestions that male-killing behaviour is easily evolved by invertebrate symbionts.

  9. Original article Heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus inhibits

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus inhibits adhesion of Escherichia coli B41-105 °C) Lactobacillus acidophilus (Lact6ol strain) was found to inhibit this adhe- sion in a doseLa cells, and for the inhibition of adhesion of E coli to these cells. Escherichia coliJ Lactobacillus

  10. A note on Noether symmetries and conformal Killing vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Ibrar

    2010-08-01

    A conjecture was stated in Hussain et al. (Gen Relativ Grav 41:2399, 2009), that the conformal Killing vectors form a subalgebra of the symmetries of the Lagrangian that minimizes arc length, for any spacetime. Here, a counter example is constructed to demonstrate that the above statement is not true in general for spacetimes of non-zero curvature.

  11. Killing for Girls: Predation Play and Female Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertozzi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Predation games--games in which the player is actively encouraged and often required to hunt and kill in order to survive--have historically been the purview of male players. Females, though now much more involved in digital games than before, generally play games that stress traditionally feminine values such as socializing with others, shopping,…

  12. A bacteriolytic agent that detects and kills Bacillus anthracis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond Schuch; Daniel Nelson; Vincent A. Fischetti

    2002-01-01

    The dormant and durable spore form of Bacillus anthracis is an ideal biological weapon of mass destruction. Once inhaled, spores are transported by alveolar macrophages to lymph nodes surrounding the lungs, where they germinate; subsequent vegetative expansion causes an overwhelming flood of bacteria and toxins into the blood, killing up to 99% of untreated victims. Natural and genetically engineered antibiotic-resistant

  13. Binary black hole spacetimes with a helical Killing vector

    E-print Network

    C. Klein

    2004-10-25

    Binary black hole spacetimes with a helical Killing vector, which are discussed as an approximation for the early stage of a binary system, are studied in a projection formalism. In this setting the four dimensional Einstein equations are equivalent to a three dimensional gravitational theory with a $SL(2,\\mathbb{C})/SO(1,1)$ sigma model as the material source. The sigma model is determined by a complex Ernst equation. 2+1 decompositions of the 3-metric are used to establish the field equations on the orbit space of the Killing vector. The two Killing horizons of spherical topology which characterize the black holes, the cylinder of light where the Killing vector changes from timelike to spacelike, and infinity are singular points of the equations. The horizon and the light cylinder are shown to be regular singularities, i.e. the metric functions can be expanded in a formal power series in the vicinity. The behavior of the metric at spatial infinity is studied in terms of formal series solutions to the linearized Einstein equations. It is shown that the spacetime is not asymptotically flat in the strong sense to have a smooth null infinity under the assumption that the metric tends asymptotically to the Minkowski metric. In this case the metric functions have an oscillatory behavior in the radial coordinate in a non-axisymmetric setting, the asymptotic multipoles are not defined. The asymptotic behavior of the Weyl tensor near infinity shows that there is no smooth null infinity.

  14. Coping with Accidentally Killing Another Person: A Case Study Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesser, Barbara Jo

    1981-01-01

    Studied persons who had accidentally killed another person to explore factors that had helped these individuals cope with the ensuing stress. Ten case study summaries are presented. Results reinforce the important role family members, friends, and the community play in helping traumatized persons manage stress. (Author)

  15. Who Killed Parliamentary Government By Dr. Gary Levy

    E-print Network

    Peak, Derek

    for this presentation was inspired by the 2006 documentary film "Who Killed the Electric Car" It looked at the development, production and subsequent dismantling of a perfectly good electric car invented in the 1990s. Of course the electric car is making a comeback and perhaps Parliament will as well. The presentation

  16. GENTLY KILLING SSPACES TODD EISWORTH, PETER NYIKOS, AND SAHARON SHELAH

    E-print Network

    Eisworth, Todd

    GENTLY KILLING S­SPACES TODD EISWORTH, PETER NYIKOS, AND SAHARON SHELAH Abstract. We produce a model of ZFC in which there are no locally compact first countable S­spaces, and in which 20 normal S­spaces. We provide such a model in this paper. In fact, in our model 20

  17. Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1

    E-print Network

    Paxson, Vern

    #12;#12;Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1 Code Red 2 settles into weekly pattern Nimda enters the ecosystem Code Red 2 dies off as programmed CR 1 returns thanks to bad clocks #12;Code Red 2 dies off as programmed Nimda hums along, slowly cleaned up With its predator gone, Code Red 1 comes back, still

  18. Tree-Killing Las Conchas Fire in New Mexico

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientist Craig D. Allen observes the results of the extensive, tree-killing fire that consumed almost all above-ground biomass in this part of the Las Conchas Fire burn area in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico. Photo taken in late August 2011, two months post-fire. Forest drought stress is high...

  19. Vehicle capture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacke, Kenneth L.

    1998-12-01

    Primex Aerospace Company, under contract with the U.S. Army Armament Research Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC), has developed a portable vehicle capture system for use at vehicle checkpoints. Currently when a vehicle does not stop at a checkpoint, there are three possible reactions: let the vehicle go unchallenged, pursue the vehicle or stop the vehicle with lethal force. This system provides a non-lethal alternative that will stop and contain the vehicle. The system is completely portable with the heaviest component weighing less than 120 pounds. It can be installed with no external electrical power or permanent anchors required. In its standby mode, the system does not impede normal traffic, but on command erects a barrier in less than 1.5 seconds. System tests have been conducted using 5,100 and 8.400 pound vehicles, traveling at speeds up to 45 mph. The system is designed to minimize vehicle damage and occupant injury, typically resulting in deceleration forces of less than 2.5 gs on the vehicle. According to the drivers involved in tests at 45 mph, the stopping forces feel similar to a panic stop with the vehicle brakes locked. The system is completely reusable and be rapidly reset.

  20. Vehicle Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Vehicle Systems Panel addressed materials and structures technology issues related to launch and space vehicle systems not directly associated with the propulsion or entry systems. The Vehicle Systems Panel was comprised of two subpanels - Expendable Launch Vehicles & Cryotanks (ELVC) and Reusable Vehicles (RV). Tom Bales, LaRC, and Tom Modlin, JSC, chaired the expendable and reusable vehicles subpanels, respectively, and co-chaired the Vehicle Systems Panel. The following four papers are discussed in this section: (1) Net Section components for Weldalite Cryogenic Tanks, by Don Bolstad; (2) Build-up Structures for Cryogenic Tanks and Dry Bay Structural Applications, by Barry Lisagor; (3) Composite Materials Program, by Robert Van Siclen; (4) Shuttle Technology (and M&S Lessons Learned), by Stan Greenberg.

  1. William and Mary Athletics State Vehicle / Rental Vehicle / Personal Vehicle Policies

    E-print Network

    Swaddle, John

    that comes with the vehicle must only be used for regular unleaded gas needed to fuel the vehicle. 3 unleaded gas to fuel the rental vehicle. Do not use the card for any other purpose. The gas card mustWilliam and Mary Athletics State Vehicle / Rental Vehicle / Personal Vehicle Policies Last Update

  2. Proceedings of Institute of Mathematics of NAS of Ukraine 2004, Vol. 50, Part 2, 708714 Irreducible Killing Tensors

    E-print Network

    Popovych, Roman

    ­714 Irreducible Killing Tensors from Conformal Killing Vectors S. Brian EDGAR , Rafaelle RANI and Alan BARNES methods to construct reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors (which are, in general, irreducible) when a pair of orthogonal conformal Killing vectors exist in a given space. We give

  3. Comparison of killing of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by pure singlet oxygen. [Salmonella typhimurium; Escherichia coli; Sarcina lutea; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus lactis; Streptococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, T.A.; Midden, W.R. (Bowling Green State Univ., OH (USA)); Hartman, P.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were found to display different sensitivities to pure singlet oxygen generated outside of cells. Killing curves for Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli strains were indicative of multihit killing, whereas curves for Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis, and Streptococcus faecalis exhibited single-hit kinetics. The S. typhimurium deep rough strain TA1975, which lacks nearly all of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide coat and manifests concomitant enhancement of penetration by some exogenous substances, responded to singlet oxygen with initially faster inactivation than did the S. typhimurium wild-type strain, although the maximum rates of killing appeared to be quite similar. The structure of the cell wall thus plays an important role in susceptibility to singlet oxygen. The outer membrane-lipopolysaccharide portion of the gram-negative cell wall initially protects the bacteria from extracellular singlet oxygen, although it may also serve as a source for secondary reaction products which accentuate the rates of cell killing. S. typhimurium and E. coli strains lacking the cellular antioxidant, glutathione, showed no difference from strains containing glutathione in response to the toxic effects of singlet oxygen. Strains of Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus that contained carotenoids, however, were far more resistant to singlet oxygen lethality than were both carotenoidless mutants of the same species and other gram-positive species lacking high levels of protective carotenoids.

  4. Effect of Silicon on Desulfurization of Aluminum-killed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Debdutta

    Recent reports have suggested that silicon has a beneficial effect on the rate of desulfurization of Al-killed steel. This effect is difficult to understand looking at the overall desulfurization reaction which does not include silicon. However an explanation is proposed by taking into account the (SiO2)/[Si] equilibrium in which some Al reaching the slag-metal interface is used in reducing the SiO2 in the slag. This reaction can be suppressed to some extent if the silicon content of the metal is increased and in doing so, more Al will be available at the slag-metal interface for the desulfurization reaction and this would increase the rate of the desulfurization reaction. A model was developed, assuming the rates are controlled by mass transfer, taking into account the coupled reactions of the reduction of silica, and other unstable oxides, namely iron oxide and manganese oxide, in the slag and desulfurization reaction in the steel by aluminum. The model predicts that increasing silicon increases the rate and extent of desulfurization. Plant data was analyzed to obtain rough estimates of ladle desulfurization rates and also used to validate the model predictions. Experiments have been conducted on a kilogram scale of material in an induction furnace to test the hypothesis. The major conclusions of the study are as follows: The rate and extent of desulfurization improve with increasing initial silicon content in the steel; the effect diminishes at silicon contents higher than approximately 0.2% and with increasing slag basicity. This was confirmed with kilogram-scale laboratory experiments. The effects of the silicon content in the steel (and of initial FeO and MnO in the slag) largely arise from the dominant effects of these reactions on the equilibrium aluminum content of the steel: as far as aluminum consumption or pick-up is concerned, the Si/SiO2 reaction dominates, and desulfurization has only a minor effect on aluminum consumption. The rate is primarily controlled by mass transfer in the metal and slag phase mass transfer has a minor effect on the overall desulfurization kinetics. The model results are in agreement with the experimental data for the change in sulfur, silicon and aluminum contents with time which renders credibility to the underlying hypothesis of the kinetic model. Although the change of sulfur content with time is not very sensitive to the activity data source, the change of aluminum and silicon contents with time depend on the activity data source. The experimental results demonstrate that if the silicon content in the steel is high enough, the silicon can reduce the alumina from the slag and thus the steel melt will pick up aluminum. This can cause significant savings in aluminum consumption. For most of the slag compositions used in the experiments, the overall mass transfer is only limited by the steel phase and the slag phase mass transfer can be neglected for most practical cases. Mass balance calculations in the experiments support the basis of the model and also show that with respect to aluminum consumption, silica reduction is the main aluminum consuming (or production) reaction and the desulfurization reaction is only a secondary consumer of aluminum. Results from the plant trials conducted to test the effect of silicon on ladle desulfurization show that the rate and extent of desulfurization increase with the increase of the initial Si content, so in the ladle refining process, adding all the silicon in the beginning with the aluminum and the fluxes will be beneficial and could save considerable processing time at the ladle. The aluminum consumption for the heats with silicon added in the beginning (both in terms of the Al added to the steel and as slag deoxidants) is considerably lower compared to the cases where the silicon is added at the end. However, on a relative cost term, aluminum and silicon are similarly priced so substitution would not offer a major cost advantage.

  5. Cesium removal and kinetics equilibrium: Precipitation kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1999-12-17

    This task consisted of both non-radioactive and radioactive (tracer) tests examining the influence of potentially significant variables on cesium tetraphenylborate precipitation kinetics. The work investigated the time required to reach cesium decontamination and the conditions that affect the cesium precipitation kinetics.

  6. On Killing vector fields of a homogeneous and isotropic universe in closed model

    E-print Network

    Ruslan Sharipov

    2007-08-19

    Killing vector fields of a closed homogeneous and isotropic universe are studied. It is shown that in general case there is no time-like Killing vector fields in such a universe. Two exceptional cases are revealed.

  7. Conformal Yano-Killing tensors for the Taub-NUT metric

    E-print Network

    Jacek Jezierski; Maciej ?ukasik

    2006-10-18

    Symmetric conformal Killing tensors and (skew-symmetric) conformal Yano-Killing tensors for Euclidean Taub-NUT metric are given in explicit form. Relations between Yano and CYK tensors in terms of conformal rescaling are discussed.

  8. Spacetimes with Killing tensors. [for Einstein-Maxwell fields with certain spinor indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughston, L. P.; Sommers, P.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of the Killing equation and the Killing tensor are discussed. A conformal Killing tensor is of interest inasmuch as it gives rise to a quadratic first integral for null geodesic orbits. The Einstein-Maxwell equations are considered together with the Bianchi identity and the conformal Killing tensor. Two examples for the application of the considered relations are presented, giving attention to the charged Kerr solution and the charged C-metric.

