Science.gov

Sample records for kinetic kill vehicle

  1. Unique digital imagery interface between a silicon graphics computer and the kinetic kill vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulator (KHILS) wideband infrared scene projector (WISP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Ricky A.; Moren, Stephen E.; Skalka, Marion S.

    1998-07-01

    Providing a flexible and reliable source of IR target imagery is absolutely essential for operation of an IR Scene Projector in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment. The Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) at Eglin AFB provides the capability, and requisite interfaces, to supply target IR imagery to its Wideband IR Scene Projector (WISP) from three separate sources at frame rates ranging from 30 - 120 Hz. Video can be input from a VCR source at the conventional 30 Hz frame rate. Pre-canned digital imagery and test patterns can be downloaded into stored memory from the host processor and played back as individual still frames or movie sequences up to a 120 Hz frame rate. Dynamic real-time imagery to the KHILS WISP projector system, at a 120 Hz frame rate, can be provided from a Silicon Graphics Onyx computer system normally used for generation of digital IR imagery through a custom CSA-built interface which is available for either the SGI/DVP or SGI/DD02 interface port. The primary focus of this paper is to describe our technical approach and experience in the development of this unique SGI computer and WISP projector interface.

  2. Advanced gel propulsion controls for kill vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, W. K.; Olson, A.; Finato, S.

    1993-06-01

    A gel propulsion control concept for tactical applications is reviewed, and the status of the individual component technologies currently under development at the Aerojet Propulsion Division is discussed. It is concluded that a gel propellant Divert and Attitude Control Subsystem (DACS) provides a safe, insensitive munitions compliant alternative to current liquid Theater Missile Defense (TMD) DACS approaches. The gel kill vehicle (KV) control system packages a total impulse typical of a tactical weapon interceptor for the ground- or sea-based TMD systems. High density packaging makes it possible to increase firepower and to eliminate long-term high pressure gas storage associated with bipropellant systems. The integrated control subsystem technologies encompass solid propellant gas generators, insulated composite overwrapped propellant tanks, lightweight endoatmospheric thrusters, and insensitive munition gel propellants, which meet the requirements of a deployable, operationally safe KV.

  3. Characteristics of vehicle-animal crashes in which vehicle occupants are killed.

    PubMed

    Williams, Allan F; Wells, Joann K

    2005-03-01

    During the past 10 years almost 1,500 people have been killed in motor vehicle collisions with animals. Police reports on 147 fatal vehicle-animal crashes during 2000-2002 were obtained from nine states. The goal was to determine common crash types, types of animals involved, and steps that could be taken to reduce the crashes and injuries. Seventy-seven percent of the struck animals were deer, but six other types of animals were involved including small ones such as dogs. Eighty percent of the crashes were single-vehicle events. In most of these cases a motorcycle struck an animal and the rider came off the vehicle, or a passenger vehicle struck an animal and then ran off the road; in a few cases the animal went through the windshield. Multiple-vehicle crashes included vehicles striking deer that went through the windshields of oncoming vehicles, vehicles striking animals and then colliding with other vehicles, and vehicles striking animals that subsequently were struck by other vehicles. Crashes occurred primarily in rural areas, on roads with 55 mph or higher speed limits, during evening or nighttime hours, and in darkness. Greater application of deer-vehicle collision countermeasures known to be effective is needed, but it is noteworthy that a majority of fatalities occurred from subsequent collisions with other vehicles or objects, not from animal contacts. Sixty-five percent of motorcyclists killed were not wearing helmets, and 60% of vehicle occupants killed were unbelted; many of these fatalities would not have occurred with proper protection. PMID:15823876

  4. Kinetics of killing Listeria monocytogenes by macrophages: rapid killing accompanying phagocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, W.A.

    1983-08-01

    The kinetics of bactericidal activity of activated macrophages can be precisely described by a mathematical model in which phagocytosis, killing, digestion, and release of degraded bacterial material are considered to occur continuously. To gain a better understanding of these events, I have determined the period of time between first contact of bacteria with macrophages and the onset of killing. Activated rat peritoneal macrophages were incubated for various times up to 15 min with Listeria monocytogenes previously labeled with /sup 3/H-thymidine and the unassociated bacteria removed by two centrifugations through a density interface. Both cell-associated radioactivity and cell-associated viable bacteria, determined as colony forming units after sonication of the cell pellet, increased with time of incubation. However, the specific viability of these bacteria, expressed as the ratio of number of viable bacteria per unit radioactivity declined with time, as an approximate inverse exponential, after a lag period of 2.9 +/- 0.8 min. Evidence is given that other possible causes for this decline in specific viability, other than death of the bacteria, such as preferential ingestion of dead Listeria, clumping of bacteria, variations in autolytic activity, or release of Listericidins are unlikely. I conclude therefore that activated macrophages kill Listeria approximately 3 min after the cell and the bacterium first make contact.

  5. Genius Sand: A Miniature Kill Vehicle Technology to Support Boost Phase Intercepts and Midcourse Engagements

    SciTech Connect

    Ledebuhr, A.G.; Ng, L.C.; Kordas, J.F.; Jones, M.S.; McMahon, D.H.

    2002-06-30

    This paper summarizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) approach to a proposed Technology Demonstration program for the development of a new class of miniature kill vehicles (MKVs), that they have termed Genius Sand (GS). These miniaturized kinetic kill vehicles offer new capabilities for boost phase intercept (BPI) missions, as well as midcourse intercepts and the defeat of advanced countermeasures. The specific GS MKV properties will depend on the choice of mission application and system architecture, as well as the level of coordinated or autonomous operations in these missions. In general the GS MKVs will mass from between 1 to 5 kilograms and have several hundred meters per second of {Delta}v and be capable of several g's of acceleration. Based on the results of their previous study effort, they believe that it is feasible to develop and integrate the required technologies into a fully functional GS MKV prototype within the scope of a three-year development effort. They will discuss some of the system architecture trades and applicable technologies that can be applied in an operational MKV system, as a guide to focus any technology demonstration program. They will present the results of a preliminary 6DOF analysis to determine the minimum capabilities of an MKV system. They also will discuss a preliminary design configuration of a 2 kg GS MKV that has between 300-500 m/s of {Delta}v and has at least 2-g's of acceleration capability. They believe a successful GS MKV development effort will require not only a comprehensive component miniaturization program, but a rapid hardware prototyping process, and the ability to utilize high fidelity ground testing methodologies.

  6. Speed kills: ineffective avian escape responses to oncoming vehicles.

    PubMed

    DeVault, Travis L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Seamans, Thomas W; Lima, Steven L; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2015-02-22

    Animal-vehicle collisions cause high levels of vertebrate mortality worldwide, and what goes wrong when animals fail to escape and ultimately collide with vehicles is not well understood. We investigated alert and escape behaviours of captive brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in response to virtual vehicle approaches of different sizes and at speeds ranging from 60 to 360 km h(-1). Alert and flight initiation distances remained similar across vehicle speeds, and accordingly, alert and flight initiation times decreased at higher vehicle speeds. Thus, avoidance behaviours in cowbirds appeared to be based on distance rather than time available for escape, particularly at 60-150 km h(-1); however, at higher speeds (more than or equal to 180 km h(-1)) no trend in response behaviour was discernible. As vehicle speed increased, cowbirds did not have enough time to assess the approaching vehicle, and cowbirds generally did not initiate flight with enough time to avoid collision when vehicle speed exceeded 120 km h(-1). Although potentially effective for evading predators, the decision-making process used by cowbirds in our study appears maladaptive in the context of avoiding fast-moving vehicles. Our methodological approach and findings provide a framework to assess how novel management strategies could affect escape rules, and the sensory and cognitive abilities animals use to avoid vehicle collisions. PMID:25567648

  7. Speed kills: ineffective avian escape responses to oncoming vehicles

    PubMed Central

    DeVault, Travis L.; Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; Lima, Steven L.; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Animal–vehicle collisions cause high levels of vertebrate mortality worldwide, and what goes wrong when animals fail to escape and ultimately collide with vehicles is not well understood. We investigated alert and escape behaviours of captive brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in response to virtual vehicle approaches of different sizes and at speeds ranging from 60 to 360 km h−1. Alert and flight initiation distances remained similar across vehicle speeds, and accordingly, alert and flight initiation times decreased at higher vehicle speeds. Thus, avoidance behaviours in cowbirds appeared to be based on distance rather than time available for escape, particularly at 60–150 km h−1; however, at higher speeds (more than or equal to 180 km h−1) no trend in response behaviour was discernible. As vehicle speed increased, cowbirds did not have enough time to assess the approaching vehicle, and cowbirds generally did not initiate flight with enough time to avoid collision when vehicle speed exceeded 120 km h−1. Although potentially effective for evading predators, the decision-making process used by cowbirds in our study appears maladaptive in the context of avoiding fast-moving vehicles. Our methodological approach and findings provide a framework to assess how novel management strategies could affect escape rules, and the sensory and cognitive abilities animals use to avoid vehicle collisions. PMID:25567648

  8. Vehicle braking and kinetic energy recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Lowther, F. E.

    1981-09-22

    An auxiliary kinetic energy recovery system is provided for a vehicle with a rotary sliding vane engine including a compressor, a combustion chamber and a motor in which the braking is done by connecting the rotor of the compressor to a wheel and braking rotation of the rotor by controlling the gas flow through the rotary sliding vane compressor, such as by varying the outlet to increase the pressure ratio. This eliminates the conventional friction brakes. The compressed air generated during braking is fed to a surge tank for later use in operating the vehicle engine , thus recovering a portion of the kinetic energy of the vehicle. Additional amounts of kinetic energy are recovered by means of a closed circuit compressible gas circulating system which comprises an auxiliary compressor actuated by the same shaft as that attached to the engine compressor. Expansion of the compressed gas provides torque to the rotor of a motor which drives a shaft by means of which kinetic energy can be recovered as storable electrical power or compressed air. The rotary slide vane motor can also be used as the brake by controlling the inlet thereto. The compressor and motor can be separate units or portions of one unitary rotary sliding vane device. The compressor-brake and motor-brake can be used together or separately and as integral or separate parts of a rotary sliding vane engine and also with other different types of engines.

  9. Electric Vehicles Mileage Extender Kinetic Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jivkov, Venelin; Draganov, Vutko; Stoyanova, Yana

    2015-03-01

    The proposed paper considers small urban vehicles with electric hybrid propulsion systems. Energy demands are examined on the basis of European drive cycle (NEUDC) and on an energy recuperation coefficient and are formulated for description of cycle energy transfers. Numerical simulation results show real possibilities for increasing in achievable vehicle mileage at the same energy levels of a main energy source - the electric battery. Kinetic energy storage (KES), as proposed to be used as an energy buffer and different structural schemes of the hybrid propulsion system are commented. Minimum energy levels for primary (the electric battery) and secondary (KES) sources are evaluated. A strategy for reduced power flows control is examined, and its impact on achievable vehicle mileage is investigated. Results show an additional increase in simulated mileage at the same initial energy levels.

  10. Type, size and age of vehicles driven by teenage drivers killed in crashes during 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-04-01

    Given teenagers' elevated crash rates, it is especially important that their vehicles have key safety features and good crash protection. A profile of vehicles driven by teenagers killed in crashes was developed. Data on vehicles of drivers ages 15-17 and ages 35-50 who died in crashes during 2008-2012 were obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Using vehicle identification numbers, the vehicle make, model and model year were identified. 29% of fatally injured teenagers were driving mini or small cars, 82% were driving vehicles at least 6?years old, and 48% were driving vehicles at least 11?years old. Compared with middle-aged drivers, teenagers' vehicles more often were small or mini cars or older vehicles. Few teenagers' vehicles had electronic stability control or side airbags as standard features. Parents should consider safety when choosing vehicles for their teenagers. PMID:25525130

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Haemophilus parainfluenzae by a kinetic killing-curve method.

    PubMed

    Jemsek, J G; Martin, R R; Greenberg, S B; Gentry, L O

    1980-03-01

    A kinetic killing-curve method, designed to mimic several aspects of clinical therapy in endocarditis, was used to test 10 strains of Haemophilus parainfluenzae against 28 antibiotic regimens. In an effort to simulate changing in vivo levels of antibiotic in serum, concentrations of three penicillins, three cephalosporins, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol were sequentially adjusted over a 12-hr period. Against six beta-lactamase-negative strains, gentamicin in combination with penicillin or cephalosporin invariably resulted in an additive or synergistic effect. Chloramphenicol and a penicillin or cephalosporin usually displayed an indifferent effect, but chloramphenicol was often antagonistic when combined with gentamicin. With four beta-lactamase-positive strains, variable responses were noted to penicillin-aminoglycoside combinations; cephalosporin-aminoglycoside combinations were usually synergistic. This dynamic approach to killing-curve studies may be more appropriate than a static system for in vitro examination of the effect of antimicrobial combinations against selected organisms. PMID:6444977

  12. Two-Lesion Kinetic Model of Double-Strand Break Rejoining and Cell Killing

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Robert D. )

    2000-11-01

    To better link biochemical processing of the DSB to cell killing, a two-lesion kinetic (TLK) model is proposed. In the TLK model, the family of all possible DSBs is sub-divided into simple and complex DSBs, and each kind of DSB may have its own repair characteristics. A unique aspect of the TLK model is that break-ends associated with both kinds of DSB are allowed to interact in pairwise fashion to form irreversible lethal and non-lethal damages. To test the performance of the TLK model, non-linear optimization methods are used to calibrate the model based on CHO cell survival data for an extensive set of single-dose and split-dose exposure conditions. Then, some of the postulated mechanisms of action are tested by comparing measured and predicted estimates of the initial DSB yield and the rate of DSB rejoining. TLK model predictions of CHO survival and the initial DSB yield and rejoining rate are all shown to be in good agreement with the measured data. Studies suggest a yield of about 25 DSB Gy-1 cell-1. About 20 DSB Gy-1 cell-1 are rejoined quickly (15-minute repair half-time), and 4 to 6 DSB Gy-1 cell-1 are rejoined very slowly (10 to 15 hour repair half-time). Both the slow- and fast-rejoining DSBs make a substantial contribution to the radiation killing of CHO cells. Although the TLK model provides a much more satisfactory formalism to relate biochemical processing of the DSB to cell killing than earlier kinetic models, some small differences among the measured and predicted CHO survival and DSB rejoining data suggest that additional factors and processes not considered in the present work may affect biochemical processing of the DSB and, hence, cell killing.

  13. Child Passengers Killed in Reckless and Alcohol-Related Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Kelley-Baker, Tara; Romano, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction About 20 years ago, concern was raised about the dangers children face when driven by drinking drivers in the United States. During the last decade, the pace of research on this topic subsided. Yet in 2010, every day three children younger than age 15 were killed, and 469 were injured in motor-vehicle crashes. Method The aim of this effort is to describe the status of the problem in the United States and suggest lines of research. From the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), we selected crashes in which a driver aged 21 or older was driving at least one child younger than age 15. We identified crashes that occurred at different times of the day in which the driver was speeding, ran a red light, or was alcohol positive. We described the drivers demographics and examined how they relate to the different crash types. Results We found that, although driving a child seems to protect against the studied forms of risky driving, such protection varies sharply depending upon the drivers and childrens demographics and the crash type. There is no clear reason to explain the drivers decision to endanger the children they drive. The percent of children killed in speeding-related and red-light running motor-vehicle crashes has remained relatively stable during the last decade. Future research must (a) examine the effectiveness of current child endangerment laws; (b) examine crashes other than fatal; and (c) be more targeted, looking at specific drivers age and gender, specific childrens ages, the time of the crash, and the type of crash. PMID:24529098

  14. Antibody Fc engineering improves frequency and promotes kinetic boosting of serial killing mediated by NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Romain, Gabrielle; Senyukov, Vladimir; Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Merouane, Amine; Kelton, William; Liadi, Ivan; Mahendra, Ankit; Charab, Wissam; Georgiou, George; Roysam, Badrinath; Lee, Dean A.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting tumor antigens results primarily from their ability to elicit potent cytotoxicity through effector-mediated functions. We have engineered the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) mAb, HuM195, targeting the leukemic antigen CD33, by introducing the triple mutation Ser293Asp/Ala330Leu/Ile332Glu (DLE), and developed Time-lapse Imaging Microscopy in Nanowell Grids to analyze antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity kinetics of thousands of individual natural killer (NK) cells and mAb-coated target cells. We demonstrate that the DLE-HuM195 antibody increases both the quality and the quantity of NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity by endowing more NK cells to participate in cytotoxicity via accrued CD16-mediated signaling and by increasing serial killing of target cells. NK cells encountering targets coated with DLE-HuM195 induce rapid target cell apoptosis by promoting simultaneous conjugates to multiple target cells and induce apoptosis in twice the number of target cells within the same period as the wild-type mAb. Enhanced target killing was also associated with increased frequency of NK cells undergoing apoptosis, but this effect was donor-dependent. Antibody-based therapies targeting tumor antigens will benefit from a better understanding of cell-mediated tumor elimination, and our work opens further opportunities for the therapeutic targeting of CD33 in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:25232058

  15. Studies on the kinetics of killing and the proposed mechanism of action of microemulsions against fungi.

    PubMed

    Al-Adham, Ibrahim S I; Ashour, Hana; Al-Kaissi, Elham; Khalil, Enam; Kierans, Martin; Collier, Phillip J

    2013-09-15

    Microemulsions are physically stable oil/water clear dispersions, spontaneously formed and thermodynamically stable. They are composed in most cases of water, oil, surfactant and cosurfactant. Microemulsions are stable, self-preserving antimicrobial agents in their own right. The observed levels of antimicrobial activity associated with microemulsions may be due to the direct effect of the microemulsions themselves on the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. The aim of this work is to study the growth behaviour of different microbes in presence of certain prepared physically stable microemulsion formulae over extended periods of time. An experiment was designed to study the kinetics of killing of a microemulsion preparation (17.3% Tween-80, 8.5% n-pentanol, 5% isopropyl myristate and 69.2% sterile distilled water) against selected test microorganisms (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Rhodotorula spp.). Secondly, an experiment was designed to study the effects of the microemulsion preparation on the cytoplasmic membrane structure and function of selected fungal species by observation of 260 nm component leakage. Finally, the effects of the microemulsion on the fungal membrane structure and function using S. pombe were studied using transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the prepared microemulsions are stable, effective antimicrobial systems with effective killing rates against C. albicans, A. niger, S. pombe and Rhodotorula spp. The results indicate a proposed mechanism of action of significant anti-membrane activity, resulting in the gross disturbance and dysfunction of the cytoplasmic membrane structure which is followed by cell wall modifications, cytoplasmic coagulation, disruption of intracellular metabolism and cell death. PMID:23830945

  16. Utilization of rotor kinetic energy storage for hybrid vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-05-03

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine, the power system comprises an electric machine (12) further comprising a first excitation source (47), a permanent magnet rotor (28) and a magnetic coupling rotor (26) spaced from the permanent magnet rotor and at least one second excitation source (43), the magnetic coupling rotor (26) also including a flywheel having an inertial mass to store kinetic energy during an initial acceleration to an operating speed; and wherein the first excitation source is electrically connected to the second excitation source for power cycling such that the flywheel rotor (26) exerts torque on the permanent magnet rotor (28) to assist braking and acceleration of the permanent magnet rotor (28) and consequently, the vehicle. An axial gap machine and a radial gap machine are disclosed and methods of the invention are also disclosed.

  17. From the Kinetic Energy Recovery System to the Thermo-Hydraulic Hybrid Motor Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Guta, Dragos; Dumitrescu, Catalin

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents some theoretical and experimental results obtained by the Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute INOE 2000-IHP with its partners, regarding the creating of one hydraulic system able to recovering the kinetic energy of the motor vehicles, in the braking phases, and use this recovered energy in the starting and accelerating phases. Also, in the article is presented a testing stand, which was especially designed for testing the hydraulic system for recovery the kinetic energy. Through mounting of the kinetic energy recovering hydraulic system, on one motor vehicle, this vehicle became a thermo-hydraulic hybrid vehicle. Therefore, the dynamic behavior was analyzed for the whole hybrid motor vehicle, which includes the energy recovery system. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the possible performances of the hybrid vehicle and that the kinetic energy recovery hydraulic systems are good means to increase energy efficiency of the road motor vehicles and to decrease of the fuel consumption.

  18. How would increasing seat belt use affect the number of killed or seriously injured light vehicle occupants?

    PubMed

    Høye, Alena

    2016-03-01

    The expected effects of increasing seat belt use on the number of killed or seriously injured (KSI) light vehicle occupants have been estimated for three scenarios of increased seat belt use in Norway, taking into account current seat belt use, the effects of seat belts and differences in crash risk between belted and unbelted drivers. The effects of seat belts on fatality and injury risk were investigated in a meta-analysis that is based on 24 studies from 2000 or later. The results indicate that seat belts reduce both fatal and non-fatal injuries by 60% among front seat occupants and by 44% among rear seat occupants. Both results are statistically significant. Seat belt use among rear seat occupants was additionally found to about halve fatality risk among belted front seat occupants in a meta-analysis that is based on six studies. Based on an analysis of seat belt wearing rates among crash involved and non-crash involved drivers in Norway it is estimated that unbelted drivers have 8.3 times the fatal crash risk and 5.2 times the serious injury crash risk of belted drivers. The large differences in crash risk are likely to be due to other risk factors that are common among unbelted drivers such as drunk driving and speeding. Without taking into account differences in crash risk between belted and unbelted drivers, the estimated effects of increasing seat belt use are likely to be biased. When differences in crash risk are taken into account, it is estimated that the annual numbers of KSI front seat occupants in light vehicles in Norway could be reduced by 11.3% if all vehicles had seat belt reminders (assumed seat belt wearing rate 98.9%), by 17.5% if all light vehicles had seat belt interlocks (assumed seat belt wearing rate 99.7%) and by 19.9% if all front seat occupants of light vehicles were belted. Currently 96.6% of all (non-crash involved) front seat occupants are belted. The effect on KSI per percentage increase of seat belt use increases with increasing initial levels of seat belt use. Had all rear seat occupants been belted, the number of KSI front seat occupants could additionally be reduced by about 0.6%. The reduction of the number of KSI rear seat occupants would be about the same in terms of numbers of prevented KSI. PMID:26788959

  19. Two-dimensional kinetics computer program for orbit transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, G. R.; Dang, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    Future Orbit Transfer Vehicles (OTV) presently under consideration require rocket engines delivering a high specific impulse. This high performance can be obtained with large area ratio thrust chambers using oxygen with either hydrogen or hydrocarbon fuels. In the projected nozzles, the combustion products are expanded to low pressure and temperature levels at high Mach number, a domain which has not been experienced with existing rocket engines. In order to assist in the design and evaluation of OTV engines, modifications have recently been incorporated in the Two-Dimensional-Kinetics (TDK) computer program. These modifications include the treatment of shock waves induced by the wall curvature, and shocks which are attached to the wall. The reflection of a shock wave at the flow axis is also treated in an appropriate manner and multiple shock reflections are allowed. A Boundary Layer Module (BLM) has also been incorporated into the TDK computer program in order to provide an automated treatment of the rigorous JANNAF rocket engine performance prediction procedure.

  20. Interference with superinfection and with cell killing and determination of host range and growth kinetics mediated by feline leukemia virus surface glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Kristal, B S; Reinhart, T A; Hoover, E A; Mullins, J I

    1993-01-01

    The functions of the surface glycoproteins (SU) of feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) are of interest since these proteins mediate virus infection and interference and are critical determinants of disease specificity. In this study, we examined the biochemical and genetic determinants of SU important to virus entry and cell killing. In particular, we developed and used vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)/FeLV pseudotype virus interference assays to determine interference subgroupings and assess mechanisms of host cell restriction. We also assessed roles of SU in virus growth kinetics and in the inhibition of cell killing caused by superinfection with cytopathic virus. Subgroup classification by VSV/FeLV pseudotype assay was in agreement with that defined previously by focus interference assay and was found to be determined by changes near the N terminus of SU for FeLV subgroups A (FeLV-A) and C. Virus host range restriction was found to be mediated at the level of virus entry in most cases, although postentry events mediated restriction in the failure of a subgroup A-like, T-cell cytopathic and immunodeficiency-inducing clone (FeLV-FAIDS-EECC) to replicate in feline fibroblasts. FeLV-FAIDS-EECC-induced cell killing was also inhibited by prior infection with one of two FeLV-A isolates. This inhibition could be conveyed by as few as four amino acid changes near the N terminus of the FeLV-A SU and also appeared to be mediated at a postentry level. Lastly, the SU-coding sequence was also found to determine differences in growth kinetics of viruses within the same subgroup. These studies demonstrate that subtle alterations in the FeLV SU, particularly in the N-terminal region, impart multiple significant functional differences which distinguish virus variants. PMID:8389921

  1. A kinetic energy model of two-vehicle crash injury severity.

    PubMed

    Sobhani, Amir; Young, William; Logan, David; Bahrololoom, Sareh

    2011-05-01

    An important part of any model of vehicle crashes is the development of a procedure to estimate crash injury severity. After reviewing existing models of crash severity, this paper outlines the development of a modelling approach aimed at measuring the injury severity of people in two-vehicle road crashes. This model can be incorporated into a discrete event traffic simulation model, using simulation model outputs as its input. The model can then serve as an integral part of a simulation model estimating the crash potential of components of the traffic system. The model is developed using Newtonian Mechanics and Generalised Linear Regression. The factors contributing to the speed change (ΔV(s)) of a subject vehicle are identified using the law of conservation of momentum. A Log-Gamma regression model is fitted to measure speed change (ΔV(s)) of the subject vehicle based on the identified crash characteristics. The kinetic energy applied to the subject vehicle is calculated by the model, which in turn uses a Log-Gamma Regression Model to estimate the Injury Severity Score of the crash from the calculated kinetic energy, crash impact type, presence of airbag and/or seat belt and occupant age. PMID:21376862

  2. Time-Kill Kinetics and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Non-fumigatus Aspergillus Species Isolated from Patients with Ocular Mycoses.

    PubMed

    Öz, Yasemin; Özdemir, Havva Gül; Gökbolat, Egemen; Kiraz, Nuri; Ilkit, Macit; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-04-01

    Aspergillus species can cause ocular morbidity and blindness, and thus, appropriate antifungal therapy is needed. We investigated the in vitro activity of itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin, and amphotericin B against 14 Aspergillus isolates obtained from patients with ocular mycoses, using the CLSI reference broth microdilution methodology. In addition, time-kill assays were performed, exposing each isolate separately to 1-, 4-, and 16-fold concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each antifungal agent. A sigmoid maximum-effect (E max) model was used to fit the time-kill curve data. The drug effect was further evaluated by measuring an increase/decrease in the killing rate of the tested isolates. The MICs of amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole were 0.5-1.0, 1.0, 0.5-1.0, and 0.25 µg/ml for A. brasiliensis, A. niger, and A. tubingensis isolates, respectively, and 2.0-4.0, 0.5, 1.0 for A. flavus, and 0.12-0.25 µg/ml for A. nomius isolates, respectively. A. calidoustus had the highest MIC range for the azoles (4.0-16.0 µg/ml) among all isolates tested. The minimum effective concentrations of caspofungin and anidulafungin were ≤0.03-0.5 µg/ml and ≤0.03 µg/ml for all isolates, respectively. Posaconazole demonstrated maximal killing rates (E max = 0.63 h(-1), r (2) = 0.71) against 14 ocular Aspergillus isolates, followed by amphotericin B (E max = 0.39 h(-1), r (2) = 0.87), voriconazole (E max = 0.35 h(-1), r (2) = 0.098), and itraconazole (E max = 0.01 h(-1), r (2) = 0.98). Overall, the antifungal susceptibility of the non-fumigatus Aspergillus isolates tested was species and antifungal agent dependent. Analysis of the kinetic growth assays, along with consideration of the killing rates, revealed that posaconazole was the most effective antifungal against all of the isolates. PMID:26612621

  3. Killing Coyotes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Conger, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Presents different viewpoints concerning the federal government's Animal Damage Control (ADC) Program cited as responsible for killing millions of predators. Critics provide evidence of outdated and inhumane methods exemplified in the coyote killings. The ADC emphasizes new, nonlethal methods of controlling animals cited as "noxious." (MCO)

  4. Killing Range

    PubMed Central

    Asal, Victor; Rethemeyer, R. Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level. PMID:25838603

  5. Killing fetuses and killing newborns.

    PubMed

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2013-05-01

    The argument for the moral permissibility of killing newborns is a challenge to liberal positions on abortion because it can be considered a reductio of their defence of abortion. Here I defend the liberal stance on abortion by arguing that the argument for the moral permissibility of killing newborns on ground of the social, psychological and economic burden on the parents recently put forward by Giubilini and Minerva is not valid; this is because they fail to show that newborns cannot be harmed and because there are morally relevant differences between fetuses and newborns. PMID:23637456

  6. Kinetics of killing Listeria monocytogenes by macrophages: correlation of /sup 3/H-DNA release from labeled bacteria and changes in numbers of viable organisms by mathematical model

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, W.A.

    1982-12-01

    Conventional methods of assessing antibacterial activities of macrophages by viable counting are limited by the precision of the statistics and are difficult to interpret quantitatively because of unrestrained extracellular growth of bacteria. An alternative technique based on the release of radioactive DNA from labeled bacteria has been offered as overcoming these drawbacks. To assess it for use with macrophages I have made a correlation with the conventional viable counting method using a mathematical model. Opsonized Listeria monocytogenes labeled with /sup 3/H-thymidine were exposed to rat macrophages for periods up to 4 hr. Numbers of viable bacteria determined after sonication increased exponentially in the absence of live cells and this growth rate was progressively inhibited by increasing numbers of macrophages. After a lag period of 30-60 min soluble /sup 3/H appeared in the supernatant, the amount increasing with time and numbers of macrophages. To correlate these data I developed a mathematical model that considered that changes in numbers of viable organisms were due to the difference between rates of 1) growth of extracellular bacteria and 2) killing within the macrophage. On the basis of this model curves of best fit to the viable counts data were used to predict the release of radioactivity, assuming that death of a bacterium led to the total release of its label. These predictions and the experimental data agreed well, the lag period of 30-60 min between death of the bacterium and release of radioactivity being consistent with intracellular digestion. Release of soluble radioactivity appears to be an accurate reflection of the number of bacteria killed within the macrophage.

  7. Vehicle-Dependent Disposition Kinetics of Fluoranthene in Fisher-344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Deacqunita L.; Hood, Darryl B.; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate how the vehicles of choice affect the pharmacokinetics of orally administered Fluoranthene [FLA] in rats. Fluoranthene is a member of the family of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon chemicals. Fluoranthene exposure to humans may occur as a result of cigarette smoking, consumption of contaminated food and water, heating woods in stoves and boilers, industrial sources such as coal gasification, carbon and graphite electrode manufacturing. Adult male Fisher-344 rats were given single oral doses of 25 and 50 μg/kg FLA in tricaprylin, peanut oil, cod liver oil, tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5) and 2% Alkamuls-EL620 through gavage. After administration, the rats were housed individually in metabolic cages and sacrificed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours post FLA exposure. Blood, lung, liver, small intestine, adipose tissue samples, urine, and feces were collected at each time point. Samples were subjected to a liquid-liquid extraction using methanol, chloroform, and water. The extracts were analyzed by a reverse-phase HPLC, equipped with a fluorescence detector. The results revealed a dose-dependent increase in FLA concentrations in plasma and tissues for all the vehicles used. Plasma and tissue FLA concentrations were greater for peanut oil; cod liver oil, and tricaprylin vehicles compared to Alkamuls (p < 0.05), and tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5). Most of the FLA administered through peanut oil, cod liver oil and tricaprylin was cleared from the body by 8 hours (90%) and 12 hours (80%) post administration for the 25 μg/kg and 50 μg/kg dose groups, respectively. With both doses employed, the metabolism of FLA was highest when cod liver oil was used as a vehicle and lowest in vehicles containing detergent/water [cod liver oil > peanut oil > tricaprylin > alkamuls > tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5)]. These findings suggest that uptake and elimination of FLA is accelerated when administered through oil-based vehicles. The low uptake of FLA from alkamuls and tween 80/isotonic saline may have been a result of the poor solubility of the chemical. In summary, our findings reiterate that absorption characteristics of FLA were governed by the dose as well as the dosing vehicle. The vehicle-dependent bioavailability of FLA suggests a need for the judicious selection of vehicles in evaluating oral toxicity studies for risk assessment purposes. PMID:18441404

  8. Planning a dynamic kill

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.

    1996-05-01

    This article discusses the methodology, design philosophy, and guidelines for planning a dynamic-kill operation for a wild well. The topics covered are two methods of computer analysis for designing dynamic-kill requirements, the design process, determining the pumping spread, and the pitfalls that a designer faces in planning a dynamic kill.

  9. Killing initial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beig, Robert; Chrusciel, Piotr T.

    1997-01-01

    We study spacetime Killing vectors in terms of their `lapse and shift' relative to some spacelike slice. We give a necessary and sufficient condition in order for these lapse - shift pairs, which we call Killing initial data (KID), to form a Lie algebra under the bracket operation induced by the Lie commutator of vector fields on spacetime. This result is applied to obtain a theorem on the periodicity of orbits for a class of Killing vector fields in asymptotically flat spacetimes.

  10. Ion-kill dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  11. Killing initial data revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maerten, Daniel

    2004-07-01

    Considering the Killing vector fields on a Lorentzian manifold in terms of their lapse and shift along a space-like hypersurface, we give a new definition of the Killing Initial Data (KID) of Beig and Chru?ciel [Class. Quantum Grav. 14-1A, A83 (1996)]. We define, on these new KID's, the bracket operation induced by the usual Lie bracket of Killing vector fields on the Lorentzian manifold, and study the conditions for our new KID's to form a Lie algebra. The interesting fact is that these conditions only depend on data along the hypersurface.

  12. FISH KILLS, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data related to fish kills in North Carolina are collected and stored in tables on the Web at the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources. http://www.esb.enr.state.nc.us/Fishkill/fishkill00.htm

  13. Bacterial Growth Kinetics under a Novel Flexible Methacrylate Dressing Serving as a Drug Delivery Vehicle for Antiseptics

    PubMed Central

    Forstner, Christina; Leitgeb, Johannes; Schuster, Rupert; Dosch, Verena; Kramer, Axel; Cutting, Keith F.; Leaper, David J.; Assadian, Ojan

    2013-01-01

    A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth kinetics in combination with three antiseptics was investigated in an in vitro porcine wound model. Standardized in vitro wounds were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and divided into six groups: no dressing (negative control), methacrylate dressing alone, and combinations with application of 0.02% Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), 0.4% PHMB, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine, 7.7 mg/mL Povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine), and 0.1% Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) + 2% phenoxyethanol. Bacterial load per gram tissue was measured over five days. The highest reduction was observed with PVP-iodine at 24 h to log10 1.43 cfu/g, followed by OCT at 48 h to log10 2.41 cfu/g. Whilst 0.02% PHMB resulted in a stable bacterial load over 120 h to log10 4.00 cfu/g over 120 h, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine inhibited growth during the first 48 h, with slightly increasing bacterial numbers up to log10 5.38 cfu/g at 120 h. These results indicate that this flexible methacrylate dressing can be loaded with various antiseptics serving as drug delivery system. Depending on the selected combination, an individually shaped and controlled antibacterial effect may be achieved using the same type of wound dressing. PMID:23698780

  14. Kinetics of gentamicin uptake in the inner ear of Chinchilla langier after middle-ear administration in a sustained-release vehicle.

    PubMed

    Balough, B J; Hoffer, M E; Wester, D; O'Leary, M J; Brooker, C R; Goto, M

    1998-11-01

    The search for a safe, effective treatment for the vertigo associated with Meniere's disease has long been an important topic in otolaryngology. In recent years many groups have begun using intratympanic gentamicin to treat this vertigo. Although reported cure rates are as high as 90%, many questions remain regarding this type of treatment. Current limitations are the necessity for repeated treatments and a lack of clear dosing guidelines. In addition, the gentamicin must be delivered in a manner that allows maximal vestibulotoxic effect without injury to hearing. Until investigators can control the exact amount of medicine that is placed in the ear and have an understanding of the kinetics of gentamicin absorption, adequate dosing guidelines will be difficult to establish, and therapy will continue to rely on empiric data. We describe the use of a fibrin-based sustained-release vehicle, impregnated with gentamicin, injected into the middle ear of chinchillas. This allows for a prolonged effect without repeated dosing. Using this model, we studied the absorption kinetics of gentamicin at time points ranging from 8 hours to 1 week after injection. We used our findings to create a kinetics curve of gentamicin absorption. We discuss the shape and characteristics of this kinetics curve and examine the effects of the fibrin-based sustained-release vehicle and gentamicin on the middle ear. We noted no absorption in the contralateral (untreated ear) or blood. Through better understanding of the actions of gentamicin in this animal model, we hope to facilitate safer use of intratympanic medicines in our patient population and initiate programs for the use of this sustained-release vehicle in human beings. PMID:9807064

  15. Redshifts and Killing vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Alex; Schucking, Engelbert; Surowitz, Eugene J.

    2006-11-01

    Current approaches to physics stress the importance of conservation laws due to spacetime and internal symmetries. In special and general relativity the generators of these symmetries are known as Killing vectors. We use them for the rigorous determination of gravitational and cosmological redshifts.

  16. Children Who Kill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1999-01-01

    Two recent books, "When Good Kids Kill," by Michael D. Kelleher, and "Lost Boys," by James Garbarino, explore how children become killers and suggest ways to reduce our high-pressure society's epidemic levels of youth violence. Physically or psychologically distant parents and unaffirmative media messages are negative influences. (MLH)

  17. Simultaneous Evaluation of Safety, Acceptability, Pericoital Kinetics, and Ex Vivo Pharmacodynamics Comparing Four Rectal Microbicide Vehicle Candidates.

    PubMed

    Leyva, Francisco; Fuchs, Edward J; Bakshi, Rahul; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Ventuneac, Ana; Yue, Chen; Caffo, Brian; Du, Yong; Torbenson, Michael; Li, Liye; Mullin, Gerald; Lee, Linda; Rohan, Lisa; Anton, Peter A; Hendrix, Craig W

    2015-11-01

    Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection with tenofovir-containing regimens is effective, but plagued by poor adherence in some studies. Options for safe, effective, and acceptable PrEP products, especially for men and women at risk of HIV via receptive anal intercourse (RAI), are needed. We performed a randomized, partially blinded, first-in-human evaluation of four candidate rectal microbicide vehicles-aqueous gel, aqueous fluid, lipid gel, and lipid fluid-to select a prototype for further clinical development. Eight seronegative participants received three doses of each product with each dose separated by at least 2 weeks: one dose was given alone without simulated RAI in clinic, another dose was followed by simulated RAI in clinic, and another dose was self-administered at home in the context of RAI with a partner. Assessments included safety, acceptability, colon histology, ex vivo HIV infectivity of colon tissue explants, and colonic luminal distribution of vehicle and HIV surrogates. Adverse events were all mild and mainly sigmoidoscopy associated. There were minor differences in colon distribution of products and little effect of RAI. Vehicle distribution covered 95% (7% standard deviation) of the distribution of an HIV surrogate in the colonic lumen. The lipid fluid vehicle increased HIV colon tissue infectability 5-fold [log10 p24 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.08, 1.28)] and aqueous gel provided 6-fold protection [log10 p24 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.20, 1.41)] compared to no product baseline. Colon permeability of lipid vehicles was more than 10-fold greater than aqueous vehicles. All products received similar acceptability ratings, though trends favored the gel products. Intensive simultaneous assessment of safety and toxicity, luminal and tissue distribution, ex vivo HIV infectivity, and product acceptability in relevant sexual contexts provided clear differentiation among candidate gels very early in product development. We selected the aqueous gel for further development as a rectal microbicide vehicle. PMID:26066390

  18. Charged conformal Killing spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lischewski, Andree

    2015-01-01

    We study the twistor equation on pseudo-Riemannian Spinc-manifolds whose solutions we call charged conformal Killing spinors (CCKSs). We derive several integrability conditions for the existence of CCKS and study their relations to spinor bilinears. A construction principle for Lorentzian manifolds admitting CCKS with nontrivial charge starting from CR-geometry is presented. We obtain a partial classification result in the Lorentzian case under the additional assumption that the associated Dirac current is normal conformal and complete the classification of manifolds admitting CCKS in all dimensions and signatures ?5 which has recently been initiated in the study of supersymmetric field theories on curved space.

  19. Charged conformal Killing spinors

    SciTech Connect

    Lischewski, Andree

    2015-01-15

    We study the twistor equation on pseudo-Riemannian Spin{sup c}-manifolds whose solutions we call charged conformal Killing spinors (CCKSs). We derive several integrability conditions for the existence of CCKS and study their relations to spinor bilinears. A construction principle for Lorentzian manifolds admitting CCKS with nontrivial charge starting from CR-geometry is presented. We obtain a partial classification result in the Lorentzian case under the additional assumption that the associated Dirac current is normal conformal and complete the classification of manifolds admitting CCKS in all dimensions and signatures ≤5 which has recently been initiated in the study of supersymmetric field theories on curved space.

