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1

Unique digital imagery interface between a silicon graphics computer and the kinetic kill vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulator (KHILS) wideband infrared scene projector (WISP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing a flexible and reliable source of IR target imagery is absolutely essential for operation of an IR Scene Projector in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment. The Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) at Eglin AFB provides the capability, and requisite interfaces, to supply target IR imagery to its Wideband IR Scene Projector (WISP) from three separate sources at frame rates ranging from 30 - 120 Hz. Video can be input from a VCR source at the conventional 30 Hz frame rate. Pre-canned digital imagery and test patterns can be downloaded into stored memory from the host processor and played back as individual still frames or movie sequences up to a 120 Hz frame rate. Dynamic real-time imagery to the KHILS WISP projector system, at a 120 Hz frame rate, can be provided from a Silicon Graphics Onyx computer system normally used for generation of digital IR imagery through a custom CSA-built interface which is available for either the SGI/DVP or SGI/DD02 interface port. The primary focus of this paper is to describe our technical approach and experience in the development of this unique SGI computer and WISP projector interface.

Erickson, Ricky A.; Moren, Stephen E.; Skalka, Marion S.

1998-07-01

2

Advanced gel propulsion controls for kill vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gel propulsion control concept for tactical applications is reviewed, and the status of the individual component technologies currently under development at the Aerojet Propulsion Division is discussed. It is concluded that a gel propellant Divert and Attitude Control Subsystem (DACS) provides a safe, insensitive munitions compliant alternative to current liquid Theater Missile Defense (TMD) DACS approaches. The gel kill vehicle (KV) control system packages a total impulse typical of a tactical weapon interceptor for the ground- or sea-based TMD systems. High density packaging makes it possible to increase firepower and to eliminate long-term high pressure gas storage associated with bipropellant systems. The integrated control subsystem technologies encompass solid propellant gas generators, insulated composite overwrapped propellant tanks, lightweight endoatmospheric thrusters, and insensitive munition gel propellants, which meet the requirements of a deployable, operationally safe KV.

Yasuhara, W. K.; Olson, A.; Finato, S.

1993-06-01

3

Advanced gel propulsion controls for kill vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gel propulsion control concept for tactical applications is reviewed, and the status of the individual component technologies currently under development at the Aerojet Propulsion Division is discussed. It is concluded that a gel propellant Divert and Attitude Control Subsystem (DACS) provides a safe, insensitive munitions compliant alternative to current liquid Theater Missile Defense (TMD) DACS approaches. The gel kill

W. K. Yasuhara; A. Olson; S. Finato

1993-01-01

4

Killing acanthamoebae with polyaminopropyl biguanide: quantitation and kinetics.  

PubMed Central

The two Acanthamoeba species most often implicated in corneal keratitis, A. castellanii and A. polyphaga, were exposed as cysts to polyaminopropyl biguanide (PAPB), a commonly used antimicrobial agent. Killing of amoeba cysts was rapid and extensive, with fewer than 2% of either species surviving 30 s of exposure to > or = 45 ppm of PAPB. Killing kinetics were biphasic, and further exposures of 15 min to 1 h killed greater than 90% of those surviving initial killing. This potency of PAPB, together with its low toxicity to humans when ingested or applied topically, underscores the potential of PAPB as an antiamoebic agent. PMID:8031066

Burger, R M; Franco, R J; Drlica, K

1994-01-01

5

Hypervelocity impact of spaced plates by a mock kill vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the National Missile Defense (NMD) program, a series of Light Gas Gun (LGG) lethality tests were conducted at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC). A new projectile was designed for this test series that would be representative of aspects of a generic NMD system kill vehicle. A series of projectile development tests were performed during the design

James S. Wilbeck; Stephen B. Herwig; Jon M. Kilpatrick; Douglas R. Faux; Robert J. Weir; Eugene S. Hertel; Milan K. Dutta

2001-01-01

6

THE KILL KINETICS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS. (MELIACEAE) EXTRACTS ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, ESCHERICHIA COLI, PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND CANDIDA ALBICANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extracts of the neem plant Azadirachta indica A. Juss (meliaceae) which were previously determined to have strong antibacterial activity were investigated for their rate and extent of bacterial killing (kill kinetics). Various extract dilutions related to the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of type culture strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were used. Inoculated strains

P. O. Okemo; W. E. Mwatha; S. C. Chhabra; W. Fabry

7

Utilization of rotor kinetic energy storage for hybrid vehicles  

DOEpatents

A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine, the power system comprises an electric machine (12) further comprising a first excitation source (47), a permanent magnet rotor (28) and a magnetic coupling rotor (26) spaced from the permanent magnet rotor and at least one second excitation source (43), the magnetic coupling rotor (26) also including a flywheel having an inertial mass to store kinetic energy during an initial acceleration to an operating speed; and wherein the first excitation source is electrically connected to the second excitation source for power cycling such that the flywheel rotor (26) exerts torque on the permanent magnet rotor (28) to assist braking and acceleration of the permanent magnet rotor (28) and consequently, the vehicle. An axial gap machine and a radial gap machine are disclosed and methods of the invention are also disclosed.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2011-05-03

8

Antimicrobial surfaces containing cationic nanoparticles: How immobilized, clustered, and protruding cationic charge presentation affects killing activity and kinetics.  

PubMed

This work examines how the antimicrobial (killing) activity of net-negative surfaces depends on the presentation of antimicrobial cationic functionality: distributed versus clustered, and flat clusters versus raised clusters. Specifically, the ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus by sparsely distributed 10nm cationic nanoparticles, immobilized on a negative surface and backfilled with a PEG (polyethylene glycol) brush, was compared with that for a dense layer of the same immobilized nanoparticles. Additionally, sparsely distributed 10nm poly-l-lysine (PLL) coils, adsorbed to a surface to produce flat cationic "patches" and backfilled with a PEG brush were compared to a saturated adsorbed layer of PLL. The latter resembled classical uniformly cationic antimicrobial surfaces. The protrusion of the cationic clusters substantially influenced killing but the surface concentration of the clusters had minor impact, as long as bacteria adhered. When surfaces were functionalized at the minimum nanoparticle and patch densities needed for bacterial adhesion, killing activity was substantial within 30min and nearly complete within 2h. Essentially identical killing was observed on more densely functionalized surfaces. Surfaces containing protruding (by about 8nm) nanoparticles accomplished rapid killing (at 30min) compared with surfaces containing similarly cationic but flat features (PLL patches). Importantly, the overall surface density of cationic functionality within the clusters was lower than reported thresholds for antimicrobial action. Also surprising, the nanoparticles were far more deadly when surface-immobilized compared with free in solution. These findings support a killing mechanism involving interfacial stress. PMID:25480668

Fang, Bing; Jiang, Ying; N黶slein, Klaus; Rotello, Vincent M; Santore, Maria M

2015-01-01

9

In vitro activities of clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, and piperacillin-tazobactam against susceptible and resistant isolates of Bacteroides fragilis evaluated by kill kinetics.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the activities of clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, and piperacillin-tazobactam against 12 Bacteroides fragilis isolates (resistant and susceptible strains) by kill kinetics over 24 h. In contrast to the other antimicrobial agents, clindamycin did not affect strains with MICs of >8.0 ?g/ml. For those strains with MICs of ? 8.0 ?g/ml, all employed antibiotics except clindamycin showed nearly bactericidal activity. Metronidazole proved to be the most active antimicrobial agent. PMID:22430962

Schaumann, Reiner; Funke, Matthias; Janssen, Eva; Rodloff, Arne C

2012-06-01

10

In Vitro Activities of Clindamycin, Imipenem, Metronidazole, and Piperacillin-Tazobactam against Susceptible and Resistant Isolates of Bacteroides fragilis Evaluated by Kill Kinetics  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the activities of clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, and piperacillin-tazobactam against 12 Bacteroides fragilis isolates (resistant and susceptible strains) by kill kinetics over 24 h. In contrast to the other antimicrobial agents, clindamycin did not affect strains with MICs of >8.0 ?g/ml. For those strains with MICs of ?8.0 ?g/ml, all employed antibiotics except clindamycin showed nearly bactericidal activity. Metronidazole proved to be the most active antimicrobial agent. PMID:22430962

Funke, Matthias; Janssen, Eva; Rodloff, Arne C.

2012-01-01

11

Interference with superinfection and with cell killing and determination of host range and growth kinetics mediated by feline leukemia virus surface glycoproteins.  

PubMed Central

The functions of the surface glycoproteins (SU) of feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) are of interest since these proteins mediate virus infection and interference and are critical determinants of disease specificity. In this study, we examined the biochemical and genetic determinants of SU important to virus entry and cell killing. In particular, we developed and used vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)/FeLV pseudotype virus interference assays to determine interference subgroupings and assess mechanisms of host cell restriction. We also assessed roles of SU in virus growth kinetics and in the inhibition of cell killing caused by superinfection with cytopathic virus. Subgroup classification by VSV/FeLV pseudotype assay was in agreement with that defined previously by focus interference assay and was found to be determined by changes near the N terminus of SU for FeLV subgroups A (FeLV-A) and C. Virus host range restriction was found to be mediated at the level of virus entry in most cases, although postentry events mediated restriction in the failure of a subgroup A-like, T-cell cytopathic and immunodeficiency-inducing clone (FeLV-FAIDS-EECC) to replicate in feline fibroblasts. FeLV-FAIDS-EECC-induced cell killing was also inhibited by prior infection with one of two FeLV-A isolates. This inhibition could be conveyed by as few as four amino acid changes near the N terminus of the FeLV-A SU and also appeared to be mediated at a postentry level. Lastly, the SU-coding sequence was also found to determine differences in growth kinetics of viruses within the same subgroup. These studies demonstrate that subtle alterations in the FeLV SU, particularly in the N-terminal region, impart multiple significant functional differences which distinguish virus variants. PMID:8389921

Kristal, B S; Reinhart, T A; Hoover, E A; Mullins, J I

1993-01-01

12

Vehicle-dependent disposition kinetics of fluoranthene in Fisher-344 rats.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate how the vehicles of choice affect the pharmacokinetics of orally administered Fluoranthene [FLA] in rats. Fluoranthene is a member of the family of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon chemicals. Fluoranthene exposure to humans may occur as a result of cigarette smoking, consumption of contaminated food and water, heating woods in stoves and boilers, industrial sources such as coal gasification, carbon and graphite electrode manufacturing. Adult male Fisher-344 rats were given single oral doses of 25 and 50 microg/kg FLA in tricaprylin, peanut oil, cod liver oil, Tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5) and 2% Alkamuls-EL620 through gavage. After administration, the rats were housed individually in metabolic cages and sacrificed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours post FLA exposure. Blood, lung, liver, small intestine, adipose tissue samples, urine, and feces were collected at each time point. Samples were subjected to a liquid-liquid extraction using methanol, chloroform, and water. The extracts were analyzed by a reverse-phase HPLC, equipped with a fluorescence detector. The results revealed a dose-dependent increase in FLA concentrations in plasma and tissues for all the vehicles used. Plasma and tissue FLA concentrations were greater for peanut oil; cod liver oil, and tricaprylin vehicles compared to Alkamuls (p < 0.05), and Tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5). Most of the FLA administered through peanut oil, cod liver oil and tricaprylin was cleared from the body by 8 hours (90%) and 12 hours (80%) post administration for the 25 microg/kg and 50 microg/kg dose groups, respectively. With both doses employed, the metabolism of FLA was highest when cod liver oil was used as a vehicle and lowest in vehicles containing detergent/water [cod liver oil > peanut oil > tricaprylin > alkamuls > Tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5)]. These findings suggest that uptake and elimination of FLA is accelerated when administered through oil-based vehicles. The low uptake of FLA from Alkamuls and Tween 80/isotonic saline may have been a result of the poor solubility of the chemical. In summary, our findings reiterate that absorption characteristics of FLA were governed by the dose as well as the dosing vehicle. The vehicle-dependent bioavailability of FLA suggests a need for the judicious selection of vehicles in evaluating oral toxicity studies for risk assessment purposes. PMID:18441404

Harris, Deacqunita L; Hood, Darry B; Ramesh, Aramandla

2008-03-01

13

Kinetic Monte Carlo study of the type1/type 2 choice in apoptosis elucidates selective killing of cancer cells under death ligand induction  

E-print Network

Death ligand mediated apoptotic activation is a mode of programmed cell death that is widely used in cellular and physiological situations. Interest in studying death ligand induced apoptosis has increased due to the promising role of recombinant soluble forms of death ligands (mainly recombinant TRAIL) in anti-cancer therapy. A clear elucidation of how death ligands activate the type 1 and type 2 apoptotic pathways in healthy and cancer cells may help develop better chemotherapeutic strategies. In this work, we use kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to address the problem of type 1/ type 2 choice in death ligand mediated apoptosis of cancer cells. Our study provides insights into the activation of membrane proximal death module that results from complex interplay between death and decoy receptors. Relative abundance of death and decoy receptors was shown to be a key parameter for activation of the initiator caspases in the membrane module. Increased concentration of death ligands frequently increased the type 1...

Raychaudhuri, Subhadip

2015-01-01

14

Kinetics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conceptual questions about kinetics. For example, "[w]hat are the reaction velocity, the rates of formation of N2 and H2, and the rate of decomposition of ammonia for the decomposition of ammonia on a tungsten surface under the conditions reflected in the figure."

Nurrenbern, Susan C.; Robinson, William R.

2008-02-27

15

Ion-kill dosimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

2001-01-01

16

HOW NEUTROPHILS KILL MICROBES  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Neutrophils provide the first line of defense of the innate immune,sys- tem by phagocytosing, killing, and digesting bacteria and fungi. Killing was previously believed to be accomplished,by oxygen,free radicals and other reactive oxygen,species generated by the NADPH oxidase, and by oxidized halides produced by myeloperoxi- dase. We now,know,this is incorrect. The oxidase pumps,electrons into the phagocytic vacuole, thereby

Anthony W. Segal

2005-01-01

17

33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117...801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a...bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries:...

2010-07-01

18

Killing tensors and canonical geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The systematic derivation of constants of the motion, based on Killing tensors and the gauge covariant approach, is outlined. Quantum dots are shown to support second-, third- and fourth-rank Killing tensors.

Cariglia, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; van Holten, J.-W.; Horvathy, P. A.; Kosi?ski, P.; Zhang, P.-M.

2014-06-01

19

The Fish Kill Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case study, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process, they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities, and learn about the complex life cycle of the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria. The case is appropriate for an introductory environmental science course, a general biology course that covers ecology, or a general zoology course.

Erica F. Kosal

2003-01-01

20

Poverty and Witch Killing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses rainfall variation to estimate the impact of income shocks on murder in rural Tanzania. Extreme rainfall (drought or flood) leads to a large increase in the murder of „witches”梩ypically elderly women killed by relatives梑ut not other murders. The findings provide novel evidence on the role of income shocks in causing violent crime, and religious violence in particular.

Edward Miguel

2005-01-01

21

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Kills Caenorhabditis elegans by Cyanide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a transposon insertion mutation in a gene encoding a subunit of hydrogen cyanide synthase (hcnC) eliminated nematode killing. Second, the 17 avirulent mutants examined all exhibited reduced cyanide synthesis, and the residual production levels correlated with killing efficiency. Third, exposure to exogenous cyanide alone at levels comparable to the level produced by PAO1 killed nematodes with kinetics similar to those observed with bacteria. The killing was not enhanced if hcnC mutant bacteria were present during cyanide exposure. And fourth, a nematode mutant (egl-9) resistant to P. aeruginosa was also resistant to killing by exogenous cyanide in the absence of bacteria. A model for nematode killing based on inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase is presented. The action of cyanide helps account for the unusually broad host range of virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis in opportunistic human infections due to the bacterium. PMID:11591663

Gallagher, Larry A.; Manoil, Colin

2001-01-01

22

Charged conformal Killing spinors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the twistor equation on pseudo-Riemannian Spinc-manifolds whose solutions we call charged conformal Killing spinors (CCKSs). We derive several integrability conditions for the existence of CCKS and study their relations to spinor bilinears. A construction principle for Lorentzian manifolds admitting CCKS with nontrivial charge starting from CR-geometry is presented. We obtain a partial classification result in the Lorentzian case under the additional assumption that the associated Dirac current is normal conformal and complete the classification of manifolds admitting CCKS in all dimensions and signatures ?5 which has recently been initiated in the study of supersymmetric field theories on curved space.

Lischewski, Andree

2015-01-01

23

Killing Horizons and Spinors  

E-print Network

We study the near horizon geometry of generic Killing horizons constructing suitable coordinates and taking the appropriate scaling limit. We are able to show that the geometry will always show an enhancement of symmetries, and, in the extremal case, will develop a causally disconnected "throat" as expected. We analyze the implications of this to the Kerr/CFT conjecture and the attractor mechanism. We are also able to construct a set of special (pure) spinors associated with the horizon structure using their interpretation as maximally isotropic planes. The structure generalizes the usual reduced holonomy manifold in an interesting way and may be fruitful to the search of new types of compactification backgrounds.

Bruno Carneiro da Cunha; Amilcar de Queiroz

2014-06-19

24

Killing spinor initial data sets  

E-print Network

A 3+1 decomposition of the twistor and valence-2 Killing spinor equation is made using the space spinor formalism. Conditions on initial data sets for the Einstein vacuum equations are given so that their developments contain solutions to the twistor and/or Killing equations. These lead to the notions of twistor and Killing spinor initial data. These notions are used to obtain a characterisation of initial data sets whose development are of Petrov type N or D.

Alfonso Garc韆-Parrado G髆ez-Lobo; Juan A. Valiente Kroon

2007-12-20

25

Optimal planning and control for hazard avoidance of front-wheel steered ground vehicles  

E-print Network

Hazard avoidance is an important capability for safe operation of robotic vehicles at high speed. It is also an important consideration for passenger vehicle safety, as thousands are killed each year in passenger vehicle ...

Peters, Steven C. (Steven Conrad)

2012-01-01

26

Farm Education at Stony Kill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes typical winter farm lessons for students visiting Stony Kill Farm Environmental Education Center located 70 miles north of New York City: butter and corncake making, soil erosion experiments, dissecting and growing seeds. Emphasizes major theme of conservation of farmland from destructive farming practices and careless development. (NEC)

Parisio, Richard

1986-01-01

27

Electric and Hydrogen Vehicles Past and Progress  

E-print Network

memory of oil shocks 路 Who Killed the Electric Car? 路 Now the Renaissance - Will It Be Different? #12 in performance 路 Practical NiMH batteries did not yet exist 路 Production hybrid cars did not yet exist 路 Andy11 Electric and Hydrogen Vehicles Past and Progress: Low Carbon Vehicle Research at UC Berkeley

Kammen, Daniel M.

28

Beetle Kill Wall at NREL  

ScienceCinema

When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

None

2013-05-29

29

Women who kill their mates.  

PubMed

Spousal homicide perpetrators are much more likely to be men than women. Accordingly, little research has focused on delineating characteristics of women who have committed spousal homicide. A retrospective clinical review of coroners' files containing all cases of spousal homicide occurring in Quebec over a 20-year period was carried out. A total of 276 spousal homicides occurred between 1991 and 2010, with 42 homicides by female spouses and 234 homicides by male spouses. Differences between homicides committed by female offenders and male offenders are discussed, and findings on spousal homicide committed by women are compared with those of previous studies. Findings regarding offenses perpetrated by females in the context of mental illness, domestic violence, and homicide-suicide are explored. The finding that only 28% of the female offenders in the Quebec sample had previously been subjected to violence by their victim is in contrast to the popular belief and reports that indicate that most female-perpetrated spousal homicide occurs in self-defense or in reaction to long-term abuse. In fact, women rarely gave a warning before killing their mates. Most did not suffer from a mental illness, although one-fifth were acutely intoxicated at the time of the killing. In the vast majority of cases of women who killed their mates, there were very few indicators that might have signaled the risk and helped predict the violent lethal behavior. PMID:23015414

Bourget, Dominique; Gagn, Pierre

2012-01-01

30

Did Vertigo Kill America's Forgotten Astronaut?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On November 15, 1967, U.S. Air Force test pilot Major Michael J. Adams was killed while flying the X-15 rocket-propelled research vehicle in a parabolic spaceflight profile. This flight was part of a joint effort with NASA. An electrical short in one of the experiments aboard the vehicle caused electrical transients, resulting in excessive workload by the pilot. At altitude Major Adams inappropriately initiated a flat spin that led to a series of unusual aircraft attitudes upon atmospheric re-entry, ultimately causing structural failure of the airframe. Major Adams was known to experience vertigo (i.e. spatial disorientation) while flying the X-15, but all X-15 pilots most likely experienced vertigo (i.e. somatogravic, or "Pitch-Up", illusion) as a normal physiologic response to the accelerative forces involved. Major Adams probably experienced vertigo to a greater degree than did others, since prior aeromedical testing for astronaut selection at Brooks AFB revealed that he had an unusually high degree of labyrinthine sensitivity. Subsequent analysis reveals that after engine burnout, and through the zenith of the flight profile, he likely experienced the oculoagravic ("Elevator") illusion. Nonetheless, painstaking investigation after the mishap revealed that spatial disorientation (Type II, Recognized) was NOT the cause, but rather, a contributing factor. The cause was in fact the misinterpretation of a dual-use flight instrument (i.e. Loss of Mode Awareness), resulting in confusion between yaw and roll indications, with subsequent flight control input that was inappropriate. Because of the altitude achieved on this flight, Major Adams was awarded Astronaut wings posthumously. Understanding the potential for spatial disorientation, particularly the oculoagravic illusion, associated with parabolic spaceflight profiles, and understanding the importance of maintaining mode awareness in the context of automated cockpit design, are two lessons that have direct application to the commercial space industry today.

Bendrick, Gregg A.; Merlin, Peter W.

2007-01-01

31

9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209 Section...REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared...

2010-01-01

32

Desert Dust Kills Florida Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) article discusses the connection between dust storms in Africa, and red tides along the Florida coast. Red tides are blooms of toxic algae that kill fish, birds, and mammals, as well as cause health problems in humans. Storm activity in the Sahara Desert region kicks up topsoil that winds transport into the Gulf of Mexico. These clouds fertilize the water with iron, which bacteria named Trichodesmium use to create nitrogen. The nitrogen makes the water a friendly environment for the toxic algae. This article discusses this process and research that is going on to help solve the problem. Audio version is available as well.

33

Integrability conditions for Killing-Yano tensors and conformal Killing-Yano tensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integrability conditions for the existence of a conformal Killing-Yano tensor of arbitrary order are worked out in all dimensions and expressed in terms of the Weyl tensor. As a consequence, the integrability conditions for the existence of a Killing-Yano tensor are also obtained. By means of such conditions, it is shown that in certain Einstein spaces one can use a conformal Killing-Yano tensor of order p to generate a Killing-Yano tensor of order (p -1 ) . Finally, it is proved that in maximally symmetric spaces the covariant derivative of a Killing-Yano tensor is a closed conformal Killing-Yano tensor and that every conformal Killing-Yano tensor is uniquely decomposed as the sum of a Killing-Yano tensor and a closed conformal Killing-Yano tensor.

Batista, Carlos

2015-01-01

34

Letting die and mercy killing.  

PubMed

We are all called to make moral decisions, not only about preserving life and health, but also about accepting our death and dying. There are situations, when it is morally right, and indeed obligatory, to allow a dying person to die in peace and dignity. But there is a world of difference between allowing a peaceful death, and deliberately setting out to bring death of the person either by acts of commission (s.c. 'active euthanasia'), or by acts of omission (s.c. 'passive euthanasia'). The word "killing" seems proper for euthanasia, because "to kill" does mean " to intentionally cause the death of someone." It can be morally acceptable to withhold or withdraw a treatment precisely because it is reasonably judged as inefficacious (futile), or excessively burdensome for the patient. One's reason for withholding such treatment must not be a judgement about the desirability of putting an end to the patient's life, but a judgement about the desirability of putting an end to the treatment, which is futile or burdensome. PMID:16294443

Narbekovas, Andrius; Meilius, Kazimieras

2003-01-01

35

Amalgamating Oncolytic Viruses to Enhance Their Safety, Consolidate Their Killing Mechanisms, and Accelerate Their Spread  

PubMed Central

Oncolytic viruses are structurally and biologically diverse, spreading through tumors and killing them by various mechanisms and with different kinetics. Here, we created a hybrid vesicular stomatitis/measles virus (VSV/MV) that harnesses the safety of oncolytic MV, the speed of VSV, and the tumor killing mechanisms of both viruses. Oncolytic MV targets CD46 and kills by forcing infected cells to fuse with uninfected neighbors, but propagates slowly. VSV spreads rapidly, directly lysing tumor cells, but is neurotoxic and loses oncolytic potency when neuroattenuated by conventional approaches. The hybrid VSV/MV lacks neurotoxicity, replicates rapidly with VSV kinetics, and selectively targets CD46 on tumor cells. Its in vivo performance in a myeloma xenograft model was substantially superior to either MV or widely used recombinant oncolytic VSV-M51. PMID:23842448

Ayala-Breton, Camilo; Suksanpaisan, Lukkana; Mader, Emily K; Russell, Stephen J; Peng, Kah-Whye

2013-01-01

36

A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.

Raup, D. M.

1991-01-01

37

The killing consensus : homicide detectives, police that kill and organized crime in S鉶 Paulo, Brazil  

E-print Network

Policing is widely understood, empirically and theoretically, as a core function of the state. Much of the knowledge presumes that police are the only body that may kill and arbitrate killing, routinely and without retaliation ...

Willis, Graham Arthur Neill, 1979-

2013-01-01

38

75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0355] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from...

2010-06-01

39

75 FR 62469 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0907] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from...

2010-10-12

40

Pulpability of Beetle-Killed Spruce  

E-print Network

Pulpability of Beetle-Killed Spruce United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can quality. Log deterioration had mixed effects on paper properties. Keywords: pulp, spruce, sap rot

Abubakr, Said

41

Hypersurface homogeneous Killing spinor space-times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a complete list of hypersurface homogeneous space-times admitting a non-null valence two Killing spinor, including a new class admitting only exceptional Killing tensors. A connection is established with the classification of locally rotationally symmetric or boost symmetric space-times.

Van den Bergh, N.

2015-01-01

42

Children killed by genetic parents versus stepparents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite many empirical studies of children killed by parents, there has been little theoretical progress. An examination of 378 cases in a national register revealed that circumstances differed for genetic parents versus stepparents. Infants were at greatest risk of filicide, especially by genetic mothers. Genetic mothers who killed offspring, especially older children, disproportionately had a mental illness and received relatively

Grant T. Harris; N. Zoe Hilton; Marnie E. Rice; Angela W. Eke

2007-01-01

43

Peeling the onion: an heuristic overview of hit-to-kill missile defense in the 21st century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers engaged in the development of infrared detector technologies may well benefit from a broader understanding of their products from the perspective of the end-user. An appreciation of how this technology is to be used by system designers, many of whom possess only a rudimentary understanding of quantum physics, is highly germane. Answers to questions like: "What device technology will be employed," "How will the device be used?" and "What are the impacts on signal-to-noise?" are of critical importance. In this paper, some of the fundamentals of hit-to-kill missile defense technology are examined in a largely non-mathematical context. From its "Star Wars" inception during the Reagan administration, to today"s Missile Defense Agency, the core requirement of missile defense has not changed - find the threat and destroy it before it reaches its destination. This fundamental requirement, while conceptually straightforward, is extraordinarily difficult to satisfy, and is almost exclusively dependent on our ability to detect and designate a relatively small, very fast-moving, room-temperature object, at great distances, and usually in a severe environment of shock and vibration further clouded by error and uncertainty. With an obvious bias toward passive IR detection and associated focal plane array characteristics, the flight of a fictitious interceptor is followed from launch to impact. At various points along the interceptor"s trajectory, a "peel the onion" approach is utilized to expose increasingly detailed layers of behavior, including the eventual release of the kinetic kill vehicle, and its autonomous flight to a body-to-body impact with its target. Various sources of error and their impact on the success of the mission are examined, and an overall understanding of the key features of the infrared seeker and its critical role in missile defense are ultimately developed.

LaCroix, Len; Kurzius, Shelby

2005-03-01

44

Mount Unzen kills three volcanologists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three AGU members were among 37 people killed June 3 when Mount Unzen, a volcano in Nagasaki prefecture, Japan, erupted. Unzen last erupted in 1792. The first signs of renewed activity appeared in mid-1990, with increases in seismicity and the first volcanic tremor since observations began in 1966. The three volcanologists, Harry Glicken and Maurice and Katia Krafft, had traveled to Mount Unzen to monitor the increased seismic activity. Glicken, 33, was a visiting scientist at Tokyo Metropolitan University and an assistant researcher in geological sciences at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He worked for the U.S. Geological Survey until 1989, and narrowly escaped death in the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington.Glicken had been an AGU member since 1980 and was known for his work in debris avalanches. Maurice, 45, and Katia Krafft, 44, of Cernay, France, were professional volcanologists known for their extensive work in publishing books and films on volcanology for the general public. Both Kraffts joined AGU in 1975.

DeVito, M. Catherine

45

Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

Bloomfield, Aaron P.

2009-01-01

46

Bacteriophage-aided intracellular killing of engulfed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by murine macrophages.  

PubMed

Phages are known to effectively kill extracellularly multiplying bacteria as they do not have the ability of intracellular penetration within the animal cells. However, the present manuscript focuses on studying the impact of surface-adsorbed phage particles on the killing of engulfed Staphylococcus aureus inside phagocytic cells. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were isolated and cultured, followed by evaluation of their ability of bacterial uptake and killing. The intracellular killing potential of macrophages in the presence of unadsorbed free phage as well as phage adsorbed onto S. aureus 43300 was studied. Phage added alone to macrophage preparation did not influence intracellular killing of engulfed S. aureus by macrophages. However, phage adsorbed onto host bacterial cells (utilizing host bacteria as a vehicle to carry the lytic phage into the phagocytic compartment) brought about time-dependent and titre-dependent significant reduction in the number of viable intracellular cocci. Phage particles that shuttled inside the macrophage along with bacteria also significantly reduced cytotoxic damage caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). This in turn enhanced the bactericidal killing potential of phagocytic cells. In earlier studies the inability of phages to kill intracellular bacteria has been thought to be a major drawback of phage therapy. For the first time results of this study confirm the killing ability of the broad host range lytic phage MR-5 of both extracellular as well as intracellular engulfed S. aureus inside macrophages. This approach shall not only restrict intracellular proliferation of staphylococci within the myeloid cells but also protect the host from further relapse of infection and treatment failures. PMID:24633444

Kaur, Sandeep; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

2014-05-01

47

Finding Ultimate Limits of Performance for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles are seen as a solution to improving fuel economy and reducing pollution emissions from automobiles. By recovering kinetic energy during braking and optimizing the engine operation to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, a hybrid vehicle can outperform a traditional vehicle. In designing a hybrid vehicle, the task of finding optimal component sizes and an appropriate control strategy

Edward D. Tate; Stephen P. Boyd

48

Electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renewed interest in electric vehicles (EVs) in the wake of the California Air Resources Board mandate that 2% of the vehicles lighter than 3750 lb (1700 kg) sold by each manufacturer in that state in 1998 be zero-emission vehicles is examined. The reasons why replacing an internal combustion vehicle (ICV) with an electrically powered equivalent greatly reduces air pollution,

M. J. Riezenman

1992-01-01

49

Activity of Telithromycin (HMR 3647) against Anaerobic Bacteria Compared to Those of Eight Other Agents by Time-Kill Methodology  

PubMed Central

Time-kill studies examined the activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647), erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and metronidazole against 11 gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Time-kill studies were carried out with the addition of Oxyrase in order to prevent the introduction of CO2. Macrolide-azalide-ketolide MICs were 0.004 to 32.0 ?g/ml. Of the latter group, telithromycin had the lowest MICs, especially against non-Bacteroides fragilis group strains, followed by azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, and roxithromycin. Clindamycin was active (MIC ? 2.0 ?g/ml) against all anaerobes except Peptostreptococcus magnus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, while pristinamycin MICs were 0.06 to 4.0 ?g/ml. Amoxicillin-clavulanate had MICs of ?1.0 ?g/ml, while metronidazole was active (MICs, 0.03 to 2.0 ?g/ml) against all except Propionibacterium acnes. After 48 h at twice the MIC, telithromycin was bactericidal (?99.9% killing) against 6 strains, with 99% killing of 9 strains and 90% killing of 10 strains. After 24 h at twice the MIC, 90, 99, and 99.9% killing of nine, six, and three strains, respectively, occurred. Lower rates of killing were seen at earlier times. Similar kill kinetics relative to the MIC were seen with other macrolides. After 48 h at the MIC, clindamycin was bactericidal against 8 strains, with 99 and 90% killing of 9 and 10 strains, respectively. After 24 h, 90% killing of 10 strains occurred at the MIC. The kinetics of clindamycin were similar to those of pristinamycin. After 48 h at the MIC, amoxicillin-clavulanate showed 99.9% killing of seven strains, with 99% killing of eight strains and 90% killing of nine strains. At four times the MIC, metronidazole was bactericidal against 8 of 10 strains tested after 48 h and against all 10 strains after 24 h; after 12 h, 99% killing of all 10 strains occurred. PMID:10428930

Credito, Kim L.; Ednie, Lois M.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

1999-01-01

50

Killing of Edwardsiella ictaluri by macrophages from channel catfish immune and susceptible to enteric septicemia of catfish.  

PubMed

The role of peritoneal macrophages in immunity to enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) after infection with live Edwardsiella ictaluri was investigated. Channel catfish macrophage-mediated bacteriocidal activity was dependent on the macrophage:bacteria ratio. Ratios of 1:1 to 1:12 exhibited significant differences (P < or = 0.05) in killing between macrophages from immune fish when compared to killing by macrophages from susceptible fish at 2.5 h. At 5 h, macrophages from immune fish were capable of effective killing (83.3%) at a 1:24 effector:target ratio, whereas macrophages from susceptible fish killed significantly (P < or = 0.05) less (56.9%). Macrophage bacteriocidal activity was significantly greater (P < or = 0.05) in macrophages from individual immune fish (93.4%) compared to macrophages from individual susceptible fish (85.4%). The kinetics of macrophage killing showed a linear increase in bacteriocidal activity from 1 to 3 h. Opsonization with immune serum enabled macrophages from immune fish to kill bacteria more effectively (93.8 vs. 75.9%) at 2.5 h. Opsonization of E. ictaluri with immune serum significantly suppressed the killing ability of macrophages from susceptible fish (46.2%) at 2.5 h. The results suggest that macrophages from fish immune to ESC had a greater capacity to kill E. ictaluri than macrophages from susceptible fish especially when E. ictaluri were opsonized with anti-E. ictaluri antibody. PMID:9336886

Shoemaker, C A; Klesius, P H; Plumb, J A

1997-09-01

51

Killing Initial Data on spacelike conformal boundaries  

E-print Network

We analyze Killing Initial Data on Cauchy surfaces in conformally rescaled vacuum space-times satisfying Friedrich's conformal field equations. As an application, we derive the KID equations on a spacelike $\\mathcal{J}^-$.

Tim-Torben Paetz

2014-03-11

52

33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey 117.702 Arthur Kill...predicted high tide taken at the Battery, New York. (e) The bridge operator...the Coast Guard Captain of the Port New York. The bridge...

2010-07-01

53

33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey 117.702 Arthur Kill...predicted high tide taken at the Battery, New York. (e) The bridge operator...the Coast Guard Captain of the Port New York. The bridge...

2012-07-01

54

33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey 117.702 Arthur Kill...predicted high tide taken at the Battery, New York. (e) The bridge operator...the Coast Guard Captain of the Port New York. The bridge...

2011-07-01

55

33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.  

...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey 117.702 Arthur Kill...predicted high tide taken at the Battery, New York. (e) The bridge operator...the Coast Guard Captain of the Port New York. The bridge...

2014-07-01

56

33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey 117.702 Arthur Kill...predicted high tide taken at the Battery, New York. (e) The bridge operator...the Coast Guard Captain of the Port New York. The bridge...

2013-07-01

57

Wildlife road-kills on three major roads in north-eastern New South Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although vehicle-induced mortality of wildlife is well known on roads throughout Australia, few empirical studies describe the extent of this mortality or assess the potential effects on wildlife populations. We recorded 529 roadkills of 53 vertebrate species along a 100-km circuit of three major roads during 20 weekly surveys across winter, spring and summer. This equates to 0.3 road-kills km-1

Brendan D. TaylorA; Ross L. GoldingayA

58

Intravital imaging of CTLs killing islet cells in diabetic mice  

PubMed Central

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing ? cells in the pancreatic islets, which are essentially mini-organs embedded in exocrine tissue. CTLs are considered to have a predominant role in the autoimmune destruction underlying T1D. Visualization of CTL-mediated killing of ? cells would provide new insight into the pathogenesis of T1D, but has been technically challenging to achieve. Here, we report our use of intravital 2-photon imaging in mice to visualize the dynamic behavior of a virally expanded, diabetogenic CTL population in the pancreas at cellular resolution. Following vascular arrest and extravasation, CTLs adopted a random motility pattern throughout the compact exocrine tissue and displayed unimpeded yet nonlinear migration between anatomically nearby islets. Upon antigen encounter within islets, a confined motility pattern was acquired that allowed the CTLs to scan the target cell surface. A minority of infiltrating CTLs subsequently arrested at the ? cell junction, while duration of stable CTL杢arget cell contact was on the order of hours. Slow-rate killing occurred in the sustained local presence of substantial numbers of effector cells. Collectively, these data portray the kinetics of CTL homing to and between antigenic target sites as a stochastic process at the sub-organ level and argue against a dominant influence of chemotactic gradients. PMID:22133877

Coppieters, Ken; Amirian, Natalie; von Herrath, Matthias

2011-01-01

59

Chemically enhanced sunlight for killing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Solar ultraviolet (UV) photocatalyzed oxidation of chemicals with titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) has received considerable attention. Much less recognized, however, is the ability of the same system to destroy bacteria. This study examined this phenomenon and the conditions that affect it. Bacteria in aqueous solution were given solar exposure with titanium dioxide and their survival with time was determined. Lamps with a predominantly solar ultraviolet spectrum were also used in the experiments. Without exposure to UV light, TiO{sub 2} had no deleterious effect on the bacteria. However, several common bacteria on solar exposure in the presence of TiO{sub 2} were killed in just a few minutes, whereas without TiO{sub 2} it took over an hour to destroy them. A concentration of 0.01% TiO{sub 2} was most effective in killing bacteria and 10-fold concentrations lower or higher were successively less effective. Inorganic and organic compounds in solution, even in small amounts, interfered with the efficiency of killing. Alkaline solution also reduced the bactericidal activity. Circulation and agitation provided by stirring to keep the TiO{sub 2} particles suspended reduced the time necessary to kill the bacteria. Time-intensity curves for killing bacteria were the same general shape with or without TiO{sub 2}, indicating that TiO{sub 2} served merely as a catalyst to increase the rate of the reaction but that the mechanism of action was not changed. The shape of the curves show that the organisms are sensitized with a minimum intensity of radiation and that an increase doesn`t greatly increase the rate of kill. Below this critical intensity, however, the time required for killing markedly increases as the intensity is decreased.