  9. Factors associated with human-killing tigers in Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhim Gurung; James L. David Smith; Charles McDougal; Jhamak B. Karki; Adam Barlow

    2008-01-01

    Human-killing is the ultimate expression of human–tiger conflict. It is a complex issue that needs to be addressed to maintain support for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation in areas where human-killing is prevalent. This research was undertaken to investigate the ecological and sociological aspects of human-killing in the central lowlands of Nepal. We used 28 years of data from human-killing events

  10. Motor vehicle crashes and maternal mortality in New Mexico: the significance of seat belt use.

    PubMed Central

    Schiff, M; Albers, L; McFeeley, P

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, as deaths from medical complications during pregnancy have declined, injuries-specifically those sustained in motor vehicle crashes-represent a growing proportion of all pregnancy-associated deaths. To investigate pregnancy-associated deaths in motor vehicle crashes in New Mexico, we scrutinized the database of the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator for all deaths during pregnancy and up to 6 weeks postpartum from 1986 through 1995. A total of 97 deaths were identified, 47 of which were injury-related. Motor vehicle crashes accounted for 33 (approximately 70%) of the injury-related deaths. We analyzed the data on motor vehicle crashes for decedent's age and ethnicity, fetal gestational age, time of crash, rural vs urban location of crash, seat belt use, and drug and alcohol use. Compared with non-Hispanic white women, proportionately higher numbers of Hispanic and American Indian pregnant women were killed in motor vehicle crashes. In searching for modifiable risk factors, we noted that 45% of the crashes involved alcohol and that the majority of pregnant women killed (77%) were not wearing seat belts at the time of the crash. We conclude that education about seat belt use during pregnancy (as well as the dangers of alcohol use and riding with intoxicated drivers while pregnant) is a promising strategy to reduce motor vehicle fatalities. Images Figure 1. PMID:9265859

  11. Modeling the vehicle cycle impacts of hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Q. Wang; L. Gaines; R. Cuenca

    1997-01-01

    Pure and hybrid electric vehicles, considered environmentally benign, are being developed to reduce urban air pollutant emissions. The obvious emissions benefit of pure electric vehicles is that they produce no tailpipe emissions. Hybrid electric vehicles have the potential of improving fuel economy and reducing emissions. However, both electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) do have their own environmental impacts.

  12. Electric vehicle parametric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A. [FW Lilly Inc., Bloomfield Hills, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    During the period from 1990 to 1995, the automobile manufacturers of Europe, America, and Japan have been responsive to the need to re-evaluate the battery electric vehicle (EV) an a zero emission vehicle, and have released key design specifications and vehicle performance characteristics for more than thirty electric vehicles displayed at the: 55th IAA International Motor Show in Frankfurt, NAIAS`95 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, and the 30th International Motor Show in Tokyo. This paper includes a comparative parametric correlation analysis of these key design parameters which include: vehicle test mass, tire coefficients, overall aerodynamic drag and skin friction drag coefficients, equivalent flat plate frontal area, length to hydraulic diameter ratio, peak tractive force, peak traction motor power, and battery energy storage capacity. The conclusions show that the automobile manufacturers have achieved dramatic improvements in many of these key design parameters, and as a result the battery electric vehicle now promises to have a brighter future.

  13. Vehicle speed control system

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, D.; Tanno, T.; Fukunaga, T.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes a vehicle speed control system for performing vehicle speed control by controlling the displacement of at least one of a hydraulic pump and a hydraulic motor of a hydraulic transmission through an electric servo device, comprising: vehicle speed setting means for generating a voltage signal corresponding to a vehicle speed to be set; compensating means interposed between the vehicle speed setting means and the electric servo device, the compensating means comprising a first delay element; and second delay element having a response characteristic slower than that of the first delay element. A selecting means for judging as to whether a voltage signal changed by the operation of the vehicle speed setting means represents an acceleration command or a deceleration command and for selecting the first delay element when the voltage signal represents an acceleration command and for selecting the second delay element when the voltage signal represents a deceleration command.

  14. Unique Type of Plasmid Maintenance Function: Postsegregational Killing of Plasmid-Free Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenn Gerdes; Poul B. Rasmussen; Soren Molin

    1986-01-01

    The stability locus parB+ of plasmid R1 has been found to specify a unique type of plasmid maintenance function. Two genes, hok (host killing) and sok (suppressor of killing), are required for the stabilizing activity. The hok gene encodes a highly toxic gene product, whose overexpression causes a rapid killing and a concomitant dramatic change in morphology of the host

  15. KILLING SPINORS IN SUPERGRAVITY WITH 4-FLUXES ILKA AGRICOLA AND THOMAS FRIEDRICH

    E-print Network

    Friedrich, Thomas

    KILLING SPINORS IN SUPERGRAVITY WITH 4-FLUXES ILKA AGRICOLA AND THOMAS FRIEDRICH Abstract. We study the spinorial Killing equation of supergravity involving a tor- sion 3-form T as well as a ux 4-form F that it singles out a very special choice of numerical parameters in the Killing equation, which can also be justi

  16. Two male-killing Wolbachia strains coexist within a population of the buttery

    E-print Network

    Jiggins, Francis

    Two male-killing Wolbachia strains coexist within a population of the butter¯y Acraea encedonDepartment of Biology, University College London, 4 Stevenson Way, London, NW1 2HE, U.K. Inherited bacteria that kill encedon and A. encedana are both infected by the same strain of male-killing Wolbachia

  17. Killing of Caenorhabditis elegans by Cryptococcus neoformans as a model of yeast pathogenesis

    E-print Network

    Ausubel, Frederick M.

    Killing of Caenorhabditis elegans by Cryptococcus neoformans as a model of yeast pathogenesis.However,thehumanpathogenicyeastCryptococcusneoformans killed C. elegans, and the C. neoformans polysaccharide capsule as well as several C. neoformans genes previously shown to be involved in mammalian virulence were also shown to play a role in C. elegans killing

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa killing of Caenorhabditis elegans used to identify P. aeruginosa virulence factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAN-WAH TAN; L AURENCE G. RAHME; A. STERNBERG; R ONALD G. TOMPKINS; FREDERICK M. AUSUBEL

    1999-01-01

    We reported recently that the human oppor- tunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 kills Caenorhabditis elegans and that many P. aeruginosa virulence factors (genes) required for maximum virulence in mouse patho- genicity are also required for maximum killing of C. elegans. Here we report that among eight P. aeruginosa PA14 TnphoA mutants isolated that exhibited reduced killing of C. elegans,

  19. f-symbols, Killing tensors and conserved Bel-type currents

    E-print Network

    Ovidiu Tintareanu-Mircea

    2010-12-24

    In the framework of the General Relativity we show that from three generalizations of Killing vector fields, namely f-symbols, symmetric St\\"{a}ckel-Killing and antisymmetric Killing-Yano tensors, some conserved currents can be obtained through adequate contractions of the above mentioned objects with rank four tensors having the properties of Bel or Bel-Robinson tensors in Einstein spaces.

  20. UNIT KILLING VECTOR FIELDS ON NEARLY KAHLER ANDREI MOROIANU, PAULANDI NAGY AND UWE SEMMELMANN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    UNIT KILLING VECTOR FIELDS ON NEARLY K¨AHLER MANIFOLDS ANDREI MOROIANU, PAUL­ANDI NAGY AND UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. We study 6-dimensional nearly K¨ahler manifolds admitting a Killing vec- tor field by the existence of some (at least locally defined) real Killing spinor [13]. Combining these properties

  1. MATH 223A NOTES 2011 LIE ALGEBRAS 17 5. Semisimple Lie algebras and the Killing form

    E-print Network

    Igusa, Kiyoshi

    MATH 223A NOTES 2011 LIE ALGEBRAS 17 5. Semisimple Lie algebras and the Killing form This section follows Procesi's book on Lie Groups. We will define semisimple Lie algebras and the Killing form over any subfield F C. (1) L is semisimple. (2) L has no nonzero abelian ideals. (3) The Killing form

  2. ORTHOGONAL INVOLUTIONS ON ALGEBRAS OF DEGREE 16 AND THE KILLING FORM OF E 8

    E-print Network

    ORTHOGONAL INVOLUTIONS ON ALGEBRAS OF DEGREE 16 AND THE KILLING FORM OF E 8 SKIP GARIBALDI construction of groups of type E 8 , determine the Killing forms of the resulting E8 's, and define of the Killing form is done by restricting the adjoint representation to various twisted forms of PGL 2

  3. Killing Tensors and Conserved Quantities of a Relativistic Particle in External Fields

    E-print Network

    Takahisa Igata; Tatsuhiko Koike; Hideki Ishihara

    2010-03-03

    We generalize Killing equations to a test particle system which is subjected to external force. We relax the conservation condition by virtue of reparametrization invariance of a particle orbit. As a result, we obtain generalized Killing equations which have hierarchical structure on the top of which a conformal Killing equation exists.

  4. Conditions for the existence of quasi-stationary distributions for birth-death processes with killing

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    with killing Erik A. van Doorn Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Twente P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, with the ad- ditional feature that a transition to state 0 (killing) may occur from any state. Assuming (Quasilimiting behaviour for one-dimensional diffusions with killing, Annals of Probability, to appear) we show

  5. Weighted sums of orthogonal polynomials related to birth-death processes with killing

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    Weighted sums of orthogonal polynomials related to birth-death processes with killing Erik A. van polynomials arising in the analysis of birth-death processes with killing. Motivated by problems: birth-death process with killing, orthogonal polynomials, quasi- stationary distribution 2000

  6. KILLING FORMS ON SYMMETRIC SPACES FLORIN BELGUN, ANDREI MOROIANU AND UWE SEMMELMANN

    E-print Network

    Semmelmann, Uwe

    KILLING FORMS ON SYMMETRIC SPACES FLORIN BELGUN, ANDREI MOROIANU AND UWE SEMMELMANN Abstract. Killing forms on Riemannian manifolds are differential forms whose co- variant derivative is totally skew­symmetric. We show that a compact simply con- nected symmetric space carries a non­parallel Killing p­form (p 2

  7. The Killing of Osama Bin Laden & Anwar Al-Aulaqi: Uncharted Legal Territory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth Van Schaack

    2012-01-01

    The killing of Osama bin Laden in Pakistan in May 2011 and Anwar al-Aulaqi in Yemen in September 2011 both raise the question of when the killing of an identified individual posing a threat to a nation-state is lawful. Although it has not yet been forced to publicly defend either killing in any great detail, the Obama Administration has insisted

  8. Conformal Yano Killing tensor for the Kerr metric and conserved quantities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Jezierski; Maciej Lukasik

    2006-01-01

    Properties of (skew-symmetric) conformal Yano Killing tensors are reviewed. Explicit forms of three symmetric conformal Killing tensors in Kerr spacetime are obtained from the Yano Killing tensor. The relation between spin-2 fields and solutions to the Maxwell equations is used in the construction of a new conserved quantity which is quadratic in terms of the Weyl tensor. The formula obtained

  9. It’s Not Just Conflict That Motivates Killing of Orangutans

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jacqueline T.; Mengersen, Kerrie; Abram, Nicola K.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wells, Jessie A.; Meijaard, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents’ active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI) and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI). These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed. PMID:24130707

  10. Kill Tree Analysis Method and CAD Tool for Aircraft Complex System Vulnerability Assessment and Safety Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei Yang; Guo Ting; Dong Qiang; Song Bifeng

    2011-01-01

    In vulnerability assessment of aircraft complex systems subjected to traditional weapons, kill tree is used as a visual illustration of the critical components and all component redundancies. This research applies fault tree analysis method in reliability field to analyze the kill tree and determine the minimal cut sets for different kill levels, such as KK, K, A, B and C

  11. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Peptidoglycan recognition proteins kill bacteria by activating protein-sensing

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    1 SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Peptidoglycan recognition proteins kill bacteria by activating proteinF-generated cell separation sites are required for efficient binding of PGRPs to B. subtilis, but not for killing pictured in Fig. 1d in the main paper. (c, d) Similar killing of WT B. subtilis and lytE:lytF or lyt

  12. The Parallel Break Construct or How to Kill an Activity Tree

    E-print Network

    Feitelson, Dror

    The Parallel Break Construct or How to Kill an Activity Tree Yair I. Friedman Dror G. Feitelson is identifying the subtree of activities that should be killed. Three algo­ rithms were designed for this purpose parallelism. keywords: forced termination, kill, pbreak, pcontinue, return, parallel activities 1 Introduction

  13. Interacting particle processes and approximation of Markov processes conditioned to not be killed.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Interacting particle processes and approximation of Markov processes conditioned to not be killed processes condi- tioned to not be killed. The method is based on a Fleming-Viot type interacting particle each others instead of being killed. We only as- sume that the number of jumps of the Fleming-Viot type

  14. General approximation method for the distribution of Markov processes conditioned not to be killed

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    General approximation method for the distribution of Markov processes conditioned not to be killed Denis Villemonais December 11, 2012 Abstract We consider a strong Markov process with killing and prove an approximation method for the distribution of the process conditioned not to be killed when it is observed

  15. Assay development for rapid identification of metabolites that enable killing of persisters

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    Assay development for rapid identification of metabolites that enable killing of persisters biofilm infections Princeton University · Regular cells are killed by antibiotics · Escaping persisters.mBio. ;2(3):e00100-11. #12;How to kill a persister Princeton University · First way to eradicate Gram

  16. C H A P T E R 1 4 Killing, Recoding, and Beyond

    E-print Network

    Wagner, David

    1 C H A P T E R 1 4 Killing, Recoding, and Beyond "Dead men tell no tales," and dead tags don't talk. This is the logic behind RFID tag "killing," a proposal for enhancing consumer privacy that has received wide attention. In tag killing, RFID tags are rendered per- manently inoperative by use

  17. 33 CFR 165.T01-0727 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ. 165.T01-0727 Section...T01-0727 Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ. (a) Regulated area...Reach, and Gulfport Reach in the Arthur Kill; bounded in the northeast by a line drawn from position...

  18. 33 CFR 165.T01-0727 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ. 165.T01-0727 Section...T01-0727 Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ. (a) Regulated area...Reach, and Gulfport Reach in the Arthur Kill; bounded in the northeast by a line drawn from position...

  19. 77 FR 10960 - Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and Wards Islands, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ...1625-AA87 Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and Wards Islands, NY AGENCY...the waters of the East River and Bronx Kill, in the vicinity of Randalls and Wards...from a portion of the East River and Bronx Kill when public officials are scheduled...