  20. Adolescents who kill.

    PubMed

    Busch, K G; Zagar, R; Hughes, J R; Arbit, J; Bussell, R E

    1990-07-01

    From a sample of 1,956 adolescent delinquents referred to us by the court for physical, psychological, psychiatric, educational, and social examinations, 71 delinquents convicted of homicide were matched with 71 nonviolent delinquents by age, race, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES). These two groups were compared on the basis of these evaluations by stepwise discriminant analysis, matched pairs, two-tailed t-tests, and nonparametric tests. Adolescents who kill have a tetrad of symptoms: (1) criminally violent family members; (2) gang membership; (3) severe educational difficulties; and (4) alcohol abuse. PMID:2212052

  1. Kill operation requires thorough analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.

    1995-05-15

    Full control of a blowout well requires a properly designed post-capping kill operation because failures in regaining well control usually occur during the kill operation, not during capping. Capping (the installation of pressure control or diverter equipment on the wellhead) is generally very reliable in gaining control of a blowout well. The following techniques are some of the viable means of killing blowout wells once the capping assemblies are in place: direct shut in of the flow; bullheading; momentum kill; volumetric control for migration of fluids or lubrication after migration ceases; and dynamic kills (friction-based dynamic kills or mass flow rate kills) The objective of most post-capping operations is to stop the flow and put the well under hydrostatic control. The means of killing a blowout once capping assemblies are in place should be chosen with care to avoid problems such as cratering, equipment failure, and underground blowouts. The particular circumstances and well integrity will dictate which kill method will be the most viable. Each of these five methods are explained.

  2. Asymptotic symmetries on Killing horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Jun-Ichirou

    2001-12-01

    We investigate asymptotic symmetries regularly defined on spherically symmetric Killing horizons in Einstein theory with or without the cosmological constant. These asymptotic symmetries are described by asymptotic Killing vectors, along which the Lie derivatives of perturbed metrics vanish on a Killing horizon. We derive the general form of the asymptotic Killing vectors and find that the group of asymptotic symmetries consists of rigid O(3) rotations of a horizon two-sphere and supertranslations along the null direction on the horizon, which depend arbitrarily on the null coordinate as well as the angular coordinates. By introducing the notion of asymptotic Killing horizons, we also show that local properties of Killing horizons are preserved not only under diffeomorphisms but also under nontrivial transformations generated by the asymptotic symmetry group. Although the asymptotic symmetry group contains the Diff(S1) subgroup, which results from supertranslations dependent only on the null coordinate, it is shown that the Poisson brackets algebra of the conserved charges conjugate to asymptotic Killing vectors does not acquire nontrivial central charges. Finally, by considering extended symmetries, we discuss the fact that unnatural reduction of the symmetry group is necessary in order to obtain the Virasoro algebra with nontrivial central charges, which is not justified when we respect the spherical symmetry of Killing horizons.

  3. How electroshock weapons kill!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2010-03-01

    Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

  4. Phantom metrics with Killing spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, W. A.

    2015-11-01

    We study metric solutions of Einstein-anti-Maxwell theory admitting Killing spinors. The analogue of the IWP metric which admits a space-like Killing vector is found and is expressed in terms of a complex function satisfying the wave equation in flat (2 + 1)-dimensional space-time. As examples, electric and magnetic Kasner spaces are constructed by allowing the solution to depend only on the time coordinate. Euclidean solutions are also presented.

  5. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  6. Quasilocal rotating conformal Killing horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Ayan; Ghosh, Avirup

    2015-08-01

    The formulation of quasilocal conformal Killing horizons (CKH) is extended to include rotation. This necessitates that the horizon be foliated by 2-spheres which may be distorted. Matter degrees of freedom which fall through the horizon are represented by a real scalar field. We show that these rotating CKHs also admit a first law in differential form.

  7. Farm Education at Stony Kill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisio, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Describes typical winter farm lessons for students visiting Stony Kill Farm Environmental Education Center located 70 miles north of New York City: butter and corncake making, soil erosion experiments, dissecting and growing seeds. Emphasizes major theme of conservation of farmland from destructive farming practices and careless development. (NEC)

  8. Does Assessment Kill Student Creativity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2005-01-01

    Does assessment kill creativity? In this article, creativity is defined and discussed and an overview of creativity and motivational research is provided to describe how assessment practices can influence students' creativity. Recommendations for protecting creativity when assessing students also are provided.

  9. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  10. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  11. Did Vertigo Kill America's Forgotten Astronaut?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Merlin, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    On November 15, 1967, U.S. Air Force test pilot Major Michael J. Adams was killed while flying the X-15 rocket-propelled research vehicle in a parabolic spaceflight profile. This flight was part of a joint effort with NASA. An electrical short in one of the experiments aboard the vehicle caused electrical transients, resulting in excessive workload by the pilot. At altitude Major Adams inappropriately initiated a flat spin that led to a series of unusual aircraft attitudes upon atmospheric re-entry, ultimately causing structural failure of the airframe. Major Adams was known to experience vertigo (i.e. spatial disorientation) while flying the X-15, but all X-15 pilots most likely experienced vertigo (i.e. somatogravic, or "Pitch-Up", illusion) as a normal physiologic response to the accelerative forces involved. Major Adams probably experienced vertigo to a greater degree than did others, since prior aeromedical testing for astronaut selection at Brooks AFB revealed that he had an unusually high degree of labyrinthine sensitivity. Subsequent analysis reveals that after engine burnout, and through the zenith of the flight profile, he likely experienced the oculoagravic ("Elevator") illusion. Nonetheless, painstaking investigation after the mishap revealed that spatial disorientation (Type II, Recognized) was NOT the cause, but rather, a contributing factor. The cause was in fact the misinterpretation of a dual-use flight instrument (i.e. Loss of Mode Awareness), resulting in confusion between yaw and roll indications, with subsequent flight control input that was inappropriate. Because of the altitude achieved on this flight, Major Adams was awarded Astronaut wings posthumously. Understanding the potential for spatial disorientation, particularly the oculoagravic illusion, associated with parabolic spaceflight profiles, and understanding the importance of maintaining mode awareness in the context of automated cockpit design, are two lessons that have direct application to the commercial space industry today.

  12. Killing(-Yano) tensors in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervonyi, Yuri; Lunin, Oleg

    2015-09-01

    We construct the Killing(-Yano) tensors for a large class of charged black holes in higher dimensions and study general properties of such tensors, in particular, their behavior under string dualities. Killing(-Yano) tensors encode the symmetries beyond isometries, which lead to insights into dynamics of particles and fields on a given geometry by providing a set of conserved quantities. By analyzing the eigenvalues of the Killing tensor, we provide a prescription for constructing several conserved quantities starting from a single object, and we demonstrate that Killing tensors in higher dimensions are always associated with ellipsoidal coordinates. We also determine the transformations of the Killing(-Yano) tensors under string dualities, and find the unique modification of the Killing-Yano equation consistent with these symmetries. These results are used to construct the explicit form of the Killing(-Yano) tensors for the Myers-Perry black hole in arbitrary number of dimensions and for its charged version.

  13. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  14. A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.

  15. Bull heading to kill live gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Oudeman, P.; Avest, D. ter; Grodal, E.O.; Asheim, H.A.; Meissner, R.J.H.

    1994-12-31

    To kill a live closed-in gas well by bull heading down the tubing, the selected pump rate should be high enough to ensure efficient displacement of the gas into the formation (i.e., to avoid the kill fluid bypassing the gas). On the other hand, the pressures that develop during bull heading at high rate must not exceed wellhead pressure rating, tubing or casing burst pressures or the formation breakdown gradient, since this will lead, at best, to a very inefficient kill job. Given these constraints, the optimum kill rate, requited hydraulic horsepower, density and type of kill fluids have to be selected. For this purpose a numerical simulator has been developed, which predicts the sequence of events during bull heading. Pressures and flow rates in the well during the kill job are calculated, taking to account slip between the gas and kill fluid, hydrostatic and friction pressure drop, wellbore gas compression and leak-off to the formation. Comparison with the results of a dedicated field test demonstrates that these parameters can be estimated accurately. Example calculations will be presented to show how the simulator can be used to identify an optimum kill scenario.

  16. Momentum kill procedure can quickly control blowouts

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.D. ); Moore, P. )

    1993-08-30

    The momentum kill method can help in quickly regaining control of a blowing well, providing the blowing well rate and fluid properties can be estimated reasonably. The momentum of the kill fluid counteracts and overcomes the flowing momentum of formation fluids. In other words, sufficient mud density pumped at a sufficient rate is directed into the flow stream to force the escaping fluid column back into the well bore. Sufficient kill fluid hydrostatic pressure must be stacked'' in the hole so that the well remains dead after the operation. The momentum kill is not a panacea for all blowouts. An assessment must be made of the potential problems unique to this method, and certain requirements must be met if the technique is to be successful. The paper discusses some of the considerations for evaluating the use of the momentum kill method.

  17. Killing cells by targeting mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Manchado, E; Guillamot, M; Malumbres, M

    2012-01-01

    Cell cycle deregulation is a common feature of human cancer. Tumor cells accumulate mutations that result in unscheduled proliferation, genomic instability and chromosomal instability. Several therapeutic strategies have been proposed for targeting the cell division cycle in cancer. Whereas inhibiting the initial phases of the cell cycle is likely to generate viable quiescent cells, targeting mitosis offers several possibilities for killing cancer cells. Microtubule poisons have proved efficacy in the clinic against a broad range of malignancies, and novel targeted strategies are now evaluating the inhibition of critical activities, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 1, Aurora or Polo kinases or spindle kinesins. Abrogation of the mitotic checkpoint or targeting the energetic or proteotoxic stress of aneuploid or chromosomally instable cells may also provide further benefits by inducing lethal levels of instability. Although cancer cells may display different responses to these treatments, recent data suggest that targeting mitotic exit by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex generates metaphase cells that invariably die in mitosis. As the efficacy of cellcycle targeting approaches has been limited so far, further understanding of the molecular pathways modulating mitotic cell death will be required to move forward these new proposals to the clinic. PMID:22223105

  18. Killing cells by targeting mitosis.

    PubMed

    Manchado, E; Guillamot, M; Malumbres, M

    2012-03-01

    Cell cycle deregulation is a common feature of human cancer. Tumor cells accumulate mutations that result in unscheduled proliferation, genomic instability and chromosomal instability. Several therapeutic strategies have been proposed for targeting the cell division cycle in cancer. Whereas inhibiting the initial phases of the cell cycle is likely to generate viable quiescent cells, targeting mitosis offers several possibilities for killing cancer cells. Microtubule poisons have proved efficacy in the clinic against a broad range of malignancies, and novel targeted strategies are now evaluating the inhibition of critical activities, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 1, Aurora or Polo kinases or spindle kinesins. Abrogation of the mitotic checkpoint or targeting the energetic or proteotoxic stress of aneuploid or chromosomally instable cells may also provide further benefits by inducing lethal levels of instability. Although cancer cells may display different responses to these treatments, recent data suggest that targeting mitotic exit by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex generates metaphase cells that invariably die in mitosis. As the efficacy of cell-cycle targeting approaches has been limited so far, further understanding of the molecular pathways modulating mitotic cell death will be required to move forward these new proposals to the clinic. PMID:22223105

  19. Spacetime encodings. III. Second order Killing tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Jeandrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the Petrov type D, stationary axisymmetric vacuum (SAV) spacetimes that were found by Carter to have separable Hamilton-Jacobi equations, and thus admit a second-order Killing tensor. The derivation of the spacetimes presented in this paper borrows from ideas about dynamical systems, and illustrates concepts that can be generalized to higher-order Killing tensors. The relationship between the components of the Killing equations and metric functions are given explicitly. The origin of the four separable coordinate systems found by Carter is explained and classified in terms of the analytic structure associated with the Killing equations. A geometric picture of what the orbital invariants may represent is built. Requiring that a SAV spacetime admits a second-order Killing tensor is very restrictive, selecting very few candidates from the group of all possible SAV spacetimes. This restriction arises due to the fact that the consistency conditions associated with the Killing equations require that the field variables obey a second-order differential equation, as opposed to a fourth-order differential equation that imposes the weaker condition that the spacetime be SAV. This paper introduces ideas that could lead to the explicit computation of more general orbital invariants in the form of higher-order Killing tensors.

  20. Spacetime encodings. III. Second order Killing tensors

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, Jeandrew

    2010-01-15

    This paper explores the Petrov type D, stationary axisymmetric vacuum (SAV) spacetimes that were found by Carter to have separable Hamilton-Jacobi equations, and thus admit a second-order Killing tensor. The derivation of the spacetimes presented in this paper borrows from ideas about dynamical systems, and illustrates concepts that can be generalized to higher-order Killing tensors. The relationship between the components of the Killing equations and metric functions are given explicitly. The origin of the four separable coordinate systems found by Carter is explained and classified in terms of the analytic structure associated with the Killing equations. A geometric picture of what the orbital invariants may represent is built. Requiring that a SAV spacetime admits a second-order Killing tensor is very restrictive, selecting very few candidates from the group of all possible SAV spacetimes. This restriction arises due to the fact that the consistency conditions associated with the Killing equations require that the field variables obey a second-order differential equation, as opposed to a fourth-order differential equation that imposes the weaker condition that the spacetime be SAV. This paper introduces ideas that could lead to the explicit computation of more general orbital invariants in the form of higher-order Killing tensors.

  1. Peeling the onion: an heuristic overview of hit-to-kill missile defense in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaCroix, Len; Kurzius, Shelby

    2005-03-01

    Researchers engaged in the development of infrared detector technologies may well benefit from a broader understanding of their products from the perspective of the end-user. An appreciation of how this technology is to be used by system designers, many of whom possess only a rudimentary understanding of quantum physics, is highly germane. Answers to questions like: "What device technology will be employed," "How will the device be used?" and "What are the impacts on signal-to-noise?" are of critical importance. In this paper, some of the fundamentals of hit-to-kill missile defense technology are examined in a largely non-mathematical context. From its "Star Wars" inception during the Reagan administration, to today"s Missile Defense Agency, the core requirement of missile defense has not changed - find the threat and destroy it before it reaches its destination. This fundamental requirement, while conceptually straightforward, is extraordinarily difficult to satisfy, and is almost exclusively dependent on our ability to detect and designate a relatively small, very fast-moving, room-temperature object, at great distances, and usually in a severe environment of shock and vibration further clouded by error and uncertainty. With an obvious bias toward passive IR detection and associated focal plane array characteristics, the flight of a fictitious interceptor is followed from launch to impact. At various points along the interceptor"s trajectory, a "peel the onion" approach is utilized to expose increasingly detailed layers of behavior, including the eventual release of the kinetic kill vehicle, and its autonomous flight to a body-to-body impact with its target. Various sources of error and their impact on the success of the mission are examined, and an overall understanding of the key features of the infrared seeker and its critical role in missile defense are ultimately developed.

  2. The soft-kill fallacy

    SciTech Connect

    Aftergood, S.

    1994-09-01

    Dozens of non-lethal weapons have been proposed or developed, mostly in laboratory-scale models. They encompass a broad range of technologies, including chemical, biological, kinetic, electromagnetic, and accoustic weapons, as well as informational techniques such as computer viruses. `Non-lethal weapons disable or destroy without causing significant injury or damage,` asserted Undersecretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz in a March 1991 memorandum. The idea of `non-lethal` weapons is politically attractive and purposively misleading. Some of these `non-lethal` weapons may violate treaties. Four international treaties are particularly relevant and discussed in some detail. A list of weapons of this nature is also provided. But basic political, legal and strategic questions about the utility of the non-lethal thrust remains unanswered and sometimes unasked. 15 refs.

  3. The geometry of D = 11 Killing spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Pakis, Stathis

    2003-04-01

    We propose a way to classify all supersymmetric configurations of D=11 supergravity using the G-structures defined by the Killing spinors. We show that the most general bosonic geometries admitting a Killing spinor have at least a local SU(5) or an (Spin(7)l × R8) × R structure, depending on whether the Killing vector constructed from the Killing spinor is timelike or null, respectively. In the former case we determine what kind of local SU(5) structure is present and show that almost all of the form of the geometry is determined by the structure. We also deduce what further conditions must be imposed in order that the equations of motion are satisfied. We illustrate the formalism with some known solutions and also present some new solutions including a rotating generalisation of the resolved membrane solutions and generalisations of the recently constructed D=11 Godel solution.

  4. Cell killing by avian leukosis viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Weller, S K; Temin, H M

    1981-01-01

    Infection of chicken cells with a cytopathic avian leukosis virus resulted in the detachment of killed cells from the culture dish. The detached, dead cells contained more unintegrated viral DNA than the attached cells. These results confirm the hypothesis that cell killing after infection with a cytopathic avian leukosis virus is associated with accumulation of large amounts of unintegrated viral DNA. No accumulation of large amounts of integrated viral DNA was found in cells infected with cytopathic avian leukosis viruses. Images PMID:6270346

  5. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    SciTech Connect

    Groeger, Josua

    2014-09-15

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  6. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  7. Killing of Brucella abortus by bovine serum.

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, L B; Blau, K; Inzana, T J; Nielsen, K H; Jacobson, R H; Corbeil, R R; Winter, A J

    1988-01-01

    Studies of the serum bactericidal system in bovine brucellosis were undertaken to investigate the role of the humoral immune response in protection of cattle against the facultative intracellular parasite Brucella abortus. Fresh sera from normal control cattle, infected cattle, and cattle immunized with B. abortus cell envelopes were collected before treatment and during the course of immunization or infection. Normal fresh bovine serum or fresh agammaglobulinemic serum from colostrum-deprived calves was effective in killing smooth virulent B. abortus 2308, but rough strains RB51 (a rough mutant of strain 2308) and 45/20 were much more sensitive to serum. The difference in susceptibility to serum was shown to be correlated with differences in lipopolysaccharide chemotype, with the more resistant strain 2308 having O polysaccharide and the more susceptible strains 45/20 and RB51 lacking O side chains. By treatment of fresh serum with MgCl2 and EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid] killing was shown to occur via the classical pathway of complement activation. When antibody to B. abortus was present, killing of strain RB51 increased but killing of smooth strain 2308 decreased. The earliest antibody response in serum from infected animals did not interfere with killing. When affinity-purified bovine immunoglobulins specific for B. abortus smooth lipopolysaccharide were added to fresh normal bovine serum, immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2 isotypes blocked killing but IgM and IgA isotypes did not. Thus, it appears that serum from previously unexposed animals or animals early during infection can kill smooth B. abortus, an appropriate defense mechanism before the organism becomes intracellular. At later stages of infection, blocking antibodies predominate. Images PMID:3141287

  8. Kill fluid for oil field operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sydansk, R.D.

    1990-08-14

    This patent describes a process employing a kill fluid to substantially reduce the volumetric flow of formation fluid into a wellbore penetrating a formation containing the formation fluid below an earthen surface. It comprises: admixing components of a continuous flowing gel at the surface comprising of water-soluble carboxylate-containing polymer, a complex capable of crosslinking the polymer and formed of at least one electropositive chromium III species and at least one electronegative carboxylatespecies, and an aqueous solvent for the polymer and the complex; crosslinking the polymer and the complex to form the gel, wherein the kill fluid comprises the gel; placing a volume of the kill fluid in the wellbore sufficient to create a hydrostatic head which exerts a kill fluid pressure against the formation fluid substantially equal to or greater than the formation fluid pressure and thereby substantially reduces the volumetric flow of the formation fluid into the wellbore; performing an oil field operation after placing the volume of the kill fluid in the wellbore; and removing the gel from the wellbore to substantially restore the volumetric flow of the formation fluid into the wellbore.

  9. Kinetic Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David

    1993-01-01

    Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for kinetic determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.

  10. 75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  11. 75 FR 62469 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  12. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be...

  13. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the World Health Organization... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall...

  14. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  15. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  16. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  17. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  18. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  19. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  20. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has...

  1. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  2. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  3. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  4. Strain ŽP - the first bacterial conjugation-based "kill"-"anti-kill" antimicrobial system.

    PubMed

    Starčič Erjavec, Marjanca; Petkovšek, Živa; Kuznetsova, Marina V; Maslennikova, Irina L; Žgur-Bertok, Darja

    2015-11-01

    As multidrug resistant bacteria pose one of the greatest risks to human health new alternative antibacterial agents are urgently needed. One possible mechanism that can be used as an alternative to traditional antibiotic therapy is transfer of killing agents via conjugation. Our work was aimed at providing a proof of principle that conjugation-based antimicrobial systems are possible. We constructed a bacterial conjugation-based "kill"-"anti-kill" antimicrobial system employing the well known Escherichia coli probiotic strain Nissle 1917 genetically modified to harbor a conjugative plasmid carrying the "kill" gene (colicin ColE7 activity gene) and a chromosomally encoded "anti-kill" gene (ColE7 immunity gene). The constructed strain acts as a donor in conjugal transfer and its efficiency was tested in several types of conjugal assays. Our results clearly demonstrate that conjugation-based antimicrobial systems can be highly efficient. PMID:26436830

  5. Cytotoxic Killing and Immune Evasion by Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Cliburn; George, Andrew J. T.; Stark, Jaroslav

    2007-07-01

    The interaction between the immune system and pathogens is a complex one, with pathogens constantly developing new ways of evading destruction by the immune system. The immune system's task is made even harder when the pathogen in question is an intra-cellular one (such as a virus or certain bacteria) and it is necessary to kill the infected host cell in order to eliminate the pathogen. This causes damage to the host, and such killing therefore needs to be carefully controlled, particularly in tissues with poor regenerative potential, or those involved in the immune response itself. Host cells therefore possess repair mechanisms which can counteract killing by immune cells. These in turn can be subverted by pathogens which up-regulate the resistance of infected cells to killing. In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that this repair process plays an important role in determining the efficacy of evasion and escape from immune control. We model a situation where cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells kill pathogen-infected and tumour cells by directed secretion of preformed granules containing perforin and granzymes. Resistance to such killing can be conferred by the expression of serine protease inhibitors (serpins). These are utilized by several virally infected and tumour cells, as well as playing a role in the protection of host bystander, immune and immuneprivileged cells. We build a simple stochastic model of cytotoxic killing, where serpins can neutralize granzymes stoichiometrically by forming an irreversible complex, and the survival of the cell is determined by the balance between serpin depletion and replenishment, which in its simplest form is equivalent to the well known shot noise process. We use existing analytical results for this process, and additional simulations to analyse the effects of repair on cytotoxic killing. We then extend the model to the case of a replicating target cell population, which gives a branching process coupled to shot noise. We show how the process of repair can have a major impact on the dynamics of pathogen evasion and escape of tumour cells from immune surveillance

  6. HIV transcription is induced with cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1993-11-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evident in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

  7. Electrohydraulic vehicle drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, E.W. Jr.

    1988-06-28

    A power system is described for a vehicle comprising: a battery source for driving a DC electric motor mechanically coupled to a fluid pump which pressurizes a fluid for actuating a fluid motor that is operatively connected to reciprocate a worm screw gear assembly which rotates an output shaft connected to axles which drive the wheels of a vehicle, an auxiliary power device for operating an alternator to generate electricity and means for recovering kinetic energy. The auxiliary power device includes means for supplying compressed air or steam to an air or steam motor which is operatively connected to a second worm screw gear assembly which drives an output shaft connected to the alternator for generating electricity, and wherein the kinetic energy recovery means includes an air pump connected between the axles and frame of the vehicle chassis so that vehicular movement actuates the air pump for compressing air for storage and also a worm screw gear driven alternator assembly connected between the axle and frame of the vehicle chassis for generating electricity during vehicular movement.

  8. Killing Hitler: A Writer's Journey and Angst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Describes the author's experiences in preparing a talk that "evokes the specter" of Adolf Hitler and in writing an historical account of a British plot to kill Hitler. Address the question of why the British allowed him to live that final year of the war. Muses on why scholars write, and the impact of violence and terrorism. (SG)

  9. Integrating Poetry and "To Kill a Mockingbird."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolley, Susan Arpajian

    2002-01-01

    Outlines a method of teaching "To Kill a Mockingbird" along with the study of poetry. Notes that this method allows students to consider the themes of courage and developing compassion. Concludes that teaching such a multigenre unit allows students to look for connections among fact and fiction, the past and present, their own lives and…

  10. Can Vet Schools Teach without Killing Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a protest by students at the University of Illinois (Urbana) College of Veterinary Medicine over the killing of animals that led to temporary curtailing of lethal animal experiments. Examines the conflict between animal rights groups and some faculty who are openly skeptical about the effectiveness of alternatives to the hands-on

  11. The evolution of reduced microbial killing.

    PubMed

    Vriezen, Jan A C; Valliere, Michael; Riley, Margaret A

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria engage in a never-ending arms race in which they compete for limited resources and niche space. The outcome of this intense interaction is the evolution of a powerful arsenal of biological weapons. Perhaps the most studied of these are colicins, plasmid-based toxins produced by and active against Escherichia coli. The present study was designed to explore the molecular responses of a colicin-producing strain during serial transfer evolution. What evolutionary changes occur when colicins are produced with no target present? Can killing ability be maintained in the absence of a target? To address these, and other, questions, colicinogenic strains and a noncolicinogenic ancestor were evolved for 253 generations. Samples were taken throughout the experiment and tested for killing ability. By the 38th transfer, a decreased killing ability and an increase in fitness were observed in the colicin-producing strains. Surprisingly, DNA sequence determination of the colicin plasmids revealed no changes in plasmid sequences. However, a set of chromosomally encoded loci experienced changes in gene expression that were positively associated with the reduction in killing. The most significant expression changes were observed in DNA repair genes (which were downregulated in the evolved strains), Mg ion uptake genes (which were upregulated), and late prophage genes (which were upregulated). These results indicate a fine-tuned response to the evolutionary pressures of colicin production, with far more genes involved than had been anticipated. PMID:20333208

  12. MECHANISM BY WHICH AMMONIUM FERTILIZERS KILL LARKSPUR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental concerns of using pesticides on public lands have greatly reduced the use of herbicides to control tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi). Alternative methods of control have used ammonium sulfate placed in the crown of individual plants to kill larkspur. The objective of this study was ...

  13. School Shootings; Standards Kill Students and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angert, Betsy L.

    2008-01-01

    School shootings have been in the news of late. People ponder what occurs in classrooms today. Why would a young person wish to take a life? Within educational institutions, the killings are a concern. In our dire attempt to teach the children and ensure student success, it seems many of our offspring are lost. Some students feel separate from

  14. Mass killings and detection of impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaren, Digby J.

    1988-01-01

    Highly energetic bolide impacts occur and their flux is known. For larger bodies the energy release is greater than for any other short-term global phenomenon. Such impacts produce or release a large variety of shock induced changes including major atmospheric, sedimentologic, seismic and volcanic events. These events must necessarily leave a variety of records in the stratigraphic column, including mass killings resulting in major changes in population density and reduction or extinction of many taxonomic groups, followed by characteristic patterns of faunal and flora replacement. Of these effects, mass killings, marked by large-scale loss of biomass, are the most easily detected evidence in the field but must be manifest on a near-global scale. Such mass killings that appear to be approximately synchronous and involve disappearance of biomass at a bedding plane in many sedimentologically independent sections globally suggest a common cause and probable synchroneity. Mass killings identify an horizon which may be examined for evidence of cause. Geochemical markers may be ephemeral and absence may not be significant. There appears to be no reason why ongoing phenomena such as climate and sea-level changes are primary causes of anomolous episodic events.

  15. The Cult of KILL in Adolescent Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelty, Jean McClure

    1975-01-01

    The author attempted to create an awareness of the representative fiction which is read by adolescents in order to dramatize the high regard, however misguided, our society places on the cult of violence and killing as part of youth's initiation into the adult world. (Author/RK)

  16. Can Vet Schools Teach without Killing Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a protest by students at the University of Illinois (Urbana) College of Veterinary Medicine over the killing of animals that led to temporary curtailing of lethal animal experiments. Examines the conflict between animal rights groups and some faculty who are openly skeptical about the effectiveness of alternatives to the hands-on…

  17. Peanut Roaster Temperatures Relative to Salmonella Kill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ARS, Market Quality and Handling Research Unit, Raleigh NC 27695 In response to the limited peanut butter contamination incident of 2006/7, studies were initiated to examine the effect of various time and temperature protocols on log kill levels for Salmonella on peanuts. The objective of the work ...

  18. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings

    PubMed Central

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Methods Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event. Conclusions We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015). We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001). All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings. PMID:26135941

  19. Kinetic theory of vehicular traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannini, M. L. L.; Dickman, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    We review the kinetic theory of traffic proposed by Prigogine and Herman in which the Boltzmann equation is adapted to vehicular traffic. The kinetic equation and its solution are discussed, and a novel distribution of desired velocities that is more suitable for describing real traffic conditions is analyzed. We also study the stationary velocity distribution at the transition between individual and collective flow patterns. At this transition, the distribution splits into a smoothly varying regular part, in which vehicles have nonzero velocities, and a singular one, corresponding to stopped vehicles. Computational methods for obtaining the stationary velocity distribution and the full space-time evolution of the vehicular distribution are explained.

  20. Killing spinors and related symmetries in six dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Benefiting from the index spinorial formalism, the Killing spinor equation is integrated in six-dimensional spacetimes. The integrability conditions for the existence of a Killing spinor are worked out and the Killing spinors are classified into two algebraic types; in the first type the scalar curvature of the spacetime must be negative, while in the second type the spacetime must be an Einstein manifold. In addition, the equations that define Killing-Yano (KY) and closed conformal Killing-Yano (CCKY) tensors are expressed in the index notation and, as consequence, all nonvanishing KY and CCKY tensors that can be generated from a Killing spinor are made explicit.

  1. Anuran road-kills neighboring a peri-urban reserve in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Igor Pfeifer; Teixeira, Fernanda Zimmermann; Colombo, Patrick; Coelho, Artur Vicente Pfeifer; Kindel, Andreas

    2012-12-15

    Mortality from road-kills may figure among the important causes of decline in amphibian populations and species extinctions worldwide. Evaluation of the magnitude, composition, and temporal and spatial distributions of amphibian road-kills is a key step for mitigation planning, especially in peri-urban reserves. Once a month for 16 months, we surveyed, on foot, a 4.4 km section of state road ERS-389 bordering the Itapeva reserve in the southern Atlantic Forest. We recorded 1433 anuran road-kills and estimated a mortality rate of 9002 road-kills/km/year. The species most often recorded were the largest ones: Leptodactylus latrans, Rhinella icterica, Leptodactylus gracilis and Hypsiboas faber; 54.5% of the carcasses could not be identified. Anuran mortality was concentrated in summer, and was associated with temperature, rainfall and photoperiod. Leptodactylus road-kills were strongly influenced by vehicle traffic, probably because of its high abundance during the entire study period. Road-kill hotspots differed for anurans as a group and for single species, and we found an association among spatial patterns of mortality and types of land cover, distance from the nearest waterbody, roadside ditches, and artificial light. Traffic should be banned temporarily during periods of high mortality, which can be forecasted based on meteorological data. A comprehensive mitigation approach should take into account hotspots of all anuran records, and also of target species for selecting locations for amphibian passages and fencing. Roadside ditches, artificial waterbodies, and conventional street lights should be reduced as much as possible, since they may represent ecological traps for anuran populations. PMID:22858802

  2. Electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

  3. Kinetic Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgardt, Erik D.; Ryan, Hank

    1996-01-01

    Presents a unit on chemical reaction kinetics that consists of a predemonstration activity, the demonstration, and a set of postdemonstration activities that help students transfer the concepts to actual chemical reactions. Simulates various aspects of chemical reaction kinetics. (JRH)

  4. Kinetic Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David B.

    1981-01-01

    Surveys the research of scientists like Joule, Kelvin, Maxwell, Clausius, and Boltzmann as it comments on the basic conceptual issues involved in the development of a more precise kinetic theory and the idea of a kinetic atom. (Author/SK)

  5. Conformal killing tensors and covariant Hamiltonian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariglia, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; van Holten, J.-W.; Horvathy, P. A.; Zhang, P.-M.

    2014-12-01

    A covariant algorithm for deriving the conserved quantities for natural Hamiltonian systems is combined with the non-relativistic framework of Eisenhart, and of Duval, in which the classical trajectories arise as geodesics in a higher dimensional space-time, realized by Brinkmann manifolds. Conserved quantities which are polynomial in the momenta can be built using time-dependent conformal Killing tensors with flux. The latter are associated with terms proportional to the Hamiltonian in the lower dimensional theory and with spectrum generating algebras for higher dimensional quantities of order 1 and 2 in the momenta. Illustrations of the general theory include the Runge-Lenz vector for planetary motion with a time-dependent gravitational constant G(t), motion in a time-dependent electromagnetic field of a certain form, quantum dots, the Hnon-Heiles and Holt systems, respectively, providing us with Killing tensors of rank that ranges from one to six.

  6. Conformal killing tensors and covariant Hamiltonian dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; Holten, J.-W. van; Horvathy, P. A.; Zhang, P.-M.

    2014-12-15

    A covariant algorithm for deriving the conserved quantities for natural Hamiltonian systems is combined with the non-relativistic framework of Eisenhart, and of Duval, in which the classical trajectories arise as geodesics in a higher dimensional space-time, realized by Brinkmann manifolds. Conserved quantities which are polynomial in the momenta can be built using time-dependent conformal Killing tensors with flux. The latter are associated with terms proportional to the Hamiltonian in the lower dimensional theory and with spectrum generating algebras for higher dimensional quantities of order 1 and 2 in the momenta. Illustrations of the general theory include the Runge-Lenz vector for planetary motion with a time-dependent gravitational constant G(t), motion in a time-dependent electromagnetic field of a certain form, quantum dots, the Hénon-Heiles and Holt systems, respectively, providing us with Killing tensors of rank that ranges from one to six.

  7. Deprivations, futures and the wrongness of killing.

    PubMed

    Marquis, D

    2001-12-01

    In my essay, Why abortion is immoral, I criticised discussions of the morality of abortion in which the crucial issue is whether fetuses are human beings or whether fetuses are persons. Both argument strategies are inadequate because they rely on indefensible assumptions. Why should being a human being or being a person make a moral difference? I argued that the correct account of the morality of abortion should be based upon a defensible account of why killing children and adults is wrong. I claimed that what makes killing us wrong is that our premature deaths deprive us of our futures of value, that is, the goods of life we would have experienced had we survived. This account of the wrongness of killing explains why killing is one of the worst of crimes and how killing greatly harms the victim. It coheres with the attitudes of those with cancer or HIV facing premature death. It explains why we believe it is wrong to kill infants (as personhood theories do not). It does not entail that it wrongs a human being to end her life if she is in persistent vegetative state or if her future must consist only of unbearable physical suffering and she wants to die (as sanctity of human life theories do not). This account of the wrongness of killing implies (with some defensible additional assumptions) that abortion is immoral because we were fetuses once and we know those fetuses had futures of value. Mark Brown claims that this potential future of value account is unsound because it implies that we have welfare rights to what we need to stay alive that most people would reject. I argue that Brown is incorrect in two ways: a welfare right to what we need to stay alive is not directly implied by my account and, in addition, most of us do believe that dependent human beings have substantial welfare rights to what they need to stay alive. Brown argues that depriving us of a future of value of which we have mental representations both is a better explanation of the wrongness of killing and does not imply that abortion is immoral. I reply that (a) if Brown's arguments against my view were sound, those arguments could be easily adapted to show that his view is unsound as well and (b) Brown's view is both ambiguous and unsound on any interpretation. The most popular class of pro-choice argument strategies appeals to the view that some or all fetuses lack either a mental state or function or a capacity for a mental state or function necessary for possession of the right to life. Desires, interests, sentience, various concepts, moral agency, and rationality have all been suggested as candidates for this crucial mental role. Brown's analysis is one member of this class of strategies. I believe that it is possible to show that none of these strategies is reasonable. However, there are so many of these strategies that the required argument demands something more like a book and less like a short essay. The argument of the following essay is a piece of this larger argument. PMID:11731597

  8. Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Owen; Cornelius, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Conveys an appreciation of enzyme kinetic analysis by using a practical and intuitive approach. Discusses enzyme assays, kinetic models and rate laws, the kinetic constants (V, velocity, and Km, Michaels constant), evaluation of V and Km from experimental data, and enzyme inhibition. (CW)

  9. Leukemic cell killing by samarium-153 labeled antisense oligodeoxynucleotide probes

    SciTech Connect

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Ghafouripour, A.K.; Willem, L.

    1994-05-01

    The c-myc oncogene is amplified in leukemia and cancer of colon, breast and lung, making the c-myc mRNA a suitable cytoplasmic receptor-like target for therapy of proliferation. The kinetics of uptake of Sm-153 labeled antisense (AS), sense (SN, control) and oxo and thio, derivatives by lymphocytic leukemic cells (P388) was evaluated. The 15-mer oligonucleotide sequence for the initiation-codon domain was synthesized, [sense (SN) and antisense (AS) phosphodiester (O) and monothioester (S)] aminolinked with a 6-carbon spacer and coupled to DTPA-isothiocyanate (1/10) and aliquots (10 {mu}g) were lyophilized. Sm-l 53 (100-500 {mu}Ci) was chelated to probe; unbound Sm-153 radionuclide was removed by size-exclusion chromatography (TSK-300 column). Aliquots of 1-100 {mu}Ci (0.1-1.0 {mu}g) of Sm-153 chloride, Sm-153 sense, antisense probes and unlabeled DTPA-antisense carrier were added to P388 cells (1.1X{sup 6} cell/ml) in exponentially growing phase in RPMI media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and incubated at 37{degrees}C for 10 days. Dose-dependence on cell-killing was studied by incubating with 1, 10, 50, 100 {mu}Ci of Sm-153 antisense probe in same media. Cells killed were estimated by staining with Trypan Blue. Cell-counts in all samples were performed with a light microscope. The cell-killing with probes and carrier is in the following sequence: Sm-153 antisense > antisense carrier > Sm-153 chloride > sense carrier. Selected unique sequences may provide new radionuclide-carrier to induce double-strand DNA-breaks in proliferative cells. Being closer to nucleus, the mRNA-probe duplex may be more effective for tumor therapy than radiolabeled peptides and antibodies binding membrane-antigens. This new radiolabeled oligonucleotide-mRNA hybridization technique in intact cells may permit therapy of other cancer cells and solid tumors with amplified oncogenes.

  10. GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND - Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Island, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  11. Designing surfaces that kill bacteria on contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiller, Joerg C.; Liao, Chun-Jen; Lewis, Kim; Klibanov, Alexander M.

    2001-05-01

    Poly(4-vinyl-N-alkylpyridinium bromide) was covalently attached to glass slides to create a surface that kills airborne bacteria on contact. The antibacterial properties were assessed by spraying aqueous suspensions of bacterial cells on the surface, followed by air drying and counting the number of cells remaining viable (i.e., capable of growing colonies). Amino glass slides were acylated with acryloyl chloride, copolymerized with 4-vinylpyridine, and N-alkylated with different alkyl bromides (from propyl to hexadecyl). The resultant surfaces, depending on the alkyl group, were able to kill up to 94 4% of Staphylococcus aureus cells sprayed on them. A surface alternatively created by attaching poly(4-vinylpyridine) to a glass slide and alkylating it with hexyl bromide killed 94 3% of the deposited S. aureus cells. On surfaces modified with N-hexylated poly(4-vinylpyridine), the numbers of viable cells of another Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, as well as of the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, dropped more than 100-fold compared with the original amino glass. In contrast, the number of viable bacterial cells did not decline significantly after spraying on such common materials as ceramics, plastics, metals, and wood.

  12. HIV transcription is induced with cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin Mei; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    Previous work has shown that HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct are induced to express chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) following exposure to DNA-damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation, {gamma} rays, neutrons, and others. In this report, the authors demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evidence in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Other agents which caused no cell killing (such as heat-shock for up to 2 h, treatment with metronidazole, exposure to sunlight, vitamin C treatment, and others) had no effect on HIV-LTR induction. These results suggest that HIV transcription is induced as a consequence of the turn on of a cellular death or apoptotic pathway.

  13. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  14. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  15. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  16. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  17. Road-Killed Animals as Resources for Ecological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Clark E.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes 19 literature sources identifying road-killed vertebrates and frequency of kill by numbers. Examples of how these animals can be incorporated into curricula (integrating biology, society, people, and values) are given, followed by an illustrated example of how a road-killed raccoon's skull demonstrated a human/wildlife interaction prior

  18. 78 FR 43063 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Arthur Kill, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Arthur Kill, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard... District, has issued a temporary deviation from the regulations governing the operation of the Arthur Kill AK Railroad Bridge across Arthur Kill, mile 11.6, between Staten Island, New York and Elizabeth,...

  19. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  20. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus...

  1. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  2. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture... Type 92) 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set green... tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule 23.)...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture... Type 92) 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set green... tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule 23.)...

  5. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture... Type 92) 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set green... tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule 23.)...

  6. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture... Type 92) 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set green... tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule 23.)...

  7. 7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section 29.1018 Agriculture... Type 92) 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which 5 percent or more of its surface has a set green... tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule 23.)...

  8. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia... production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  9. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline... production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  10. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus... production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  11. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  12. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  13. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  14. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  15. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  16. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  17. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  18. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  19. Immune Response to Orally Administered Killed MAP in Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine whether orally administered heat-killed MAP could induce a protective immune response in calves. Newborn male dairy calves were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatment groups: Heat killed MAP only (n=2), live MAP challenge only (n=4), heat killed MAP fo...