Block, S.S.; Goswami, D.Y. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1995-10-01

60

Differential timing of antibody-mediated phagocytosis and cell-free killing of invasive African Salmonella allows immune evasion.  

PubMed

Nontyphoidal Salmonellae commonly cause fatal bacteraemia in African children lacking anti-Salmonella antibodies. These are facultative intracellular bacteria capable of cell-free and intracellular survival within macrophages. To better understand the relationship between extracellular and intracellular infection in blood and general mechanisms of Ab-related protection against Salmonella, we used human blood and sera to measure kinetics of Ab and complement deposition, serum-mediated bactericidal killing and phagocytosis of invasive African Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium D23580. Binding of antibodies peaked by 30 s, but C3 deposition lagged behind, peaking after 2-4 min. C5b-9 deposition was undetectable until between 2 and 6 min and peaked after 10 min, after which time an increase in serum-mediated killing occurred. In contrast, intracellular, opsonized Salmonellae were readily detectable within 5 min. By 10 min, around half of monocytes and most neutrophils contained bacteria. The same kinetics of serum-mediated killing and phagocytosis were observed with S. enterica Typhimurium laboratory strain SL1344, and the S. enterica Enteritidis African invasive isolate D24954 and laboratory strain PT4. The differential kinetics between cell-free killing and phagocytosis of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella allows these bacteria to escape the blood and establish intracellular infection before they are killed by the membrane attack complex. PMID:24375424

Siggins, Matthew K; O'Shaughnessy, Colette M; Pravin, John; Cunningham, Adam F; Henderson, Ian R; Drayson, Mark T; MacLennan, Calman A

2014-04-01

61

Generalized Korn's inequality and conformal Killing vectors  

E-print Network

Korn's inequality plays an important role in linear elasticity theory. This inequality bounds the norm of the derivatives of the displacement vector by the norm of the linearized strain tensor. The kernel of the linearized strain tensor are the infinitesimal rigid-body translations and rotations (Killing vectors). We generalize this inequality by replacing the linearized strain tensor by its trace free part. That is, we obtain a stronger inequality in which the kernel of the relevant operator are the conformal Killing vectors. The new inequality has applications in General Relativity.

Sergio Dain

2005-05-04

62

Internet Resources on Genocide and Mass Killings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Internet Resources on Genocide and Mass Killings is an extensive compilation of primary materials and annotated links related to "twentieth-century genocidal and mass man-made killing occurrences." Divided into fifteen sections, subject coverage includes topics such as The Jewish Holocaust, War Crimes and Criminals, Yugoslavia and Kosovo, among others. Most of the original documents in the compilation have been uploaded to the site, facilitating navigation and research. Documents not residing at the site are linked via succinct annotations. The compilation is searchable and updated continuously by its creator Dr. Stuart D. Stein, Senior Lecturer in Sociology and Social Psychology at the University of West England.

63

HIV transcription is induced with cell killing  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evident in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

1993-11-01

64

Kinetic Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for kinetic determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.

Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David

1993-01-01

65

Electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

1990-03-01

66

Electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

Not Available

1990-03-01

67

The Evolution of Reduced Microbial Killing  

PubMed Central

Bacteria engage in a never-ending arms race in which they compete for limited resources and niche space. The outcome of this intense interaction is the evolution of a powerful arsenal of biological weapons. Perhaps the most studied of these are colicins, plasmid-based toxins produced by and active against Escherichia coli. The present study was designed to explore the molecular responses of a colicin-producing strain during serial transfer evolution. What evolutionary changes occur when colicins are produced with no target present? Can killing ability be maintained in the absence of a target? To address these, and other, questions, colicinogenic strains and a noncolicinogenic ancestor were evolved for 253 generations. Samples were taken throughout the experiment and tested for killing ability. By the 38th transfer, a decreased killing ability and an increase in fitness were observed in the colicin-producing strains. Surprisingly, DNA sequence determination of the colicin plasmids revealed no changes in plasmid sequences. However, a set of chromosomally encoded loci experienced changes in gene expression that were positively associated with the reduction in killing. The most significant expression changes were observed in DNA repair genes (which were downregulated in the evolved strains), Mg ion uptake genes (which were upregulated), and late prophage genes (which were upregulated). These results indicate a fine-tuned response to the evolutionary pressures of colicin production, with far more genes involved than had been anticipated. PMID:20333208

Valliere, Michael; Riley, Margaret A.

2009-01-01

68

How to Make a Killing Jar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Biodiversity Counts illustration shows students how to make a simple killing jar to preserve arthropods for further study. As the labeled drawing shows, all that's needed is a jar with a lid, tape for reinforcement, a few drops of ethyl acetate, and a paper towel.

69

Oxidative killing of microbes by neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrophils and other phagocytic leukocytes contain a phagocyte NADPH oxidase enzyme that generates superoxide after cell activation. Reactive oxygen species derived from superoxide, together with proteases liberated from the granules, are used to kill ingested microbes. Dysfunction of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase results in chronic granulomatous disease, with life-threatening infections.

Dirk Roos; Robin van Bruggen; Christof Meischl

2003-01-01

70

Can Vet Schools Teach without Killing Animals?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a protest by students at the University of Illinois (Urbana) College of Veterinary Medicine over the killing of animals that led to temporary curtailing of lethal animal experiments. Examines the conflict between animal rights groups and some faculty who are openly skeptical about the effectiveness of alternatives to the hands-on

Mangan, Katherine S.

2000-01-01

71

MECHANISM BY WHICH AMMONIUM FERTILIZERS KILL LARKSPUR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental concerns of using pesticides on public lands have greatly reduced the use of herbicides to control tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi). Alternative methods of control have used ammonium sulfate placed in the crown of individual plants to kill larkspur. The objective of this study was ...

72

killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine  

E-print Network

killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine FluMist Thomas Francis, Jr. National Institutes of Health live-virus influenza vaccine Hunein Maassab Jonas Salk Type-A virus trivalent cold that Maassab's innovative, trivalent, cold- adapted influenza vaccine, FluMist, which uses live but weakened

Shyy, Wei

73

Vehicle systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perspectives of the subpanel on expendable launch vehicle structures and cryotanks are: (1) new materials which provide the primary weight savings effect on vehicle mass/size; (2) today's investment; (3) typically 10-20 years to mature and fully characterize new materials.

Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

1993-01-01

74

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.210 Feline...

2010-01-01

75

9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.208 Avian...

2013-01-01

76

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.210 Feline...

2012-01-01

77

9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.208 Avian...

2011-01-01

78

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.210 Feline...

2014-01-01

79

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.206 Wart...

2011-01-01

80

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.211 Feline...

2011-01-01

81

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.211 Feline...

2014-01-01

82

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.210 Feline...

2013-01-01

83

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.211 Feline...

2013-01-01

84

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.210 Feline...

2011-01-01

85

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.211 Feline...

2012-01-01

86

9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

...Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.208 Avian...

2014-01-01

87

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.206 Wart...

2010-01-01

88

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

...2014-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.206 Wart...

2014-01-01

89

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.206 Wart...

2012-01-01

90

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.211 Feline...

2010-01-01

91

9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.208 Avian...

2012-01-01

92

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.206 Wart...

2013-01-01

93

9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.216 Bovine...

2011-01-01

94

Leukemic cell killing by samarium-153 labeled antisense oligodeoxynucleotide probes  

SciTech Connect

The c-myc oncogene is amplified in leukemia and cancer of colon, breast and lung, making the c-myc mRNA a suitable cytoplasmic receptor-like target for therapy of proliferation. The kinetics of uptake of Sm-153 labeled antisense (AS), sense (SN, control) and oxo and thio, derivatives by lymphocytic leukemic cells (P388) was evaluated. The 15-mer oligonucleotide sequence for the initiation-codon domain was synthesized, [sense (SN) and antisense (AS) phosphodiester (O) and monothioester (S)] aminolinked with a 6-carbon spacer and coupled to DTPA-isothiocyanate (1/10) and aliquots (10 {mu}g) were lyophilized. Sm-l 53 (100-500 {mu}Ci) was chelated to probe; unbound Sm-153 radionuclide was removed by size-exclusion chromatography (TSK-300 column). Aliquots of 1-100 {mu}Ci (0.1-1.0 {mu}g) of Sm-153 chloride, Sm-153 sense, antisense probes and unlabeled DTPA-antisense carrier were added to P388 cells (1.1X{sup 6} cell/ml) in exponentially growing phase in RPMI media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and incubated at 37{degrees}C for 10 days. Dose-dependence on cell-killing was studied by incubating with 1, 10, 50, 100 {mu}Ci of Sm-153 antisense probe in same media. Cells killed were estimated by staining with Trypan Blue. Cell-counts in all samples were performed with a light microscope. The cell-killing with probes and carrier is in the following sequence: Sm-153 antisense > antisense carrier > Sm-153 chloride > sense carrier. Selected unique sequences may provide new radionuclide-carrier to induce double-strand DNA-breaks in proliferative cells. Being closer to nucleus, the mRNA-probe duplex may be more effective for tumor therapy than radiolabeled peptides and antibodies binding membrane-antigens. This new radiolabeled oligonucleotide-mRNA hybridization technique in intact cells may permit therapy of other cancer cells and solid tumors with amplified oncogenes.

Dewanjee, M.K.; Ghafouripour, A.K.; Willem, L. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)] [and others

1994-05-01

95

Evaluation of terminally guided reentry vehicle effectiveness against undefended hard targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis examines the effectiveness of various reentry vehicle configurations when they are targeted against buried, hard targets. The configurations are based on the reentry vehicle parameters of yield and CEP as well as the number of reentry vehicles per missile. An examination of the ground shock and overpressure kill radii resulted in the use of overpressure as the hard target kill mechanism. The methodology developed to examine reentry vehicle effectiveness was programmed on a Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV. The methodology allows variations in CEP, weapon system reliability, weapon yield, and number of reentry vehicles per missile, and the desired kill level. The measure of effectiveness of each reentry vehicle configuration is the number of missiles required to achieve a desired kill level on a user defined target matrix. The results of the methodology were generalized with a set of exponential equations. Each equation is based on a desired kill level and a fixed number of reentry vehicles per missile. A sensitivity analysis on the various configurations revealed the relative impact of equal percentage changes in the factors used in this study.

Auclair, P. F.

1982-03-01

96

Conformal killing tensors and covariant Hamiltonian dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A covariant algorithm for deriving the conserved quantities for natural Hamiltonian systems is combined with the non-relativistic framework of Eisenhart, and of Duval, in which the classical trajectories arise as geodesics in a higher dimensional space-time, realized by Brinkmann manifolds. Conserved quantities which are polynomial in the momenta can be built using time-dependent conformal Killing tensors with flux. The latter are associated with terms proportional to the Hamiltonian in the lower dimensional theory and with spectrum generating algebras for higher dimensional quantities of order 1 and 2 in the momenta. Illustrations of the general theory include the Runge-Lenz vector for planetary motion with a time-dependent gravitational constant G(t), motion in a time-dependent electromagnetic field of a certain form, quantum dots, the H閚on-Heiles and Holt systems, respectively, providing us with Killing tensors of rank that ranges from one to six.

Cariglia, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; van Holten, J.-W.; Horvathy, P. A.; Zhang, P.-M.

2014-12-01

97

Underground blowout killed with quick snubbing operation  

SciTech Connect

A shallow underground blowout off the island of Trinidad required quick action and the importing of snubbing equipment to kill the well and avert cratering the sea floor beneath the platform. The blowout was controlled in 16 days. The blowout at Trintomar's Pelican platform on the east coast of Trinidad posed a most challenging well control problem. Most of the service companies with equipment to control the well were not available in this relatively remote area. Because of the high gas and condensate flow rates and high pressure, the blowout at the Pelican platform had the potential to destroy the entire platform, endanger the lives of many crew members, result in the loss of natural resources, and interrupt the supply of natural gas to the island of Trinidad. The paper discusses the Pelican platform, the underground blowout, temperature survey, the kill plan, and snubbing operations.

Grace, R. (Grace, Shursen, Moore and Associates Inc., Amarillo, TX (United States)); Stanislaus, G. (Trinmar Ltd., Point Fortin (Trinidad and Tobago)); Cudd, B. (Cudd Pressure Control, Woodward, OK (United States))

1993-10-18

98

Monoclonal antibody targets, kills leukemia cells  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego Moores Cancer Center have identified a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets and directly kills chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. The findings, published in the online Early Edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on March 25, 2013 represent a potential new therapy for treating at least some patients with CLL, the most common type of blood cancer in the United States.

99

HIV transcription is induced with cell killing  

SciTech Connect

Previous work has shown that HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct are induced to express chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) following exposure to DNA-damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation, {gamma} rays, neutrons, and others. In this report, the authors demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evidence in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Other agents which caused no cell killing (such as heat-shock for up to 2 h, treatment with metronidazole, exposure to sunlight, vitamin C treatment, and others) had no effect on HIV-LTR induction. These results suggest that HIV transcription is induced as a consequence of the turn on of a cellular death or apoptotic pathway.

Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Panozzo, J. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States). Dept. of Pathology; Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

1994-01-01

100

Designing surfaces that kill bacteria on contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(4-vinyl-N-alkylpyridinium bromide) was covalently attached to glass slides to create a surface that kills airborne bacteria on contact. The antibacterial properties were assessed by spraying aqueous suspensions of bacterial cells on the surface, followed by air drying and counting the number of cells remaining viable (i.e., capable of growing colonies). Amino glass slides were acylated with acryloyl chloride, copolymerized with 4-vinylpyridine, and N-alkylated with different alkyl bromides (from propyl to hexadecyl). The resultant surfaces, depending on the alkyl group, were able to kill up to 94 4% of Staphylococcus aureus cells sprayed on them. A surface alternatively created by attaching poly(4-vinylpyridine) to a glass slide and alkylating it with hexyl bromide killed 94 3% of the deposited S. aureus cells. On surfaces modified with N-hexylated poly(4-vinylpyridine), the numbers of viable cells of another Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, as well as of the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, dropped more than 100-fold compared with the original amino glass. In contrast, the number of viable bacterial cells did not decline significantly after spraying on such common materials as ceramics, plastics, metals, and wood.

Tiller, Joerg C.; Liao, Chun-Jen; Lewis, Kim; Klibanov, Alexander M.

2001-05-01

101

Immune Response to Orally Administered Killed MAP in Calves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to determine whether orally administered heat-killed MAP could induce a protective immune response in calves. Newborn male dairy calves were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatment groups: Heat killed MAP only (n=2), live MAP challenge only (n=4), heat killed MAP fo...

102

Road-Killed Animals as Resources for Ecological Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes 19 literature sources identifying road-killed vertebrates and frequency of kill by numbers. Examples of how these animals can be incorporated into curricula (integrating biology, society, people, and values) are given, followed by an illustrated example of how a road-killed raccoon's skull demonstrated a human/wildlife interaction prior

Adams, Clark E.

1983-01-01

103

Inhomogeneous problems Q. How do you kill a blue elephant?  

E-print Network

Inhomogeneous problems Q. How do you kill a blue elephant? A. With a blue elephant gun Q. How do you kill a pink elephant? A. Squeeze its trunk until it turns blue, and then shoot it with a blue elephant gun. Q. How do you kill a white elephant? A. Tickle it pink, then squeeze its trunk until it turns

DeTurck, Dennis

104

Effect of Silicon on the Desulfurization of Al-Killed Steels: Part I. Mathematical Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations suggest that increased silicon levels improve ladle desulfurization of aluminum-killed steel. While the overall desulfurization reaction of Al-killed steels does not show a direct role of silicon in desulfurization, model calculations are presented which test the idea that silicon suppresses the reduction of silica which can consume aluminum at the slag/metal interface. Consumption of aluminum would increase the oxygen potential at the slag/metal interface and decrease the sulfur partition coefficient between slag and metal. The model considers the coupled reactions of the reduction of silica, iron oxide, and manganese oxide in the slag and desulfurization of the steel by aluminum. The results show that silicon can indeed suppress consumption of aluminum at the slag/metal interface by side reactions other than desulfurization, with silicon affecting both the kinetics and the equilibrium of desulfurization.

Roy, Debdutta; Pistorius, Petrus Christiaan; Fruehan, Richard J.

2013-10-01

105

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

106

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

107

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

Box, W.D.

1997-02-11

108

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

Box, W.D.

1998-08-11

109

The Kinematics of Cytotoxic Lymphocytes Influence Their Ability to Kill Target Cells  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) have been reported to show a range of motility patterns from rapid long-range tracking to complete arrest, but how and whether these kinematics affect their ability to kill target cells is not known. Many in vitro killing assays utilize cell lines and tumour-derived cells as targets, which may be of limited relevance to the kinetics of CTL-mediated killing of somatic cells. Here, live-cell microscopy is used to examine the interactions of CTL and primary murine skin cells presenting antigens. We developed a qualitative and quantitative killing assay using extended-duration fluorescence time-lapse microscopy coupled with large-volume objective software-based data analysis to obtain population data of cell-to-cell interactions, motility and apoptosis. In vivo and ex vivo activated antigen-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes were added to primary keratinocyte targets in culture with fluorometric detection of caspase-3 activation in targets as an objective determinant of apoptosis. We found that activated CTL achieved contact-dependent apoptosis of non-tumour targets after a period of prolonged attachment on average 21 hours which was determined by target cell type, amount of antigen, and activation status of CTL. Activation of CTL even without engagement of the T cell receptor was sufficient to mobilise cells significantly above baseline, while the addition of cognate antigen further enhanced their motility. Highly activated CTL showed markedly increased vector displacement, and velocity, and lead to increased antigen-specific target cell death. These data show that the inherent kinematics of CTL correlate directly with their ability to kill non-tumour cells presenting cognate antigen. PMID:24801876

Bhat, Purnima; Leggatt, Graham; Matthaei, Klaus I.; Frazer, Ian H.

2014-01-01

110

Micro-sociology of mass rampage killings.  

PubMed

Spectacular but very rare violent events such as mass killings by habitual non-criminals cannot be explained by factors which are very widespread, such as possession of firearms, being a victim of bullying, an introvert, or a career failure. A stronger clue is clandestine preparation of attack by one or two individuals, against randomly chosen representatives of a hated collective identity. Mass killers develop a deep back-stage, obsessed with planning their attack, overcoming social inferiority and isolation by an emotion of clandestine excitement. PMID:25179819

Collins, Randall

2014-09-01

111

The killing efficiency of soft iron shot  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A cooperative research effort between the ammunition industry and the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is aimed at finding a suitable non-toxic substitute for lead shot. A contract study by an independent research organization evaluated ways of coating or detoxifying lead shot or replacing it with another metal. As a result of that study, the only promising candidate is soft iron. Previous tests of hard iron shot had suggested that its killing effectiveness was poor at longer ranges due to the lower density. In addition, its hardness caused excessive damage to shotgun barrels. A unique, automated shooting facility was constructed at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to test the killing effectiveness of soft iron shot under controlled conditions. Tethered game-farm mallards were transported across a shooting point in a manner simulating free flight. A microswitch triggered a mounted shotgun so that each shot was 'perfect.' A soft iron shot, in Number 4 size, was produced by the ammunition industry and loaded in 12-gauge shells to give optimum ballistic performance. Commercial loads of lead shot in both Number 4 and Number 6 size were used for comparison. A total of 2,010 ducks were shot at ranges of 30 to 65 yards and at broadside and head-on angles in a statistically designed procedure. The following data were recorded for each duck: time until death, broken wing or leg bones, and number of embedded shot. Those ducks not killed outright were held for 10 days. From these data, ducks were categorized as 'probably bagged,' 'probably lost cripples,' or survivors. The test revealed that the killing effectiveness of this soft iron shot was superior to its anticipated performance and close to that obtained with commercial lead loads containing an equal number of pellets. Bagging a duck, in terms of rapid death or broken wing, was primarily dependent on the probability of a shot striking that vital area, and therefore a function of range. There was no indication that iron shot would result in greater crippling loss. Despite the apparent effectiveness of this iron shot, transition to its use in waterfowl hunting is not now possible. The sample used for this test was produced by a laboratory procedure that is unsuitable for manufacture. There is no process for producing soft iron shot in the quantities needed. Industry is doing its best to resolve this problem.

Andrews, R.; Longcore, J.R.

1969-01-01

112

What Killed The Dinosaurs?: The Great Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents theories about why the dinosaurs became extinct. The first page provides background information covering not only the "great dying" at the K-T boundary but also the mass extinction at the end of the Paleozoic Era. The author covers six factors that complicate the study of mass extinction including time resolution, the Signor-Lipps Effect, and falsifiability. A link then takes the reader to a second page where invalid extinction hypotheses are explained. These range from "hay fever killed the dinosaurs" to "the dinosaurs just faded away," (no causation implied). The final link leads us to current thinking about extinction including volcanism, plate tectonics, and the Alvarez Hypothesis.

Hutchinson, John

113

Hypervelocity impact flash for missile-defense kill assessment and engagement analysis : experiments on Z.  

SciTech Connect

Kill assessment continues to be a major problem for the nation's missile defense program. A potential approach for addressing this issue involves spectral and temporal analysis of the short-time impact flash that occurs when a kill vehicle intercepts and engages a target missile. This can provide identification of the materials involved in the impact event, which will, in turn, yield the data necessary for target identification, engagement analysis, and kill assessment. This report describes the first phases of a project under which we are providing laboratory demonstrations of the feasibility and effectiveness of this approach. We are using two major Sandia facilities, the Z-Pinch accelerator, and the two- and three-stage gas guns at the Shock Thermodynamics and Applied Research (STAR) facility. We have looked at the spectral content of impact flash at velocities up to 25 km/s on the Z-Pinch machine to establish the capability for spectroscopy for these types of events, and are looking at similar experiments at velocities from 6 to 11 km/s on the gas guns to demonstrate a similar capability for a variety of research-oriented and applied materials. The present report describes only the work performed on the Z machine.

Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Reinhart, William Dodd; Lawrence, Raymond Jeffery Jr.; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra; Kelly, Daniel P.

2005-07-01

114

Killing vectors in algebraically special space-times  

SciTech Connect

The form of the isometric, homothetic, and conformal Killing vectors for algebraically special metrics which admit a shear-free congruence of null geodesics is obtained by considering their complexification, using the existence of a congruence of null strings. The Killing equations are partially integrated and the reasons which permit this reduction are exhibited. In the case where the congruence of null strings has a vanishing expansion, the Killing equations are reduced to a single master equation.

Torres del Castillo, G.F.

1984-06-01

115

Killing forms and toric Sasaki-Einstein spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of the special Killing forms on toric Sasaki-Einstein manifolds is presented. This goal is achieved using the interplay between complex coordinates of the Calabi-Yau metric cone and the special Killing forms on the toric Sasaki-Einstein space. As a concrete example, we present the complete set of special Killing forms on the five-dimensional Einstein-Sasaki Yp,q spaces. It is pointed out the existence of two additional special Killing forms associated with the complex holomorphic volume form of Calabi-Yau cone manifold.

Slesar, Vladimir; Visinescu, Mihai; V頻cu, Gabriel Eduard

2014-11-01

116

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

Box, W.D.

1996-03-12

117

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

Box, W.D.

1994-03-15

118

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

119

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (115 Newhaven Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1994-01-01

120

Vehicle emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Air pollution in the United States is a major problem; transportation plays a major role in air pollution. This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, provides students with data on pollution caused by vehicles. Pollutants covered include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and lead, among others. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

121

Kinetic Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weak collisionality typical of turbulence in many diffuse astrophysical plasmas invalidates an MHD description of the turbulent dynamics, motivating the development of a more comprehensive theory of kinetic turbulence. In particular, a kinetic approach is essential for the investigation of the physical mechanisms responsible for the dissipation of astrophysical turbulence and the resulting heating of the plasma. This chapter reviews the limitations of MHD turbulence theory and explains how kinetic considerations may be incorporated to obtain a kinetic theory for astrophysical plasma turbulence. Key questions about the nature of kinetic turbulence that drive current research efforts are identified. A comprehensive model of the kinetic turbulent cascade is presented, with a detailed discussion of each component of the model and a review of supporting and conflicting theoretical, numerical, and observational evidence.

Howes, Gregory G.

122

FACTORS AFFECTING SECONDARY KILL OF THE GERMAN COCKROACH (DICTYOPTERA  

E-print Network

153 FACTORS AFFECTING SECONDARY KILL OF THE GERMAN COCKROACH (DICTYOPTERA: BLATTELLIDAE) BY GEL of Forestry, Nanning, Guangxi 530022, China Abstract Secondary kill of the German cockroach, Blattella of four cockroach gel baits against various developmental stages of a laboratory (Jwax) and a field (Dorie

Wang, Changlu

123

Control of Influenza and Poliomyelitis with Killed Virus Vaccines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses control of poliomyelitis and influenza by live and killed virus vaccines. Considered are the etiological agents, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiology of each disease. Reviews recent scientific studies of the diseases. Recommends use of killed virus vaccines in controlling both diseases. (CS)

Salk, Jonas; Salk, Darrell

1977-01-01

124

Rickettsia associated with male-killing in a buprestid beetle  

E-print Network

bacterium that causes male-killing in an unrelated ladybird beetle species. Low levels of parthenogenesisRickettsia associated with male-killing in a buprestid beetle EILLEEN T. LAWSON , TIMOTHY A populations of the buprestid leaf-mining beetle, Brachys tessellatus, from central South Carolina, USA, show

Werren, John H.

125

The effect of road kills on amphibian populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diurnal movement patterns of Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Pelobates fuscus, Bufo bufo, Rana temporaria, and Rana arvalis were investigated during five breeding seasons (19941998). Two main questions were addressed: (1) What is the probability of an individual amphibian getting killed when crossing the road? and (2) What fraction of the amphibian populations gets killed by traffic? The rate of

Tove Hels; Erik Buchwald

2001-01-01

126

Infant Killing and Cannibalism in Free-Living Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male chimpanzees at the Gombe National Park were twice seen to attack 憇tranger females and seize their infants. One infant was then killed and partially eaten: the other was 憆escued and carried by three different males. Once several males were found eating a freshly killed 憇tranger infant. A similar event was observed in Uganda by Dr. Suzuki, and Dr. Nishida

Jane Goodall

1977-01-01

127

Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Lysosomal Killing of Cryptococcus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death.

Hole, Camaron R.; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L.; Wozniak, Karen L.

2012-10-01

128

Blood and Oil: Vehicle Characteristics in Relation to Fatality Risk and Fuel Economy  

PubMed Central

I examined the potential for a lower risk of death compatible with increased fuel economy among 67 models of 19992002 model year cars, vans, and sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) during the calendar years 2000 to 2004. The odds of death for drivers and all persons killed in vehicle collisions were related to vehicle weight, size, stability, and crashworthiness. I calculated that fatality rates would have been 28% lower and fuel use would have been reduced by 16% if vehicle weights had been reduced to the weight of vehicles with the lowest weight per size, where size is measured by the lateral distance needed to perform a 180-degree turn. If, in addition, all vehicles had crashworthiness and stability equal to those of the top-rated vehicles, more than half the deaths involving passenger cars, vans, and SUVs could have been prevented by vehicle modifications. PMID:17018814

Robertson, Leon S.

2006-01-01

129

Blood and oil: vehicle characteristics in relation to fatality risk and fuel economy.  

PubMed

I examined the potential for a lower risk of death compatible with increased fuel economy among 67 models of 1999-2002 model year cars, vans, and sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) during the calendar years 2000 to 2004. The odds of death for drivers and all persons killed in vehicle collisions were related to vehicle weight, size, stability, and crashworthiness. I calculated that fatality rates would have been 28% lower and fuel use would have been reduced by 16% if vehicle weights had been reduced to the weight of vehicles with the lowest weight per size, where size is measured by the lateral distance needed to perform a 180-degree turn. If, in addition, all vehicles had crashworthiness and stability equal to those of the top-rated vehicles, more than half the deaths involving passenger cars, vans, and SUVs could have been prevented by vehicle modifications. PMID:17018814

Robertson, Leon S

2006-11-01

130

The use of stable isotope ratio analysis to distinguish multiple prey kill events from mass kill events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeologists working with prey animal bonebeds are interested in determining whether the animals were obtained through a single, mass kill event or instead accumulated over time from multiple hunting events. This is often difficult to determine. The author investigated the use of stable isotope ratio analysis to distinguish accumulations of individuals derived from multiple populations from mass kills of individuals

Jack N. Fenner

2008-01-01

131

Vehicle barrier  

DOEpatents

A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

Hirsh, Robert A. (Bethel Park, PA)

1991-01-01

132

Protein chlorination in neutrophil phagosomes and correlation with bacterial killing.  

PubMed

Neutrophils ingest and kill bacteria within phagocytic vacuoles. We investigated where they produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) following phagocytosis by measuring conversion of protein tyrosine residues to 3-chlorotyrosine. We also examined how varying chloride availability affects the relationship between HOCl formation in the phagosome and bacterial killing. Phagosomal proteins, isolated following ingestion of opsonized magnetic beads, contained 11.4 Cl-Tyr per thousand tyrosine residues. This was 12 times higher than the level in proteins from the rest of the neutrophil and ~6 times higher than previously recorded for protein from ingested bacteria. These results indicate that HOCl production is largely localized to the phagosomes and a substantial proportion reacts with phagosomal protein before reaching the microbe. This will in part detoxify the oxidant but should also form chloramines which could contribute to the killing mechanism. Neutrophils were either suspended in chloride-free gluconate buffer or pretreated with formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, a procedure that has been reported to deplete intracellular chloride. These treatments, alone or in combination, decreased both chlorination in phagosomes and killing of Staphylococcus aureus by up to 50%. There was a strong positive correlation between the two effects. Killing was predominantly oxidant and myeloperoxidase dependent (88% inhibition by diphenylene iodonium and 78% by azide). These results imply that lowering the chloride concentration limits HOCl production and oxidative killing. They support a role for HOCl generation, rather than an alternative myeloperoxidase activity, in the killing process. PMID:25236747

Green, Jessie N; Kettle, Anthony J; Winterbourn, Christine C

2014-12-01

133

Enzyme Kinetics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resrouce provides detailed protocols for performing a laboratory exercise in enzyme kinetics. The activity of enzymes are characterized both by reaction rates and the effect of different concentrations of substrates.

Carl Stiefbold (University of Oregon;); Karen Sprague (University of Oregon;); Will Goodwin (University of Oregon;); Sam Donovan (University of Oregon;); Vicki Chandler (University of Oregon;)

1998-01-01

134

Sizing and experimental characterization of ultra-capacitors for small urban hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and the experimental tests of an ultra-capacitor pack used as an energy storage system in a small hybrid electric vehicle. This design consists in calculating the capacitance and the power of the capacitors, which are necessary to store kinetic energy during deceleration of the vehicle and then to accelerate the vehicle. In a second part,

Destiny LOUKAKOU; Hamid GUALOUS; Yuan Cheng; Christophe ESPANET; Fr閐閞ic DUBAS

2010-01-01

135

Laser Microbial Killing and Biofilm Disruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objectives: To analyze the ability of NIR lasers to reduce bacterial load and demonstrate the capability of fiber-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser disrupting biofilm. Study Design: NIR diode laser was tested in vitro and in vivo using pathogenic microorganisms (S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa). In addition biofilms were grown from clinical Pseudomonas isolates and placed in culture plates, screws, tympanostomy tubes and PET sutures. Methods: In the animal experiments acute rhinosinusitis model was created by packing the rabbit nose with bacteria soaked solution. The nasal pack was removed in two days and nose was exposed to laser irradiation. A 940 nm diode laser with fiber diffuser was used. Nasal cultures were obtained before and after the laser treatments. Animals were sacrificed fifteen days following laser treatment and bacteriologic/histologic results analyzed. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser generated shockwave pulses were delivered on biofilm using special probes over culture plates, screws, tubes, and PET sutures for the biofilm experiments. Results: Average of two log bacteria reduction was achieved with NIR laser compared to controls. Histologic studies demonstrated preservation of tissue integrity without significant damage to mucosa. Biofilms were imaged before, during and after treatment using a confocal microscope. During laser-generated shockwave application, biofilm was initially seen to oscillate and eventually break off. Large and small pieces of biofilm were totally and instantly removed from the surface to which they were attached in seconds. Conclusions: Significant bacterial reduction was achieved with NIR laser therapy in this experimental in vitro and animal study. In addition we disrupted Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and special probes generating plasma and shockwave. This new and innovative method of bacteria killing and biofilm disruption without injuring host tissue may have clinical application in the future.

Krespi, Yosef P.; Kizhner, Victor

2009-06-01

136

Unmanned Vehicle Situation Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept of unmanned vehicle situation awareness and provides a discussion of how unmanned vehicle situation awareness can be defined based upon human situation awareness. A broadly accepted human situation awareness definition is directly applied to the notion of unmanned vehicle situation awareness. The paper also discusses unique unmanned vehicle aspects that will influence unmanned vehicle situation

Julie A. Adams

137

Generalized killing equations and symmetries of spinning space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of general conditions for the isometrics of d-dimensional spinning space is derived. These equations constitute a Grassmann valued extension of the Killing equations for ordinary space. They are developed as invariances of spinning particle actions. Solutions for extended Killing equations in arbitrary curved space are presented. The spinning particles in d-dimensions are shown to possess new types of supersymmetries which transform the commuting and anti-commuting coordinates linearly and nonlinearly. The algebra of these nonlinear transformations is presented. A complete solution of the generalized Killing equations is outlined. An infinite set of conserved charges is constructed.

Rietdijk, R. H.; Vanholten, J. W.

1989-04-01

138

Special Killing forms on toric Sasaki朎instein manifolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the interplay between complex coordinates on the Calabi朰au metric cone and the special Killing forms on the toric Sasaki朎instein manifold. First, we give a procedure to locally construct the special Killing forms. Finally, we exemplify the general scheme in the case of the five-dimensional {{Y}p,q} spaces, identifying the additional special Killing 2-forms which were previously obtained using a different method by Visinescu (2012 Mod. Phys. Lett. A 27 1250217).

Slesar, Vladimir; Visinescu, Mihai; V頻cu, Gabriel Eduard

2014-12-01

139

HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing  

SciTech Connect

Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct`, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {Gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

Woloschak, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Schreck, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)][South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Panozzo, J. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States); Chang-Liu, C.-M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

1996-11-01

140

Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens  

SciTech Connect

The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

Daniel P. Molloy

2004-02-24

141

On the Lie subalgebra of Killing-Milne and Killing-Cartan vector fields in Newtonian space-time  

E-print Network

The Galilean (and more generally Milne) invariance of Newtonian theory allows for Killing vector fields of a general kind, whereby the Lie derivative of a field is not required to vanish but only to be cancellable by some infinitesimal Galilean (respectively Milne) gauge transformation. In this paper, it is shown that both the Killing-Milne vector fields, which preserve the background Newtonian space-time structure, and the Killing-Cartan vector fields, which in addition preserve the gravitational field, form a Lie subalgebra.

Chamel, N

2014-01-01

142

> 070131-073Vehicle  

E-print Network

. INTRODUCTION The design and deployment of network centric vehicle control frameworks in a systematic manner> 070131-073Vehicle for Network Centric Operations H. Ferreira from Porto University. Swordfish has an advanced control architecture for multi-vehicle operations

Marques, Eduardo R. B.

143

NK cells kill mycobacteria directly by releasing perforin and granulysin.  

PubMed

Although the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effect of NK cells on tumor cells and intracellular bacteria have been studied extensively, it remains unclear how these cells kill extracellular bacterial pathogens. In this study, we examine how human NK cells kill Mycobacterium kansasii and M.tb. The underlying mechanism is contact dependent and requires two cytolytic proteins: perforin and granulysin. Mycobacteria induce enhanced expression of the cytolytic proteins via activation of the NKG2D/NCR cell-surface receptors and intracellular signaling pathways involving ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPKs. These results suggest that NK cells use similar cellular mechanisms to kill both bacterial pathogens and target host cells. This report reveals a novel role for NK cells, perforin, and granulysin in killing mycobacteria and highlights a potential alternative defense mechanism that the immune system can use against mycobacterial infection. PMID:25139289

Lu, Chia-Chen; Wu, Ting-Shu; Hsu, Ya-Jing; Chang, Chih-Jung; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Chia, Ju-Hsin; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Huang, Tsung-Teng; Martel, Jan; Ojcius, David M; Young, John D; Lai, Hsin-Chih

2014-12-01

144

Scientists Report New Lead in How Anthrax Kills Cells  

Cancer.gov

For years scientists have known that anthrax bacillus produces a toxin containing a deadly protein called lethal factor. However, researchers have never been able to identify how lethal factor kills cells.

145

Alcohol Poisoning Kills 6 Americans Every Day, CDC Says  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Alcohol Poisoning Kills 6 Americans Every Day, CDC Says Older adults hardest hit by binge- ... six people die in the United States each day after consuming far too much alcohol in too ...