  20. A General Functional Response of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Mediated Killing of Target Cells

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    A General Functional Response of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Mediated Killing of Target Cells Saikrishna Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands ABSTRACT Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) kill virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and play a critical role in immune protec- tion. Our knowledge of how the CTL killing

  1. C H A P T E R 1 4 Killing, Recoding, and Beyond

    E-print Network

    Wagner, David

    1 C H A P T E R 1 4 Killing, Recoding, and Beyond ``Dead men tell no tales,'' and dead tags don't talk. This is the logic behind RFID tag ``killing,'' a proposal for enhancing consumer privacy that has received wide attention. In tag killing, RFID tags are rendered per­ manently inoperative by use

  2. INTERFERON-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF NEWBORN PIG NATURAL KILLING (NK) ACTIVITY

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    INTERFERON-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF NEWBORN PIG NATURAL KILLING (NK) ACTIVITY B. CHARLEY, Élisabeth. ― La possibilité d'activer la fonction NK («Natura! killing», ou cytotoxicité spontanée) par l capacité cyto- toxique après traitement par l'interféron. Natural killing (NK) activity refers

  3. hal-00009182,version3-7Sep2007 KILLING VECTOR FIELDS WITH TWISTOR DERIVATIVE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    hal-00009182,version3-7Sep2007 KILLING VECTOR FIELDS WITH TWISTOR DERIVATIVE ANDREI MOROIANU give the complete classification of compact Riemannian manifolds carrying a Killing vector field whose: Primary 53C55, 58J50. Keywords: Killing vector fields, twistor forms, gradient conformal vector fields. 1

  4. Effectiveness of Litter Removal to Prevent Cambial Kill-Caused Mortality in Northern Arizona Ponderosa Pine

    E-print Network

    Effectiveness of Litter Removal to Prevent Cambial Kill-Caused Mortality in Northern Arizona because of any of the treatments, but litter and duff removal prevented most cambial kill. However, 17% of the burned, no removal trees had some cambial kill. Litter and duff removal to 23 cm was as effective

  5. EULER CHARACTERISTIC AND LIPSCHITZ-KILLING CURVATURES OF CLOSED SEMI-ALGEBRAIC SETS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EULER CHARACTERISTIC AND LIPSCHITZ-KILLING CURVATURES OF CLOSED SEMI-ALGEBRAIC SETS NICOLAS-algebraic set to its Lipchitz-Killing curvatures. 1. Introduction In [Fu2], Fu developed integral geometry subanalytic set X Rn a sequence of curvature measures: 0(X, -), . . . , n(X, -), called the Lipschitz-Killing

  6. USV: Unmanned Space Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, G.; De Matteis, P. P.; Sabatano, R.; Richiello, C.; Marino, G.

    This paper reports an overview of the Unmanned Space Vehicle Programme, led by CIRA, in the frame of PRORA, focusing on the first dropped transonic flight performed on 24 February 2007, performed in order to do accomplish the DTFT mission based on stratospheric balloon. The vehicle reached the target altitude by means of a stratospheric balloon system. The flight had the objective to test the vehicle behaviour in transonic regime.

  7. Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Jungil; Park, Hyungmin

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, high-speed trains, and buses. We introduce three-dimensional flow structures around simplified model vehicles and heavy vehicles and discuss the flow-control devices used for drag reduction. Finally, we suggest important unsteady flow structures to investigate for the enhancement of aerodynamic performance and future directions for experimental and numerical approaches.

  8. Development of a whole killed feline leukemia virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    York, S M; York, C J

    1991-11-15

    A whole killed FeLV vaccine was developed. By use of a chromatography method of purification and concentration, the resulting vaccine has been shown to be significantly lower in bovine serum albumin and total protein contents than were the same ingredients in the starting materials. The virus was inactivated or killed as an essential part of the vaccine development process. Vaccination trials with the vaccine without use of adjuvants indicated appreciable virus-neutralizing serum titer (greater than or equal to 1:10) in 107 of 110 vaccinated cats. Of 43 cats vaccinated and subsequently challenge exposed with virulent FeLV, only 2 developed persistent virus antigenemia (longer than 1 month), whereas 14 of 22 nonvaccinated control cats developed persistent viremia. In field tests, 2,770 cats from 6 states were vaccinated and observed. Postvaccinal reactions were not observed. PMID:1666095

  9. Secondary Kill Effect of Deltamethrin on Triatoma infestans

    PubMed Central

    MALONEY, KATHLEEN M.; ANCCA-JUAREZ, JENNY; SALAZAR, RENZO; BORRINI-MAYORI, KATTY; PAMO-TITO, DANITZA; KEATING, JOSEPH A.; LEVY, MICHAEL Z.

    2012-01-01

    Control of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, relies on the application of pyrethroid insecticides, especially deltamethrin. We performed laboratory studies to determine whether a T. infestans nymph that comes into contact with a deltamethrin-treated surface horizontally transfers the insecticide to subsequent triatomines. We found that a triatomine that walks on a deltamethrin-treated surface for a short period of time has the ability to transport the insecticide in concentrations sufficient to kill other triatomines with which it comes into contact. The effect was limited to high-density environments, and mortality as a result of secondary exposure was greater among second-instar nymphs compared with fifth-instar nymphs. Our results suggest that deltamethrin could be killing triatomines through both direct and indirect contact, although it remains unclear whether the phenomenon occurs in natural conditions. PMID:21845956

  10. Mechanism of Immunologically Specific Killing of Tumour Cells by Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Evans; P. Alexander

    1972-01-01

    THE increase in anti-microbial activity of macrophages which occurs in animals that have been infected with living microorganisms is frequently non-specific1. In contrast, the anti-tumour activity of macrophages from immunized animals has been demonstrated in vitro to be immunologically specific2,3. The experiments to be described may throw light on this paradox. They show that the killing of tumour cells by

  11. Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Evans, William C.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, earth scientists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The USGS continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

  12. Gauge-covariant extensions of Killing tensors and conservation laws

    E-print Network

    J. W. van Holten

    2014-08-01

    In classical and quantum mechanical systems on manifolds with gauge-field fluxes, constants of motion are constructed from gauge-covariant extensions of Killing vectors and tensors. This construction can be carried out using a manifestly covariant procedure, in terms of covariant phase space with a covariant generalization of the Poisson brackets, c.q. quantum commutators. Some examples of this construction are presented.

  13. Ricci-flat spacetimes admitting higher rank Killing tensors

    E-print Network

    Cariglia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Ricci-flat spacetimes of signature (2,q) with q=2,3,4 are constructed which admit irreducible Killing tensors of rank-3 or rank-4. The construction relies upon the Eisenhart lift applied to Drach's two-dimensional integrable systems which is followed by the oxidation with respect to free parameters. In four dimensions, some of our solutions are anti-self-dual.

  14. Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Dengfeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Guoxin; Shi, Hongcheng

    2014-04-01

    Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 ?g/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200 ± 50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200 ± 50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 ?g/mL) or lower (20 ?g/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 ?g/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations.

  15. Ricci-flat spacetimes admitting higher rank Killing tensors

    E-print Network

    Marco Cariglia; Anton Galajinsky

    2015-03-07

    Ricci-flat spacetimes of signature (2,q) with q=2,3,4 are constructed which admit irreducible Killing tensors of rank-3 or rank-4. The construction relies upon the Eisenhart lift applied to Drach's two-dimensional integrable systems which is followed by the oxidation with respect to free parameters. In four dimensions, some of our solutions are anti-self-dual.

  16. Accounting for Genocide: How Many Were Killed in Srebrenica?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helge Brunborg; Torkild Hovde Lyngstad; Henrik Urdal

    2003-01-01

    The takeover of the UN ‘safearea’ of Srebrenica by Bosnian Serb forces inJuly 1995 was followed by the killing of alarge number of male Bosnian Muslim civilians,in what has been characterized as the worstmassacre in Europe since World War II. Thisarticle is based on a report submitted asevidence to the UN International CriminalTribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) inthe case

  17. Charged Particles Kill Pathogens and Round Up Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    To keep plants fresh longer in space, Marshall Space Flight Center awarded funding to the University of Wisconsin-Madison to develop a titanium oxide-based device that reduced the amount of decay-inducing ethylene gas in the air. Electrolux (now Dallas-based Aerus Holdings) furthered the technology by developing an air purification product that kills pathogens both in the atmosphere and on surfaces.

  18. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  19. Accident externality and vehicle size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lina Jonsson; Gunnar Lindberg

    2009-01-01

    Vehicle mass is a crucial factor for the distribution of injuries between occupants in involved vehicles in a two-vehicle crash. A larger vehicle mass protects the occupants in the vehicle while on the same time inflicts a higher injury risk on the occupants in the collision partner. This mass externality can be internalized to reach a situation where the drivers

  20. Securing vehicles against cyber attacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf E. Larson; Dennis K. Nilsson

    2008-01-01

    The automobile industry has grown to become an integral part of our everyday life. As vehicles evolve, the primarily mechanical solutions for vehicle control are gradually replaced by electronics and software solutions forming in-vehicle computer networks. An emerging trend is to introduce wireless technology in the vehicle domain by attaching a wireless gateway to the in-vehicle network. By allowing wireless

  1. Control of Unmanned Surface Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Control of Unmanned Surface Vehicles Experiments in Vehicle Following · By Marco Bibuli, Massimo are extended to execute the task of vehicle fol- lowing in the case of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). Indeed in the following deals with aspects related to cooperative motion control of unmanned marine vehicles (UMVs

  2. TVA and the electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This brochure illustrates and describes the reliability testing carried out on electric vehicles. Seventeen vehicles including passenger car, station wagons, pick-up trucks, and mini-vans were tested under real-world conditions. Tests include vehicle reliability testing, vehicle performance testing, in-vehicle battery testing, battery charger testing, and EV support systems testing. (MHR)

  3. Targeted Cytotoxic Therapy Kills Persisting HIV Infected Cells During ART

    PubMed Central

    Denton, Paul W.; Long, Julie M.; Wietgrefe, Stephen W.; Sykes, Craig; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Snyder, Olivia D.; Perkey, Katherine; Archin, Nancie M.; Choudhary, Shailesh K.; Yang, Kuo; Hudgens, Michael G.; Pastan, Ira; Haase, Ashley T.; Kashuba, Angela D.; Berger, Edward A.; Margolis, David M.; Garcia, J. Victor

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce HIV levels in plasma to undetectable levels, but rather little is known about the effects of ART outside of the peripheral blood regarding persistent virus production in tissue reservoirs. Understanding the dynamics of ART-induced reductions in viral RNA (vRNA) levels throughout the body is important for the development of strategies to eradicate infectious HIV from patients. Essential to a successful eradication therapy is a component capable of killing persisting HIV infected cells during ART. Therefore, we determined the in vivo efficacy of a targeted cytotoxic therapy to kill infected cells that persist despite long-term ART. For this purpose, we first characterized the impact of ART on HIV RNA levels in multiple organs of bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) humanized mice and found that antiretroviral drug penetration and activity was sufficient to reduce, but not eliminate, HIV production in each tissue tested. For targeted cytotoxic killing of these persistent vRNA+ cells, we treated BLT mice undergoing ART with an HIV-specific immunotoxin. We found that compared to ART alone, this agent profoundly depleted productively infected cells systemically. These results offer proof-of-concept that targeted cytotoxic therapies can be effective components of HIV eradication strategies. PMID:24415939

  4. Phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thea; Porter, Adeline R; Kennedy, Adam D; Kobayashi, Scott D; DeLeo, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are essential for host defense against Staphylococcus aureus infections. Although significant progress has been made, our understanding of neutrophil interactions with S. aureus remains incomplete. To provide a more comprehensive view of this process, we investigated phagocytosis and killing of S. aureus by human neutrophils using varied assay conditions in vitro. A greater percentage of bacteria were internalized by adherent neutrophils compared to those in suspension, and, unexpectedly, uptake of S. aureus by adherent neutrophils occurred efficiently in the absence of opsonins. An antibody specific for S. aureus promoted uptake of unopsonized bacteria in suspension, but had little or no capacity to enhance phagocytosis of S. aureus opsonized with normal human serum or by adherent neutrophils. Collectively, these results indicate that assay conditions can have a significant influence on the phagocytosis and killing of S. aureus by neutrophils. More importantly, the results suggest a vaccine approach directed to enhance opsonophagocytosis alone is not sufficient to promote increased killing of S. aureus by human neutrophils. With the emergence and reemergence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, establishing parameters that are optimal for studying neutrophil-S. aureus interactions will pave the way towards developing immune-directed strategies for anti-staphylococcal therapies. PMID:24713863

  5. ROBUST SCALABLE VEHICLE CONTROL VIA NON-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE DYNAMICS

    E-print Network

    Brennan, Sean

    - 1 - ROBUST SCALABLE VEHICLE CONTROL VIA NON-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE DYNAMICS S. Brennan & A. Alleyne published sets of Vehicle Dynamics reveals a normal distribution about a line through - space. The normal

  6. Relief-well requirements to kill a high-rate gas blowout from a deepwater reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Warriner, R.A. (Triton Engineering Services Co. (US)); Cassity, T.G. (Cameron Iron Works (US))

    1988-12-01

    Relief-well requirements were investigated for a dynamic kill of a high-rate gas blowout from a deepwater reservoir to define any necessary special procedures or equipment. Results of the investigation show that a high injection rate and a special-design large-diameter injection riser are required to dynamically kill such a blowout with seawater. The injection riser is necessary to limit surface pump pressure during the high-rate kill operation. Procedures to complete the kill operation hydrostatically with heavy fluid following the dynamic kill are outlined.

  7. EMPIRICAL MODEL OF VEHICLE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An empirical model that characterizes the relationship between equilibrium vehicle emission distributions and malfunction, repair, and replacement rates by splitting vehicles into two emission categories has been developed. ross emitters and clean vehicles are defined by the magn...