  20. Road-Killed Animals as Resources for Ecological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Clark E.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes 19 literature sources identifying road-killed vertebrates and frequency of kill by numbers. Examples of how these animals can be incorporated into curricula (integrating biology, society, people, and values) are given, followed by an illustrated example of how a road-killed raccoon's skull demonstrated a human/wildlife interaction prior…

  1. Prevalence of alcohol and drugs among motorcycle riders killed in road crashes in Norway during 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Christophersen, Asbjrg S; Gjerde, Hallvard

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of alcohol and drugs in blood samples from motorcycle riders who died in road crashes in Norway from 2001 to 2010. An additional aim was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and drugs in blood samples from fatally injured motorcycle riders and car drivers who died during the same time period. Blood samples from motorcycle riders who died within 24h after the accident (n=207, 63% of all killed riders), were analysed for alcohol, psychoactive drugs (medicinal and illicit drugs). The cut-off concentrations for alcohol and drugs findings in blood samples (i.e., the drug concentrations above which a finding was regarded as positive) were set according to the legislative limits under the Norwegian Road Traffic Act. Results were assessed in relation to age, sex, time of the day and week, and single versus multiple-vehicle accidents. Alcohol or drugs were found in 27.1 percent of all investigated riders. For riders killed in single or multiple-vehicle accidents, alcohol or drugs were found in 44.6 and 15.3 percent, respectively. Alcohol was the most frequently found substance for all age groups and most prevalent in samples from riders below 25 years who died in single-vehicle accidents (45.8 percent). Drugs were most often found among riders between 25 and 34 years (19.6 percent in total and 25.9% for those killed in single-vehicle crashes). The prevalence of alcohol or drugs was highest among riders killed in single-vehicle accidents during weekend days and nights (60.9 and 65.2 percent). Alcohol and drugs were less often found in samples from killed motorcycles riders than in samples from car and van drivers (40.2 percent). For single-vehicle accidents, the total prevalence of alcohol or drugs among killed motorcycles riders and car drivers was 44.6 percent and 63.8 percent, respectively. The same pattern of alcohol and drugs was found among the two groups, except that the prevalence among motorcycle riders was lower compared to car drivers in all age groups and time periods, which may be related to the fact that they are more vulnerable for fatal injury compared to car drivers in similar accidents. PMID:25932788

  2. Descent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, Y. I.

    1985-01-01

    The creation of descent vehicles marked a new stage in the development of cosmonautics, involving the beginning of manned space flight and substantial progress in space research on the distant bodies of the Solar System. This booklet describes these vehicles and their structures, systems, and purposes. It is intended for the general public interested in modern problems of space technology.

  3. Vehicle architecture

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This article examines how the design of the automotive body and chassis is influenced by vehicle size, cost, production volume, customer preference, and performance. The topics of the article include a look at vehicle architectures over the past 100 years; recent architectures influenced by the desire for increased fuel economy, safety, comfort, and ease of manufacture; and possible future architectures.

  4. Dynamic kill: controlling wild wells a new way

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, E.M.; Soeiinah, E.

    1981-10-01

    Dynamic kill describes a technique for terminating a blowout utilizing flowing frictional pressure to supplement the hydrostatic pressure of the kill fluid being injected through the relief well and up the blowing well. Therefore, a lighter kill fluid such as water can be implemented. The objective is to allow a blowout to be killed without breaking down the formation so the maximum amount of fluid can be circulated through the relief well by not losing fluid to a fractured formation. This allows optimum control during the kill operation and stable communication between the two wells. By allowing more fluid to be applied to the kill through one relief well, dynamic kill also increases the probability that one relief well will be sufficient. When the well is dynamically dead, the initial kill fluid, which will usually be too light to hold the well dead in a static condition, is replaced with a heavier kill mud. In fact, three weights of mud may be required to allow control during the transition from low density initial dynamic kill mud to heavy final kill mud. 5 refs.

  5. Copper Reduction and Contact Killing of Bacteria by Iron Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Salima; Kumar, Ranjeet; Solioz, Marc

    2015-09-01

    The well-established killing of bacteria by copper surfaces, also called contact killing, is currently believed to be a combined effect of bacterial contact with the copper surface and the dissolution of copper, resulting in lethal bacterial damage. Iron can similarly be released in ionic form from iron surfaces and would thus be expected to also exhibit contact killing, although essentially no contact killing is observed by iron surfaces. However, we show here that the exposure of bacteria to iron surfaces in the presence of copper ions results in efficient contact killing. The process involves reduction of Cu(2+) to Cu(+) by iron; Cu(+) has been shown to be considerably more toxic to cells than Cu(2+). The specific Cu(+) chelator, bicinchoninic acid, suppresses contact killing by chelating the Cu(+) ions. These findings underline the importance of Cu(+) ions in the contact killing process and infer that iron-based alloys containing copper could provide novel antimicrobial materials. PMID:26150470

  6. Copper Reduction and Contact Killing of Bacteria by Iron Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Salima; Kumar, Ranjeet

    2015-01-01

    The well-established killing of bacteria by copper surfaces, also called contact killing, is currently believed to be a combined effect of bacterial contact with the copper surface and the dissolution of copper, resulting in lethal bacterial damage. Iron can similarly be released in ionic form from iron surfaces and would thus be expected to also exhibit contact killing, although essentially no contact killing is observed by iron surfaces. However, we show here that the exposure of bacteria to iron surfaces in the presence of copper ions results in efficient contact killing. The process involves reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ by iron; Cu+ has been shown to be considerably more toxic to cells than Cu2+. The specific Cu+ chelator, bicinchoninic acid, suppresses contact killing by chelating the Cu+ ions. These findings underline the importance of Cu+ ions in the contact killing process and infer that iron-based alloys containing copper could provide novel antimicrobial materials. PMID:26150470

  7. Killing-Yano forms and Killing tensors on a warped space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krtouš, Pavel; KubizÅák, David; Kolář, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We formulate several criteria under which the symmetries associated with the Killing and Killing-Yano tensors on the base space can be lifted to the symmetries of the full warped geometry. The procedure is explicitly illustrated on several examples, providing new prototypes of spacetimes admitting such tensors. In particular, we study a warped product of two Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes and show that it gives rise to a new class of highly symmetric vacuum (with a cosmological constant) black hole solutions that inherit many of the properties of the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS geometry.

  8. Kinetic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, Gregory G.

    The weak collisionality typical of turbulence in many diffuse astrophysical plasmas invalidates an MHD description of the turbulent dynamics, motivating the development of a more comprehensive theory of kinetic turbulence. In particular, a kinetic approach is essential for the investigation of the physical mechanisms responsible for the dissipation of astrophysical turbulence and the resulting heating of the plasma. This chapter reviews the limitations of MHD turbulence theory and explains how kinetic considerations may be incorporated to obtain a kinetic theory for astrophysical plasma turbulence. Key questions about the nature of kinetic turbulence that drive current research efforts are identified. A comprehensive model of the kinetic turbulent cascade is presented, with a detailed discussion of each component of the model and a review of supporting and conflicting theoretical, numerical, and observational evidence.

  9. Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces?

    PubMed Central

    Santo, Christophe Esprito; Lam, Ee Wen; Elowsky, Christian G.; Quaranta, Davide; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important first steps for revealing the molecular sensitive targets in cells lethally challenged by exposure to copper surfaces and provide a scientific explanation for the use of copper surfaces as antimicrobial agents for supporting public hygiene. PMID:21148701

  10. Targeting the Checkpoint to Kill Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Benada, Jan; Macurek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatments such as radiotherapy and most of the chemotherapies act by damaging DNA of cancer cells. Upon DNA damage, cells stop proliferation at cell cycle checkpoints, which provides them time for DNA repair. Inhibiting the checkpoint allows entry to mitosis despite the presence of DNA damage and can lead to cell death. Importantly, as cancer cells exhibit increased levels of endogenous DNA damage due to an excessive replication stress, inhibiting the checkpoint kinases alone could act as a directed anti-cancer therapy. Here, we review the current status of inhibitors targeted towards the checkpoint effectors and discuss mechanisms of their actions in killing of cancer cells. PMID:26295265

  11. The killing efficiency of soft iron shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, R.; Longcore, J.R.

    1969-01-01

    A cooperative research effort between the ammunition industry and the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is aimed at finding a suitable non-toxic substitute for lead shot. A contract study by an independent research organization evaluated ways of coating or detoxifying lead shot or replacing it with another metal. As a result of that study, the only promising candidate is soft iron. Previous tests of hard iron shot had suggested that its killing effectiveness was poor at longer ranges due to the lower density. In addition, its hardness caused excessive damage to shotgun barrels. A unique, automated shooting facility was constructed at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to test the killing effectiveness of soft iron shot under controlled conditions. Tethered game-farm mallards were transported across a shooting point in a manner simulating free flight. A microswitch triggered a mounted shotgun so that each shot was 'perfect.' A soft iron shot, in Number 4 size, was produced by the ammunition industry and loaded in 12-gauge shells to give optimum ballistic performance. Commercial loads of lead shot in both Number 4 and Number 6 size were used for comparison. A total of 2,010 ducks were shot at ranges of 30 to 65 yards and at broadside and head-on angles in a statistically designed procedure. The following data were recorded for each duck: time until death, broken wing or leg bones, and number of embedded shot. Those ducks not killed outright were held for 10 days. From these data, ducks were categorized as 'probably bagged,' 'probably lost cripples,' or survivors. The test revealed that the killing effectiveness of this soft iron shot was superior to its anticipated performance and close to that obtained with commercial lead loads containing an equal number of pellets. Bagging a duck, in terms of rapid death or broken wing, was primarily dependent on the probability of a shot striking that vital area, and therefore a function of range. There was no indication that iron shot would result in greater crippling loss. Despite the apparent effectiveness of this iron shot, transition to its use in waterfowl hunting is not now possible. The sample used for this test was produced by a laboratory procedure that is unsuitable for manufacture. There is no process for producing soft iron shot in the quantities needed. Industry is doing its best to resolve this problem.

  12. Triops (Entomostraca) eggs killed only by boiling.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, D B

    1968-07-19

    Temporary rainpools near Khartoum, Sudan, are inhabited by the notostracan crustacean Triops which completes its life cycle within 4 weeks. The annual rains fall in late summer, and throughout the winter and early summer the eggs of Triops remain in the dried mud or dust where they may be exposed to temperatures up to 80 degrees C. Laboratory experiments show that they can withstand temperatures up to within 1 degrees C of boiling, but are killed in partial vacuum by 70 degrees C, at atmospheric pressure by 100 degrees C, or under pressure by 105 degrees C. Exposure to high temperature seems to be necessary to break the egg diapause. PMID:5690518

  13. Micro-sociology of mass rampage killings.

    PubMed

    Collins, Randall

    2014-01-01

    Spectacular but very rare violent events such as mass killings by habitual non-criminals cannot be explained by factors which are very widespread, such as possession of firearms, being a victim of bullying, an introvert, or a career failure. A stronger clue is clandestine preparation of attack by one or two individuals, against randomly chosen representatives of a hated collective identity. Mass killers develop a deep back-stage, obsessed with planning their attack, overcoming social inferiority and isolation by an emotion of clandestine excitement. PMID:25179819

  14. Time-kill behavior against eight bacterial species and cytotoxicity of antibacterial monomers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Weir, Michael D.; Fouad, Ashraf F.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) the antibacterial activity of two antibacterial monomers, dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) and dimethylammoniumethyl dimethacrylate (DMAEDM), against eight different species of oral pathogens for the first time; (2) the cytotoxicity of DMAEDM and DMADDM. Methods DMAEDM and DMADDM were synthesized by reacting a tertiary amine group with an organo-halide. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against eight species of bacteria were tested. Time-kill determinations were performed to examine the bactericidal kinetics. Cytotoxicity of monomers on human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was assessed using a methyl thiazolyltetrazolium assay and live/dead viability assay. Results DMADDM showed strong bactericidal activity against all bacteria, with MIC of 1.2 to 9.8?g/mL. DMAEDM had MIC of 20 to 80mg/mL. Time-kill determinations indicated that DMADDM and DMAEDM had rapid killing effects against eight species of bacteria, and eliminated all bacteria in 30min at the concentration of 4-fold MBC. Median lethal concentration for DMADDM and DMAEDM was between 20 to 40?g/mL, which was 20-fold higher than 1 to 2?g/mL for BisGMA control. Conclusions DMAEDM and DMADDM were tested in time-kill assay against eight species of oral bacteria for the first time. Both were effective in bacteria-inhibition, but DMADDM had a higher potency than DMAEDM. Different killing efficacy was found against different bacteria species. DMAEDM and DMADDM had much lower cytotoxicity than BisGMA. Therefore, DMADDM and DMAEDM are promising for use in bonding agents and other restorative/preventive materials to combat a variety of oral pathogens. PMID:23876930

  15. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shall not exceed five minutes. If a train moving toward the bridge has crossed the home signal for the bridge before the request to open the bridge is given, that train may continue across the bridge, but.... (c) The draw of the Borden Avenue Bridge, mile 1.2, across Dutch Kills at Queens, shall open...

  16. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall not exceed five minutes. If a train moving toward the bridge has crossed the home signal for the bridge before the request to open the bridge is given, that train may continue across the bridge, but.... (c) The draw of the Borden Avenue Bridge, mile 1.2, across Dutch Kills at Queens, shall open...

  17. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shall not exceed five minutes. If a train moving toward the bridge has crossed the home signal for the bridge before the request to open the bridge is given, that train may continue across the bridge, but.... (c) The draw of the Borden Avenue Bridge, mile 1.2, across Dutch Kills at Queens, shall open...

  18. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall not exceed five minutes. If a train moving toward the bridge has crossed the home signal for the bridge before the request to open the bridge is given, that train may continue across the bridge, but.... (c) The draw of the Borden Avenue Bridge, mile 1.2, across Dutch Kills at Queens, shall open...

  19. The ability of insect-killing fungi to kill pecan aphids under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is need for efficacious biocontrol agents for pecan aphids in commercial orchards. We determined the virulence (killing power) of several beneficial fungi to pecan aphids. We tested three species (kinds) of fungi: 1) Isaria fumosorosea (two strains of this species were tested: ARSEF 3581 a...

  20. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  1. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  2. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  3. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  4. Heterosigma bloom and associated fish kill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Rensel, J.E.; Postel, J.R.; Taub, F.B.

    1997-01-01

    A bloom of the harmful marine phytoplankton, Heterosigma carterae occurred in upper Case Inlet, south Puget Sound, Washington in late September, 1994, correlating with the presence of at least 35 dead salmon. This marks the first time that this alga has been closely correlated with a wild fish kill; in the past it was thought to be associated with kills of penned fish at fish farms only. We were informed of the presence of a possible harmful algal bloom and dead salinois Ilear the town of Allyn on 27 September and a team was formed to investigate. We arrived at the Allyn waterfront at 17:30 hours the same day. Prior to our arrival, state agency personnel walked approximatcly two miles of shoreline from the powerlines north of the dock, to the mouth of Sherwood Creek and conducted the only official count of dead fish present along the shore consisting of 12 coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), 11 chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), 12 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), one flat fish, and one sculpin on the morning of 9/27. Since previous harmful blooms of Heterosigma have resultedin the majority of net penreared salmon sinking to the bottom of pens, and only approximately two miles of shoreline were sampled, it is suspected that many more exposed fish may have succumbed than were counted. Witnesses who explored the east side of the bay reported seeing many dead salmon there as well, but no counts were made. State agency personnel who observed the fish kill reported seeing “dying fish coming to the beach, gulping at the surface, trying to get out of the water” Scavengers were seen consuming the salmon carcasses; these included two harbor seals, a house cat, and Hymenopteran insects. None suffered any noticeable acute ill effects. Although precise cause of death has not been ascertained, visual inspection of the reproductive organs from a deceased male chum salmon found on the shore at Allyn confirmed that the fish was not yet reproductively mature and therefore did not die from completion of the spawning process.

  5. The eyeball killer: serial killings with postmortem globe enucleation.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Julie; Ross, Karen F; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Peacock, Elizabeth; Linch, Charles A; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    Although serial killings are relatively rare, they can be the cause of a great deal of anxiety while the killer remains at-large. Despite the fact that the motivations for serial killings are typically quite complex, the psychological analysis of a serial killer can provide valuable insight into how and why certain individuals become serial killers. Such knowledge may be instrumental in preventing future serial killings or in solving ongoing cases. In certain serial killings, the various incidents have a variety of similar features. Identification of similarities between separate homicidal incidents is necessary to recognize that a serial killer may be actively killing. In this report, the authors present a group of serial killings involving three prostitutes who were shot to death over a 3-month period. Scene and autopsy findings, including the unusual finding of postmortem enucleation of the eyes, led investigators to recognize the serial nature of the homicides. PMID:25682709

  6. f(R)-gravity from Killing tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos

    2016-04-01

    We consider f(R)-gravity in a Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker spacetime with zero spatial curvature. We apply the Killing tensors of the minisuperspace in order to specify the functional form of f(R) and for the field equations to be invariant under Lie–Bäcklund transformations, which are linear in momentum (contact symmetries). Consequently, the field equations to admit quadratic conservation laws given by Noether’s theorem. We find three new integrable f(R)-models, for which, with the application of the conservation laws, we reduce the field equations to a system of two first-order ordinary differential equations. For each model we study the evolution of the cosmological fluid. We find that for each integrable model the cosmological fluid has an equation of state parameter, in which there is linear behavior in terms of the scale factor which describes the Chevallier, Polarski and Linder parametric dark energy model.

  7. Killing tensors with nonvanishing Haantjes torsion and integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiganov, Andrey V.

    2015-07-01

    The second-order integrable Killing tensor with simple eigenvalues and vanishing Haantjes torsion is the key ingredient in construction of Liouville integrable systems of Stckel type. We present two examples of the integrable systems on three-dimensional Euclidean space associated with the second-order Killing tensors possessing nontrivial torsion. Integrals of motion for these integrable systems are the second- and fourth-order polynomials in momenta, which are constructed using a special family of the Killing tensors.

  8. Killing vectors in algebraically special space-times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres del Castillo, G. F.

    1984-06-01

    The form of the isometric, homothetic, and conformal Killing vectors for algebraically special metrics which admit a shear-free congruence of null geodesics is obtained by considering their complexification, using the existence of a congruence of null strings. The Killing equations are partially integrated and the reasons which permit this reduction are exhibited. In the case where the congruence of null strings has a vanishing expansion, the Killing equations are reduced to a single master equation.

  9. Passive immune kill of cells in tissue culture

    PubMed Central

    Hamburger, R. N.; Mills, S. E.

    1965-01-01

    Mammalian cells in tissue culture can bind foreign protein to the cell surface and be killed by antiserum with specificity directed to the foreign antigen. The reaction is complement-dependent and, by analogy to passive immune haemolysis, is termed passive immune kill. Passive immune kill is specifically inhibited by incorporation of the foreign protein, in antigen excess, into the reaction mixture. The relevance of these observations to cell injury by immunologic mechanisms occurring in vivo is discussed. PMID:5835659

  10. How Do Cytotoxic Lymphocytes Kill Cancer Cells?

    PubMed

    Martnez-Lostao, Luis; Anel, Alberto; Pardo, Julin

    2015-11-15

    In the past few years, cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a safe and effective alternative for treatment of cancers that do not respond to classical treatments, including those types with high aggressiveness. New immune modulators, such as cytokines, blockers of CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4) and PD-1(programmed cell death protein 1)/PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1), and interaction or adoptive cell therapy, have been developed and approved to treat solid and hematologic carcinomas. In these scenarios, cytotoxic lymphocytes (CL), mainly cytotoxic T cells (Tc) and natural killer (NK) cells, are ultimately responsible for killing the cancer cells and eradicating the tumor. Extensive studies have been conducted to assess how Tc and NK cells get activated and recognize the cancer cell. In contrast, few studies have focused on the effector molecules used by CLs to kill cancer cells during cancer immunosurveillance and immunotherapy. In this article, the two main pathways involved in CL-mediated tumor cell death, granule exocytosis (perforin and granzymes) and death ligands, are briefly introduced, followed by a critical discussion of the molecules involved in cell death during cancer immunosurveillance and immunotherapy. This discussion also covers unexpected consequences of proinflammatory and survival effects of granzymes and death ligands and recent experimental evidence indicating that perforin and granzymes of CLs can activate nonapoptotic pathways of cell death, overcoming apoptosis defects and chemoresistance. The consequences of apoptosis versus other modalities of cell death for an effective treatment of cancer by modulating the patient immune system are also briefly discussed. Clin Cancer Res; 21(22); 5047-56. 2015 AACR.See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Cell Death and Cancer Therapy." PMID:26567364

  11. Black Hole Spacetimes with Killing-Yano Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiz?k, David

    2010-03-01

    We present a brief overview of black hole spacetimes admitting Killing-Yano tensors. In vacuum these include Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics and certain black brane solutions. In the presence of matter fields, (conformal) Killing-Yano symmetries are known to exist for the Plebanski-Demianski solution and (trivially) for any spacetime with spherical symmetry. Special attention is devoted to generalized Killing-Yano tensors of black holes in minimal gauged supergravity Several aspects directly related to the existence of Killing-Yano tensors--such as the Kerr-Schild form, algebraic type of spacetimes, and separability of field equations--are also briefly discussed.

  12. Advancements in dynamic kill calculations for blowout wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kouba, G.E. . Production Fluids Div.); MacDougall, G.R. ); Schumacher, B.W. . Information Technology Dept.)

    1993-09-01

    This paper addresses the development, interpretation, and use of dynamic kill equations. To this end, three simple calculation techniques are developed for determining the minimum dynamic kill rate. Two techniques contain only single-phase calculations and are independent of reservoir inflow performance. Despite these limitations, these two methods are useful for bracketing the minimum flow rates necessary to kill a blowing well. For the third technique, a simplified mechanistic multiphase-flow model is used to determine a most-probable minimum kill rate.

  13. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-04-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism.

  14. Hypervelocity impact flash for missile-defense kill assessment and engagement analysis : experiments on Z.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Reinhart, William Dodd; Lawrence, Raymond Jeffery Jr.; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2005-07-01

    Kill assessment continues to be a major problem for the nation's missile defense program. A potential approach for addressing this issue involves spectral and temporal analysis of the short-time impact flash that occurs when a kill vehicle intercepts and engages a target missile. This can provide identification of the materials involved in the impact event, which will, in turn, yield the data necessary for target identification, engagement analysis, and kill assessment. This report describes the first phases of a project under which we are providing laboratory demonstrations of the feasibility and effectiveness of this approach. We are using two major Sandia facilities, the Z-Pinch accelerator, and the two- and three-stage gas guns at the Shock Thermodynamics and Applied Research (STAR) facility. We have looked at the spectral content of impact flash at velocities up to 25 km/s on the Z-Pinch machine to establish the capability for spectroscopy for these types of events, and are looking at similar experiments at velocities from 6 to 11 km/s on the gas guns to demonstrate a similar capability for a variety of research-oriented and applied materials. The present report describes only the work performed on the Z machine.

  15. Hermes vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretenet, J. C.

    1985-11-01

    The presence of Europe in the future developments of spatial programs, which are foreseen, for the 1990s and further, needs the availability of vehicles, modules and all related technologies adapted to operational use of low earth orbit station. The manned HERMES vehicle shall be part of the in-orbit infrastructure realized either in the European context or in cooperation between Europe and the United States. The main mission for this vehicle will be to run a shuttle with the station that means transport and change of the crews, its safe return in abort condition and cargo transport of consumable and experimental equipment. Secondary missions could be servicing on automatic platform, making autonomous scientific experiments. Lastly, the vehicle, by means of its on-board propulsion capability, could be used to accomplish in-orbit tow and assembly missions. Studies which are undertaken now about the vehicle are devoted to the aerodynamic shape (research of a compromise between aerothermic and overall fitting), the system (functional architecture, ground and flight configuration); further works dealing with technology are presently on hand in the field of thermal protection, aerodynamics, power generation with a high massic yield.

  16. Autonomous vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrowitz, A.L.; Blidberg, D.R.; Michelson, R.C.

    1996-08-01

    There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

  17. On the Lie subalgebra of Killing-Milne and Killing-Cartan vector fields in Newtonian spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamel, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    The Galilean (and more generally Milne) invariance of Newtonian theory allows for Killing vector fields of a general kind, whereby the Lie derivative of a field is not required to vanish but only to be cancellable by some infinitesimal Galilean (respectively Milne) gauge transformation. In this paper, it is shown that both the Killing-Milne vector fields, which preserve the background Newtonian spacetime structure and the Killing-Cartan vector fields, which in addition preserve the gravitational field, form a Lie subalgebra.

  18. Inverse Kinetics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-03-20

    Given the space-independent, one energy group reactor kinetics equations and the initial conditions, this prgram determines the time variation of reactivity required to produce the given input of flux-time data.

  19. Vehicle structure

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, E.A.

    1984-05-01

    There is provided a vehicle which includes a frame, a steerable wheel mounted on the frame and at least one further wheel mounted for free rotation on the frame. A flywheel is mounted for rotation adjacent one of the wheels. The vehicle includes means for imparting rotation to the flywheel, and a clutch plate rotatably and coaxially mounted adjacent the same wheel to which the flywheel is adjacent. Speed-reduction means allows rotation of the flywheel to rotate the clutch plate at a faster rate than the flywheel, and a frictionless clutch is provided between the clutch plate and the adjacent wheel.

  20. Design of Targeted B Cell Killing Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarenko, Natalia A.; Stremovskiy, Oleg A.; Kozlov, Leonid V.; Bichucher, Anna M.; Dmitriev, Sergey E.; Smirnov, Ivan V.; Shamborant, Olga G.; Balabashin, Dmitry S.; Sashchenko, Lidia P.; Tonevitsky, Alexander G.; Friboulet, Alain; Gabibov, Alexander G.; Deyev, Sergey M.

    2011-01-01

    B cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of both systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Autoreactive B cells not only produce autoantibodies, but also are capable to efficiently present specific autoantigens to T cells. Furthermore, B cells can secrete proinflammatory cytokines and amplify the vicious process of self-destruction. B cell-directed therapy is a potentially important approach for treatment of various autoimmune diseases. The depletion of B cells by anti-CD20/19 monoclonal antibody Retuximab® used in autoimmune diseases therapy leads to systemic side effects and should be significantly improved. In this study we designed a repertoire of genetically engineered B cell killers that specifically affected one kind of cells carrying a respective B cell receptor. We constructed immunotoxins (ITs), fused with c-myc epitope as a model targeting sequence, based on barnase, Pseudomonas toxin, Shiga-like toxin E.coli and Fc domain of human antibody IgGγ1. C-MYC hybridoma cell line producing anti-c-myc IgG was chosen as a model for targeted cell depletion. C-myc sequence fused with toxins provided addressed delivery of the toxic agent to the target cells. We demonstrated functional activity of designed ITs in vitro and showed recognition of the fusion molecules by antibodies produced by targeted hybridoma. To study specificity of the proposed B cells killing molecules, we tested a set of created ITs ex vivo, using C-MYC and irrelevant hybridoma cell lines. Pseudomonas-containing IT showed one of the highest cytotoxic effects on the model cells, however, possessed promiscuous specificity. Shiga-like toxin construct demonstrated mild both cytotoxicity and specificity. Barnase and Fc-containing ITs revealed excellent balance between their legibility and toxic properties. Moreover, barnase and Fc molecules fused with c-myc epitope were able to selectively deplete c-myc-specific B cells and decrease production of anti-c-myc antibodies in culture of native splenocytes, suggesting their highest therapeutic potential as targeted B cell killing agents. PMID:21677771

  1. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  2. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  3. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (115 Newhaven Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  4. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  5. Vehicle braking

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with virtually all braking equipment in current use, so its coverage begins in the mid-1950's. Concerns are for cars, commercial vehicles, motor cycles, trailers, and tractors. The work is a practical approach but theory is not ignored. Based principally on European practice but the Far East and American practices are also considered.

  6. Flat deformation of a spacetime with two Killing fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llosa, Josep; Carot, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    It is shown that, given an analytic Lorentzian metric on a 4-manifold, gab, which admits two Killing vector fields, it exists a local deformation law ?ab = agab + b Hab, where Hab is a 2-dimensional projector, such that ?ab is flat and admits the same Killing vectors.

  7. 9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PLATFORMS IN FOREGROUND WERE USED BY SPLITTERS, TRIMMERS AND GOVERNMENT INSPECTORS; SKINNING TABLE RAN ALONG THE WINDOWS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  8. PDE5 Inhibitors Enhance Celecoxib Killing in Multiple Tumor Types

    PubMed Central

    BOOTH, LAURENCE; ROBERTS, JANE L.; CRUICKSHANKS, NICHOLA; TAVALLAI, SEYEDMEHRAD; WEBB, TIMOTHY; SAMUEL, PETER; CONLEY, ADAM; BINION, BRITTANY; YOUNG, HAROLD F.; POKLEPOVIC, ANDREW; SPIEGEL, SARAH; DENT, PAUL

    2015-01-01

    The present studies determined whether clinically relevant phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors interacted with a clinically relevant NSAID, celecoxib, to kill tumor cells. Celecoxib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to kill multiple tumor cell types. Celecoxib and sildenafil killed ex vivo primary human glioma cells as well as their associated activated microglia. Knock down of PDE5 recapitulated the effects of PDE5 inhibitor treatment; the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME suppressed drug combination toxicity. The effects of celecoxib were COX2 independent. Over-expression of c-FLIP-s or knock down of CD95/FADD significantly reduced killing by the drug combination. CD95 activation was dependent on nitric oxide and ceramide signaling. CD95 signaling activated the JNK pathway and inhibition of JNK suppressed cell killing. The drug combination inactivated mTOR and increased the levels of autophagy and knock down of Beclin1 or ATG5 strongly suppressed killing by the drug combination. The drug combination caused an ER stress response; knock down of IRE1α/XBP1 enhanced killing whereas knock down of eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP suppressed killing. Sildenafil and celecoxib treatment suppressed the growth of mammary tumors in vivo. Collectively our data demonstrate that clinically achievable concentrations of celecoxib and sildenafil have the potential to be a new therapeutic approach for cancer. PMID:25303541

  9. The Seal Killing Controversy: What Are the Facts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffer, Victor B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the seal controversy using the harp and Alaska fur seals to illustrate the two distinct issues, i.e., conservation (the effect of killing upon the animal population); and two, morality (the effect of killing upon the human spirit). Factual information combines with personal philosophy. (LK)

  10. Male Brown-headed Cowbird Attacks and Kills a Nestling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    I observed a male Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) attack and kill a nestling of an unidentified passerine in a grassland field in Day County, South Dakota, in June 2000. The killing or removal of nestlings by female cowbirds has been reported by others, but this behavior has not been documented previously in male cowbirds.

  11. 7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  12. Microwave irradiation for rapid killing and fixing of plant tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, G.E.; Bohannon, P.M.; Wessinger-Duvall, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation by microwaves allows for rapid killing and fixing of plant tissue, with excellent cellular integrity for histological examination. One or two exposures to microwaves for three seconds in formalin/acetic acid/alcohol gave good preservation of nuclei, chloroplasts, and other plant structures. The microwave method offers a considerable saving of time over traditional methods for killing and fixing plant tissue.

  13. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  14. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  15. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.203 Section 113.203 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  16. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious...

  17. PDE5 inhibitors enhance celecoxib killing in multiple tumor types.

    PubMed

    Booth, Laurence; Roberts, Jane L; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Tavallai, Seyedmehrad; Webb, Timothy; Samuel, Peter; Conley, Adam; Binion, Brittany; Young, Harold F; Poklepovic, Andrew; Spiegel, Sarah; Dent, Paul

    2015-05-01

    The present studies determined whether clinically relevant phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors interacted with a clinically relevant NSAID, celecoxib, to kill tumor cells. Celecoxib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to kill multiple tumor cell types. Celecoxib and sildenafil killed ex vivo primary human glioma cells as well as their associated activated microglia. Knock down of PDE5 recapitulated the effects of PDE5 inhibitor treatment; the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME suppressed drug combination toxicity. The effects of celecoxib were COX2 independent. Over-expression of c-FLIP-s or knock down of CD95/FADD significantly reduced killing by the drug combination. CD95 activation was dependent on nitric oxide and ceramide signaling. CD95 signaling activated the JNK pathway and inhibition of JNK suppressed cell killing. The drug combination inactivated mTOR and increased the levels of autophagy and knock down of Beclin1 or ATG5 strongly suppressed killing by the drug combination. The drug combination caused an ER stress response; knock down of IRE1?/XBP1 enhanced killing whereas knock down of eIF2?/ATF4/CHOP suppressed killing. Sildenafil and celecoxib treatment suppressed the growth of mammary tumors in vivo. Collectively our data demonstrate that clinically achievable concentrations of celecoxib and sildenafil have the potential to be a new therapeutic approach for cancer. PMID:25303541

  18. Control of Influenza and Poliomyelitis with Killed Virus Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salk, Jonas; Salk, Darrell

    1977-01-01

    Discusses control of poliomyelitis and influenza by live and killed virus vaccines. Considered are the etiological agents, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiology of each disease. Reviews recent scientific studies of the diseases. Recommends use of killed virus vaccines in controlling both diseases. (CS)

  19. Controlled cell killing by a recombinant nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus.

    PubMed

    Parks, Griffith D; Young, Virginia A; Koumenis, Constantinos; Wansley, Elizabeth K; Layer, Jennifer L; Cooke, Kelly M

    2002-02-01

    In most tissue culture cell lines tested, infection with the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5) results in very little cell death. To determine if SV5 could be used as a vector for controlled killing of tumor cells, a recombinant SV5 (rSV5-TK) was constructed to encode the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) gene. MDBK cells infected with rSV5-TK showed a time-dependent loss of viability when infected cells were cultured in the presence of the prodrug acyclovir (ACV) or ganciclovir (GCV) while no significant toxicity was observed in the absence of prodrug. Cells infected with a control rSV5 expressing GFP and cultured with prodrug showed only a slight reduction in growth rate and little cell death. Time-lapse video microscopy of rSV5-TK-infected MDBK cells that were cultured in the presence of ACV showed an accumulation of cells with morphological effects characteristic of apoptotic cell death. An MDBK cell line persistently infected with rSV5-TK retained long-term expression of TK and sensitivity to prodrug-mediated cell killing that were comparable to those found in an acute infection. Titration experiments showed that the rSV5-TK plus GCV combination resulted in cell death for all mouse and human cell lines tested, although the kinetics and efficiency of cell death varied between cell types. Our results demonstrating controlled cell killing by a recombinant paramyxovirus support the use of negative-strand RNA viruses as therapeutic vectors for targeted killing of cancer cells. PMID:11853412

  20. Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Lysosomal Killing of Cryptococcus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hole, Camaron R.; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L.; Wozniak, Karen L.

    2012-10-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death.

  1. 'Deadman' and 'Passcode' microbial kill switches for bacterial containment.

    PubMed

    Chan, Clement T Y; Lee, Jeong Wook; Cameron, D Ewen; Bashor, Caleb J; Collins, James J

    2016-02-01

    Biocontainment systems that couple environmental sensing with circuit-based control of cell viability could be used to prevent escape of genetically modified microbes into the environment. Here we present two engineered safeguard systems known as the 'Deadman' and 'Passcode' kill switches. The Deadman kill switch uses unbalanced reciprocal transcriptional repression to couple a specific input signal with cell survival. The Passcode kill switch uses a similar two-layered transcription design and incorporates hybrid LacI-GalR family transcription factors to provide diverse and complex environmental inputs to control circuit function. These synthetic gene circuits efficiently kill Escherichia coli and can be readily reprogrammed to change their environmental inputs, regulatory architecture and killing mechanism. PMID:26641934

  2. Mouse oocyte killing by neutrons: target considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.; Dobson, R.L.

    1985-04-01

    Highly radiosensitive primordial mouse oocytes, the principal cells at genetic risk in the female, have been studied using 0.43-MeV neutrons. Analysis of the survival curve (D/sub 37/ = 0.055 Gy) indicates that the diameter of the radiosensitive target (assumed spherical and of unit density) is larger than that of the nucleus but not of the oocyte, implicating a non-nuclear but sub-cellular target. This is consistent with results from /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporated in DNA. Our efforts to identify the extraordinarily radiosensitive lethality target in these primordial oocytes suggest it is the plasma membrane. Monte Carlo calculations for 0.43-MeV neutrons show that at the D/sub 37/ only a single proton recoil will traverse the plasma membrane, consistent with the observed exponential survival curve. A highly sensitive non-DNA target for mouse oocyte killing may importantly influence interpretations of genetic mutation data from mice and their use in estimating genetic risk in humans. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Boromycin Kills Mycobacterial Persisters without Detectable Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Wilfried; Aziz, Dinah B.; Dick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Boromycin is a boron-containing polyether macrolide antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It was shown to be active against Gram positive bacteria and to act as an ionophore for potassium ions. The antibiotic is ineffective against Gram negative bacteria where the outer membrane appears to block access of the molecule to the cytoplasmic membrane. Here we asked whether boromycin is active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis which, similar to Gram negative bacteria, possesses an outer membrane. The results show that boromycin is a potent inhibitor of mycobacterial growth (MIC50 = 80 nM) with strong bactericidal activity against growing and non-growing drug tolerant persister bacilli. Exposure to boromycin resulted in a rapid loss of membrane potential, reduction of the intracellular ATP level and leakage of cytoplasmic protein. Consistent with boromycin acting as a potassium ionophore, addition of KCl to the medium blocked its antimycobacterial activity. In contrast to the potent antimycobacterial activities of the polyether macrolide, its cytotoxicity and haemolytic activity were low (CC50 = 30 μM, HC50 = 40 μM) with a selectivity index of more than 300. Spontaneous resistant mutants could not be isolated suggesting a mutation frequency of less than 10-9/CFU. Taken together, the results suggests that targeting mycobacterial transmembrane ion gradients may be an attractive chemotherapeutic intervention level to kill otherwise drug tolerant persister bacilli, and to slow down the development of genetic antibiotic resistance. PMID:26941723

  4. [Time point and methods for emergency killing in cattle].

    PubMed

    Khol, J L; Schafbauer, T; Wittek, T

    2016-02-16

    Emergency killing is defined as the killing of injured or ill animals to avoid excessive pain or harm. Decision-making for emergency killing or a prolonged therapy can be difficult and has to be based on the case history and results of the clinical examination contributing to the prognosis, particularly in downer cows. Evaluation of enzyme activities and total bilirubin can be used as additional factors pointing to a guarded prognosis; however, none of these parameters provides a clear cut-off value indicating a poor prognosis and mandatory emergency killing. Euthanasia by intravenous drug application is seen as the least stressful method of killing and should therefore always be the first method of choice for emergency killing in cattle. Drugs containing pentobarbital as well as a combination of three different drugs (T61®-Injektionslösung, MSD Animal Health) are available for euthanasia in cattle. All drugs must be administered by a veterinarian. Before application of pentobarbital, an animal should be deeply sedated. The administration of T61® requires anaesthesia of the animal and it is not licensed for use in pregnant animals. Alternative methods for emeragency killing, including captive bolt stunning and the use of firearms, although not regularly performed by veterinarians, should be assessed concerning their correct application and performance. When captive bolt stunning or emergency killing using firearms is performed, the correct position of the device is crucial as well as a quick exsanguination or the application of a pithing rod for the actual killing of the animal after captive bolt stunning. In addition to medical considerations, economic and personal factors contribute to the decision about emergency killing in cattle. Therefore, veterinarians should aim to evaluate each case thoroughly based on personal knowledge and experience, case history, clinical findings and laboratory parameters to avoid prolonged suffering of the animal. PMID:26830543

  5. On pseudo-Riemannian manifolds with many Killing spinors

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseevsky, D. V.; Cortes, V.

    2009-02-02

    Let M be a pseudo-Riemannian spin manifold of dimension n and signature s and denote by N the rank of the real spinor bundle. We prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits more than (3/4)N independent Killing spinors with the same Killing number, unless n {identical_to} 1(mod 4) and s {identical_to} 3(mod 4). We also prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits k{sub +} independent Killing spinors with Killing number {lambda} and k{sub -} independent Killing spinors with Killing number -{lambda} such that k{sub +}+k{sub -}>(3/2)N, unless n {identical_to} s {identical_to} 3(mod 4). Similarly, a pseudo-Riemannian manifold with more than (3/4)N independent conformal Killing spinors is conformally locally homogeneous. For (positive or negative) definite metrics, the bounds (3/4)N and (3/2)N in the above results can be relaxed to (1/2)N and N, respectively. Furthermore, we prove that a pseudo-Riemannnian spin manifold with more than (3/4)N parallel spinors is flat and that (1/4)N parallel spinors suffice if the metric is definite. Similarly, a Riemannnian spin manifold with more than (3/8)N Killing spinors with the Killing number {lambda}(set-membership sign)R has constant curvature 4{lambda}{sup 2}. For Lorentzian or negative definite metrics the same is true with the bound (1/2)N. Finally, we give a classification of (not necessarily complete) Riemannian manifolds admitting Killing spinors, which provides an inductive construction of such manifolds.