146

PFIESTERIA SHUMWAYAE KILLS FISH BY MICROPREDATION NOT ECOTOXIN SECRETION  

EPA Science Inventory

Massive fish kills in mid-Atlantic USA estuaries involving several million Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus,have been attributed to dinoflagellates of the toxic Pfiesteria complex (TPC). Potent ichthyotoxins secreted during Pfiesteria blooms are thought to be responsible fo...

147

Drought and Beetle-Killed Pi駉n Pines in Arizona  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Drought and beetle-killed pi駉n pines in Walnut Canyon National Monument near Flagstaff, Arizona, amid some surviving trees. Forest drought stress is highly correlated with mortality from poor growth, bark beetle outbreaks, and high-severity fire....

148

Drought and Beetle-Killed Pi駉n Pines in Arizona  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Drought and beetle-killed pi駉n pines in Walnut Canyon National Monument near Flagstaff, Arizona, amid a few surviving trees. Forest drought stress is strongly correlated with tree mortality from poor growth, bark beetle outbreaks, and high-severity fire....

149

Forestry Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power Pack II provides an economical means of moving a power source into remote roadless forest areas. It was developed by Prof. Miles and his associates, working in cooperation with the University of California's Department of Forestry. The team combined its own design of an all-terrain vehicle with a suspension system based on the NASA load equalization technology. Result is an intermediate-sized unit which carries a power source and the powered tools to perform a variety of forest management tasks which cannot be done economically with current equipment. Power Pack II can traverse very rough terrain and climb a 60 degree slope; any one of the wheels can move easily over an obstacle larger than itself. Work is being done on a more advanced Power Pack III.

1982-01-01

150

1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING NORTHWEST; A PORTION OF THE SCALDING TANK IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT, CENTER; CONCRETE PYLONS AT LOWER RIGHT SUPPORTED BY SCRAPING MACHINE; FINAL SCRAPING WAS DONE BY WORKERS STANDING ON ELEVATED PLATFORMS AT LEFT; BATHTUB-SHAPED CART NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO WAS USED TO TRANSPORT OFFAL TO RENDERING AREAS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

151

Kinetic energy management in road traffic injury prevention: a call for action  

PubMed Central

Abstract: By virtue of their variability, mass and speed have important roles in transferring energies during a crash incidence (kinetic energy). The sum of kinetic energy is important in determining an injury severity and that is equal to one half of the vehicle mass multiplied by the square of the vehicle speed. To meet the Vision Zero policy (a traffic safety policy) prevention activities should be focused on vehicle speed management. Understanding the role of kinetic energy will help to develop measures to reduce the generation, distribution, and effects of this energy during a road traffic crash. Road traffic injury preventive activities necessitate Kinetic energy management to improve road user safety. PMID:24284810

Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Bigdeli, Maryam; Saadat, Soheil; Mohammadi, Reza

2015-01-01

152

[Field report from large-scale killing of ducks].  

PubMed

An outbreak of avian influenza in August 2007 resulted in the culling of hundreds of thousands of Peking ducks. An earlier tutorial had shown that whole house gassing with carbon dioxide to kill waterfowl has to be refused because of interference with animal welfare. Culling by electrocution is a reliable method that fulfils animal welfare requirements. Stationary electrocution lines for slaughtering should be preferred if suitable for the killing of the birds. Mobile electrocution lines (MET) are a good alternative or supplementation with a capacity of circa 2,500 animals per hour. MET are suitable for killing Peking ducks with a weight of approximately 500 g. At least two veterinarians are required per MET for the supervision of animal welfare during culling. When following German animal welfare laws, killing in mobile gas containers filled with carbon dioxide is an alternative with a capacity comparable to that of MET. The problem of looking into the containers for controlled stunning and killing can be solved by installing observation windows. Manpower requirements are comparable to those of MET, while requirements for material and transportation are unlikely higher. This method is suitable for birds which are too small to be killed by electrocution. PMID:18500150

Scheibl, P

2008-04-01

153

Welfare of animals at slaughter and killing: a new regulation on the protection of animals at the time of killing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the European Commission (EC) has published a proposal for a Council Regulation on the protection of animals at the\\u000a time of killing. The proposed regulation will enhance the technical requirements of Directive 93\\/119\\/EC on the protection\\u000a of animals at the time of slaughter or killing, which have not been amended since 1993. The main specific problems identified\\u000a with the

Annamaria Passantino

2009-01-01

154

The involvement of drugs in drivers of motor vehicles killed in Australian road traffic crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-center case-control study was conducted on 3398 fatally-injured drivers to assess the effect of alcohol and drug use on the likelihood of them being culpable. Crashes investigated were from three Australian states (Victoria, New South Wales and Western Australia). The control group of drug- and alcohol-free drivers comprised 50.1% of the study population. A previously validated method of responsibility

Olaf H. Drummer; Jim Gerostamoulos; Helen Batziris; Mark Chu; John Caplehorn; Michael D. Robertson; Philip Swann

2004-01-01

155

Massachusetts Electric Vehicle Efforts  

E-print Network

Massachusetts Electric Vehicle Efforts Christine Kirby, MassDEP ZE-MAP Meeting October 24, 2014 #12 路 Provide Clean Air 路 Grow the Clean Energy Economy 路 Electric vehicles are a key part of the solution #12 is promoting EVs 4 #12;TCI and Electric Vehicles 路 Established the Northeast Electric Vehicle Network through

California at Davis, University of

156

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data  

EIA Publications

Annual data released on the number of on-road alternative fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles made available by both the original equipment manufacturers and aftermarket vehicle conversion facilities. Data on the use of alternative fueled vehicles and the amount of fuel they consume is also available.

2013-01-01

157

Vehicle Technologies Market Report  

E-print Network

Vehicle Technologies Market Report February 2012 2011 #12;Quick Facts Energy and Economics Vehicles 路 The top eight U.S. manufacturers produce only half of world's vehicles 路 U.S. sales volumes rose in 2010, reversing downward trend 路 Sales-weighted data on new light vehicles sold show a 110% increase

158

Green Vehicle Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is geared toward consumers to help them choose the most fuel-efficient and clean vehicles. Users can download vehicle lists, look up vehicle ratings, learn more about reducing vehicle pollution, and use the links section to find further information. This is a timely site for a period when Americans might well want to think about reducing their dependence on oil.

2001-01-01

159

On the Theory of Killing Orbits in Space-Time  

E-print Network

This paper gives a theoretical discussion of the orbits and isotropies which arise in a space-time which admits a Lie algebra of Killing vector fields. The submanifold structure of the orbits is explored together with their induced Killing vector structure. A general decomposition of a space-time in terms of the nature and dimension of its orbits is given and the concept of stability and instability for orbits introduced. A general relation is shown linking the dimensions of the Killing algebra, the orbits and the isotropies. The well-behaved nature of "stable" orbits and the possible miss-behaviour of the "unstable" ones is pointed out and, in particular, the fact that independent Killing vector fields in space-time may not induce independent such vector fields on unstable orbits. Several examples are presented to exhibit these features. Finally, an appendix is given which revisits and attempts to clarify the well-known theorem of Fubini on the dimension of Killing orbits.

G. S. Hall

2003-10-14

160

Honor killing attitudes amongst adolescents in Amman, Jordan.  

PubMed

The present study examines attitudes towards honor crimes amongst a sample of 856 ninth grade students (mean age?=?14.6, SD?=?0.56) from 14 schools in Amman, Jordan. Descriptive findings suggest that about 40% of boys and 20% of girls believe that killing a daughter, sister, or wife who has dishonored the family can be justified. A number of theoretically meaningful predictors were examined: Findings suggest that attitudes in support of honor killings are more likely amongst adolescents who have collectivist and patriarchal world views, believe in the importance of female chastity amongst adolescents, and morally neutralize aggressive behavior in general. Findings for parental harsh discipline are mixed: While the father's harsh discipline is predictive of honor killing attitudes, the mother's behavior is not. Furthermore, support for honor killing is stronger amongst male adolescents and adolescents for low education backgrounds. After controlling for other factors religion and the intensity of religious beliefs are not associated with support for honor killings. Models were tested separately for male and female respondents and suggested no systematic differences in predictors. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23744567

Eisner, Manuel; Ghuneim, Lana

2013-01-01

161

Dual role of phagocytic NADPH oxidase in bacterial killing.  

PubMed

The classical model of bacterial killing by phagocytic cells has been recently challenged by questioning the toxic effect of oxygen products and attributing the fundamental role to K(+) ions in releasing antimicrobial proteins within the phagosome. In the present study we followed O(2)(*-) production, changes of membrane potential, K(+) efflux, and bacterial killing in the presence of increasing concentrations of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. Efficiency of bacterial killing was assessed on the basis of bacterial survival measured by a new semiautomated method. Very low rates of O(2)(*-) production were accompanied by significant membrane depolarization and K(+) release and parallel improvement of bacterial killing. When O(2)(*-) production exceeded 20% of its maximal capacity, no further change was detected in the membrane potential and only minimal further K(+) efflux occurred, yet bacterial survival decreased parallel to the increase of O(2)(*-) production. The presented results indicate that both electrophysiological changes (depolarization and consequent ion movements) and the chemical effect of reactive oxygen species play a significant role in the killing of certain pathogens. The observation that an increase of membrane depolarization can compensate for decreased O(2)(*-) production may be important for potential therapeutic applications. PMID:15251984

Rada, Bal醶s K; Geiszt, Mikl髎; K醠di, Krisztina; Tim醨, Csaba; Ligeti, Erzs閎et

2004-11-01

162

Kinetic Sculpture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners build a tower that鈙 at least 12 inches high with two or more parts that move (spin, sway, or flap) in the wind. This art meets construction activity allows learners to think about design challenges while creating a kinetic sculpture (a sculpture that moves). This is an excellent follow-up activity to "High Rise" from the same source.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

163

76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to Schneider's crash data from its own fleet, vehicles...a significantly lower crash rate than large trucks...Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety (Advocates) commented...does not believe that the data in the 1991 report to...occupants that are killed in crashes between heavy trucks...

2011-01-03

164

Hybrid Vehicle Design Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through four lessons and four hands-on associated activities, this unit provides a way to teach the overarching concept of energy as it relates to both kinetic and potential energy. Within these topics, students are exposed to gravitational potential, spring potential, the Carnot engine, temperature scales and simple magnets. During the module, students apply these scientific concepts to solve the following engineering challenge: "The rising price of gasoline has many effects on the US economy and the environment. You have been contracted by an engineering firm to help design a physical energy storage system for a new hybrid vehicle for Nissan. How would you go about solving this problem? What information would you consider to be important to know? You will create a small prototype of your design idea and make a sales pitch to Nissan at the end of the unit." This module is built around the Legacy Cycle, a format that incorporates findings from educational research on how people best learn. This module is written for a first-year algebra-based physics class, though it could easily be modified for conceptual physics.

VU Bioengineering RET Program,

165

Immunology 101 Killing in acute viral infections Killing in chronic viral infections Appendix I Appendix II Extra Mathematical models of CD8 T cell responses  

E-print Network

Immunology 101 Killing in acute viral infections Killing in chronic viral infections Appendix I in vivo Vitaly V. Ganusov Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM, USA 1 / 55 #12;Immunology 101 1 Immunology 101 Immune system 2 Killing in acute viral infections Experimental details Model 3

Haase, Markus

166

Adenosine receptor antagonists effect on plasma-enhanced killing.  

PubMed

Previous studies demonstrated that naive plasma has inherent capabilities to enhance bacterial opsonization and phagocyte killing, but not all plasma is equally effective. This raised the question of whether plasma constituents other than opsonins may play a role. Adenosine receptor antagonists have been shown to modulate cytokine response and survival in mice after a bacterial challenge. We investigated whether selective adenosine receptor blockade would influence the ability of naive plasma to effectively control bacterial growth. Colonic bacteria- and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages and neutrophils were obtained from naive mice. Stock murine plasma from naive was purchased and categorized as having high plasma-enhanced bacterial killing capacity using our previously described methods. Bacteria and plasma were incubated to allow for opsonization and then added to macrophages previously exposed to selected adenosine receptor antagonists: ZM 241385: A2A, MRS1754: A2B, DPCPX: A1, and MRS1220: A3. The final mixture was plated on blood agar plates in aerobic and anaerobic conditions and bacterial colony-forming units quantified after 24 h. This study demonstrated that exogenous adenosine was able to significantly decrease phagocyte killing of cecal bacteria. Blocking adenosine receptors with selective antagonists altered the bacterial killing capacity of plasma. Selectively blocking the A1, A2A, or A2B receptors proved most beneficial at reversing the effect of adenosine. Consistent with previous work, only macrophage killing of bacteria could be modulated by adenosine receptor blockade because neutrophils were unaffected. These data demonstrate that adenosine decreases macrophage killing of enteric bacteria and that this effect is mediated through the adenosine receptors. PMID:24089004

Bauz, Gustavo; Moitra, Rituparna; Remick, Daniel

2014-01-01

167

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy抯 Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

James Francfort

2003-11-01

168

Kinetic Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains two Physlets that are able to share data using their common superclass, SApplet. The Molecular Physlet is able to tag a particle as a data source. In particular, any tagged particle can deliver x, y, vx, and vy values to a data listener. This script tags two particles and assigns these data sources to two different series in the DataGraph Physlet. The connection can show any analytic function of the position and velocity components including the particle speed or kinetic energy.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-09

169

VEHICLE USAGE LOG Department ________________________________________ Vehicle Homebase ____________________________ Week Ended (Sunday) _________________  

E-print Network

VEHICLE USAGE LOG Department ________________________________________ Vehicle Homebase ____________________________ Week Ended (Sunday) _________________ Door #____________ License Plate ____________________ Vehicle/Supplies (Enter Description such as grade sheets, artifacts, money, etc.) 6. Taking vehicle to Automotive Shop

Yang, Zong-Liang

170

AGE AND CONDITION OF DEER KILLED BY PREDATORS AND AUTOMOBILES  

E-print Network

) and white-tailed deer (0. uirginianus) killed by mountain lions (Felti concolor), coyotes (Cants Zatrans found on mule deer win- ter ranges in the foothills of the Bitterroot Moun- tains and white-tailed deer). White-tailed deer ranges were mostly in old- growth forests. The Clearwater and Swan rivers

Harris, Richard B.

171

Evolution Operators for Linearly Polarized Two-Killing Cosmological Models  

E-print Network

We give a general procedure to obtain non perturbative evolution operators in closed form for quantized linearly polarized two Killing vector reductions of general relativity with a cosmological interpretation. We study the representation of these operators in Fock spaces and discuss in detail the conditions leading to unitary evolutions.

J. Fernando Barbero G.; Daniel G髆ez Vergel; Eduardo J. S. Villase駉r

2006-06-15

172

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nafcillin enhances innate immune-mediated killing  

E-print Network

to daptomycin was used to treat refractory methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia against MRSA were examined in vitro and in vivo. Exposures to -lactam antimicrobials in general, neutrophils, and platelets. This finding correlated with enhanced killing of MRSA by whole blood, neutrophils

Nizet, Victor

173

Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had

G. M. Scott; D. W. Bormett; N. R. Sutherland; S. Abubakr; E. Lowell

1996-01-01

174

Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.  

PubMed

Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ? 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ? 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ? 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

2014-09-01

175

Karo-kari: a form of honour killing in pakistan.  

PubMed

Karo-Kari is a type of premeditated honour killing, which originated in rural and tribal areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The homicidal acts are primarily committed against women who are thought to have brought dishonour to their family by engaging in illicit pre-marital or extra-marital relations. In order to restore this honour, a male family member must kill the female in question. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature other sources on karo-kari and related forms of honour killing or violence against women. Media and non-governmental organization reports were utilized for case studies and analysis. Although legally proscribed, socio-cultural factors and gender role expectations have given legitimacy to karo-kari within some tribal communities. In addition to its persistence in areas of Pakistan, there is evidence that karo-kari may be increasing in incidence in other parts of the world in association with migration. Moreover, perpetrators of ;honour killings' often have motives outside of female adultery. Analysis of the socio-cultural and psycho-pathological factors associated with the practice of karo-kari can guide the development of prevention strategies. PMID:19091732

Patel, Sujay; Gadit, Amin Muhammad

2008-12-01

176

PYRAPERM KILLS FLEAS AND HALTS PLAGUE AMONG UTAH PRAIRIE DOGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plague is an introduced bacterial disease whose primary vectors are fleas (Siphon- aptera). Utah prairie dogs (Cynomys parvidens) are highly susceptible to plague, and entire colonies usually disappear shortly after plague arrives. Infusion of burrows with Pyraperm (an insecticide- dust) kills fleas and immediately halts the spread of plague within colonies. Thus, insecticide-dusts might play an important role in the

John L. Hoogland; Stacey Davis; Sarah Benson-Amram; Danielle Labruna; Brigitte Goossens; Margaret A. Hoogland; Cheri A. Jones

2004-01-01

177

Licence to Kill: About Accreditation Issues and James Bond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accreditation has become something of a hot topic in higher education. In Europe it has been described as a 'Licence to Kill'. The James Bond metaphor is particularly illustrative when reflecting on quality assurance challenges in higher education. Publications on this subject in recent years reveal that the array of issues associated with

Scheele, Ko

2004-01-01

178

Population genetics of the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis  

E-print Network

Population genetics of the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Jess A. T. Morgan comparison of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis isolates from an intensively studied region of frog decline-host specificity, little correlation between fungal genotype and geography, local frog extirpation by a single

California at Berkeley, University of

179

Killing for Girls: Predation Play and Female Empowerment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predation games--games in which the player is actively encouraged and often required to hunt and kill in order to survive--have historically been the purview of male players. Females, though now much more involved in digital games than before, generally play games that stress traditionally feminine values such as socializing with others, shopping,

Bertozzi, Elena

2012-01-01

180

SHORT COMMUNICATION Behaviour of brown bears killing wild ungulates  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Behaviour of brown bears killing wild ungulates in the Cantabrian Mountains /Published online: 11 November 2010 # Springer-Verlag 2010 Abstract Although brown bears (Ursus arctos documentation regarding bear predation on wild ungulates in Southern Europe. We describe search, detection

Boyer, Edmond

181

Life After Fresh Kills: Moving Beyond New York City's  

E-print Network

and environmental experts from the New York region. A research project of Columbia University's Earth InstituteLife After Fresh Kills: Moving Beyond New York City's Current Waste Management Plan Policy,Technical and Environmental Considerations December 1, 2001 A joint research project of Columbia University's Earth Institute

Columbia University

182

21. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

183

22. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

184

20. Bronx Kill Bridge with Hell Gate Bridge in background. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Bronx Kill Bridge with Hell Gate Bridge in background. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

185

Phototoxic aptamers selectively enter and kill epithelial cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of cancers arise from malignant epithe- lial cells. We report the design of synthetic oligo- nucleotides (aptamers) that are only internalized by epithelial cancer cells and can be precisely acti- vated by light to kill such cells. Specifically, photo- toxic DNA aptamers were selected to bind to unique short O-glycan-peptide signatures on the surface of breast, colon, lung,

Catia S. M. Ferreira; Melissa C. Cheung; Sotiris Missailidis; Stuart Bisland; Jean Gariepy

2009-01-01

186

RESEARCH ARTICLE The Evolution of Reduced Microbial Killing  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE The Evolution of Reduced Microbial Killing Jan A. C. Vriezen, Michael Valliere race in which they compete for limited resources and niche space. The outcome of this intense interaction is the evolution of a powerful arsenal of biological weapons. Perhaps the most studied

Riley, Margaret

187

Tree-Killing Las Conchas Fire in New Mexico  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientist Craig D. Allen observes the results of the extensive, tree-killing fire that consumed almost all above-ground biomass in this part of the Las Conchas Fire burn area in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico. Photo taken in late August 2011, two months post-fire. Forest drought stress is high...

188

PREDATION AND MULTIPLE KILLS OF MUSKOXEN BY GRIZZLY BEARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), successfully restored to northeastern Alaska in the 1970's, has become a source of food for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). We tested whether grizzly bear predation on this population of muskoxen increased over time and described multiple kills of muskoxen by grizzly bears. We identified bear-muskox events from data collected between April 1982 and June

HARRY V. REYNOLDS; RICHARD T. SHIDELER

189

Building Spacecraft & Launch Vehicles! Space Vehicle Design!  

E-print Network

)" 路! Von Braun group used to developing integrated vehicle and payload; now different design teams would HQ" 路! Lunar crasher" 路! Chance Vought study" 路! Weight-lifting capability of Saturn C-5" 路! Von Braun's acquiescence for LOR" Joe Shea" 路! Evolution of Saturn launch vehicles" 路! Development of rocket

Stengel, Robert F.

190

Connected Vehicle Technology  

MedlinePLUS

... Sheet: Improving Safety and Mobility Through Connected Vehicle Technology The U.S. Department of Transportation is committed to ... stage of roadway safety in America, connected vehicle technology shows great promise in transforming the way Americans ...

191

Electric Vehicle Research Group  

E-print Network

..............................................................................................7 C2-23 / M015 Lightweight Modular Vehicle Platform ...........................................10 Properties of Metal/Epoxy Foam Hybrid Structures

Liley, David

192

A Note on Teleparallel Killing Symmetries in Three Dimensional Circularly Symmetric Static Spacetime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we investigate Killing vectors in three dimensional Lorentzian manifold for circularly symmetric static spacetime in the presence of torsion. Teleparallel Killing equations are obtained and then solved by using some algebraic and direct integration techniques. This study reveals that the above spacetime admit two, three, four, five or six teleparallel Killing vectors. We compare our results with the available results in general relativity where the same spacetime admit two, three, four or six Killing vectors. It turns out that the teleparallel Killing vectors are different from Killing vectors in general relativity for the same spacetime.

Khan, Suhail; Hussain, Tahir; Ali Khan, Gulzar; Ali, Amjad

2015-01-01

193

Motor Vehicle Record Procedure Objective  

E-print Network

Motor Vehicle Record Procedure Objective Outline the procedure for obtaining motor vehicle record (MVR) through Fleet Services. Vehicle Operator Policy 3. Operators with 7 or more points on their motor vehicle record

Kirschner, Denise

194

Washington State Electric Vehicle  

E-print Network

Washington State Electric Vehicle Implementation Bryan Bazard Maintenance and Alternate Fuel Technology Manager #12;Executive Order 14-04 Requires the procurement of electric vehicles where and equipment with electricity or biofuel to the "extent practicable" by June 2015 1. The vehicle is due

California at Davis, University of

195

Powertrain & Vehicle Research Centre  

E-print Network

Powertrain & Vehicle Research Centre Low Carbon Powertrain Development S Akehurst, EPSRC Advanced Viewing Trade-Offs and Finding Optima Realism Advanced Engine Test Vehicle Test Rolling Road Powertrain Simulation Basic Engine Test Vehicle Test Cost & Complexity Towards Final Product Lean Powertrain Development

Burton, Geoffrey R.

196

Powertrain & Vehicle Research Centre  

E-print Network

Powertrain & Vehicle Research Centre Low Carbon Powertrain Development S. Akehurst, EPSRC Advanced Research Fellow A vehicles powertrain is a complex combination of interacting sub-systems which include complexity 路More efficient Vehicles, quicker to market, reduced cost to consumer The Optimisation Task

Burton, Geoffrey R.

197

Aerodynamics of Small Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review we describe the aerodynamic problems that must be addressed in order to design a successful small aerial vehicle. The effects of Reynolds number and aspect ratio (AR) on the design and performance of fixed-wing vehicles are described. The boundary-layer behavior on airfoils is especially important in the design of vehicles in this flight regime. The results of

Thomas J. Mueller

2003-01-01

198

Automotive vehicle sensors  

SciTech Connect

This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

1995-09-01

199

Energy 101: Electric Vehicles  

ScienceCinema

This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

None

2013-05-29

200

Green Vehicle Guide  

MedlinePLUS

What is a Green Vehicle? What you drive, how you drive, and what fuel you use can impact both the environment and your pocketbook. Learn ... and increases emissions? See More Search for SmartWay Vehicles Find the cleanest, most fuel efficient vehicle that ...

201

Effect of Silicon on Desulfurization of Aluminum-killed Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent reports have suggested that silicon has a beneficial effect on the rate of desulfurization of Al-killed steel. This effect is difficult to understand looking at the overall desulfurization reaction which does not include silicon. However an explanation is proposed by taking into account the (SiO2)/[Si] equilibrium in which some Al reaching the slag-metal interface is used in reducing the SiO2 in the slag. This reaction can be suppressed to some extent if the silicon content of the metal is increased and in doing so, more Al will be available at the slag-metal interface for the desulfurization reaction and this would increase the rate of the desulfurization reaction. A model was developed, assuming the rates are controlled by mass transfer, taking into account the coupled reactions of the reduction of silica, and other unstable oxides, namely iron oxide and manganese oxide, in the slag and desulfurization reaction in the steel by aluminum. The model predicts that increasing silicon increases the rate and extent of desulfurization. Plant data was analyzed to obtain rough estimates of ladle desulfurization rates and also used to validate the model predictions. Experiments have been conducted on a kilogram scale of material in an induction furnace to test the hypothesis. The major conclusions of the study are as follows: The rate and extent of desulfurization improve with increasing initial silicon content in the steel; the effect diminishes at silicon contents higher than approximately 0.2% and with increasing slag basicity. This was confirmed with kilogram-scale laboratory experiments. The effects of the silicon content in the steel (and of initial FeO and MnO in the slag) largely arise from the dominant effects of these reactions on the equilibrium aluminum content of the steel: as far as aluminum consumption or pick-up is concerned, the Si/SiO2 reaction dominates, and desulfurization has only a minor effect on aluminum consumption. The rate is primarily controlled by mass transfer in the metal and slag phase mass transfer has a minor effect on the overall desulfurization kinetics. The model results are in agreement with the experimental data for the change in sulfur, silicon and aluminum contents with time which renders credibility to the underlying hypothesis of the kinetic model. Although the change of sulfur content with time is not very sensitive to the activity data source, the change of aluminum and silicon contents with time depend on the activity data source. The experimental results demonstrate that if the silicon content in the steel is high enough, the silicon can reduce the alumina from the slag and thus the steel melt will pick up aluminum. This can cause significant savings in aluminum consumption. For most of the slag compositions used in the experiments, the overall mass transfer is only limited by the steel phase and the slag phase mass transfer can be neglected for most practical cases. Mass balance calculations in the experiments support the basis of the model and also show that with respect to aluminum consumption, silica reduction is the main aluminum consuming (or production) reaction and the desulfurization reaction is only a secondary consumer of aluminum. Results from the plant trials conducted to test the effect of silicon on ladle desulfurization show that the rate and extent of desulfurization increase with the increase of the initial Si content, so in the ladle refining process, adding all the silicon in the beginning with the aluminum and the fluxes will be beneficial and could save considerable processing time at the ladle. The aluminum consumption for the heats with silicon added in the beginning (both in terms of the Al added to the steel and as slag deoxidants) is considerably lower compared to the cases where the silicon is added at the end. However, on a relative cost term, aluminum and silicon are similarly priced so substitution would not offer a major cost advantage.

Roy, Debdutta

202

Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

1999-08-01

203

Kinetic buffers.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a new type of molecular device that is able to act as an inverse proton sponge to slowly decrease the pH inside a reaction vessel. This makes the automatic monitoring of the concentration of pH-sensitive systems possible. The device is a composite formed of an alkyl chloride, which kinetically produces acidity, and a buffer that thermodynamically modulates the variation in pH value. Profiles of pH versus time (pH-t plots) have been generated under various experimental conditions by computer simulation, and the device has been tested by carrying out automatic spectrophotometric titrations, without using an autoburette. To underline the wide variety of possible applications, this new system has been used to realize and monitor HCl uptake by a di-copper(II) bistren complex in a single run, in a completely automatic experiment. PMID:25387452

Alibrandi, Giuseppe; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Puglisi, Antonio

2015-01-12

204

9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. 113.207 Section 113.207 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.207...

2012-01-01

205

9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. 113.207 Section 113.207 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.207...

2013-01-01

206

9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.  

...Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. 113.207 Section 113.207 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.207...

2014-01-01

207

9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. 113.207 Section 113.207 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.207...

2011-01-01

208

Landscape Associations of Road-killed Virginia Opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in Central Massachusetts  

E-print Network

Landscape Associations of Road-killed Virginia Opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in Central (Didelphis virginiana) in central Massachusetts. Volunteers noted road- killed opossums on their daily. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is broadly distributed throughout southern New England and Ontario

Schweik, Charles M.

209

William and Mary Athletics State Vehicle / Rental Vehicle / Personal Vehicle Policies  

E-print Network

William and Mary Athletics State Vehicle / Rental Vehicle / Personal Vehicle Policies Last Update: 2/14/14 W&M's vehicle use policy requires that a driver authorization form be completed and approved before driving any vehicle (including a personal vehicle) for university business or a university

Swaddle, John

210

Geometric properties of stationary and axisymmetric Killing horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study some geometric properties of Killing horizons in four-dimensional stationary and axisymmetric space-times with an electromagnetic field and a cosmological constant. Using a (1 +1 +2 ) space-time split, we construct relations between the space-time Riemann tensor components and the components of the Riemann tensor corresponding to the horizon surface. The Einstein equations allow to derive the space-time scalar curvature invariants桲retschmann, Chern-Pontryagin, and Euler梠n the two-dimensional spacelike horizon surface. The derived relations generalize the relations known for Killing horizons of static and axisymmetric four-dimensional space-times. We also present the generalization of Hartle's curvature formula.

Shoom, Andrey A.

2015-01-01

211

Secondary Kill Effect of Deltamethrin on Triatoma infestans  

PubMed Central

Control of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, relies on the application of pyrethroid insecticides, especially deltamethrin. We performed laboratory studies to determine whether a T. infestans nymph that comes into contact with a deltamethrin-treated surface horizontally transfers the insecticide to subsequent triatomines. We found that a triatomine that walks on a deltamethrin-treated surface for a short period of time has the ability to transport the insecticide in concentrations sufficient to kill other triatomines with which it comes into contact. The effect was limited to high-density environments, and mortality as a result of secondary exposure was greater among second-instar nymphs compared with fifth-instar nymphs. Our results suggest that deltamethrin could be killing triatomines through both direct and indirect contact, although it remains unclear whether the phenomenon occurs in natural conditions. PMID:21845956

MALONEY, KATHLEEN M.; ANCCA-JUAREZ, JENNY; SALAZAR, RENZO; BORRINI-MAYORI, KATTY; PAMO-TITO, DANITZA; KEATING, JOSEPH A.; LEVY, MICHAEL Z.

2012-01-01

212

Development of a whole killed feline leukemia virus vaccine.  

PubMed

A whole killed FeLV vaccine was developed. By use of a chromatography method of purification and concentration, the resulting vaccine has been shown to be significantly lower in bovine serum albumin and total protein contents than were the same ingredients in the starting materials. The virus was inactivated or killed as an essential part of the vaccine development process. Vaccination trials with the vaccine without use of adjuvants indicated appreciable virus-neutralizing serum titer (greater than or equal to 1:10) in 107 of 110 vaccinated cats. Of 43 cats vaccinated and subsequently challenge exposed with virulent FeLV, only 2 developed persistent virus antigenemia (longer than 1 month), whereas 14 of 22 nonvaccinated control cats developed persistent viremia. In field tests, 2,770 cats from 6 states were vaccinated and observed. Postvaccinal reactions were not observed. PMID:1666095

York, S M; York, C J

1991-11-15

213

Comparison of killing of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by pure singlet oxygen. [Salmonella typhimurium; Escherichia coli; Sarcina lutea; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus lactis; Streptococcus faecalis  

SciTech Connect

Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were found to display different sensitivities to pure singlet oxygen generated outside of cells. Killing curves for Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli strains were indicative of multihit killing, whereas curves for Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis, and Streptococcus faecalis exhibited single-hit kinetics. The S. typhimurium deep rough strain TA1975, which lacks nearly all of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide coat and manifests concomitant enhancement of penetration by some exogenous substances, responded to singlet oxygen with initially faster inactivation than did the S. typhimurium wild-type strain, although the maximum rates of killing appeared to be quite similar. The structure of the cell wall thus plays an important role in susceptibility to singlet oxygen. The outer membrane-lipopolysaccharide portion of the gram-negative cell wall initially protects the bacteria from extracellular singlet oxygen, although it may also serve as a source for secondary reaction products which accentuate the rates of cell killing. S. typhimurium and E. coli strains lacking the cellular antioxidant, glutathione, showed no difference from strains containing glutathione in response to the toxic effects of singlet oxygen. Strains of Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus that contained carotenoids, however, were far more resistant to singlet oxygen lethality than were both carotenoidless mutants of the same species and other gram-positive species lacking high levels of protective carotenoids.

Dahl, T.A.; Midden, W.R. (Bowling Green State Univ., OH (USA)); Hartman, P.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

1989-04-01

214

Inflammatory Neurodegeneration and Mechanisms of Microglial Killing of Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory neurodegeneration contributes to a wide variety of brain pathologies. A number of mechanisms by which inflammatory-activated\\u000a microglia and astrocytes kill neurons have been identified in culture. These include: (1) acute activation of the phagocyte\\u000a NADPH oxidase (PHOX) found in microglia, (2) expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in glia, and (3) microglial\\u000a phagocytosis of neurons. Activation of

Guy C. Brown; Jonas J. Neher

2010-01-01

215

Physical process first law for bifurcate Killing horizons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical process version of the first law for black holes states that the passage of energy and angular momentum through the horizon results in a change in area (\\/8)A=E-J, so long as this passage is quasistationary. A similar physical process first law can be derived for any bifurcate Killing horizon in any spacetime dimension d{>=}3 using much the same

Aaron J. Amsel; Donald Marolf; Amitabh Virmani

2008-01-01

216

Physical process first law for bifurcate Killing horizons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical process version of the first law for black holes states that the passage of energy and angular momentum through the horizon results in a change in area (kappa)\\/(8pi)DeltaA=DeltaE-OmegaDeltaJ, so long as this passage is quasistationary. A similar physical process first law can be derived for any bifurcate Killing horizon in any spacetime dimension d>=3 using much the same

Aaron J. Amsel; Donald Marolf; Amitabh Virmani

2008-01-01

217

Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells.  

PubMed

Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100?g/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200??50爊m and diameter of 50 to 120爊m) for 20爃, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2爃, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200??50爊m) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2爃. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500?g/mL) or lower (20?g/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100?g/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations. PMID:24872797

Cheng, Dengfeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Guoxin; Shi, Hongcheng

2014-01-01

218

Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, earth scientists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The USGS continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Evans, William C.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

1996-01-01

219

Red Fax, Vulpes vulpes, kills a European Beaver, Castorfiber, Kit  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 31 luly 1994, during a beaver census in Southeast Norway (5839'N, 759'E), a Red Fax (Vulpes vulpes) was observed killing a European Beaver (Castor fiber) kit (see Kile and Nakken 1995). The observer was seated with binoculars about 100 meters from the lodge. At 1930 hours a kit emerged from the 10dge and started to eat Beaked Sedge (Carex

NILS B. KILE; PEITER J. NAKKEN; FRANK ROSELL; SIGURD ESPELAND

220

KILLING IN COMBAT MAY BE INDEPENDENTLY ASSOCIATED WITH SUICIDAL IDEATION  

PubMed Central

Background The United States military has lost more troops to suicide than to combat for the second year in a row and better understanding combat-related risk factors for suicide is critical. We examined the association of killing and suicide among war veterans after accounting for PTSD, depression, and substance use disorders. Methods We utilized a cross-sectional, retrospective, nationally representative sample of Vietnam veterans from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS). In order to perform a more in depth analysis, we utilized a subsample of these data, the NVVRS Clinical Interview Sample (CIS), which is representative of 1.3 million veterans who were eligible for the clinical interview by virtue of living in proximity to an interview site, located within 28 standard metropolitan regions throughout the United States. Results Veterans who had higher killing experiences had twice the odds of suicidal ideation, compared to those with lower or no killing experiences (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.073.67), even after adjusting for demographic variables, PTSD, depression, substance use disorders, and adjusted combat exposure. PTSD (OR = 3.42, 95% CI = 1.0910.73), depression (OR = 11.49, 95% CI = 2.1262.38), and substance use disorders (OR = 3.98, 95% CI = 1.0115.60) were each associated with higher odds of suicidal ideation. Endorsement of suicide attempts was most strongly associated with PTSD (OR = 5.52, 95% CI = 1.2125.29). Conclusions Killing experiences are not routinely examined when assessing suicide risk. Our findings have important implications for conducting suicide risk assessments in veterans of war. Depression and Anxiety 29:918923, 2012. PMID:22505038

Maguen, Shira; Metzler, Thomas J.; Bosch, Jeane; Marmar, Charles R.; Knight, Sara J.; Neylan, Thomas C.

2013-01-01

221

Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

1996-08-01

222

The Jeremiah Metzger Lecture. Microbial defenses against killing by phagocytes.  

PubMed Central

Phagocytes are a key feature of defense against microorganisms. Phagocyte function is a complex system with many intricately involved components. Each of these components provides microorganisms with a target for countermeasures against phagocytes. We have discussed examples and purported mechanisms for microbial defenses against the steps involved in killing by phagocytes. Understanding the interplay of these host and pathogen factors leads to a better understanding of both normal host defenses and pathogenesis of disease. PMID:1413380

Mandell, G. L.; Frank, M. O.

1992-01-01

223

New Geometry with All Killing Vectors Spanning the Poincar Algebra  

E-print Network

The new 4D geometry whose Killing vectors span the Poincar\\'e algebra is presented and its structure is analyzed. The new geometry can be regarded as the Poincar\\'e-invariant solution of the degenerate extension of the vacuum Einstein field equations with a negative cosmological constant and provides a static cosmological space-time with a Lobachevsky space. The motion of free particles in the space-time is discussed.