  8. Vehicles for Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Wheelchair Motorcycle Association tests various motorized vehicles that might help the physically disabled child get about outdoors. Vehicles found to be practical for older children and adolescents include three-wheeled motorcycles and customized go-carts. An address for obtaining more information on the association is provided. (SW)

  9. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh Rajamani

    2006-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system topics covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire models and tire-road friction

  10. Air vehicle path planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Jeffrey Michael

    This dissertation explores optimal path planning for air vehicles. An air vehicle exposed to illumination by a tracking radar is considered and the problem of determining an optimal planar trajectory connecting two prespecified points is addressed. An analytic solution yielding the trajectory minimizing the received radar energy reflected from the target is derived using the Calculus of Variations. Additionally, the related problem of an air vehicle tracked by a passive sensor is also solved. Using the insights gained from the single air vehicle radar exposure minimization problem, a hierarchical cooperative control law is formulated to determine the optimal trajectories that minimize the cumulative exposure of multiple air vehicles during a rendezvous maneuver. The problem of one air vehicle minimizing exposure to multiple radars is also addressed using a variational approach, as well as a sub-optimal minmax argument. Local and global optimality issues are explored. A novel decision criterion is developed determining the geometric conditions dictating when it is preferable to go between or around two radars. Lastly, an optimal minimum time control law is obtained for the target identification and classification mission of an autonomous air vehicle. This work demonstrates that an awareness of the consequences of embracing sub-optimal and non-globally optimal solutions for optimization problems, such as air vehicle path planning, is essential.

  11. Air vehicle path planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Michael Hebert

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation explores optimal path planning for air vehicles. An air vehicle exposed to illumination by a tracking radar is considered and the problem of determining an optimal planar trajectory connecting two prespecified points is addressed. An analytic solution yielding the trajectory minimizing the received radar energy reflected from the target is derived using the Calculus of Variations. Additionally, the

  12. USV: Unmanned Space Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Russo; P. P. De Matteis; R. Sabatano; C. Richiello; G. Marino

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an overview of the Unmanned Space Vehicle Programme, led by CIRA, in the frame of PRORA, focusing on the first dropped transonic flight performed on 24 February 2007, performed in order to do accomplish the DTFT mission based on stratospheric balloon. The vehicle reached the target altitude by means of a stratospheric balloon system. The flight had

  13. Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

  14. Individual Human Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Exhibit Intraclonal Heterogeneity during Sustained Killing.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Zilton; Müller, Sabina; Guipouy, Delphine; Yu, Wong; Christophe, Claire; Gadat, Sébastien; Valitutti, Salvatore; Dupré, Loïc

    2015-06-01

    The killing of antigen-bearing cells by clonal populations of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is thought to be a rapid phenomenon executed uniformly by individual CTLs. We combined bulk and single-CTL killing assays over a prolonged time period to provide the killing statistics of clonal human CTLs against an excess of target cells. Our data reveal efficiency in sustained killing at the population level, which relied on a highly heterogeneous multiple killing performance at the individual level. Although intraclonal functional heterogeneity was a stable trait in clonal populations, it was reset in the progeny of individual CTLs. In-depth mathematical analysis of individual CTL killing data revealed a substantial proportion of high-rate killer CTLs with burst killing activity. Importantly, such activity was delayed and required activation with strong antigenic stimulation. Our study implies that functional heterogeneity allows CTL populations to calibrate prolonged cytotoxic activity to the size of target cell populations. PMID:26027932

  15. Liposomal Cholesterol Delivery Activates the Macrophage Innate Immune Arm To Facilitate Intracellular Leishmania donovani Killing

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, June; Guha, Rajan; Das, Shantanabha

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by infecting the monocyte/macrophage lineage and residing inside specialized structures known as parasitophorous vacuoles. The protozoan parasite has adopted several means of escaping the host immune response, with one of the major methods being deactivation of host macrophages. Previous reports highlight dampened macrophage signaling, defective antigen presentation due to increased membrane fluidity, and the downregulation of several genes associated with L. donovani infection. We have reported previously that the defective antigen presentation in infected hamsters could be corrected by a single injection of a cholesterol-containing liposome. Here we show that cholesterol in the form of a liposomal formulation can stimulate the innate immune arm and reactivate macrophage function. Augmented levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI), along with proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), corroborate intracellular parasite killing. Cholesterol incorporation kinetics is favored in infected macrophages more than in normal macrophages. Such an enhanced cholesterol uptake is associated with preferential apoptosis of infected macrophages in an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-dependent manner. All these events are coupled with mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, while inhibition of such pathways resulted in increased parasite loads. Hence, liposomal cholesterol is a potential facilitator of the macrophage effector function in favor of the host, independently of the T-cell arm. PMID:24478076

  16. 11/12/12 Climate change could kill off pandas -Telegraph 1/2www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/earthnews/9670194/Climate-change-could-kill-off-pandas.html

    E-print Network

    11/12/12 Climate change could kill off pandas - Telegraph 1/2www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/earthnews/9670194/Climate-change-could-kill-off-pandas.html Climate change could kill off pandas Climate change Change, focused on the Qinling Mountains in Shaanxi Province, #12;11/12/12 Climate change could kill off

  17. Simplified method for evaluating energy loss in vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Vangi, Dario

    2009-05-01

    A method is proposed for the evaluation of energy loss in road vehicle collisions. The energy loss evaluation is an essential task to reconstruct the dynamics of a road accident. The proposed method combines the simplicity of visual evaluation, typical of the method based on EES (equivalent energy speed), with flexibility, in order to evaluate the energy loss on any kind of vehicle deformation profile, of the methods based on measuring residual crush. The method is based on linearizing the damage profile, so that it is possible to predetermine the analytical expression of the kinetic energy loss in relation to only two parameters that characterise the shape of the damage. The stiffness of the vehicle is determined by estimating the geometric parameters of the damage starting from a photograph of generic damage, with documented EES, on a vehicle of the same model as the one under investigation. The proposed method was validated performing crash tests and using data from crash tests found in the literature. The method estimate with sufficient accuracy the kinetic energy loss in deformation on vehicles. The method, thanks to its simplicity and versatility, can constitute a valid alternative to the classic procedures for evaluating energy loss commonly utilised. PMID:19393816

  18. Mothers who kill: evolutionary underpinnings and infanticide law.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Cavney, James; Resnick, Phillip J

    2012-01-01

    Women who kill their children present a profound challenge to accepted notions of motherhood and the protection offered by mothers to their children. Historically, societies have varied in the sanctions applied to perpetrators of such acts, across both time and place. Where penalties were once severe and punitive for mothers, in modern times some two dozen nations now have infanticide acts that reduce the penalties for mothers who kill their infants. Embedded within these acts are key criteria that relate (a) only to women who are (b) suffering the hormonal or mood effects of pregnancy/lactation at the time of the offence which is (c) usually restricted to within the first year after delivery. Criticisms of infanticide legislation have largely centered on inherent gender bias, misconceptions about the hormonal basis of postpartum psychiatric disorders, and the nexus and contribution of these disorders to the offending in relation to issues of culpability and sentencing. Important differences between female perpetrators relative to the age of the child victim have also highlighted problems in the implementation of infanticide legislation. For example, women who commit neonaticide (murder during the first day of life) differ substantially from mentally ill mothers who kill older children. However, despite these shortcomings, many nations have in recent years chosen to retain their infanticide acts. This article reviews the central controversies of infanticide legislation in relation to current research and fundamental fairness. Using evolutionary psychology as a theoretical framework to organize this discussion, it is argued that infanticide legislation is at best unnecessary and at worst misapplied, in that it exculpates criminal intent and fails to serve those for whom an infanticide defense might otherwise have been intended. PMID:22961624

  19. Kaluza-Klein consistency, Killing vectors and Kähler spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoxha, P.; Martinez-Acosta, R. R.; Pope, C. N.

    2000-10-01

    We make a detailed investigation of all spaces Qn1...nNq1...qN of the form of U(1) bundles over arbitrary products ?iCPni of complex projective spaces, with arbitrary winding numbers qi over each factor in the base. Special cases, including Q1111 (sometimes known as T11), Q111111 and Q2132, are relevant for compactifications of type IIB and D = 11 supergravity. Remarkable `conspiracies' allow consistent Kaluza-Klein S5, S4 and S7 sphere reductions of these theories that retain all the Yang-Mills fields of the isometry group in a massless truncation. We prove that such conspiracies do not occur for the reductions on the Qn1...nNq1...qN spaces, and that it is inconsistent to make a massless truncation in which the non-Abelian SU(ni + 1) factors in their isometry groups are retained. In the course of proving this we derive many properties of the spaces Qn1...nNq1...qN of more general utility. In particular, we show that they always admit Einstein metrics, and that the spaces where qi = (ni + 1)/l all admit two Killing spinors. We also obtain an iterative construction for real metrics on CPn, and construct the Killing vectors on Qn1...nNq1...qN in terms of scalar eigenfunctions on CPni. We derive bounds that allow us to prove that certain Killing-vector identities on spheres, necessary for consistent Kaluza-Klein reductions, are never satisfied on Qn1...nNq1...qN.

  20. New fish-killing alga in coastal Delaware produces neurotoxins.

    PubMed Central

    Bourdelais, Andrea J; Tomas, Carmelo R; Naar, Jerome; Kubanek, Julia; Baden, Daniel G

    2002-01-01

    Ten fish mortality events, involving primarily Atlantic menhaden, occurred from early July through September 2000 in several bays and creeks in Delaware, USA. Two events involved large mortalities estimated at 1-2.5 million fish in Bald Eagle Creek, Rehoboth Bay. Samples from Indian Inlet (Bethany Beach), open to the Atlantic, as well as from an enclosed area of massive fish kills at nearby Bald Eagle Creek and Torque Canal were collected and sent to our laboratory for analysis. Microscopic examination of samples from the fish kill site revealed the presence of a single-cell Raphidophyte alga Chattonella cf. verruculosa at a maximum density of 1.04 x 10(7) cells/L. Naturally occurring brevetoxins were also detected in the bloom samples. Besides the Chattonella species, no other known brevetoxin-producing phytoplankton were present. Chromatographic, immunochemical, and spectroscopic analyses confirmed the presence of brevetoxin PbTx-2, and PbTx-3 and -9 were confirmed by chromatographic and immunochemical analyses. This is the first confirmed report in the United States of brevetoxins associated with an indigenous bloom in temperate Atlantic estuarine waters and of C. cf. verruculosa as a resident toxic organism implicated in fish kills in this area. The bloom of Chattonella continued throughout September and eventually declined in October. By the end of October C. cf. verruculosa was no longer seen, nor was toxin measurable in the surface waters. The results affirm that to avoid deleterious impacts on human and ecosystem health, increased monitoring is needed for brevetoxins and organism(s) producing them, even in areas previously thought to be unaffected. PMID:12003749

  1. Creating Psychological Profiles of Characters in To Kill a Mockingbird

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lauren A. Gibbons

    2012-07-29

    This lesson asks students to explore the motivation behind characters' actions in To Kill a Mockingbird. Students first engage in a freewrite activity. They then do research and creative thinking to design a poster and plan a presentation representing a psychological profile for a selected character, while determining what specific factors (such as family, career, environment, and so forth) have the greatest influence on the characters' decision making throughout the novel. The groups present their findings to the class by assuming the persona of their character and explaining the psychological factors influencing their behavior in the novel.

  2. Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Gerlach, Terrance M.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Evans, William C.; Colvard, Elizabeth M.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Rogie, John D.; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, geologists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

  3. Gauge theories on de Sitter space and Killing vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Rabin [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098 (India)]. E-mail: rabin@bose.res.in

    2007-09-15

    We provide a general method for studying a manifestly covariant formulation of p-form gauge theories on the de Sitter space. This is done by stereographically projecting the corresponding theories, defined on flat Minkowski space, onto the surface of a de Sitter hyperboloid. The gauge fields in the two descriptions are mapped by conformal Killing vectors allowing for a very transparent analysis and compact presentation of results. As applications, the axial anomaly is computed and the electric-magnetic duality is exhibited. Finally, the zero curvature limit is shown to yield consistent results.

  4. Infinitesimal moduli for the Strominger system and generalized Killing spinors

    E-print Network

    Mario Garcia-Fernandez; Roberto Rubio; Carl Tipler

    2015-03-25

    We construct the space of infinitesimal variations for the Strominger system and an obstruction space to integrability, using elliptic operator theory. Motivated by physics, we provide refinements of these finite-dimensional vector spaces using generalized geometry and establish a comparison with previous work by de la Ossa--Svanes and Anderson--Grey--Sharpe. Finally, we propose a unifying framework for metrics with $SU(3)$-holonomy and solutions of the Strominger system, by means of generalized Killing spinors equations on a Courant algebroid.

  5. Infinitesimal moduli for the Strominger system and generalized Killing spinors

    E-print Network

    Garcia-Fernandez, Mario; Tipler, Carl

    2015-01-01

    We construct the space of infinitesimal variations for the Strominger system and an obstruction space to integrability, using elliptic operator theory. Motivated by physics, we provide refinements of these finite-dimensional vector spaces using generalized geometry and establish a comparison with previous work by de la Ossa--Svanes and Anderson--Grey--Sharpe. Finally, we propose a unifying framework for metrics with $SU(3)$-holonomy and solutions of the Strominger system, by means of generalized Killing spinors equations on a Courant algebroid.

  6. Double suicide genes selectively kill human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To construct a recombinant adenovirus containing CDglyTK double suicide genes and evaluate the killing effect of the double suicide genes driven by kinase domain insert containing receptor (KDR) promoter on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methods Human KDR promoter, Escherichia coli (E. coli) cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (TK) gene were cloned using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Plasmid pKDR-CDglyTK was constructed with the KDR promoter and CDglyTK genes. A recombinant adenoviral plasmid AdKDR-CDglyTK was then constructed and transfected into 293 packaging cells to grow and harvest adenoviruses. KDR-expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV304) and KDR-negative liver cancer cell line (HepG2) were infected with the recombinant adenoviruses at different multiplicity of infection (MOI). The infection rate was measured by green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. The infected cells were cultured in culture media containing different concentrations of prodrugs ganciclovir (GCV) and/or 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC). The killing effects were measured using two different methods, i.e. annexin V-FITC staining and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. Results Recombinant adenoviruses AdKDR-CDglyTK were successfully constructed and they infected ECV304 and HepG2 cells efficiently. The infection rate was dependent on MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. ECV304 cells infected with AdKDR-CDglyTK were highly sensitive to GCV and 5-FC. The cell survival rate was dependent on both the concentration of the prodrugs and the MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. In contrast, there were no killing effects in the HepG2 cells. The combination of two prodrugs was much more effective in killing ECV304 cells than GCV or 5-FC alone. The growth of transgenic ECV304 cells was suppressed in the presence of prodrugs. Conclusion AdKDR-CDglyTK/double prodrog system may be a useful method for suppressing tumor angiogenesis. PMID:21333030

  7. Human-kinetic multiclass traffic flow theory and modelling with application to advanced driver assistance systems in congestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris. M. J. Tampere

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by the desire to explore future traffic flows that will consist of a mixture of classical vehicles and vehicles equipped with advanced driver assistance systems, new mathematical theories and models are developed. The basis for this theory was borrowed from the kinetic description of gas flows, where we replaced the behaviour of the molecules by typical human driving behaviour.