  6. Psychological traits underlying different killing methods among Malaysian male murderers.

    PubMed

    Kamaluddin, Mohammad Rahim; Shariff, Nadiah Syariani; Nurfarliza, Siti; Othman, Azizah; Ismail, Khaidzir H; Mat Saat, Geshina Ayu

    2014-04-01

    Murder is the most notorious crime that violates religious, social and cultural norms. Examining the types and number of different killing methods that used are pivotal in a murder case. However, the psychological traits underlying specific and multiple killing methods are still understudied. The present study attempts to fill this gap in knowledge by identifying the underlying psychological traits of different killing methods among Malaysian murderers. The study adapted an observational cross-sectional methodology using a guided self-administered questionnaire for data collection. The sampling frame consisted of 71 Malaysian male murderers from 11 Malaysian prisons who were selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were also asked to provide the types and number of different killing methods used to kill their respective victims. An independent sample t-test was performed to establish the mean score difference of psychological traits between the murderers who used single and multiple types of killing methods. Kruskal-Wallis tests were carried out to ascertain the psychological trait differences between specific types of killing methods. The results suggest that specific psychological traits underlie the type and number of different killing methods used during murder. The majority (88.7%) of murderers used a single method of killing. Multiple methods of killing was evident in 'premeditated' murder compared to 'passion' murder, and revenge was a common motive. Examples of multiple methods are combinations of stabbing and strangulation or slashing and physical force. An exception was premeditated murder committed with shooting, when it was usually a single method, attributed to the high lethality of firearms. Shooting was also notable when the motive was financial gain or related to drug dealing. Murderers who used multiple killing methods were more aggressive and sadistic than those who used a single killing method. Those who used multiple methods or slashing also displayed a higher level of minimisation traits. Despite its limitations, this study has provided some light on the underlying psychological traits of different killing methods which is useful in the field of criminology. PMID:24763234

  7. Can Nanomedicines Kill Cancer Stem Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi; Alakhova, Daria Y.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Most tumors are heterogeneous and many cancers contain small population of highly tumorigenic and intrinsically drug resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). Like normal stem cell, CSCs have ability to self-renew and differentiate to other tumor cell types. They are believed to be a source for drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. CSCs often overexpress drug efflux transporters, spend most of their time in non-dividing G0 cell cycle state, and therefore, can escape the conventional chemotherapies. Thus, targeting CSCs is essential for developing novel therapies to prevent cancer relapse and emerging of drug resistance. Nanocarrier-based therapeutic agents (nanomedicines) have been used to achieve longer circulation times, better stability and bioavailability over current therapeutics. Recently, some groups have successfully applied nanomedicines to target CSCs to eliminate the tumor and prevent its recurrence. These approaches include 1) delivery of therapeutic agents (small molecules, siRNA, antibodies) that affect embryonic signaling pathways implicated in self-renewal and differentiation in CSCs, 2) inhibiting drug efflux transporters in an attempt to sensitize CSCs to therapy, 3) targeting metabolism in CSCs through nanoformulated chemicals and field-responsive magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, and 4) disruption of multiple pathways in drug resistant cells using combination of chemotherapeutic drugs with amphiphilic Pluronic block copolymers. Despite clear progress of these studies the challenges of targeting CSCs by nanomedicines still exist and leave plenty of room for improvement and development. This review summarizes biological processes that are related to CSCs, overviews the current state of anti-CSCs therapies, and discusses state-of-the-art nanomedicine approaches developed to kill CSCs. PMID:24120657

  8. Laser Microbial Killing and Biofilm Disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krespi, Yosef P.; Kizhner, Victor

    2009-06-01

    Objectives: To analyze the ability of NIR lasers to reduce bacterial load and demonstrate the capability of fiber-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser disrupting biofilm. Study Design: NIR diode laser was tested in vitro and in vivo using pathogenic microorganisms (S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa). In addition biofilms were grown from clinical Pseudomonas isolates and placed in culture plates, screws, tympanostomy tubes and PET sutures. Methods: In the animal experiments acute rhinosinusitis model was created by packing the rabbit nose with bacteria soaked solution. The nasal pack was removed in two days and nose was exposed to laser irradiation. A 940 nm diode laser with fiber diffuser was used. Nasal cultures were obtained before and after the laser treatments. Animals were sacrificed fifteen days following laser treatment and bacteriologic/histologic results analyzed. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser generated shockwave pulses were delivered on biofilm using special probes over culture plates, screws, tubes, and PET sutures for the biofilm experiments. Results: Average of two log bacteria reduction was achieved with NIR laser compared to controls. Histologic studies demonstrated preservation of tissue integrity without significant damage to mucosa. Biofilms were imaged before, during and after treatment using a confocal microscope. During laser-generated shockwave application, biofilm was initially seen to oscillate and eventually break off. Large and small pieces of biofilm were totally and instantly removed from the surface to which they were attached in seconds. Conclusions: Significant bacterial reduction was achieved with NIR laser therapy in this experimental in vitro and animal study. In addition we disrupted Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and special probes generating plasma and shockwave. This new and innovative method of bacteria killing and biofilm disruption without injuring host tissue may have clinical application in the future.

  9. Kill a brand, keep a customer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nirmalya

    2003-12-01

    Most brands don't make much money. Year after year, businesses generate 80% to 90% of their profits from less than 20% of their brands. Yet most companies tend to ignore loss-making brands, unaware of the hidden costs they incur. That's because executives believe it's easy to erase a brand; they have only to stop investing in it, they assume, and it will die a natural death. But they're wrong. When companies drop brands clumsily, they antagonize loyal customers: Research shows that seven times out of eight, when firms merge two brands, the market share of the new brand never reaches the combined share of the two original ones. It doesn't have to be that way. Smart companies use a four-step process to kill brands methodically. First, CEOs make the case for rationalization by getting groups of senior executives to conduct joint audits of the brand portfolio. These audits make the need to prune brands apparent throughout the organization. In the next stage, executives need to decide how many brands will be retained, which they do either by setting broad parameters that all brands must meet or by identifying the brands they need in order to cater to all the customer segments in their markets. Third, executives must dispose of the brands they've decided to drop, deciding in each case whether it is appropriate to merge, sell, milk, or just eliminate the brand outright. Finally, it's critical that executives invest the resources they've freed to grow the brands they've retained. Done right, dropping brands will result in a company poised for new growth from the source where it's likely to be found--its profitable brands. PMID:14712547

  10. Hermes vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretenet, J.-C.

    1984-10-01

    Projected mission profiles and computational models of the Hermes winged manned reentry vehicle are discussed. Launched into a low orbit with a crew of at most four by the Ariane 5 vehicle, Hermes will serve transportation, crew relief, safety, and freight carriage functions. It will have a nominal 300-500 km circular or 600-900 km heliosynchronous orbit, weigh from 13,500-16,700 kg, and return in hypersonic glide to a wheeled landing. The vehicle dimensions will be 15-18 m length, 6 m height at the tail fin, and a 10 m span. The L/D ratio will be 1.5-1.6, thereby furnishing a cross range of 2500 km. Hermes will have a Shuttle-type fuselage, carbon-carbon nose, and insulation on the extrados designed to keep the structure at 175 C or lower. The avionics will have 3-4 levels of redundance, each mission phase-dependent. Power will be supplied by three fuel cells and a bank of four Ag-Zn batteries. Hardware development is scheduled to begin in 1988.

  11. Bacterial killing in vitro by abscess-derived neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Finlay-Jones, J J; Hart, P H; Spencer, L K; Nulsen, M F; Kenny, P A; McDonald, P J

    1991-02-01

    In the absence of antimicrobial therapy, bacteria such as Bacteriodes fragilis, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis may persist within an intra-abdominal abscess in the presence of large numbers of neutrophils which, under optimal conditions in vitro, can readily phagocytose and kill the same bacterial strains. Neutrophils taken from abscesses induced by gram-negative bacteria such as those above contain viable organisms. On incubation in vitro in the presence of serum, these neutrophils kill the bacteria phagocytosed in the abscess poorly, if at all, yet can readily kill organisms added in vitro. To determine possible mechanisms that might explain this, we examined the bactericidal activity in vitro of neutrophils from a range of abscesses induced by one or two species of bacteria plus an abscess-potentiating agent, bran. The organisms studied were B. fragilis, E. coli, P. mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The killing in vitro of E. coli and P. mirabilis, engulfed within an abscess, was significantly less than that of the same organisms when they were added to the in-vitro assay. In contrast, the killing of S. aureus was similar, whether engulfed in vivo or in vitro. However, S. aureus was less susceptible to phagocytosis and killing in vitro than P. mirabilis or E. coli, and the killing of S. aureus during in-vitro incubation of neutrophils that had engulfed the organism with in the abscess was similar to that of the gram-negative bacteria engulfed within the abscess.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1990143

  12. Protein chlorination in neutrophil phagosomes and correlation with bacterial killing.

    PubMed

    Green, Jessie N; Kettle, Anthony J; Winterbourn, Christine C

    2014-12-01

    Neutrophils ingest and kill bacteria within phagocytic vacuoles. We investigated where they produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) following phagocytosis by measuring conversion of protein tyrosine residues to 3-chlorotyrosine. We also examined how varying chloride availability affects the relationship between HOCl formation in the phagosome and bacterial killing. Phagosomal proteins, isolated following ingestion of opsonized magnetic beads, contained 11.4 Cl-Tyr per thousand tyrosine residues. This was 12 times higher than the level in proteins from the rest of the neutrophil and ~6 times higher than previously recorded for protein from ingested bacteria. These results indicate that HOCl production is largely localized to the phagosomes and a substantial proportion reacts with phagosomal protein before reaching the microbe. This will in part detoxify the oxidant but should also form chloramines which could contribute to the killing mechanism. Neutrophils were either suspended in chloride-free gluconate buffer or pretreated with formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, a procedure that has been reported to deplete intracellular chloride. These treatments, alone or in combination, decreased both chlorination in phagosomes and killing of Staphylococcus aureus by up to 50%. There was a strong positive correlation between the two effects. Killing was predominantly oxidant and myeloperoxidase dependent (88% inhibition by diphenylene iodonium and 78% by azide). These results imply that lowering the chloride concentration limits HOCl production and oxidative killing. They support a role for HOCl generation, rather than an alternative myeloperoxidase activity, in the killing process. PMID:25236747

  13. Potassium channels mediate killing by human natural killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichter, L.; Sidell N.; Hagiwara, S.

    1986-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood spontaneously recognize and kill a wide variety of target cells. It has been suggested that ion channels are involved in the killing process because there is a Ca-dependent stage and because killing by presensitized cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which in many respects resembles NK killing, is associated with changes in K and Na transport in the target cell. Using the whole-cell variation of the patch-clamp technique, the authors found a voltage-dependent potassium (K/sup +/) current in NK cells. The K/sup +/ current was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the K-channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and quinidine and by the traditional Ca-channel blockers verapamil and Cd/sup 2 +/. They tested the effects of ion-channel blockers on killing of two commonly used target cell lines: K562, which is derived from a human myeloid leukemia, and U937, which is derived from a human histiocytic leukemia. Killing of K562 target cells, determined in a standard /sup 51/Cr-release assay, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by verapamil, quinidine, Cd/sup 2 +/, and 4-aminopyridine at concentrations comparable to those that blocked the K/sup +/ current in NK cells. In K562 target cells only a voltage-dependent Na= current was found and it was blocked by concentrations of tetrodotoxin that had no effect on killing. Killing of U937 target cells was also inhibited by the two ion-channel blockers tested, quinidine and verapamil. In this cell line only a small K/sup +/ current was found that was similar to the one in NK cells. The findings show that there are K channels in NK cells and that these channels play a necessary role in the killing process.

  14. HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Panozzo, J.; Chang-Liu, C.-M.; Libertin, C.R.

    1996-11-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct`, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {Gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

  15. Disruption of Chemically Killed Bacterial Cells by a Synthetic Zeolite

    PubMed Central

    Wistreich, George A.; Lechtman, Max D.; Baker, Richard F.; Bartholomew, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The applicability of a synthetic zeolite (type 4A, Union Carbide Corp., Linde Div., New York, N.Y.) as a disruptive agent in a procedure for the preparation of pure bacterial cell wall fractions from a variety of phenol-killed gram-negative, gram-positive, and acid-fast bacteria was demonstrated. The disruptive effect was found to be limited with formaldehyde-killed gram-positive cells and most gram-positive cocci killed either by phenol or formaldehyde. Images PMID:4110424

  16. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  17. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from...

  2. Motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, D.A.; Harp, T.D.

    1987-03-10

    This patent describes a vehicle for self-propelled travel over the ground and for increased efficiency while executing an inherently unstable maneuver such as turning, the vehicle comprising: a. a chassis having a forward end including; i. a body, and ii. wheel means for supporting the body above the ground; b. a drive unit having a forward end and a rearward end and including: i. a pair of laterally spaced steerable wheels for contacting the ground, the steerable wheels having a normal axis of rotation and; ii. power means for imparting rotation to at least one of the pair of steerable wheels; and c. coupling means for securing the drive unit to the chassis and for substantially equalizing the contribution of each of the pair of steerable wheels in directing and propelling the vehicle, the coupling means including; i. connection means pivotally joining the drive unit to the chassis forwardly of the body; ii. a first strut laterally spaced from the connection means and extending between the chassis and the drive unit; iii. a second strut laterally spaced from the connection means in a direction opposite from the lateral spacing of the first strut and extending between the chassis and the drive unit. Each of the strut has a first end movably affixed to the chassis and a second end movably affixed to the drive unit, the second end of each of the struts being affixed to the drive unit at a location spaced above and forward of the normal axis of rotation of the pair of steerable wheels.

  3. Vehicle barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hirsh, Robert A. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

  4. The Variety of Integrable Killing Tensors on the 3-Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schbel, Konrad

    2014-07-01

    Integrable Killing tensors are used to classify orthogonal coordinates in which the classical Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be solved by a separation of variables. We completely solve the Nijenhuis integrability conditions for Killing tensors on the sphere S^3 and give a set of isometry invariants for the integrability of a Killing tensor. We describe explicitly the space of solutions as well as its quotient under isometries as projective varieties and interpret their algebro-geometric properties in terms of Killing tensors. Furthermore, we identify all Stckel systems in these varieties. This allows us to recover the known list of separation coordinates on S^3 in a simple and purely algebraic way. In particular, we prove that their moduli space is homeomorphic to the associahedron K_4.

  5. Heart Disease Now Kills 1 of Every 3 Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156255.html Heart Disease Now Kills 1 of Every 3 Americans Heart ... deaths in the United States are caused by heart disease, stroke and other heart-related diseases, a report ...

  6. NK cells kill mycobacteria directly by releasing perforin and granulysin.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Chen; Wu, Ting-Shu; Hsu, Ya-Jing; Chang, Chih-Jung; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Chia, Ju-Hsin; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Huang, Tsung-Teng; Martel, Jan; Ojcius, David M; Young, John D; Lai, Hsin-Chih

    2014-12-01

    Although the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effect of NK cells on tumor cells and intracellular bacteria have been studied extensively, it remains unclear how these cells kill extracellular bacterial pathogens. In this study, we examine how human NK cells kill Mycobacterium kansasii and M.tb. The underlying mechanism is contact dependent and requires two cytolytic proteins: perforin and granulysin. Mycobacteria induce enhanced expression of the cytolytic proteins via activation of the NKG2D/NCR cell-surface receptors and intracellular signaling pathways involving ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPKs. These results suggest that NK cells use similar cellular mechanisms to kill both bacterial pathogens and target host cells. This report reveals a novel role for NK cells, perforin, and granulysin in killing mycobacteria and highlights a potential alternative defense mechanism that the immune system can use against mycobacterial infection. PMID:25139289

  7. Erythrocyte and leukocyte: two partners in bacteria killing.

    PubMed

    Minasyan, Hayk A

    2014-01-01

    Leukocytes can't perform phagocytosis in blood stream. Blood velocity prevents phagocytosis because there is no time for leukocyte to recognize and catch bacteria. Bloodstream clearance from pathogens is performed by erythrocytes. During motion in bloodstream erythrocytes become charged by triboelectric effect. This charge attracts bacteria and fixes them on the surface of erythrocyte, then bacteria are engulfed and killed by hemoglobin oxygen. In bloodstream, leukocyte thin-wrinkled elastic membrane can't be charged by triboelectric effect and so leukocyte can't catch bacteria by means of electrostatic attraction force. Leukocytes engulf and kill bacteria out of blood circulatory system: in tissues, lymph nodes, slow velocity lymph, etc. Erythrocyte and leukocyte are bactericidal partners: the first kills bacteria in bloodstream, the second kills them locally, out of blood circulation. PMID:25259410

  8. [Killing and dignity of animals: a problem for veterinarians?].

    PubMed

    Fahrion; Dürr, S; Doherr, M G; Hartnack, S; Kunzmann, P

    2011-05-01

    Killing of animals is an important task to be performed by veterinarians. Killing decisions and their implementation often raise ethical questions. As a result of an interdisciplinary workshop targeting the subject "killing of animals" with veterinarians and ethicists, a three-dimensional dimension scheme was developed. Whereas the first two dimensions are focused on the animal's past and future life and are discussed with regard to life quality and life accomplishment (the "telos"), the third dimension incorporates the reason to kill and may integrate the concept of dignity. This form of dignity and the weighing of interests are applied to example scenarios and the resulting responsibilities of veterinarians and society are discussed. PMID:21696009

  9. Surface structure influences contact killing of bacteria by copper

    PubMed Central

    Zeiger, Marco; Solioz, Marc; Edongué, Hervais; Arzt, Eduard; Schneider, Andreas S

    2014-01-01

    Copper kills bacteria rapidly by a mechanism that is not yet fully resolved. The antibacterial property of copper has raised interest in its use in hospitals, in place of plastic or stainless steel. On the latter surfaces, bacteria can survive for days or even weeks. Copper surfaces could thus provide a powerful accessory measure to curb nosocomial infections. We here investigated the effect of the copper surface structure on the efficiency of contact killing of Escherichia coli, an aspect which so far has received very little attention. It was shown that electroplated copper surfaces killed bacteria more rapidly than either polished copper or native rolled copper. The release of ionic copper was also more rapid from electroplated copper compared to the other materials. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria nudged into the grooves between the copper grains of deposited copper. The findings suggest that, in terms of contact killing, more efficient copper surfaces can be engineered. PMID:24740976

  10. PFIESTERIA SHUMWAYAE KILLS FISH BY MICROPREDATION NOT ECOTOXIN SECRETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Massive fish kills in mid-Atlantic USA estuaries involving several million Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus,have been attributed to dinoflagellates of the toxic Pfiesteria complex (TPC). Potent ichthyotoxins secreted during Pfiesteria blooms are thought to be responsible fo...

  11. Hidden symmetries and killing tensors on curved spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ianus, S.; Visinescu, M.; Vilcu, G. E.

    2010-11-15

    Higher-order symmetries corresponding to Killing tensors are investigated. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and nonstandard supersymmetries is pointed out. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures as dynamical algebras or even infinite dimensional algebras or superalgebras. The general results are applied to space-times which appear in modern studies. One presents the infinite dimensional superalgebra of Dirac type operators on the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space that can be seen as a twisted loop algebra. The existence of the conformal Killing-Yano tensors is investigated for some spaces with mixed 3-Sasakian structures.

  12. Too Much Protein May Kill Brain Cells As Parkinson's Progresses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... deadly Parkinson’s gene LRRK2 can kill nerve cells (green) by tagging the s15 ribosomal protein (purple), a ... which releases dopamine, a chemical messenger important for movement. Initially, Parkinson’s disease causes uncontrolled movements; including trembling ...

  13. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect.

    PubMed

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-01-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism. PMID:25906433

  14. Potassium Channels Mediate Killing by Human Natural Killer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichter, Lyanne; Sidell, Neil; Hagiwara, Susumu

    1986-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood spontaneously recognize and kill a wide variety of target cells. It has been suggested that ion channels are involved in the killing process because there is a Ca-dependent stage and because killing by presensitized cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which in many respects resembles NK killing, is associated with changes in K and Na transport in the target cell. However, no direct evidence exists for ion channels in NK cells or in their target cells. Using the whole-cell variation of the patch-clamp technique, we found a voltage-dependent potassium (K+) current in NK cells. The K+ current was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the K-channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and quinidine and by the traditional Ca-channel blockers verapamil and Cd2+. We tested the effects of ion-channel blockers on killing of two commonly used target cell lines: K562, which is derived from a human myeloid leukemia, and U937, which is derived from a human histiocytic leukemia. Killing of K562 target cells, determined in a standard 51Cr-release assay, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by verapamil, quinidine, Cd2+, and 4-aminopyridine at concentrations comparable to those that blocked the K+ current in NK cells. In K562 target cells only a voltage-dependent Na+ current was found and it was blocked by concentrations of tetrodotoxin that had no effect on killing. Killing of U937 target cells was also inhibited by the two ion-channel blockers tested, quinidine and verapamil. In this cell line only a small K+ current was found that was similar to the one in NK cells. We could not find any evidence of a Ca2+ current in target cells or in NK cells; therefore, our results cannot explain the Ca dependence of killing. Our findings show that there are K channels in NK cells and that these channels play a necessary role in the killing process. In contrast, the endogenous channel type in the target cell is probably not a factor in determining target cell sensitivity to natural killing.

  15. Flat deformation of a spacetime admitting two commuting Killing fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llosa, Josep; Carot, Jaume

    2010-12-01

    It is shown that, given an analytic Lorentzian metric on a 4-manifold, gab, which admits two Killing vector fields, there exists a local deformation law ?ab = a gab + b Hab, where Hab is a two-dimensional projector, such that ?ab is flat and admits the same Killing vectors. We also characterize the particular case when the projector Hab coincides with the quotient metric. We apply some of our results to general stationary axisymmetric spacetimes.

  16. Conformal Killing vector fields and a virial theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariena, Jos F.; Gheorghiu, Irina; Martnez, Eduardo; Santos, Patrcia

    2014-11-01

    The virial theorem is formulated both intrinsically and in local coordinates for a Lagrangian system of a mechanical type on a Riemann manifold. An important case studied in this paper is that of an affine virial function associated with a vector field on the configuration manifold. The special cases of a virial function associated with a Killing, a homothetic, and a conformal Killing vector field are considered and the corresponding virial theorems are established for these types of functions.

  17. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING NORTHWEST; A PORTION OF THE SCALDING TANK IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT, CENTER; CONCRETE PYLONS AT LOWER RIGHT SUPPORTED BY SCRAPING MACHINE; FINAL SCRAPING WAS DONE BY WORKERS STANDING ON ELEVATED PLATFORMS AT LEFT; BATHTUB-SHAPED CART NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO WAS USED TO TRANSPORT OFFAL TO RENDERING AREAS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  18. Rates of CTL Killing in Persistent Viral Infection In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Elemans, Marjet; Florins, Arnaud; Willems, Luc; Asquith, Becca

    2014-01-01

    The CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is an important defence against viral invasion. Although CTL-mediated cytotoxicity has been widely studied for many years, the rate at which virus-infected cells are killed in vivo by the CTL response is poorly understood. To date the rate of CTL killing in vivo has been estimated for three virus infections but the estimates differ considerably, and killing of HIV-1-infected cells was unexpectedly low. This raises questions about the typical anti-viral capability of CTL and whether CTL killing is abnormally low in HIV-1. We estimated the rate of killing of infected cells by CD8+ T cells in two distinct persistent virus infections: sheep infected with Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) and humans infected with Human T Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) which together with existing data allows us to study a total of five viruses in parallel. Although both BLV and HTLV-1 infection are characterised by large expansions of chronically activated CTL with immediate effector function ex vivo and no evidence of overt immune suppression, our estimates are at the lower end of the reported range. This enables us to put current estimates into perspective and shows that CTL killing of HIV-infected cells may not be atypically low. The estimates at the higher end of the range are obtained in more manipulated systems and may thus represent the potential rather than the realised CTL efficiency. PMID:24699260

  19. Blood and oil: vehicle characteristics in relation to fatality risk and fuel economy.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Leon S

    2006-11-01

    I examined the potential for a lower risk of death compatible with increased fuel economy among 67 models of 1999-2002 model year cars, vans, and sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) during the calendar years 2000 to 2004. The odds of death for drivers and all persons killed in vehicle collisions were related to vehicle weight, size, stability, and crashworthiness. I calculated that fatality rates would have been 28% lower and fuel use would have been reduced by 16% if vehicle weights had been reduced to the weight of vehicles with the lowest weight per size, where size is measured by the lateral distance needed to perform a 180-degree turn. If, in addition, all vehicles had crashworthiness and stability equal to those of the top-rated vehicles, more than half the deaths involving passenger cars, vans, and SUVs could have been prevented by vehicle modifications. PMID:17018814

  20. Systemic Delivery of Fusogenic Membrane Glycoprotein-expressing Neural Stem Cells to Selectively Kill Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Detu; Lam, Dang Hoang; Purwanti, Yovita Ida; Goh, Sal Lee; Wu, Chunxiao; Zeng, Jieming; Fan, Weimin; Wang, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Intravenously injected neural stem cells (NSCs) can infiltrate both primary and metastatic tumor sites; thus, they are attractive tumor-targeting vehicles for delivering anticancer agents. However, because the systemic distribution of the injected NSCs involves normal organs and might induce off-target actions leading to unintended side effects, clinical applications of this approach is impeded. Given that the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) can promote the formation of multinucleated syncytia to kill cells in a pH-dependent manner, we engineered a pH sensor of VSV-G and generated a novel VSV-G mutant that efficiently promotes syncytium formation at the tumor extracellular pH (pHe) but not at pH 7.4. Using transduced NSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), the VSV-G mutant was delivered into mice with metastatic breast cancers in the lung through tail vein injection. Compared with the conventional stem cell-based gene therapy that uses the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) suicide gene, this treatment did not display toxicity to normal non-targeted organs while retaining therapeutic effects in tumor-bearing organs. Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of a new approach for achieving tumor-selective killing effects following systemic stem cell administration. Its potential in stem cell-based gene therapy for metastatic cancer is worthy of further exploration. PMID:23752308

  1. Forestry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Power Pack II provides an economical means of moving a power source into remote roadless forest areas. It was developed by Prof. Miles and his associates, working in cooperation with the University of California's Department of Forestry. The team combined its own design of an all-terrain vehicle with a suspension system based on the NASA load equalization technology. Result is an intermediate-sized unit which carries a power source and the powered tools to perform a variety of forest management tasks which cannot be done economically with current equipment. Power Pack II can traverse very rough terrain and climb a 60 degree slope; any one of the wheels can move easily over an obstacle larger than itself. Work is being done on a more advanced Power Pack III.

  2. Wound healing properties and kill kinetics of Clerodendron splendens G. Don, a Ghanaian wound healing plant.

    PubMed

    Gbedema, Stephen Y; Emelia, Kisseih; Francis, Adu; Kofi, Annan; Eric, Woode

    2010-03-01

    As part of our general objective of investigating indigenous plants used in wound healing in Ghana, we hereby report our findings from some in vitro and in vivo studies related to wound healing activities of Clerodendron splendens G. Don (Verbanaceae). Methanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant was tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Micrococcus flavus, as well as resistant strains of Staph. aureus SA1199B, RN4220 and XU212), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteous mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Candida albicans using the micro-well dilution method. Survivor-time studies of the microorganisms, radical scavenging activity using 2,2'-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and various in vivo wound healing activity studies were also conducted on the extract. The extract exhibited biostatic action against all the test microorganisms with a Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) ranging between 64 and 512 ?g/ml and a free radical scavenging property with an IC(50) value of 103.2 ?g/ml. The results of the in vivo wound healing tests showed that upon application of C. splendens ointment, there was a reduction in the epithelization period from 26.7 days (control) to 13.6 days along with a marked decrease in the scar area from 54.2 mm(2) (control) to 25.2 mm(2). Significant increase in the tensile strength and hydroxyproline content were also observed as compared to the control and was comparable to nitrofurazone. The above results appear to justify the traditional use of C. splendens in wound healing and treatment of skin infections in Ghana. PMID:21808542

  3. Wound healing properties and kill kinetics of Clerodendron splendens G. Don, a Ghanaian wound healing plant

    PubMed Central

    Gbedema, Stephen Y.; Emelia, Kisseih; Francis, Adu; Kofi, Annan; Eric, Woode

    2010-01-01

    As part of our general objective of investigating indigenous plants used in wound healing in Ghana, we hereby report our findings from some in vitro and in vivo studies related to wound healing activities of Clerodendron splendens G. Don (Verbanaceae). Methanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant was tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Micrococcus flavus, as well as resistant strains of Staph. aureus SA1199B, RN4220 and XU212), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteous mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Candida albicans using the micro-well dilution method. Survivor–time studies of the microorganisms, radical scavenging activity using 2,2’-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and various in vivo wound healing activity studies were also conducted on the extract. The extract exhibited biostatic action against all the test microorganisms with a Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) ranging between 64 and 512 μg/ml and a free radical scavenging property with an IC50 value of 103.2 μg/ml. The results of the in vivo wound healing tests showed that upon application of C. splendens ointment, there was a reduction in the epithelization period from 26.7 days (control) to 13.6 days along with a marked decrease in the scar area from 54.2 mm2 (control) to 25.2 mm2. Significant increase in the tensile strength and hydroxyproline content were also observed as compared to the control and was comparable to nitrofurazone. The above results appear to justify the traditional use of C. splendens in wound healing and treatment of skin infections in Ghana. PMID:21808542

  4. Motor Vehicle Trauma: An Unnecessary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Douglas H.

    1987-01-01

    The motor vehicle accident kills and maims more of our young people than any other affliction. Yet prevention of injuries and deaths from MVA receives less emphasis in medical education, medical publications and collective political action than the problem merits. In daily practice, there are numerous opportunities for prevention counselling, alcoholic driver case finding, and critical assessment of the privilege of driving. Within their community, family physicians can have input into some preventive programs. At government level, physicians should increase their pressure for legislative action to reduce MVA injuries and deaths. PMID:21267343

  5. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    Papers on the following subjects are presented: (1) multivariable flight control synthesis and literal robustness analysis for an aeroelastic vehicles; (2) numerical and literal aeroelastic-vehicle-model reduction for feedback control synthesis; and (3) dynamics of aerospace vehicles.

  6. Prairie dogs increase fitness by killing interspecific competitors.

    PubMed

    Hoogland, John L; Brown, Charles R

    2016-03-30

    Interspecific competition commonly selects for divergence in ecology, morphology or physiology, but direct observation of interspecific competition under natural conditions is difficult. Herbivorous white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) employ an unusual strategy to reduce interspecific competition: they kill, but do not consume, herbivorous Wyoming ground squirrels (Urocitellus elegans) encountered in the prairie dog territories. Results from a 6-year study in Colorado, USA, revealed that interspecific killing of ground squirrels by prairie dogs was common, involving 47 different killers; 19 prairie dogs were serial killers in the same or consecutive years, and 30% of female prairie dogs killed at least one ground squirrel over their lifetimes. Females that killed ground squirrels had significantly higher annual and lifetime fitness than non-killers, probably because of decreased interspecific competition for vegetation. Our results document the first case of interspecific killing of competing individuals unrelated to predation (IK) among herbivorous mammals in the wild, and show that IK enhances fitness for animals living under natural conditions. PMID:27009223

  7. Antigen specific killing assay using CFSE labeled target cells.

    PubMed

    Durward, Marina; Harms, Jerome; Splitter, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) can be used to easily and quickly label a cell population of interest for in vivo investigation. This labeling has classically been used to study proliferation and migration. In the method presented here, we have shortened the timeline after adoptive transfer to look at survival and killing of epitope specific CFSE labeled target cells. The level of specific killing of a CD8 + T cell clone can indicate the quality of the response, as their quantity may be misleading. Specific CD8+ T cells can become functionally exhausted over time with a decline in cytokine production and killing. Also, certain CD8 + T cell clones may not kill as well as others with differing TCR specificities. For effective Cell Mediated Immunity (CMI), antigens must be identified that produce not only adequate numbers of responding T cells, but also functionally robust responding T cells. Here we assess the percent cell specific killing of two peptide specific T cell clones in BALB/c mice. PMID:21085108

  8. Honor killing attitudes amongst adolescents in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Manuel; Ghuneim, Lana

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines attitudes towards honor crimes amongst a sample of 856 ninth grade students (mean age?=?14.6, SD?=?0.56) from 14 schools in Amman, Jordan. Descriptive findings suggest that about 40% of boys and 20% of girls believe that killing a daughter, sister, or wife who has dishonored the family can be justified. A number of theoretically meaningful predictors were examined: Findings suggest that attitudes in support of honor killings are more likely amongst adolescents who have collectivist and patriarchal world views, believe in the importance of female chastity amongst adolescents, and morally neutralize aggressive behavior in general. Findings for parental harsh discipline are mixed: While the father's harsh discipline is predictive of honor killing attitudes, the mother's behavior is not. Furthermore, support for honor killing is stronger amongst male adolescents and adolescents for low education backgrounds. After controlling for other factors religion and the intensity of religious beliefs are not associated with support for honor killings. Models were tested separately for male and female respondents and suggested no systematic differences in predictors. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23744567

  9. [Effect of niclosamide spreading oil on killing schistosome cercariae].

    PubMed

    Peng, Guo-Hua; Hu, Zhu-Hua; Bao, Zi-Ping; Zhou, Yi-Sheng; Xiong, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Hai-Ying'; Guo, Jia-Gang

    2012-06-01

    Dechlorinated water (100 ml, 30 degrees C) was put into a plate (diameter 15 cm), and 1% niclosamide spreading oil 5 microl was added, then a ring of Schistosoma japonicum cercariae were picked up to the plate. The time of killing all the cercariae was observed at three time points (immediately, 24, 48 h), and the dechlorinated water was used as control. The results showed that schistosome cercariae were all killed in three minutes by 1% niclosamide spreading oil at the three time points. The cercaria-killing effects of each time point were not significantly different (F = 0.062, P > 0.05). The cercariae were alive in the control in 48 h. PMID:23012973

  10. Inflatable kill packers used in working over Kuwaiti wells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. ); Conover, G. )

    1992-03-09

    This paper reports on inflatable packers which are being used with great success in post-well capping workover operations in Kuwait oil fields. In mid-January, about one kill packer was being run per day. Use is expected to increase in March when a second post-capping crew arrives. Of several thousand unconventional ideas submitted to Kuwait Oil Co. (KOC) for controlling the well fires left in the aftermath of lst year's Gulf War, only about a dozen were actually used. Inflatable kill packers, designed and manufactured by Baker Service Tools and marketed by Baker Oil Tools, were one of the ideas that proved effective. The kill packers are modifications of Baker's inflatable packers that have successfully been used in capping producers on many blowouts throughout the world, including the Piper Alpha disaster in the North Sea and the Saga blowout offshore Norway.

  11. On the geometry of Killing and conformal tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Bartolom; Ferrando, Joan Josep; Sez, Juan Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The second order Killing and conformal tensors are analyzed in terms of their spectral decomposition, and some properties of the eigenvalues and the eigenspaces are shown. When the tensor is of type I with only two different eigenvalues, the condition to be a Killing or a conformal tensor is characterized in terms of its underlying almost-product structure. A canonical expression for the metrics admitting these kinds of symmetries is also presented. The space-time cases 1+3 and 2+2 are analyzed in more detail. Starting from this approach to Killing and conformal tensors a geometric interpretation of some results on quadratic first integrals of the geodesic equation in vacuum Petrov-Bel type D solutions is offered. A generalization of these results to a wider family of type D space-times is also obtained.

  12. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803

  13. Human neutrophils dump Candida glabrata after intracellular killing.

    PubMed

    Essig, Fabian; Hnniger, Kerstin; Dietrich, Stefanie; Figge, Marc Thilo; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    Interaction between fungal pathogens and human phagocytes can lead to remarkably variable outcomes, ranging from intracellular killing to prolonged survival and replication of the pathogen in the host cell. Using live cell imaging we observed primary human neutrophils that release phagocytosed Candida glabrata yeast cells after intracellular killing. This process, for which we propose the name "dumping", adds a new outcome to phagocyte-fungus interaction which may be of potential immunological importance as it allows professional antigen presenting cells to take up and process neutrophil-inactivated pathogens that in their viable state are able to evade intracellular degradation in these cells. PMID:26385824

  14. [Killing Effect of Carpesium abrotanoides on Taenia asiatica Cysticercus].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-yan; Guo, Guang-wu; Wang, Heng

    2015-06-01

    The cysticerci of Taenia asiatica were cultured in vitro with different concentrations of water decoction of Carpesium abrotanoides (20, 40, and 60 mg/ml). The killing effect of C. abrotanoides on T. asiatica and the morphological change of cysticerci were observed under microscope 24 hours post-culture. The water decoction of C. abrotanoides showed significant killing effect on the cysticerci. The mortality of the parasites(95.0%, 57/60) was highest in 60 mg/ml group. The dead body of cysticercus shows shrunken with the enlarged scolex, and sucker tissue degenerated. PMID:26541048

  15. Brief Communication: On direct impact probability of landslides on vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolet, P.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Cloutier, C.; Crosta, G. B.; Lévy, S.

    2015-12-01

    When calculating the risk of railway or road users to be killed by a natural hazard, one has to calculate a "spatio-temporal probability", i.e. the probability for a vehicle to be in the path of the falling mass when the mass falls, or the expected number of affected vehicles in case of an event. To calculate this, different methods are used in the literature, and, most of the time, they consider only the dimensions of the falling mass or the dimensions of the vehicles. Some authors do however consider both dimensions at the same time, and the use of their approach is recommended. Finally, a method considering an impact on the front of the vehicle in addition is discussed.

  16. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  17. Saying the Unsaid: Girl Killing and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlstein, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Although students in Jonesboro, Arkansas, repeatedly claimed that the March 1998 killing of four schoolgirls and a teacher was motivated by a rejected boy's desire for revenge, reporters and authorities dismissed this explanation and gender's role in the crime. Closer analysis suggests opportunities and difficulties for educators who want

  18. Tree-Killing Las Conchas Fire in New Mexico

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientist Craig D. Allen observes the results of the extensive, tree-killing fire that consumed almost all above-ground biomass in this part of the Las Conchas Fire burn area in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico. Photo taken in late August 2011, two months post-fire. Forest drought stress is high...

  19. What Is John Dewey Doing in "To Kill a Mockingbird"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Harper Lee's novel "To Kill a Mockingbird" is taught in countless public schools and is beloved by many teachers and future teachers. Embedded within this novel--interestingly--is a strong criticism of an approach to education mockingly referred to as the "Dewey Decimal System." In this essay I explore Lee's criticism of

  20. The Fish Kill Mystery: Learning about Aquatic Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosal, Erica F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a case where students can learn about aquatic communities. In this case, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process, they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities. They also learn about the complex life cycle of the dinoflagellate

  1. Ricci-flat spacetimes admitting higher rank Killing tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariglia, Marco; Galajinsky, Anton

    2015-05-01

    Ricci-flat spacetimes of signature (2 , q) with q = 2 , 3 , 4 are constructed which admit irreducible Killing tensors of rank-3 or rank-4. The construction relies upon the Eisenhart lift applied to Drach's two-dimensional integrable systems which is followed by the oxidation with respect to free parameters. In four dimensions, some of our solutions are anti-self-dual.

  2. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    PubMed

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

  3. Pfiesteria shumwayae kills fish by micropredation not exotoxin secretion.

    PubMed

    Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Lovko, Vincent J; Shields, Jeffrey D; Reece, Kimberly S; Mason, Patrice L; Haas, Leonard W; Walker, Calvin C

    2002-08-29

    Pfiesteria piscicida and P. shumwayae reportedly secrete potent exotoxins thought to cause fish lesion events, acute fish kills and human disease in mid-Atlantic USA estuaries. However, Pfiesteria toxins have never been isolated or characterized. We investigated mechanisms by which P. shumwayae kills fish using three different approaches. Here we show that larval fish bioassays conducted in tissue culture plates fitted with polycarbonate membrane inserts exhibited mortality (100%) only in treatments where fish and dinospores were in physical contact. No mortalities occurred in treatments where the membrane prevented contact between dinospores and fish. Using differential centrifugation and filtration of water from a fish-killing culture, we produced 'dinoflagellate', 'bacteria' and 'cell-free' fractions. Larval fish bioassays of these fractions resulted in mortalities (60-100% in less than 24 h) only in fractions containing live dinospores ('whole water', 'dinoflagellate'), with no mortalities in 'cell-free' or 'bacteria'-enriched fractions. Videomicrography and electron microscopy show dinospores swarming toward and attaching to skin, actively feeding, and rapidly denuding fish of epidermis. We show here that our cultures of actively fish-killing P. shumwayae do not secrete potent exotoxins; rather, fish mortality results from micropredatory feeding. PMID:12198545

  4. Killing for Girls: Predation Play and Female Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertozzi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Predation games--games in which the player is actively encouraged and often required to hunt and kill in order to survive--have historically been the purview of male players. Females, though now much more involved in digital games than before, generally play games that stress traditionally feminine values such as socializing with others, shopping,

  5. Pseudomonas Exotoxin A: optimized by evolution for effective killing

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Marta; Wolf, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE) is the most toxic virulence factor of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review describes current knowledge about the intoxication pathways of PE. Moreover, PE represents a remarkable example for pathoadaptive evolution, how bacterial molecules have been structurally and functionally optimized under evolutionary pressure to effectively impair and kill their host cells. PMID:26441897

  6. Killing for Girls: Predation Play and Female Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertozzi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Predation games--games in which the player is actively encouraged and often required to hunt and kill in order to survive--have historically been the purview of male players. Females, though now much more involved in digital games than before, generally play games that stress traditionally feminine values such as socializing with others, shopping,…

  7. Licence to Kill: About Accreditation Issues and James Bond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheele, Ko

    2004-01-01

    Accreditation has become something of a hot topic in higher education. In Europe it has been described as a 'Licence to Kill'. The James Bond metaphor is particularly illustrative when reflecting on quality assurance challenges in higher education. Publications on this subject in recent years reveal that the array of issues associated with

  8. Male-killing Wolbachia in two species of insect

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, G. D. D.; Jiggins, F. M.; Schulenburg, J. H. G. von der; Bertrand, D.; West, S. A.; Goriacheva, I. I.; Zakharov, I. A.; Werren, J. H.; Stouthamer, R.; Majerus, M. E. N.