Chao-Guang Huang; Yu Tian; Xiao-Ning Wu; Zhan Xu; Bin Zhou

2009-09-15

224

Surface Acoustic Waves Enhance Neutrophil Killing of Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria that play a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria and are the leading cause of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections on indwelling catheters and medical prosthetic devices. Failure to resolve these biofilm infections may necessitate the surgical removal of the prosthetic device which can be debilitating and costly. Recent studies have shown that application of surface acoustic waves to catheter surfaces can reduce the incidence of infections by a mechanism that has not yet been clarified. We report here the effects of surface acoustic waves (SAW) on the capacity of human neutrophils to eradicate S. epidermidis bacteria in a planktonic state and within biofilms. Utilizing a novel fibrin gel system that mimics a tissue-like environment, we show that SAW, at an intensity of 0.3 mW/cm2, significantly enhances human neutrophil killing of S. epidermidis in a planktonic state and within biofilms by enhancing human neutrophil chemotaxis in response to chemoattractants. In addition, we show that the integrin CD18 plays a significant role in the killing enhancement observed in applying SAW. We propose from out data that this integrin may serve as mechanoreceptor for surface acoustic waves enhancing neutrophil chemotaxis and killing of bacteria. PMID:23936303

Loike, John D.; Plitt, Anna; Kothari, Komal; Zumeris, Jona; Budhu, Sadna; Kavalus, Kaitlyn; Ray, Yonatan; Jacob, Harold

2013-01-01

225

Sorafenib and HDAC inhibitors synergize to kill CNS tumor cells  

PubMed Central

The present studies were designed to determine whether the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib (Nexavar) interacted with histone deacetylase inhibitors to kill glioblastoma and medulloblastoma cells. In a dose-dependent fashion sorafenib lethality was enhanced in multiple genetically disparate primary human glioblastoma isolates by the HDAC inhibitor sodium valproate (Depakote). Drug exposure reduced phosphorylation of p70 S6K and of mTOR. Similar data to that with valproate were also obtained using the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat (Zolinza). Sorafenib and valproate also interacted to kill medulloblastoma and PNET cell lines. Treatment with sorafenib and HDAC inhibitors radio-sensitized both GBM and medulloblastoma cell lines. Knock down of death receptor (CD95) expression protected GBM cells from the drug combination, as did overexpression of c-FLIP-s, BCL-XL and dominant negative caspase 9. Knock down of PDGFR? recapitulated the effect of sorafenib in combination with HDAC inhibitors. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the combination of sorafenib and HDAC inhibitors kills through activation of the extrinsic pathway, and could represent a useful approach to treat CNS-derived tumors. PMID:22406992

Tang, Yong; Yacoub, Adly; Hamed, Hossein A.; Poklepovic, Andrew; Tye, Gary W.; Grant, Steven; Dent, Paul

2012-01-01

226

Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.  

PubMed

The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis. PMID:25229871

Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

2014-09-17

227

Targeted Cytotoxic Therapy Kills Persisting HIV Infected Cells During ART  

PubMed Central

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce HIV levels in plasma to undetectable levels, but rather little is known about the effects of ART outside of the peripheral blood regarding persistent virus production in tissue reservoirs. Understanding the dynamics of ART-induced reductions in viral RNA (vRNA) levels throughout the body is important for the development of strategies to eradicate infectious HIV from patients. Essential to a successful eradication therapy is a component capable of killing persisting HIV infected cells during ART. Therefore, we determined the in vivo efficacy of a targeted cytotoxic therapy to kill infected cells that persist despite long-term ART. For this purpose, we first characterized the impact of ART on HIV RNA levels in multiple organs of bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) humanized mice and found that antiretroviral drug penetration and activity was sufficient to reduce, but not eliminate, HIV production in each tissue tested. For targeted cytotoxic killing of these persistent vRNA+ cells, we treated BLT mice undergoing ART with an HIV-specific immunotoxin. We found that compared to ART alone, this agent profoundly depleted productively infected cells systemically. These results offer proof-of-concept that targeted cytotoxic therapies can be effective components of HIV eradication strategies. PMID:24415939

Denton, Paul W.; Long, Julie M.; Wietgrefe, Stephen W.; Sykes, Craig; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Snyder, Olivia D.; Perkey, Katherine; Archin, Nancie M.; Choudhary, Shailesh K.; Yang, Kuo; Hudgens, Michael G.; Pastan, Ira; Haase, Ashley T.; Kashuba, Angela D.; Berger, Edward A.; Margolis, David M.; Garcia, J. Victor

2014-01-01

228

CAN I KILL MY YOUNGER SELF? TIME TRAVEL AND THE RETRO-SUICIDE PARADOX  

E-print Network

1 CAN I KILL MY YOUNGER SELF? TIME TRAVEL AND THE RETRO-SUICIDE PARADOX Peter B. M. Vranas vranas shooting my younger self (YS); then apparently I can kill him--I can commit retro-suicide. But to kill him

Fitelson, Branden

229

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Killing of Caenorhabditis elegans Used to Identify P. aeruginosa Virulence Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported recently that the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 kills Caenorhabditis elegans and that many P. aeruginosa virulence factors (genes) required for maximum virulence in mouse pathogenicity are also required for maximum killing of C. elegans. Here we report that among eight P. aeruginosa PA14 TnphoA mutants isolated that exhibited reduced killing of C. elegans, at least

Man-Wah Tan; Laurence G. Rahme; Jeffrey A. Sternberg; Ronald G. Tompkins; Frederick M. Ausubel

1999-01-01

230

Killing vector fields in three dimensions: a method to solve massive gravity field equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Killing vector fields in three dimensions play an important role in the construction of the related spacetime geometry. In this work we show that when a three-dimensional geometry admits a Killing vector field then the Ricci tensor of the geometry is determined in terms of the Killing vector field and its scalars. In this way we can generate all products

Metin G黵ses; Metin G

2010-01-01

231

It抯 Not Just Conflict That Motivates Killing of Orangutans  

PubMed Central

We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI) and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI). These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed. PMID:24130707

Davis, Jacqueline T.; Mengersen, Kerrie; Abram, Nicola K.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wells, Jessie A.; Meijaard, Erik

2013-01-01

232

Kill Tree Analysis Method and CAD Tool for Aircraft Complex System Vulnerability Assessment and Safety Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vulnerability assessment of aircraft complex systems subjected to traditional weapons, kill tree is used as a visual illustration of the critical components and all component redundancies. This research applies fault tree analysis method in reliability field to analyze the kill tree and determine the minimal cut sets for different kill levels, such as KK, K, A, B and C

Pei Yang; Guo Ting; Dong Qiang; Song Bifeng

2011-01-01

233

Kill rates and predation patterns of jaguars (Panthera onca) in the southern Pantanal, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jaguars (Panthera onca) often prey on livestock, resulting in conflicts with humans. To date, kill rates and predation patterns by jaguars have not been well documented. We studied the foraging ecology of jaguars in an area with both livestock and native prey and documented kill rates, characteristics of prey killed, patterns of predation, and the influence of prey size on

Sandra M. C. Cavalcanti; Eric M. Gese

2010-01-01

234

The Vehicle Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ubiquitous computing in the vehicle industry has primarily focused on sensor data serving different ubiquitous on-board services (e.g., crash detection, antilock brake systems, or air conditioning). These services mainly address vehicle drivers while driving. However, in view of the role of vehicles in today's society, it goes without saying that vehicles relate to more than just the driver or occupants; they are part of a larger ecosystem, including traffic participants, authorities, customers and the like. To serve the ecosystem with ubiquitous services based on vehicle sensor data, there is a need for an open information infrastructure that enables service development close to the customer. This paper presents results from a research project on designing such an infrastructure at a major European vehicle manufacturer. Our empirical data shows how the vehicle manufacturer's conceptualization of services disagrees with the needs of vehicle stakeholders in a more comprehensive vehicle ecosystem. In light of this, we discuss the effect on information infrastructure design and introduce the distinction between information infrastructure as product feature and service facilitator. In a more general way, we highlight the importance of information infrastructure to contextualize the vehicle as part of a larger ecosystem and thus support open innovation.

Kuschel, Jonas

235

VEHICLE USE RECORD M/Y DEPARTMENT VEHICLE LOCATION  

E-print Network

VEHICLE USE RECORD M/Y DEPARTMENT VEHICLE LOCATION Date Origin/Destination Purpose Time Out Time) Accuracy of Information (b) Valid Driver's License VEHICLE # TAG # VEHICLE MAKE, MODEL, AND YEAR NOTE: Vehicle logs must be maintained for audit purposes. It is important that all of the required information

Watson, Craig A.

236

General Vehicle Performance Specifications for the UPRM AUV Vehicle Specifications  

E-print Network

General Vehicle Performance Specifications for the UPRM AUV Vehicle Specifications Vehicle Characteristics Specification Maximum Depth 700m with 1.5 safety factor Vehicle power 2kWHr Li Ion Rechargeable Transducer 700m rated Paroscientific Depth Sensor will be integrated into the vehicle navigation stream

Gilbes, Fernando

237

Vehicle underbody fairing  

DOEpatents

A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA); Salari, Kambiz (Livermore, CA); McCallen, Rose (Livermore, CA)

2010-11-09

238

Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, high-speed trains, and buses. We introduce three-dimensional flow structures around simplified model vehicles and heavy vehicles and discuss the flow-control devices used for drag reduction. Finally, we suggest important unsteady flow structures to investigate for the enhancement of aerodynamic performance and future directions for experimental and numerical approaches.

Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Jungil; Park, Hyungmin

2014-01-01

239

AERODYNAMICS OF SMALL VEHICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract In this review,we,describe,the aerodynamic,problems,that must,be addressed in order to design a successful small aerial vehicle. The effects of Reynolds number,and aspect ratio (AR) on the design and performance,of fixed-wing vehicles are described. The boundary-layer behavior on airfoils is especially important in the design of vehicles in this flight regime. The results of a number,of experimental,boundary-layer studies, including the

Thomas J. Mueller; James D. DeLaurier

2003-01-01

240

TVA and the electric vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This brochure illustrates and describes the reliability testing carried out on electric vehicles. Seventeen vehicles including passenger car, station wagons, pick-up trucks, and mini-vans were tested under real-world conditions. Tests include vehicle reliability testing, vehicle performance testing, in-vehicle battery testing, battery charger testing, and EV support systems testing. (MHR)

Not Available

1983-01-01

241

Overview of Electrified Vehicle Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains a chart describing the components of electrified vehicle systems based on the vehicle drive system. Vehicle drive systems in the chart include conventional internal combustion engine, start/stop, mild hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), medium HEV, full HEV, plug-in series HEV, and battery electric vehicle. The chart is provided in both .jpg and .ppt (PowerPoint) formats.

Center for Advanced Automotive Technology (CAAT)

242

Lifting Body Flight Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

Barret, Chris

1998-01-01

243

Killed oral cholera vaccines: history, development and implementation challenges  

PubMed Central

Cholera is still a major global health problem, affecting mainly people living in unsanitary conditions and who are at risk for outbreaks of cholera. During the past decade, outbreaks are increasingly reported from more countries. From the early killed oral cholera vaccine, rapid improvements in vaccine development occurred as a result of a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, pathogenesis of cholera infection and immunity. The newer-generation oral killed cholera vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in field trials conducted in cholera endemic areas. Likewise, they have been shown to be protective when used during outbreak settings. Aside from providing direct protection to vaccinated individuals, recent studies have demonstrated that these killed oral vaccines also confer indirect protection through herd immunity. Although new-generation oral cholera vaccines should not be considered in isolation from other preventive approaches in countries where they are most needed, especially improved water quality and sanitation, these vaccines serve as immediately available public health tools for preventing further morbidity and mortality from cholera. However, despite its availability for more than two decades, use of these vaccines has not been optimized. Although there are limitations of the currently available oral cholera vaccines, recent data show that the vaccines are safe, feasible to use even in difficult circumstances and able to provide protection in various settings. Clear identification of the areas and target population groups who will benefit from the use of the cholera vaccines will be required and strategies to facilitate accessibility and usage of these vaccines in these areas and population groups will need to be developed. PMID:25177492

Gonzales, Maria Liza Antoinette; Aldaba, Josephine G.; Nair, G. Balakrish

2014-01-01

244

Trichinella spiralis: killing of newborn larvae by lung cells.  

PubMed

The migratory stage of Trichinella spiralis, the newborn larva (NBL), travels along the pulmonary microvascular system on its way to the skeletal muscle cells. The present work studies the capability of lung cells to kill NBL. For this purpose, in vitro cytotoxicity assays were performed using NBL, lung cell suspensions from Wistar rats, rat anti-NBL surface sera, and fresh serum as complement source. The cytotoxic activity of lung cells from rats infected on day 6 p.i. was compared with that from noninfected rats. Two and 20爃-old NBL (NBL2 and NBL20) were used as they had shown to exhibit different surface antigens altering their biological activity. Sera antibodies were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay, and cell populations used in each assay were characterized by histological staining. The role of IgE in the cytotoxic attack against NBL was analyzed using heated serum. The Fc?RI expression on cell suspensions was examined by flow cytometry. Results showed that lung cells were capable of killing NBL by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Lung cells from infected animals yielded the highest mortality percentages of NBL, with NBL20 being the most susceptible to such attack. IgE yielded a critical role in the cytotoxic attack. Regarding the analysis of cell suspensions, cells from infected rats showed an increase in the percentage of eosinophils, neutrophils, and the number of cells expressing the Fc?RI receptor. We conclude that lung cells are capable of killing NBL in the presence of specific antibodies, supporting the idea that the lung is one of the sites where the NBL death occurs due to ADCC. PMID:25416332

Falduto, Guido H; Vila, Cecilia C; Saracino, Mar韆 P; Calcagno, Marcela A; Venturiello, Stella M

2014-11-23

245

Effect of the method of killing, interval between killing and neck cutting and blood vessels cut on blood loss in broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Broiler chickens were killed using 90% argon in air, or 30% carbon dioxide and 60% argon in air or 120 mA per bird in a waterbath with a 50 Hz alternating electric current. Ventral or unilateral neck cutting was performed at 1, 3 or 5 min after killing. In addition, a group of broilers was stunned with 120 mA

A. B. M. Raj; S. P. Johnson

1997-01-01

246

Identification and Structural Analysis of an l-Asparaginase Enzyme from Guinea Pig with Putative Tumor Cell Killing Properties.  

PubMed

The initial observation that guinea pig serum kills lymphoma cells marks the serendipitous discovery of a new class of anti-cancer agents. The serum cell killing factor was shown to be an enzyme with l-asparaginase (ASNase) activity. As a direct result of this observation, several bacterial l-asparaginases were developed and are currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of the subset of hematological malignancies that are dependent on the extracellular pool of the amino acid asparagine. As drugs, these enzymes act to hydrolyze asparagine to aspartate, thereby starving the cancer cells of this amino acid. Prior to the work presented here, the precise identity of this guinea pig enzyme has not been reported in the peer-reviewed literature. We discovered that the guinea pig enzyme annotated as H0W0T5_CAVPO, which we refer to as gpASNase1, has the required low Km property consistent with that possessed by the cell-killing guinea pig serum enzyme. Elucidation of the ligand-free and aspartate complex gpASNase1 crystal structures allows a direct comparison with the bacterial enzymes and serves to explain the lack of l-glutaminase activity in the guinea pig enzyme. The structures were also used to generate a homology model for the human homolog hASNase1 and to help explain its vastly different kinetic properties compared with gpASNase1, despite a 70% sequence identity. Given that the bacterial enzymes frequently present immunogenic and other toxic side effects, this work suggests that gpASNase1 could be a promising alternative to these bacterial enzymes. PMID:25320094

Schalk, Amanda M; Nguyen, Hien-Anh; Rigouin, Coraline; Lavie, Arnon

2014-11-28

247

Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, geologists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Gerlach, Terrance M.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Evans, William C.; Colvard, Elizabeth M.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Rogie, John D.; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

2000-01-01

248

Analysis of murine cellular receptors for tumor-killing factor  

SciTech Connect

Receptors for tumor-killing factor (TKF) on the surface of murine cells were analyzed using radioiodinated TKF. Not only sensitive cells but also insensitive cells were found to have specific receptors. Among the sensitive cells, no clear relation was observed between the number of receptors on the cell surface and sensitivity to TKF. Compounds affecting microfilaments (cytochalasin B and D) and microtubules (colchicine and Colcemid) significantly inhibited cytolysis of sensitive cells induced by receptor-bound TKF. It is concluded that internalization of receptor-bound TKF is a prerequisite for triggering cytolysis.

Ohsawa, F.; Natori, S.

1987-01-01

249

[Isolation and identification of a killing maggots bacterium].  

PubMed

A notably killing maggots bacterium was isolated from natural dead maggots in the manure pits in the countryside of Yancheng. Its pathogenicity was confirmed by the law of KOCK. The results of preliminary bioassay show that the pathogen can infect the larvas of greenbottle flies and other larvas of flies in a certain extent, but can't infect animals and fowls. The G + C content of its DNA is 62.46%. The hybridization ratio of its DNA and the Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes' (AS1.1806) is 81.2%. According to Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Ninth edition, the strain of the bacterium was primarily identified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes. PMID:12548772

Cai, X

2000-10-01

250

Sabretoothed Carnivores and the Killing of Large Prey  

PubMed Central

Sabre-like canines clearly have the potential to inflict grievous wounds leading to massive blood loss and rapid death. Hypotheses concerning sabretooth killing modes include attack to soft parts such as the belly or throat, where biting deep is essential to generate strikes reaching major blood vessels. Sabretoothed carnivorans are widely interpreted as hunters of larger and more powerful prey than that of their present-day nonsabretoothed relatives. However, the precise functional advantage of the sabretooth bite, particularly in relation to prey size, is unknown. Here, we present a new point-to-point bite model and show that, for sabretooths, depth of the killing bite decreases dramatically with increasing prey size. The extended gape of sabretooths only results in considerable increase in bite depth when biting into prey with a radius of less than ?10 cm. For sabretooths, this size-reversed functional advantage suggests predation on species within a similar size range to those attacked by present-day carnivorans, rather than 搈egaherbivores as previously believed. The development of the sabretooth condition appears to represent a shift in function and killing behaviour, rather than one in predator-prey relations. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how sabretoothed carnivorans are likely to have evolved along a functionally continuous trajectory: beginning as an extension of a jaw-powered killing bite, as adopted by present-day pantherine cats, followed by neck-powered biting and thereafter shifting to neck-powered shear-biting. We anticipate this new insight to be a starting point for detailed study of the evolution of pathways that encompass extreme specialisation, for example, understanding how neck-powered biting shifts into shear-biting and its significance for predator-prey interactions. We also expect that our model for point-to-point biting and bite depth estimations will yield new insights into the behaviours of a broad range of extinct predators including therocephalians (gorgonopsian + cynodont, sabretoothed mammal-like reptiles), sauropterygians (marine reptiles) and theropod dinosaurs. PMID:22039403

Andersson, Ki; Norman, David; Werdelin, Lars

2011-01-01

251

Killing and allowing to die in medical practice.  

PubMed Central

This paper examines some of the issues related to the distinction between acts and omissions. It discusses the difficulties involved in deciding whether there is any moral significance in this distinction, particularly when it is applied to cases which involve killing or allowing to die. The paper shows how this problem relates to some of the current issues in medical ethics. It examines the issues raised by the widely publicised cases of selective treatment of handicapped children and argues that such decisions are taken and have to be taken in the context of wider ethical theories. PMID:6234397

Slack, A

1984-01-01

252

A guanylate kinase/HSV-1 thymidine kinase fusion protein enhances prodrug-mediated cell killing.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVTK) with the guanosine analog ganciclovir (GCV) is currently the most widely used suicide gene/prodrug system for gene therapy of cancer. Despite the broad application of the HSVTK/GCV approach, phosphorylation of GCV to its active state is inefficient such that high, myelosuppressive doses of GCV are needed to observe an antitumor effect. One strategy used to overcome the poor substrate specificity of HSVTK towards GCV (Km = 45 microM) has been to create novel forms of TK with altered substrate preferences. Such mutant TKs have shown benefit and are currently in clinical use. We describe here a second strategy to increase the amount of intracellular triphosphorylated GCV by involving the second enzyme in the GCV activation pathway, guanylate kinase (GMK). As a means to overcome the bottleneck of prodrug activation from the monophosphate to the diphosphate, we sought to combine both the critical HSVTK and GMK activities together. In this report we describe the construction of a fusion or chimeric protein of HSVTK and guanylate kinase, show data that demonstrate it confers a approximately 175-fold decrease in IC50 compared to HSVTK alone in response to ganciclovir treatment in stably transfected C6 glioma cells and finally, we present biochemical evidence of a kinetic basis for this improved cell killing. PMID:16810197

Willmon, C L; Krabbenhoft, E; Black, M E

2006-09-01

253

Liposomal Cholesterol Delivery Activates the Macrophage Innate Immune Arm To Facilitate Intracellular Leishmania donovani Killing  

PubMed Central

Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by infecting the monocyte/macrophage lineage and residing inside specialized structures known as parasitophorous vacuoles. The protozoan parasite has adopted several means of escaping the host immune response, with one of the major methods being deactivation of host macrophages. Previous reports highlight dampened macrophage signaling, defective antigen presentation due to increased membrane fluidity, and the downregulation of several genes associated with L. donovani infection. We have reported previously that the defective antigen presentation in infected hamsters could be corrected by a single injection of a cholesterol-containing liposome. Here we show that cholesterol in the form of a liposomal formulation can stimulate the innate immune arm and reactivate macrophage function. Augmented levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI), along with proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), corroborate intracellular parasite killing. Cholesterol incorporation kinetics is favored in infected macrophages more than in normal macrophages. Such an enhanced cholesterol uptake is associated with preferential apoptosis of infected macrophages in an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-dependent manner. All these events are coupled with mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, while inhibition of such pathways resulted in increased parasite loads. Hence, liposomal cholesterol is a potential facilitator of the macrophage effector function in favor of the host, independently of the T-cell arm. PMID:24478076

Ghosh, June; Guha, Rajan; Das, Shantanabha

2014-01-01

254

Liposomal cholesterol delivery activates the macrophage innate immune arm to facilitate intracellular Leishmania donovani killing.  

PubMed

Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by infecting the monocyte/macrophage lineage and residing inside specialized structures known as parasitophorous vacuoles. The protozoan parasite has adopted several means of escaping the host immune response, with one of the major methods being deactivation of host macrophages. Previous reports highlight dampened macrophage signaling, defective antigen presentation due to increased membrane fluidity, and the downregulation of several genes associated with L. donovani infection. We have reported previously that the defective antigen presentation in infected hamsters could be corrected by a single injection of a cholesterol-containing liposome. Here we show that cholesterol in the form of a liposomal formulation can stimulate the innate immune arm and reactivate macrophage function. Augmented levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI), along with proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), corroborate intracellular parasite killing. Cholesterol incorporation kinetics is favored in infected macrophages more than in normal macrophages. Such an enhanced cholesterol uptake is associated with preferential apoptosis of infected macrophages in an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-dependent manner. All these events are coupled with mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, while inhibition of such pathways resulted in increased parasite loads. Hence, liposomal cholesterol is a potential facilitator of the macrophage effector function in favor of the host, independently of the T-cell arm. PMID:24478076

Ghosh, June; Guha, Rajan; Das, Shantanabha; Roy, Syamal

2014-02-01

255

Vehicle barrier systems  

SciTech Connect

The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper. 2 tabs.

Sena, P.A.

1986-01-01

256

Vehicle barrier systems  

SciTech Connect

The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment, and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

Sena, P.A.

1986-01-01

257

Vehicle barrier systems  

SciTech Connect

The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

Sena, P.A.

1986-01-01

258

Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

259

Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

Roman, Harry T.

2014-01-01

260

Nuclear air cushion vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

Anderson, J. L.

1973-01-01

261

Mechatronic vehicle door assistant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Easy operation of vehicle functionality is an important distinguishing mark for competitiveness. Recently, several approaches are presented in order to assist the entry for passengers. In this paper a novel vehicle door is proposed that offers useful functionalities and increases the passengers' comfort. Based on a mechatronic door system, containing an environment sensor system, a semi-active actuator and a suitable

J黵gen Maas; Simon Kern

2007-01-01

262

ELECTRIC VEHICLES MODELLING AND  

E-print Network

and Drives Applied on a Hybrid Electric Car 215 Qianfan Zhang, Xiaofei Liu, Shumei Cui, Shuai Dong and Yifan Chapter 16 Predictive Intelligent Battery Management System to Enhance the Performance of Electric VehicleELECTRIC VEHICLES 颅 MODELLING AND SIMULATIONS Edited by Seref Soylu #12

Schaltz, Erik

263

Saturn IB Vehicle Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This 1968 chart depicts the various mission configurations for the Saturn IB launch vehicle. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine the larger boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the marned lunar missions.

1968-01-01

264

The Vehicle Technologies Market Report  

E-print Network

The Vehicle Technologies Market Report Center for Transportation Analysis 2360 Cherahala Boulevard Efficiency Transportation: Energy Environment Safety Security Vehicle Technologies T he Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis developed and published the first Vehicle Technologies Market

265

LIGHT-DUTYVEHICLES Vehicle Technology  

E-print Network

LIGHT-DUTYVEHICLES Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways: An Examination of Timing and Investment areas 颅 light- duty vehicles, non-light-duty vehicles, fuels, and transportation demand 颅 in the context

266

Intelligent Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle mission Planning; Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations. The representative IVHM technologies for computer platform using heterogeneous communication, 3) coupled electromagnetic oscillators for enhanced communications, 4) Linux-based real-time systems, 5) genetic algorithms, 6) Bayesian Networks, 7) evolutionary algorithms, 8) dynamic systems control modeling, and 9) advanced sensing capabilities. This paper presents IVHM technologies developed under NASA's NFFP pilot project and the integration of these technologies forms the framework for IIVM.

Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

2005-01-01

267

Dust Mitigation Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes the development and demonstration of an apparatus, called a dust mitigation vehicle, for reducing the amount of free dust on the surface of the Moon. The dust mitigation vehicle would be used to pave surfaces on the Moon to prevent the dust from levitating or adhering to surfaces. The basic principle of operation of these apparatuses is to use a lens or a dish mirror to concentrate solar thermal radiation onto a small spot to heat lunar regolith. In the case of the prototype dust mitigation vehicle, a Fresnel lens was used to heat a surface layer of regolith sufficiently to sinter or melt dust grains into a solid mass. The prototype vehicle has demonstrated paving rates up to 1.8 square meters per day. The proposed flight design of the dust mitigation vehicle is also described.

Cardiff, Eric H.

2011-01-01

268

Lunar material transport vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

1988-01-01

269

Effect of the method of killing, interval between killing and neck cutting and blood vessels cut on blood loss in broilers.  

PubMed

1. Broiler chickens were killed using 90% argon in air, or 30% carbon dioxide and 60% argon in air or 120 mA per bird in a waterbath with a 50 Hz alternating electric current. Ventral or unilateral neck cutting was performed at 1, 3 or 5 min after killing. In addition, a group of broilers was stunned with 120 mA per bird in a waterbath using 1500 Hz alternating current and were bled out-with a ventral neck cut within 20 s from stunning. 2. Blood leaving the neck wound was collected in a bin placed on an electronic balance and a computer program calculated the cumulative blood loss up to 100 s after neck cutting. 3. Bleed-out was significantly affected by killing method and time of neck cutting. Broilers killed with the carbon dioxide-argon mixture bled-out less than those killed with argon or 50 Hz electric current. When compared with the 1 min neck cutting interval, a delay of 3-or 5 min resulted in a lower bleed-out. High frequency electrical stunning and ventral neck cutting within 20 s resulted in a slightly higher bleed-out than those recorded for the killing methods. However, within argon killing, a delay of 3 or 5 min in ventral or unilateral neck cutting had no significant effect on the bleed-out. In broilers killed with the carbon dioxide-argon mixture a 3 min delay in ventral neck cutting or a 5 min delay in unilateral neck cutting resulted in lower bleed-out. 4. Neck cutting of broilers within 5 min after argon killing or 3 min after killing with the carbon dioxide-argon mixture would result in a satisfactory bleed-out. PMID:9158895

Raj, A B; Johnson, S P

1997-05-01

270

Aerodynamic Design of Road Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Guidebook discusses design of road vehicles to reduce aerodynamic drag. Book presents strategy for integrating aerodynamic design into vehicle design. Book written for readers lacking experience in aerodynamics.

Kurtz, D. W.

1985-01-01

271

Photoacoustically-guided photothermal killing of mosquitoes targeted by nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In biomedical applications, nanoparticles have demonstrated the potential to eradicate abnormal cells in small localized pathological zones associated with cancer or infections. Here, we introduce a method for nanotechnology-based photothermal (PT) killing of whole organisms considered harmful to humans or the environment. We demonstrate that laser-induced thermal, and accompanying nano- and microbubble phenomena, can injure or kill C. elegans and mosquitoes fed carbon nanotubes, gold nanospheres, gold nanoshells, or magnetic nanoparticles at laser energies that are safe for humans. In addition, a photoacoustic (PA) effect was used to control nanoparticle delivery. Through the integration of this technique with molecular targeting, nanoparticle clustering, magnetic capturing and spectral sharpening of PA and PT plasmonic resonances, our laser-based PA-PT nano-theranostic platform can be applied to detection and the physical destruction of small organisms and carriers of pathogens, such as malaria vectors, spiders, bed bugs, fleas, ants, locusts, grasshoppers, phytophagous mites, or other arthropod pests, irrespective of their resistance to conventional treatments. PMID:23450780

Foster, Stephen R; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Totten, Daniel C; Bene, Helen; Shmookler Reis, Robert J; Zharov, Vladimir P

2014-07-01

272

THE KILLING OF CERTAIN BACTERIA BY X-RAYS  

PubMed Central

Both copper K X-rays and the soft general radiation from a tungsten tube operated at 12 KV kill B. coli and B. aertryke in a linearly exponential fashion. Within the experimental limits, the two organisms appear to be equally sensitive to these radiations. By making use of the fact that X-ray energy is absorbed in quanta, an approximate picture can be formed of the mechanism of this destructive action. If the average numbers of quanta (?) absorbed per bacterium per second are calculated from measurements of air ionization using the quantities outlined in the text, survival ratios for these bacilli can be approximately represented by the equations See PDF for Equation for filtered copper rays and See PDF for Equation for unfiltered copper rays (peak voltage = 34 KV). In terms of the foregoing interpretation this means that when death results, it is caused by the absorption of a single X-ray quantum of energy. Since only about one in twenty of the absorbed quanta kills, the sensitive cell constituents whose destruction leads to cell death must have a volume which is less than 0.06 of the bacterium itself. PMID:19869776

Wyckoff, Ralph W. G.

1930-01-01

273

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans biofilm killing by a targeted ciprofloxacin prodrug  

PubMed Central

A pH-sensitive ciprofloxacin prodrug was synthesized and targeted against biofilms of the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa). The dose required to reduce the viability of a mature biofilm of Aa by ~80% was in the range of ng cm?2 of colonized area (mean biofilm density 2.33 x109 cells cm?2). A mathematical model was formulated that predicts the temporal change in the concentration of ciprofloxacin in the Aa biofilm as the drug is released and diffuses into the bulk medium. The predictions of the model were consistent with the extent of killing obtained. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the strategy to induce mortality, and together with the mathematical model, provide the basis for design of targeted antimicrobial prodrugs for the topical treatment of oral infections such as periodontitis. The targeted prodrug approach offers the possibility of optimizing the dose of available antimicrobials in order to kill a chosen pathogen while leaving the commensal microbiota relatively undisturbed. PMID:23952779

Reeves, Benjamin D.; Young, Mark; Grieco, Paul A.; Suci, Peter

2013-01-01

274

Relationship between hyperthermic cell killing and protein denaturation by alcohols  

SciTech Connect

The monohydric alcohols methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and tert.-butanol dramatically sensitize V79 Chinese hamster lung cells to hyperthermia. for concentrations less than 3% alcohol by weignt, the rate of cell inactivation (k) appears to vary exponentially as a function of alcohol concentration. The degree of sensitization increases with increasing chain length, and for a constant concentration the ratio of the k's is 1:1.3:1.8:3.1 for methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and t-butanol, respectively. Mono-, di-, and trihydric alcohols have similar effects upon the rate of protein denaturation. Membrane lipid fluidity of V79 cells was determined from 23 to 63/sup 0/C by measuring the rotational correlation time of the spin label 2,2-dimethyl-5-dodecyl-5-methyloxazolidine-N-oxide (2N14). A straight line was found for the Arrhenius plot of tau/sub c/, with an activation energy of 4.82 +- 0.07 kcal/mole. From the Arrhenius plot of the rate of cell killing from 42.0 to 46.8/sup 0/C, the enthalpy (..delta..H) and entropy (..delta..S) of activation were found to be 146 +- 9 kcal/mole and 388 cal/mole K, respectively. These values are consistent with protein denaturation (or possibly the denaturation of some other macromolecule) being the rate-limiting step in hyperthermic cell killing.

Massicotte-Nolan, P.; Glofcheski, D.J.; Kruuv, J.; Lepock, J.R.

1981-08-01

275

Viscoelastic Muds---Top-Kill in Rapidly Flowing Wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attempted "top-kill" of the blown out Macondo (Deepwater Horizon) oil well by pumping a dense drilling "mud", i.e./, a slurry of dense minerals, from above failed. This failure may be attributed to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the gravity driven counterflow between the descending "mud" and the rapidly upwelling crude oil. The instability produced turbulence that dispersed the denser fluid into small packets (if miscible with the oil) or droplets (if immiscible). Estimates from turbulence theory imply that the packets or droplets are so small (sub-mm) that their settling speed in the oil is less than the upwelling speed, with the consequence that the "mud" is spat out of the well, as observed, rather than descending to fill the bottom of the well bore and providing the hdyrodstatic head required to "kill" the well. The addition of a shear-thickening or viscoelastic polymer to the "mud" may suppress the turbulence and prevent its dispersal. Laboratory experiments with viscoelastic surrogate "muds" show complete turbulence suppression at the relevant speeds, with the viscoelastic fluid descending as a coherent slug. These experiments find several new phenomena. At high flow rates there is a viscoelastic analogue of the viscous buckling instability. At low flow rates suppression of the Plateau-Rayleigh instability combined with the dependence of viscous flow rate on diameter leads to the formation of globules on a looping filament.

Katz, Jonathan

2011-04-01

276

Physical process first law for bifurcate Killing horizons  

SciTech Connect

The physical process version of the first law for black holes states that the passage of energy and angular momentum through the horizon results in a change in area ({kappa}/8{pi}){delta}A={delta}E-{omega}{delta}J, so long as this passage is quasistationary. A similar physical process first law can be derived for any bifurcate Killing horizon in any spacetime dimension d{>=}3 using much the same argument. However, to make this law nontrivial, one must show that sufficiently quasistationary processes do in fact occur. In particular, one must show that processes exist for which the shear and expansion remain small, and in which no new generators are added to the horizon. Thorne, MacDonald, and Price considered related issues when an object falls across a d=4 black hole horizon. By generalizing their argument to arbitrary d{>=}3 and to any bifurcate Killing horizon, we derive a condition under which these effects are controlled and the first law applies. In particular, by providing a nontrivial first law for Rindler horizons, our work completes the parallel between the mechanics of such horizons and those of black holes for d{>=}3. We also comment on the situation for d=2.

Amsel, Aaron J.; Marolf, Donald; Virmani, Amitabh [Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2008-01-15

277

The unstructured domain of colicin N kills Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Bacteria often produce toxins which kill competing bacteria. Colicins, produced by and toxic to Escherichia coli bacteria are three-domain proteins so efficient that one molecule can kill a cell. The C-terminal domain carries the lethal activity and the central domain is required for surface receptor binding. The N-terminal domain, required for translocation across the outer membrane, is always intrinsically unstructured. It has always been assumed therefore that the C-terminal cytotoxic domain is required for the bactericidal activity. Here we report the unexpected finding that in isolation, the 90-residue unstructured N-terminal domain of colicin N is cytotoxic. Furthermore it causes ion leakage from cells but, unlike known antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with this property, shows no membrane binding behaviour. Finally, its activity remains strictly dependent upon the same receptor proteins (OmpF and TolA) used by full-length colicin N. This mechanism of rapid membrane disruption, via receptor mediated binding of a soluble peptide, may reveal a new target for the development of highly specific antibacterials. PMID:23672584

Johnson, Christopher L; Ridley, Helen; Pengelly, Robert J; Salleh, Mohd Zulkifli; Lakey, Jeremy H

2013-01-01

278

in the Inclusions in Si-Mn-killed Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic equilibria between CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2-MgO(-MnO) slag and Fe-1.5 mass pct Mn-0.5 mass pct Si-0.5 mass pct Cr melt was investigated at 1873 K (1600 癈) in order to understand the effect of slag composition on the concentration of Al2O3 in the inclusions in Si-Mn-killed steels. The composition of the inclusions were mainly equal to (mol pct MnO)/(mol pct SiO2) = 0.8(0.06) with Al2O3 content that was increased from about 10 to 40 mol pct by increasing the basicity of slag (CaO/SiO2 ratio) from about 0.7 to 2.1. The concentration ratio of the inclusion components, , and the activity ratio of the steel components, , showed a good linear relationship on a logarithmic scale, indicating that the activity coefficient ratio of the inclusion components, , was not significantly changed. From the slag-steel-inclusion multiphase equilibria, the concentration of Al2O3 in the inclusions was expressed as a linear function of the activity ratio of the slag components, on a logarithmic scale. Consequently, a compositional window of the slag for obtaining inclusions with a low liquidus temperature in the Si-Mn-killed steel treated in an alumina ladle is recommended.

Park, Jun Seok; Park, Joo Hyun

2014-06-01

279

Surplus killing by introduced predators in Australia梕vidence for ineffective anti-predator adaptations in native prey species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian examples of surplus killing by mammalian predators were collated. These included surplus killing of native mammals and birds by foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and stock, native mammals and native birds by dingoes (Canis lupus dingo). We found no examples of surplus killing by feral cats (Felis catus). Incidents collated include historical anecdotes of surplus killing by foxes as they colonised

Jeff Short; J. E. Kinnear; Alan Robley

2002-01-01

280

Mars manned transportation vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Faymon, Karl A.