  8. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  9. Electric vehicle future examined

    SciTech Connect

    Weslowski, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    A major oil disruption is probably necessary before electric vehicles (EVs) can make a market breakthrough, but the 1980s will see a period of experimentation and demonstration to develop a battery and components that will attract buyers. Batter research focuses on weight, energy density, endurance, and economics, but the first generation of vehicles will likely rely on lead-acid batteries until the new technologies are proved. The budding EV industry needs to collect more standardized performance data on vehicles in service. Several new batteries are under study by private and government groups, but these efforts need to be coordinated before the EV industry can develop. (DCK)

  10. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  11. Security of passive access vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ansaf Ibrahem Alrabady

    2002-01-01

    A passive vehicle system for automotive applications is an evolution of the popular remote keyless entry systems. It provides the ultimate user comfort to access the vehicle. The user no longer needs to reach for any form of mechanical or electronic key to gain access to the vehicle. The vehicle recognizes an authorized user from others by the possession of

  12. Physical process first law for bifurcate Killing horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsel, Aaron J.; Marolf, Donald; Virmani, Amitabh

    2008-01-01

    The physical process version of the first law for black holes states that the passage of energy and angular momentum through the horizon results in a change in area (?)/(8?)?A=?E-??J, so long as this passage is quasistationary. A similar physical process first law can be derived for any bifurcate Killing horizon in any spacetime dimension d?3 using much the same argument. However, to make this law nontrivial, one must show that sufficiently quasistationary processes do in fact occur. In particular, one must show that processes exist for which the shear and expansion remain small, and in which no new generators are added to the horizon. Thorne, MacDonald, and Price considered related issues when an object falls across a d=4 black hole horizon. By generalizing their argument to arbitrary d?3 and to any bifurcate Killing horizon, we derive a condition under which these effects are controlled and the first law applies. In particular, by providing a nontrivial first law for Rindler horizons, our work completes the parallel between the mechanics of such horizons and those of black holes for d?3. We also comment on the situation for d=2.

  13. Light Controllable Surface Coating for Effective Photothermal Killing of Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Han; Kang, Eun Bi; Jeong, Chan Jin; Sharker, Shazid Md; In, Insik; Park, Sung Young

    2015-07-22

    Although the electronic properties of conducting films have been widely explored in optoelectronic fields, the optical absorption abilities of surface-coated films for photothermal conversion have been relatively less explored in the production of antibacterial coatings. Here, we present catechol-conjugated poly(vinylpyrrolidone) sulfobetaine (PVPS) and polyaniline (PANI) tightly linked by ionic interaction (PVPS:PANI) as a novel photothermal antibacterial agent for surface coating, which can absorb broadband near-infrared (NIR) light. Taking advantage of the NIR light absorption, this coating film can release eminent photothermal heat for the rapid killing of surface bacteria. The NIR light triggers a sharp rise in photothermal heat, providing the rapid and effective killing of 99.9% of the Gram-positive and -negative bacteria tested within 3 min of NIR light exposure when used at the concentration of 1 mg/mL. Although considerable progress has been made in the design of antibacterial coatings, the user control of NIR-irradiated rapid photothermal destruction of surface bacteria holds increasing attention beyond the traditional boundaries of typical antibacterial surfaces. PMID:26101891

  14. Physical process first law for bifurcate Killing horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Amsel, Aaron J.; Marolf, Donald; Virmani, Amitabh [Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    The physical process version of the first law for black holes states that the passage of energy and angular momentum through the horizon results in a change in area ({kappa}/8{pi}){delta}A={delta}E-{omega}{delta}J, so long as this passage is quasistationary. A similar physical process first law can be derived for any bifurcate Killing horizon in any spacetime dimension d{>=}3 using much the same argument. However, to make this law nontrivial, one must show that sufficiently quasistationary processes do in fact occur. In particular, one must show that processes exist for which the shear and expansion remain small, and in which no new generators are added to the horizon. Thorne, MacDonald, and Price considered related issues when an object falls across a d=4 black hole horizon. By generalizing their argument to arbitrary d{>=}3 and to any bifurcate Killing horizon, we derive a condition under which these effects are controlled and the first law applies. In particular, by providing a nontrivial first law for Rindler horizons, our work completes the parallel between the mechanics of such horizons and those of black holes for d{>=}3. We also comment on the situation for d=2.

  15. The unstructured domain of colicin N kills Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher L; Ridley, Helen; Pengelly, Robert J; Salleh, Mohd Zulkifli; Lakey, Jeremy H

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria often produce toxins which kill competing bacteria. Colicins, produced by and toxic to Escherichia coli bacteria are three-domain proteins so efficient that one molecule can kill a cell. The C-terminal domain carries the lethal activity and the central domain is required for surface receptor binding. The N-terminal domain, required for translocation across the outer membrane, is always intrinsically unstructured. It has always been assumed therefore that the C-terminal cytotoxic domain is required for the bactericidal activity. Here we report the unexpected finding that in isolation, the 90-residue unstructured N-terminal domain of colicin N is cytotoxic. Furthermore it causes ion leakage from cells but, unlike known antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with this property, shows no membrane binding behaviour. Finally, its activity remains strictly dependent upon the same receptor proteins (OmpF and TolA) used by full-length colicin N. This mechanism of rapid membrane disruption, via receptor mediated binding of a soluble peptide, may reveal a new target for the development of highly specific antibacterials. PMID:23672584

  16. Innate immune lectins kill bacteria expressing blood group antigen

    PubMed Central

    Stowell, Sean R.; Arthur, Connie M.; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Lilian C.; Gourdine, Jean-Philippe; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Ju, Tongzhong; Molinaro, Ross J.; Rivera-Marrero, Carlos; Xia, Baoyun; Smith, David F.; Cummings, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The expression of ABO(H) blood group antigens causes deletion of cells that generate self anti-blood group antibodies, but this deletion limits adaptive immunity toward pathogens bearing cognate blood group antigens. To explore potential defense mechanisms against these pathogens, given such limitations in adaptive immunity, we screened for innate proteins that could recognize human blood group antigens. Here we report that two innate immune lectins, galectins-4 and -8, which are expressed in the intestinal tract, recognize and kill human blood group antigen-expressing E. coli, while failing to alter viability of other E. coli strains or other gram-negative or gram-positive organisms both in vitro and in vivo. Killing by both galectins-4 and -8 resides within their C-terminal domains, occurs rapidly and independently of complement, and is accompanied by disruption of membrane integrity. These results demonstrate that innate defense lectins can provide immunity against pathogens that display blood group self-antigens on their surface. PMID:20154696

  17. Photoacoustically-guided photothermal killing of mosquitoes targeted by nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Foster, Stephen R; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Totten, Daniel C; Beneš, Helen; Shmookler Reis, Robert J; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2014-07-01

    In biomedical applications, nanoparticles have demonstrated the potential to eradicate abnormal cells in small localized pathological zones associated with cancer or infections. Here, we introduce a method for nanotechnology-based photothermal (PT) killing of whole organisms considered harmful to humans or the environment. We demonstrate that laser-induced thermal, and accompanying nano- and microbubble phenomena, can injure or kill C. elegans and mosquitoes fed carbon nanotubes, gold nanospheres, gold nanoshells, or magnetic nanoparticles at laser energies that are safe for humans. In addition, a photoacoustic (PA) effect was used to control nanoparticle delivery. Through the integration of this technique with molecular targeting, nanoparticle clustering, magnetic capturing and spectral sharpening of PA and PT plasmonic resonances, our laser-based PA-PT nano-theranostic platform can be applied to detection and the physical destruction of small organisms and carriers of pathogens, such as malaria vectors, spiders, bed bugs, fleas, ants, locusts, grasshoppers, phytophagous mites, or other arthropod pests, irrespective of their resistance to conventional treatments. PMID:23450780

  18. The Physical Process First Law for Bifurcate Killing Horizons

    E-print Network

    Aaron J. Amsel; Donald Marolf; Amitabh Virmani

    2007-10-16

    The physical process version of the first law for black holes states that the passage of energy and angular momentum through the horizon results in a change in area $\\frac{\\kappa}{8 \\pi} \\Delta A = \\Delta E - \\Omega \\Delta J$, so long as this passage is quasi-stationary. A similar physical process first law can be derived for any bifurcate Killing horizon in any spacetime dimension $d \\ge 3$ using much the same argument. However, to make this law non-trivial, one must show that sufficiently quasi-stationary processes do in fact occur. In particular, one must show that processes exist for which the shear and expansion remain small, and in which no new generators are added to the horizon. Thorne, MacDonald, and Price considered related issues when an object falls across a d=4 black hole horizon. By generalizing their argument to arbitrary $d \\ge 3$ and to any bifurcate Killing horizon, we derive a condition under which these effects are controlled and the first law applies. In particular, by providing a non-trivial first law for Rindler horizons, our work completes the parallel between the mechanics of such horizons and those of black holes for $d \\ge 3$. We also comment on the situation for d=2.

  19. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans biofilm killing by a targeted ciprofloxacin prodrug

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Benjamin D.; Young, Mark; Grieco, Paul A.; Suci, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A pH-sensitive ciprofloxacin prodrug was synthesized and targeted against biofilms of the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa). The dose required to reduce the viability of a mature biofilm of Aa by ~80% was in the range of ng cm?2 of colonized area (mean biofilm density 2.33 x109 cells cm?2). A mathematical model was formulated that predicts the temporal change in the concentration of ciprofloxacin in the Aa biofilm as the drug is released and diffuses into the bulk medium. The predictions of the model were consistent with the extent of killing obtained. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the strategy to induce mortality, and together with the mathematical model, provide the basis for design of targeted antimicrobial prodrugs for the topical treatment of oral infections such as periodontitis. The targeted prodrug approach offers the possibility of optimizing the dose of available antimicrobials in order to kill a chosen pathogen while leaving the commensal microbiota relatively undisturbed. PMID:23952779

  20. Killing for the state: the darkest side of American nursing.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Dave; Federman, Cary

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this article is to bring to the attention of the international nursing community the discrepancy between a pervasive 'caring' nursing discourse and a most unethical nursing practice in the United States. In this article, we present a duality: the conflict in American prisons between nursing ethics and the killing machinery. The US penal system is a setting in which trained healthcare personnel practice the extermination of life. We look upon the sanitization of deathwork as an application of healthcare professionals' skills and knowledge and their appropriation by the state to serve its ends. A review of the states' death penalty statutes shows that healthcare workers are involved in the capital punishment process and shielded by American laws (and to a certain extent by professional boards through their inaction). We also argue that the law's language often masks that involvement; and explain how states further that duplicity behind legal formalisms. In considering the important role healthcare providers, namely nurses and physicians, play in administering death to the condemned, we assert that nurses and physicians are part of the states' penal machinery in America. Nurses and physicians (as carriers of scientific knowledge, and also as agents of care) are intrinsic to the American killing enterprise. Healthcare professionals who take part in execution protocols are state functionaries who approach the condemned body as angels of death: they constitute an extension of the state which exercises its sovereign power over captive prisoners. PMID:12622799

  1. New Mars vehicle concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1993-02-01

    The paper briefly reviews the evolution of the Mars vehicle design concepts from 1952 to 1990, and the currently understood requirements, constraints, and options for manned Mars missions in the early decades of the 21st century. The most up-to-date integrated Mars vehicle concepts for crew-carrying transfer and excursion vehicles are presented together with the Mars descent-ascent mission phases. Particular attention is given to a reusable transfer ship, which is a modular vehicle launched to earth orbit on six 185 t-class boosters and assembled there robotically; it uses dual nuclear-thermal rocket engines and liquid hydrogen propellant. The lander concept is capable of supporting many kinds of surface missions anywhere on Mars.

  2. Constellation Launch Vehicles Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Steve; Fragola, Joseph R.; Priskos, Alex; Davis, Danny; Kaynard, Mike; Hutt, John; Davis, Stephan; Creech, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of the launch vehicles associated with the Constellation Program. These are the Ares I and the Ares V. An overview of the Ares launch vehicles is included. The presentation stresses that the major criteria for the Ares I launcher is the safety of the crew, and the presentation reviews the various features that are designed to assure that aim. The Ares I vehicle is being built on a foundation of proven technologies, and the Ares V will give NASA unprecedented performance and payload volume that can enable a range of future missions. The CDs contain videos of scenes from various activities surrounding the design, construction and testing of the vehicles.

  3. Compact Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Ohm, Timothy R.

    1993-01-01

    Radio-controlled microrover features light weight and agility. Miniature robotic vehicle, called Go-For, implements new fork-wheeled mobility concept to traverse extremely rough terrain. Weighs 4 kg and is 0.4 m long, climbs over obstacles as large as 60 percent of its length. Mobility concept applied to much larger vehicles. Demonstrates such applications as exploration of planetary surfaces, military surveillance, and assessing hazardous situations. Video camera on vehicle sends images to control station, where human supervisor chooses sequence of paths to traverse to reach locations of interest. For planetary exploration, spectrometer and seisometer on vehicle sends scientific data to control station, and onboard tools collect soil and rock samples. Terrestrial version equipped similarly to take samples in chemically and/or biologically contaminated areas.