    1999-01-01

    The inherited bacterium Wolbachia spreads through the manipulation of host reproduction, and has been suggested to be an important factor in arthropod evolution, from host speciation to the evolution of sex-determination systems. Past work has shown that members of this group may produce cytoplasmic incompatibility, feminize genetically male hosts, and induce host parthenogenesis. Here, we report an expansion of the range of reproductive manipulations produced by members of this clade, recording Wolbachia strains that kill male hosts during embryogenesis in two host species, the ladybird Adalia bipunctata, and the butterfly Acraea encedon. Both male-killing bacteria belong to the B group of Wolbachia. However, phylogenetic analyses were unable to resolve whether the bacteria in the two species are monophyletic, or represent independent origins of male-killing among the B-group Wolbachia. We also found significant divergence within the wsp gene of Wolbachia strains found in different A. bipunctata individuals, suggesting this host species contains two Wolbachia strains, diverged in wsp sequence but monophyletic. Our observations reinforce the notion that Wolbachia may be an important agent driving arthropod evolution, and corroborates previous suggestions that male-killing behaviour is easily evolved by invertebrate symbionts.

  9. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants

    PubMed Central

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M.; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ?8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ?40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ?3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

  10. The Fish Kill Mystery: Learning about Aquatic Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosal, Erica F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a case where students can learn about aquatic communities. In this case, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process, they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities. They also learn about the complex life cycle of the dinoflagellate…

  11. Conformal killing vectors of plane symmetric four dimensional lorentzian manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Suhail; Hussain, Tahir; Bokhari, Ashfaque H.; Khan, Gulzar Ali

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate conformal Killing vectors (CKVs) admitted by some plane symmetric spacetimes. Ten conformal Killing's equations and their general forms of CKVs are derived along with their conformal factor. The existence of conformal Killing symmetry imposes restrictions on the metric functions. The conditions imposing restrictions on these metric functions are obtained as a set of integrability conditions. Considering the cases of time-like and inheriting CKVs, we obtain spacetimes admitting plane conformal symmetry. Integrability conditions are solved completely for some known non-conformally flat and conformally flat classes of plane symmetric spacetimes. A special vacuum plane symmetric spacetime is obtained, and it is shown that for such a metric CKVs are just the homothetic vectors (HVs). Among all the examples considered, there exists only one case with a six dimensional algebra of special CKVs admitting one proper CKV. In all other examples of non-conformally flat metrics, no proper CKV is found and CKVs are either HVs or Killing's vectors (KVs). In each of the three cases of conformally flat metrics, a fifteen dimensional algebra of CKVs is obtained of which eight are proper CKVs.

  12. What Is John Dewey Doing in "To Kill a Mockingbird"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Harper Lee's novel "To Kill a Mockingbird" is taught in countless public schools and is beloved by many teachers and future teachers. Embedded within this novel--interestingly--is a strong criticism of an approach to education mockingly referred to as the "Dewey Decimal System." In this essay I explore Lee's criticism of…

  13. 21. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  14. 22. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  15. 20. Bronx Kill Bridge with Hell Gate Bridge in background. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Bronx Kill Bridge with Hell Gate Bridge in background. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  16. A note on simple applications of the Killing spinor identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellorín, Jorge; Ortín, Tomás

    2005-06-01

    We show how the Killing Spinor Identities (KSI) can be used to reduce the number of independent equations of motion that need to be checked explicitly to make sure that a supersymmetric configuration is a classical supergravity solution. We also show how the KSI can be used to compute BPS relations between masses and charges.

  17. Combined effects of lactoferrin and lysozyme on Streptococcus pneumoniae killing.

    PubMed

    Andr, G O; Politano, W R; Mirza, S; Converso, T R; Ferraz, L F C; Leite, L C C; Darrieux, M

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common colonizer of the human nasopharynx, which can occasionally spread to sterile sites, causing diseases such as otitis media, sinusitis, pneumonia, meningitis and bacteremia. Human apolactoferrin (ALF) and lysozyme (LZ) are two important components of the mucosal innate immune system, exhibiting lytic effects against a wide range of microorganisms. Since they are found in similar niches of the host, it has been proposed that ALF and LZ could act synergistically in controlling bacterial spread throughout the mucosa. The combination of ALF and LZ has been shown to enhance killing of different pathogens invitro, with ALF facilitating the latter action of LZ. The aim of the present work was to investigate the combined effects of ALF and LZ on S pneumoniae. Concomitant addition of ALF and LZ had a synergistic killing effect on one of the pneumococci tested. Furthermore, the combination of ALF and ALZ was more bactericidal than lysozyme alone in all pneumococcal strains. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), an important vaccine candidate, partially protects pneumococci from ALF mediated killing, while antibodies against one PspA enhance killing of the homologous strain by ALF. However, the serological variability of this molecule could limit the effect of anti-PspA antibodies on different pneumococci. Therefore, we investigated the ability of anti-PspA antibodies to increase ALF-mediated killing of strains that express different PspAs, and found that antisera to the N-terminal region of PspA were able to increase pneumococcal lysis by ALF, independently of the sequence similarities between the molecule expressed on the bacterial surface and that used to produce the antibodies. LF binding to the pneumococcal surface was confirmed by flow cytometry, and found to be inhibited in presence of anti-PspA antibodies. On a whole, the results suggest a contribution of ALF and LZ to pneumococcal clearance, and confirm PspA's ability to interact with ALF. PMID:26298002

  18. Alternate vehicles for engine/vehicle optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatasubramanyam, G.; Martin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    The space shuttle main engine, full flow staged combustion, integrated modular engine concept, split expander, and expander bleed rocket engine cycles were studied for use on Single-Stage-to-Orbit fully reusable vehicles. The vehicle uses vertical take-off and horizontal landing and liquid hydrogen rockets for propulsion. The PROPSIZE computer code was modified for use on the available computers. Vehicle sizing was done after trajectory optimization for various engine designs. The various rocket engine cycles were compared and it was found that the full flow staged combustion cycle had the lowest vehicle dry mass. The split expander cycle could have advantages in safety and cooling which could make it the preferred choice in some cases. Comparison to previous work with two-stage heavy-lift vehicles showed that the same ranking of the cycles was found for both vehicle concepts.

  19. Alternate vehicles for engine/vehicle optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatasubramanyam, G.; Martin, James A.

    1993-06-01

    The space shuttle main engine, full flow staged combustion, integrated modular engine concept, split expander, and expander bleed rocket engine cycles were studied for use on Single-Stage-to-Orbit fully reusable vehicles. The vehicle uses vertical take-off and horizontal landing and liquid hydrogen rockets for propulsion. The PROPSIZE computer code was modified for use on the available computers. Vehicle sizing was done after trajectory optimization for various engine designs. The various rocket engine cycles were compared and it was found that the full flow staged combustion cycle had the lowest vehicle dry mass. The split expander cycle could have advantages in safety and cooling which could make it the preferred choice in some cases. Comparison to previous work with two-stage heavy-lift vehicles showed that the same ranking of the cycles was found for both vehicle concepts.

  20. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2003-11-01

    The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

  1. Effect of Silicon on Desulfurization of Aluminum-killed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Debdutta

    Recent reports have suggested that silicon has a beneficial effect on the rate of desulfurization of Al-killed steel. This effect is difficult to understand looking at the overall desulfurization reaction which does not include silicon. However an explanation is proposed by taking into account the (SiO2)/[Si] equilibrium in which some Al reaching the slag-metal interface is used in reducing the SiO2 in the slag. This reaction can be suppressed to some extent if the silicon content of the metal is increased and in doing so, more Al will be available at the slag-metal interface for the desulfurization reaction and this would increase the rate of the desulfurization reaction. A model was developed, assuming the rates are controlled by mass transfer, taking into account the coupled reactions of the reduction of silica, and other unstable oxides, namely iron oxide and manganese oxide, in the slag and desulfurization reaction in the steel by aluminum. The model predicts that increasing silicon increases the rate and extent of desulfurization. Plant data was analyzed to obtain rough estimates of ladle desulfurization rates and also used to validate the model predictions. Experiments have been conducted on a kilogram scale of material in an induction furnace to test the hypothesis. The major conclusions of the study are as follows: The rate and extent of desulfurization improve with increasing initial silicon content in the steel; the effect diminishes at silicon contents higher than approximately 0.2% and with increasing slag basicity. This was confirmed with kilogram-scale laboratory experiments. The effects of the silicon content in the steel (and of initial FeO and MnO in the slag) largely arise from the dominant effects of these reactions on the equilibrium aluminum content of the steel: as far as aluminum consumption or pick-up is concerned, the Si/SiO2 reaction dominates, and desulfurization has only a minor effect on aluminum consumption. The rate is primarily controlled by mass transfer in the metal and slag phase mass transfer has a minor effect on the overall desulfurization kinetics. The model results are in agreement with the experimental data for the change in sulfur, silicon and aluminum contents with time which renders credibility to the underlying hypothesis of the kinetic model. Although the change of sulfur content with time is not very sensitive to the activity data source, the change of aluminum and silicon contents with time depend on the activity data source. The experimental results demonstrate that if the silicon content in the steel is high enough, the silicon can reduce the alumina from the slag and thus the steel melt will pick up aluminum. This can cause significant savings in aluminum consumption. For most of the slag compositions used in the experiments, the overall mass transfer is only limited by the steel phase and the slag phase mass transfer can be neglected for most practical cases. Mass balance calculations in the experiments support the basis of the model and also show that with respect to aluminum consumption, silica reduction is the main aluminum consuming (or production) reaction and the desulfurization reaction is only a secondary consumer of aluminum. Results from the plant trials conducted to test the effect of silicon on ladle desulfurization show that the rate and extent of desulfurization increase with the increase of the initial Si content, so in the ladle refining process, adding all the silicon in the beginning with the aluminum and the fluxes will be beneficial and could save considerable processing time at the ladle. The aluminum consumption for the heats with silicon added in the beginning (both in terms of the Al added to the steel and as slag deoxidants) is considerably lower compared to the cases where the silicon is added at the end. However, on a relative cost term, aluminum and silicon are similarly priced so substitution would not offer a major cost advantage.

  2. Spiroplasma infection causes either early or late male killing in Drosophila, depending on maternal host age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Daisuke; Anbutsu, Hisashi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-04-01

    Symbiont-induced male-killing phenotypes have been found in a variety of insects. Conventionally, these phenotypes have been divided into two categories according to the timing of action: early male killing at embryonic stages and late male killing at late larval stages. In Drosophila species, endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma have been known to cause early male killing. Here, we report that a spiroplasma strain normally causing early male killing also induces late male killing depending on the maternal host age: male-specific mortality of larvae and pupae was more frequently observed in the offspring of young females. As the lowest spiroplasma density and occasional male production were also associated with newly emerged females, we proposed the density-dependent hypothesis for the expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes. Our finding suggested that (1) early and late male-killing phenotypes can be caused by the same symbiont and probably by the same mechanism; (2) late male killing may occur as an attenuated expression of early male killing; (3) expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes may be dependent on the symbiont density, and thus, could potentially be affected by the host immunity and regulation; and (4) early male killing and late male killing could be alternative strategies adopted by microbial reproductive manipulators.

  3. Mass impacts on fuel economies of conventional vs. hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    An, F.; Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2004-01-01

    The strong correlation between vehicle weight and fuel economy for conventional vehicles (CVs) is considered common knowledge, and the relationship of mass reduction to fuel consumption reduction for conventional vehicles (CVs) is often cited without separating effects of powertrain vs. vehicle body (glider), nor on the ground of equivalent vehicle performance level. This paper challenges the assumption that this relationship is easily summarized. Further, for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) the relationship between mass, performance and fuel consumption is not the same as for CVs, and vary with hybrid types. For fully functioning (all wheel regeneration) hybrid vehicles, where battery pack and motor(s) have enough power and energy storage, a very large fraction of kinetic energy is recovered and engine idling is effectively eliminated. This paper assesses two important impacts of shifting from conventional to hybrid vehicles in terms of the mass vs. fuel economy relationship - (1) significant improvements in fuel economy with little or no change in mass, and (2) once a switch to hybrid powertrains has been made, the effectiveness of mass reduction in improving fuel economy will be diminished relative to conventional vehicles. In this paper, we discuss vehicle tractive load breakdowns and impacts of hybridization on vehicle efficiency, discuss capture of kinetic energy by conversion to electrical energy via regenerative braking, assess benefits of shutting off the engine when the vehicle does not require power, and investigate energy losses associated with vehicle mass.

  4. Great tits search for, capture, kill and eat hibernating bats.

    PubMed

    Estk, Pter; Zsebok, Sndor; Siemers, Bjrn M

    2010-02-23

    Ecological pressure paired with opportunism can lead to surprising innovations in animal behaviour. Here, we report predation of great tits (Parus major) on hibernating pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) at a Hungarian cave. Over two winters, we directly observed 18 predation events. The tits specifically and systematically searched for and killed bats for food. A substantial decrease in predation on bats after experimental provisioning of food to the tits further supports the hypothesis that bat-killing serves a foraging purpose in times of food scarcity. We finally conducted a playback experiment to test whether tits would eavesdrop on calls of awakening bats to find them in rock crevices. The tits could clearly hear the calls and were attracted to the loudspeaker. Records for tit predation on bats at this cave now span more than ten years and thus raise the question of whether cultural transmission plays a role for the spread of this foraging innovation. PMID:19740892

  5. Secondary Kill Effect of Deltamethrin on Triatoma infestans

    PubMed Central

    MALONEY, KATHLEEN M.; ANCCA-JUAREZ, JENNY; SALAZAR, RENZO; BORRINI-MAYORI, KATTY; PAMO-TITO, DANITZA; KEATING, JOSEPH A.; LEVY, MICHAEL Z.

    2012-01-01

    Control of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, relies on the application of pyrethroid insecticides, especially deltamethrin. We performed laboratory studies to determine whether a T. infestans nymph that comes into contact with a deltamethrin-treated surface horizontally transfers the insecticide to subsequent triatomines. We found that a triatomine that walks on a deltamethrin-treated surface for a short period of time has the ability to transport the insecticide in concentrations sufficient to kill other triatomines with which it comes into contact. The effect was limited to high-density environments, and mortality as a result of secondary exposure was greater among second-instar nymphs compared with fifth-instar nymphs. Our results suggest that deltamethrin could be killing triatomines through both direct and indirect contact, although it remains unclear whether the phenomenon occurs in natural conditions. PMID:21845956

  6. Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Evans, William C.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, earth scientists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The USGS continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

  7. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

    1996-08-01

    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  8. Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Dengfeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Guoxin; Shi, Hongcheng

    2014-04-01

    Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 ?g/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200 50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200 50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 ?g/mL) or lower (20 ?g/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 ?g/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations.

  9. Killing - An algebraic computational package for Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa Bernardes, Esmerindo

    2000-07-01

    The KILLING package is a set of algebraic computational procedures to manipulate elements of representation theory for classical, exceptional and deformed Lie algebras. It is divided in two major parts: (1) The Roots & Weights formalism to classify all semisimple Lie algebras and their irreducible representations, and (2) The Gelfand-Tsetlin method to construct explicitly the irreducible representations of classical Lie algebras, including the deformed unitary Lie algebras.

  10. Charged Particles Kill Pathogens and Round Up Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    To keep plants fresh longer in space, Marshall Space Flight Center awarded funding to the University of Wisconsin-Madison to develop a titanium oxide-based device that reduced the amount of decay-inducing ethylene gas in the air. Electrolux (now Dallas-based Aerus Holdings) furthered the technology by developing an air purification product that kills pathogens both in the atmosphere and on surfaces.

  11. Three Dimensional Charged Interior Solutions Admitting Conformal Killing Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, Arkopriya; Karar, Indrani; Rahaman, Farook; Biswas, Ritabrata

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of new class of solutions for charged fluid distribution in (2+1)-dimension admitting conformal motion of killing vectors has always become a subject of special interest to the physicist in recent years. In this paper, we present some new types of non-singular model for anisotropic charged fluid in (2+1) dimensions. The solutions obtained here satisfy all the regularity conditions at the origin. We have discussed various physical properties of the model.

  12. Gauge-covariant extensions of Killing tensors and conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Holten, Jan-Willem

    2015-04-01

    In classical and quantum mechanical systems on manifolds with gauge-field fluxes, constants of motion are constructed from gauge-covariant extensions of Killing vectors and tensors. This construction can be carried out using a manifestly covariant procedure, in terms of covariant phase space with a covariant generalization of the Poisson brackets, c.q. quantum commutators. Some examples of this construction are presented.

  13. Surface acoustic waves enhance neutrophil killing of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Loike, John D; Plitt, Anna; Kothari, Komal; Zumeris, Jona; Budhu, Sadna; Kavalus, Kaitlyn; Ray, Yonatan; Jacob, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria that play a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria and are the leading cause of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections on indwelling catheters and medical prosthetic devices. Failure to resolve these biofilm infections may necessitate the surgical removal of the prosthetic device which can be debilitating and costly. Recent studies have shown that application of surface acoustic waves to catheter surfaces can reduce the incidence of infections by a mechanism that has not yet been clarified. We report here the effects of surface acoustic waves (SAW) on the capacity of human neutrophils to eradicate S. epidermidis bacteria in a planktonic state and within biofilms. Utilizing a novel fibrin gel system that mimics a tissue-like environment, we show that SAW, at an intensity of 0.3 mW/cm(2), significantly enhances human neutrophil killing of S. epidermidis in a planktonic state and within biofilms by enhancing human neutrophil chemotaxis in response to chemoattractants. In addition, we show that the integrin CD18 plays a significant role in the killing enhancement observed in applying SAW. We propose from out data that this integrin may serve as mechanoreceptor for surface acoustic waves enhancing neutrophil chemotaxis and killing of bacteria. PMID:23936303

  14. Surface Acoustic Waves Enhance Neutrophil Killing of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Loike, John D.; Plitt, Anna; Kothari, Komal; Zumeris, Jona; Budhu, Sadna; Kavalus, Kaitlyn; Ray, Yonatan; Jacob, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria that play a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria and are the leading cause of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections on indwelling catheters and medical prosthetic devices. Failure to resolve these biofilm infections may necessitate the surgical removal of the prosthetic device which can be debilitating and costly. Recent studies have shown that application of surface acoustic waves to catheter surfaces can reduce the incidence of infections by a mechanism that has not yet been clarified. We report here the effects of surface acoustic waves (SAW) on the capacity of human neutrophils to eradicate S. epidermidis bacteria in a planktonic state and within biofilms. Utilizing a novel fibrin gel system that mimics a tissue-like environment, we show that SAW, at an intensity of 0.3 mW/cm2, significantly enhances human neutrophil killing of S. epidermidis in a planktonic state and within biofilms by enhancing human neutrophil chemotaxis in response to chemoattractants. In addition, we show that the integrin CD18 plays a significant role in the killing enhancement observed in applying SAW. We propose from out data that this integrin may serve as mechanoreceptor for surface acoustic waves enhancing neutrophil chemotaxis and killing of bacteria. PMID:23936303

  15. Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.

    PubMed

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-05-01

    The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis. PMID:25229871

  16. From coprophagy to predation: a dung beetle that kills millipedes

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Trond H.; Lopera, Alejandro; Forsyth, Adrian; Gnier, Franois

    2009-01-01

    The dung beetle subfamily Scarabaeinae is a cosmopolitan group of insects that feed primarily on dung. We describe the first case of an obligate predatory dung beetle and contrast its behaviour and morphology with those of its coprophagous sympatric congeners. Deltochilum valgum Burmeister killed and consumed millipedes in lowland rainforest in Peru. Ancestral ball-rolling behaviour shared by other canthonine species is abandoned, and the head, hind tibiae and pygidium of D. valgum are modified for novel functions during millipede predation. Millipedes were killed by disarticulation, often through decapitation, using the clypeus as a lever. Beetles killed millipedes much larger than themselves. In pitfall traps, D. valgum was attracted exclusively to millipedes, and preferred injured over uninjured millipedes. Morphological similarities placing D. valgum in the same subgenus with non-predatory dung-feeding species suggest a major and potentially rapid behavioural shift from coprophagy to predation. Ecological transitions enabling the exploitation of dramatically atypical niches, which may be more likely to occur when competition is intense, may help explain the evolution of novel ecological guilds and the diversification of exceptionally species-rich groups such as insects. PMID:19158030

  17. Antimicrobial metallic copper surfaces kill Staphylococcus haemolyticus via membrane damage.

    PubMed

    Santo, Christophe Esprito; Quaranta, Davide; Grass, Gregor

    2012-03-01

    Recently, copper (Cu) in its metallic form has regained interest for its antimicrobial properties. Use of metallic Cu surfaces in worldwide hospital trials resulted in remarkable reductions in surface contaminations. Yet, our understanding of why microbes are killed upon contact to the metal is still limited and different modes of action have been proposed. This knowledge, however, is crucial for sustained use of such surfaces in hospitals and other hygiene-sensitive areas. Here, we report on the molecular mechanisms by which the Gram-positive Staphylococcus haemolyticus is inactivated by metallic Cu. Staphylococcus haemolyticus was killed within minutes on Cu but not on stainless steel demonstrating the antimicrobial efficacy of metallic Cu. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis and in vivo staining with Coppersensor-1 indicated that cells accumulated large amounts of Cu ions from metallic Cu surfaces contributing to lethal damage. Mutation rates of Cu- or steel-exposed cells were similarly low. Instead, live/dead staining indicated cell membrane damage in Cu- but not steel-exposed cells. These findings support a model of the cellular targets of metallic Cu toxicity in bacteria, which suggests that metallic Cu is not genotoxic and does not kill via DNA damage. In contrast, membranes constitute the likely Achilles' heel of Cu surface-exposed cells. PMID:22950011

  18. Antimicrobial metallic copper surfaces kill Staphylococcus haemolyticus via membrane damage

    PubMed Central

    Santo, Christophe Esprito; Quaranta, Davide; Grass, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    Recently, copper (Cu) in its metallic form has regained interest for its antimicrobial properties. Use of metallic Cu surfaces in worldwide hospital trials resulted in remarkable reductions in surface contaminations. Yet, our understanding of why microbes are killed upon contact to the metal is still limited and different modes of action have been proposed. This knowledge, however, is crucial for sustained use of such surfaces in hospitals and other hygiene-sensitive areas. Here, we report on the molecular mechanisms by which the Gram-positive Staphylococcus haemolyticus is inactivated by metallic Cu. Staphylococcus haemolyticus was killed within minutes on Cu but not on stainless steel demonstrating the antimicrobial efficacy of metallic Cu. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis and in vivo staining with Coppersensor-1 indicated that cells accumulated large amounts of Cu ions from metallic Cu surfaces contributing to lethal damage. Mutation rates of Cu- or steel-exposed cells were similarly low. Instead, live/dead staining indicated cell membrane damage in Cu- but not steel-exposed cells. These findings support a model of the cellular targets of metallic Cu toxicity in bacteria, which suggests that metallic Cu is not genotoxic and does not kill via DNA damage. In contrast, membranes constitute the likely Achilles heel of Cu surface-exposed cells. PMID:22950011

  19. Default risk modeling with position-dependent killing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Yuri A.

    2013-04-01

    Diffusion in a linear potential in the presence of position-dependent killing is used to mimic a default process. Different assumptions regarding transport coefficients, initial conditions, and elasticity of the killing measure lead to diverse models of bankruptcy. One “stylized fact” is fundamental for our consideration: empirically default is a rather rare event, especially in the investment grade categories of credit ratings. Hence, the action of killing may be considered as a small parameter. In a number of special cases we derive closed-form expressions for the entire term structure of the cumulative probability of default, its hazard rate, and intensity. Comparison with historical data on aggregate global corporate defaults confirms the validity of the perturbation method for estimations of long-term probability of default for companies with high credit quality. On a single company level, we implement the derived formulas to estimate the one-year likelihood of default of Enron on a daily basis from August 2000 to August 2001, three months before its default, and compare the obtained results with forecasts of traditional structural models.

  20. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms.

    PubMed

    Binnebose, Andrea M; Haughney, Shannon L; Martin, Richard; Imerman, Paula M; Narasimhan, Balaji; Bellaire, Bryan H

    2015-10-01

    Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold) when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment. PMID:26496201

  1. Effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Silberstein, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated, using male Long-Evans rats exposed to 1% lead acetate in the drinking water for varying periods of time to achieve blood lead levels ranging from 20-200 ..mu..g/dl. Studies of PMN bacterial and fungal killing activity, chemotaxis and phagocytosis demonstrated that: 1) bactericidal activity of PMN from rats exposed to lead was not altered; 2) chemotactic activity remained within normal limits; 3) the phagocytic ability of the PMN also remained unaltered. In addition to these normal findings, one major abnormality was demonstrated: a significant decrease in the ability of PMN from rats exposed to lead to kill Candida albicans. This defect was not related to age or to length of exposure. It could not be produced by addition of lead to the test system in vitro. Further investigation revealed significant decreases in PMN glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase activities. These data support two possible mechanisms for the abnormal fungicidal activity of PMN from lead-exposed rats: decrease in ability to reduce oxygen to active metabolites, or reduction in myeloperoxidase activity due to diminshed synthesis of the heme moiety required for its function.

  2. Evolution of early male-killing in horizontally transmitted parasites.

    PubMed

    Bernhauerov, Veronika; Berec, Lud?k; Maxin, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Early male-killing (MK) bacteria are vertically transmitted reproductive parasites which kill male offspring that inherit them. Whereas their incidence is well documented, characteristics allowing originally non-MK bacteria to gradually evolve MK ability remain unclear. We show that horizontal transmission is a mechanism enabling vertically transmitted bacteria to evolve fully efficient MK under a wide range of host and parasite characteristics, especially when the efficacy of vertical transmission is high. We also show that an almost 100% vertically transmitted and 100% effective male-killer may evolve from a purely horizontally transmitted non-MK ancestor, and that a 100% efficient male-killer can form a stable coexistence only with a non-MK bacterial strain. Our findings are in line with the empirical evidence on current MK bacteria, explain their high efficacy in killing infected male embryos and their variability within and across insect taxa, and suggest that they may have evolved independently in phylogenetically distinct species. PMID:26538596

  3. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms

    PubMed Central

    Binnebose, Andrea M.; Haughney, Shannon L.; Martin, Richard; Imerman, Paula M.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Bellaire, Bryan H.

    2015-01-01

    Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold) when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment. PMID:26496201

  4. Automotive vehicle sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  5. Electric Vehicle Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  6. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  7. Solar space vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.E.

    1982-10-19

    This invention relates to space vehicle where solar energy is used to generate steam, which in turn, propels the vehicle in space. A copper boiler is provided and a novel solar radiation condensing means is used to focus the sunlight on said boiler. Steam generated in said boiler is exhausted to the environment to provide a thrust for the vehicle.

  8. Electric Vehicle Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and

  9. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  10. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  11. Spacetimes with Killing tensors. [for Einstein-Maxwell fields with certain spinor indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughston, L. P.; Sommers, P.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of the Killing equation and the Killing tensor are discussed. A conformal Killing tensor is of interest inasmuch as it gives rise to a quadratic first integral for null geodesic orbits. The Einstein-Maxwell equations are considered together with the Bianchi identity and the conformal Killing tensor. Two examples for the application of the considered relations are presented, giving attention to the charged Kerr solution and the charged C-metric.

  12. Shock Processes on Railway Vehicles with One-Stage Spring Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Boycho

    2012-12-01

    The influence of the shock processes on railway vehicles with one-stage spring suspension is analyzed in this paper. These processes are excited in normal operation. Kinetic energy is lost as a result of the shock loads. Expressions are derived to calculate the kinetic energy of the different units and of the railway vehicle as a whole. These expressions allow calculating the loss of the kinetic energy of the mechanical system. Another objective of this work is to solve optimization tasks. This optimization allows the parameters of the railway vehicle to be chosen so that the loss of kinetic energy to be minimal and the effective work of the transport vehicle to be guaranteed in normal operation.

  13. Comparison of killing of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by pure singlet oxygen. [Salmonella typhimurium; Escherichia coli; Sarcina lutea; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus lactis; Streptococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, T.A.; Midden, W.R. ); Hartman, P.E. )

    1989-04-01

    Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were found to display different sensitivities to pure singlet oxygen generated outside of cells. Killing curves for Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli strains were indicative of multihit killing, whereas curves for Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis, and Streptococcus faecalis exhibited single-hit kinetics. The S. typhimurium deep rough strain TA1975, which lacks nearly all of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide coat and manifests concomitant enhancement of penetration by some exogenous substances, responded to singlet oxygen with initially faster inactivation than did the S. typhimurium wild-type strain, although the maximum rates of killing appeared to be quite similar. The structure of the cell wall thus plays an important role in susceptibility to singlet oxygen. The outer membrane-lipopolysaccharide portion of the gram-negative cell wall initially protects the bacteria from extracellular singlet oxygen, although it may also serve as a source for secondary reaction products which accentuate the rates of cell killing. S. typhimurium and E. coli strains lacking the cellular antioxidant, glutathione, showed no difference from strains containing glutathione in response to the toxic effects of singlet oxygen. Strains of Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus that contained carotenoids, however, were far more resistant to singlet oxygen lethality than were both carotenoidless mutants of the same species and other gram-positive species lacking high levels of protective carotenoids.

  14. f-SYMBOLS, Killing Tensors and Conserved Bel-Type Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tintareanu-Mircea, Ovidiu

    In the framework of the General Relativity we show that from three generalizations of Killing vector fields, namely f-symbols, symmetric Stckel-Killing and antisymmetric Killing-Yano tensors, some conserved currents can be obtained through adequate contractions of the above-mentioned objects with rank-four tensors having the properties of Bel or Bel-Robinson tensors in Einstein spaces.

  15. 77 FR 10960 - Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and Wards Islands, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and... establishing a temporary security zone on the waters of the East River and Bronx Kill, in the vicinity of... is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the East River and Bronx Kill when public...

  16. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements for killed virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed...

  17. Its Not Just Conflict That Motivates Killing of Orangutans

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jacqueline T.; Mengersen, Kerrie; Abram, Nicola K.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wells, Jessie A.; Meijaard, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI) and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI). These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed. PMID:24130707

  18. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  19. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  20. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  1. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  2. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1983-02-22

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use. The vehicle basically comprises a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules, namely body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  3. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens...

  8. VEHICLE FOR SLAVE ROBOT

    DOEpatents

    Goertz, R.C.; Lindberg, J.F.

    1962-01-30

    A reeling device is designed for an electrical cable supplying power to the slave slde of a remote control manipulator mounted on a movable vehicle. As the vehicle carries the slave side about in a closed room, the device reels the cable in and out to maintain a variable length of the cable between the vehicle and a cable inlet in the wall of the room. The device also handles a fixed length of cable between the slave side and the vehicle, in spite of angular movement of the slave side with respect to the vehicle. (AEC)

  9. Electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This article describes how optimizing accessories helps to extend electric vehicle range. A battery is the only source of energy available to power an electric vehicle (EV), so managing power consumption is critical to successful EV engineering. Accessories consuming electric power reduce the vehicle`s driving range. In the case of passenger compartment heating, available battery energy already is reduced at lower ambient temperatures. Minimizing power consumption of an EV climate control system, then, becomes a high priority in developing vehicles that are commercially acceptable.

  10. Vehicle capture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacke, Kenneth L.

    1998-12-01

    Primex Aerospace Company, under contract with the U.S. Army Armament Research Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC), has developed a portable vehicle capture system for use at vehicle checkpoints. Currently when a vehicle does not stop at a checkpoint, there are three possible reactions: let the vehicle go unchallenged, pursue the vehicle or stop the vehicle with lethal force. This system provides a non-lethal alternative that will stop and contain the vehicle. The system is completely portable with the heaviest component weighing less than 120 pounds. It can be installed with no external electrical power or permanent anchors required. In its standby mode, the system does not impede normal traffic, but on command erects a barrier in less than 1.5 seconds. System tests have been conducted using 5,100 and 8.400 pound vehicles, traveling at speeds up to 45 mph. The system is designed to minimize vehicle damage and occupant injury, typically resulting in deceleration forces of less than 2.5 gs on the vehicle. According to the drivers involved in tests at 45 mph, the stopping forces feel similar to a panic stop with the vehicle brakes locked. The system is completely reusable and be rapidly reset.

  11. Chemical and Biological Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel', N. M.

    1981-10-01

    Examples of the application of the methods and ideas of chemical kinetics in various branches of chemistry and biology are considered and the results of studies on the kinetics and mechanisms of autoxidation and inhibited and catalysed oxidation of organic substances in the liquid phase are surveyed. Problems of the kinetics of the ageing of polymers and the principles of their stabilisation are discussed and certain trends in biological kinetics (kinetics of tumour growth, kinetic criteria of the effectiveness of chemotherapy, problems of gerontology, etc.) are considered. The bibliography includes 281 references.

  12. Ares Launch Vehicles Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanhooser, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Since 2005, the Ares Projects have been building the nation s next generation of crew and cargo launch vehicles. As part of the Constellation Program, the Ares vehicles will enable astronauts in the Orion crew exploration vehicle and Altair lunar lander to reach the Moon and beyond. These vehicles draw upon hardware and experienced developed over 50 years of exploration, while also incorporating technology and management practices from today. Ares is concentrating on building the Ares I crew launch vehicle to ensure America s continued ability to send crews to the International Space Station. Progress has been made on design, fabrication, and testing for the first stage, upper stage, upper stage engine, and integrated vehicle. This presentation will provide an overview of the Ares launch vehicles architecture, milestone progress, and top project risks.

  13. Vehicle Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Vehicle Systems Panel addressed materials and structures technology issues related to launch and space vehicle systems not directly associated with the propulsion or entry systems. The Vehicle Systems Panel was comprised of two subpanels - Expendable Launch Vehicles & Cryotanks (ELVC) and Reusable Vehicles (RV). Tom Bales, LaRC, and Tom Modlin, JSC, chaired the expendable and reusable vehicles subpanels, respectively, and co-chaired the Vehicle Systems Panel. The following four papers are discussed in this section: (1) Net Section components for Weldalite Cryogenic Tanks, by Don Bolstad; (2) Build-up Structures for Cryogenic Tanks and Dry Bay Structural Applications, by Barry Lisagor; (3) Composite Materials Program, by Robert Van Siclen; (4) Shuttle Technology (and M&S Lessons Learned), by Stan Greenberg.

  14. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1980-01-01

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use comprised of a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship is described. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules: body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  15. Cesium removal and kinetics equilibrium: Precipitation kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1999-12-17

    This task consisted of both non-radioactive and radioactive (tracer) tests examining the influence of potentially significant variables on cesium tetraphenylborate precipitation kinetics. The work investigated the time required to reach cesium decontamination and the conditions that affect the cesium precipitation kinetics.

  16. Relief-well requirements to kill a high-rate gas blowout from a deepwater reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Warriner, R.A. ); Cassity, T.G. )

    1988-12-01

    Relief-well requirements were investigated for a dynamic kill of a high-rate gas blowout from a deepwater reservoir to define any necessary special procedures or equipment. Results of the investigation show that a high injection rate and a special-design large-diameter injection riser are required to dynamically kill such a blowout with seawater. The injection riser is necessary to limit surface pump pressure during the high-rate kill operation. Procedures to complete the kill operation hydrostatically with heavy fluid following the dynamic kill are outlined.

  17. Non-Isothermal Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, M. E.; Phillpotts, C. A. R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the principle of nonisothermal kinetics and some of the factors involved in such reactions, especially when considering the reliability of the kinetic parameters, compared to those of isothermal conditions. (GA)

  18. Individual Human Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Exhibit Intraclonal Heterogeneity during Sustained Killing.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Zilton; Mller, Sabina; Guipouy, Delphine; Yu, Wong; Christophe, Claire; Gadat, Sbastien; Valitutti, Salvatore; Dupr, Loc

    2015-06-01

    The killing of antigen-bearing cells by clonal populations of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is thought to be a rapid phenomenon executed uniformly by individual CTLs. We combined bulk and single-CTL killing assays over a prolonged time period to provide the killing statistics of clonal human CTLs against an excess of target cells. Our data reveal efficiency in sustained killing at the population level, which relied on a highly heterogeneous multiple killing performance at the individual level. Although intraclonal functional heterogeneity was a stable trait in clonal populations, it was reset in the progeny of individual CTLs. In-depth mathematical analysis of individual CTL killing data revealed a substantial proportion of high-rate killer CTLs with burst killing activity. Importantly, such activity was delayed and required activation with strong antigenic stimulation. Our study implies that functional heterogeneity allows CTL populations to calibrate prolonged cytotoxic activity to the size of target cell populations. PMID:26027932

  19. Reducibility of valence-3 Killing tensors in Weyl's class of stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes play an important role in astrophysics, particularly in the theory of neutron stars and black holes. The static vacuum subclass of these spacetimes is known as Weyl's class, and contains the Schwarzschild spacetime as its most prominent example. This paper is going to study the space of Killing tensor fields of valence 3 for spacetimes of Weyl's class. Killing tensor fields play a crucial role in physics since they are in correspondence to invariants of the geodesic motion (i.e. constants of the motion). It will be proven that in static and axially symmetric vacuum spacetimes the space of Killing tensor fields of valence 3 is generated by Killing vector fields and quadratic Killing tensor fields. Using this result, it will be proven that for the family of Zipoy-Voorhees metrics, valence-3 Killing tensor fields are always generated by Killing vector fields and the metric.

  20. Broadening the future of value account of the wrongness of killing.

    PubMed

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2015-11-01

    On Don Marquis's future of value account of the wrongness of killing, 'what makes it wrong to kill those individuals we all believe it is wrong to kill, is that killing them deprives them of their future of value'. Marquis has recently argued for a narrow interpretation of his future of value account of the wrongness of killing and against the broad interpretation that I had put forward in response to Carson Strong. In this article I argue that the narrow view is problematic because it violates some basic principles of equality and because it allows for some of the very killing that Marquis sets out to condemn; further, I argue that the chief reason why Marquis chooses the narrow view over the broad view-namely that the broad view would take the killing of some non-human animals to be also wrong-should rather be considered a welcome upshot of the broad view. PMID:25608793

  1. New fish-killing alga in coastal Delaware produces neurotoxins.

    PubMed Central

    Bourdelais, Andrea J; Tomas, Carmelo R; Naar, Jerome; Kubanek, Julia; Baden, Daniel G

    2002-01-01

    Ten fish mortality events, involving primarily Atlantic menhaden, occurred from early July through September 2000 in several bays and creeks in Delaware, USA. Two events involved large mortalities estimated at 1-2.5 million fish in Bald Eagle Creek, Rehoboth Bay. Samples from Indian Inlet (Bethany Beach), open to the Atlantic, as well as from an enclosed area of massive fish kills at nearby Bald Eagle Creek and Torque Canal were collected and sent to our laboratory for analysis. Microscopic examination of samples from the fish kill site revealed the presence of a single-cell Raphidophyte alga Chattonella cf. verruculosa at a maximum density of 1.04 x 10(7) cells/L. Naturally occurring brevetoxins were also detected in the bloom samples. Besides the Chattonella species, no other known brevetoxin-producing phytoplankton were present. Chromatographic, immunochemical, and spectroscopic analyses confirmed the presence of brevetoxin PbTx-2, and PbTx-3 and -9 were confirmed by chromatographic and immunochemical analyses. This is the first confirmed report in the United States of brevetoxins associated with an indigenous bloom in temperate Atlantic estuarine waters and of C. cf. verruculosa as a resident toxic organism implicated in fish kills in this area. The bloom of Chattonella continued throughout September and eventually declined in October. By the end of October C. cf. verruculosa was no longer seen, nor was toxin measurable in the surface waters. The results affirm that to avoid deleterious impacts on human and ecosystem health, increased monitoring is needed for brevetoxins and organism(s) producing them, even in areas previously thought to be unaffected. PMID:12003749

  2. [The killing of surplus and old animals in zoos].

    PubMed

    Engel, H

    2001-03-01

    The painless killing of animals in order to avoid considerable suffering has a legal basis and is sufficiently accepted by the society. The situation is, however, different when the matter concerns zoological gardens having on some occasions to put down apparently healthy animals. Since the natural populations of many species have almost been extinguished in the wild or are already eradicated, zoos play a prominent role in the ex-situ survival-breeding of many wild animals. This means that zoos often have self-supporting populations of species rather than only single individuals, as was frequently the case in the past. Such breeding also brings with it the possibility that animals will survive without the option of transferring them to other acceptable locations. In the wild, natural environmental factors prevent excessive population growth, whereas in zoos and in other protective reservations, such regulatory mechanisms are simply not existent. Such regulation can, however, often be achieved by animal transfers and other stock regulating measures. If these measures are not available the option of putting the animals down must be considered. Preventing suffering is of course the priority, as is demanded by zoos together with recognised animal protection organisations. This is compliant with German law and takes place for obvious and sensible reasons. The scientific zoological gardens organised in the German Zoo Directors Council discussed the problem of killing animals at the 1999 conference at Rostock and drafted a paper presenting its position on the subject. The paper argues that even under optimal husbandry conditions, while alternative options of breeding, planning and stabilisation of stock must be considered, the humane killing of animals will sometimes be unavoidable. PMID:11314468

  3. Kaluza-Klein consistency, Killing vectors and Khler spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoxha, P.; Martinez-Acosta, R. R.; Pope, C. N.