1987-01-01

281

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

282

Introduction to Electrified Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint presentation was delivered by Anthony Tisler from the Michigan Academy for Green Mobility Alliance (MAGMA) at the Utica Community Schools Professional Development Day for Teachers in the Industrial Arts/Engineering Pathway, held at the Instructional Resource Center in Sterling Heights, MI on April 15, 2014. The presentation provides information on electric vehicle architecture and components. It is a great tool for introducing students at the high school or college level to various battery electric vehicle (BEV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) components, configurations, and operation.

Michigan Academy for Green Mobility Alliance (MAGMA)

283

Blast resistant vehicle seat  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

Ripley, Edward B

2013-02-12

284

Human and Mouse Macrophages Collaborate with Neutrophils To Kill Larval Strongyloides stercoralis  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are multifunctional cells that are active in TH1- and TH2-mediated responses. In this study, we demonstrate that human and mouse macrophages collaborate with neutrophils and complement to kill the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis in vitro. Infection of mice with worms resulted in the induction of alternatively activated macrophages (AAM?) within the peritoneal cavity. These cells killed the worms in vivo and collaborated with neutrophils and complement during the in vitro killing process. AAM? generated in vitro killed larvae more rapidly than naive macrophages, which killed larvae after a longer time period. In contrast, classically activated macrophages were unable to kill larvae either in vitro or in vivo. This study adds macrophages to the armamentarium of immune components that function in elimination of parasitic helminths and demonstrate a novel function by which AAM? control large extracellular parasites. PMID:23798541

Bonne-Ann閑, Sandra; Kerepesi, Laura A.; Hess, Jessica A.; O'Connell, Amy E.; Lok, James B.; Nolan, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

285

A Rainich-like approach to the Killing-Yano tensors  

E-print Network

The Rainich problem for the Killing-Yano tensors posed by Collinson \\cite{col} is solved. In intermediate steps, we first obtain the necessary and sufficient conditions for a 2+2 almost-product structure to determine the principal 2--planes of a skew-symmetric Killing-Yano tensor and then we give the additional conditions on a symmetric Killing tensor for it to be the square of a Killing-Yano tensor.We also analyze a similar problem for the conformal Killing-Yano and the conformal Killing tensors. Our results show that, in both cases, the principal 2--planes define a maxwellian structure. The associated Maxwell fields are obtained and we outline how this approach is of interest in studying the spacetimes that admit these kind of first integrals of the geodesic equation.

J. J. Ferrando; J. A. S醗z

2003-01-17

286

The impact of reported direct and indirect killing on mental health symptoms in Iraq war veterans.  

PubMed

This study examined the mental health impact of reported direct and indirect killing among 2,797 U.S. soldiers returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom. Data were collected as part of a postdeployment screening program at a large Army medical facility. Overall, 40% of soldiers reported killing or being responsible for killing during their deployment. Even after controlling for combat exposure, killing was a significant predictor of posttraumatic disorder (PTSD) symptoms, alcohol abuse, anger, and relationship problems. Military personnel returning from modern deployments are at risk of adverse mental health conditions and related psychosocial functioning related to killing in war. Mental health assessment and treatment should address reactions to killing to optimize readjustment following deployment. PMID:20104592

Maguen, Shira; Lucenko, Barbara A; Reger, Mark A; Gahm, Gregory A; Litz, Brett T; Seal, Karen H; Knight, Sara J; Marmar, Charles R

2010-02-01

287

Design Criteria for Low Risk Re-Entry Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper shows how a sharp vehicle with low wing loading, is able to follow re-entry trajectories with low thermal risks by using Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) to thermally protect the vehicle front edges. These reusable materials can withstand the global radiative equilibrium temperatures that are experienced during reentry characterized by a longer and a more gradual conversion of the kinetic and potential energy of the vehicle into thermal energy. A number of aerothermodynamic problems are addressed to assess the feasibility of the vehicle design and of the thermal protection of the payload. In particular, the boundary layer thermal protection concept is illustrated to show how a UHTC massive tip edges (fuselage and wings) are able to protect also the remaining vehicle structure made of conventional material, promoting a revolutionary approach to the Thermal Protection System (TPS) configuration for hypersonic vehicle flying at small angle of attack. CFD results and engineering formulations are adopted for the computation of the aerodynamic coefficients and heat fluxes. The analysis identifies the design criteria for a conventional looking vehicle for a crew return from LEO (e.g. from the International Space Station).

Monti, R.; Pezzella, G.

2005-02-01

288

Relating fish kills to upwellings and wind patterns in the Salton Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the extreme eutrophication of the Salton Sea has been associated with massive fish kills and associated bird\\u000a kills. Analysis of the magnitude and direction of high wind events indicates that major fish kills are preceded by strong\\u000a and persistent wind events, with a 24-h accumulated wind magnitude above a critical threshold of approximately 90爉\\/s. Twelve\\u000a of the

B. Marti-Cardona; T. E. Steissberg; S. G. Schladow; S. J. Hook

2008-01-01

289

The culpability of drivers killed in New Zealand road crashes and their use of alcohol and other drugs.  

PubMed

Over a period of five years, blood samples were taken from 1046 drivers killed as a result of a motor vehicle crash on New Zealand roads. These were analysed for the presence of alcohol and a range of both illicit drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs. Driver culpability was determined for all crashes. The control group of drug- and alcohol-free drivers comprised 52.2% of the study population. Drivers positive for psychoactive drugs were more likely to be culpable (odds ratio (OR) 3.5, confidence interval (CI) 95% 2.4-5.2) than the control group. Driver culpability exhibited the expected positive association with alcohol use (OR 13.7, 95% CI 4.3-44) and with combined alcohol and cannabis use (OR 6.9, 95% CI 3.0-16). There was only a weak positive association between cannabis use (with no other drug) and culpability (OR 1.3, CI 95% 0.8-2.3). Furthermore, the OR for drivers with blood tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations greater than 5 ng/mL was lower (OR 1.0, CI 95% 0.4-2.4) than drivers with blood THC concentrations less than 2 ng/mL (OR 3.1, CI 95% 0.9-10). This is inconsistent with results reported by other studies where a significant increase in crash risk was found with blood THC levels greater than 5 ng/mL. In this study, there were very few drivers who had used a single drug, other than cannabis or alcohol. Therefore, from this study, it is not possible to comment on any relationship between opioid, stimulant or sedative drug use and an increased risk of being killed in a crash for the drivers using these drugs. The results from a multivariate analysis indicate that driver gender, age group and licence status, (P=0.022, P=0.016, P=0.026, respectively), the type of vehicle being driven (P=0.013), the number of vehicles in the crash (P<0.001), the blood alcohol concentration of the driver (P<0.001) and the use of any drug other than alcohol and cannabis (P=0.044), are all independently associated with culpability. PMID:24636874

Poulsen, Helen; Moar, Rosemary; Pirie, Ruth

2014-06-01

290

Potential and kinetic energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between potential and kinetic energy? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to kinetic and potential energy. The law of conservation of energy is explained, using the example of turning natural gas into electricity. Definitions and examples of potential energy and kinetic energy are provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

291

First integrals of motion in a gauge covariant framework, Killing-Maxwell system and quantum anomalies  

SciTech Connect

Hidden symmetries in a covariant Hamiltonian framework are investigated. The special role of the Stackel-Killing and Killing-Yano tensors is pointed out. The covariant phase-space is extended to include external gauge fields and scalar potentials. We investigate the possibility for a higher-order symmetry to survive when the electromagnetic interactions are taken into account. Aconcrete realization of this possibility is given by the Killing-Maxwell system. The classical conserved quantities do not generally transfer to the quantized systems producing quantum gravitational anomalies. As a rule the conformal extension of the Killing vectors and tensors does not produce symmetry operators for the Klein-Gordon operator.

Visinescu, M., E-mail: mvisin@theory.nipne.ro [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Department of Theoretical Physics (Romania)

2012-10-15

292

Development of directional capabilities to an ultradeep water dynamic kill simulator and simulations runs  

E-print Network

.2 COMASim As previously mentioned no simulator has been designed to model ultra-deepwater blowouts, dynamic kills and dual density models. Several simulators have been developed that simulate blowouts and dynamic kills. These simulators include OLGA...- WELL-KILL, DynX, Sidekick, and one developed by Otto Santos for Petrobras. 17 OLGA-WELL-KILL is a state-of-the-art Norwegian simulator, not available for use in the industry and is not specifically built for ultra-deepwater. 18 Dyn...

Meier, Hector Ulysses

2005-11-01

293

Monitoring CO2 Emissions in Tree-Kill Areas near the  

E-print Network

-5038 #12;COVER Dead trees and thermal ground at Basalt Canyon, Long Valley Caldera, California. (USGS .............................................................................................................................................................5 Basalt Canyon Tree Kills, Soil Temperatures, and CO2 Emissions

294

Electric Vehicles 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation was developed by a member of MIT抯 electric vehicle team and provides a basic overview of electric and hybrid electric vehicle (EV and HEV) history, operation, challenges, and advantages. Discussed is EV/HEV history dating from 1830- 2010, the operation of EV/HEV systems (networking and sourcing of power throughout components), challenges (ranges, energy equivalence, consumer acceptance, charge time, grid integration, and cost), advantages (energy efficiency, fuel cost, and emissions), meeting challenges (convenient charging and improving technology), EV/HEV vehicles today (Chevrolet Volt, Tesla Roadster, and Fisker Karma), and MIT抯 electric vehicle team (projects, awards, and competitions). For more info on the MIT team visit http://web.mit.edu/evt/.

2013-06-25

295

Remotely Operated Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from the Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) Center, learn how some students are putting to work both technical skills as well as soft skills, such as teamwork and problem solving, in creating underwater remotely operated vehicles.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-10-25

296

Motor Vehicle Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

297

Aerodynamics of Small Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review we describe the aerodynamic problems that must be addressed in order to design a successful small aerial vehicle. The effects of Reynolds number and aspect ratio (AR) on the design and performance of fixed-wing vehicles are described. The boundary-layer behavior on airfoils is especially important in the design of vehicles in this flight regime. The results of a number of experimental boundary-layer studies, including the influence of laminar separation bubbles, are discussed. Several examples of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in this regime are described. Also, a brief survey of analytical models for oscillating and flapping-wing propulsion is presented. These range from the earliest examples where quasi-steady, attached flow is assumed, to those that account for the unsteady shed vortex wake as well as flow separation and aeroelastic behavior of a flapping wing. Experiments that complemented the analysis and led to the design of a successful ornithopter are also described.

Mueller, Thomas J.

298

Constellation Launch Vehicles Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the current status of the launch vehicles associated with the Constellation Program. These are the Ares I and the Ares V. An overview of the Ares launch vehicles is included. The presentation stresses that the major criteria for the Ares I launcher is the safety of the crew, and the presentation reviews the various features that are designed to assure that aim. The Ares I vehicle is being built on a foundation of proven technologies, and the Ares V will give NASA unprecedented performance and payload volume that can enable a range of future missions. The CDs contain videos of scenes from various activities surrounding the design, construction and testing of the vehicles.

Cook, Steve; Fragola, Joseph R.; Priskos, Alex; Davis, Danny; Kaynard, Mike; Hutt, John; Davis, Stephan; Creech, Steve

2009-01-01

299

Could giant basin-forming impacts have killed Martian dynamo?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed strong remanent crustal magnetization at the surface of Mars suggests an active dynamo in the past and ceased to exist around early to middle Noachian era, estimated by examining remagnetization strengths in extant and buried impact basins. We investigate whether the Martian dynamo could have been killed by these large basin-forming impacts, via numerical simulation of subcritical dynamos with impact-induced thermal heterogeneity across the core-mantle boundary. We find that subcritical dynamos are prone to the impacts centered on locations within 30 of the equator but can easily survive those at higher latitudes. Our results further suggest that magnetic timing places a strong constraint on postimpact polar reorientation, e.g., a minimum 16 polar reorientation is needed if Utopia is the dynamo killer.

Kuang, W.; Jiang, W.; Roberts, J.; Frey, H. V.

2014-11-01

300

Development of Al-killed/Ti stabilized steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several Al-killed/Ti-stabilized low carbon steels were developed in a Mexican steel industry with the aim of obtaining an interstitial free steel for automotive applications. The steelmaking route involved the use of 100% sponge iron which was feed into an electric arc furnace, vacuum degassed, ladle treated and continuously casted. The resulting slabs were then hot rolled at 1100 癈 and coiled at 650 癈. Then, the steel plates were cold rolled at room temperature and sheets annealed at 700 癈. As-cast micro structure showed the presence of ?-ferrite with titanium nitrides in matrix and grain boundaries while in the ashot rolled condition, elongated grains showed the presence of titanium nitrides, titanium sulfides and titanium carbosulfides. The annealed sheets showed, additionally to the other precipitates, the presence of titanium carbides. Microstructure, texture, the Lankford ratio and mechanical properties of fully recrystallized coils fulfilled the target properties established by the automobile industry.

Ramirez-Ledesma, A. L.; Aguilar-Mendez, M. A.; Rodriguez-Diaz, R. A.; >G Aramburo,

2015-01-01

301

Bacteria can mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes  

PubMed Central

In their natural habitat, bacteria are consumed by bacterivorous nematodes; however, they are not simply passive preys. Here we report a defensive mechanism used by certain bacteria to mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes. These bacteria release urea, which triggers a lifestyle switch in the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora from saprophytic to nematode杙redatory form; this predacious form is characterized by formation of specialized cellular structures or 憈raps. The bacteria significantly promote the elimination of nematodes by A. oligospora. Disruption of genes involved in urea transport and metabolism in A. oligospora abolishes the urea-induced trap formation. Furthermore, the urea metabolite ammonia functions as a signal molecule in the fungus to initiate the lifestyle switch to form trap structures. Our findings highlight the importance of multiple predator杙rey interactions in prey defense mechanisms. PMID:25514608

Wang, Xin; Li, Guo-Hong; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Ji, Xing-Lai; Liu, Tong; Zhao, Pei-Ji; Liang, Lian-Ming; Xu, Jian-Ping; An, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Xi; Qin, Yue-Ke; Tian, Meng-Qing; Xu, You-Yao; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yu, Ze-Fen; Huang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Qun; Niu, Xue-Mei; Yang, Jin-Kui; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Ke-Qin

2014-01-01

302

Bacteria can mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes.  

PubMed

In their natural habitat, bacteria are consumed by bacterivorous nematodes; however, they are not simply passive preys. Here we report a defensive mechanism used by certain bacteria to mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes. These bacteria release urea, which triggers a lifestyle switch in the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora from saprophytic to nematode-predatory form; this predacious form is characterized by formation of specialized cellular structures or 'traps'. The bacteria significantly promote the elimination of nematodes by A. oligospora. Disruption of genes involved in urea transport and metabolism in A. oligospora abolishes the urea-induced trap formation. Furthermore, the urea metabolite ammonia functions as a signal molecule in the fungus to initiate the lifestyle switch to form trap structures. Our findings highlight the importance of multiple predator-prey interactions in prey defense mechanisms. PMID:25514608

Wang, Xin; Li, Guo-Hong; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Ji, Xing-Lai; Liu, Tong; Zhao, Pei-Ji; Liang, Lian-Ming; Xu, Jian-Ping; An, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Xi; Qin, Yue-Ke; Tian, Meng-Qing; Xu, You-Yao; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yu, Ze-Fen; Huang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Qun; Niu, Xue-Mei; Yang, Jin-Kui; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Ke-Qin

2014-01-01

303

Eat, kill or die: when amoeba meets bacteria.  

PubMed

The core function of the innate immune response, phagocytosis, did not evolve first in metazoans but rather in primitive unicellular eukaryotes. Thus, though amoebae separated from the tree leading to metazoan shortly after the divergence of plants, they share many specific functions with mammalian phagocytic cells. Dictyostelium discoideum is by far the most studied amoeba, and it is proving useful to analyze phagocytosis and intracellular killing of bacteria. Since the basic mechanisms involved appear extremely conserved, Dictyostelium provides novel insights into the function of many new gene products. Bacterial pathogenicity was certainly largely developed to resist predatory amoebae in the environment, and this accounts for the fact that a large number of bacterial virulence traits can be studied using Dictyostelium as a host. This provides a particularly powerful system to analyze the complex interactions between pathogenic bacteria and host cells, where both the Dictyostelium host and the bacteria can be manipulated genetically with relative ease. PMID:18550419

Cosson, Pierre; Soldati, Thierry

2008-06-01

304

Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: with a view to a kill.  

PubMed

Drugs that kill or inhibit the sexual stages of Plasmodium in order to prevent transmission are important components of malaria control programmes. Reducing gametocyte carriage is central to the control of Plasmodium falciparum transmission as infection can result in extended periods of gametocytaemia. Unfortunately the number of drugs with activity against gametocytes is limited. Primaquine is currently the only licensed drug with activity against the sexual stages of malaria parasites and its use is hampered by safety concerns. This shortcoming is likely the result of the technical challenges associated with gametocyte studies together with the focus of previous drug discovery campaigns on asexual parasite stages. However recent emphasis on malaria eradication has resulted in an upsurge of interest in identifying compounds with activity against gametocytes. This review examines the gametocytocidal properties of currently available drugs as well as those in the development pipeline and examines the prospects for discovery of new anti-gametocyte compounds. PMID:23953486

Butterworth, Alice S; Skinner-Adams, Tina S; Gardiner, Don L; Trenholme, Katharine R

2013-12-01

305

Launch Vehicle Operations Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Saturn Launch Vehicle Operations Simulator (LVOS) was developed for NASA at Kennedy Space Center. LVOS simulates the Saturn launch vehicle and its ground support equipment. The simulator was intended primarily to be used as a launch crew trainer but it is also being used for test procedure and software validation. A NASA/contractor team of engineers and programmers implemented the simulator after the Apollo XI lunar landing during the low activity periods between launches.

Blackledge, J. W.

1974-01-01

306

Launch Vehicle Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) planning for updated launch vehicle operations progresses, there is a need to consider improved methods. This study considers the use of phased array antennas mounted on launch vehicles and transmitting data to either NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) satellites or to the commercial Iridium, Intelsat, or Inmarsat communications satellites. Different data rate requirements are analyzed to determine size and weight of resulting antennas.

Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

2005-01-01

307

An evaluation of Sex-Age-Kill (SAK) model performance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and ?? > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when ?? < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ??121.9 of the true population level 95 of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when ?? ??? 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

Millspaugh, J.J.; Skalski, J.R.; Townsend, R.L.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Boyce, M.S.; Hansen, L.P.; Kammermeyer, K.

2009-01-01

308

Upgraded demonstration vehicle task report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vehicle/battery performance capabilities and interface problems that occurred when upgraded developmental batteries were integrated with upgraded versions of comercially available electric vehicles were investigated. Developmental batteries used included nickel zinc batteries, a nickel iron battery, and an improved lead acid battery. Testing of the electric vehicles and upgraded batteries was performed in the complete vehicle system environment to characterize performance and identify problems unique to the vehicle/battery system. Constant speed tests and driving schedule range tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer. The results from these tests of the upgraded batteries and vehicles were compared to performance capabilities for the same vehicles equipped with standard batteries.

Bryant, J.; Hardy, K.; Livingston, R.; Sandberg, J.

1981-01-01

309

Fire vehicle hardening  

SciTech Connect

After attack, the wartime fire fighter faces a harsh environment in which he must operate to perform his mission. Debris, unexploded bombs, and munitions pose hazards that must be overcome. Without modification to the fire-fighting vehicles, there is little assurance that the fire fighter would even be able to reach the locations necessary for performing his mission. Adding armor to the vehicle to protect both the operator and the vehicle from these hazards is the proposed solution. Through a study performed by the BDM Corporation under a subcontract to Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., the recommended types, thicknesses, and locations of material necessary to allow the P-19 crash-rescue fire vehicle to survive, with 95% probability, 100 random events using the NATO Standard Fragment Threat Criteria was determined. Using this information, a preliminary design for a prototype hardening kit for the P-19 was developed. In conjunction with this effort, a P-19 was modified by installing attachment points, and mock-up armor was fabricated and fitted to the vehicle to refine the design. The kit design consisted of (1) various mild steel panels that varied in thickness from 0.125 to 0.375 in., (2) Lexan panels for areas that had to be transparent, (3) flexible Kevlar 49 for areas requiring flexibility, and (4) foam-filled tires. The factors considered in the design were the effects on the vehicle, fragment-stopping ability, weight, cost, ability to fabricate, and ease of installation. 40 figs.

Horner, L.G.

1988-11-01

310

Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J. H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

2013-09-01

311

The kill date as a management tool for cover cropping success.  

PubMed

Integrating cover crops (CC) in rotations provides multiple ecological services, but it must be ensured that management does not increase pre-emptive competition with the subsequent crop. This experiment was conducted to study the effect of kill date on: (i) CC growth and N content; (ii) the chemical composition of residues; (iii) soil inorganic N and potentially mineralizable N; and (iv) soil water content. Treatments were fallow and a CC mixture of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and vetch (Vicia sativa L.) sown in October and killed on two different dates in spring. Above-ground biomass and chemical composition of CC were determined at harvest, and ground cover was monitored based on digital image analysis. Soil mineral N was determined before sowing and after killing the CC, and potentially mineralizable N was measured by aerobic incubation at the end of the experiment. Soil water content was monitored daily to a depth of 1.1 m using capacitance sensors. Under the present conditions of high N availability, delaying kill date increased barley above-ground biomass and N uptake from deep soil layers; little differences were observed in vetch. Postponing kill date increased the C/N ratio and the fiber content of plant residues. Ground cover reached >80% by the first kill date (?1250癈 days). Kill date was a means to control soil inorganic N by balancing the N retained in the residue and soil, and showed promise for mitigating N losses. The early kill date decreased the risk of water and N pre-emptive competition by reducing soil depletion, preserving rain harvested between kill dates and allowing more time for N release in spring. The soil potentially mineralizable N was enhanced by the CC and kill date delay. Therefore kill date is a crucial management variable for maximizing the CC benefits in agricultural systems. PMID:25296333

Alonso-Ayuso, Mar韆; Gabriel, Jos Luis; Quemada, Miguel

2014-01-01

312

Vehicle Repair Policy Outline the policy regarding vehicle repair on University of Michigan (U-M) vehicles.  

E-print Network

Vehicle Repair Policy Objective Outline the policy regarding vehicle repair on University of Michigan (U-M) vehicles. Policy 1. All vehicle repairs performed on U-M vehicles must be coordinated facility to repair their fleet vehicles. 2. U-M vehicles leased through Fleet Services include routine

Kirschner, Denise

313

Effect of staphylococcal iron content on the killing of Staphylococcus aureus by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

Preincubation of Staphylococcus aureus 502A in broth with increasing concentrations of ferrous sulfate progressively increased their iron content, markedly increased their susceptibility to killing by hydrogen peroxide, and did not alter their susceptibility to killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. PMID:7216492

Repine, J E; Fox, R B; Berger, E M; Harada, R N

1981-01-01

314

Mothers Who Kill Their Offspring: Testing Evolutionary Hypothesis in a 110-Case Italian Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This research aimed to identify incidents of mothers in Italy killing their own children and to test an adaptive evolutionary hypothesis to explain their occurrence. Methods: 110 cases of mothers killing 123 of their own offspring from 1976 to 2010 were analyzed. Each case was classified using 13 dichotomic variables. Descriptive

Camperio Ciani, Andrea S.; Fontanesi, Lilybeth

2012-01-01

315

Killing technique of North American badgers preying on Richardson's ground squirrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcasses of 13 Richardson's ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) cached during autumn by North American badgers (Taxidea taxus) in southern Alberta, Canada, were inspected to determine the capture and killing technique. Regardless of prey size (251-651 g) or torpor status (normothermic or torpid), badgers killed ground squir - rels with a single grasping bite directed dorsally or laterally to the thorax.

Gail R. Michener; Andrew N. Iwaniuk

2001-01-01

316

Resource dispersion and consumer dominance: scavenging at wolf-and hunter-killed carcasses  

E-print Network

REPORT Resource dispersion and consumer dominance: scavenging at wolf- and hunter-killed carcasses (Canis lupus) and human hunters both provide resource subsidies to scavengers by provisioning them consumed by each scavenger species at both wolf and hunter kills over 4 years. Species with large feeding

Getz, Wayne M.

317

Assessing the influence of preypredator ratio, prey age structure and packs size on wolf kill rates  

E-print Network

structure and prey-to-predator ratio differed. Per capita kill rates of wolves preying on moose in SCA, kill rates tended to be higher when calves comprised a greater portion of wolves' diet (p0.05). Our et al. 2002). The predatory behavior of wolves Canis lupus also suggests that age structure

318

The Effect of Vine Kill and Harvest Date on Tuber Respiration Rates and Tuber Sugars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Russet Burbank potatoes were grown using standard procedures for planting, fertilization, irrigation, and pest management. Vine kill and harvest occurred on three staggered dates that spanned approximately six weeks. Vines were either killed chemically or left untreated and ubers were harvested from...

319

Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins Kill Bacteria by Inducing Oxidative, Thiol, and Metal Stress  

PubMed Central

Mammalian Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins (PGRPs) are a family of evolutionary conserved bactericidal innate immunity proteins, but the mechanism through which they kill bacteria is unclear. We previously proposed that PGRPs are bactericidal due to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a mechanism of killing that was also postulated, and later refuted, for several bactericidal antibiotics. Here, using whole genome expression arrays, qRT-PCR, and biochemical tests we show that in both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis PGRPs induce a transcriptomic signature characteristic of oxidative stress, as well as correlated biochemical changes. However, induction of ROS was required, but not sufficient for PGRP killing. PGRPs also induced depletion of intracellular thiols and increased cytosolic concentrations of zinc and copper, as evidenced by transcriptome changes and supported by direct measurements. Depletion of thiols and elevated concentrations of metals were also required, but by themselves not sufficient, for bacterial killing. Chemical treatment studies demonstrated that efficient bacterial killing can be recapitulated only by the simultaneous addition of agents leading to production of ROS, depletion of thiols, and elevation of intracellular metal concentrations. These results identify a novel mechanism of bacterial killing by innate immunity proteins, which depends on synergistic effect of oxidative, thiol, and metal stress and differs from bacterial killing by antibiotics. These results offer potential targets for developing new antibacterial agents that would kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:25032698

Kashyap, Des Raj; Rompca, Annemarie; Gaballa, Ahmed; Helmann, John D.; Chan, Jefferson; Chang, Christopher J.; Hozo, Iztok; Gupta, Dipika; Dziarski, Roman

2014-01-01

320

PEER REVIEWED FIBER SUPPLY Beetle-killed spruce utilization in the Kenai peninsula  

E-print Network

PEER REVIEWED 路 FIBER SUPPLY Beetle-killed spruce utilization in the Kenai peninsula GARY M. SCOTT, DAVID W. BORMETT, NANCY ROSS SUTHERLAND, SAID ABUBAKR. AND EINI LOWELL Application: Beetle-killed spruce resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai peninsula in Alaska, with white spruce

Abubakr, Said

321

Brown bears selectively kill salmon with higher energy content but only in habitats that facilitate choice  

E-print Network

Brown bears selectively kill salmon with higher energy content but only in habitats that facilitate., Quinn, T. P., Hilborn, R., Hendry, A. P. and Dickerson, B. 2004. Brown bears selectively kill salmon% more protein than at their senescent death a week or two later. Foraging brown and black bears

Hendry, Andrew

322

Bax/Bak action in mitochondria. These agents release Ca2+ themselves and kill  

E-print Network

67 Bax/Bak action in mitochondria. These agents release Ca2+ themselves and kill more efficiently or Bak in mitochondria, and both ER Ca2+ and Bax/Bak levels mod- ulate their killing potency. The Bax and Bax/Bak indeed coregulate ER Ca2+. The Scorrano et al. study defines a new role for the ER-mitochondria

Latham, Peter

323

Topics in Representation Theory: The Killing Form, Reflections and Classification of Root  

E-print Network

Topics in Representation Theory: The Killing Form, Reflections and Classification of Root Systems 1 Roots and the Killing Form So far we have just used the combinatorial structure coming from the roots restrict it to tC and use the fact that for H tC, ad(H) is diagonal with eigenvalues given by the roots i

Woit, Peter

324

Issue of zeroth law for Killing horizons in Lanczos-Lovelock gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the zeroth law for Killing horizons in Lanczos-Lovelock gravity. We show that the surface gravity of a general Killing horizon in Lanczos-Lovelock gravity (except for general relativity) may not be constant even when the matter source satisfies the dominant energy condition.

Sarkar, Sudipta; Bhattacharya, Swastik

2013-02-01

325

Antimicrobial properties of the Escherichia coli R1 plasmid host killing peptide  

E-print Network

Antimicrobial properties of the Escherichia coli R1 plasmid host killing peptide Douglas C. Pecota peptide; Antimicrobial; Post-segregational killing 1. Introduction The evolution of highly, 2000). Peptide antimicrobials are one new source of antibiotics; they range from 5 to 50 amino acids

Wood, Thomas K.

326

Distributed Propulsion Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

Kim, Hyun Dae

2010-01-01

327

Apparatus for stopping a vehicle  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for externally controlling one or more brakes on a vehicle having a pressurized fluid braking system. The apparatus can include a pressurizable vessel that is adapted for fluid-tight coupling to the braking system. Impact to the rear of the vehicle by a pursuit vehicle, shooting a target mounted on the vehicle or sending a signal from a remote control can all result in the fluid pressures in the braking system of the vehicle being modified so that the vehicle is stopped and rendered temporarily inoperable. A control device can also be provided in the driver's compartment of the vehicle for similarly rendering the vehicle inoperable. A driver or hijacker of the vehicle preferably cannot overcome the stopping action from the driver's compartment.

Wattenburg, Willard H. (Walnut Creek, CA); McCallen, David B. (Livermore, CA)

2007-03-20

328

Retrofiting survivability of military vehicles  

SciTech Connect

In Iraq the terrain was such that vehicles could be distributed horizontally, which reduced the effectiveness of mines. In the mountainous terrain of Pakistan and Afghanistan vehicles are forced to use the few, passable roads, which are dirt and easily seeded with plentiful, cheap, intelligent mines. It is desirable to reduce the losses to such mines, preferably by retrofit means that do not greatly increase weight or cost or reduce maneuverability. V-bottom vehicles - A known approach to reducing vulnerability is the Buffalo, a large vehicle developed by South Africa to address mine warfare. It has large tires, high axles, and a reinforced, v-shaped bottom that deflects the blast from explosions below. It is developed and tested in combat, but is expensive and has reduced off-road mobility. The domestic MRAP has similar cost and mobility issue. The addition of v-shaped blast deflectors to vehicles such as Humvees could act much as the deflector on a Buffalo, but a Humvee is closer to the ground, so the explosive's expansion would be reduced. The deflector would also reduce a Humvee's clearance for rough terrain, and a deflector of adequate thickness to address the blast by itself could further increase cost and reduce mobility. Reactive armor is developed and has proven effective against shaped and explosive charges from side or top attack. It detects their approach, detonates, and defeats them by interfering with jet formation. If the threat was a shaped charge from below, they would be a logical choice. But the bulk of the damage to Humvees appears to be from the blast from high explosive mines for which the colliding shock from reactive armor could increase that from the explosive. Porous materials such as sand can strongly attenuate the kinetic energy and pressure of a strong shock. Figure 1 shows the kinetic energy (KE), momentum (Mu), velocity (u), and mass (M) of a spherically expanding shock as functions of radius for a material with a porosity of 0.5. Over the range from 0.5 to 4.5 cm the shock KE is attenuated by a factor of {approx}70, while its momentum is changed little. The shock and particle velocity falls by a factor of 200 while the mass increases by a factor of 730. In the limit of very porous media u {approx} 1/M, so KE {approx} 1/M, which falls by a factor of {approx}600, while momentum Mu does not change at all. Figure 2 shows the KE, Mu, u, and M for a material with a porosity of 1.05, for which the KE changes little. In the limit of media of very low porosity, u {approx} 1/{radical}M, so KE is constant while Mu {approx} {radical}M, which increases by a factor of 15. Thus, if the goal is to reduce the peak pressure from strong explosions below, very porous materials, which strongly reduce pressure but do not increase momentum, are preferred to non-porous materials, which amplify momentum but do not decrease pressure. These predictions are in qualitative accord with the results of experiments at Los Alamos in which projectiles from high velocity, large caliber cannons were stopped by one to two sandbags. The studies were performed primarily to determine the effectiveness of sand in stopping fragments of various sizes, but could be extended to study sand's effectiveness in attenuating blast pressure. It would also be useful to test the above predictions on the effectiveness of media with higher porosity. Water barriers have been discussed but not deployed in previous retrofit survivability studies for overseas embassies. They would detect the flash from the mine detonation below, trigger a thin layer of explosive above a layer of water, and drive water droplets into the approaching blast wave. The blast loses energy in evaporating the droplets and loses momentum in slowing them. Under favorable conditions that could attenuate the pressure in the blast enough to prevent the penetration or disruption of the vehicle. However, such barriers would depend on prompt and reliable detonation detection and water droplet dispersal, which have not been tested. There is a large literature on the theoretical effec

Canavan, Gregory H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

329

The impact of killing in war on mental health symptoms and related functioning.  

PubMed

This study examined the mental health and functional consequences associated with killing combatants and noncombatants. Using the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) survey data, the authors reported the percentage of male Vietnam theater veterans (N = 1200) who killed an enemy combatant, civilian, and/or prisoner of war. They next examined the relationship between killing in war and a number of mental health and functional outcomes using the clinical interview subsample of the NVVRS (n = 259). Controlling for demographic variables and exposure to general combat experiences, the authors found that killing was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, dissociation, functional impairment, and violent behaviors. Experiences of killing in war are important to address in the evaluation and treatment of veterans. PMID:19842160

Maguen, Shira; Metzler, Thomas J; Litz, Brett T; Seal, Karen H; Knight, Sara J; Marmar, Charles R

2009-10-01

330

Higher-degree Dirac Currents of Twistor and Killing Spinors in Supergravity Theories  

E-print Network

We show that higher degree Dirac currents of twistor and Killing spinors correspond to the hidden symmetries of the background spacetime which are generalizations of conformal Killing and Killing vector fields respectively. They are the generalizations of 1-form Dirac currents to higher degrees which are used in constructing the bosonic supercharges in supergravity theories. In the case of Killing spinors, we find that the equations satisfied by the higher degree Dirac currents are related to Yang-Mills-like and Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equations. Correspondence between the Dirac currents and harmonic forms for parallel and pure spinor cases is determined. We also analyze the supergravity twistor and Killing spinor cases in 10 and 11-dimensional supergravity theories and find that although different inner product classes induce different involutions on spinors, the higher degree Dirac currents still correspond to the hidden symmetries of the spacetime.

A?k, 謟g黵

2015-01-01

331

Effect of electrical stun/kill method, interval between killing and neck cutting and blood vessels cut on blood loss and meat quality in broilers.  

PubMed

1. Broiler chickens were killed using either an electrical waterbath (WB system) delivering 120 mA per bird (50 Hz, alternating current, AC) for 4 s or an alternative stun/kill method (ASK system); where head-only stunning for 1 s was immediately followed by head-to-body (vent) application for 1 s (150 mA, 50 Hz sine wave AC). Within each stun/kill system, the neck was cut ventrally or unilaterally 20, 60, or 180 s after killing. In addition, a control group of broilers was stunned with 100 mA per bird in a waterbath using 1500 Hz AC for 4 s and were bled by a ventral neck cut within 20 s. 2. Blood leaving the neck cut was collected for 90 s in a bin placed on an electronic balance and blood loss (g/kg body weight) calculated. 3. Individually identified, unplucked and uneviscerated carcases were held at ambient temperature until the end of the experimental day and then stored overnight in an air chiller (5 degrees C). The carcases were dissected and the incidence of broken furculum and coracoid bones, haemorrhaging in P. minor and P. major muscles, and discolouration of P. major muscles were determined. 4. When neck cutting was performed in broilers 20 s after the stun or kill, the ASK and WB systems, in comparison with high frequency stunning, produced on average about 10 g per kg less bleed out. Within the stun/kill systems, broilers killed by ASK had a greater bleed out than in the WB system. Neck cutting at 20 s or 60 s post-kill resulted in a greater bleed out than when performed after a delay of 180 s. Ventral or unilateral neck cutting resulted in a similar bleed out. 5. Stunning broilers with 1500 Hz AC resulted in lower incidences of broken bones, haemorrhaging in breast muscles and muscle discolouration post mortem than the stun/kill systems. These defects were significantly lower in the ASK than in the WB system. Delayed neck cutting increased the severity of discolouration occurring Post mortem in the breast muscles. 6. It is suggested that broilers killed by ASK can be neck cut with a delay of up to 180 s without compromising bleed out. The incidence of broken bones and haemorrhaging in breast muscles are significantly less with ASK than WB. 7. Owing to the commercial benefits and potential for improved welfare at slaughter, ASK would appear to be a better method than WB. PMID:11337968

Raj, A B; Wilkins, L J; O'Callaghan, M; Phillips, A J

2001-03-01

332

LENR Powered Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

Abstract Current electric vehicles (EV) and fuel cell vehicles (FCEV) suffer from several limitations that prevent them from becoming a true commercial success. When available, kilowatt class LENR generators combined with modern thermoelectric conversion technology could enable designing new type of automobiles, being low cost, maintenance free and zero emission at the same time. In the present talk, we will discuss what are to current limitations of electric vehicles and battery technology, how LENR technology can propose an alternative to large battery storage on EV, what are the available compact solutions for energy harvesting and thermoelectric conversion from LENR thermal energy, what are the longer term design alternatives and finally what is the expected timeline to develop prototypes and commercial products.

Nicolas Chauvin

333

Personnel emergency carrier vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A personnel emergency carrier vehicle is disclosed which includes a vehicle frame supported on steerable front wheels and driven rear wheels. A supply of breathing air is connected to quick connect face mask coupling and umbilical cord couplings for supplying breathing air to an injured worker or attendant either with or without a self-contained atmospheric protection suit for protection against hazardous gases at an accident site. A non-sparking hydraulic motion is utilized to drive the vehicle and suitable direction and throttling controls are provided for controlling the delivery of a hydraulic driving fluid from a pressurized hydraulic fluid accumulator. A steering axis is steerable through a handle to steer the front wheels through a linkage assembly.