  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Washburn; Moshe Kress

    This chapter is concerned with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). A UAV\\u000a is a remotely piloted or self-piloted aircraft that can carry a payload\\u000a of cameras, sensors, communications, and electronic warfare equipment. A UAV may carry also a weapon, in which case it is\\u000a called an Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV). UCAV\\u000a s are effective attack weapons. Typical missions of UAVs

  5. Vehicle Internet Appliance (VIA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hariri; Mahesh Indran

    2003-01-01

    Summary form only given. We present the design and implementation of an open and cost-effective vehicle information appliance (VIA) to enable the access to all car status information (e.g., engine temperature, engine condition, brakes, etc), as well as communicating with car passengers (e.g., multimedia video conferencing). The main objective of the vehicle Internet appliance is to effectively utilize the Internet

  6. Aerospace vehicle synthesis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A modified version of the Aerospace Vehicle Synthesis Program (VSP) to simulate a space shuttle on the computer is presented. The effects of various changes such as payload weight, and orbital velocity can be determined along with minimum costs in vehicle design. The program logic, and weight estimating equations are discussed, and an example case of a solid propellant boosted, drop tank orbiter is included to indicate the type of results produced by the VSP.

  7. Launch Vehicle Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) planning for updated launch vehicle operations progresses, there is a need to consider improved methods. This study considers the use of phased array antennas mounted on launch vehicles and transmitting data to either NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) satellites or to the commercial Iridium, Intelsat, or Inmarsat communications satellites. Different data rate requirements are analyzed to determine size and weight of resulting antennas.

  8. Industrial Vehicle Routing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geir Hasle; Oddvar Kloster

    Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is\\u000a an NP-hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded\\u000a as one of the great successes of OR. Vehicle routing decision support tools provide substantial savings in society every day,

  9. Spacetime encodings. IV. The relationship between Weyl curvature and Killing tensors in stationary axisymmetric vacuum spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, Jeandrew [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91103 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    The problem of obtaining an explicit representation for the fourth invariant of geodesic motion (generalized Carter constant) of an arbitrary stationary axisymmetric vacuum spacetime generated from an Ernst potential is considered. The coupling between the nonlocal curvature content of the spacetime as encoded in the Weyl tensor, and the existence of a Killing tensor is explored and a constructive, algebraic test for a fourth-order Killing tensor suggested. The approach used exploits the variables defined for the Baecklund transformations to clarify the relationship between Weyl curvature, constants of geodesic motion, expressed as Killing tensors, and the solution-generation techniques. A new symmetric noncovariant formulation of the Killing equations is given. This formulation transforms the problem of looking for fourth-order Killing tensors in 4D into one of looking for four interlocking two-manifolds admitting fourth-order Killing tensors in 2D.

  10. Novel RNA sequences associated with late male killing in Homona magnanima

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Kazuko; Hoshino, Mayu; Nakai, Madoka; Kunimi, Yasuhisa

    2008-01-01

    Maternally inherited female-biased sex ratios have been documented in many invertebrate species. One cause of such biased sex ratios is male killing, i.e. only males die. In most species, male killing occurs during embryonic stages (early male killing) and is associated with cytoplasmic bacteria, including Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, Rickettsia, Flavobacteria and gamma proteobacteria. However, the oriental tea tortrix, Homona magnanima, is one of the few species in which male death occurs in the larval or pupal stage, and is thus an example of late male killing. We partially purified the agent causing late male killing in H. magnanima and showed that it consists of two RNA sequences. This represents an entirely novel agent causing late male killing. PMID:18302997

  11. Opinions of university students on honour killings: Perspective from Islamabad and Rawalpindi.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Masood Ali; Kamal, Anila; Naqvi, Irum

    2015-04-01

    Honour killing incidents have been reported from every province of Pakistan. In 2014 a pregnant woman was killed in front of Lahore High Court, by her family members, in the name of honour. This study was conducted to determine the perspective of university students on honour killing with specific reference to one such killing incident in Lahore. Cumulatively, 989 students participated in the survey. Compared with female students, male students were less likely to agree and were more unequivocal that a woman has a right to marry any man she wants despite her family's disapproval, in a statistically significant manner. Similarly, male students were statistically significantly more likely to report that killing in the name of honour is always justified and were less equivocal about it compared to female students. Nonetheless, cumulatively 824 (83.3%) students believed that killing in the name of honour is not always justified. PMID:25976580

  12. Space robot simulator vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  13. Is the claim that ‘variance kills’ an ecological fallacy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary A. Davis

    2002-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, a number of studies have reported positive correlations between estimated traffic crash rate and the dispersion of vehicle speeds. These correlations have on occasion been interpreted as supporting the view that slower and\\/or faster drivers have higher crash risks, or that speed variance itself is a causal factor for individual crash risk. This paper points

  14. Killing of Caenorhabditis elegans by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Used to Model Mammalian Bacterial Pathogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Man-Wah Tan; Shalina Mahajan-Miklos; Frederick M. Ausubel

    1999-01-01

    We show that a single clinical isolate of the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain PA14), which previously was shown to be pathogenic in mice and plants, also kills Caenorhabditis elegans. The rate of PA14-mediated killing of C. elegans depends on the composition of the agar medium on which PA14 is grown. When PA14 is grown on minimal medium, killing

  15. Integrability Conditions for Killing-Yano Tensors and Maximally Symmetric Spaces in the Presence of Torsion

    E-print Network

    Batista, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The integrability conditions for the existence of Killing-Yano tensors or, equivalently, covariantly closed conformal Killing-Yano tensors, in the presence of torsion are worked out. As an application, all metrics and torsions compatible with the existence of a Killing-Yano tensor of order n-1 are obtained. Finally, the issue of defining a maximally symmetric space with respect to connections with torsion is addressed.

  16. Killing-Yano Tensors of Valence-2 in the Standard Kaluza-Klein Theory

    E-print Network

    Ali Nur Nurbaki

    2011-08-11

    This work is constructed on two main concepts: Killing-Yano symmetry and the Kaluza-Klein theory. Those concepts are reviewed in the first three chapters. In the fourth chapter firstly Killing-Yano equations of valence-2 are obtained for a general 5-dimensional metric and then reduced for the Minkowski metric. It is seen that in order to save the existence of Killing-Yano tensors with the fifth components some conditions must be satisfied

  17. Different patterns of cytokine regulation of phagocytosis and bacterial killing by human neutrophils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmitry V. Pechkovsky; Michael P. Potapnev; Oksana M. Zalutskaya

    1996-01-01

    We describe here the capacity of human recombinant interleukin-1-beta (IL-1?), interferon-gamma (INF-?), interferon-alpha (INF-?), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (INF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) to modulate phagocytosis and bacterial killing by human neutrophils. IL-1?, INF-? and TNF-? enhance phagocytosis of bacteria but do not have consistent effect on bacterial killing. In contrast, IL-6 augments bacterial killing but not phagocytosis of bacteria

  18. A composition theorem for parity kill number Ryan O'Donnell

    E-print Network

    O'Donnell, Ryan

    A composition theorem for parity kill number Ryan O'Donnell Carnegie Mellon University Xiaorui Sun[f] and DT [f]. C min[f] is the parity kill number of f, the fewest number of parities on the input variables one has to fix in order to "kill" f, i.e. to make it constant. DT [f] is the depth of the shortest

  19. How Important is Vehicle Safety in the New Vehicle Purchase\\/Lease Process for Fleet Vehicles?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sjaanie Koppel; Judith Charlton; Brian Fildes

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Despite the potential benefits that fleet vehicle purchase decisions could have on road safety, the role that vehicle safety plays in fleet managers' purchase decisions is poorly understood.Methods. In this study, fleet managers from Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire regarding the importance of vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase\\/lease process and the importance that is placed on

  20. Effects of Vehicle-vehicle/ roadside-vehicle Communication on Adaptive Cruise Controlled Highway Systems

    E-print Network

    Sengupta, Raja

    Effects of Vehicle-vehicle/ roadside-vehicle Communication on Adaptive Cruise Controlled Highway/vehicle-roadside communication on the performance of adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. Two simulation works are presented in the field [3]. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems are the first driver control assistance systems

  1. Performance of broadcast transmission from multiple vehicles in vehicle-roadside-vehicle relay network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuya Minato; Huiting Cheng; Yasushi Yamao

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication is regarded as an essential means to avoid traffic accidents and increase vehicle safety. However, reliability of the communications severely suffers from wireless propagation on the road. A vehicle-roadside-vehicle relay communication scheme has been proposed to improve the reliability of the V2V communications. The packet broadcast transmission performance of the proposed scheme with large number

  2. Black holes with a single Killing vector field: black resonators

    E-print Network

    Dias, Oscar J C; Way, Benson

    2015-01-01

    We numerically construct asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in four dimensions that contain only a single Killing vector field. These solutions, which we coin black resonators, link the superradiant instability of Kerr-AdS to the nonlinear weakly turbulent instability of AdS by connecting the onset of the superradiance instability to smooth, horizonless geometries called geons. Furthermore, they demonstrate non-uniqueness of Kerr-AdS by sharing asymptotic charges. Where black resonators coexist with Kerr-AdS, we find that the black resonators have higher entropy. Nevertheless, we show that black resonators are unstable and comment on the implications for the endpoint of the superradiant instability.

  3. Roadblocks on the kill curve: Testing the Raup hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    The documented presence of two large (???100-km diameter), possibly coeval impact craters of late Eocene age, requires modification of the impact-kill curve proposed by David M. Raup. Though the estimated meteorite size for each crater alone is large enough to have produced considerable global environmental stress, no horizons of mass mortality or pulsed extinction are known to be associated with either crater or their ejecta deposits. Thus, either there is no fixed relationship between extinction magnitude and crater diameter, or a meteorite that would produce a crater of >100-km diameter is required to raise extinction rates significantly above a ???5% background level. Both impacts took place ???1-2 m.y. before the "Terminal Eocene Event"( =early Oligocene pulsed extinction). Their collective long-term environmental effects, however, may have either delayed that extinction pulse or produced threshold conditions necessary for it to take place.

  4. Could giant basin-forming impacts have killed Martian dynamo?

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, W; Jiang, W; Roberts, J; Frey, H V

    2014-01-01

    The observed strong remanent crustal magnetization at the surface of Mars suggests an active dynamo in the past and ceased to exist around early to middle Noachian era, estimated by examining remagnetization strengths in extant and buried impact basins. We investigate whether the Martian dynamo could have been killed by these large basin-forming impacts, via numerical simulation of subcritical dynamos with impact-induced thermal heterogeneity across the core-mantle boundary. We find that subcritical dynamos are prone to the impacts centered on locations within 30° of the equator but can easily survive those at higher latitudes. Our results further suggest that magnetic timing places a strong constraint on postimpact polar reorientation, e.g., a minimum 16° polar reorientation is needed if Utopia is the dynamo killer.

  5. Development of Al-killed/Ti stabilized steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Ledesma, A. L.; Aguilar-Mendez, M. A.; Rodriguez-Diaz, R. A.; >G Aramburo,

    2015-01-01

    Several Al-killed/Ti-stabilized low carbon steels were developed in a Mexican steel industry with the aim of obtaining an interstitial free steel for automotive applications. The steelmaking route involved the use of 100% sponge iron which was feed into an electric arc furnace, vacuum degassed, ladle treated and continuously casted. The resulting slabs were then hot rolled at 1100 °C and coiled at 650 °C. Then, the steel plates were cold rolled at room temperature and sheets annealed at 700 °C. As-cast micro structure showed the presence of ?-ferrite with titanium nitrides in matrix and grain boundaries while in the ashot rolled condition, elongated grains showed the presence of titanium nitrides, titanium sulfides and titanium carbosulfides. The annealed sheets showed, additionally to the other precipitates, the presence of titanium carbides. Microstructure, texture, the Lankford ratio and mechanical properties of fully recrystallized coils fulfilled the target properties established by the automobile industry.

  6. Benzothiazinones Kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Blocking Arabinan Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Makarov, Vadim; Manina, Giulia; Mikusova, Katarina; Möllmann, Ute; Ryabova, Olga; Saint-Joanis, Brigitte; Dhar, Neeraj; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; Buroni, Silvia; Lucarelli, Anna Paola; Milano, Anna; De Rossi, Edda; Belanova, Martina; Bobovska, Adela; Dianiskova, Petronela; Kordulakova, Jana; Sala, Claudia; Fullam, Elizabeth; Schneider, Patricia; McKinney, John D.; Brodin, Priscille; Christophe, Thierry; Waddell, Simon; Butcher, Philip; Albrethsen, Jakob; Rosenkrands, Ida; Brosch, Roland; Nandi, Vrinda; Bharath, Sowmya; Gaonkar, Sheshagiri; Shandil, Radha K.; Balasubramanian, Venkataraman; Balganesh, Tanjore; Tyagi, Sandeep; Grosset, Jacques; Riccardi, Giovanna; Cole, Stewart T.