    2000-10-01

    We make a detailed investigation of all spaces Qn1...nNq1...qN of the form of U(1) bundles over arbitrary products ?iCPni of complex projective spaces, with arbitrary winding numbers qi over each factor in the base. Special cases, including Q1111 (sometimes known as T11), Q111111 and Q2132, are relevant for compactifications of type IIB and D = 11 supergravity. Remarkable `conspiracies' allow consistent Kaluza-Klein S5, S4 and S7 sphere reductions of these theories that retain all the Yang-Mills fields of the isometry group in a massless truncation. We prove that such conspiracies do not occur for the reductions on the Qn1...nNq1...qN spaces, and that it is inconsistent to make a massless truncation in which the non-Abelian SU(ni + 1) factors in their isometry groups are retained. In the course of proving this we derive many properties of the spaces Qn1...nNq1...qN of more general utility. In particular, we show that they always admit Einstein metrics, and that the spaces where qi = (ni + 1)/l all admit two Killing spinors. We also obtain an iterative construction for real metrics on CPn, and construct the Killing vectors on Qn1...nNq1...qN in terms of scalar eigenfunctions on CPni. We derive bounds that allow us to prove that certain Killing-vector identities on spheres, necessary for consistent Kaluza-Klein reductions, are never satisfied on Qn1...nNq1...qN.

  4. Killed oral cholera vaccines: history, development and implementation challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Maria Liza Antoinette; Aldaba, Josephine G.; Nair, G. Balakrish

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is still a major global health problem, affecting mainly people living in unsanitary conditions and who are at risk for outbreaks of cholera. During the past decade, outbreaks are increasingly reported from more countries. From the early killed oral cholera vaccine, rapid improvements in vaccine development occurred as a result of a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, pathogenesis of cholera infection and immunity. The newer-generation oral killed cholera vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in field trials conducted in cholera endemic areas. Likewise, they have been shown to be protective when used during outbreak settings. Aside from providing direct protection to vaccinated individuals, recent studies have demonstrated that these killed oral vaccines also confer indirect protection through herd immunity. Although new-generation oral cholera vaccines should not be considered in isolation from other preventive approaches in countries where they are most needed, especially improved water quality and sanitation, these vaccines serve as immediately available public health tools for preventing further morbidity and mortality from cholera. However, despite its availability for more than two decades, use of these vaccines has not been optimized. Although there are limitations of the currently available oral cholera vaccines, recent data show that the vaccines are safe, feasible to use even in difficult circumstances and able to provide protection in various settings. Clear identification of the areas and target population groups who will benefit from the use of the cholera vaccines will be required and strategies to facilitate accessibility and usage of these vaccines in these areas and population groups will need to be developed. PMID:25177492

  5. Nexavar/Stivarga and viagra interact to kill tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Tavallai, Mehrad; Hamed, Hossein A; Roberts, Jane L; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Chuckalovcak, John; Poklepovic, Andrew; Booth, Laurence; Dent, Paul

    2015-09-01

    We determined whether the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib or its derivative regorafenib interacted with phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors such as Viagra (sildenafil) to kill tumor cells. PDE5 and PDGFRα/β were over-expressed in liver tumors compared to normal liver tissue. In multiple cell types in vitro sorafenib/regorafenib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to cause tumor cell death, regardless of whether cells were grown in 10 or 100% human serum. Knock down of PDE5 or of PDGFRα/β recapitulated the effects of the individual drugs. The drug combination increased ROS/RNS levels that were causal in cell killing. Inhibition of CD95/FADD/caspase 8 signaling suppressed drug combination toxicity. Knock down of ULK-1, Beclin1, or ATG5 suppressed drug combination lethality. The drug combination inactivated ERK, AKT, p70 S6K, and mTOR and activated JNK. The drug combination also reduced mTOR protein expression. Activation of ERK or AKT was modestly protective whereas re-expression of an activated mTOR protein or inhibition of JNK signaling almost abolished drug combination toxicity. Sildenafil and sorafenib/regorafenib interacted in vivo to suppress xenograft tumor growth using liver and colon cancer cells. From multiplex assays on tumor tissue and plasma, we discovered that increased FGF levels and ERBB1 and AKT phosphorylation were biomarkers that were directly associated with lower levels of cell killing by 'rafenib + sildenafil. Our data are now being translated into the clinic for further determination as to whether this drug combination is a useful anti-tumor therapy for solid tumor patients. PMID:25704960

  6. Mothers who kill: evolutionary underpinnings and infanticide law.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Cavney, James; Resnick, Phillip J

    2012-01-01

    Women who kill their children present a profound challenge to accepted notions of motherhood and the protection offered by mothers to their children. Historically, societies have varied in the sanctions applied to perpetrators of such acts, across both time and place. Where penalties were once severe and punitive for mothers, in modern times some two dozen nations now have infanticide acts that reduce the penalties for mothers who kill their infants. Embedded within these acts are key criteria that relate (a) only to women who are (b) suffering the hormonal or mood effects of pregnancy/lactation at the time of the offence which is (c) usually restricted to within the first year after delivery. Criticisms of infanticide legislation have largely centered on inherent gender bias, misconceptions about the hormonal basis of postpartum psychiatric disorders, and the nexus and contribution of these disorders to the offending in relation to issues of culpability and sentencing. Important differences between female perpetrators relative to the age of the child victim have also highlighted problems in the implementation of infanticide legislation. For example, women who commit neonaticide (murder during the first day of life) differ substantially from mentally ill mothers who kill older children. However, despite these shortcomings, many nations have in recent years chosen to retain their infanticide acts. This article reviews the central controversies of infanticide legislation in relation to current research and fundamental fairness. Using evolutionary psychology as a theoretical framework to organize this discussion, it is argued that infanticide legislation is at best unnecessary and at worst misapplied, in that it exculpates criminal intent and fails to serve those for whom an infanticide defense might otherwise have been intended. PMID:22961624

  7. The Vehicle Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuschel, Jonas

    Ubiquitous computing in the vehicle industry has primarily focused on sensor data serving different ubiquitous on-board services (e.g., crash detection, antilock brake systems, or air conditioning). These services mainly address vehicle drivers while driving. However, in view of the role of vehicles in today's society, it goes without saying that vehicles relate to more than just the driver or occupants; they are part of a larger ecosystem, including traffic participants, authorities, customers and the like. To serve the ecosystem with ubiquitous services based on vehicle sensor data, there is a need for an open information infrastructure that enables service development close to the customer. This paper presents results from a research project on designing such an infrastructure at a major European vehicle manufacturer. Our empirical data shows how the vehicle manufacturer's conceptualization of services disagrees with the needs of vehicle stakeholders in a more comprehensive vehicle ecosystem. In light of this, we discuss the effect on information infrastructure design and introduce the distinction between information infrastructure as product feature and service facilitator. In a more general way, we highlight the importance of information infrastructure to contextualize the vehicle as part of a larger ecosystem and thus support open innovation.

  8. [Isolation and identification of a killing maggots bacterium].

    PubMed

    Cai, X

    2000-10-01

    A notably killing maggots bacterium was isolated from natural dead maggots in the manure pits in the countryside of Yancheng. Its pathogenicity was confirmed by the law of KOCK. The results of preliminary bioassay show that the pathogen can infect the larvas of greenbottle flies and other larvas of flies in a certain extent, but can't infect animals and fowls. The G + C content of its DNA is 62.46%. The hybridization ratio of its DNA and the Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes' (AS1.1806) is 81.2%. According to Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Ninth edition, the strain of the bacterium was primarily identified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes. PMID:12548772

  9. Analysis of murine cellular receptors for tumor-killing factor

    SciTech Connect

    Ohsawa, F.; Natori, S.

    1987-01-01

    Receptors for tumor-killing factor (TKF) on the surface of murine cells were analyzed using radioiodinated TKF. Not only sensitive cells but also insensitive cells were found to have specific receptors. Among the sensitive cells, no clear relation was observed between the number of receptors on the cell surface and sensitivity to TKF. Compounds affecting microfilaments (cytochalasin B and D) and microtubules (colchicine and Colcemid) significantly inhibited cytolysis of sensitive cells induced by receptor-bound TKF. It is concluded that internalization of receptor-bound TKF is a prerequisite for triggering cytolysis.

  10. Attachment of killed Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells and membranes to erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Banai, M.; Kahane, I.; Feldner, J.; Razin, S.

    1981-11-01

    To correlate viability with attachment capacity, Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells harvested at different growth phases and treated by various agents were tested for their capacity to attach to human erythrocytes. The results show that viability per se is not essential for M. gallisepticum attachment to erythrocytes, as cells killed by ultraviolet irradiation and membranes isolated by lysing M. gallisepticum cells by various means retained attachment capacity. However, treatment of the mycoplasmas by protein-denaturing agents, such as heart, glutaraldehyde, or prolonged exposure to low pH, drastically affected or even abolished attachment, supporting the protein nature of the mycoplasma membrane components responsible for specific binding to the sialoglycoprotein receptors on the erythrocytes.

  11. Gauge theories on de Sitter space and Killing vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Rabin . E-mail: rabin@bose.res.in

    2007-09-15

    We provide a general method for studying a manifestly covariant formulation of p-form gauge theories on the de Sitter space. This is done by stereographically projecting the corresponding theories, defined on flat Minkowski space, onto the surface of a de Sitter hyperboloid. The gauge fields in the two descriptions are mapped by conformal Killing vectors allowing for a very transparent analysis and compact presentation of results. As applications, the axial anomaly is computed and the electric-magnetic duality is exhibited. Finally, the zero curvature limit is shown to yield consistent results.

  12. Killing initial data on totally umbilical & compact hypersurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maerten, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    In this note, we give a geometric characterization of the compact and totally umbilical hypersurfaces that carry non-trivial locally static Killing Initial Data (KID). More precisely, such compact hypersurfaces (Mn,g,cg) endowed with a Riemannian metric g and a second fundamental form cg (where c?C?(M) a priori) have constant mean curvature and are isometric to one of the following manifolds: Sn the standard sphere, a finite quotient of a warped product (S1Y,dt2+h2(t)g0), where (Y,g0) is Einstein with positive scalar curvature. In particular, they have harmonic curvature and strictly positive constant scalar curvature.

  13. Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Gerlach, Terrance M.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Evans, William C.; Colvard, Elizabeth M.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Rogie, John D.; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, geologists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

  14. Sabretoothed Carnivores and the Killing of Large Prey

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Ki; Norman, David; Werdelin, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Sabre-like canines clearly have the potential to inflict grievous wounds leading to massive blood loss and rapid death. Hypotheses concerning sabretooth killing modes include attack to soft parts such as the belly or throat, where biting deep is essential to generate strikes reaching major blood vessels. Sabretoothed carnivorans are widely interpreted as hunters of larger and more powerful prey than that of their present-day nonsabretoothed relatives. However, the precise functional advantage of the sabretooth bite, particularly in relation to prey size, is unknown. Here, we present a new point-to-point bite model and show that, for sabretooths, depth of the killing bite decreases dramatically with increasing prey size. The extended gape of sabretooths only results in considerable increase in bite depth when biting into prey with a radius of less than ∼10 cm. For sabretooths, this size-reversed functional advantage suggests predation on species within a similar size range to those attacked by present-day carnivorans, rather than “megaherbivores” as previously believed. The development of the sabretooth condition appears to represent a shift in function and killing behaviour, rather than one in predator-prey relations. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how sabretoothed carnivorans are likely to have evolved along a functionally continuous trajectory: beginning as an extension of a jaw-powered killing bite, as adopted by present-day pantherine cats, followed by neck-powered biting and thereafter shifting to neck-powered shear-biting. We anticipate this new insight to be a starting point for detailed study of the evolution of pathways that encompass extreme specialisation, for example, understanding how neck-powered biting shifts into shear-biting and its significance for predator-prey interactions. We also expect that our model for point-to-point biting and bite depth estimations will yield new insights into the behaviours of a broad range of extinct predators including therocephalians (gorgonopsian + cynodont, sabretoothed mammal-like reptiles), sauropterygians (marine reptiles) and theropod dinosaurs. PMID:22039403

  15. Mitochondria: An intriguing target for killing tumour-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bing; Dong, Lanfeng; Neuzil, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Tumour-initiating cells (TICs) play a pivotal role in cancer initiation, metastasis and recurrence, as well as in resistance to therapy. Therefore, development of drugs targeting TICs has become a focus of contemporary research. Mitochondria have emerged as a promising target of anti-cancer therapies due to their specific role in cancer metabolism and modulation of apoptotic pathways. Mitochondria of TICs possess special characteristics, some of which can be utilised to design drugs specifically targeting these cells. In this paper, we will review recent research on TICs and their mitochondria, and introduce drugs that kill these cells by way of mitochondrial targeting. PMID:26702582

  16. Cell substrate and risk in killed poliomyelitis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Horodniceanu, F; Crainic, R; Barme, M

    1981-01-01

    By using 3H-T labeled HeLa cell DNA it was possible to evaluate the quantity and the state of substrate DNA present in crude and purified killed poliovaccine. The results showed that 1.7 x 10(5) pg/ml of DNA is present in crude vaccine while in purified vaccine this product can not be detected (the limit of the detection method was 1.1 x 10(2) pg/ml). The theoretical problems of the risk of the formation of poliovirus pseudotypes and the potential contamination of the vaccine with a type C retrovirus are examined. PMID:6262159

  17. (M-theory-)Killing spinors on symmetric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hustler, Noel; Lischewski, Andree

    2015-08-01

    We show how the theory of invariant principal bundle connections for reductive homogeneous spaces can be applied to determine the holonomy of generalised Killing spinor covariant derivatives of the form D = ? + ? in a purely algebraic and algorithmic way, where ? : TM ? ??(TM) is a left-invariant homomorphism. Specialising this to the case of symmetric M-theory backgrounds (i.e., (M, g, F) with (M, g) an eleven-dimensional Lorentzian (locally) symmetric space and F an invariant closed 4-form), we derive several criteria for such a background to preserve some supersymmetry and consequently find all supersymmetric symmetric M-theory backgrounds.

  18. Heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus La205 enhances NK cell cytotoxicity through increased granule exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Soyoung; Lee, Ki Woong; Kim, Kyung Eun; Park, Jung Kyu; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Chul-hyun; Kim, Daejin; Lee, Hyong Joo; Cho, Daeho

    2011-05-01

    Heat-killed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to be important immunomodulators that stimulate tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and nitric oxide (NO) production as well as increase phagocytic activity in macrophages. NK cells play a critical role in innate immune response and induce spontaneous killing of tumor cells and virus-infected cells. However, the effect of heat-killed LAB on NK cells is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus La205 (La205) on NK cytolytic activity. We found that heat-killed La205 directly stimulated NK cytolytic activity in dose- and time-dependent manners. To determine the mechanism underlying heat-killed La205-enhanced NK cytotoxicity, the expression of NK activating receptors was tested. Heat-killed La205 did not affect the expression of NK activating receptors. To investigate whether NK degranulation is related to heat-killed La205-enhanced NK cytotoxicity, NK degranulation inhibitor concanamycin A (CMA) was used. CMA effectively blocked heat-killed La205-induced NK cytotoxicity, and an assay for detection of a degranulation marker, CD107a, showed that heat-killed La205 increased granule exocytosis approximately 2-fold in comparison to non-treated NK cells. In addition, heat-killed La205 dramatically elevated mRNA expression of granulysin, a component of the cytolytic granule contents, in NK cells. However, other granule contents, including perforin and granzymes, were not changed by heat-killed La205. From these data, we concluded that heat-killed La205 stimulated NK cytolytic activity through enhancement of granule exocytosis, and granulysin may be a critical mediator in heat-killed La205-induced granule exocytosis. PMID:21256158

  19. Fundamental electrode kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elder, J. P.

    1968-01-01

    Report presents the fundamentals of electrode kinetics and the methods used in evaluating the characteristic parameters of rapid-charge transfer processes at electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The concept of electrode kinetics is outlined, followed by the principles underlying the experimental techniques for the investigation of electrode kinetics.

  20. Armoured fighting vehicle injuries in peacetime.

    PubMed

    Whelan, T R

    1990-10-01

    A year-long prospective study of injuries caused by armoured fighting vehicles on exercises in West Germany revealed that 2 soldiers were killed. Another 41 needed hospital admission for treatment of injuries of the lower limb (16), upper limb (15), head (8) and back (2). Tank loader/signallers were peculiarly susceptible to severe leg injuries, due to the ankle being trapped and twisted by the turret rotating within the hull. Insecure, falling hatch covers accounted for many of the hand, head and back injuries. Soldiers in training need to be made more aware of these particular hazards. Reduced caution would make injuries such as these more common during armoured warfare, and their statistics should be included in casualty estimates. PMID:2266525

  1. Natural killing of tumor cells by human peripheral blood cells. Suppression of killing in vitro by tumor-promoting phorbol diesters.

    PubMed Central

    Seaman, W E; Gindhart, T D; Blackman, M A; Dalal, B; Talal, N; Werb, Z

    1981-01-01

    Tumor-promoting phorbol diesters were shown to suppress natural killing in vitro by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The inhibitory effect of different phorbol diesters and their analogues correlated with their potency as tumor promoters, the most effective agent being 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Both peripheral blood cells and targets specifically bound TPA, and natural killing could be inhibited by pretreatment of either cell population with TPA, though this was less effective than direct addition of TPA to the assay. Cells that had been pretreated with TPA released TPA and metabolites of tPA during subsequent incubation in fresh medium. This release of tPA was evidently responsible for the inhibition of natural killing by pretreated target cells; in experiments where labeled and unlabeled target cells were mixed, pretreatment of unlabeled targets with TPA inhibited killing of labeled targets. Suppression of natural killing by TPA was greatly reduced when adherent cells were removed from the peripheral blood cells, suggesting that monocytes mediate suppression. Inhibition of natural killing by TPA provides a model for examining the regulation of natural killing. Suppression of natural killing by phorbol diesters may contribute to their activity as tumor promoters. PMID:6939690

  2. A nonpromoting phorbol from the samoan medicinal plant Homalanthus nutans inhibits cell killing by HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, K R; Cardellina, J H; McMahon, J B; Gulakowski, R J; Ishitoya, J; Szallasi, Z; Lewin, N E; Blumberg, P M; Weislow, O S; Beutler, J A

    1992-05-29

    Extracts of Homalanthus nutans, a plant used in Samoan herbal medicine, exhibited potent activity in an in vitro, tetrazolium-based assay which detects the inhibition of the cytopathic effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The active constituent was identified as prostratin, a relatively polar 12-deoxyphorbol ester. Noncytotoxic concentrations of prostratin from greater than or equal to 0.1 to greater than 25 microM protected T-lymphoblastoid CEM-SS and C-8166 cells from the killing effects of HIV-1. Cytoprotective concentrations of prostratin greater than or equal to 1 microM essentially stopped virus reproduction in these cell lines, as well as in the human monocytic cell line U937 and in freshly isolated human monocyte/macrophage cultures. Prostratin bound to and activated protein kinase C in vitro in CEM-SS cells and elicited other biochemical effects typical of phorbol esters in C3H10T1/2 cells; however, the compound does not appear to be a tumor promoter. In skin of CD-1 mice, high doses of prostratin induced ornithine decarboxylase only to 25-30% of the levels induced by typical phorbol esters at doses 1/30 or less than that used for prostratin, produced kinetics of edema formation characteristic of the nonpromoting 12-deoxyphorbol 13-phenylacetate, and failed to induce the acute or chronic hyperplasias typically caused by tumor-promoting phorbols at doses of 1/100 or less than that used for prostratin. PMID:1597853

  3. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2004-06-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is to increase the body of knowledge as well as the awareness and acceptance of electric drive and other advanced technology vehicles (ATV). The AVTA accomplishes this goal by testing ATVs on test tracks and dynamometers (Baseline Performance testing), as well as in real-world applications (Fleet and Accelerated Reliability testing and public demonstrations). This enables the AVTA to provide Federal and private fleet managers, as well as other potential ATV users, with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance and infrastructure needs so they can make informed decisions about acquiring and operating ATVs. The ATVs currently in testing include vehicles that burn gaseous hydrogen (H2) fuel and hydrogen/CNG (H/CNG) blended fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE), and hybrid electric (HEV), urban electric, and neighborhood electric vehicles. The AVTA is part of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  4. Vehicle underbody fairing

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz; McCallen, Rose

    2010-11-09

    A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

  5. Electric vehicle parametric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1995-12-31

    During the period from 1990 to 1995, the automobile manufacturers of Europe, America, and Japan have been responsive to the need to re-evaluate the battery electric vehicle (EV) an a zero emission vehicle, and have released key design specifications and vehicle performance characteristics for more than thirty electric vehicles displayed at the: 55th IAA International Motor Show in Frankfurt, NAIAS`95 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, and the 30th International Motor Show in Tokyo. This paper includes a comparative parametric correlation analysis of these key design parameters which include: vehicle test mass, tire coefficients, overall aerodynamic drag and skin friction drag coefficients, equivalent flat plate frontal area, length to hydraulic diameter ratio, peak tractive force, peak traction motor power, and battery energy storage capacity. The conclusions show that the automobile manufacturers have achieved dramatic improvements in many of these key design parameters, and as a result the battery electric vehicle now promises to have a brighter future.

  6. Identification and Structural Analysis of an l-Asparaginase Enzyme from Guinea Pig with Putative Tumor Cell Killing Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Schalk, Amanda M.; Nguyen, Hien-Anh; Rigouin, Coraline; Lavie, Arnon

    2014-01-01

    The initial observation that guinea pig serum kills lymphoma cells marks the serendipitous discovery of a new class of anti-cancer agents. The serum cell killing factor was shown to be an enzyme with l-asparaginase (ASNase) activity. As a direct result of this observation, several bacterial l-asparaginases were developed and are currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of the subset of hematological malignancies that are dependent on the extracellular pool of the amino acid asparagine. As drugs, these enzymes act to hydrolyze asparagine to aspartate, thereby starving the cancer cells of this amino acid. Prior to the work presented here, the precise identity of this guinea pig enzyme has not been reported in the peer-reviewed literature. We discovered that the guinea pig enzyme annotated as H0W0T5_CAVPO, which we refer to as gpASNase1, has the required low Km property consistent with that possessed by the cell-killing guinea pig serum enzyme. Elucidation of the ligand-free and aspartate complex gpASNase1 crystal structures allows a direct comparison with the bacterial enzymes and serves to explain the lack of l-glutaminase activity in the guinea pig enzyme. The structures were also used to generate a homology model for the human homolog hASNase1 and to help explain its vastly different kinetic properties compared with gpASNase1, despite a 70% sequence identity. Given that the bacterial enzymes frequently present immunogenic and other toxic side effects, this work suggests that gpASNase1 could be a promising alternative to these bacterial enzymes. PMID:25320094

  7. Unmanned submarine vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Hervieu

    1984-05-15

    An unmanned self-propelled submarine vehicle is provided with a material exchanger-container having a vertical axis of symmetry aligned with both the vehicle's center of gravity and its center of volume. The exchanger-container has a moveable diaphragm which divides the interior into two compartments, a lower ballast compartment equipped with an unloading apparatus and an upper compartment adapted to receive collected material. Ballast is unloaded during material loading to maintain the weight of the vehicle constant during loading.

  8. Space Transfer Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In June 1989 the Marshall Space Flight Center initiated studies of Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) concepts. A successor to the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) concept, the STV would be a high-performance space vehicle capable of transferring automated payloads from a Space Station to geosynchronous orbits, the Moon, or planets. Illustrated in this artist's concept are two STV's undergoing aerobraking maneuvers as they approach a Space Station.

  9. Estimating crashes involving heavy vehicles in Western Australia, 1999-2000: a capture-recapture method.

    PubMed

    Meuleners, Lynn B; Lee, Andy H; Cercarelli, L Rina; Legge, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    A two-sample exploratory study of police and hospital records was undertaken to estimate the number of fatalities and serious injuries for heavy vehicle drivers involved in a crash in Western Australia. The capture-recapture method was used to assess differences and similarities in characteristics of heavy vehicle drivers from both sources. Each heavy vehicle driver involved in a crash from the police report was matched against the heavy vehicle driver's hospitalisation record from the Hospital Morbidity Data System, with surname, initials, date of birth, gender, date of crash, road user type and vehicle type as matching fields. The estimated number of fatalities and serious injuries to heavy vehicle drivers from 1st July 1999 to 31st December 2000 was 5 and 59, respectively, which was 25 and 31% higher based on the capture-recapture methodology than the aggregated (non-overlapping) total officially reported to the police and hospitals. No significant age difference (p>0.05) was found for drivers involved in a heavy vehicle crash between the two sources (37 years versus 40 year of age). However, female heavy vehicle drivers were over-represented in the hospital records (11%) compared to the police records (1%). The capture-recapture approach is useful for evaluating the completeness of data sources and identifying biases within datasets. The underestimation of heavy vehicle drivers seriously injured and killed has important implications for heavy vehicle safety management and resource allocation in Western Australia. PMID:16221468

  10. A stochastic killing system for biological containment of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Klemm, P; Jensen, L B; Molin, S

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria with a stochastic conditional lethal containment system have been constructed. The invertible switch promoter located upstream of the fimA gene from Escherichia coli was inserted as expression cassette in front of the lethal gef gene deleted of its own natural promoter. The resulting fusion was placed on a plasmid and transformed to E. coli. The phenotype connected with the presence of such a plasmid was to reduce the population growth rate with increasing significance as the cell growth rate was reduced. In very fast growing cells, there was no measurable effect on growth rate. When a culture of E. coli harboring the plasmid comprising the containment system is left as stationary cells in suspension without nutrients, viability drops exponentially over a period of several days, in contrast to the control cells, which maintain viability nearly unaffected during the same period of time. Similar results were obtained with a strain in which the killing cassette was inserted in the chromosome. In competition with noncontained cells during growth, the contained cells are always outcompeted. Stochastic killing obtained by the fim-gef fusion is at present relevant only as a containment approach for E. coli, but the model may be mimicked in other organisms by using species-specific stochastic expression systems. PMID:7574584

  11. Effectiveness of live or killed plague vaccines in man

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, K. F.

    1970-01-01

    While the safety of the available live plague vaccine EV 76 (Paris) continues to be the subject of further study, the USP formol-killed, virulent Pasteurella pestis (Yersinia pestis) suspension capable of protecting 60% of non-human primates, particularly Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus), warrants further clinical tests and field trials. Inoculated in a dosage of 2×109 killed plague bacilli (1 ml), followed by a booster of 400 million organisms (0.2 ml) in 1-3 months, this vaccine stimulates the appearance of passive mouse-protection antibodies (below an index of 10) and passive haemagglutinins in 60%-65% of human subjects. Recent experiences in Viet-Nam demonstrate that personnel vaccinated with the USP vaccine, although frequently exposed, enjoy almost complete freedom from the disease. One of the 4 known and confirmed cases of bubonic plague in North Americans occurred in an unvaccinated individual. Among individuals inoculated with the USP vaccine, 2 confirmed cases of pneumonic plague and 1 case of asymptomatic pharyngeal plague have been recorded. The incidence of plague in the Republic of Viet-Nam during the past 3 years is estimated at 13 263 cases in a population in part vaccinated with a live plague which exhibited inadequate immunogenic efficacy in experimental tests. PMID:4988692

  12. Protecting the normal in order to better kill the cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bingya; Ezeogu, Lewis; Zellmer, Lucas; Yu, Baofa; Xu, Ningzhi; Joshua Liao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the only option for oncologists when a cancer has widely spread to different body sites. However, almost all currently available chemotherapeutic drugs will eventually encounter resistance after their initial positive effect, mainly because cancer cells develop genetic alterations, collectively coined herein as mutations, to adapt to the therapy. Some patients may still respond to a second chemo drug, but few cases respond to a third one. Since it takes time for cancer cells to develop new mutations and then select those life-sustaining ones via clonal expansion, “run against time for mutations to emerge” should be a crucial principle for treatment of those currently incurable cancers. Since cancer cells constantly change to adapt to the therapy whereas normal cells are stable, it may be a better strategy to shift our focus from killing cancer cells per se to protecting normal cells from chemotherapeutic toxicity. This new strategy requires the development of new drugs that are nongenotoxic and can quickly, in just hours or days, kill cancer cells without leaving the still-alive cells with time to develop mutations, and that should have their toxicities confined to only one or few organs, so that specific protections can be developed and applied. PMID:26177855

  13. Emotional and coping responses to serial killings. The Gainesville murders.

    PubMed

    Norvell, N K; Cornell, C E; Limacher, M C

    1993-07-01

    Forensic experts have focused more on the psychological profile of a serial killer rather than on the pronounced effects on the community at large. Coping with a stressful event is thought to influence emotional states. However, little empirical understanding of this process exists. The present study examined changes in psychological factors 9 days after the occurrence of serial killings in a college community. Multivariate analyses of variance conducted on the variables of stress, anxiety, physical symptoms, and depression revealed a significant difference between the group tested after the murders and a cross-sectional cohort group. Univariate analyses revealed that the study class was significantly more depressed compared with the cohort group. The study class was also significantly more depressed compared with their own responses 1 year before the killings. For both classes, depression was significantly correlated with certain coping styles, including escape-avoidance and accept responsibility. Results have implications for certain coping behaviors (i.e., avoidant behaviors), such as that leaving the community may have been maladaptive and perhaps diverted attention from the more necessary active problem-solving behaviors (e.g., increasing security) in addition to increasing depression. PMID:8320543

  14. Photoacoustically-guided photothermal killing of mosquitoes targeted by nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Foster, Stephen R; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Totten, Daniel C; Bene, Helen; Shmookler Reis, Robert J; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2014-07-01

    In biomedical applications, nanoparticles have demonstrated the potential to eradicate abnormal cells in small localized pathological zones associated with cancer or infections. Here, we introduce a method for nanotechnology-based photothermal (PT) killing of whole organisms considered harmful to humans or the environment. We demonstrate that laser-induced thermal, and accompanying nano- and microbubble phenomena, can injure or kill C. elegans and mosquitoes fed carbon nanotubes, gold nanospheres, gold nanoshells, or magnetic nanoparticles at laser energies that are safe for humans. In addition, a photoacoustic (PA) effect was used to control nanoparticle delivery. Through the integration of this technique with molecular targeting, nanoparticle clustering, magnetic capturing and spectral sharpening of PA and PT plasmonic resonances, our laser-based PA-PT nano-theranostic platform can be applied to detection and the physical destruction of small organisms and carriers of pathogens, such as malaria vectors, spiders, bed bugs, fleas, ants, locusts, grasshoppers, phytophagous mites, or other arthropod pests, irrespective of their resistance to conventional treatments. PMID:23450780

  15. Viscoelastic Muds---Top-Kill in Rapidly Flowing Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Jonathan

    2011-04-01

    The attempted ``top-kill'' of the blown out Macondo (Deepwater Horizon) oil well by pumping a dense drilling ``mud'', i.e., a slurry of dense minerals, from above failed. This failure may be attributed to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the gravity driven counterflow between the descending ``mud'' and the rapidly upwelling crude oil. The instability produced turbulence that dispersed the denser fluid into small packets (if miscible with the oil) or droplets (if immiscible). Estimates from turbulence theory imply that the packets or droplets are so small (sub-mm) that their settling speed in the oil is less than the upwelling speed, with the consequence that the ``mud'' is spat out of the well, as observed, rather than descending to fill the bottom of the well bore and providing the hdyrodstatic head required to ``kill'' the well. The addition of a shear-thickening or viscoelastic polymer to the ``mud'' may suppress the turbulence and prevent its dispersal. Laboratory experiments with viscoelastic surrogate ``muds'' show complete turbulence suppression at the relevant speeds, with the viscoelastic fluid descending as a coherent slug. These experiments find several new phenomena. At high flow rates there is a viscoelastic analogue of the viscous buckling instability. At low flow rates suppression of the Plateau-Rayleigh instability combined with the dependence of viscous flow rate on diameter leads to the formation of globules on a looping filament. I thank LLNL, where the experimental work was done, for hospitality.

  16. Ford's CNG vehicle research

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R.J.

    1983-06-01

    Several natural gas vehicles have been built as part of Ford's Alternative Fuel Demonstration Fleet. Two basic methods, compressed gas (CNG), and liquified gas (LNG) were used. Heat transfer danger and the expense and special training needed for LNG refueling are cited. CNG in a dual-fuel engine was demonstrated first. The overall results were unsatisfactory. A single fuel LNG vehicle was then demonstrated. Four other demonstrations, testing different tank weights and engine sizes, lead to the conclusion that single fuel vehicles optimized for CNG use provide better fuel efficiency than dual-fuel vehicles. Lack of public refueling stations confines use to fleet operations.

  17. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  18. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  19. Inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis enhance X-ray killing of log-phase Chinese hamster cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Hur, E.; Utsumi, H.; Elkind, M.M.

    1984-03-01

    Postirradiation incubation of V79 Chinese hamster cells with inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis was found to potentiate the killing of cells by X rays. Potentiation increased with incubation time and with concentration of the inhibitor. Preirradiation incubation had only a small effect. The enhanced response correlated well with the known extent of the inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis. A radiation-sensitive line, V79-AL162/S-10, was affected to a lesser extent than the normal cells. Cells repaired the radiation damage with which the inhibitors interacted within 1 hr, a process that has similar kinetics to what is observed when a postirradiation treatment with hypertonic buffer is used. However, the sectors of damage affected by inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis and hypertonic buffer do not entirely overlap. The inhibitor nicotinamide enhanced the killing mainly of late S-phase cells and did not affect cells at the G/sub 1//S border. It is concluded that the repair process(es) involving poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis is important for cell survival in repair-competent cells and that the radiation-sensitive cells that were examined are partially deficient in a repair pathway in which poly(ADP-ribose) participates.

  20. Kinetic-energy absorber employs frictional force between mating cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, E. W.

    1964-01-01

    A kinetic energy absorbing device uses a series of coaxial, mating cylindrical surfaces. These surfaces have high frictional resistance to relative motion when axial impact forces are applied. The device is designed for safe deceleration of vehicles impacting on landing surfaces.

  1. Lifting Body Flight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1998-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

  2. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  3. Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

  4. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  5. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

  6. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper. 2 tabs.

  7. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment, and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

  8. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle mission Planning; Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations. The representative IVHM technologies for computer platform using heterogeneous communication, 3) coupled electromagnetic oscillators for enhanced communications, 4) Linux-based real-time systems, 5) genetic algorithms, 6) Bayesian Networks, 7) evolutionary algorithms, 8) dynamic systems control modeling, and 9) advanced sensing capabilities. This paper presents IVHM technologies developed under NASA's NFFP pilot project and the integration of these technologies forms the framework for IIVM.

  9. Human and Mouse Macrophages Collaborate with Neutrophils To Kill Larval Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Bonne-Anne, Sandra; Kerepesi, Laura A.; Hess, Jessica A.; O'Connell, Amy E.; Lok, James B.; Nolan, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are multifunctional cells that are active in TH1- and TH2-mediated responses. In this study, we demonstrate that human and mouse macrophages collaborate with neutrophils and complement to kill the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis in vitro. Infection of mice with worms resulted in the induction of alternatively activated macrophages (AAM?) within the peritoneal cavity. These cells killed the worms in vivo and collaborated with neutrophils and complement during the in vitro killing process. AAM? generated in vitro killed larvae more rapidly than naive macrophages, which killed larvae after a longer time period. In contrast, classically activated macrophages were unable to kill larvae either in vitro or in vivo. This study adds macrophages to the armamentarium of immune components that function in elimination of parasitic helminths and demonstrate a novel function by which AAM? control large extracellular parasites. PMID:23798541

  10. Human and mouse macrophages collaborate with neutrophils to kill larval Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed

    Bonne-Anne, Sandra; Kerepesi, Laura A; Hess, Jessica A; O'Connell, Amy E; Lok, James B; Nolan, Thomas J; Abraham, David

    2013-09-01

    Macrophages are multifunctional cells that are active in TH1- and TH2-mediated responses. In this study, we demonstrate that human and mouse macrophages collaborate with neutrophils and complement to kill the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis in vitro. Infection of mice with worms resulted in the induction of alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) within the peritoneal cavity. These cells killed the worms in vivo and collaborated with neutrophils and complement during the in vitro killing process. AAM generated in vitro killed larvae more rapidly than naive macrophages, which killed larvae after a longer time period. In contrast, classically activated macrophages were unable to kill larvae either in vitro or in vivo. This study adds macrophages to the armamentarium of immune components that function in elimination of parasitic helminths and demonstrate a novel function by which AAM control large extracellular parasites. PMID:23798541

  11. Opinions of university students on honour killings: Perspective from Islamabad and Rawalpindi.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Masood Ali; Kamal, Anila; Naqvi, Irum

    2015-04-01

    Honour killing incidents have been reported from every province of Pakistan. In 2014 a pregnant woman was killed in front of Lahore High Court, by her family members, in the name of honour. This study was conducted to determine the perspective of university students on honour killing with specific reference to one such killing incident in Lahore. Cumulatively, 989 students participated in the survey. Compared with female students, male students were less likely to agree and were more unequivocal that a woman has a right to marry any man she wants despite her family's disapproval, in a statistically significant manner. Similarly, male students were statistically significantly more likely to report that killing in the name of honour is always justified and were less equivocal about it compared to female students. Nonetheless, cumulatively 824 (83.3%) students believed that killing in the name of honour is not always justified. PMID:25976580

  12. Lunar material transport vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

    1988-03-01

    The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

  13. Lunar material transport vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

  14. Dust Mitigation Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardiff, Eric H.

    2011-01-01

    A document describes the development and demonstration of an apparatus, called a dust mitigation vehicle, for reducing the amount of free dust on the surface of the Moon. The dust mitigation vehicle would be used to pave surfaces on the Moon to prevent the dust from levitating or adhering to surfaces. The basic principle of operation of these apparatuses is to use a lens or a dish mirror to concentrate solar thermal radiation onto a small spot to heat lunar regolith. In the case of the prototype dust mitigation vehicle, a Fresnel lens was used to heat a surface layer of regolith sufficiently to sinter or melt dust grains into a solid mass. The prototype vehicle has demonstrated paving rates up to 1.8 square meters per day. The proposed flight design of the dust mitigation vehicle is also described.

  15. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  16. Roadblocks on the kill curve: Testing the Raup hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    The documented presence of two large (???100-km diameter), possibly coeval impact craters of late Eocene age, requires modification of the impact-kill curve proposed by David M. Raup. Though the estimated meteorite size for each crater alone is large enough to have produced considerable global environmental stress, no horizons of mass mortality or pulsed extinction are known to be associated with either crater or their ejecta deposits. Thus, either there is no fixed relationship between extinction magnitude and crater diameter, or a meteorite that would produce a crater of >100-km diameter is required to raise extinction rates significantly above a ???5% background level. Both impacts took place ???1-2 m.y. before the "Terminal Eocene Event"( =early Oligocene pulsed extinction). Their collective long-term environmental effects, however, may have either delayed that extinction pulse or produced threshold conditions necessary for it to take place.

  17. Development of Al-killed/Ti stabilized steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Ledesma, A. L.; Aguilar-Mendez, M. A.; Rodriguez-Diaz, R. A.; >G Aramburo,

    2015-01-01

    Several Al-killed/Ti-stabilized low carbon steels were developed in a Mexican steel industry with the aim of obtaining an interstitial free steel for automotive applications. The steelmaking route involved the use of 100% sponge iron which was feed into an electric arc furnace, vacuum degassed, ladle treated and continuously casted. The resulting slabs were then hot rolled at 1100 C and coiled at 650 C. Then, the steel plates were cold rolled at room temperature and sheets annealed at 700 C. As-cast micro structure showed the presence of ?-ferrite with titanium nitrides in matrix and grain boundaries while in the ashot rolled condition, elongated grains showed the presence of titanium nitrides, titanium sulfides and titanium carbosulfides. The annealed sheets showed, additionally to the other precipitates, the presence of titanium carbides. Microstructure, texture, the Lankford ratio and mechanical properties of fully recrystallized coils fulfilled the target properties established by the automobile industry.