Owens, Lester J. (inventor); Fedor, Otto H. (inventor)

1987-01-01

334

High speed electric vehicle  

SciTech Connect

The Formula Lighting is an exciting new addition to GMI Engineering and Management Institute. This project is an excellent opportunity for students to use their acquired skills in a real life application. The vehicle is slated to compete in several races around the country. These events offer students the exposure to high caliber competitions in engineering design, combined with the thrill of racing. The Formula Lightning is an electric vehicle. Most of the challenging design tasks lie within the drive train setup and battery system efficiency. Part of the battery system efficiency includes a quick and reliable exchange technique of battery packs under race conditions. The vehicle is designed and built by GMI students, except for the chassis. This project allows students from all fields of engineering to gain experience in mechanical and electrical design as well as project management.

Nasa, K.; Tavakoli, M.; Thompson, M.; Jordan, C. [GMI Engineering and Management Inst., Flint, MI (United States)

1997-12-31

335

Aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle which includes an aerobraking device which also serves as a heat shield in the shape of a raked-off elliptic or circular cone with a circular or elliptical base, and with an ellipsoid or other blunt shape nose. The aerobraking device is fitted with a toroid-like skirt and is integral with the support structure of the propulsion system and other systems of the space vehicle. The vehicle is intended to be transported in components to a space station in lower earth orbit where it is assembled for use as a transportation system from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit and return. Conventional guidance means are included for autonomous flight.

Scott, Carl D. (Inventor); Nagy, Kornel (Inventor); Roberts, Barney B. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Kroll, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Gamble, Joe (Inventor)

1989-01-01

336

Comparisons of boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) pheromone traps with and without kill strips.  

PubMed

Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), eradication programs typically equip pheromone traps with an insecticide-impregnated kill strip. These strips are intended to kill captured insects, thereby simplifying trap servicing and reducing the loss of weevils from predation and escape. However, the effectiveness of kill strips has not been extensively evaluated. We examined the influences of kill strips on weevil captures, trap servicing, and the incidences of weevil predation and trap obstruction (e.g., by spider webs). Evaluations were conducted weekly during three different production periods (pre- to early-, late-, and postseason) of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., to represent different environmental conditions and weevil population levels. Within each period, mean weekly captures of weevils in traps with and without kill strips were statistically similar. On average, traps with kill strips took 9 s longer to service than traps without kill strips, but statistical differences were only detected during the late-season period. Overall, the mean weekly proportion of traps with evidence of weevil predation or trap obstruction was significantly lower for traps with kill strips (0.25) than for traps without kill strips (0.37). However, this reduction in the frequency of weevil predation or trap obstruction was too small to produce a corresponding increase in the numbers of weevils captured. In light of these findings, the use of kill strips is likely unnecessary in eradication programs, but may be a consideration in situations when the numbers of deployed traps are reduced and chronic problems with weevil predation or trap obstruction exist. PMID:19253635

Suh, C P C; Armstrong, J S; Spurgeon, D W; Duke, S

2009-02-01

337

Distinct mechanisms of cell-kill by triapine and its terminally dimethylated derivative Dp44mT due to a loss or gain of activity of their copper(II) complexes.  

PubMed

Triapine, currently being evaluated as an antitumor agent in phase II clinical trials, and its terminally dimethylated derivative Dp44mT share the ?-pyridyl thiosemicarbazone backbone that functions as ligands for transition metal ions. Yet, Dp44mT is approximately 100-fold more potent than triapine in cytotoxicity assays. The aims of this study were to elucidate the mechanisms underlying their potency disparity and to determine their kinetics of cell-kill in culture to aid in the formulation of their clinical dosing schedules. The addition of Cu(2+) inactivated triapine in a 1:1 stoichiometric fashion, while it potentiated the cytotoxicity of Dp44mT. Clonogenic assays after finite-time drug-exposure revealed that triapine produced cell-kill in two phases, one completed within 20 min that caused limited cell-kill, and the other occurring after 16 h of exposure that produced extensive cell-kill. The ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor triapine at 0.4 ?M caused immediate complete arrest of DNA synthesis, whereas Dp44mT at this concentration did not appreciably inhibit DNA synthesis. The inhibition of DNA synthesis by triapine was reversible upon its removal from the medium. Cell death after 16 h exposure to triapine paralleled the appearance of phospho-(?)H2AX, a marker of DNA double-strand breaks induced by collapse of DNA replication forks after prolonged replication arrest. In contrast to triapine, Dp44mT produced robust cell-kill within 1h in a concentration-dependent manner. The short-term action of both agents was prevented by thiols, indicative of the involvement of reactive oxygen species. The time dependency in the production of cell-kill by triapine should be considered in treatment regimens. PMID:25130544

Ishiguro, Kimiko; Lin, Z Ping; Penketh, Philip G; Shyam, Krishnamurthy; Zhu, Rui; Baumann, Raymond P; Zhu, Yong-Lian; Sartorelli, Alan C; Rutherford, Thomas J; Ratner, Elena S

2014-10-01

338

Aeroacoustics of Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While for airplanes the subject of aeroacoustics is associated with community noise, for space vehicles it is associated with vibro-acoustics and structural dynamics. Surface pressure fluctuations encountered during launch and travel through lower part of the atmosphere create intense vibro-acoustics environment for the payload, electronics, navigational equipment, and a large number of subsystems. All of these components have to be designed and tested for flight-certification. This presentation will cover all three major sources encountered in manned and unmanned space vehicles: launch acoustics, ascent acoustics and abort acoustics. Launch pads employ elaborate acoustic suppression systems to mitigate the ignition pressure waves and rocket plume generated noise during the early part of the liftoff. Recently we have used large microphone arrays to identify the noise sources during liftoff and found that the standard model by Eldred and Jones (NASA SP-8072) to be grossly inadequate. As the vehicle speeds up and reaches transonic speed in relatively denser part of the atmosphere, various shock waves and flow separation events create unsteady pressure fluctuations that can lead to high vibration environment, and occasional coupling with the structural modes, which may lead to buffet. Examples of wind tunnel tests and computational simulations to optimize the outer mold line to quantify and reduce the surface pressure fluctuations will be presented. Finally, a manned space vehicle needs to be designed for crew safety during malfunctioning of the primary rocket vehicle. This brings the subject of acoustic environment during abort. For NASAs Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), abort will be performed by lighting rocket motors atop the crew module. The severe aeroacoustics environments during various abort scenarios were measured for the first time by using hot helium to simulate rocket plumes in the Ames unitary plan wind tunnels. Various considerations used for the helium simulation and the final confirmation from a flight test will be presented.

Panda, Jayanta

2014-01-01

339

Vehicle brake testing system  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a force measuring system capable of measuring forces associated with vehicle braking and of evaluating braking performance. The disclosure concerns an invention which comprises a first row of linearly aligned plates, a force bearing surface extending beneath and beside the plates, vertically oriented links and horizontally oriented links connecting each plate to a force bearing surface, a force measuring device in each link, a transducer coupled to each force measuring device, and a computing device coupled to receive an output signal from the transducer indicative of measured force in each force measuring device. The present invention may be used for testing vehicle brake systems.

Stevens, Samuel S. (Harriman, TN); Hodgson, Jeffrey W. (Lenoir City, TN)

2002-11-19

340

VCU researchers develop and test new molecule as a delivery vehicle to image and kill brain tumors:  

Cancer.gov

A single compound with dual function the ability to deliver a diagnostic and therapeutic agent may one day be used to enhance the diagnosis, imaging and treatment of brain tumors, according to findings from Virginia Commonwealth University and Virginia Tech.

341

The driver of a sports utility vehicle that overturned last April, killing a Virginia Tech freshman, was con-  

E-print Network

, was con- victed Monday of reckless driving. Jeffrey Stoudt, a sophomore psychology major at Tech in whole- sale value." Virginia tree growers and sell- ers are fearing the worst, said Rick Dungey of the National Christmas Tree Association. "This has got so many consum- ers scared to death," he said. "It

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

342

Gauss-Bonnet Boson Stars with a Single Killing Vector  

E-print Network

We construct asymptotically anti-de Sitter boson stars in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity coupled to a $\\frac{D-1}{2}$-tuplet of complex massless scalar fields both perturbatively and numerically in D=5,7,9,11 dimensions. These solutions possess just a single helical Killing symmetry due to the choice of scalar fields. The energy density at the centre of the star characterizes the solutions, and for each choice of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling $\\alpha$ we obtain a one parameter family of solutions. All solutions respect the first law of thermodynamics; in the numerical case to within 1 part in $10^6$. We describe the dependence of the angular velocity, mass, and angular momentum of the boson stars on $\\alpha$ and on the dimensionality. For D>5, these quantities exhibit damped oscillations about finite central values as the central energy density tends to infinity, where the amplitude of oscillation increases nonlinearly with $\\alpha$. In the limit of diverging central energy density, the Kretschmann invariant at the centre of the boson star also diverges. This is in contrast to the D=5 case, where the Kretschmann invariant diverges at a finite value of the central energy density.

Laura J. Henderson; Robert B. Mann; Sean Stotyn

2014-03-07

343

Killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae protects against lethal challenge of Cryptococcus grubii.  

PubMed

Heat-killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae (HKY) vaccination protects mice against aspergillosis, coccidioidomycosis, mucormycosis, or candidiasis. We studied HKY protection against murine cryptococcosis. Once weekly subcutaneous HKY doses (S, 6 10(7); 2S, 1.2 10(8); 3S, 2.4 10(8)) began 28 (3), 35 (4), or 42 (6) days prior to intravenous Cryptococcus grubii infection. Survival through 28 days, and CFU in the organs of survivors, were compared to saline-vaccinated controls. In the initial experiment, S, S4, or 2S reduced brain CFU; liver or spleen CFU was reduced by S4 or 2S. In a more lethal second experiment, 2S6, 2S, or 3S4 improved survival, and HKY regimens reduced CFU in the brain, liver, or spleen, with 2S6, 2S, or 3S4 most efficacious. Dose size appears more important than the number of doses: Regimens >S were superior, and 2S and 2S6 were equivalent. 2S and 3S were equivalent, suggesting doses >2S do not provide additional protection. HKY protects against Cryptococcus, supporting components of HKY as a basis for the development of a panfungal vaccine. PMID:25118873

Majumder, Tanya; Liu, Min; Chen, Vicky; Martinez, Marife; Alvarado, Danielle; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A

2014-10-01

344

Contact killing antimicrobial acrylic bone cements: preparation and characterization.  

PubMed

Novel antimicrobial poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based bone cement was synthesized by co-polymerizing PMMA/MMA with various percentages of quaternary amine dimethacrylate (QADMA) by free radical bulk polymerization technique at room temperature using benzoyl peroxide and N,N-dimethyl-p-toulidine (DMPT) as a redox initiator. The modified bone cement was characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectral studies. The thermal and physical properties of the bone cements of varying composition of QADMA were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential calorimetry (DSC) and contact angle measurements. Peak exothermic temperature was observed to decrease, while setting time increased with increase in QADMA content in the bone cement formulations. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized bone cement containing quaternary amine dimethacrylate against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was studied by zone of inhibition, colony count method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). QADMA containing acrylic bone cement showed a broad spectrum of contact killing antimicrobial properties. Retention of E. coli onto the surface of PMMA bone cement was observed, whereas there was complete prevention of retention of E. coli onto the modified PMMA bone cement with 15% QADMA. The studies were compared with the acrylic bone cement synthesized using 15% N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) in place of QADMA to which iodine was added as an antimicrobial agent during co-polymerization. PMID:17323849

Punyani, Supriya; Deb, Sanjukta; Singh, Harpal

2007-01-01

345

Imaging type VI secretion-mediated bacterial killing.  

PubMed

In the environment, bacteria compete with each other for nutrient availability or to extend their ecological niche. The type VI secretion system contributes to bacterial competition by the translocation of antibacterial effectors from predators into prey cells. The T6SS assembles a dynamic structure-the sheath-wrapped around a tube constituted of the Hcp protein. It has been proposed that by cycling between extended and contracted conformations the sheath acts as a crossbow to propel the Hcp tube toward the target cell. While the sheath dynamics have been studied in monocultures, the activity of the T6SS has not been recorded in presence of the prey. Here, time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of cocultures demonstrates that prey cells are killed upon contact with predator cells. Additional experiments provide evidence that sheath contraction correlates with nearby cell fading and that prey lysis occurs within minutes after sheath contraction. The results support a model in which T6SS dynamics are responsible for T6SS effectors translocation into recipient cells. PMID:23291094

Brunet, Yannick R; Espinosa, Leon; Harchouni, Seddik; Mignot, T鈓; Cascales, Eric

2013-01-31

346

Gauss-Bonnet boson stars with a single Killing vector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct asymptotically anti-de Sitter boson stars in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity coupled to a D/-1 2 -tuplet of complex massless scalar fields both perturbatively and numerically in D =5 ,7 ,9 ,11 dimensions. These solutions possess just a single helical Killing symmetry due to the choice of scalar fields. The energy density at the center of the star characterizes the solutions, and for each choice of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling ? we obtain a one parameter family of solutions. All solutions respect the first law of thermodynamics, in the numerical case to within 1 part in 1 06. We describe the dependence of the angular velocity, mass, and angular momentum of the boson stars on ? and on the dimensionality. For D ?7 these quantities reach maximum values and then decrease to eventually approach finite values as the central energy density tends to infinity. In the limit of diverging central energy density, the Kretschmann invariant at the center of the boson star also diverges. This is in contrast to the D =5 case, where the Kretschmann invariant diverges at a finite value of the central energy density.

Henderson, Laura J.; Mann, Robert B.; Stotyn, Sean

2015-01-01

347

A rare case of serial killing by poisoning.  

PubMed

A case of serial killing by poisoning by a 59-year-old practical nurse is discussed. Following a report by an emergency-room doctor of an attempted murder, police performed an investigation into all deaths of patients in the nurse's care. Earlier, a medico-legal cause-of-death investigation had been performed on two of these cadavers, but in the other three cases the death certificate had been issued after a medical investigation only. In two of these latter cases, the body had been cremated, but fixed histological samples taken at medical autopsy were available, while in one case the person had died recently and the body was thereafter exhumed and autopsied. All of the suspected victims were older people who required nursing, and the nurse's course of action was consistent in all cases. In the absence of ordinary post-mortem toxicology samples in the medical cases, extraordinary evidence--paraffin-embedded liver tissue samples originally taken for histology at autopsy--was successfully recovered in two cases and analyzed for drugs. In all five cases, drugs not prescribed to the patient were detected, including digoxin, dixyrazine, citalopram, venlafaxine, and benzodiazepines (diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, temazepam, and oxazepam). The nurse was eventually found guilty of five murders by poisoning, five attempted murders, and three aggravated assaults. The nurse was sentenced to life imprisonment. PMID:23613335

Vuori, Erkki; Pelander, Anna; Rasanen, Ilpo; Juote, Mikko; Ojanper, Ilkka

2013-01-01

348

Nanotechnology for the detection and kill of circulating tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represent a surrogate biomarker of hematogenous metastases and thus could be considered as a 憀iquid biopsy which reveals metastasis in action. But it is absolutely a challenge to detect CTCs due to their extreme rarity. At present, the most common principle is to take advantage of the epithelial surface markers of CTCs which attach to a specific antibody. Antibody-magnetic nanobeads combine with the epithelial surface markers, and then the compound is processed by washing, separation, and detection. However, a proportion of CTC antigen expressions are down-regulated or lost in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus, this part of CTCs cannot be detected by classical detection methods such as CellSearch. To resolve this problem, some multiple-marker CTC detections have been developed rapidly. Additionally, nanotechnology is a promising approach to kill CTCs with high efficiency. Implantable nanotubes coated with apoptosis-promoting molecules improve the disease-free survival and overall survival. The review introduces some novel CTC detection techniques and therapeutic methods by virtue of nanotechnology to provide a better knowledge of the progress about CTC study. PMID:25258614

2014-01-01

349

Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison  

SciTech Connect

All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

1997-12-31

350

50 CFR 21.42 - Authority to issue depredating orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. 21.42 Section 21.42 ...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. Upon the receipt of evidence clearly showing that migratory game birds have accumulated in such...

2010-10-01

351

50 CFR 21.42 - Authority to issue depredating orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. 21.42 Section 21.42 ...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. Upon the receipt of evidence clearly showing that migratory game birds have accumulated in such...

2012-10-01

352

50 CFR 21.42 - Authority to issue depredating orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. 21.42 Section 21.42 ...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. Upon the receipt of evidence clearly showing that migratory game birds have accumulated in such...

2011-10-01

353

50 CFR 21.42 - Authority to issue depredating orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. 21.42 Section 21.42 ...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. Upon the receipt of evidence clearly showing that migratory game birds have accumulated in such...

2013-10-01

354

50 CFR 21.42 - Authority to issue depredating orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds.  

...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. 21.42 Section 21.42 ...orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds. Upon the receipt of evidence clearly showing that migratory game birds have accumulated in such...

2014-10-01

355

Mars Exploratory Vehicles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students learn about the characteristics of the planet Mars. Challenges students to design and build a model of a robotic vehicle that can travel on the surface of Mars and accomplish an assigned task that will provide information useful for future manned trips to the planet. Outlines mission task cards and progress

Canizo, Thea L.; And Others

1997-01-01

356

Vehicle tracking systems  

SciTech Connect

Several systems have been developed to accomplish vehicle location. The systems consist of three types: Dead Reckoning, Satellite, and LORAN C. If the information is to be sent back to a central location, some type of radiocommunication system is needed. One can use the existing voice radio or add a radio system just for transmitting the data.

Schwalm, R.W.

1987-01-01

357

Cryogenic powered vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic powered vehicle is disclosed which utilizes liquid nitrogen contained in a storage tank or tanks and communicated with a plurality of expansion assemblies through a one-way flow valve with the pressurized expanded gas being discharged to atmosphere through a turbine structure which is drivingly connected to the driving wheels of a vehicle through a suitable transmission and other conventional drive components. The expansion assemblies include heat exchange devices in the form of serpentine tubes having heat exchange fins thereon with one of the expansion assemblies being in the form of a heat exchange coil associated with the air conditioning system of an automobile or the load cooling system of a load carrying vehicle. One of the expansion assemblies is located adjacent the inlet of a turbine and is in the form of a master expander coil to discharge pressurized gas into a rotary vane type turbine to produce a rotational output that is drivingly connected to the drive train of a vehicle.

Boese, H.L.

1981-10-13

358

Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

Viterna, Larry A.

1997-01-01

359

Heavy Vehicle Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heavy Vehicle (HV) systems are a necessary component of achieving OHVT goals. Elements are in place for a far-ranging program: short, intermediate, and long-term. Solicitation will bring industrial input and support. Future funding trend is positive, outlook for HV systems is good.

Sid Diamond; Richard Wares; Jules Routbort

2000-04-11

360

Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) identifies gases that are present in minute quantities in the International Space Station (ISS) breathing air that could harm the crew s health. If successful, instruments like VCAM could accompany crewmembers during long-duration exploration missions to the Moon or traveling to Mars.

Chutjian, Ara; Darrach, Muray

2007-01-01

361

Small reentry vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and potential applications of a small modular unguided reentry vehicle (SMURV) being developed for ESA are discussed. The first studies of the SMURV concept in the Spacemail program (for transporting small payloads from the Space Shuttle to earth) are recalled; the steps in a typical Spacemail operation are listed and briefly characterized; and the smaller version of SMURV

K. J. Sudmeijer

1987-01-01

362

Diesel Vehicle Maintenance Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide a model set of competencies, this manual presents tasks which were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary diesel vehicle maintenance curriculum. The tasks are divided into seven major component areas of instruction: chassis and suspension, diesel engines, diesel fuel, electrical,

Braswell, Robert; And Others

363

Lunar Roving Vehicle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will construct a model of a lunar roving vehicle. This activity is in Unit 2 of the Exploring the Moon teachers guide, which is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

364

Recreational Vehicle Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and

Felice, Michael

365

All-terrain vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an all-terrain vehicle comprising: a chassis; four road wheel axles equally spaced along the chassis; suspension means mounting the axles on the chassis; wheels mounted adjacent both ends of each of the axles, the wheels on the foremost and the rearmost axles being steerably mounted; propulsion and driving means including a single internal combustion engine and gearbox,

Somerton-Rayner

1986-01-01

366

Vehicle suspension apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vehicle suspension apparatus is described comprising: suspension units each provided for each wheel and each having an air spring chamber; a reservoir tank for storing compressed air to be supplied through an air supply valve to the air spring chambers of the suspension units; exhausting means for exhausting compressed air from the air spring chambers of the suspension units

M. Tatemoto; N. Kumagai; H. Abe; S. Takizawa; T. Tanaka; S. Chikamori; M. Harara; Y. Taniguchi; M. Suzumura

1987-01-01

367

Suspension for vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suspension is described for a vehicle comprising: a shock absorber capable of adjusting the damping force for damping vibration given from a wheel; a bushing interposed between the shock absorber and a car body and capable of adjusting the spring constant and damping force; an air spring capable of adjusting the spring constant for damping the vibration given from

Buma

1987-01-01

368

Introduction to LNG vehicle safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic information on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is assembled to provide an overview of safety issues and practices for the use of LNG vehicles. This document is intended for those planning or considering the use of LNG vehicles, including vehicle fleet owners and operators, public transit officials and boards, local fire and safety officials, manufacturers and distributors, and gas industry officials. Safety issues and mitigation measures that should be considered for candidate LNG vehicle projects are addressed.

Bratvold, Delma; Friedman, David; Chernoff, Harry; Farkhondehpay, Dariush; Comay, Claudia

1994-03-01

369

Bacteriocinlike killing action of a temperate bacteriophage phiBA1 of Bacillus aneurinolyticus.  

PubMed Central

A new temperate phage, phiBA1, was isolated from Bacillus aneurinolyticus, phiBA1 had an icosahedral head with a diameter of about 70 nm and a tail about 20 nm long and contained a circularly permuted, linear duplex DNA of about 38 x 106 daltons. This phage showed two activities: bacteriocin-like killing activity against five strains of B. aneurinolyticus and normal temperate phage activity against three other strains. phiBA1 killed sensitive cells by a single-hit process. After adsorption of phiBA1 to cells sensitive to killing, the content of intracellular ATP increased for the first 5 min and then gradually decreased. Phage DNA injected into the cell immediately after infection was degraded rapidly. Killing was also caused by heavily UV-irradiated phiBA1. Killing-resistant mutants showed normal adsorption of phiBA1 and normal injection of the DNA with its instantaneous restriction. Our results indicate that the killing action of phiBA1 is different from the phenomenon of abortive infection and suggest that the killing might be caused by a proteinaceous component of phiBA1. Images PMID:3086568

Ito, S; Nishimune, T; Abe, M; Kimoto, M; Hayashi, R

1986-01-01

370

40 CFR 1066.810 - Vehicle preparation.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 1066.810 Section...CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures for Motor Vehicles 1066.810 Vehicle...

2014-07-01

371

VEHICLE OPERATING PROCEDURES DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE  

E-print Network

VEHICLE OPERATING PROCEDURES DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE GENERAL INFORMATION Vehicles resposniblity and disciplinary action. Vehicles may be used by faculty or staff from other departments complete the vehicle usage agreement form certifying that they have a valid driver's license

Ronquist, Fredrik

372

22 CFR 121.4 - Ground vehicles.  

...2) Are armored support vehicles capable of off-road or amphibious use specially...Ground vehicles include any vehicle meeting the definitions...surface (e.g., highway, off-road, rail) upon which the vehicle is designed to...

2014-04-01

373

Fuel gauges for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuel gauge in a conventional vehicle translates into a state of charge (SOC) meter for an electric vehicle. To obtain the maximum possible range from an electric vehicle, while at the same time assuring completion of a trip, the specifications for a SOC meter will be stringent. This precludes direct adoption of currently existing devices. This paper analyzes currently

1982-01-01

374

Hybrid electric sport utility vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drive-train hybridization improves the fuel economy and emissions of vehicles. This is the concept of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Application of this concept in sport utility vehicles (SUVs), which consume more fuel as compared to passenger cars, will positively have a great impact. However, dynamic performances such as acceleration and gradeability also are of great importance in SUVs. Therefore, the

Jason M. Tyrus; Ryan M. Long; Marina Kramskaya; Yuriy Fertman; Ali Emadi

2004-01-01

375

Vehicle Operation and Parking Policy  

E-print Network

Vehicle Operation and Parking Policy Responsible Administrative Unit: Finance & Administration in this policy. 2.0 POLICY STATEMENT This policy is intended to promote safe driving by operators of all vehicles are in effect at all times and apply to all persons and vehicles physically present on the CSM campus

376

Vehicle Operation and Parking Policy  

E-print Network

Vehicle Operation and Parking Policy Responsible Administrative Unit: Finance & Administration STATEMENT This policy is intended to promote safe driving by operators of all vehicles utilizing streets and apply to all persons and vehicles physically present on the CSM campus. For the purpose of this policy

377

Detection and classification of vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents algorithms for vision-based detection and cl assification of vehicles in monocular image sequences of traffi c scenes recorded by a stationary camera. Processing is done at three levels: raw images, region level and vehicle level. Vehicle s are modeled as rectangular patches with certain dynamic behavior. The proposed method is based on the establishment of correspondences between

Surendra Gupte; Osama Masoud; Robert F. K. Martin; Nikolaos P. Papanikolopoulos

2002-01-01

378

Vehicle Management Driver Safety Program  

E-print Network

Vehicle Management and Driver Safety Program Manual Facilities & Operations / Finance & Administration Version 2 April 2012 #12;漏 2012 University of Alberta. #12;The Vehicle Management and Driver of employment. Driver Acknowledgement I have received the University of Alberta, Vehicle Management and Driver

Machel, Hans

379

VEHICLE NETWORKS: ACHIEVING REGULAR FORMATION  

E-print Network

VEHICLE NETWORKS: ACHIEVING REGULAR FORMATION MADALENA CHAVES, ROBERT DAY, LUCIA GOMEZ a network of vehicles exchanging information among themselves with the intention of achieving a specified the performance of the vehicle network. A stochastic model for information flow is also considered, allowing

380

Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.

Harlow, Caroline Wolf

381

Knowledge Navigation for Virtual Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A virtual vehicle is a digital model of the knowledge surrounding a potentially real vehicle. Knowledge consists not only of the tangible information, such as CAD, but also what is known about the knowledge - its metadata. This paper is an overview of technologies relevant to building a virtual vehicle, and an assessment of how to bring those technologies together.

Gomez, Julian E.

2004-01-01

382

Payload vehicle aerodynamic reentry analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for analyzing the dynamic behavior of a cone-cylinder payload vehicle during reentry to insure proper deployment of the parachute system and recovery of the payload is presented. This analysis includes the study of an aerodynamic device that is useful in extending vehicle axial rotation through the maximum dynamic pressure region. Attention is given to vehicle configuration and reentry

Donald Tong

1991-01-01

383

Emergency-vehicle VHF antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helical VHF antenna mounts on roof of moving vehicle to communicate with distant stations via earth satellites. Antenna requires no pointing and can provide two-way communication while vehicle moves at high speed. Device has proved extremely successful in electrocardiogram transmission tests between medical services vehicle and hospital emergency room.

Anderson, R. E.; Carlson, A. W.; Lewis, J.

1977-01-01

384

Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy to Kill Gram-negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a new promising strategy to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms such as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The search for new approaches that can kill bacteria but do not induce the appearance of undesired drug-resistant strains suggests that PDT may have advantages over traditional antibiotic therapy. PDT is a non-thermal photochemical reaction that involves the simultaneous presence of visible light, oxygen and a dye or photosensitizer (PS). Several PS have been studied for their ability to bind to bacteria and efficiently generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon photostimulation. ROS are formed through type I or II mechanisms and may inactivate several classes of microbial cells including Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are typically characterized by an impermeable outer cell membrane that contains endotoxins and blocks antibiotics, dyes, and detergents, protecting the sensitive inner membrane and cell wall. This review covers significant peer-reviewed articles together with US and World patents that were filed within the past few years and that relate to the eradication of Gram-negative bacteria via PDI or PDT. It is organized mainly according to the nature of the PS involved and includes natural or synthetic food dyes; cationic dyes such as methylene blue and toluidine blue; tetrapyrrole derivatives such as phthalocyanines, chlorins, porphyrins, chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll derivatives; functionalized fullerenes; nanoparticles combined with different PS; other formulations designed to target PS to bacteria; photoactive materials and surfaces; conjugates between PS and polycationic polymers or antibodies; and permeabilizing agents such as EDTA, PMNP and CaCl2. The present review also covers the different laboratory animal models normally used to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections with antimicrobial PDT. PMID:23550545

Sperandio, Felipe F; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R

2013-01-01

385

Intelligent behaviors through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decade has seen a significant increase in intelligent safety devices on private automobiles. These devices have both increased and augmented the situational awareness of the driver and in some cases provided automated vehicle responses. To date almost all intelligent safety devices have relied on data directly perceived by the vehicle. This constraint has a direct impact on the types of solutions available to the vehicle. In an effort to improve the safety options available to a vehicle, numerous research laboratories and government agencies are investing time and resources into connecting vehicles to each other and to infrastructure-based devices. This work details several efforts in both the commercial vehicle and the private auto industries to increase vehicle safety and driver situational awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. It will specifically discuss intelligent behaviors being designed to automatically disable non-compliant vehicles, warn tractor trailer vehicles of unsafe lane maneuvers such as lane changes, passing, and merging, and alert drivers to non-line-of-sight emergencies.

Garcia, Richard D.; Sturgeon, Purser; Brown, Mike

2012-06-01

386

Electric Vehicle History Online Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is self-proclaimed as the "first online archive created to encourage electric vehicle enthusiasts to help preserve the recent history of electric vehicles." A wide variety of information is presented, ranging from performance data and historical policy documents to retrospective articles and amusing forecasts of electric vehicle technology from decades past. The operators of the archive encourage electric vehicle drivers and enthusiasts to contribute anything they might have to the archive. The only shortcoming of the site is the very small number of historical electric vehicle photos, but this problem can be remedied by more submissions.

Kirsch, David A.

387

Payload vehicle aerodynamic reentry analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach for analyzing the dynamic behavior of a cone-cylinder payload vehicle during reentry to insure proper deployment of the parachute system and recovery of the payload is presented. This analysis includes the study of an aerodynamic device that is useful in extending vehicle axial rotation through the maximum dynamic pressure region. Attention is given to vehicle configuration and reentry trajectory, the derivation of pitch static aerodynamics, the derivation of the pitch damping coefficient, pitching moment modeling, aerodynamic roll device modeling, and payload vehicle reentry dynamics. It is shown that the vehicle dynamics at parachute deployment are well within the design limit of the recovery system, thus ensuring successful payload recovery.

Tong, Donald

388

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

Mara, L.M.

1998-05-05

389

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01

390

Small reentry vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and potential applications of a small modular unguided reentry vehicle (SMURV) being developed for ESA are discussed. The first studies of the SMURV concept in the Spacemail program (for transporting small payloads from the Space Shuttle to earth) are recalled; the steps in a typical Spacemail operation are listed and briefly characterized; and the smaller version of SMURV (40 kg instead of 120 kg) developed for a Space Station Spacemail project (requiring 1000-1500 SMURVs) is described. This SMURV configuration comprises a detachable propulsion module and a reentry module (containing the parachute system and the recovery module). Consideration is given to a SMURV-type vehicle to return microgravity processing samples from the ESA Interim Flight Opportunity spacecraft, the technological challenges posed by SMURV design, and SMURV applications to the Comet Nucleus Sample Return and Cassini Titan Lander missions. Diagrams and drawings are provided.

Sudmeijer, K. J.

1987-12-01

391

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2010-01-01

392

IN VITRO KILLING OF PERKINSUS MARINUS BY HEMOCYTES OF OYSTERS CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA  

EPA Science Inventory

A colorimetric microbicidal assay was adapted, optimized and applied in experiments to characterize the in vitro capacity of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) hemocytes to kill cultured isolates of Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite causing a highly destructive disease...

393

The impact of killing and injuring others on mental health symptoms among police officers  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relationship between killing or seriously injuring someone in the line of duty and mental health symptoms in a sample of police officers (N = 400) who were first assessed during academy training and at five additional time points over three years. We found that nearly 10% of police officers reported having to kill or seriously injure someone in the line of duty in the first three years of police service. After controlling for demographics and exposure to life threat, killing or seriously injuring someone in the line of duty was significantly associated with PTSD symptoms (p< .01) and marginally associated with depression symptoms (p < .06). These results highlight the potential mental health impact of killing or seriously injuring someone in the line of duty. Greater attention to mental health services following these types of exposures can serve as a preventative measure for police officers who have been negatively impacted. PMID:21658717

Komarovskaya, Irina; Maguen, Shira; McCaslin, Shannon E.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Madan, Anita; Brown, Adam D.; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R.

2013-01-01

394

Effect of topical applications of heavy suspensions of killed Malassezia ovalis on rabbit skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy applications of suspensions of killedMalassezia ovalis on rabbit skin produced lesions that both grossly and microscopically resembled human psoriasis. This system may afford not only a model but also an explanation for that disease.

E. William Rosenberg; Patricia Belew; George Bale

1980-01-01

395

No-Go Theorem in Spacetimes with Two Commuting Spacelike Killing Vectors  

E-print Network

Four-dimensional Riemannian spacetimes with two commuting spacelike Killing vectors are studied in Einstein's theory of gravity, and found that no outer apparent horizons exist, provided that the dominant energy condition holds.

Anzhong Wang

2010-07-18

396

Gossip, Scandal, Shame and Honor Killing: A Case for Social Constructionism and Hegemonic Discourse  

E-print Network

A critical assessment of the cultural factors involved in the phenomenon of honor killing in the Middle East will be discussed in this paper. Through social constructionism and hegemonic discourse the following issues will be addressed: First...

Awwad, Amani

2001-04-01

397

Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Workshop  

SciTech Connect

The Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) Workshop concentrated on reviewing and refining the science experiments planned for the UAV Demonstration Flights (UDF) scheduled at the Oklahoma Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) in April 1994. These experiments were focused around the following sets of parameters: Clear sky, daylight; Clear-sky, night-to-day transition; Clear sky - improve/validate the accuracy of radiative fluxes derived from satellite-based measurements; Daylight, clouds of opportunity; and, Daylight, broken clouds.

Vitko, J. Jr. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1995-04-01

398

Electric vehicle drive systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New legislation in the State of California requires that 2% of vehicles sold there from 1998 will be 'zero-emitting'. This provides a unique market opportunity for developers of electric vehicles but substantial improvements in the technology are probably required if it is to be successfully exploited. There are around a dozen types of battery that are potentially relevant to road vehicles but, at the present, lead/acid and sodium梥ulphur come closest to combining acceptable performance, life and cost. To develop an efficient, lightweight electric motor system requires up-to-date techniques of magnetics design, and the latest power-electronic and microprocessor control methods. Brushless machines, coupled with solid-state inverters, offer the most economical solution for mass production, even though their development costs are higher than for direct-current commutator machines. Fitted to a small car, even the highest energy-density batteries will only provide around 200 km average range before recharging. Therefore, some form of supplementary on-board power generation will probably be needed to secure widespread acceptance by the driving public. Engine-driven generators of quite low power can achieve useful increases in urban range but will fail to qualify as 'zero-emitting'. On the other hand, if the same function could be economically performed by a small fuel-cell using hydrogen derived from a methanol reformer, then most of the flexibility provided by conventional vehicles would be retained. The market prospects for electric cars would then be greatly enhanced and their dependence on very advanced battery technology would be reduced.

Appleyard, M.

1992-01-01

399

A Nanoparticle-Based Combination Chemotherapy Delivery System for Enhanced Tumor Killing by Dynamic Rewiring of Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Exposure to the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) inhibitor erlotinib promotes the dynamic rewiring of apoptotic pathways, which sensitizes cells within a specific period to subsequent exposure to the DNA-damaging agent doxorubicin. A critical challenge for translating this therapeutic network rewiring into clinical practice is the design of optimal drug delivery systems. We report the generation of a nanoparticle delivery vehicle that contained more than one therapeutic agent and produced a controlled sequence of drug release. Liposomes, representing the first clinically approved nanomedicine systems, are well-characterized, simple, and versatile platforms for the manufacture of functional and tunable drug carriers. Using the hydrophobic and hydrophilic compartments of liposomes, we effectively incorporated both hydrophobic (erlotinib) and hydrophilic (doxorubicin) small molecules, through which we achieved the desired time sequence of drug release. We also coated the liposomes with folate to facilitate targeting to cancer cells. When compared to the time-staggered application of individual drugs, staggered release from tumor-targeted single liposomal particles enhanced dynamic rewiring of apoptotic signaling pathways, resulting in improved tumor cell killing in culture and tumor shrinkage in animal models. PMID:24825919

Morton, Stephen W.; Lee, Michael J.; Deng, Zhou J.; Dreaden, Erik C.; Siouve, Elise; Shopsowitz, Kevin E.; Shah, Nisarg J.; Yaffe, Michael B.; Hammond, Paula T.

2014-01-01

400

Potential of "lure and kill" in long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species.  