    2011-01-01

    New drugs are required to counter the tuberculosis (TB) pandemic. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of 1,3-benzothiazin-4-ones (BTZs), a new class of antimycobacterial agents that kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro, ex vivo, and in mouse models of TB. Using genetics and biochemistry, we identified the enzyme decaprenylphosphoryl-?-d-ribose 2?-epimerase as a major BTZ target. Inhibition of this enzymatic activity abolishes the formation of decaprenylphosphoryl arabinose, a key precursor that is required for the synthesis of the cell-wall arabinans, thus provoking cell lysis and bacterial death. The most advanced compound, BTZ043, is a candidate for inclusion in combination therapies for both drug-sensitive and extensively drug-resistant TB. PMID:19299584

  7. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and ? > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when ? < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when ? ? 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  8. Ecological approaches to oral biofilms: control without killing.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Phil D; Head, David A; Devine, Deirdre A

    2015-01-01

    Humans have co-evolved with micro-organisms and have a symbiotic or mutualistic relationship with their resident microbiome. As at other body surfaces, the mouth has a diverse microbiota that grows on oral surfaces as structurally and functionally organised biofilms. The oral microbiota is natural and provides important benefits to the host, including immunological priming, down-regulation of excessive pro-inflammatory responses, regulation of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems, and colonisation by exogenous microbes. On occasions, this symbiotic relationship breaks down, and previously minor components of the microbiota outcompete beneficial bacteria, thereby increasing the risk of disease. Antimicrobial agents have been formulated into many oral care products to augment mechanical plaque control. A delicate balance is needed, however, to control the oral microbiota at levels compatible with health, without killing beneficial bacteria and losing the key benefits delivered by these resident microbes. These antimicrobial agents may achieve this by virtue of their recommended twice daily topical use, which results in pharmacokinetic profiles indicating that they are retained in the mouth for relatively long periods at sublethal levels. At these concentrations they are still able to inhibit bacterial traits implicated in disease (e.g. sugar transport/acid production; protease activity) and retard growth without eliminating beneficial species. In silico modelling studies have been performed which support the concept that either reducing the frequency of acid challenge and/or the terminal pH, or by merely slowing bacterial growth, results in maintaining a community of beneficial bacteria under conditions that might otherwise lead to disease (control without killing). PMID:25871418

  9. Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps

    PubMed Central

    Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism. PMID:24281548

  10. Ground vehicle convoying

    SciTech Connect

    Gage, D.W.; Pletta, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Initial investigations into two different approaches for applying autonomous ground vehicle technology to the ground vehicle convoying application are described. A minimal capability system that would maintain desired speed and vehicle spacing while a human driver provided steering control could improve convoy performance and provide positive control in nighttime and inclement weather, but would not reduce driver manpower requirements. Such a system could be implemented in a modular and relatively low cost manner. A more capable system would eliminate the human driver in following vehicles and reduce manpower requirements for the transportation of supplies. This technology could also be used to aid in the deployment of teleoperated vehicles in a battlefield environment. The needs, requirements, and several proposed solutions for such an Attachable Robotic Convoy Capability (ARCC) system will be discussed. Included are discussions of sensors, actuators, computers, communications, control systems and safety issues. This advanced robotic convoy system will provide a much greater capability, but will be more difficult and expensive to implement.

  11. Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

    1997-12-31

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

  12. Killing-Yano Forms of a Class of Spherically Symmetric Space-Times I: A Unified Generation of Killing Vector Fields

    E-print Network

    O. Acik; U. Ertem; M. Onder; A. Vercin

    2008-03-23

    Killing-Yano one forms (duals of Killing vector fields) of a class of spherically symmetric space-times characterized by four functions are derived in a unified and exhaustive way. For well-known space-times such as those of Minkowski, Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstrom, Robertson-Walker and several forms of de Sitter, these forms arise as special cases in a natural way. Besides its two well-known forms, four more forms of de Sitter space-time are also established with ten independent Killing vector fields for which four different time evolution regimes can explicitly be specified by the symmetry requirement. A family of space-times in which metric characterizing functions are of the general form and admitting six or seven independent Killing vector fields is presented.

  13. The Kill Date as a Management Tool for Cover Cropping Success

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Ayuso, María; Gabriel, José Luis; Quemada, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Integrating cover crops (CC) in rotations provides multiple ecological services, but it must be ensured that management does not increase pre-emptive competition with the subsequent crop. This experiment was conducted to study the effect of kill date on: (i) CC growth and N content; (ii) the chemical composition of residues; (iii) soil inorganic N and potentially mineralizable N; and (iv) soil water content. Treatments were fallow and a CC mixture of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and vetch (Vicia sativa L.) sown in October and killed on two different dates in spring. Above-ground biomass and chemical composition of CC were determined at harvest, and ground cover was monitored based on digital image analysis. Soil mineral N was determined before sowing and after killing the CC, and potentially mineralizable N was measured by aerobic incubation at the end of the experiment. Soil water content was monitored daily to a depth of 1.1 m using capacitance sensors. Under the present conditions of high N availability, delaying kill date increased barley above-ground biomass and N uptake from deep soil layers; little differences were observed in vetch. Postponing kill date increased the C/N ratio and the fiber content of plant residues. Ground cover reached >80% by the first kill date (?1250°C days). Kill date was a means to control soil inorganic N by balancing the N retained in the residue and soil, and showed promise for mitigating N losses. The early kill date decreased the risk of water and N pre-emptive competition by reducing soil depletion, preserving rain harvested between kill dates and allowing more time for N release in spring. The soil potentially mineralizable N was enhanced by the CC and kill date delay. Therefore kill date is a crucial management variable for maximizing the CC benefits in agricultural systems. PMID:25296333

  14. The kill date as a management tool for cover cropping success.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Ayuso, María; Gabriel, José Luis; Quemada, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Integrating cover crops (CC) in rotations provides multiple ecological services, but it must be ensured that management does not increase pre-emptive competition with the subsequent crop. This experiment was conducted to study the effect of kill date on: (i) CC growth and N content; (ii) the chemical composition of residues; (iii) soil inorganic N and potentially mineralizable N; and (iv) soil water content. Treatments were fallow and a CC mixture of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and vetch (Vicia sativa L.) sown in October and killed on two different dates in spring. Above-ground biomass and chemical composition of CC were determined at harvest, and ground cover was monitored based on digital image analysis. Soil mineral N was determined before sowing and after killing the CC, and potentially mineralizable N was measured by aerobic incubation at the end of the experiment. Soil water content was monitored daily to a depth of 1.1 m using capacitance sensors. Under the present conditions of high N availability, delaying kill date increased barley above-ground biomass and N uptake from deep soil layers; little differences were observed in vetch. Postponing kill date increased the C/N ratio and the fiber content of plant residues. Ground cover reached >80% by the first kill date (?1250°C days). Kill date was a means to control soil inorganic N by balancing the N retained in the residue and soil, and showed promise for mitigating N losses. The early kill date decreased the risk of water and N pre-emptive competition by reducing soil depletion, preserving rain harvested between kill dates and allowing more time for N release in spring. The soil potentially mineralizable N was enhanced by the CC and kill date delay. Therefore kill date is a crucial management variable for maximizing the CC benefits in agricultural systems. PMID:25296333

  15. Kinetic tiles: modular construction units for interactive kinetic surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyunjung Kim; Woohun Lee

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate Kinetic Tiles, modular con-struction units for Interactive Kinetic Surfaces (IKSs). We aimed to design Kinetic Tiles to be accessible and available so that users can construct IKSs easily and rapidly. The components of Kinetic Tiles are inexpensive and easily available. In addition, the use of magnetic force enables the separation of the surface material and actuators

  16. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  17. High speed electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Nasa, K.; Tavakoli, M.; Thompson, M.; Jordan, C. [GMI Engineering and Management Inst., Flint, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Formula Lighting is an exciting new addition to GMI Engineering and Management Institute. This project is an excellent opportunity for students to use their acquired skills in a real life application. The vehicle is slated to compete in several races around the country. These events offer students the exposure to high caliber competitions in engineering design, combined with the thrill of racing. The Formula Lightning is an electric vehicle. Most of the challenging design tasks lie within the drive train setup and battery system efficiency. Part of the battery system efficiency includes a quick and reliable exchange technique of battery packs under race conditions. The vehicle is designed and built by GMI students, except for the chassis. This project allows students from all fields of engineering to gain experience in mechanical and electrical design as well as project management.

  18. Dynamic kinetic resolution.

    PubMed

    Gihani, M T; Williams, J M

    1999-02-01

    The use of transition-metal-enzyme combinations to effect tandem in situ racemisation and resolutions has extended the scope of dynamic kinetic resolutions. This methodology has signalled a more proactive stance to the racemisation process, which has traditionally relied on more fortuitous approaches, namely the exploitation of labile substrates. The development and application of specific racemising enzymes such as mandelate racemase offers potential for future multienzyme dynamic kinetic resolutions. PMID:10021402

  19. Vehicle brake testing system

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Samuel S. (Harriman, TN); Hodgson, Jeffrey W. (Lenoir City, TN)

    2002-11-19

    This invention relates to a force measuring system capable of measuring forces associated with vehicle braking and of evaluating braking performance. The disclosure concerns an invention which comprises a first row of linearly aligned plates, a force bearing surface extending beneath and beside the plates, vertically oriented links and horizontally oriented links connecting each plate to a force bearing surface, a force measuring device in each link, a transducer coupled to each force measuring device, and a computing device coupled to receive an output signal from the transducer indicative of measured force in each force measuring device. The present invention may be used for testing vehicle brake systems.

  20. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system topics covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire models and tire-road friction estimation. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics.

  1. Laboratory and field evaluations for efficacy of a fast-killing baculovirus isolate from Spodoptera frugiperda

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three biopesticide parameters were evaluated for a fast-killing isolate (3AP2) Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) and a wild-type isolate (Sf3) of the same baculovirus. Both isolates were evaluated for virus production using in vivo methods, for speed of kill based on bioas...

  2. Topics in Representation Theory: The Killing Form, Reflections and Classification of Root

    E-print Network

    Woit, Peter

    Topics in Representation Theory: The Killing Form, Reflections and Classification of Root Systems 1 Roots and the Killing Form So far we have just used the combinatorial structure coming from the roots restrict it to tC and use the fact that for H tC, ad(H) is diagonal with eigenvalues given by the roots i

  3. Killing forms on the five-dimensional Einstein-Sasaki Y(p,q) spaces

    E-print Network

    Mihai Visinescu

    2012-10-16

    We present the complete set of Killing-Yano tensors on the five-dimensional Einstein-Sasaki Y(p,q) spaces. Two new Killing-Yano tensors are identified, associated with the complex volume form of the Calabi-Yau metric cone. The corresponding hidden symmetries are not anomalous and the geodesic equations are superintegrable.

  4. Closed conformal Killing-Yano tensor and Kerr-NUT-de Sitter spacetime uniqueness

    E-print Network

    Tsuyoshi Houri; Takeshi Oota; Yukinori Yasui

    2007-08-10

    We study spacetimes with a closed conformal Killing-Yano tensor. It is shown that the D-dimensional Kerr-NUT-de Sitter spacetime constructed by Chen-Lu-Pope is the only spacetime admitting a rank-2 closed conformal Killing-Yano tensor with a certain symmetry.

  5. Rapid Killing of Single Neurons by Irradiation of Intracellularly Injected Dye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Miller; Allen I. Selverston

    1979-01-01

    A simple technique for rapidly killing all or part of single neurons consists of filling the cell with Lucifer Yellow CH and irradiating all or part of it with intense blue light. Such treatment kills the irradiated part of the cell within a few minutes. Adjacent cells are not affected.

  6. Binding to and killing of human renal epithelial cells by hemolytic P-fimbriated E. coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna L Trifillis; Michael S Donnenberg; Xiaoling Cui; Robert G Russell; Simon J Utsalo; Harry L T Mobley; John W Warren

    1994-01-01

    Binding to and killing of human renal epithelial cells by hemolytic P-fimbriated E. coli. Acute pyelonephritis is a common invasive infection frequently caused by E. coli that possess P-fimbriae and secrete hemolysin. We have examined the role of P fimbriae and hemolysin in the killing of putative target cells of acute pyelonephritis, that is, human renal epithelial cells (HRPTEC). Cultures

  7. Legionella pneumophila kills human phagocytes but not protozoan host cells by inducing apoptotic cell death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonja Hägele; Jörg Hacker; Bettina C Brand

    1998-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular parasite able to replicate within and to kill a variety of eukaryotic cells. One possible killing mechanism is the induction of programmed cell death. Based on electron microscopy and flow cytometry studies using the phosphatidylserine binding protein annexin V, we could demonstrate that L. pneumophila is able to induce apoptosis in human monocytes which

  8. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF HUMAN AND PORCINE INTERLEUKIN 2 ON NATURAL KILLING (NK) ACTIVITY OF NEWBORN PIGLETS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF HUMAN AND PORCINE INTERLEUKIN 2 ON NATURAL KILLING (NK) ACTIVITY OF NEWBORN killing (NK) activity can be defined as the ability of normal unsensitized lymphoid cells to lyse tumor, Charley et al 1985a), can be stimulated in vitro by natural or recombinant human or por- cine IFNa

  9. Interactive effects of Na and K in killing by natural killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichter, L.C.; MacCoubrey, I.C. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-09-01

    Contact-mediated lysis by human natural killer cells is inhibited by a number of drugs that block the predominant K channel. In this study the authors have further examined the role of the K channel and the interactions between passive K and Na transport in killing. Low external Na-inhibited killing and inhibition were not due to reduced inward current through the Na channels in the target cell. A role for the Na/H antiport is suggested since amiloride inhibited killing in a dose-dependent manner that was competitive with external Na. Depolarizing the killer cell with elevated external K did not inhibit killing. On the contrary, high K{sub 0} reduced the inhibition caused by low Na{sub 0} and by the K-channel blockers quinidine, verapamil, and retinoic acid. Hyperpolarizing the killer cell with low K{sub 0} or valinomycin inhibited killing. Hence, the primary role of the K channels during killing is not to maintain the negative membrane potential. On the contrary, depolarization may promote killing under conditions where killing is submaximal.

  10. Generating Test Data for Killing SQL Mutants: A Constraint-based Approach

    E-print Network

    Sudarshan, S.