  18. Could giant basin-forming impacts have killed Martian dynamo?

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, W; Jiang, W; Roberts, J; Frey, H V

    2014-01-01

    The observed strong remanent crustal magnetization at the surface of Mars suggests an active dynamo in the past and ceased to exist around early to middle Noachian era, estimated by examining remagnetization strengths in extant and buried impact basins. We investigate whether the Martian dynamo could have been killed by these large basin-forming impacts, via numerical simulation of subcritical dynamos with impact-induced thermal heterogeneity across the core-mantle boundary. We find that subcritical dynamos are prone to the impacts centered on locations within 30 of the equator but can easily survive those at higher latitudes. Our results further suggest that magnetic timing places a strong constraint on postimpact polar reorientation, e.g., a minimum 16 polar reorientation is needed if Utopia is the dynamo killer. PMID:26074641

  19. Cancer cell-selective killing polymer/copper combination.

    PubMed

    He, Huacheng; Altomare, Diego; Ozer, Ufuk; Xu, Hanwen; Creek, Kim; Chen, Hexin; Xu, Peisheng

    2015-12-15

    Chemotherapy has been adopted for cancer treatment for decades. However, its efficacy and safety are frequently compromised by the multidrug-resistance of cancer cells and the poor cancer cell selectivity of anticancer drugs. Hereby, we report a combination of a pyridine-2-thiol containing polymer and copper which can effectively kill a wide spectrum of cancer cells, including drug resistant cancer cells, while sparing normal cells. The polymer nanoparticle enters cells via an exofacial thiol facilitated route, and releases active pyridine-2-thiol with the help of intracellularly elevated glutathione (GSH). Due to their high GSH level, cancer cells are more vulnerable to the polymer/copper combination. In addition, RNA microarray analysis revealed that the treatment can reverse cancer cells' upregulated oncogenes (CIRBP and STMN1) and downregulated tumor suppressor genes (CDKN1C and GADD45B) to further enhance the selectivity for cancer cells. PMID:26568413

  20. A holographic principle for the existence of imaginary Killing spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijazi, Oussama; Montiel, Sebastin; Raulot, Simon

    2015-05-01

    Suppose that ? = ?? is the n-dimensional boundary, with positive (inward) mean curvature H, of a connected compact (n + 1) -dimensional Riemannian spin manifold (? n + 1, g) whose scalar curvature R ? - n(n + 1) k2, for some k > 0. If ? admits an isometric and isospin immersion F into the hyperbolic space H-k2n+1, we define a quasi-local mass and prove its positivity as well as the associated rigidity statement. The proof is based on a holographic principle for the existence of an imaginary Killing spinor. For n = 2, we also show that its limit, for coordinate spheres in an Asymptotically Hyperbolic (AH) manifold, is the mass of the (AH) manifold.

  1. Medicolegal investigation of political killings in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, J L; Gruschow, J; Stover, E

    1989-06-17

    An axiom of Thomas Hobbes states that "people are never more helpless than when the force meant to protect their rights turns against them." Hobbes' axiom holds true today, with Amnesty International reporting that hundreds of thousands have been murdered by their governments. This article examines the medicolegal aspects of an investigation into the deaths of two Salvadoran peasants who were reportedly tortured and executed by soldiers in February 1988. One of the authors, Thomsen, participated in the investigation as a court-ordered expert, and as a representative of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of a Salvadoran legal aid organization. His necropsy findings are reported with observations and comments. The article concludes with suggestions for initiatives that might be undertaken by individual physicians and institutions to improve the quality and impartiality of medicolegal investigations into political killings. PMID:2567385

  2. Bacteria can mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Li, Guo-Hong; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Ji, Xing-Lai; Liu, Tong; Zhao, Pei-Ji; Liang, Lian-Ming; Xu, Jian-Ping; An, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Xi; Qin, Yue-Ke; Tian, Meng-Qing; Xu, You-Yao; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yu, Ze-Fen; Huang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Qun; Niu, Xue-Mei; Yang, Jin-Kui; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2014-01-01

    In their natural habitat, bacteria are consumed by bacterivorous nematodes; however, they are not simply passive preys. Here we report a defensive mechanism used by certain bacteria to mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes. These bacteria release urea, which triggers a lifestyle switch in the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora from saprophytic to nematode-predatory form; this predacious form is characterized by formation of specialized cellular structures or 'traps'. The bacteria significantly promote the elimination of nematodes by A. oligospora. Disruption of genes involved in urea transport and metabolism in A. oligospora abolishes the urea-induced trap formation. Furthermore, the urea metabolite ammonia functions as a signal molecule in the fungus to initiate the lifestyle switch to form trap structures. Our findings highlight the importance of multiple predator-prey interactions in prey defense mechanisms. PMID:25514608

  3. Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase kills African trypanosomes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiao-Ping; Lai, De-Hua; Li, Zhi; Li, Feng-Jun; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2011-02-01

    The African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei is the cause of sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in animals. Here we report that semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidases (SSAOs), enzymes that are abound in T. brucei mammal hosts, eliminate trypanosomes by oxidation of its substrate in vitro. SSAO and its endogenous substrate methylamine are not toxic to T. brucei, but parasites were killed in the presence of both of them. SSAO inhibitors antagonized the SSAO-methylamine induced toxicity on T. brucei. The trypanocidal activity was mainly associated with formaldehyde generated in the SSAO mediated oxidation of methylamine. This finding suggests that SSAO may play some roles in non-specific defense of trypanosome infection in mammals. PMID:21145304

  4. Bacteria can mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Li, Guo-Hong; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Ji, Xing-Lai; Liu, Tong; Zhao, Pei-Ji; Liang, Lian-Ming; Xu, Jian-Ping; An, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Xi; Qin, Yue-Ke; Tian, Meng-Qing; Xu, You-Yao; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yu, Ze-Fen; Huang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Qun; Niu, Xue-Mei; Yang, Jin-Kui; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2014-01-01

    In their natural habitat, bacteria are consumed by bacterivorous nematodes; however, they are not simply passive preys. Here we report a defensive mechanism used by certain bacteria to mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes. These bacteria release urea, which triggers a lifestyle switch in the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora from saprophytic to nematode–predatory form; this predacious form is characterized by formation of specialized cellular structures or ‘traps’. The bacteria significantly promote the elimination of nematodes by A. oligospora. Disruption of genes involved in urea transport and metabolism in A. oligospora abolishes the urea-induced trap formation. Furthermore, the urea metabolite ammonia functions as a signal molecule in the fungus to initiate the lifestyle switch to form trap structures. Our findings highlight the importance of multiple predator–prey interactions in prey defense mechanisms. PMID:25514608

  5. Black holes with a single Killing vector field: black resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.; Way, Benson

    2015-12-01

    We numerically construct asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in four dimensions that contain only a single Killing vector field. These solutions, which we coin black resonators, link the superradiant instability of Kerr-AdS to the nonlinear weakly turbulent instability of AdS by connecting the onset of the superradiance instability to smooth, horizonless geometries called geons. Furthermore, they demonstrate non-uniqueness of Kerr-AdS by sharing asymptotic charges. Where black resonators coexist with Kerr-AdS, we find that the black resonators have higher entropy. Nevertheless, we show that black resonators are unstable and comment on the implications for the endpoint of the superradiant instability.

  6. The Tuberculosis Necrotizing Toxin kills macrophages by hydrolyzing NAD

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jim; Siroy, Axel; Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Speer, Alexander; Doornbos, Kathryn S.; Cingolani, Gino; Niederweis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) induces necrosis of infected cells to evade immune responses. Recently, we found that Mtb utilizes the protein CpnT to kill human macrophages by secreting its C-terminal domain, named tuberculosis necrotizing toxin (TNT) that induces necrosis by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that TNT gains access to the cytosol of Mtb-infected macrophages, where it hydrolyzes the essential co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). Expression or injection of a non-catalytic TNT mutant showed no cytotoxicity in macrophages or zebrafish zygotes, respectively, demonstrating that the NAD+-glycohydrolase activity is required for TNT-induced cell death. To prevent self-poisoning, Mtb produces an immunity factor for TNT (IFT) that binds TNT and inhibits its activity. The crystal structure of the TNT-IFT complex revealed a novel NAD+-glycohydrolase fold of TNT, which constitutes the founding member of a toxin family wide-spread in pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26237511

  7. Null Killing vectors and geometry of null strings in Einstein spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudecki, Adam

    2014-04-01

    Einstein complex spacetimes admitting null Killing or null homothetic Killing vectors are studied. Such vectors define totally null and geodesic 2-surfaces called the null strings or twistor surfaces. Geometric properties of these null strings are discussed. It is shown, that spaces considered are hyperheavenly spaces (-spaces) or, if one of the parts of the Weyl tensor vanishes, heavenly spaces (-spaces). The explicit complex metrics admitting null Killing vectors are found. Some Lorentzian and ultrahyperbolic slices of these metrics are discussed.

  8. Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps

    PubMed Central

    Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism. PMID:24281548

  9. Can Pulp Fibroblasts Kill Cariogenic Bacteria? Role of Complement Activation.

    PubMed

    Jeanneau, C; Rufas, P; Rombouts, C; Giraud, T; Dejou, J; About, I

    2015-12-01

    Complement system activation has been shown to be involved in inflammation and regeneration processes that can be observed within the dental pulp after moderate carious decay. Studies simulating carious injuries in vitro have shown that when human pulp fibroblasts are stimulated by lipoteichoic acid (LTA), they synthetize all complement components. Complement activation leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), which is known for its bacterial lytic effect. This work was designed to find out whether human pulp fibroblasts can kill Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis via complement activation. First, histological staining of carious tooth sections showed that the presence of S. mutans correlated with an intense MAC staining. Next, to simulate bacterial infection in vitro, human pulp fibroblasts were incubated in serum-free medium with LTA. Quantification by an enzymatic assay showed a significant increase of MAC formation on bacteria grown in this LTA-conditioned medium. To determine whether the MAC produced by pulp fibroblasts was functional, bacteria sensitivity to LTA-conditioned medium was evaluated using agar well diffusion assay and succinyl dehydrogenase (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide [MTT]) assay. Both assays showed that S. mutans and S. sanguinis were sensitive to LTA-conditioned medium. Finally, to evaluate whether MAC formation on cariogenic bacteria, by pulp fibroblasts, can be directly induced by the presence of these bacteria, a specific coculture model of human pulp fibroblasts and bacteria was developed. Immunofluorescence revealed an intense MAC labeling on bacteria after direct contact with pulp fibroblasts. The observed MAC formation and its lethal effects were significantly reduced when CD59, an inhibitor of MAC formation, was added. Our findings demonstrate that the MAC produced by LTA-stimulated pulp fibroblasts is functional and can kill S. mutans and S. sanguinis. Taken together, these data clearly highlight the function of pulp fibroblasts in destroying cariogenic bacteria. PMID:26464397

  10. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  11. Activation of AMPK enhances neutrophil chemotaxis and bacterial killing.

    PubMed

    Park, Dae Won; Jiang, Shaoning; Tadie, Jean-Marc; Stigler, William S; Gao, Yong; Deshane, Jessy; Abraham, Edward; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W

    2013-01-01

    An inability of neutrophils to eliminate invading microorganisms is frequently associated with severe infection and may contribute to the high mortality rates associated with sepsis. In the present studies, we examined whether metformin and other 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators affect neutrophil motility, phagocytosis and bacterial killing. We found that activation of AMPK enhanced neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro and in vivo, and also counteracted the inhibition of chemotaxis induced by exposure of neutrophils to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In contrast, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of AMPK?1 or blockade of AMPK activation through treatment of neutrophils with the AMPK inhibitor compound C diminished neutrophil chemotaxis. In addition to their effects on chemotaxis, treatment of neutrophils with metformin or aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) improved phagocytosis and bacterial killing, including more efficient eradication of bacteria in a mouse model of peritonitis-induced sepsis. Immunocytochemistry showed that, in contrast to LPS, metformin or AICAR induced robust actin polymerization and distinct formation of neutrophil leading edges. Although LPS diminished AMPK phosphorylation, metformin or AICAR was able to partially decrease the effects of LPS/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) engagement on downstream signaling events, particularly LPS-induced I?B? degradation. The I?B kinase (IKK) inhibitor PS-1145 diminished I?B? degradation and also prevented LPS-induced inhibition of chemotaxis. These results suggest that AMPK activation with clinically approved agents, such as metformin, may facilitate bacterial eradication in sepsis and other inflammatory conditions associated with inhibition of neutrophil activation and chemotaxis. PMID:24091934

  12. Activation of AMPK Enhances Neutrophil Chemotaxis and Bacterial Killing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dae Won; Jiang, Shaoning; Tadie, Jean-Marc; Stigler, William S; Gao, Yong; Deshane, Jessy; Abraham, Edward; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W

    2013-01-01

    An inability of neutrophils to eliminate invading microorganisms is frequently associated with severe infection and may contribute to the high mortality rates associated with sepsis. In the present studies, we examined whether metformin and other 5? adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators affect neutrophil motility, phagocytosis and bacterial killing. We found that activation of AMPK enhanced neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro and in vivo, and also counteracted the inhibition of chemotaxis induced by exposure of neutrophils to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In contrast, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of AMPK?1 or blockade of AMPK activation through treatment of neutrophils with the AMPK inhibitor compound C diminished neutrophil chemotaxis. In addition to their effects on chemotaxis, treatment of neutrophils with metformin or aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) improved phagocytosis and bacterial killing, including more efficient eradication of bacteria in a mouse model of peritonitis-induced sepsis. Immunocytochemistry showed that, in contrast to LPS, metformin or AICAR induced robust actin polymerization and distinct formation of neutrophil leading edges. Although LPS diminished AMPK phosphorylation, metformin or AICAR was able to partially decrease the effects of LPS/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) engagement on downstream signaling events, particularly LPS-induced I?B? degradation. The I?B kinase (IKK) inhibitor PS-1145 diminished I?B? degradation and also prevented LPS-induced inhibition of chemotaxis. These results suggest that AMPK activation with clinically approved agents, such as metformin, may facilitate bacterial eradication in sepsis and other inflammatory conditions associated with inhibition of neutrophil activation and chemotaxis. PMID:24091934

  13. Inactivated- or killed-virus HIV/AIDS vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Haynes W

    2005-06-01

    Inactivated or "killed" virus (KV) is a "classical" approach that has produced safe and effective human and veterinary vaccines but has received relatively little attention in the effort to develop an HIV/AIDS vaccine. Initially, KV and rgp120 subunit vaccines were the two most obvious approaches but, unfortunately, rgp120 has not been efficacious and the KV approach has been limited by a variety of scientific, technical, and sociological factors. For example, when responses to cellular antigens, present on SIV grown in human cells, proved to be largely responsible for efficacy, the KV approach was widely discounted. Similarly, when lab-adapted HIV-1 appeared to lose envelope glycoprotein during preparation (not the case for primary isolates), this was viewed as a fundamental barrier to the KV concept. Also, a preference for "safer", genetically-engineered vaccines, and emphasis on cellular immunity, have left KV low on the priority list for funding agencies and investigators. The recent suggestion that "native" trimeric gp120 displays conserved conformational neutralization epitopes, along with the failure of rgp120, and difficulties in raising strong cellular responses with DNA or vectored vaccines, has restored some interest in the KV concept. In the past 15 years, several groups have initiated pre-clinical development of KV candidates for SIV or HIV and promising, albeit limited, information has been produced. In this chapter we discuss the rationale (including pros and cons) for producing and testing killed-HIV vaccines, the prospects for success, the nature and scope of research needed to test the KV concept, what has been learned to date, and what remains undone. PMID:15975019

  14. First integrals of motion in a gauge covariant framework, Killing-Maxwell system and quantum anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Visinescu, M.

    2012-10-15

    Hidden symmetries in a covariant Hamiltonian framework are investigated. The special role of the Stackel-Killing and Killing-Yano tensors is pointed out. The covariant phase-space is extended to include external gauge fields and scalar potentials. We investigate the possibility for a higher-order symmetry to survive when the electromagnetic interactions are taken into account. Aconcrete realization of this possibility is given by the Killing-Maxwell system. The classical conserved quantities do not generally transfer to the quantized systems producing quantum gravitational anomalies. As a rule the conformal extension of the Killing vectors and tensors does not produce symmetry operators for the Klein-Gordon operator.

  15. Heavy vehicle driver fatalities: learning's from fatal road crash investigations in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Lisa; Lyndal, Bugeja; Elias, Ibrahim Joseph

    2009-05-01

    This study describes the nature and extent of fatal heavy vehicle driver crashes in Victoria between 1999 and 2007 and the factors associated with the crash. A descriptive study was conducted comprising the population of heavy vehicle drivers killed in a road transport crash while operating a vehicle of > or =4.5 tonne Gross Vehicle Mass (GVM) for the purposes of work. Information about the nature of crash, environmental, driver, vehicle and occupational factors were collected from the coroner's death investigation file. Of the 91 deaths identified 61 were eligible for review. All 61 cases were male, solo drivers with a mean age of 44.7 years. Most vehicles were articulated in configuration. One-third of crash scenarios involved a single vehicle leaving the roadway on a straight road. One in every six fatally injured drivers was detected with the presence of stimulants or cannabis. Twenty-two drivers were travelling at excessive or inappropriate speeds for the circumstances. Seatbelt wearing status was documented for only 25 of 61 drivers. This study is the first to comprehensively examine a population of fatally injured heavy vehicle drivers using coroner's investigation files and these findings are consistent with previous, less detailed, Australian research. Information about potential associations between occupational factors and crash risk was limited. Improving driver safety requires incorporation of occupational factors into a standardised approach to heavy vehicle crash investigations. PMID:19393807

  16. Aerodynamic Design of Road Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    Guidebook discusses design of road vehicles to reduce aerodynamic drag. Book presents strategy for integrating aerodynamic design into vehicle design. Book written for readers lacking experience in aerodynamics.

  17. Methane emissions from vehicles.

    PubMed

    Nam, E K; Jensen, T E; Wallington, T J

    2004-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas emitted by vehicles. We report results of a laboratory study of methane emissions using a standard driving cycle for 30 different cars and trucks (1995-1999 model years) from four different manufacturers. We recommend the use of an average emission factor for the U.S. on-road vehicle fleet of (g of CH/g of CO2) = (15 +/- 4) x 10(-5) and estimate that the global vehicle fleet emits 0.45 +/- 0.12 Tg of CH4 yr(-1) (0.34 +/- 0.09 Tg of C yr(-1)), which represents < 0.2% of anthropogenic CH4 emissions. This estimate includes the effects of vehicle aging, cold start, and hot running emissions. The contribution of CH4 emissions from vehicles to radiative forcing of climate change is 0.3-0.4% of that of CO2 emissions from vehicles. The environmental impact of CH4 emissions from vehicles is negligible and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. PMID:15112800

  18. Mars manned transportation vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Faymon, K.A.

    1987-07-01

    A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

  19. Mars manned transportation vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Faymon, Karl A.

    1987-01-01

    A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

  20. The culpability of drivers killed in New Zealand road crashes and their use of alcohol and other drugs.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Helen; Moar, Rosemary; Pirie, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    Over a period of five years, blood samples were taken from 1046 drivers killed as a result of a motor vehicle crash on New Zealand roads. These were analysed for the presence of alcohol and a range of both illicit drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs. Driver culpability was determined for all crashes. The control group of drug- and alcohol-free drivers comprised 52.2% of the study population. Drivers positive for psychoactive drugs were more likely to be culpable (odds ratio (OR) 3.5, confidence interval (CI) 95% 2.4-5.2) than the control group. Driver culpability exhibited the expected positive association with alcohol use (OR 13.7, 95% CI 4.3-44) and with combined alcohol and cannabis use (OR 6.9, 95% CI 3.0-16). There was only a weak positive association between cannabis use (with no other drug) and culpability (OR 1.3, CI 95% 0.8-2.3). Furthermore, the OR for drivers with blood tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations greater than 5 ng/mL was lower (OR 1.0, CI 95% 0.4-2.4) than drivers with blood THC concentrations less than 2 ng/mL (OR 3.1, CI 95% 0.9-10). This is inconsistent with results reported by other studies where a significant increase in crash risk was found with blood THC levels greater than 5 ng/mL. In this study, there were very few drivers who had used a single drug, other than cannabis or alcohol. Therefore, from this study, it is not possible to comment on any relationship between opioid, stimulant or sedative drug use and an increased risk of being killed in a crash for the drivers using these drugs. The results from a multivariate analysis indicate that driver gender, age group and licence status, (P=0.022, P=0.016, P=0.026, respectively), the type of vehicle being driven (P=0.013), the number of vehicles in the crash (P<0.001), the blood alcohol concentration of the driver (P<0.001) and the use of any drug other than alcohol and cannabis (P=0.044), are all independently associated with culpability. PMID:24636874

  1. Assured crew return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerimele, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Peterson, Wayne L. (Inventor); Zupp, George A., Jr. (Inventor); Stagnaro, Michael J. (Inventor); Ross, Brian P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A return vehicle is disclosed for use in returning a crew to Earth from low earth orbit in a safe and relatively cost effective manner. The return vehicle comprises a cylindrically-shaped crew compartment attached to the large diameter of a conical heat shield having a spherically rounded nose. On-board inertial navigation and cold gas control systems are used together with a de-orbit propulsion system to effect a landing near a preferred site on the surface of the Earth. State vectors and attitude data are loaded from the attached orbiting craft just prior to separation of the return vehicle.

  2. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  3. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  4. Tumor-selective gene transduction and cell killing with an oncotropic autonomous parvovirus-based vector.

    PubMed

    Dupont, F; Avalosse, B; Karim, A; Mine, N; Bosseler, M; Maron, A; Van den Broeke, A V; Ghanem, G E; Burny, A; Zeicher, M

    2000-05-01

    A recombinant MVMp of the fibrotropic strain of minute virus of mice (MVMp) expressing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene was used to infect a series of biologically relevant cultured cells, normal or tumor-derived, including normal melanocytes versus melanoma cells, normal mammary epithelial cells versus breast adenocarcinoma cells, and normal neurons or astrocytes versus glioma cells. As a reference cell system we used normal human fibroblasts versus the SV40-transformed fibroblast cell line NB324K. After infection, we observed good expression of the reporter gene in the different tumor cell types, but only poor expression if any in the corresponding normal cells. We also constructed a recombinant MVMp expressing the green fluorescent protein reporter gene and assessed by flow cytometry the efficiency of gene transduction into the different target cells. At a multiplicity of infection of 30, we observed substantial transduction of the gene into most of the tumor cell types tested, but only marginal transduction into normal cells under the same experimental conditions. Finally, we demonstrated that a recombinant MVMp expressing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene can, in vitro, cause efficient killing of most tumor cell types in the presence of ganciclovir, whilst affecting normal proliferating cells only marginally if at all. However, in the same experimental condition, breast tumor cells appeared to be resistant to GCV-mediated cytotoxicity, possibly because these cells are not susceptible to the bystander effect. Our data suggest that MVMp-based vectors could prove useful as selective vehicles for anticancer gene therapy, particularly for in vivo delivery of cytotoxic effector genes into tumor cells. PMID:10822306

  5. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J.H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-01-01

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

  6. The Kill Date as a Management Tool for Cover Cropping Success

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Ayuso, Mara; Gabriel, Jos Luis; Quemada, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Integrating cover crops (CC) in rotations provides multiple ecological services, but it must be ensured that management does not increase pre-emptive competition with the subsequent crop. This experiment was conducted to study the effect of kill date on: (i) CC growth and N content; (ii) the chemical composition of residues; (iii) soil inorganic N and potentially mineralizable N; and (iv) soil water content. Treatments were fallow and a CC mixture of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and vetch (Vicia sativa L.) sown in October and killed on two different dates in spring. Above-ground biomass and chemical composition of CC were determined at harvest, and ground cover was monitored based on digital image analysis. Soil mineral N was determined before sowing and after killing the CC, and potentially mineralizable N was measured by aerobic incubation at the end of the experiment. Soil water content was monitored daily to a depth of 1.1 m using capacitance sensors. Under the present conditions of high N availability, delaying kill date increased barley above-ground biomass and N uptake from deep soil layers; little differences were observed in vetch. Postponing kill date increased the C/N ratio and the fiber content of plant residues. Ground cover reached >80% by the first kill date (?1250C days). Kill date was a means to control soil inorganic N by balancing the N retained in the residue and soil, and showed promise for mitigating N losses. The early kill date decreased the risk of water and N pre-emptive competition by reducing soil depletion, preserving rain harvested between kill dates and allowing more time for N release in spring. The soil potentially mineralizable N was enhanced by the CC and kill date delay. Therefore kill date is a crucial management variable for maximizing the CC benefits in agricultural systems. PMID:25296333

  7. Effects of Vegetation Structure on the Location of Lion Kill Sites in African Thicket.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew B; Tambling, Craig J; Kerley, Graham I H; Asner, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    Predator-prey relationships are integral to ecosystem stability and functioning. These relationships are, however, difficult to maintain in protected areas where large predators are increasingly being reintroduced and confined. Where predators make kills has a profound influence on their role in ecosystems, but the relative importance of environmental variables in determining kill sites, and how these might vary across ecosystems is poorly known. We investigated kill sites for lions in South Africa's thicket biome, testing the importance of vegetation structure for kill site locations compared to other environmental variables. Kill sites were located over four years using GPS telemetry and compared to non-kill sites that had been occupied by lions, as well as to random sites within lion ranges. Measurements of 3D vegetation structure obtained from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) were used to calculate the visible area (viewshed) around each site and, along with wind and moonlight data, used to compare kill sites between lion sexes, prey species and prey sexes. Viewshed area was the most important predictor of kill sites (sites in dense vegetation were twice as likely to be kill sites compared to open areas), followed by wind speed and, less so, moonlight. Kill sites for different prey species varied with vegetation structure, and male prey were killed when wind speeds were higher compared to female prey of the same species. Our results demonstrate that vegetation structure is an important component of predator-prey interactions, with varying effects across ecosystems. Such differences require consideration in terms of the ecological roles performed by predators, and in predator and prey conservation. PMID:26910832

  8. Effects of Vegetation Structure on the Location of Lion Kill Sites in African Thicket

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Andrew B.; Tambling, Craig J.; Kerley, Graham I. H.; Asner, Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    Predator-prey relationships are integral to ecosystem stability and functioning. These relationships are, however, difficult to maintain in protected areas where large predators are increasingly being reintroduced and confined. Where predators make kills has a profound influence on their role in ecosystems, but the relative importance of environmental variables in determining kill sites, and how these might vary across ecosystems is poorly known. We investigated kill sites for lions in South Africa’s thicket biome, testing the importance of vegetation structure for kill site locations compared to other environmental variables. Kill sites were located over four years using GPS telemetry and compared to non-kill sites that had been occupied by lions, as well as to random sites within lion ranges. Measurements of 3D vegetation structure obtained from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) were used to calculate the visible area (viewshed) around each site and, along with wind and moonlight data, used to compare kill sites between lion sexes, prey species and prey sexes. Viewshed area was the most important predictor of kill sites (sites in dense vegetation were twice as likely to be kill sites compared to open areas), followed by wind speed and, less so, moonlight. Kill sites for different prey species varied with vegetation structure, and male prey were killed when wind speeds were higher compared to female prey of the same species. Our results demonstrate that vegetation structure is an important component of predator-prey interactions, with varying effects across ecosystems. Such differences require consideration in terms of the ecological roles performed by predators, and in predator and prey conservation. PMID:26910832

  9. The kill date as a management tool for cover cropping success.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Ayuso, Mara; Gabriel, Jos Luis; Quemada, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Integrating cover crops (CC) in rotations provides multiple ecological services, but it must be ensured that management does not increase pre-emptive competition with the subsequent crop. This experiment was conducted to study the effect of kill date on: (i) CC growth and N content; (ii) the chemical composition of residues; (iii) soil inorganic N and potentially mineralizable N; and (iv) soil water content. Treatments were fallow and a CC mixture of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and vetch (Vicia sativa L.) sown in October and killed on two different dates in spring. Above-ground biomass and chemical composition of CC were determined at harvest, and ground cover was monitored based on digital image analysis. Soil mineral N was determined before sowing and after killing the CC, and potentially mineralizable N was measured by aerobic incubation at the end of the experiment. Soil water content was monitored daily to a depth of 1.1 m using capacitance sensors. Under the present conditions of high N availability, delaying kill date increased barley above-ground biomass and N uptake from deep soil layers; little differences were observed in vetch. Postponing kill date increased the C/N ratio and the fiber content of plant residues. Ground cover reached >80% by the first kill date (?1250C days). Kill date was a means to control soil inorganic N by balancing the N retained in the residue and soil, and showed promise for mitigating N losses. The early kill date decreased the risk of water and N pre-emptive competition by reducing soil depletion, preserving rain harvested between kill dates and allowing more time for N release in spring. The soil potentially mineralizable N was enhanced by the CC and kill date delay. Therefore kill date is a crucial management variable for maximizing the CC benefits in agricultural systems. PMID:25296333

  10. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J. H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-09-01

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

  11. Kinetics and Mechanism of Bacterial Disinfection by Chlorine Dioxide1

    PubMed Central

    Benarde, Melvin A.; Snow, W. Brewster; Olivieri, Vincent P.; Davidson, Burton

    1967-01-01

    Survival data are presented for a fecal strain of Escherichia coli exposed to three concentrations of chlorine dioxide at four temperatures. Chick's first-order reaction equation is generalized to a pseudo nth-order model. Nonlinear least squares curve-fitting of the survival data to the nth order model was performed on an analogue computer. The data were observed to follow fractional order kinetics with respect to survival concentration, with an apparent activation energy of 12,000 cal/mole. Initial experiments support the thesis that the mechanism of chlorine dioxide kill occurs via disruption of protein synthesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:5339839

  12. Oxygen uptake kinetics.

    PubMed

    Poole, David C; Jones, Andrew M

    2012-04-01

    Muscular exercise requires transitions to and from metabolic rates often exceeding an order of magnitude above resting and places prodigious demands on the oxidative machinery and O2-transport pathway. The science of kinetics seeks to characterize the dynamic profiles of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and muscular systems and their integration to resolve the essential control mechanisms of muscle energetics and oxidative function: a goal not feasible using the steady-state response. Essential features of the O2 uptake (VO2) kinetics response are highly conserved across the animal kingdom. For a given metabolic demand, fast VO2 kinetics mandates a smaller O2 deficit, less substrate-level phosphorylation and high exercise tolerance. By the same token, slow VO2 kinetics incurs a high O2 deficit, presents a greater challenge to homeostasis and presages poor exercise tolerance. Compelling evidence supports that, in healthy individuals walking, running, or cycling upright, VO2 kinetics control resides within the exercising muscle(s) and is therefore not dependent upon, or limited by, upstream O2-transport systems. However, disease, aging, and other imposed constraints may redistribute VO2 kinetics control more proximally within the O2-transport system. Greater understanding of VO2 kinetics control and, in particular, its relation to the plasticity of the O2-transport/utilization system is considered important for improving the human condition, not just in athletic populations, but crucially for patients suffering from pathologically slowed VO2 kinetics as well as the burgeoning elderly population. PMID:23798293

  13. Vehicle Technologies Program Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-06-19

    The Vehicle Technologies Program takes a systematic approach to Program implementation. Elements of this approach include the evaluation of new technologies, competitive selection of projects and partners, review of Program and project improvement, project tracking, and portfolio management and adjustment.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  15. Motor Vehicle Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  16. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parametersmore » of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.« less

  17. Hybrid vehicle control

    SciTech Connect

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  18. Compact Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Ohm, Timothy R.

    1993-01-01

    Radio-controlled microrover features light weight and agility. Miniature robotic vehicle, called Go-For, implements new fork-wheeled mobility concept to traverse extremely rough terrain. Weighs 4 kg and is 0.4 m long, climbs over obstacles as large as 60 percent of its length. Mobility concept applied to much larger vehicles. Demonstrates such applications as exploration of planetary surfaces, military surveillance, and assessing hazardous situations. Video camera on vehicle sends images to control station, where human supervisor chooses sequence of paths to traverse to reach locations of interest. For planetary exploration, spectrometer and seisometer on vehicle sends scientific data to control station, and onboard tools collect soil and rock samples. Terrestrial version equipped similarly to take samples in chemically and/or biologically contaminated areas.

  19. Space Vehicle Valve System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

  20. New Mars vehicle concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1993-01-01

    The paper briefly reviews the evolution of the Mars vehicle design concepts from 1952 to 1990, and the currently understood requirements, constraints, and options for manned Mars missions in the early decades of the 21st century. The most up-to-date integrated Mars vehicle concepts for crew-carrying transfer and excursion vehicles are presented together with the Mars descent-ascent mission phases. Particular attention is given to a reusable transfer ship, which is a modular vehicle launched to earth orbit on six 185 t-class boosters and assembled there robotically; it uses dual nuclear-thermal rocket engines and liquid hydrogen propellant. The lander concept is capable of supporting many kinds of surface missions anywhere on Mars.

  1. Multivalent nanobodies targeting death receptor 5 elicit superior tumor cell killing through efficient caspase induction

    PubMed Central

    Huet, Heather A; Growney, Joseph D; Johnson, Jennifer A; Li, Jing; Bilic, Sanela; Ostrom, Lance; Zafari, Mohammad; Kowal, Colleen; Yang, Guizhi; Royo, Axelle; Jensen, Michael; Dombrecht, Bruno; Meerschaert, Kris RA; Kolkman, Joost A; Cromie, Karen D; Mosher, Rebecca; Gao, Hui; Schuller, Alwin; Isaacs, Randi; Sellers, William R; Ettenberg, Seth A

    2014-01-01

    Multiple therapeutic agonists of death receptor 5 (DR5) have been developed and are under clinical evaluation. Although these agonists demonstrate significant anti-tumor activity in preclinical models, the clinical efficacy in human cancer patients has been notably disappointing. One possible explanation might be that the current classes of therapeutic molecules are not sufficiently potent to elicit significant response in patients, particularly for dimeric antibody agonists that require secondary cross-linking via Fcγ receptors expressed on immune cells to achieve optimal clustering of DR5. To overcome this limitation, a novel multivalent Nanobody approach was taken with the goal of generating a significantly more potent DR5 agonist. In the present study, we show that trivalent DR5 targeting Nanobodies mimic the activity of natural ligand, and furthermore, increasing the valency of domains to tetramer and pentamer markedly increased potency of cell killing on tumor cells, with pentamers being more potent than tetramers in vitro. Increased potency was attributed to faster kinetics of death-inducing signaling complex assembly and caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. In vivo, multivalent Nanobody molecules elicited superior anti-tumor activity compared to a conventional DR5 agonist antibody, including the ability to induce tumor regression in an insensitive patient-derived primary pancreatic tumor model. Furthermore, complete responses to Nanobody treatment were obtained in up to 50% of patient-derived primary pancreatic and colon tumor models, suggesting that multivalent DR5 Nanobodies may represent a significant new therapeutic modality for targeting death receptor signaling. PMID:25484045

  2. Aerospace vehicle synthesis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A modified version of the Aerospace Vehicle Synthesis Program (VSP) to simulate a space shuttle on the computer is presented. The effects of various changes such as payload weight, and orbital velocity can be determined along with minimum costs in vehicle design. The program logic, and weight estimating equations are discussed, and an example case of a solid propellant boosted, drop tank orbiter is included to indicate the type of results produced by the VSP.

  3. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  4. Electric motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dow, D.

    1980-11-11

    A lightweight electric battery powered motor vehicle which is divisible into separable front, middle and rear sections is described. The front section includes a pair of steerable road engaging wheels, the middle section includes a seating compartment for two or three persons, and the rear section includes a single road engaging drive wheel driven by an electric motor and support for batteries and controls therefor. The basic supporting structure of the vehicle is served by a double set of longitudinally extending main frame members each preferably of tubular cross-section and extending through the middle section and into the front and rear sections of the vehicle. The front and rear sections of the vehicle include sleeve-like appurtenances which telescopingly fit over the terminal ends of the tubular frame members thereby enabling the front and rear sections to be easily slid off for repairs or replacement. A passenger compartment is supported by the mid-sections of the vehicle's main frame members in such a manner as to yieldingly resist slidable movement of the compartment in the fore and aft direction of the vehicle in the event of receiving a severe bumper shock.

  5. Space robot simulator vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  6. ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS IN AN EXPERIMENTAL TESTING PIPE SYSTEM FOR AN INHIBITOR OF MUSSEL KILL

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-06-04

    A comprehensive series of 16 laboratory experiments demonstrated that the presence of vinyl tubing within a recirculating pipe system was responsible for lowering zebra mussel kill following treatment with the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. All vinyl tubing was replaced in all testing units with silicone tubing, and high mussel kill (>95%) was then obtained.

  7. Potential of lure and kill in long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lure and kill technology has been used for several decades in pest management and eradication of invasive species. In lure and kill, the insect pest attracted by a semiochemical lure is not entrapped at the source of the attractant as in mass trapping, but instead the insect is subjected to a ...

  8. Comparisons of boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) pheromone traps with and without kill strips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, eradication programs typically equip pheromone traps with an insecticide-impregnated kill strip. These strips are intended to kill captured insects, thereby simplifying trap servicing and reducing the loss of weevils from predation and escape. However, the ...

  9. Mothers Who Kill Their Offspring: Testing Evolutionary Hypothesis in a 110-Case Italian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea S.; Fontanesi, Lilybeth

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This research aimed to identify incidents of mothers in Italy killing their own children and to test an adaptive evolutionary hypothesis to explain their occurrence. Methods: 110 cases of mothers killing 123 of their own offspring from 1976 to 2010 were analyzed. Each case was classified using 13 dichotomic variables. Descriptive…

  10. Mothers Who Kill Their Offspring: Testing Evolutionary Hypothesis in a 110-Case Italian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea S.; Fontanesi, Lilybeth

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This research aimed to identify incidents of mothers in Italy killing their own children and to test an adaptive evolutionary hypothesis to explain their occurrence. Methods: 110 cases of mothers killing 123 of their own offspring from 1976 to 2010 were analyzed. Each case was classified using 13 dichotomic variables. Descriptive

  11. 9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. 113.207 Section 113.207 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.207...

  12. Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins Kill Bacteria by Inducing Oxidative, Thiol, and Metal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Des Raj; Rompca, Annemarie; Gaballa, Ahmed; Helmann, John D.; Chan, Jefferson; Chang, Christopher J.; Hozo, Iztok; Gupta, Dipika; Dziarski, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins (PGRPs) are a family of evolutionary conserved bactericidal innate immunity proteins, but the mechanism through which they kill bacteria is unclear. We previously proposed that PGRPs are bactericidal due to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a mechanism of killing that was also postulated, and later refuted, for several bactericidal antibiotics. Here, using whole genome expression arrays, qRT-PCR, and biochemical tests we show that in both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis PGRPs induce a transcriptomic signature characteristic of oxidative stress, as well as correlated biochemical changes. However, induction of ROS was required, but not sufficient for PGRP killing. PGRPs also induced depletion of intracellular thiols and increased cytosolic concentrations of zinc and copper, as evidenced by transcriptome changes and supported by direct measurements. Depletion of thiols and elevated concentrations of metals were also required, but by themselves not sufficient, for bacterial killing. Chemical treatment studies demonstrated that efficient bacterial killing can be recapitulated only by the simultaneous addition of agents leading to production of ROS, depletion of thiols, and elevation of intracellular metal concentrations. These results identify a novel mechanism of bacterial killing by innate immunity proteins, which depends on synergistic effect of oxidative, thiol, and metal stress and differs from bacterial killing by antibiotics. These results offer potential targets for developing new antibacterial agents that would kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:25032698

  13. Interactive effects of Na and K in killing by natural killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichter, L.C.; MacCoubrey, I.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Contact-mediated lysis by human natural killer cells is inhibited by a number of drugs that block the predominant K channel. In this study the authors have further examined the role of the K channel and the interactions between passive K and Na transport in killing. Low external Na-inhibited killing and inhibition were not due to reduced inward current through the Na channels in the target cell. A role for the Na/H antiport is suggested since amiloride inhibited killing in a dose-dependent manner that was competitive with external Na. Depolarizing the killer cell with elevated external K did not inhibit killing. On the contrary, high K{sub 0} reduced the inhibition caused by low Na{sub 0} and by the K-channel blockers quinidine, verapamil, and retinoic acid. Hyperpolarizing the killer cell with low K{sub 0} or valinomycin inhibited killing. Hence, the primary role of the K channels during killing is not to maintain the negative membrane potential. On the contrary, depolarization may promote killing under conditions where killing is submaximal.

  14. The Effect of Vine Kill and Harvest Date on Tuber Respiration Rates and Tuber Sugars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russet Burbank potatoes were grown using standard procedures for planting, fertilization, irrigation, and pest management. Vine kill and harvest occurred on three staggered dates that spanned approximately six weeks. Vines were either killed chemically or left untreated and ubers were harvested from...

  15. Effect of staphylococcal iron content on the killing of Staphylococcus aureus by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Repine, J E; Fox, R B; Berger, E M; Harada, R N

    1981-01-01

    Preincubation of Staphylococcus aureus 502A in broth with increasing concentrations of ferrous sulfate progressively increased their iron content, markedly increased their susceptibility to killing by hydrogen peroxide, and did not alter their susceptibility to killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. PMID:7216492

  16. Humane killing of fishes for scientific research: a comparison of two methods.

    PubMed

    Blessing, J J; Marshall, J C; Balcombe, S R

    2010-06-01

    Two killing methods were compared on the clupeid, bony bream Nematolosa erebi and it was found that ice-slurry immersion was more humane than benzocaine overdose. The use of ice-slurry for killing N. erebi should be accepted as a standard humane method and considered similarly for other warm-water species. PMID:20557609

  17. 9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.207 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western,...

  18. 9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.207 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western,...

  19. 9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.207 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western,...

  20. 9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.207 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western,...

  1. Laboratory and field evaluations for efficacy of a fast-killing baculovirus isolate from Spodoptera frugiperda

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three biopesticide parameters were evaluated for a fast-killing isolate (3AP2) Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) and a wild-type isolate (Sf3) of the same baculovirus. Both isolates were evaluated for virus production using in vivo methods, for speed of kill based on bioas...