PubMed

"Lure and kill" technology has been used for several decades in pest management and eradication of invasive species. In lure and kill, the insect pest attracted by a semiochemical lure is not "entrapped" at the source of the attractant as in mass trapping, but instead the insect is subjected to a killing agent, which eliminates affected individuals from the population after a short period. In past decades, a growing scientific literature has been published on this concept. This article provides the first review on the potential of lure and kill in long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species. We present a summary of lure and kill, either when used as a stand-alone control method or in combination with other methods. We discuss its efficacy in comparison with other control methods. Several case studies in which lure and kill has been used with the aims of long-term pest management (e.g., pink bollworm, Egyptian cotton leafworm, codling moth, apple maggot, biting flies, and bark beetles) or the eradication of invasive species (e.g., tephritid fruit flies and boll weevils) are provided. Subsequently, we identify essential knowledge required for successful lure and kill programs that include lure competitiveness with natural odor source; lure density; lure formulation and release rate; pest population density and risk of immigration; and biology and ecology of the target species. The risks associated with lure and kill, especially when used in the eradication programs, are highlighted. We comment on the cost-effectiveness of this technology and its strengths and weaknesses, and list key reasons for success and failure. We conclude that lure and kill can be highly effective in controlling small, low-density, isolated populations, and thus it has the potential to add value to long-term pest management. In the eradication of invasive species, lure and kill offers a major advantage in effectiveness by its being inverse density dependent and it provides some improvements in efficacy over related control methods. However, the inclusion of insecticides or sterilants in lure and kill formulations presents a major obstacle to public acceptance. PMID:19610395

El-Sayed, A M; Suckling, D M; Byers, J A; Jang, E B; Wearing, C H

2009-06-01

401

Lunar construction utility vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lunar construction utility vehicle (LCUV) is an all-purpose construction vehicle which will aid in the robotic assembly of a lunar outpost. The LCUV will have the following capabilities: (1) must be self supporting including repairs; (2) must offload itself from a lunar lander; (3) must be telerobotic and semi-autonomous; (4) must be able to transport one space station common module; (5) must allow for man-rated operation; and (6) must be able to move lunar regolith for site preparation. This study recommends the use of an elastic tracked vehicle. Detailed material analyses of most of the LCUV components were accomplished. The body frame, made of pinned truss elements, was stress analyzed using NASTRAN. A track connection system was developed; however, kinematic and stress analyses are still required. This design recommends the use of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells for power. Thermal control has proven to be a problem which may be the most challenging technically. A tentative solution has been proposed which utilizes an onboard and towable radiator. Detailed study of the heat dissipation requirements is needed to finalize radiator sizing. Preliminary work on a man-rated cabin has begun; however, this is not required during the first mission phase of the LCUV. Finally, still in the conceptual phases, are the communication, navigation and mechanical arm systems.

1989-01-01

402

p16 gene transfer increases cell killing with abnormal nucleation after ionising radiation in glioma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that cells synchronised at the G1朣 phase are highly radiosensitive. In this study, p16-null human glioma cell lines were induced into G1 cell cycle arrest by adenovirus-mediated p16 gene transfer, and examined for radiation-induced cell killing. Clonogenic analysis and trypan blue extraction test showed that the p16 gene transfer enhanced radiation-induced cell killing in p16-null glioma

S Hama; S Matsuura; H Tauchi; F Yamasaki; Y Kajiwara; K Arita; H Yoshioka; Y Heike; K Mandai; K Kurisu

2003-01-01

403

Terpinen-4-ol is the Most Active Ingredient of Tea Tree Oil to Kill Demodex Mites  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the active ingredient in tea tree oil (TTO) responsible for its reported killing effect on Demodex mites, the most common ectoparasite found in the human skin extending to the eye. Methods Using a reported in vitro killing assay to measure the survival time of adult Demodex folliculorum up to 150 minutes, we have screened serial concentrations of 13 of the 15 known ingredients of TTO (ISO4730:2004) that were soluble in mineral oil and examined their synergistic relationships in killing mites. The most potent ingredient was then tested for its efficacy in killing Demodex in vivo. Results All ingredients exhibited a dose-dependent killing effect. Besides Terpinen-4-ol, the order of relative potency did not correlate with the order of relative abundance in TTO for the remaining 12 ingredients. Terpinen-4-ol was the most potent ingredient followed by ?-Terpineol, 1,8-Cineole and Sabinene. Terpinen-4-ol, the most abundant ingredient in TTO, was more potent than TTO at equivalent concentrations and its killing effect was even observable at a mere concentration of 1%. Terpinen-4-ol exhibited a significant synergistic effect with Terpinolene, but an antagonistic effect with ?-Terpineol in killing mites (both P < 0.05). In vivo, Terpinen-4-ol was shown to eradicate mites. Conclusions The above finding suggests that deployment of Terpinen-4-ol alone should enhance its potency in killing Demodex mites by reducing the adverse and antagonistic effects from other ingredients in TTO. Translational Relevance Terpinen-4-ol can be adopted in future formulations of acaricides to treat a number of ocular and cutaneous diseases caused by demodicosis. PMID:24349880

Tighe, Sean; Gao, Ying-Ying; Tseng, Scheffer C. G.

2013-01-01

404

Vacuum spacetimes with a spacelike, hypersurface-orthogonal Killing vector: reduced equations in a canonical frame  

E-print Network

The Newman-Penrose equations for spacetimes having one spacelike Killing vector are reduced -- in a geometrically defined "canonical frame'' -- to a minimal set, and its differential structure is studied. Expressions for the frame vectors in an arbitrary coordinate basis are given, and coordinate-independent choices of the metric functions are suggested which make the components of the Ricci tensor in the direction of the Killing vector vanish.

S. Bonanos

2003-07-31

405

Kill Rates and Predation by Wolves on Ungulate Populations in Bialowieza Primeval Forest (Poland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wolf (Canis lupus) kill rates, factors affecting their variation, and predation impact on ungulates were studied in the Polish part of Biaowieza Primeval Forest (580 km2). With the mean size of hunting groups being 4.4 individuals, wolves killed, on average, 0.513 6 0.04 prey(pack) 21 穌 21 (mean 6 1 SE); 63% of prey were red deer (Cervus elaphus), 28%

Wlodzimierz Jedrzejewski; Krzysztof Schmidt; Jorn Theuerkauf; Bogumila Jedrzejewska; Nuria Selva; Karol Zub; Lucyna Szymura

2002-01-01

406

Mycobacterial growth and sensitivity to H2O2 killing in human monocytes in vitro.  

PubMed Central

The intracellular growth and susceptibilities to killing by H2O2 in cultured human monocytes of a number of mycobacterial species including laboratory strains and clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and a clinical isolate of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare were examined. The clinical isolate of M. avium-M. intracellulare did not replicate in freshly explanted monocytes (generation time of >400 h); BCG replicated with a generation time of 95 h, and M. tuberculosis strains CDC551, H37Rv, and H37Ra replicated with generation times of 24, 35, and 37 h, respectively, during the 4-day growth assay. When cultured in monocytes for 4 days, the mycobacteria were variably sensitive to H2O2-induced killing. A positive correlation between the generation time and percent killing of intracellular bacilli was observed. By comparison, mycobacterial strains were similarly sensitive to H2O2 treatment in cell-free culture media and in sonicated cell suspensions. Using a number of inhibitors of reactive oxygen intermediates we determined that other than catalase the inhibitors tested did not affect H2O2-induced killing of intracellular mycobacteria. Our studies suggest that the killing of mycobacteria growing in human monocytes in vitro by the addition of exogenous H2O2 is dependent on the susceptibility to a peroxide-induced killing pathway as well as on the intracellular growth rate of the mycobacteria. PMID:9353075

Laochumroonvorapong, P; Paul, S; Manca, C; Freedman, V H; Kaplan, G

1997-01-01

407

Chemical Kinetics Database  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (Web, free access)牋 The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.

408

Vehicle-to-vehicle safety messaging in DSRC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the design of layer-2 protocols for a vehicle to send safety messages to other vehicles. The target is to send vehicle safety messages with high reliability and low delay. The communication is one-to-many, local, and geo-significant. The vehicular communication network is ad-hoc, highly mobile, and with large numbers of contending nodes. The messages are very short, have

Qing Xu; Tony K. Mak; Jeff Ko; Raja Sengupta

2004-01-01

409

Vehicle following controller design for autonomous intelligent vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new vehicle following controller is proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles. The proposed vehicle following controller not only provides smooth transient maneuvers for unavoidable nonzero initial conditions but also guarantees the asymptotic platoon stability without the availability of feedforward information. Furthermore, the achieved asymptotic platoon stability is shown to be robust to sensor delays and an upper bound for the allowable sensor delays is also provided in this paper.

Chien, C. C.; Lai, M. C.; Mayr, R.

1994-01-01

410

Sensor Technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Management of Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is focusing considerable efforts on technology development for Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems. The research in this area is targeted toward increasing aerospace vehicle safety and reliability, while reducing vehicle operating and maintenance costs. Onboard, real-time sensing technologies that can provide detailed information on structural integrity are central to such a health management system. This paper describes a number of sensor technologies currently under development for integrated vehicle health management. The capabilities, current limitations, and future research needs of these technologies are addressed.

Prosser, W. H.; Brown, T. L.; Woodard, S. E.; Fleming, G. A.; Cooper, E. G.

2002-01-01

411

Motor vehicle drivers' injuries in train-motor vehicle crashes.  

PubMed

The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify a more suitable model for modeling injury severity of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at highway-rail grade crossings from among three commonly used injury severity models and (2) to investigate factors associated with injury severity levels of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at such crossings. The 2009-2013 highway-rail grade crossing crash data and the national highway-rail crossing inventory data were combined to produce the analysis dataset. Four-year (2009-2012) data were used for model estimation while 2013 data were used for model validation. The three injury severity levels-fatal, injury and no injury-were based on the reported intensity of motor-vehicle drivers' injuries at highway-rail grade crossings. The three injury severity models evaluated were: ordered probit, multinomial logit and random parameter logit. A comparison of the three models based on different criteria showed that the random parameter logit model and multinomial logit model were more suitable for injury severity analysis of motor vehicle drivers involved in crashes at highway-rail grade crossings. Some of the factors that increased the likelihood of more severe crashes included higher train and vehicle speeds, freight trains, older drivers, and female drivers. Where feasible, reducing train and motor vehicle speeds and nighttime lighting may help reduce injury severities of motor vehicle drivers. PMID:25463957

Zhao, Shanshan; Khattak, Aemal

2015-01-01

412

Action of caffeine on x-irradiated HeLa cells. IV. Progression delays and enhanced cell killing at high caffeine concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The response of x-irradiated and unirradiated HeLa S3 cells to treatment with caffeine at concentrations between 1 and 10 nM has been examined with respect to both delay in progression through the cell generation cycle and enhancement of the expression of potentially lethal x-ray damage. Progression is delayed in a concentration-dependent fashion: the generation time is doubled at about 4 mM. The duration of G/sub 1/ is lengthened, and the rate of DNA synthesis is reduced, although the kinetics are different in the two phases; the rate of DNA synthesis is usually unaffected at 1 or 2 mM, while there is no concentration threshold for the slowing of progression through G/sub 1/. Progression through G/sub 2/ appears to be unaffected by concentrations up to at least 10 mM. Killing of irradiated cells in G/sub 2/ is somewhat greater after treatment with the higher caffeine concentrations than reported previously for 1 mM. Moreover, an additional mode of killing is observed in irradiated G/sub 1/ cells which had been found previously to be only slightly affected by 1 mM caffeine; they suffer extensive killing at concentrations above 5 mM. The time-survival curves for irradiated, caffeine-treated G/sub 1/ and G/sub 2/ cells have characteristically different shapes. The dose-survival curves for cells treated with the higher caffeine concentrations display steeper terminal slopes and narrower shoulders.

Tolmach, L.J.; Busse, P.M.

1980-05-01

413

77 FR 46677 - Vehicle Certification; Contents of Certification Labels  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...motorcycles, and low-speed vehicles (those vehicle types not identified by...Requirements for Motor Vehicles (Except the Vehicle Identification Number...Part 567 Labeling, Motor vehicle safety, Motor vehicles. In consideration...

2012-08-06

414

Effect of Silicon on the Desulfurization of Al-Killed Steels: Part II. Experimental Results and Plant Trials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations suggest that increased silicon levels improve ladle desulfurization of aluminum-killed steel. A kinetic model was developed and presented in part I of this paper, demonstrating that increased silicon levels in steel suppress the consumption of aluminum by parasitic reactions like silica reduction and FeO/MnO reduction, thus making more aluminum available at the interface for desulfurization. The results are increases in the rate and the extent of desulfurization. Predictions were compared with laboratory induction furnace melts using 1 kg of steel and 0.1 kg slag. The experimental results demonstrate the beneficial effect of silicon on the desulfurization reaction and that alumina can be reduced out of the slag and aluminum picked up by the steel, if the silicon content in the steel is high enough. The experimental results are in close agreement with the model predictions. Plant trials also show that with increased silicon content, both the rate and extent of desulfurization increase; incorporating silicon early into the ladle desulfurization process leads to considerable savings in aluminum consumption.

Roy, Debdutta; Pistorius, Petrus Christiaan; Fruehan, Richard J.

2013-10-01

415

Regional lymphadenitis following antileprosy vaccine BCG with killed Mycobacterium leprae.  

PubMed

Phase-II and extended Phase-II studies were conducted in three different sets of the population in Thiruthani Taluk, Chengalpattu District, South India, involving BCG and killed Mycobacterium leprae (KML) combination vaccines to ascertain the acceptability of the vaccines. In the Phase-II study, 997 healthy volunteers were vaccinated on individual randomization with one of the vaccines arms: BCG 0.1 mg + 6 x 10(8) KML, BCG 0.1 mg + 5 x 10(7) KML, BCG 0.1 mg + 5 x 10(6) KML, BCG, 0.1 mg or normal saline. Blood samples were taken and the serum was tested for antibody levels against phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) and the 35-kDa protein of M. leprae. In this study, we observed regional suppurative adenitis in 6% (6 out of 100), 3% (3 out of 100), and 3% (3 out of 100) of the vaccinees in the BCG 0.1 mg + 6 x 10(8) KML, BCG 0.1 mg + 5 x 10(7) KML, and BCG 0.1 mg + 5 x 10(6) KML vaccine arms, respectively, in the 13-70 year age group. Earlier BCG scar status, skin-test reactions to lepromin-A, Rees' MLSA, and serum antibody levels against PGL-I and the 35-kDa protein did not help to identify the group at risk of developing suppurative adenitis. Suppurative adenitis appears to have a different relationship between the age of the subject and the dose of the vaccine. In order to overcome the problem of regional suppurative adenitis and to know the mechanism involved, an extended Phase-II study was conducted in similar groups of the population by reducing the BCG and KML doses, i.e., with BCG 0.05 mg + 6 x 10(8) KML, BCG 0.05 mg + 5 x 10(7) KML, and BCG 0.01 mg + 5 x 10(7) KML. Biopsy specimens were collected from lymph nodes of the suppurative adenitis cases and were subjected for culture and histopathological examination. The observations showed that regional suppurative adenitis could be reduced to 1% in the BCG 0.05 + 6 x 10(8) KML group, 0.5% in the BCG 0.05 + 5 x 10(7) KML group, and 0.5% in the BCG 0.01 + 5 x 10(7) KML group. This phenomenon of suppurative adenitis appears to be related to the total dose of mycobacterial antigens. Suppurative adenitis was seen by weeks 18 and 20 post-vaccination in the latter two lower doses; whereas it was seen by week 8 in the higher dose of the combination vaccines. No case of suppurative adenitis was observed in the BCG 0.1 mg group. Culture and histopathology ruled out the possibilities of progressive BCG infection and superadded infection. Considering the above results, BCG 0.05 mg + 6 x 10(8) KML was acceptable for a large-scale vaccine trial in South India. PMID:9207749

De Britto, R L; Ramanathan, V D; Gupte, M D

1997-03-01

416

Mianserin, an antidepressant kills Leishmania donovani by depleting ergosterol levels.  

PubMed

In the present study, we have investigated the antileishmanial potential of mianserin, an antidepressant. Mianserin was found to inhibit both the promastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite in a dose dependant manner. The IC50 values for promastigotes and amastigotes were 21 ?M and 46 ?M respectively. Interestingly, mianserin failed to inhibit THP-1 differentiated macrophages up to 100 ?M concentration thus, exhibiting parasite selectivity. When mianserin was incubated with recombinant Leishmania donovani 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) enzyme, it exhibited an IC50 value of 19.8 ?M. Inhibition kinetics revealed competitive mode of enzyme inhibition as the Km increased with no change in Vmax. Further structural investigation of enzyme-inhibitor interaction revealed quenching of HMGR tryptophan intrinsic fluorescence with a K(sv) value of 3.0250.37 M(-1) and an apparent binding constant of 0.0954 mM. We further estimated ergosterol levels which is a major component of Leishmania cell membrane. It is synthesized by HMGR enzyme, the first rate limiting enzyme of the sterol biosynthetic pathway. Analysis of ergosterol levels by HPLC revealed ?2.5-fold depletion in mianserin treated promastigotes with respect to untreated parasites. This data was further validated by exogenous supplementation of mianserin treated cells with ergosterol and cholesterol. Reversal of growth inhibition was observed only upon ergosterol addition though it was refractory to cholesterol supplementation. Overall, our results demonstrate the possibility of repositioning of an antidepressant for the treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis. PMID:24950381

Dinesh, Neeradi; Kaur, Preet Kamal; Swamy, Kayala Kambagiri; Singh, Sushma

2014-09-01

417

International Human Powered Vehicle Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Human Powered Vehicle Association is an association of national associations and organizations who are "dedicated to promoting improvement, innovation and creativity in the use of human power, especially in the design and development of human-powered vehicles." The website provides updates on the world of human-powered vehicles, such as upcoming world championships and innovations in bicycle technology. The Source Guide includes links to directories with details on human-powered vehicle providers and companies selling materials needed for bicycle builders. The Library provides information on video, software, books and periodicals, while the Builder's Corner section offers how-to articles and guides. Information on human-powered vehicle races and schools with Human Powered Vehicle programs is also provided.

2010-08-04

418

Energy management and vehicle synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major drivers in the development of launch vehicles for the twenty-first century are reduction in cost of vehicles and operations, continuous reusability, mission abort capability with vehicle recovery, and readiness. One approach to the design of such vehicles is to emphasize energy management and propulsion as being the principal means of improvements given the available industrial capability and the required freedom in selecting configuration concept geometries. A methodology has been developed for the rational synthesis of vehicles based on the setting up and utilization of available data and projections, and a reference vehicle. The application of the methodology is illustrated for a single stage to orbit (SSTO) with various limits for the use of airbreathing propulsion.

Czysz, P.; Murthy, S. N. B.

419

International Human Powered Vehicle Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Human Powered Vehicle Association is an association of national associations and organizations who are "dedicated to promoting improvement, innovation and creativity in the use of human power, especially in the design and development of human-powered vehicles." The website provides updates on the world of human-powered vehicles, such as upcoming world championships and innovations in bicycle technology. The Source Guide includes links to directories with details on human-powered vehicle providers and companies selling materials needed for bicycle builders. The Library provides information on video, software, books and periodicals, while the Builder's Corner section offers how-to articles and guides. Information on human-powered vehicle races and schools with Human Powered Vehicle programs is also provided.

420

Laser powered interorbital vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary design of a low-thrust Laser Powered Interorbital Vehicle (LPIV) intended for cargo transportation between an Earth space station and a lunar base is presented. The selected mission utilizes a spiral trajectory, characteristic of a low-thrust spacecraft, requiring eight days for a lunar rendezvous and an additional nine days for return. The ship's configuration consists primarily of an optical train, two hydrogen plasma engines, a 37.1 m box-beam truss, a payload module, and propellant tanks. The total mass of the vehicle, fully loaded, is 63,300 kg. A single plasma, regeneratively cooled engine design is incorporated into the two 500 N engines. These are connected to the spacecraft by turntables that allow the vehicle to thrust tangential to the flight path. Proper collection and transmission of the laser beam to the thrust chambers is provided through the optical train. This system consists of a 23-m-diameter primary mirror, a convex parabolic secondary mirror, a beam splitter, and two concave parabolic tertiary mirrors. The payload bay is capable of carrying 18,000 kg of cargo and is located opposite the primary mirror on the main truss. Fuel tanks carrying a maximum of 35,000 kg of liquid hydrogen are fastened to tracks that allow the tanks to be moved perpendicular to the main truss. This capability is required to prevent the center of mass from moving out of the thrust vector line. The laser beam is located and tracked by means of an acquisition, pointing, and tracking system that can be locked onto the space-based laser station. Correct orientation of the spacecraft with the laser beam is maintained by control moment gyros and reaction control rockets. In addition, an aerobrake configuration was designed to provide the option of using the atmospheric drag in place of propulsion for a return trajectory.

Clarke, M. T.; Cooper, J. J.; Eggleston, G. P.; Farkas, M. A.; Hunt, D. C.; King, J.; Nguyen, H.; Rahal, G.; Saw, K.; Tipton, R.

1989-01-01

421

Systems Challenges for Hypersonic Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines the system challenges posed by fully reusable hypersonic cruise airplanes and access to space vehicles. Hydrocarbon and hydrogen fueled airplanes are considered with cruise speeds of Mach 5 and 10, respectively. The access to space matrix is examined. Airbreathing and rocket powered, single- and two-stage vehicles are considered. Reference vehicle architectures are presented. Major systems/subsystems challenges are described. Advanced, enhancing systems concepts as well as common system technologies are discussed.

Hunt, James L.; Laruelle, Gerard; Wagner, Alain

1997-01-01

422

Space vehicle gyroscope sensor applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Considerations which form the basis for the specification, design and evaluation of gyroscopes for spaceborne sensor applications are presented. The applications are distinguished by basic vehicle category: launch vehicles, spacecraft, entry vehicles and sounding rockets. Specifically excluded from discussion are gyroscope effector applications. Exotic or unconventional gyroscopes for which operational experience is nonexistent are mentioned only briefly to alert the reader of future trends. General requirements for testing and evaluation are discussed.

1972-01-01

423

The influence of nicotine on granulocytic differentiation Inhibition of the oxidative burst and bacterial killing and increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 release  

PubMed Central

Background Neutrophils leave the bone marrow as terminally differentiated cells, yet little is known of the influence of nicotine or other tobacco smoke components on neutrophil differentiation. Therefore, promyelocytic HL-60 cells were differentiated into neutrophils using dimethylsulfoxide in the presence and absence of nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) pyridine). Differentiation was evaluated over 5 days by monitoring terminal differentiation markers (CD11b expression and formazan deposition); cell viability, growth phase, kinetics, and apoptosis; assessing cellular morphology and ultrastructure; and conformational changes to major cellular components. Key neutrophil effector functions (oxidative burst, bacterial killing, matrix metalloproteinase release) were also examined. Results Nicotine increased the percentage of cells in late differentiation phases (metamyelocytes, banded neutrophils and segmented neutrophils) compared to DMSO alone (p < 0.05), but did not affect any other marker of neutrophil differentiation examined. However, nicotine exposure during differentiation suppressed the oxidative burst in HL-60 cells (p < 0.001); inhibited bacterial killing (p < 0.01); and increased the LPS-induced release of MMP-9, but not MMP-2 (p < 0.05). These phenomena may be ?-7-acetylcholine nicotinic receptor-dependent. Furthermore, smokers exhibited an increased MMP-9 burden compared to non-smokers in vivo (p < 0.05). Conclusion These findings may partially explain the known increase in susceptibility to bacterial infection and neutrophil-associated destructive inflammatory diseases in individuals chronically exposed to nicotine. PMID:18412948

Xu, Minqi; Scott, James E; Liu, Kan-Zhi; Bishop, Hannah R; Renaud, Diane E; Palmer, Richard M; Soussi-Gounni, Abdel; Scott, David A

2008-01-01

424

Space Vehicles Directorate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Vehicles Directorate is a division of the Air Force Research Laboratory and is located on Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The directorate is composed of four divisions specializing in research and development, specifically the Battlespace Environment, Spacecraft Technology, Innovative Concepts, and Integrated Experiments divisions. The Web site contains information on all of these divisions, as well as facility and technology program fact sheets, photo and video galleries, and technology demonstrations. Each video even has three versions (small, medium, and large) to make downloading on slow connections easier. There are many projects and areas of research detailed on the site; so, visitors will have plenty of exploring to do.

2002-01-01

425

Hybrid vehicle motor alignment  

DOEpatents

A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

Levin, Michael Benjamin (Ann Arbor, MI)

2001-07-03

426

Mack LNG vehicle development  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to install a production-ready, state-of-the-art engine control system on the Mack E7G natural gas engine to improve efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. In addition, the power rating was increased from 300 brake horsepower (bhp) to 325 bhp. The emissions targets were oxides of nitrogen plus nonmethane hydrocarbons of less than 2.5 g/bhp-hr and particulate matter of less than 0.05 g/bhp-hr on 99% methane. Vehicle durability and field testing were also conducted. Further development of this engine should include efficiency improvements and oxides of nitrogen reductions.

Southwest Research Institute

2000-01-05

427

Targeting hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites to manage disease risk.  

PubMed

Endemic and emerging diseases are rarely uniform in their spatial distribution or prevalence among cohorts of wildlife. Spatial models that quantify risk-driven differences in resource selection and hunter mortality of animals at fine spatial scales can assist disease management by identifying high-risk areas and individuals. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) and selection ratios (SRs) to quantify sex- and age-specific resource selection patterns of collared (n = 67) and hunter-killed (n = 796) nonmigratory elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis) during the hunting season between 2002 and 2012, in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. Distance to protected area was the most important covariate influencing resource selection and hunter-kill sites of elk (AICw = 1.00). Collared adult males (which are most likely to be infected with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) and chronic wasting disease) rarely selected for sites outside of parks during the hunting season in contrast to adult females and juvenile males. The RSFs showed selection by adult females and juvenile males to be negatively associated with landscape-level forest cover, high road density, and water cover, whereas hunter-kill sites of these cohorts were positively associated with landscape-level forest cover and increasing distance to streams and negatively associated with high road density. Local-level forest was positively associated with collared animal locations and hunter-kill sites; however, selection was stronger for collared juvenile males and hunter-killed adult females. In instances where disease infects a metapopulation and eradication is infeasible, a principle goal of management is to limit the spread of disease among infected animals. We map high-risk areas that are regularly used by potentially infectious hosts but currently underrepresented in the distribution of kill sites. We present a novel application of widely available data to target hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites as a promising tool for applying selective hunting to the management of transmissible diseases in a game species. PMID:24324876

Dugal, Cherie J; van Beest, Floris M; Vander Wal, Eric; Brook, Ryan K

2013-10-01

428

Targeting hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites to manage disease risk  

PubMed Central

Endemic and emerging diseases are rarely uniform in their spatial distribution or prevalence among cohorts of wildlife. Spatial models that quantify risk-driven differences in resource selection and hunter mortality of animals at fine spatial scales can assist disease management by identifying high-risk areas and individuals. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) and selection ratios (SRs) to quantify sex- and age-specific resource selection patterns of collared (n = 67) and hunter-killed (n = 796) nonmigratory elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis) during the hunting season between 2002 and 2012, in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. Distance to protected area was the most important covariate influencing resource selection and hunter-kill sites of elk (AICw = 1.00). Collared adult males (which are most likely to be infected with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) and chronic wasting disease) rarely selected for sites outside of parks during the hunting season in contrast to adult females and juvenile males. The RSFs showed selection by adult females and juvenile males to be negatively associated with landscape-level forest cover, high road density, and water cover, whereas hunter-kill sites of these cohorts were positively associated with landscape-level forest cover and increasing distance to streams and negatively associated with high road density. Local-level forest was positively associated with collared animal locations and hunter-kill sites; however, selection was stronger for collared juvenile males and hunter-killed adult females. In instances where disease infects a metapopulation and eradication is infeasible, a principle goal of management is to limit the spread of disease among infected animals. We map high-risk areas that are regularly used by potentially infectious hosts but currently underrepresented in the distribution of kill sites. We present a novel application of widely available data to target hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites as a promising tool for applying selective hunting to the management of transmissible diseases in a game species. PMID:24324876

Dugal, Cherie J; van Beest, Floris M; Vander Wal, Eric; Brook, Ryan K

2013-01-01

429

Density of wild prey modulates lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep.  

PubMed

Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore-livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed. PMID:24278123

Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C

2013-01-01

430

Density of Wild Prey Modulates Lynx Kill Rates on Free-Ranging Domestic Sheep  

PubMed Central

Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore杔ivestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed. PMID:24278123

Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B.; Linnell, John D. C.

2013-01-01

431

Vehicle systems design optimization study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimum vehicle configuration and component locations are determined for an electric drive vehicle based on using the basic structure of a current production subcompact vehicle. The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current internal combustion engine vehicles. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages, one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area, in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

Gilmour, J. L.

1980-01-01

432

Antibiotic Attack (Kinetic City)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game is a part of the Tau Pack of the Kinetic City site (see description below). In this simulation, the patient's bodies are filled with bacteria. The object is to cure as many patients as possible. Learning concepts enforced here are that antibiotics are specific for the type of bacteria they treat, their strength, and that the bacteria may also become resistant to the bacteria by mutations.KINETIC CITY DESCRIPTION: "Kinetic City" (www.kineticcity.com) is a fun, Web-based after-school science club for kids, ages 8 through 11. It combines exciting online animations and activities with boxes of hands-on science experiments. Children earn "Kinetic City" power points and collect stickers as they complete missions and learn standards-based science content. Here's how it works: The "Kinetic City" super crew (Keisha, Curtis, Megan and Max) needs the help of Earth kids to save their planet Vearth, from the science-distorting computer virus Deep Delete. Each of Deep Delete's 60 hideous strains attacks a different area of science with disastrous consequences. After each attack, teams of Earth kids fight back by viewing a short online animation describing the situation on Vearth; performing a series of activities to re-learn the lost science and going on a mission to Vearth during which they answer science questions and gobble up Deep Delete viruses. Their scores appear on their own Kinetic City Club Web page. "Kinetic City" is produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), with a grant from the National Science Foundation. AAAS writes the "Project 2061 Benchmarks for Science Literacy," which forms the basis of most state science standards.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-01-01

433

Qualitative differences in the early immune response to live and killed Leishmania major: Implications for vaccination strategies against Leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Recovery from natural or deliberate infection with Leishmania major leads to the development of lifelong immunity against rechallenge infections. In contrast, vaccination with killed parasites or defined leishmanial antigens generally induces only short-term protection. The reasons for this difference are currently not known but may be related to differences in the quality of the early immune responses to live and killed parasites. Here, we report that live and killed L. major parasites elicit comparable early inflammatory response as evidenced by influx and/or proliferation of cells in the draining lymph nodes (dLNs). In contrast, the early cytokine responses were qualitatively different. Cells from mice inoculated with killed parasites produced significantly more antigen-specific IL-4 and less IFN-gamma than those from mice injected with live parasites. Inclusion of CpG ODN into killed parasite preparations changed the early response to killed parasites from IL-4 to a predominantly IFN-gamma response, resulting in better protection following secondary high dose virulent L. major challenge. Interestingly, CpG-mediated enhancement of killed parasites-induced protection was short-lived and waned after 12 weeks. Taken together, these results suggest that the nature of primary immunity induced by killed and live parasites are qualitatively different and that these differences may account for the differential protection seen in mice following vaccination with live and killed parasites. They further suggest that modulating the early response with an appropriate adjuvant could enhance efficacy of killed parasite vaccines. PMID:19428861

Okwor, Ifeoma; Liu, Dong; Uzonna, Jude

2009-04-28

434

GRAPH LAPLACIANS AND STABILIZATION OF VEHICLE FORMATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of vehicle formations has emerged as a topic of signiflcant interest to the controls community. In this paper, we merge tools from graph theory and control theory to derive stability criteria for vehicle formations. The interconnection between vehicles (i.e., which vehicles are sensed by other vehicles) is modeled as a graph, and the eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix of

J. Alexander Fa; Richard M. Murray

435

Propagation aspects of vehicle-to-vehicle communications - an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle-to-vehicle (VTV) wireless communications have many envisioned applications in traffic safety, congestion avoidance, etc., but the development of suitable communications systems and standards requires accurate models for the VTV propagation channel. This paper provides an overview of existing VTV channel measurement campaigns, describing the most important environments, and the delay spread and Doppler spreads obtained in them. Statistical as well

Andreas F. Molisch; Fredrik Tufvesson; Johan Karedal; Christoph Mecklenbrauker

2009-01-01

436

Expendable Launch Vehicle Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical support studies of expendable launch vehicles concentrates on the stability of the dynamics during launch especially during or near the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The in-plane linearized dynamic equations of a generic launch vehicle with multiple flexible bending and fuel sloshing modes are developed. The design of a robust LQR controller based on the reduced order system is accomplished using the parameter perturbation technique. The ELV modeling and analysis team has spent the past three years working on the theoretical development and application of sensitivity analysis to solve eigenvalue problems associated with structural dynamics. Specific application areas include stochastic vibrations, viscously damped vibrations and nonlinear dynamics. In stochastic linear vibrations, sensitivity analysis methods have been developed which determined the expectation and variance of the response for given probability density functions of various stochastic parameters. Examples worked include beam vibrations with up to six stochastic parameters; and the eigensensitivity results differ little from those obtained, with much effect, from Monte Carlo techniques. For viscously damped vibrations, eigensensitivity analysis has given excellent results for homogeneous beams, modeled by either quadratic or quartic eigenvalue equations. Specific applications include Kevin and Maxwell-type viscoelastic beams.

Bainum, P. M.; Reiss, R.; Qian, B.; Xing, G. Q.; Tan, Z.; Pai, R. V.; Tomlinson, N.

1996-01-01

437

Vehicle misfueling in California  

SciTech Connect

There have been a half dozen surveys performed by the California Air Resources Board in California from December, 1977 to July, 1982 to determine the rate of vehicle misfueling in California. There has been great concern raised over misfueling which leads to the poisoning of catalysts and the subsequent increases in emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen. The results of observing refueling at service stations indicate a misfueling rate at about 2% which is much lower than what the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency figures indicate. Misfueling at self-serve stations is more than twice that noted at full-serve stations. The primary reasons given by motorists for misfueling are cheaper price of unleaded gasoline, performance (including pinging) and unavailability of unleaded fuel. Misfueling was accomplished primarily as a result of a modified restrictor or filler neck. The data also indicates that there are some differences in misfueling rates by location and that misfueling generally increases with age of vehicle.

Kayne, N.; Madlock, W.

1984-01-01

438

Electric-vehicle batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

1995-02-01

439

Ground Vehicle Options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from the Viking missions paint a terrain of volcanic plains, complex lava flow, channel beds, and escarpments. This extreme variety of terrain puts a stringent requirement on the Mars rover design. The rover's versatility will be reflected by its performance over troughs, through rock fields, over duricrust, and about craters. The terrain to be traversed will consist of boulders, and surfaces, loose soil, and partially buried rocks. Wheeled, tracked, or legged locomotion are some of the options to be examined for the rover's primary mode of mobility. This paper will discuss the relationship of the vehicle to this terrain. In particular, what should the feet of a walking vehicle look like? Should the wheels or tracks be ribbed or channeled? As a result, other possible configurations will be looked at with respect to sinkage, slip, obstacle crossing, slope performance, and drawbar pull/weight ratio. The preliminary analysis will be key to design of the Mars mobility system and set a guideline for future concepts.

Chun, Wendell

1987-01-01

440

A stab in the dark: chick killing by brood parasitic honeyguides  

PubMed Central

The most virulent avian brood parasites obligately kill host young soon after hatching, thus ensuring their monopoly of host parental care. While the host eviction behaviour of cuckoos (Cuculidae) is well documented, the host killing behaviour of honeyguide (Indicatoridae) chicks has been witnessed only once, 60 years ago, and never in situ in host nests. Here, we report from the Afrotropical greater honeyguide the first detailed observations of honeyguides killing host chicks with their specially adapted bill hooks, based on repeated video recordings (available in the electronic supplementary material). Adult greater honeyguides puncture host eggs when they lay their own, but in about half of host nests at least one host egg survived, precipitating chick killing by the honeyguide hatchling. Hosts always hatched after honeyguide chicks, and were killed within hours. Despite being blind and in total darkness, honeyguides attacked host young with sustained biting, grasping and shaking motions. Attack time of 15 min was sufficient to cause host death, which took from 9 min to over 7 h from first attack. Honeyguides also bit unhatched eggs and human hands, but only rarely bit the host parents feeding them. PMID:21900311

Spottiswoode, Claire N.; Koorevaar, Jeroen

2012-01-01

441

Could Direct Killing by Larger Dingoes Have Caused the Extinction of the Thylacine from Mainland Australia?  

PubMed Central

Invasive predators can impose strong selection pressure on species that evolved in their absence and drive species to extinction. Interactions between coexisting predators may be particularly strong, as larger predators frequently kill smaller predators and suppress their abundances. Until 3500 years ago the marsupial thylacine was Australia's largest predator. It became extinct from the mainland soon after the arrival of a morphologically convergent placental predator, the dingo, but persisted in the absence of dingoes on the island of Tasmania until the 20th century. As Tasmanian thylacines were larger than dingoes, it has been argued that dingoes were unlikely to have caused the extinction of mainland thylacines because larger predators are rarely killed by smaller predators. By comparing Holocene specimens from the same regions of mainland Australia, we show that dingoes were similarly sized to male thylacines but considerably larger than female thylacines. Female thylacines would have been vulnerable to killing by dingoes. Such killing could have depressed the reproductive output of thylacine populations. Our results support the hypothesis that direct killing by larger dingoes drove thylacines to extinction on mainland Australia. However, attributing the extinction of the thylacine to just one cause is problematic because the arrival of dingoes coincided with another the potential extinction driver, the intensification of the human economy. PMID:22567093

Letnic, Mike; Fillios, Melanie; Crowther, Mathew S.

2012-01-01

442

Comparison of microplate and macrodilution methods in time-kill study of new antimicrobial drugs.  

PubMed

In consideration of high production costs of new antimicrobial drugs, a more convenient and economical method for time-kill study is urgently required. In the present experiment, we attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of microplate method as an alternative measure of macrodilution method for time-kill study. Three conventional antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, and levofloxacin) and two antimicrobial peptides [A-thanatin and K(4)-S4(1-16)a] were used to determine time-kill curves against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 14990. Meanwhile, both methods were also performed with three antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNA3, PNA4, and PNA5) targeting ropD gene of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and MRSA WHO-2. In order to study the correlation between the two methods, the growth inhibition rate of PNAs, antimicrobial peptides, and antibiotics for the tested strains were evaluated. A strong agreement between the results obtained from the two methods has been demonstrated. Although microplate method required longer incubation time for a significant result than macrodilution method, the former provides a more convenient, economical, and stable way to perform time-kill test for these agents. Thus, we concluded that microplate method was an available measure for time-kill study of new antimicrobial drugs. PMID:22684972

Zhou, Ying; Hou, Zheng; Fang, Chao; Xue, Xiaoyan; Da, Fei; Wang, Yukun; Bai, Hui; Luo, Xiaoxing

2013-01-01

443

An in vitro model of antibody-enhanced killing of the intracellular parasite Leishmania amazonensis.  