    Generating Test Data for Killing SQL Mutants: A Constraint-based Approach Shetal Shah, S. Sudarshan of error. To minimize human effort in testing, our techniques generate a test suite containing small.e., it kills all non-equivalent mutations in this subclass. I. INTRODUCTION SQL queries are very widely used

  11. Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins Kill Bacteria by Inducing Oxidative, Thiol, and Metal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Des Raj; Rompca, Annemarie; Gaballa, Ahmed; Helmann, John D.; Chan, Jefferson; Chang, Christopher J.; Hozo, Iztok; Gupta, Dipika; Dziarski, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins (PGRPs) are a family of evolutionary conserved bactericidal innate immunity proteins, but the mechanism through which they kill bacteria is unclear. We previously proposed that PGRPs are bactericidal due to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a mechanism of killing that was also postulated, and later refuted, for several bactericidal antibiotics. Here, using whole genome expression arrays, qRT-PCR, and biochemical tests we show that in both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis PGRPs induce a transcriptomic signature characteristic of oxidative stress, as well as correlated biochemical changes. However, induction of ROS was required, but not sufficient for PGRP killing. PGRPs also induced depletion of intracellular thiols and increased cytosolic concentrations of zinc and copper, as evidenced by transcriptome changes and supported by direct measurements. Depletion of thiols and elevated concentrations of metals were also required, but by themselves not sufficient, for bacterial killing. Chemical treatment studies demonstrated that efficient bacterial killing can be recapitulated only by the simultaneous addition of agents leading to production of ROS, depletion of thiols, and elevation of intracellular metal concentrations. These results identify a novel mechanism of bacterial killing by innate immunity proteins, which depends on synergistic effect of oxidative, thiol, and metal stress and differs from bacterial killing by antibiotics. These results offer potential targets for developing new antibacterial agents that would kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:25032698

  12. Quaternionic Killing Spinors W. Kramer , U. Semmelmann y , G. Weingart z

    E-print Network

    Weingart, Gregor

    Quaternionic Killing Spinors W. Kramer #3; , U. Semmelmann y , G. Weingart z Mathematisches of the Dirac operator on quaternionic Kahler manifolds. In the present article we study the limiting case, i in terms of a quaternionic Killing equation and show that the only symmetric quaternionic Kahler manifolds

  13. Killing technique of North American badgers preying on Richardson's ground squirrels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail R. Michener; Andrew N. Iwaniuk

    2001-01-01

    Carcasses of 13 Richardson's ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) cached during autumn by North American badgers (Taxidea taxus) in southern Alberta, Canada, were inspected to determine the capture and killing technique. Regardless of prey size (251-651 g) or torpor status (normothermic or torpid), badgers killed ground squir - rels with a single grasping bite directed dorsally or laterally to the thorax.

  14. Mothers Who Kill Their Offspring: Testing Evolutionary Hypothesis in a 110-Case Italian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea S.; Fontanesi, Lilybeth

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This research aimed to identify incidents of mothers in Italy killing their own children and to test an adaptive evolutionary hypothesis to explain their occurrence. Methods: 110 cases of mothers killing 123 of their own offspring from 1976 to 2010 were analyzed. Each case was classified using 13 dichotomic variables. Descriptive…

  15. Resource dispersion and consumer dominance: scavenging at wolf-and hunter-killed carcasses

    E-print Network

    Getz, Wayne M.

    REPORT Resource dispersion and consumer dominance: scavenging at wolf- and hunter-killed carcasses (Canis lupus) and human hunters both provide resource subsidies to scavengers by provisioning them consumed by each scavenger species at both wolf and hunter kills over 4 years. Species with large feeding

  16. The Effect of Vine Kill and Harvest Date on Tuber Respiration Rates and Tuber Sugars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russet Burbank potatoes were grown using standard procedures for planting, fertilization, irrigation, and pest management. Vine kill and harvest occurred on three staggered dates that spanned approximately six weeks. Vines were either killed chemically or left untreated and ubers were harvested from...

  17. Humane killing of fishes for scientific research: a comparison of two methods.

    PubMed

    Blessing, J J; Marshall, J C; Balcombe, S R

    2010-06-01

    Two killing methods were compared on the clupeid, bony bream Nematolosa erebi and it was found that ice-slurry immersion was more humane than benzocaine overdose. The use of ice-slurry for killing N. erebi should be accepted as a standard humane method and considered similarly for other warm-water species. PMID:20557609

  18. ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS IN AN EXPERIMENTAL TESTING PIPE SYSTEM FOR AN INHIBITOR OF MUSSEL KILL

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-06-04

    A comprehensive series of 16 laboratory experiments demonstrated that the presence of vinyl tubing within a recirculating pipe system was responsible for lowering zebra mussel kill following treatment with the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. All vinyl tubing was replaced in all testing units with silicone tubing, and high mussel kill (>95%) was then obtained.

  19. Bax/Bak action in mitochondria. These agents release Ca2+ themselves and kill

    E-print Network

    Latham, Peter

    67 Bax/Bak action in mitochondria. These agents release Ca2+ themselves and kill more efficiently or Bak in mitochondria, and both ER Ca2+ and Bax/Bak levels mod- ulate their killing potency. The Bax and Bax/Bak indeed coregulate ER Ca2+. The Scorrano et al. study defines a new role for the ER-mitochondria

  20. Gamma-interferon activation of macrophages for killing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and evidence for nonoxidative mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Brummer, E; Hanson, L H; Stevens, D A

    1988-01-01

    Fungicidal activity of murine peritoneal macrophages for the yeast form of the dimorphic fungal pathogen P. brasiliensis was studied. Killing was assessed by reduction of colony forming units (CFU) using a new medium which has a good plating efficiency. Resident peritoneal macrophages phagocytosed but did not kill P. brasiliensis. Macrophages treated overnight with recombinant gamma-interferon (IFN), lymph node cells plus concanavalin A (Con A) or Con A-stimulated spleen cell culture supernatants (Con A Sup) reproducibly killed three different isolates of P. brasiliensis (35 - 55%, P less than 0.05 - P less than 0.001). This is the first demonstration of killing of this organism by macrophages. Activated macrophages did not show enhanced phagocytosis of P. brasiliensis. Activation of macrophages for killing by IFN was dose-dependent and, varying with the isolate, 100 - 10,000 U/ml was required for inducing significant fungicidal effects against P. brasiliensis. Activation of macrophages by IFN or Con A Sup was abrogated by anti-IFN antibody. These results suggest that immune modulation may be an approach to therapy of paracoccidioidomycosis. Killing was not significantly inhibited in the presence of superoxide dismutase (450 U/ml), catalase (20,000 U/ml), dimethylsulfoxide (300 mM) or azide (1 mM). This indicated that killing mechanism(s) did not depend upon products of the oxidative burst. These results show that P. brasiliensis can be significantly killed by activated macrophages without products of the oxidative burst. PMID:3145925

  1. Changes in phonotaxis by the female cricket Acheta domesticus L. after killing identified acoustic interneurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon Atkins; Scott Ligman; Frederick Burghardt; John F. Stout

    1984-01-01

    Phonotactic selectivity of female crickets to natural and model calling songs (CSs) has been well documented. No identified acoustic interneurons or groups of them exhibited sufficiently selective responses to CSs to explain this behavioral selectivity. In this study identified acoustic interneurons were killed and pre- and post-killing phonotactic responses to model CSs were compared.1.Acoustic interneurons were iontophoretically filled with lucifer

  2. Control device for vehicle speed

    SciTech Connect

    Kawata, S.; Hyodo, H.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a control device for vehicle speed comprising: a throttle driving means operatively coupled to a throttle valve of a vehicle; a set switch means for commanding memorization of the vehicle speed; a resume switch means for commanding read of the vehicle speed; a vehicle speed detecting means for generating a signal in accordance with the vehicle speed; a vehicle speed memory; an electronical control means for memorizing in the vehicle speed memory vehicle speed information corresponding to the signal obtained from the vehicle speed detecting means in response to actuation of the set switch means. The control means is also for reading out the content of the vehicle speed memory in response to actuation of the resume switch means to control the throttle driving means in accordance with the read-out content; a power supply means for supplying power to the electronical control means; and a power supply control switch means for controlling supply of power to the electronical control means in response to the state of at least one of the set switch means and the resume switch means and the state of the electronical control means. The improvement described here comprises the electronical control means sets the power supply control switch means into such a state that supply of power to the electronical control means is turned OFF, when vehicle speed information is not memorized in the vehicle speed memory.

  3. Vehicle dynamics and external disturbance estimation for vehicle path prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiu-Feng Lin; A. Galip Ulsoy; David J. LeBlanc

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the onboard prediction of a motor vehicle's path to help enable a variety of emerging functions in autonomous vehicle control and active safety systems. It is shown in simulation that good accuracy of path prediction is achieved using numerical integration of a linearized two degree of freedom vehicle handling model. To improve performance, a steady-state Kalman filter

  4. ROBUST SCALABLE VEHICLE CONTROL VIA NON-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE DYNAMICS

    E-print Network

    Brennan, Sean

    ROBUST SCALABLE VEHICLE CONTROL VIA NON-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE DYNAMICS S. Brennan & A. Alleyne Dept called pi-groups. Investigation of these pi- groups using compiled data from 44 published sets of Vehicle Dynamics reveals that the data does not span the pi-space, but instead follows a multi-dimensional line

  5. Higher-degree Dirac Currents of Twistor and Killing Spinors in Supergravity Theories

    E-print Network

    Özgür Aç?k; Ümit Ertem

    2015-01-21

    We show that higher degree Dirac currents of twistor and Killing spinors correspond to the hidden symmetries of the background spacetime which are generalizations of conformal Killing and Killing vector fields respectively. They are the generalizations of 1-form Dirac currents to higher degrees which are used in constructing the bosonic supercharges in supergravity theories. In the case of Killing spinors, we find that the equations satisfied by the higher degree Dirac currents are related to Yang-Mills-like and Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equations. Correspondence between the Dirac currents and harmonic forms for parallel and pure spinor cases is determined. We also analyze the supergravity twistor and Killing spinor cases in 10 and 11-dimensional supergravity theories and find that although different inner product classes induce different involutions on spinors, the higher degree Dirac currents still correspond to the hidden symmetries of the spacetime.

  6. Higher-degree Dirac Currents of Twistor and Killing Spinors in Supergravity Theories

    E-print Network

    Aç?k, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    We show that higher degree Dirac currents of twistor and Killing spinors correspond to the hidden symmetries of the background spacetime which are generalizations of conformal Killing and Killing vector fields respectively. They are the generalizations of 1-form Dirac currents to higher degrees which are used in constructing the bosonic supercharges in supergravity theories. In the case of Killing spinors, we find that the equations satisfied by the higher degree Dirac currents are related to Yang-Mills-like and Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equations. Correspondence between the Dirac currents and harmonic forms for parallel and pure spinor cases is determined. We also analyze the supergravity twistor and Killing spinor cases in 10 and 11-dimensional supergravity theories and find that although different inner product classes induce different involutions on spinors, the higher degree Dirac currents still correspond to the hidden symmetries of the spacetime.

  7. Parametrized maneuvers for autonomous vehicles

    E-print Network

    Dever, Christopher W. (Christopher Walden), 1972-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents a method for creating continuously parametrized maneuver classes for autonomous vehicles. These classes provide useful tools for motion planners, bundling sets of related vehicle motions based on a ...

  8. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  9. Vehicle Management Driver Safety Program

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    enforcement, or otherwise used to provide information relative to compliance investigations. Driver NameVehicle Management and Driver Safety Program Manual Facilities & Operations / Finance & Administration Version 2 April 2012 #12;© 2012 University of Alberta. #12;The Vehicle Management and Driver

  10. Introduction to LNG vehicle safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratvold, Delma; Friedman, David; Chernoff, Harry; Farkhondehpay, Dariush; Comay, Claudia

    1994-03-01

    Basic information on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is assembled to provide an overview of safety issues and practices for the use of LNG vehicles. This document is intended for those planning or considering the use of LNG vehicles, including vehicle fleet owners and operators, public transit officials and boards, local fire and safety officials, manufacturers and distributors, and gas industry officials. Safety issues and mitigation measures that should be considered for candidate LNG vehicle projects are addressed.

  11. Battery for vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, M.

    1984-04-24

    In a battery of a vehicle such as motorcycle, the bottom is indented at both ends in the longitudinal direction; i.e., with respect to both end portions, in the longitudinal direction of the bottom, the middle portion protrudes downwardly, so that the battery is more advantageously accommodated in the triangular space formed by the motorcycle frame.

  12. Mars Exploratory Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canizo, Thea L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students learn about the characteristics of the planet Mars. Challenges students to design and build a model of a robotic vehicle that can travel on the surface of Mars and accomplish an assigned task that will provide information useful for future manned trips to the planet. Outlines mission task cards and progress…

  13. Engine & Vehicle Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum includes all competencies a student will acquire in an engine and vehicle mechanics educational program. It follows guidelines established for automobile technician training programs leading toward certification and addresses requirements of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE). The…

  14. Lunar Roving Vehicle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, learners will construct a model of a lunar roving vehicle. This activity is in Unit 2 of the Exploring the Moon teachers guide, which is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

  15. Advanced electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, L.G.

    1980-07-01

    The Advanced Electric Vehicle is defined as an automobile which can fulfill the general-purpose role of today's internal-combustion-engine-powered car without utilizing petroleum fuels directly. it relies principally on the utilization of electricity. A number of candidate systems are described. The present status of each is discussed as are the problems to be overcome before implementation can proceed.

  16. Advanced electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, L.G.

    1980-07-01

    The Advanced Electric Vehicle is defined as an automobile which can fulfill the general-purpose role of today's internal-combustion-engine-powered car without utilizing petroleum fuels directly. It relies principally on the utilization of electricity. A number of candidate systems are described. The present status of each is discussed as are the problems to be overcome before implementation can proceed.

  17. Washington State Electric Vehicle

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    #12;Challenges · Vehicle Acquisition Costs · Range Anxiety · Acceptance of New Technology · Emerging of ownership tool to compare competing models based on different utilization #12;Range Anxiety and Acceptance for replacement, 2. The anticipated driving range or use would not require battery charging in the field

  18. EOD Vehicle Conceptual Design Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Rogers; G. Bane; W. Laing

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual design study of a tethered undersea remotely operated vehicle (ROV) has been made for the U.S. Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Technology Center. The conceptual design vehicle is designated ROV-EOD. The purpose of the vehicle is to locate, identify and neutralize suspected ordnance on the ocean floor, normally at or near harbors; thus relieving divers of a very

  19. Knowledge Navigation for Virtual Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Julian E.

    2004-01-01

    A virtual vehicle is a digital model of the knowledge surrounding a potentially real vehicle. Knowledge consists not only of the tangible information, such as CAD, but also what is known about the knowledge - its metadata. This paper is an overview of technologies relevant to building a virtual vehicle, and an assessment of how to bring those technologies together.

  20. Nonlinearities in Road Vehicle Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. Pacejka

    1986-01-01

    In the study of lateral vehicle dynamics with the objective to enhance stability and handling qualities, non-linear aspects may have to be included to cover also larger lateral accelerations and amplitudes. The paper treats whole vehicle motions and relative motions of vehicle subsystems. In particular, single car stability, also in the large, is discussed as well as the shimmy phenomenon