PubMed

Footpad infection of C3HeB/FeJ mice with Leishmania amazonensis leads to chronic lesions accompanied by large parasite loads. Co-infecting these animals with L. major leads to induction of an effective Th1 immune response that can resolve these lesions. This cross-protection can be recapitulated in vitro by using immune cells from L. major-infected animals to effectively activate L. amazonensis-infected macrophages to kill the parasite. We have shown previously that the B cell population and their IgG2a antibodies are required for effective cross-protection. Here we demonstrate that, in contrast to L. major, killing L. amazonensis parasites is dependent upon FcR? common-chain and NADPH oxidase-generated superoxide from infected macrophages. Superoxide production coincided with killing of L. amazonensis at five days post-activation, suggesting that opsonization of the parasites was not a likely mechanism of the antibody response. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that non-specific immune complexes could provide a mechanism of FcR? common-chain/NADPH oxidase dependent parasite killing. Macrophage activation in response to soluble IgG2a immune complexes, IFN-? and parasite antigen was effective in significantly reducing the percentage of macrophages infected with L. amazonensis. These results define a host protection mechanism effective during Leishmania infection and demonstrate for the first time a novel means by which IgG antibodies can enhance killing of an intracellular pathogen. PMID:25191842

Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Bockenstedt, Marie M; Li, Huijuan; Boggiatto, Paola M; Phanse, Yashdeep; Petersen, Christine A; Bellaire, Bryan H; Jones, Douglas E

2014-01-01

444

An In Vitro Model of Antibody-Enhanced Killing of the Intracellular Parasite Leishmania amazonensis  

PubMed Central

Footpad infection of C3HeB/FeJ mice with Leishmania amazonensis leads to chronic lesions accompanied by large parasite loads. Co-infecting these animals with L. major leads to induction of an effective Th1 immune response that can resolve these lesions. This cross-protection can be recapitulated in vitro by using immune cells from L. major-infected animals to effectively activate L. amazonensis-infected macrophages to kill the parasite. We have shown previously that the B cell population and their IgG2a antibodies are required for effective cross-protection. Here we demonstrate that, in contrast to L. major, killing L. amazonensis parasites is dependent upon FcR? common-chain and NADPH oxidase-generated superoxide from infected macrophages. Superoxide production coincided with killing of L. amazonensis at five days post-activation, suggesting that opsonization of the parasites was not a likely mechanism of the antibody response. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that non-specific immune complexes could provide a mechanism of FcR? common-chain/NADPH oxidase dependent parasite killing. Macrophage activation in response to soluble IgG2a immune complexes, IFN-? and parasite antigen was effective in significantly reducing the percentage of macrophages infected with L. amazonensis. These results define a host protection mechanism effective during Leishmania infection and demonstrate for the first time a novel means by which IgG antibodies can enhance killing of an intracellular pathogen. PMID:25191842

Gibson-Corley, Katherine N.; Bockenstedt, Marie M.; Li, Huijuan; Boggiatto, Paola M.; Phanse, Yashdeep; Petersen, Christine A.; Bellaire, Bryan H.; Jones, Douglas E.

2014-01-01

445

Quantifying killing of orangutans and human-orangutan conflict in Kalimantan, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Human-orangutan conflict and hunting are thought to pose a serious threat to orangutan existence in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo. No data existed prior to the present study to substantiate these threats. We investigated the rates, spatial distribution and causes of conflict and hunting through an interview-based survey in the orangutan's range in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Between April 2008 and September 2009, we interviewed 6983 respondents in 687 villages to obtain socio-economic information, assess knowledge of local wildlife in general and orangutan encounters specifically, and to query respondents about their knowledge on orangutan conflicts and killing, and relevant laws. This survey revealed estimated killing rates of between 750 and 1800 animals killed in the last year, and between 1950 and 3100 animals killed per year on average within the lifetime of the survey respondents. These killing rates are higher than previously thought and are high enough to pose a serious threat to the continued existence of orangutans in Kalimantan. Importantly, the study contributes to our understanding of the spatial variation in threats, and the underlying causes of those threats, which can be used to facilitate the development of targeted conservation management. PMID:22096582

Meijaard, Erik; Buchori, Damayanti; Hadiprakarsa, Yokyok; Utami-Atmoko, Sri Suci; Nurcahyo, Anton; Tjiu, Albertus; Prasetyo, Didik; Nardiyono; Christie, Lenny; Ancrenaz, Marc; Abadi, Firman; Antoni, I Nyoman Gede; Armayadi, Dedy; Dinato, Adi; Ella; Gumelar, Pajar; Indrawan, Tito P; Kussaritano; Munajat, Cecep; Priyono, C Wawan Puji; Purwanto, Yadi; Puspitasari, Dewi; Putra, M Syukur Wahyu; Rahmat, Abdi; Ramadani, Harri; Sammy, Jim; Siswanto, Dedi; Syamsuri, Muhammad; Andayani, Noviar; Wu, Huanhuan; Wells, Jessie Anne; Mengersen, Kerrie

2011-01-01

446

Quantifying Killing of Orangutans and Human-Orangutan Conflict in Kalimantan, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Human-orangutan conflict and hunting are thought to pose a serious threat to orangutan existence in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo. No data existed prior to the present study to substantiate these threats. We investigated the rates, spatial distribution and causes of conflict and hunting through an interview-based survey in the orangutan's range in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Between April 2008 and September 2009, we interviewed 6983 respondents in 687 villages to obtain socio-economic information, assess knowledge of local wildlife in general and orangutan encounters specifically, and to query respondents about their knowledge on orangutan conflicts and killing, and relevant laws. This survey revealed estimated killing rates of between 750 and 1800 animals killed in the last year, and between 1950 and 3100 animals killed per year on average within the lifetime of the survey respondents. These killing rates are higher than previously thought and are high enough to pose a serious threat to the continued existence of orangutans in Kalimantan. Importantly, the study contributes to our understanding of the spatial variation in threats, and the underlying causes of those threats, which can be used to facilitate the development of targeted conservation management. PMID:22096582

Meijaard, Erik; Buchori, Damayanti; Hadiprakarsa, Yokyok; Utami-Atmoko, Sri Suci; Nurcahyo, Anton; Tjiu, Albertus; Prasetyo, Didik; Nardiyono; Christie, Lenny; Ancrenaz, Marc; Abadi, Firman; Antoni, I Nyoman Gede; Armayadi, Dedy; Dinato, Adi; Ella; Gumelar, Pajar; Indrawan, Tito P.; Kussaritano; Munajat, Cecep; Priyono, C. Wawan Puji; Purwanto, Yadi; Puspitasari, Dewi; Putra, M. Syukur Wahyu; Rahmat, Abdi; Ramadani, Harri; Sammy, Jim; Siswanto, Dedi; Syamsuri, Muhammad; Andayani, Noviar; Wu, Huanhuan; Wells, Jessie Anne; Mengersen, Kerrie

2011-01-01

447

Could Direct Killing by Larger Dingoes Have Caused the Extinction of the Thylacine from Mainland Australia?  

E-print Network

Invasive predators can impose strong selection pressure on species that evolved in their absence and drive species to extinction. Interactions between coexisting predators may be particularly strong, as larger predators frequently kill smaller predators and suppress their abundances. Until 3500 years ago the marsupial thylacine was Australia抯 largest predator. It became extinct from the mainland soon after the arrival of a morphologically convergent placental predator, the dingo, but persisted in the absence of dingoes on the island of Tasmania until the 20th century. As Tasmanian thylacines were larger than dingoes, it has been argued that dingoes were unlikely to have caused the extinction of mainland thylacines because larger predators are rarely killed by smaller predators. By comparing Holocene specimens from the same regions of mainland Australia, we show that dingoes were similarly sized to male thylacines but considerably larger than female thylacines. Female thylacines would have been vulnerable to killing by dingoes. Such killing could have depressed the reproductive output of thylacine populations. Our results support the hypothesis that direct killing by larger dingoes drove thylacines to extinction on mainland Australia. However, attributing the extinction of the thylacine to just one cause is problematic because the arrival of dingoes coincided with another the potential extinction driver, the intensification of the

Mike Letnic; Melanie Fillios; Mathew S. Crowther

2011-01-01

448

Could direct killing by larger dingoes have caused the extinction of the thylacine from mainland Australia?  

PubMed

Invasive predators can impose strong selection pressure on species that evolved in their absence and drive species to extinction. Interactions between coexisting predators may be particularly strong, as larger predators frequently kill smaller predators and suppress their abundances. Until 3500 years ago the marsupial thylacine was Australia's largest predator. It became extinct from the mainland soon after the arrival of a morphologically convergent placental predator, the dingo, but persisted in the absence of dingoes on the island of Tasmania until the 20th century. As Tasmanian thylacines were larger than dingoes, it has been argued that dingoes were unlikely to have caused the extinction of mainland thylacines because larger predators are rarely killed by smaller predators. By comparing Holocene specimens from the same regions of mainland Australia, we show that dingoes were similarly sized to male thylacines but considerably larger than female thylacines. Female thylacines would have been vulnerable to killing by dingoes. Such killing could have depressed the reproductive output of thylacine populations. Our results support the hypothesis that direct killing by larger dingoes drove thylacines to extinction on mainland Australia. However, attributing the extinction of the thylacine to just one cause is problematic because the arrival of dingoes coincided with another the potential extinction driver, the intensification of the human economy. PMID:22567093

Letnic, Mike; Fillios, Melanie; Crowther, Mathew S

2012-01-01

449

Mechanism of the Susceptibility of Remodeled Pulmonary Vessels to Drug?Induced Cell Killing  

PubMed Central

Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension remains a devastating disease without a cure. The major complication of this disease is the abnormal growth of vascular cells, resulting in pulmonary vascular remodeling. Thus, agents, which affect the remodeled vessels by killing unwanted cells, should improve treatment strategies. The present study reports that antitumor drugs selectively kill vascular cells in remodeled pulmonary vessels in rat models of pulmonary hypertension. Methods and Results After developing pulmonary vascular remodeling in chronic hypoxia or chronic hypoxia/SU?5416 models, rats were injected with antitumor drugs including proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib and MG?132) and daunorubicin. Within 1 to 3 days, these agents reduced the media and intima thickness of remodeled pulmonary vascular walls, but not the thickness of normal pulmonary vessels. These drugs also promoted apoptotic and autophagic death of vascular cells in the remodeled vessels, but not in normal vessels. We provide evidence that the upregulation of annexin A1, leading to GATA4?dependent downregulation of Bcl?xL, is a mechanism for specific apoptotic killing, and for the role of parkin in defining specificity of autophagic killing of remodeled vascular cells. The reversal of pulmonary vascular remodeling increased the capacity of vasodilators to reduce pulmonary arterial pressure. Conclusions These results suggest that antitumor drugs can specifically kill cells in remodeled pulmonary vascular walls and may be useful for improving the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:24572252

Ibrahim, Yasmine F.; Wong, Chi?Ming; Pavlickova, Ludmila; Liu, Lingling; Trasar, Lobsang; Bansal, Geetanjali; Suzuki, Yuichiro J.

2014-01-01

450

Travel Time Measurement by Vehicle Sequence Matching Method - Evaluation Method of Vehicle Sequence using Levenshtein Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Travel time information is useful to effective reducing traffic congestion etc. Travel time is computed from passage time of vehicles observed by both origin (upstream) point and destination (downstream) point. We are studying the method by vehicle identification using height data of vehicle provided from ultrasonic vehicle detector. And we proposed not one-to-one vehicle matching method but each vehicle sequence

Satoshi Takahashi; T. Izumi

2006-01-01

451

Solar powered model vehicle races  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ko University SPIE student chapter has been organizing the solar powered model vehicle race and outreaching K-12 students. The solar powered model vehicle race for car, boat, blimp, all solar panel boat, submarine, underwater rower, amphibian, and glider have been successfully organized.

Y?lmaz, Nazmi; Serpeng鼁el, Ali

2014-09-01

452

Smart electric vehicle charging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work is proposed the design of a system to create and handle Electric Vehicles (EV) charging procedures, based on intelligent process. Due to the electrical power distribution network limitation and absence of smart meter devices, Electric Vehicles charging should be performed in a balanced way, taking into account past experience, weather information based on data mining, and simulation

Joao C. Ferreira; Vitor Monteiro; Joao L. Afonso; Alberto Silva

2011-01-01

453

Secure metering for electrical vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of secure data communication in the charging architectures for electrical vehicles. Within the paper the different charging architectures will be described and examined further. The aim is to transfer the charging process data (customer, vehicle, metering and billing information) securely to and from the energy supplier or system provider. The main scope of this paper

Matthias Schneider; Sergiu Tcaciuc; Christoph Ruland

2010-01-01

454

Vehicle Safety. Managing Liability Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph discusses the safety of vehicles owned, leased, maintained, and operated by colleges and universities. First, the risks by colleges and universities is discussed. First, the risks associated with college vehicles are outlined, including the liability that comes with staff/faculty and student drivers and such special concerns as

Newby, Deborah, Ed.

455

1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

1996-10-01

456

Expendable launch vehicle studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical support studies of expendable launch vehicles concentrate on the stability of the dynamics during launch especially during or near the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The in-plane dynamic equations of a generic launch vehicle with multiple flexible bending and fuel sloshing modes are developed and linearized. The information from LeRC about the grids, masses, and modes is incorporated into the model. The eigenvalues of the plant are analyzed for several modeling factors: utilizing diagonal mass matrix, uniform beam assumption, inclusion of aerodynamics, and the interaction between the aerodynamics and the flexible bending motion. Preliminary PID, LQR, and LQG control designs with sensor and actuator dynamics for this system and simulations are also conducted. The initial analysis for comparison of PD (proportional-derivative) and full state feedback LQR Linear quadratic regulator) shows that the split weighted LQR controller has better performance than that of the PD. In order to meet both the performance and robustness requirements, the H(sub infinity) robust controller for the expendable launch vehicle is developed. The simulation indicates that both the performance and robustness of the H(sub infinity) controller are better than that for the PID and LQG controllers. The modelling and analysis support studies team has continued development of methodology, using eigensensitivity analysis, to solve three classes of discrete eigenvalue equations. In the first class, the matrix elements are non-linear functions of the eigenvector. All non-linear periodic motion can be cast in this form. Here the eigenvector is comprised of the coefficients of complete basis functions spanning the response space and the eigenvalue is the frequency. The second class of eigenvalue problems studied is the quadratic eigenvalue problem. Solutions for linear viscously damped structures or viscoelastic structures can be reduced to this form. Particular attention is paid to Maxwell and Kelvin models. The third class of problems consists of linear eigenvalue problems in which the elements of the mass and stiffness matrices are stochastic. dynamic structural response for which the parameters are given by probabilistic distribution functions, rather than deterministic values, can be cast in this form. Solutions for several problems in each class will be presented.

Bainum, Peter M.; Reiss, Robert

1995-01-01

457

23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways...LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from...

2012-04-01

458

23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways...LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from...

2013-04-01

459

23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.  

...1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways...LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from...

2014-04-01

460

40 CFR 1066.415 - Vehicle operation.  

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle operation. 1066.415 Section 1066.415...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Preparing Vehicles and Running an Exhaust Emission Test ...

2014-07-01

461

36 CFR 327.2 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...section pertains to all vehicles, including, but not limited to, automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, mini-bikes, snowmobiles, dune buggies, all-terrain vehicles, and trailers, campers, bicycles, or any other such equipment. (b) Vehicles...

2011-07-01

462

36 CFR 327.2 - Vehicles.  

...section pertains to all vehicles, including, but not limited to, automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, mini-bikes, snowmobiles, dune buggies, all-terrain vehicles, and trailers, campers, bicycles, or any other such equipment. (b) Vehicles...

2014-07-01

463

36 CFR 327.2 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...section pertains to all vehicles, including, but not limited to, automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, mini-bikes, snowmobiles, dune buggies, all-terrain vehicles, and trailers, campers, bicycles, or any other such equipment. (b) Vehicles...

2012-07-01

464

36 CFR 327.2 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...section pertains to all vehicles, including, but not limited to, automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, mini-bikes, snowmobiles, dune buggies, all-terrain vehicles, and trailers, campers, bicycles, or any other such equipment. (b) Vehicles...

2010-07-01

465

36 CFR 327.2 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...section pertains to all vehicles, including, but not limited to, automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, mini-bikes, snowmobiles, dune buggies, all-terrain vehicles, and trailers, campers, bicycles, or any other such equipment. (b) Vehicles...

2013-07-01

466

www.ave.kth.se Rail Vehicles  

E-print Network

www.ave.kth.se Rail Vehicles Part of the Masters program in Vehicle Engineering Master's Thesis, contact Carlos Casanueva at the Division of Rail Vehicles. Tel.: 08 790 76 52 e-mail: carlosc@kth.se #12;

Haviland, David

467

43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...expense. (c) You must not operate any vehicle, or allow another person to operate a vehicle in your control, in a careless, negligent...in this part, the regulations governing off-road-vehicle use in 43 CFR part 420...

2012-10-01

468

43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.  

...expense. (c) You must not operate any vehicle, or allow another person to operate a vehicle in your control, in a careless, negligent...in this part, the regulations governing off-road-vehicle use in 43 CFR part 420...

2014-10-01

469

43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...expense. (c) You must not operate any vehicle, or allow another person to operate a vehicle in your control, in a careless, negligent...in this part, the regulations governing off-road-vehicle use in 43 CFR part 420...

2013-10-01

470

43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...expense. (c) You must not operate any vehicle, or allow another person to operate a vehicle in your control, in a careless, negligent...in this part, the regulations governing off-road-vehicle use in 43 CFR part 420...

2010-10-01

471

43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...expense. (c) You must not operate any vehicle, or allow another person to operate a vehicle in your control, in a careless, negligent...in this part, the regulations governing off-road-vehicle use in 43 CFR part 420...

2011-10-01

472

Projective mappings and dimensions of vector spaces of three types of Killing-Yano tensors on pseudo Riemannian manifolds of constant curvature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our paper we have determined the dimension of the space of conformal Killing-Yano tensors and the dimensions of its two subspaces of closed conformal Killing-Yano and Killing-Yano tensors on pseudo Riemannian manifolds of constant curvature. This result is a generalization of well known results on sharp upper bounds of the dimensions of the vector spaces of conformal Killing-Yano, Killing-Yano and concircular vector fields on pseudo Riemannian manifolds of constant curvature.

Mike, Josef; Stepanov, Sergey; Hinterleitner, Irena

2012-07-01

473

Comparison of a Modified Atmosphere Stunning-Killing System to conventional electrical stunning and killing on selected broiler breast muscle rigor development and meat quality attributes.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to compare the effects of a 70:30 argon:carbon dioxide Modified Atmosphere Stun-Kill (MASK) system to both a low voltage (LV) and a high current (HC) electrical stunning and conventional killing system on broiler breast rigor development and meat quality. In Experiment 1, the effects on breast muscle pH and meat tenderness of the MASK system and the LV system were compared. In Experiment 2, the MASK system was compared to both HC and LV stunning for pH, R-value, C.I.E. L*, a*, b*, cooked yield, and tenderness of broiler breast meat. In Experiment 1, there were no significant differences in breast muscle pH between LV and MASK, except at 24 h. Only at 5 h post-mortem did the MASK system result in significantly tougher breast meat. In Experiment 2, there were no significant differences between treatments in breast muscle color or cooked yield at any sampling time. The breast muscle from birds subjected to the HC stun had consistently higher pH values until 5 h post-mortem, at which time the breast meat from birds subjected to the MASK system had higher pH. R-value data showed a similar trend, with the HC stunned birds having the lower R-values until 5 h post-mortem. Breast meat tenderness values for the three treatments were significantly different only at 3 and 5 h post-mortem, when birds stunned with HC had the highest shear values. The MASK system did not exhibit any rigor accelerating benefits when compared to LV stunning and conventional killing, and only minimal rigor acceleration when compared to HC killing. PMID:9495503

Poole, G H; Fletcher, D L

1998-02-01

474

Safety Guidelines for an Active Shooter Situation An active shooter is a person who is actively engaged in killing or attempting to kill people in a  

E-print Network

hidden and well protected area to hide. Call 9-1-1 only if you can do so without alerting the shooter the active shooter in self-defense, do what it takes to survive when your life is on the line. d) Throw on to them for safety 3) Do not have anything in your hands. Officers are trained "hands kill" 4) Do not pull

475

Aggregate vehicle travel forecasting model  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a model for forecasting total US highway travel by all vehicle types, and its implementation in the form of a personal computer program. The model comprises a short-run, econometrically-based module for forecasting through the year 2000, as well as a structural, scenario-based longer term module for forecasting through 2030. The short-term module is driven primarily by economic variables. It includes a detailed vehicle stock model and permits the estimation of fuel use as well as vehicle travel. The longer-tenn module depends on demographic factors to a greater extent, but also on trends in key parameters such as vehicle load factors, and the dematerialization of GNP. Both passenger and freight vehicle movements are accounted for in both modules. The model has been implemented as a compiled program in the Fox-Pro database management system operating in the Windows environment.

Greene, D.L.; Chin, Shih-Miao; Gibson, R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-05-01

476

2012 Vehicle Technologies Market Report  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Center for Transportation Analysis developed and published the first Vehicle Technologies Market Report in 2008. Three editions of the report have been published since that time. This 2012 report details the major trends in U.S. light vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national scale. The following section examines light-duty vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of medium and heavy trucks offers information on truck sales and fuel use. The technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards.

Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

2013-03-01

477

Two Strains of Male-Killing Wolbachia in a Ladybird, Coccinella undecimpunctata, from a Hot Climate  

PubMed Central

Ladybirds are a hot-spot for the invasion of male-killing bacteria. These maternally inherited endosymbionts cause the death of male host embryos, to the benefit of female sibling hosts and the bacteria that they contain. Previous studies have shown that high temperatures can eradicate male-killers from ladybirds, leaving the host free from infection. Here we report the discovery of two maternally inherited sex ratio distorters in populations of a coccinellid, Coccinella undecimpunctata, from a hot lowland region of the Middle East. DNA sequence analysis indicates that the male killing is the result of infection by Wolbachia, that the trait is tetracycline sensitive, and that two distinct strains of Wolbachia co-occur within one beetle population. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of male-killing and suggest avenues for future field-work on this system. PMID:23349831

Elnagdy, Sherif; Messing, Susan

2013-01-01

478

Defective Aspergillus killing by neutrophil leucocytes in a case of systemic aspergillosis.  

PubMed Central

A persistent defect of Aspergillus killing was observed in the neutrophils of a 6-year-old patient with a systemic A. fumigatus infection which was highly refractory to anti-mycotic therapy. Aspergillus phagocytosis in vitro was normal, but nearly 80% of the ingested organisms (versus 30% in the controls) survived intracellularly during the 2-hr assay period. The patient's neutrophils showed a subnormal frequency of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction and a subnormal hexose monophosphate shunt activation in response to phagocytosis. The metabolic responsiveness, however, was clearly superior to that of chronic granulomatous disease neutrophils tested for comparison. The immune status of the patient and the following properties of his neutrophils were found to be normal: random and chemotactic motility, killing of S. aureus and C. albicans, and the contents of several granula enzymes. Our findings suggest the existence of neutrophil factors or functions which are required for killing Aspergillus, but not S. aureus and C. albicans. PMID:7018757

Pagani, A; Spalla, R; Ferrari, F A; Duse, M; Lenzi, L; Bretz, U; Baggiolini, M; Siccardi, A G

1981-01-01

479

How many antimicrobial peptide molecules kill a bacterium? The case of PMAP-23.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) kill bacteria mainly through the perturbation of their membranes and are promising compounds to fight drug resistance. Models of the mechanism of AMPs-induced membrane perturbation were developed based on experiments in liposomes, but their relevance for bacterial killing is debated. We determined the association of an analogue of the AMP PMAP-23 to Escherichia coli cells, under the same experimental conditions used to measure bactericidal activity. Killing took place only when bound peptides completely saturated bacterial membranes (10(6)-10(7) bound peptides per cell), indicating that the "carpet" model for the perturbation of artificial bilayers is representative of what happens in real bacteria. This finding supports the view that, at least for this peptide, a microbicidal mechanism is possible in vivo only at micromolar total peptide concentrations. We also showed that, notwithstanding their simplicity, liposomes represent a reliable model to characterize AMPs partition in bacterial membranes. PMID:25058470

Roversi, Daniela; Luca, Vincenzo; Aureli, Simone; Park, Yoonkyung; Mangoni, Maria Luisa; Stella, Lorenzo

2014-09-19

480

Importance of (antibody-dependent) complement-mediated serum killing in protection against Bordetella pertussis.  

PubMed

Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory disease that is caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite being vaccine preventable, pertussis rates have been rising steadily over the last decades, even in areas with high vaccine uptake. Recently, experiments with infant baboons indicated that although vaccination with acellular pertussis vaccines prevented disease, no apparent effect was observed on infection and transmission. One explanation may be that current acellular pertussis vaccines do not induce high levels of opsonophagocytic and/or bactericidal activity, implying that engineering of vaccines that promote bacterial killing may improve efficacy. Here, we discuss the importance of complement-mediated killing in vaccine-induced protection against B. pertussis. We first examine how B. pertussis may have evolved different complement evasion strategies. Second, we explore the benefits of opsonophagocytic and/or bactericidal killing in vaccine-induced protection and discuss whether or not inclusion of new opsonophagocytic or bactericidal target antigens in pertussis vaccines may benefit efficacy. PMID:25081731

Geurtsen, Jeroen; Fae, Kellen C; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P J M

2014-10-01

481

Plankton Microorganisms Coinciding with Two Consecutive Mass Fish Kills in a Newly Reconstructed Lake  

PubMed Central

Lake Karla, Greece, was dried up in 1962 and its refilling started in 2009. We examined the Cyanobacteria and unicellular eukaryotes found during two fish kill incidents, in March and April 2010, in order to detect possible causative agents. Both microscopic and molecular (16S/18S rRNA gene diversity) identification were applied. Potentially toxic Cyanobacteria included representatives of the Planktothrix and Anabaena groups. Known toxic eukaryotes or parasites related to fish kill events were Prymnesium parvum and Pfiesteria cf. piscicida, the latter being reported in an inland lake for the second time. Other potentially harmful microorganisms, for fish and other aquatic life, included representatives of Fungi, Mesomycetozoa, Alveolata, and Heterokontophyta (stramenopiles). In addition, Euglenophyta, Chlorophyta, and diatoms were represented by species indicative of hypertrophic conditions. The pioneers of L. Karla's plankton during the first months of its water refilling process included species that could cause the two observed fish kill events. PMID:22654619

Oikonomou, Andreas; Katsiapi, Matina; Karayanni, Hera; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar.

2012-01-01

482

Two strains of male-killing Wolbachia in a ladybird, Coccinella undecimpunctata, from a hot climate.  

PubMed

Ladybirds are a hot-spot for the invasion of male-killing bacteria. These maternally inherited endosymbionts cause the death of male host embryos, to the benefit of female sibling hosts and the bacteria that they contain. Previous studies have shown that high temperatures can eradicate male-killers from ladybirds, leaving the host free from infection. Here we report the discovery of two maternally inherited sex ratio distorters in populations of a coccinellid, Coccinella undecimpunctata, from a hot lowland region of the Middle East. DNA sequence analysis indicates that the male killing is the result of infection by Wolbachia, that the trait is tetracycline sensitive, and that two distinct strains of Wolbachia co-occur within one beetle population. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of male-killing and suggest avenues for future field-work on this system. PMID:23349831

Elnagdy, Sherif; Messing, Susan; Majerus, Michael E N

2013-01-01

483

Killing in combat, mental health symptoms, and suicidal ideation in Iraq war veterans.  

PubMed

This study examined combat and mental health as risk factors of suicidal ideation among 2854 U.S. soldiers returning from deployment in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Data were collected as part of a postdeployment screening program at a large Army medical facility. Overall, 2.8% of soldiers reported suicidal ideation. Postdeployment depression symptoms were associated with suicidal thoughts, while postdeployment PTSD symptoms were associated with current desire for self harm. Postdeployment depression and PTSD symptoms mediated the association between killing in combat and suicidal thinking, while postdeployment PTSD symptoms mediated the association between killing in combat and desire for self harm. These results provide preliminary evidence that suicidal thinking and the desire for self-harm are associated with different mental health predictors, and that the impact of killing on suicidal ideation may be important to consider in the evaluation and care of our newly returning veterans. PMID:21333486

Maguen, Shira; Luxton, David D; Skopp, Nancy A; Gahm, Gregory A; Reger, Mark A; Metzler, Thomas J; Marmar, Charles R

2011-05-01

484

Attachment of Escherichia coli to Listeria monocytogenes for Pediocin-Mediated Killing.  

PubMed

Listeria phage endolysin cell wall-binding domain (CBD) from the Listeria phage A500 was fused with flagellar subunit FliC in Escherichia coli, aiming at binding of E. coli cells to Listeria cells, followed by enhanced killing of Listeria by pediocin production. FliC::CBD chimeric flagella were expressed and detected by Western blot. However, only few chimeric flagella could be isolated from the recombinant cells compared with sufficient amount of wild-type flagella obtained from the host cells. Interestingly, wild-type flagella extract showed capacity of binding Listeria cells. Pediocin-secreting E. coli cells with Listeria-binding flagella killed approximately 40% of the Listeria cells, whereas cell-free spent growth medium with the same pediocin concentration only inhibited Listeria growth. These results suggested that binding the Listeria to bacteriocin-secreting cells improves killing. PMID:25270683

Liu, Shanna; Takala, Timo M; Reunanen, Justus; Saris, Ossian; Saris, Per E J

2015-02-01

485

Intracellular killing of bacteria: is Dictyostelium a model macrophage or an alien?  

PubMed Central

Predation of bacteria by phagocytic cells was first developed during evolution by environmental amoebae. Many of the core mechanisms used by amoebae to sense, ingest and kill bacteria have also been conserved in specialized phagocytic cells in mammalian organisms. Here we focus on recent results revealing how Dictyostelium discoideum senses and kills non-pathogenic bacteria. In this model, genetic analysis of intracellular killing of bacteria has revealed a surprisingly complex array of specialized mechanisms. These results raise new questions on these processes, and challenge current models based largely on studies in mammalian phagocytes. In addition, recent studies suggest one additional level on complexity by revealing how Dictyostelium recognizes specifically various bacterial species and strains, and adapts its metabolism to process them. It remains to be seen to what extent mechanisms uncovered in Dictyostelium are also used in mammalian phagocytic cells. PMID:24628900

Cosson, Pierre; Lima, Wanessa C

2014-01-01

486

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are the subject of considerable attention in the governmental, scientific, and research communities. They are operated by onboard flight automation systems or remotely by a human pilot. Recently employed in Afghanistan and Iraq, UAVs can be used for reconnaissance, surveillance, and even combat. They also have many non-military applications. These sites illustrate the diversity of UAVs and discuss new technologies being used in their design.An article from West Virginia University (1) gives an overview of UAV research being conducted at the institution. In addition to describing the software development for UAV control, the article effectively conveys what UAVs are and how they are used. Another resource that demonstrates the multitude of UAV applications comes from a company that specializes in their design (2). The UAVs described on the site range from high-flying solar powered aircraft to tiny MicroAir Vehicles. Many of the aircraft featured on the site were developed in conjunction with NASA, and a technical paper describing the development of one of the UAVs is provided. A Congressional Research Service report (3) focuses on military acquisition and utilization of UAVs. It briefly discusses early trials dating back to World War I and later efforts by the Israeli Air Force, but the majority of the report deals with current models and the gradual phasing out of certain manned flight missions. The High-Altitude, Long-Endurance UAV Certification & Regulatory Roadmap (4) is a massive online document intended to facilitate the creation of a National Airspace System that includes UAV flight. The downloadable version is nearly 500 pages in length and addresses the integration of UAVs in civil, commercial, and military applications. The University of Sydney has a group of students and faculty that are very active in UAV research and development. The group's homepage (5) showcases four UAVs created at the university, as well as providing several research papers that explore related design issues. A report from the University of Florida (6) proposes a computer vision-based system for creating a fully autonomous Micro Air Vehicle (MAV). The authors note that while considerable progress has been made in remotely piloted MAVs, efforts to develop a MAV that can pilot itself have met with limited success. To curb this trend, the researchers created a system that uses an onboard camera for horizon detection, and the details are presented in the paper. A news article from October 2003 (7) documents a groundbreaking achievement in aviation: the first laser-powered aircraft. Developed by researchers from NASA and the University of Alabama, the UAV is the target of a ground-based laser that charges the photovoltaic cells on board the aircraft. Another news story offers some surprising comments, including the suggestion that manned fighter jets will soon be a thing of the past. Published by Wired News in November 2003, the article cites several experts in unmanned aerial vehicle development. [CL

487

Predator-dependent functional response in wolves: from food limitation to surplus killing.  

PubMed

The functional response of a predator describes the change in per capita kill rate to changes in prey density. This response can be influenced by predator densities, giving a predator-dependent functional response. In social carnivores which defend a territory, kill rates also depend on the individual energetic requirements of group members and their contribution to the kill rate. This study aims to provide empirical data for the functional response of wolves Canis lupus to the highly managed moose Alces alces population in Scandinavia. We explored prey and predator dependence, and how the functional response relates to the energetic requirements of wolf packs. Winter kill rates of GPS-collared wolves and densities of cervids were estimated for a total of 22 study periods in 15 wolf territories. The adult wolves were identified as the individuals responsible for providing kills to the wolf pack, while pups could be described as inept hunters. The predator-dependent, asymptotic functional response models (i.e. Hassell-Varley type II and Crowley-Martin) performed best among a set of 23 competing linear, asymptotic and sigmoid models. Small wolf packs acquired >3 times as much moose biomass as required to sustain their field metabolic rate (FMR), even at relatively low moose abundances. Large packs (6-9 wolves) acquired less biomass than required in territories with low moose abundance. We suggest the surplus killing by small packs is a result of an optimal foraging strategy to consume only the most nutritious parts of easy accessible prey while avoiding the risk of being detected by humans. Food limitation may have a stabilizing effect on pack size in wolves, as supported by the observed negative relationship between body weight of pups and pack size. PMID:25109601

Zimmermann, Barbara; Sand, H錵an; Wabakken, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Andreassen, Harry Peter

2014-08-11

488

Catalase has a novel protective role against electrophile killing of Xanthomonas.  

PubMed

The ability of XANTHOMONAS: campestris pv. phaseoli to protect itself against lethal concentrations of man-made (N:-ethylmaleimide, NEM) and endogenously produced (methylglyoxal, MG) electrophiles was investigated. Pretreatment of X. c. pv. phaseoli with a low concentration of NEM induced protection against lethal concentrations of NEM and MG. MG pretreatment weakly induced protection against NEM but not against MG itself. NEM-induced protection against electrophile killing required new protein synthesis and was abolished by the addition of a protein synthesis inhibitor. By contrast, MG-induced protection against NEM killing was independent of de novo protein synthesis. X. c. pv. phaseoli harbouring an expression vector carrying a catalase gene was over 100-fold more resistant to MG and NEM killing. High expression levels of genes for other peroxide-protective enzymes, such as those for alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (ahpC and ahpF) and ohr, failed to protect against electrophile killing. Thus, catalase appears to have a novel protective role(s) against electrophile toxicity. This finding suggests that in X. c. pv. phaseoli NEM and MG toxicity might involve accumulation and/or increased production of H(2)O(2). This idea was supported by the observation that addition of 10 mM sodium pyruvate, a compound that can react chemically with peroxide or hydroxyl radical scavengers (DMSO and glycerol), was found to protect XANTHOMONAS: from electrophile killing. The protective role of catalase and the role of H(2)O(2) in electrophile toxicity are novel observations and could be generally important in other bacteria. In addition, unlike other bacteria, XANTHOMONAS: in stationary phase was more susceptible to electrophile killing compared to cells in exponential phase. PMID:11158366

Vattanaviboon, P; Sriprang, R; Mongkolsuk, S

2001-02-01

489

Spatial Heterogeneity and Peptide Availability Determine CTL Killing Efficiency In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The rate at which a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) can survey for infected cells is a key ingredient of models of vertebrate immune responses to intracellular pathogens. Estimates have been obtained using in vivo cytotoxicity assays in which peptide-pulsed splenocytes are killed by CTL in the spleens of immunised mice. However the spleen is a heterogeneous environment and splenocytes comprise multiple cell types. Are some cell types intrinsically more susceptible to lysis than others? Quantitatively, what impacts are made by the spatial distribution of targets and effectors, and the level of peptide-MHC on the target cell surface? To address these questions we revisited the splenocyte killing assay, using CTL specific for an epitope of influenza virus. We found that at the cell population level T cell targets were killed more rapidly than B cells. Using modeling, quantitative imaging and in vitro killing assays we conclude that this difference in vivo likely reflects different migratory patterns of targets within the spleen and a heterogeneous distribution of CTL, with no detectable difference in the intrinsic susceptibilities of the two populations to lysis. Modeling of the stages involved in the detection and killing of peptide-pulsed targets in vitro revealed that peptide dose influenced the ability of CTL to form conjugates with targets but had no detectable effect on the probability that conjugation resulted in lysis, and that T cell targets took longer to lyse than B cells. We also infer that incomplete killing in vivo of cells pulsed with low doses of peptide may be due to a combination of heterogeneity in peptide uptake and the dissociation, but not internalisation, of peptide-MHC complexes. Our analyses demonstrate how population-averaged parameters in models of immune responses can be dissected to account for both spatial and cellular heterogeneity. PMID:25233372

Hogan, Thea; Kadolsky, Ulrich; Tung, Sim; Seddon, Benedict; Yates, Andre