  2. Design Criteria for Low Risk Re-Entry Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, R.; Pezzella, G.

    2005-02-01

    The paper shows how a sharp vehicle with low wing loading, is able to follow re-entry trajectories with low thermal risks by using Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) to thermally protect the vehicle front edges. These reusable materials can withstand the global radiative equilibrium temperatures that are experienced during reentry characterized by a longer and a more gradual conversion of the kinetic and potential energy of the vehicle into thermal energy. A number of aerothermodynamic problems are addressed to assess the feasibility of the vehicle design and of the thermal protection of the payload. In particular, the boundary layer thermal protection concept is illustrated to show how a UHTC massive tip edges (fuselage and wings) are able to protect also the remaining vehicle structure made of conventional material, promoting a revolutionary approach to the Thermal Protection System (TPS) configuration for hypersonic vehicle flying at small angle of attack. CFD results and engineering formulations are adopted for the computation of the aerodynamic coefficients and heat fluxes. The analysis identifies the design criteria for a conventional looking vehicle for a crew return from LEO (e.g. from the International Space Station).

  3. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  4. Potential role for scavenger receptors of human monocytes in the killing of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X.; Remold, H. G.; Caulfield, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Human low-density lipoproteins (LDL) bind specifically and saturably to the surface of the trematode parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, in vitro. Here we have tested whether human monocytes process the bound LDL. Monocytes obtained by leukapheresis generate H2O2, kill schistosomula, and were seen here endocytosing fluorescently labeled human LDL that was bound to the surface of the parasites. Compounds known to inhibit uptake of LDL via the scavenger receptor, namely, acetylated LDL, polyinosinic acid, dextran sulfate, fucoidan, and polyvinyl sulfate, inhibited both endocytosis of LDL and cell-mediated killing. Non-functional analogs of these inhibitors, namely, polycytidylic acid and dextran, did not inhibit either endocytosis or killing. Monocytes obtained from whole blood after venipuncture neither killed the parasite nor endocytosed LDL from the worm surface. Thus, human monocyte killing of schistosomula may involve removal of LDL from the parasite surface via scavenger receptors. Images Figure 1 PMID:8456931

  5. Complete Classification of Conformal Killing Symmetries of Plane-Symmetric Static Spacetimes in Teleparallel Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ahmad T.; Rahaman, F.; Mallick, A.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the conformal, homothetic and Killing vectors in the context of teleparallel theory of gravitation for plane-symmetric static spacetimes. We have solved completely the non-linear coupled teleparallel conformal Killing equations. This yields the general form of teleparallel conformal vectors along with the conformal factor for all possible cases of metric functions. We have found four solutions which are divided into one Killing symmetries and three conformal Killing symmetries. One of these teleparalel conformal vectors depends on x only and other is a function of all spacetime coordinates. The three conformal Killing symmetries contain three proper homothetic symmetries where the conformal factor is an arbitrary non-zero constant.

  6. Effect of water temperature on bacterial killing in laundry.

    PubMed

    Smith, J A; Neil, K R; Davidson, C G; Davidson, R W

    1987-05-01

    The increasing cost of energy directed our attention to testing the feasibility of low temperature washing. Hospital laundries use formulated chemicals at high temperature wash waters of 66 degrees C. Wash water effluents and fabric bacterial counts of heavily soiled linen were correlated with alkalinity and temperature measurements to investigate the bacterial killing action of hot and cold wash formulas. Terry towels were found to be contaminated with 10(7) to 10(9) organisms per 100 cm2 at the beginning of the washing process. The most common gram-negative rods found were Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Serratia species. Staphylococci were the predominant gram-positives. Both cold and hot water washing including the bleach cycle reduced bacterial counts in fabric by 3 log10. Similarly wash water cfu/mL mL declined 3 to 4 log10. A further 0.5 to 1.0 log10 reduction was effected in the 93.3 degrees C drying cycle. Low temperature wash formulas were comparable to high temperature laundry with respect to bacterial counts and species. Cold water formulas at 31.1 degrees C offer an alternative method to reduce energy consumption and maintain bacteriological and esthetic linen quality. PMID:3647942

  7. Epirubicin-adsorbed nanodiamonds kill chemoresistant hepatic cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Low, Xinyi Casuarine; Hou, Weixin; Abdullah, Lissa Nurrul; Toh, Tan Boon; Mohd Abdul Rashid, Masturah; Ho, Dean; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2014-12-23

    Chemoresistance is a primary cause of treatment failure in cancer and a common property of tumor-initiating cancer stem cells. Overcoming mechanisms of chemoresistance, particularly in cancer stem cells, can markedly enhance cancer therapy and prevent recurrence and metastasis. This study demonstrates that the delivery of Epirubicin by nanodiamonds is a highly effective nanomedicine-based approach to overcoming chemoresistance in hepatic cancer stem cells. The potent physical adsorption of Epirubicin to nanodiamonds creates a rapidly synthesized and stable nanodiamond-drug complex that promotes endocytic uptake and enhanced tumor cell retention. These attributes mediate the effective killing of both cancer stem cells and noncancer stem cells in vitro and in vivo. Enhanced treatment of both tumor cell populations results in an improved impairment of secondary tumor formation in vivo compared with treatment by unmodified chemotherapeutics. On the basis of these results, nanodiamond-mediated drug delivery may serve as a powerful method for overcoming chemoresistance in cancer stem cells and markedly improving overall treatment against hepatic cancers. PMID:25437772

  8. Low Temperature Plasma Kills SCaBER Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barekzi, Nazir; van Way, Lucas; Laroussi, Mounir

    2013-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare type of bladder cancer that forms as a result of chronic irritation of the epithelial lining of the bladder. The cell line used in this study is SCaBER (ATCC® HTB-3™) derived from squamous cell carcinoma of the human urinary bladder. Current treatments of bladder cancer include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, the cost of these treatments, the potential toxicity of the chemotherapeutic agents and the systemic side-effects warrant an alternative to current cancer treatment. This paper represents preliminary studies to determine the effects of biologically tolerant plasma (BTP) on a cell line of human bladder cancer cells. Previous work by our group using the plasma pencil revealed the efficacy of BTP on leukemia cells suspended in solution. Based on these earlier findings we hypothesized that the plasma exposure would elicit a similar programmed cell death in the SCaBER cells. Trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays revealed the cell killing after exposure to BTP. Our study indicates that low temperature plasma generated by ionizing helium gas and the reactive species may be a suitable and safe alternative for cancer therapy.

  9. Nanotechnology for the detection and kill of circulating tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Yuan, Zhou

    2014-09-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represent a surrogate biomarker of hematogenous metastases and thus could be considered as a `liquid biopsy' which reveals metastasis in action. But it is absolutely a challenge to detect CTCs due to their extreme rarity. At present, the most common principle is to take advantage of the epithelial surface markers of CTCs which attach to a specific antibody. Antibody-magnetic nanobeads combine with the epithelial surface markers, and then the compound is processed by washing, separation, and detection. However, a proportion of CTC antigen expressions are down-regulated or lost in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus, this part of CTCs cannot be detected by classical detection methods such as CellSearch. To resolve this problem, some multiple-marker CTC detections have been developed rapidly. Additionally, nanotechnology is a promising approach to kill CTCs with high efficiency. Implantable nanotubes coated with apoptosis-promoting molecules improve the disease-free survival and overall survival. The review introduces some novel CTC detection techniques and therapeutic methods by virtue of nanotechnology to provide a better knowledge of the progress about CTC study.

  10. Nanotechnology for the detection and kill of circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Yuan, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represent a surrogate biomarker of hematogenous metastases and thus could be considered as a 'liquid biopsy' which reveals metastasis in action. But it is absolutely a challenge to detect CTCs due to their extreme rarity. At present, the most common principle is to take advantage of the epithelial surface markers of CTCs which attach to a specific antibody. Antibody-magnetic nanobeads combine with the epithelial surface markers, and then the compound is processed by washing, separation, and detection. However, a proportion of CTC antigen expressions are down-regulated or lost in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus, this part of CTCs cannot be detected by classical detection methods such as CellSearch. To resolve this problem, some multiple-marker CTC detections have been developed rapidly. Additionally, nanotechnology is a promising approach to kill CTCs with high efficiency. Implantable nanotubes coated with apoptosis-promoting molecules improve the disease-free survival and overall survival. The review introduces some novel CTC detection techniques and therapeutic methods by virtue of nanotechnology to provide a better knowledge of the progress about CTC study. PMID:25258614

  11. Kill-painting of hypoxic tumours in charged particle therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tinganelli, Walter; Durante, Marco; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Krämer, Michael; Maier, Andreas; Kraft-Weyrather, Wilma; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Friedrich, Thomas; Scifoni, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Solid tumours often present regions with severe oxygen deprivation (hypoxia), which are resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Increased radiosensitivity as a function of the oxygen concentration is well described for X-rays. It has also been demonstrated that radioresistance in anoxia is reduced using high-LET radiation rather than conventional X-rays. However, the dependence of the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) on radiation quality in the regions of intermediate oxygen concentrations, those normally found in tumours, had never been measured and biophysical models were based on extrapolations. Here we present a complete survival dataset of mammalian cells exposed to different ions in oxygen concentration ranging from normoxia (21%) to anoxia (0%). The data were used to generate a model of the dependence of the OER on oxygen concentration and particle energy. The model was implemented in the ion beam treatment planning system to prescribe uniform cell killing across volumes with heterogeneous radiosensitivity. The adaptive treatment plans have been validated in two different accelerator facilities, using a biological phantom where cells can be irradiated simultaneously at three different oxygen concentrations. We thus realized a hypoxia-adapted treatment plan, which will be used for painting by voxel of hypoxic tumours visualized by functional imaging. PMID:26596243

  12. Social amoebae trap and kill bacteria by casting DNA nets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Zhuchenko, Olga; Kuspa, Adam; Soldati, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular traps (ETs) from neutrophils are reticulated nets of DNA decorated with anti-microbial granules, and are capable of trapping and killing extracellular pathogens. Various phagocytes of mammals and invertebrates produce ETs, however, the evolutionary history of this DNA-based host defence strategy is unclear. Here we report that Sentinel (S) cells of the multicellular slug stage of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum produce ETs upon stimulation with bacteria or lipopolysaccharide in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. The production of ETs by S cells requires a Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing protein TirA and reactive oxygen species-generating NADPH oxidases. Disruption of these genes results in decreased clearance of bacterial infections. Our results demonstrate that D. discoideum is a powerful model organism to study the evolution and conservation of mechanisms of cell-intrinsic immunity, and suggest that the origin of DNA-based ETs as an innate immune defence predates the emergence of metazoans. PMID:26927887

  13. Kill-painting of hypoxic tumours in charged particle therapy.

    PubMed

    Tinganelli, Walter; Durante, Marco; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Krämer, Michael; Maier, Andreas; Kraft-Weyrather, Wilma; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Friedrich, Thomas; Scifoni, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Solid tumours often present regions with severe oxygen deprivation (hypoxia), which are resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Increased radiosensitivity as a function of the oxygen concentration is well described for X-rays. It has also been demonstrated that radioresistance in anoxia is reduced using high-LET radiation rather than conventional X-rays. However, the dependence of the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) on radiation quality in the regions of intermediate oxygen concentrations, those normally found in tumours, had never been measured and biophysical models were based on extrapolations. Here we present a complete survival dataset of mammalian cells exposed to different ions in oxygen concentration ranging from normoxia (21%) to anoxia (0%). The data were used to generate a model of the dependence of the OER on oxygen concentration and particle energy. The model was implemented in the ion beam treatment planning system to prescribe uniform cell killing across volumes with heterogeneous radiosensitivity. The adaptive treatment plans have been validated in two different accelerator facilities, using a biological phantom where cells can be irradiated simultaneously at three different oxygen concentrations. We thus realized a hypoxia-adapted treatment plan, which will be used for painting by voxel of hypoxic tumours visualized by functional imaging. PMID:26596243

  14. Infective endocarditis and phlebotomies may have killed mozart.

    PubMed

    Lee, Simon Jong-Koo

    2010-12-01

    Thirty-five year-old Amadeus Mozart died in Vienna after an acute illness that lasted only 15 days but no consensus has been reached on the cause of his death. From many letters written by his farther it is almost certain that he experienced at least three episodes of acute rheumatic fever attack in his childhood, and a relapse of rheumatic fever was suggested to have killed Mozart, although death from acute rheumatic fever is very rare in adults. His last illness was characterized by high fever, massive edema, vomiting and skin rash. His last illness can be explained by infectious endocarditis and heart failure. During his last hours, he was given phlebotomy, possibly for the third time in two weeks, and soon after he became unconscious and died. As such, phlebotomy performed on a man dehydrated by high fever and vomiting may have caused systemic shock. In summary, Mozart probably died from chronic rheumatic heart disease complicated by infective endocarditis and heart failure, and repeated phlebotomy-induced hypovolemic shock. PMID:21267381

  15. Killing Microorganisms with the One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    South, Suzanne; Kelly-Wintenberg, Kimberly; Montie, T. C.; Reece Roth, J.; Sherman, Daniel; Morrison, Jim; Chen, Zhiyu; Karakaya, Fuat

    2000-10-01

    There is an urgent need for the development of new technologies for sterilization and decontamination in the fields of healthcare and industrial and food processing that are safe, cost-effective, broad-spectrum, and not deleterious to samples. One technology that meets these criteria is the One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP). The OAUGDP operates in air and produces uniform plasma without filamentary discharges at room temperature, making this technology advantageous for sterilization of heat sensitive materials. The OAUGDP operates in a frequency band determined by the ion trapping mechanisms provided that, for air, the electric field is above 8.5kV/cm. The OAUGDP efficiently generates plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS) including atomic oxygen and oxygen free radicals without the requirement of a vacuum system. We have demonstrated the efficacy of the OAUGDP in killing microorganisms including bacteria, yeast, viruses, and spores in seconds to minutes on a variety of surfaces such as glass, films and fabrics, stainless steel, paper, and agar.

  16. Genomic c-Myc Quadruplex DNA Selectively Kills Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sedoris, Kara C.; Thomas, Shelia D.; Clarkson, Cortney R.; Muench, David; Islam, Ashraful; Singh, Rajesh; Miller, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    C-Myc, a key regulator of cell cycle and proliferation, is commonly overexpressed in leukemia and associated with poor prognosis. Conventional antisense oligonucleotides targeting c-myc may attenuate leukemic cell growth, however, are poorly taken into cells, rapidly degraded, and have unwanted effects on normal cells. The c-myc promoter contains a guanine-rich sequence (PU27), capable of forming quadruplex (four-stranded) DNA, which may negatively regulate c-myc transcription, however, its biological significance is unknown. We show that treatment of leukemia with an oligonucleotide encoding the genomic PU27 sequence induces cell cycle arrest and death by oncotic-necrosis due to PU27-mediated suppression of c-myc mRNA/protein expression. Furthermore, PU27 is abundantly taken into cells, localized in the cytoplasm/nucleus, inherently stable in serum and intracellularly, and has no effect on normal cells. Suppression of c-myc expression by PU27 caused significant DNA damage, cell and mitochondrial swelling, and membrane permeability, characteristic of oncotic-necrosis. Induction of oncosis caused mitochondrial dysfunction, depletion of cellular ATP levels and enhanced oxidative stress. This novel anti-leukemic strategy addresses current concerns of oliginucleotide therapeutics including problems with uptake, stability, and unintentional effects on normal cells and is the first report of selective cancer cell killing by a genomic DNA sequence. PMID:22084162

  17. Rapid KillNovel Endodontic Sealer and Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Zaltsman, Nathan; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Abramovitz, Itzhak; Davidi, Michael Perez; Weiss, Ervin I.

    2013-01-01

    With growing concern over bacterial resistance, the identification of new antimicrobial means is paramount. In the oral cavity microorganisms are essential to the development of periradicular diseases and are the major causative factors associated with endodontic treatment failure. As quaternary ammonium compounds have the ability to kill a wide array of bacteria through electrostatic interactions with multiple anionic targets on the bacterial surface, it is likely that they can overcome bacterial resistance. Melding these ideas, we investigated the potency of a novel endodontic sealer in limiting Enterococcus faecalis growth. We used a polyethyleneimine scaffold to synthesize nano-sized particles, optimized for incorporation into an epoxy-based endodontic sealer. The novel endodontic sealer was tested for its antimicrobial efficacy and evaluated for biocompatibility and physical eligibility. Our results show that the novel sealer foundation affixes the nanoparticles, achieving surface bactericidal properties, but at the same time impeding nanoparticle penetration into eukaryotic cells and thereby mitigating a possible toxic effect. Moreover, adequate physical properties are maintained. The nanosized quaternary amine particles interact within minutes with bacteria, triggering cell death across wide pH values. Throughout this study we demonstrate a new antibacterial perspective for endodontic sealers; a novel antibacterial, effective and safe antimicrobial means. PMID:24223159

  18. Glucose Augments Killing Efficiency of Daptomycin Challenged Staphylococcus aureus Persisters

    PubMed Central

    Prax, Marcel; Mechler, Lukas; Weidenmaier, Christopher; Bertram, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus in stationary growth phase with high doses of the antibiotic daptomycin (DAP) eradicates the vast majority of the culture and leaves persister cells behind. Despite resting in a drug-tolerant and dormant state, persister cells exhibit metabolic activity which might be exploited for their elimination. We here report that the addition of glucose to S. aureus persisters treated with DAP increased killing by up to five-fold within one hour. This glucose-DAP effect also occurred with strains less sensitive to the drug. The underlying mechanism is independent of the proton motive force and was not observed with non-metabolizable 2-deoxy-glucose. Our results are consistent with two hypotheses on the glucose-DAP interplay. The first is based upon glucose-induced carbohydrate transport proteins that may influence DAP and the second suggests that glucose may trigger the release or activity of cell-lytic proteins to augment DAP’s mode of action. PMID:26960193

  19. Scheduling Chemotherapy: Catch 22 between Cell Kill and Resistance Evolution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gardner, Shea N.

    2000-01-01

    Dose response curves show that prolonged drug exposure at a low concentration may kill more cells than short exposures at higher drug concentrations, particularly for cell cycle phase specific drugs. Applying drugs at low concentrations for prolonged periods, however, allows cells with partial resistance to evolve higher levels of resistance through stepwise processes such as gene amplification. Models are developed for cell cycle specific (CS) and cell cycle nonspecific (CNS) drugs to identify the schedule of drug application that balances this tradeoff. The models predict that a CS drug may be applied most effectively by splitting the cumulative dose intomore » many (>40) fractions applied by long-term chemotherapy, while CNS drugs may be better applied in fewer than 10 fractions applied over a shorter term. The model suggests that administering each fraction by continuous infusion may be more effective than giving the drug as a bolus, whether the drug is CS or CNS. In addition, tumors with a low growth fraction or slow rate of cell division are predicted to be controlled more easily with CNS drugs, while those with a high proliferative fraction or fast cell division rate may respond better to CS drugs.« less

  20. Social amoebae trap and kill bacteria by casting DNA nets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Zhuchenko, Olga; Kuspa, Adam; Soldati, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular traps (ETs) from neutrophils are reticulated nets of DNA decorated with anti-microbial granules, and are capable of trapping and killing extracellular pathogens. Various phagocytes of mammals and invertebrates produce ETs, however, the evolutionary history of this DNA-based host defence strategy is unclear. Here we report that Sentinel (S) cells of the multicellular slug stage of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum produce ETs upon stimulation with bacteria or lipopolysaccharide in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. The production of ETs by S cells requires a Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing protein TirA and reactive oxygen species-generating NADPH oxidases. Disruption of these genes results in decreased clearance of bacterial infections. Our results demonstrate that D. discoideum is a powerful model organism to study the evolution and conservation of mechanisms of cell-intrinsic immunity, and suggest that the origin of DNA-based ETs as an innate immune defence predates the emergence of metazoans. PMID:26927887

  1. Protection against heat-induced cell killing by alanine.

    PubMed

    Henle, K J; Cunningham, M A; Nagle, W A; Moss, A J

    1988-01-01

    When L-alanine was added either to full growth medium or to Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) prior to hyperthermia, survival of heated cells was significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximal heat protection was not immediate, but required at least 1 h at 37 degrees C incubation prior to heating. Heat protection was principally reflected in an increased Dq on the 45 degrees C survival curve; for example, with 100 mM L-alanine, the Dq increased from approximately equal to 20 (control) to 30 min at 45 degrees C. Hyperthermia of 1 h at temperatures between 42 degrees C and 45 degrees C indicated that 100 mM alanine had shifted the isotoxic temperature by 0.5 degrees C. Comparable heat protection was also observed with D-alanine and amino acid dimers, such as alanyl-alanine or alanyl-leucine. Leucine at similar concentrations by itself, without alanine, did not protect cells against heat killing, but increased cellular heat sensitivity. The data suggest that heat protection by alanine does not require incorporation of alanine into cellular protein, but is mediated by the free amino acid. PMID:3290349

  2. Nanotechnology for the detection and kill of circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represent a surrogate biomarker of hematogenous metastases and thus could be considered as a liquid biopsy which reveals metastasis in action. But it is absolutely a challenge to detect CTCs due to their extreme rarity. At present, the most common principle is to take advantage of the epithelial surface markers of CTCs which attach to a specific antibody. Antibody-magnetic nanobeads combine with the epithelial surface markers, and then the compound is processed by washing, separation, and detection. However, a proportion of CTC antigen expressions are down-regulated or lost in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus, this part of CTCs cannot be detected by classical detection methods such as CellSearch. To resolve this problem, some multiple-marker CTC detections have been developed rapidly. Additionally, nanotechnology is a promising approach to kill CTCs with high efficiency. Implantable nanotubes coated with apoptosis-promoting molecules improve the disease-free survival and overall survival. The review introduces some novel CTC detection techniques and therapeutic methods by virtue of nanotechnology to provide a better knowledge of the progress about CTC study. PMID:25258614

  3. Mitochondria-assisted cell suicide: a license to kill.

    PubMed

    Regula, Kelly M; Ens, Karen; Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A

    2003-06-01

    Although the mechanisms that underlie cardiac cell death remain cryptic, there is emerging evidence that mitochondria may play a pivotal role in this process. The mitochondrion initially deemed the "power house " is now considered to be a central integration site for biological signals that promote cell life or cell death. Since mitochondria contain the necessary apoptotic machinery to activate the cell-death pathway, it is now appreciated that mitochondria play a key decision-making role in whether a cell will live or die following a noxious signal-literally a "license to kill ". Permeability changes to the outer mitochondrial membrane, collapse of membrane potential, permeability pore complex assembly, release of cytotoxic proteins and caspase activation are associated with the mitochondrial-death pathway. Members of the Bcl-2 gene family can promote or suppress cell death by modulating mitochondrial function. Activation of the mitochondrial-death pathway has been reported in several cardiac pathologies and believed to account for the reported apoptosis observed in these disease entities. Given the meager and limited ability of cardiac muscle for repair or self-renewal after injury, the inordinate loss of cardiac cells is considered to be a key underlying factor in ventricular remodeling and decline in ventricular performance in patients with ischemic heart disease or post-myocardial infarction. This review will provide mechanistic insight into the involvement and contribution of the mitochondrion as a regulator of cell death in health and disease with particular focus on the heart. PMID:12788372

  4. Fluconazole Assists Berberine To Kill Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Li, De-Dong; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Da-Zhi; Quan, Hua; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Hu, Dan-Dan; Li, Ming-Bang; Zhao, Lan-Xue; Zhu, Liang-Hua

    2013-01-01

    It was found in our previous study that berberine (BBR) and fluconazole (FLC) used concomitantly exhibited a synergism against FLC-resistant Candida albicans in vitro. The aim of the present study was to clarify how BBR and FLC worked synergistically and the underlying mechanism. Antifungal time-kill curves indicated that the synergistic effect of the two drugs was BBR dose dependent rather than FLC dose dependent. In addition, we found that BBR accumulated in C. albicans cells, especially in the nucleus, and resulted in cell cycle arrest and significant change in the transcription of cell cycle-related genes. Besides BBR, other DNA intercalators, including methylene blue, sanguinarine, and acridine orange, were all found to synergize with FLC against FLC-resistant C. albicans. Detection of intracellular BBR accumulation by fluorescence measurement showed that FLC played a role in increasing intracellular BBR concentration, probably due to its effect in disrupting the fungal cell membrane. Similar to the case with FLC, other antifungal agents acting on the cell membrane were able to synergize with BBR. Interestingly, we found that the efflux of intracellular BBR was FLC independent but strongly glucose dependent and associated with the drug efflux pump Cdr2p. These results suggest that BBR plays a major antifungal role in the synergism of FLC and BBR, while FLC plays a role in increasing the intracellular BBR concentration. PMID:24060867

  5. Epirubicin-Adsorbed Nanodiamonds Kill Chemoresistant Hepatic Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chemoresistance is a primary cause of treatment failure in cancer and a common property of tumor-initiating cancer stem cells. Overcoming mechanisms of chemoresistance, particularly in cancer stem cells, can markedly enhance cancer therapy and prevent recurrence and metastasis. This study demonstrates that the delivery of Epirubicin by nanodiamonds is a highly effective nanomedicine-based approach to overcoming chemoresistance in hepatic cancer stem cells. The potent physical adsorption of Epirubicin to nanodiamonds creates a rapidly synthesized and stable nanodiamonddrug complex that promotes endocytic uptake and enhanced tumor cell retention. These attributes mediate the effective killing of both cancer stem cells and noncancer stem cells in vitro and in vivo. Enhanced treatment of both tumor cell populations results in an improved impairment of secondary tumor formation in vivo compared with treatment by unmodified chemotherapeutics. On the basis of these results, nanodiamond-mediated drug delivery may serve as a powerful method for overcoming chemoresistance in cancer stem cells and markedly improving overall treatment against hepatic cancers. PMID:25437772

  6. Upgraded demonstration vehicle task report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, J.; Hardy, K.; Livingston, R.; Sandberg, J.

    1981-01-01

    Vehicle/battery performance capabilities and interface problems that occurred when upgraded developmental batteries were integrated with upgraded versions of comercially available electric vehicles were investigated. Developmental batteries used included nickel zinc batteries, a nickel iron battery, and an improved lead acid battery. Testing of the electric vehicles and upgraded batteries was performed in the complete vehicle system environment to characterize performance and identify problems unique to the vehicle/battery system. Constant speed tests and driving schedule range tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer. The results from these tests of the upgraded batteries and vehicles were compared to performance capabilities for the same vehicles equipped with standard batteries.

  7. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Garetson, Thomas

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  8. Distinct mechanisms of cell-kill by triapine and its terminally dimethylated derivative Dp44mT due to a loss or gain of activity of their copper(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Kimiko; Lin, Z Ping; Penketh, Philip G; Shyam, Krishnamurthy; Zhu, Rui; Baumann, Raymond P; Zhu, Yong-Lian; Sartorelli, Alan C; Rutherford, Thomas J; Ratner, Elena S

    2014-10-01

    Triapine, currently being evaluated as an antitumor agent in phase II clinical trials, and its terminally dimethylated derivative Dp44mT share the ?-pyridyl thiosemicarbazone backbone that functions as ligands for transition metal ions. Yet, Dp44mT is approximately 100-fold more potent than triapine in cytotoxicity assays. The aims of this study were to elucidate the mechanisms underlying their potency disparity and to determine their kinetics of cell-kill in culture to aid in the formulation of their clinical dosing schedules. The addition of Cu(2+) inactivated triapine in a 1:1 stoichiometric fashion, while it potentiated the cytotoxicity of Dp44mT. Clonogenic assays after finite-time drug-exposure revealed that triapine produced cell-kill in two phases, one completed within 20 min that caused limited cell-kill, and the other occurring after 16 h of exposure that produced extensive cell-kill. The ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor triapine at 0.4 ?M caused immediate complete arrest of DNA synthesis, whereas Dp44mT at this concentration did not appreciably inhibit DNA synthesis. The inhibition of DNA synthesis by triapine was reversible upon its removal from the medium. Cell death after 16 h exposure to triapine paralleled the appearance of phospho-(?)H2AX, a marker of DNA double-strand breaks induced by collapse of DNA replication forks after prolonged replication arrest. In contrast to triapine, Dp44mT produced robust cell-kill within 1h in a concentration-dependent manner. The short-term action of both agents was prevented by thiols, indicative of the involvement of reactive oxygen species. The time dependency in the production of cell-kill by triapine should be considered in treatment regimens. PMID:25130544

  9. China's Launch Vehicle Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jingwu

    2002-01-01

    China's Launch Vehicle technologies have been started since 1950s. With the efforts made by several-generation Chinese Space people, the Long March (LM) Launch Vehicles, China's main space transportation tools, have undergone a development road from conventional propellants to cryogenic propellants, from stage-by-stage to strap-on, from dedicated-launch to multiple-launch, from satellite-launching to space capsule-launching. The LM Launch Vehicles are capable of sending various payloads to different orbits with low cost and high reliability. Till now, the LM Launch Vehicles have conducted 67 launch missions, putting 76 spacecraft into the given orbits since the successful mission made by LM-1 in 1970. Especially, they have performed 22 international commercial satellite-launching missions, sending 27 foreign satellites successfully. The footprints of LM Launch Vehicles reflect the development and progress of Chinese Space Industry. At the beginning of the 21st century, with the development of launch vehicle technology and the economic globalization, it is an inexorable trend that Chinese space industry must participate in the international cooperation and competition. Being faced with both opportunities and challenges, Chinese Space Industry should promote actively the commercial launch service market to increase service quality and improve the comprehensive competition capabilities. In order to maintain the sustaining development of China's launch vehicle technology and to meet the increasing needs in the international commercial launch service market, Chinese space industry is now doing research work on developing new-generation Chinese launchers. The new launchers will be large-scale, powerful and non-contamination. The presence of the new-generation Chinese launchers will greatly speed up the development of the whole space-related industries in China, as well as other parts of the world. In the first part, this paper gives an overview on China Aerospace Science &Technology Corporation (CASC), which builds LM Launch Vehicle and is working on the new-generation Chinese Launchers. In the second part, the paper pays more attentions to introduce LM Launch Vehicles, as well as their commercial launch services. Then in the third part, the paper firstly describes the new-generation launchers.

  10. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Richard S.; Allen, Larry N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host and in a C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host to the C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C.sub.1 -utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C.sub.1 -utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C.sub.1 -utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C.sub.1 -utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C.sub.1 gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields.

  11. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  12. 77 FR 12355 - Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Transactions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle- to-Infrastructure Transactions Workshop... Environment for Vehicle- to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) Transactions on April 19-20... contact Adam Hopps at Ahopps@ITSA.org . About the Connected Vehicle Secure Environment Establishing...

  13. Retrofiting survivability of military vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, Gregory H

    2009-01-01

    In Iraq the terrain was such that vehicles could be distributed horizontally, which reduced the effectiveness of mines. In the mountainous terrain of Pakistan and Afghanistan vehicles are forced to use the few, passable roads, which are dirt and easily seeded with plentiful, cheap, intelligent mines. It is desirable to reduce the losses to such mines, preferably by retrofit means that do not greatly increase weight or cost or reduce maneuverability. V-bottom vehicles - A known approach to reducing vulnerability is the Buffalo, a large vehicle developed by South Africa to address mine warfare. It has large tires, high axles, and a reinforced, v-shaped bottom that deflects the blast from explosions below. It is developed and tested in combat, but is expensive and has reduced off-road mobility. The domestic MRAP has similar cost and mobility issue. The addition of v-shaped blast deflectors to vehicles such as Humvees could act much as the deflector on a Buffalo, but a Humvee is closer to the ground, so the explosive's expansion would be reduced. The deflector would also reduce a Humvee's clearance for rough terrain, and a deflector of adequate thickness to address the blast by itself could further increase cost and reduce mobility. Reactive armor is developed and has proven effective against shaped and explosive charges from side or top attack. It detects their approach, detonates, and defeats them by interfering with jet formation. If the threat was a shaped charge from below, they would be a logical choice. But the bulk of the damage to Humvees appears to be from the blast from high explosive mines for which the colliding shock from reactive armor could increase that from the explosive. Porous materials such as sand can strongly attenuate the kinetic energy and pressure of a strong shock. Figure 1 shows the kinetic energy (KE), momentum (Mu), velocity (u), and mass (M) of a spherically expanding shock as functions of radius for a material with a porosity of 0.5. Over the range from 0.5 to 4.5 cm the shock KE is attenuated by a factor of {approx}70, while its momentum is changed little. The shock and particle velocity falls by a factor of 200 while the mass increases by a factor of 730. In the limit of very porous media u {approx} 1/M, so KE {approx} 1/M, which falls by a factor of {approx}600, while momentum Mu does not change at all. Figure 2 shows the KE, Mu, u, and M for a material with a porosity of 1.05, for which the KE changes little. In the limit of media of very low porosity, u {approx} 1/{radical}M, so KE is constant while Mu {approx} {radical}M, which increases by a factor of 15. Thus, if the goal is to reduce the peak pressure from strong explosions below, very porous materials, which strongly reduce pressure but do not increase momentum, are preferred to non-porous materials, which amplify momentum but do not decrease pressure. These predictions are in qualitative accord with the results of experiments at Los Alamos in which projectiles from high velocity, large caliber cannons were stopped by one to two sandbags. The studies were performed primarily to determine the effectiveness of sand in stopping fragments of various sizes, but could be extended to study sand's effectiveness in attenuating blast pressure. It would also be useful to test the above predictions on the effectiveness of media with higher porosity. Water barriers have been discussed but not deployed in previous retrofit survivability studies for overseas embassies. They would detect the flash from the mine detonation below, trigger a thin layer of explosive above a layer of water, and drive water droplets into the approaching blast wave. The blast loses energy in evaporating the droplets and loses momentum in slowing them. Under favorable conditions that could attenuate the pressure in the blast enough to prevent the penetration or disruption of the vehicle. However, such barriers would depend on prompt and reliable detonation detection and water droplet dispersal, which have not been tested. There is a large literature on the theoretical effectiveness of such barriers, but little careful experimentation. An exception is the set of experiments performed by the Australian government DoD. They measured pressures at 1, 2, and 3 m distances from 500 g PBX charges, using commercial fire sprinklers to produce the spray of droplets between the charge and the pressure gauges. The experiments showed some attenuation, but were performed only at a few atmosphere over pressure, so they did not test the effect of the principal posited vaporization mechanism. Preliminary experiments at Los Alamos showed some reduction, but used sheets of water, so they could only test the effect of momentum coupling.

  14. Chemical Kinetics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.

  15. A "Stationery" Kinetics Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, L.; Goberdhansingh, A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple redox reaction that occurs between potassium permanganate and oxalic acid that can be used to prepare an interesting disappearing ink for demonstrating kinetics for introductory chemistry. Discusses laboratory procedures and factors that influence disappearance times. (CW)

  16. Optimization of gold nanostructers for laser killing of cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Zharov, Vladimir P.; Melnikov, Andrei G.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2006-06-01

    Recently, the first applications of gold nanoshells (Halas and co-workers, 2003), nanospheres and nanosphere clusters (Anderson and co-workers, 2003; Zharov and co-workers, 2003) to the cancer cell diagnostics and laser killing of cancer cells (LKCC) have been reported. However, to be clinically relevant, existing technologies must overcome fundamental problems related with limitations of current understanding the relationship between the nanoparticle/cluster parameters (size, shape, particle/cluster structure, etc.) and the efficiency of LKCC therapy, as well as with limitations of the available methods for synthesis and in situ characterization of new advanced nanoparticles and clusters with unique synergistic properties which are crucial for selective LKCC therapy. Here we report on preliminary simulation results aimed at finding the optimal cluster structures for maximal absorption efficiency of laser radiation. We consider also alternative possibilities related with using gold nanorods and nanoshells instead of spherical particles. Two types of nanostructures are studied: (1) bioconjugates of single nanoparticles (spheres, nanoshells, and nanorods); (2); linear chains, 2D lattice arrays, and 3D clusters of gold spheres or conjugates that mimic aggregation of nanoparticles on or within cancer cells. By using the generalized multiparticle Mie solution and different versions of the cluster T-matrix method, we calculated the absorption efficiency of nanostructures under study. The gold nanoshells and nanorods with tunable spectral resonances are shown to be more effective photothermal labels as compared to usual solid gold spheres. In the case of 1D-3D clusters, the interparticle separations and short linear chain fragments are the main structural parameters determining the absorption efficiency

  17. Preferential killing of p53-deficient cancer cells by reversine.

    PubMed

    Jema, Mohamed; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Boilve, Alice; Lissa, Delphine; Senovilla, Laura; Harper, Francis; Pierron, Grard; Berardinelli, Francesco; Antoccia, Antonio; Castedo, Maria; Vitale, Ilio; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-06-01

    Reversine is a small synthetic molecule that inhibits multiple mitotic kinases, including MPS1 as well as Aurora kinase A and B (AURKA and AURKB). Here, we investigated the effects of reversine on p53-deficient vs p53-proficient cancer cells. We found that low doses (~0.5 M) of reversine, which selectively inhibit MPS1 and hence impair the spindle assembly checkpoint, kill human TP53 (-/-) colon carcinoma cells less efficiently than their wild-type counterparts. In sharp contrast, high doses (~5 M) of reversine induced hyperploidization and apoptosis to a much larger extent in TP53 (-/-) than in TP53 (+/+) cells. Such a selective cytotoxicity could not be reproduced by the knockdown of MPS1, AURKA and AURKB, neither alone nor in combination, suggesting that it involves multiple (rather than a few) molecular targets of reversine. Videomicroscopy-based cell fate profiling revealed that, in response to high-dose reversine, TP53 (-/-) (but not TP53 (+/+) ) cells undergo several consecutive rounds of abortive mitosis, resulting in the generation of hyperpolyploid cells that are prone to succumb to apoptosis upon the activation of mitotic catastrophe. In line with this notion, the depletion of anti-apoptotic proteins of the BCL-2 family sensitized TP53 (-/-) cells to the toxic effects of high-dose reversine. Moreover, the knockdown of BAX or APAF-1, as well as the chemical inhibition of caspases, limited the death of TP53 (-/-) cells in response to high-dose reversine. Altogether, these results suggest that p53-deficient cells are particularly sensitive to the simultaneous inhibition of multiple kinases, including MPS1, as it occurs in response to high-dose reversine. PMID:22592527

  18. Staphylococcus epidermidis strategies to avoid killing by human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Gordon Y C; Rigby, Kevin; Wang, Rong; Queck, Shu Y; Braughton, Kevin R; Whitney, Adeline R; Teintze, Martin; DeLeo, Frank R; Otto, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading nosocomial pathogen. In contrast to its more aggressive relative S. aureus, it causes chronic rather than acute infections. In highly virulent S. aureus, phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) contribute significantly to immune evasion and aggressive virulence by their strong ability to lyse human neutrophils. Members of the PSM family are also produced by S. epidermidis, but their role in immune evasion is not known. Notably, strong cytolytic capacity of S. epidermidis PSMs would be at odds with the notion that S. epidermidis is a less aggressive pathogen than S. aureus, prompting us to examine the biological activities of S. epidermidis PSMs. Surprisingly, we found that S. epidermidis has the capacity to produce PSM?, a potent leukocyte toxin, representing the first potent cytolysin to be identified in that pathogen. However, production of strongly cytolytic PSMs was low in S. epidermidis, explaining its low cytolytic potency. Interestingly, the different approaches of S. epidermidis and S. aureus to causing human disease are thus reflected by the adaptation of biological activities within one family of virulence determinants, the PSMs. Nevertheless, S. epidermidis has the capacity to evade neutrophil killing, a phenomenon we found is partly mediated by resistance mechanisms to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), including the protease SepA, which degrades AMPs, and the AMP sensor/resistance regulator, Aps (GraRS). These findings establish a significant function of SepA and Aps in S. epidermidis immune evasion and explain in part why S. epidermidis may evade elimination by innate host defense despite the lack of cytolytic toxin expression. Our study shows that the strategy of S. epidermidis to evade elimination by human neutrophils is characterized by a passive defense approach and provides molecular evidence to support the notion that S. epidermidis is a less aggressive pathogen than S. aureus. PMID:20949069

  19. Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire,R.; Hesterberg, D.; Gernat, A.; Anderson, K.; Wineland, M.; Grimes, J.

    2006-01-01

    Received for publication September 9, 2005. Stabilizing phosphorus (P) in poultry waste to reduce P losses from manured soils is important to protect surface waters, while pathogens in manures are an emerging issue. This study was conducted to evaluate CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} for killing manure bacterial populations (pathogens) and stabilizing P in poultry wastes and to investigate the influence on soils following amendment with the treated wastes. Layer manure and broiler litter varying in moisture content were treated with CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} at rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% by weight. All treated wastes were analyzed for microbial plate counts, pH, and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP), while a few selected layer manures were analyzed by phosphorus X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). A loamy sand and a silt loam were amended with broiler litter and layer manure treated with CaO at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% and soil WSP and pH were measured at times 1, 8, and 29 d. Liming reduced bacterial populations, with greater rates of lime leading to greater reductions; for example 10% CaO applied to 20% solids broiler litter reduced the plate counts from 793 000 to 6500 mL{sup -1}. Liming also reduced the WSP in the manures by over 90% in all cases where at least 10% CaO was added. Liming the manures also reduced WSP in soils immediately following application and raised soil pH. The liming process used successfully reduced plate counts and concerns about P losses in runoff following land application of these limed products due to decreased WSP.

  20. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy to Kill Gram-negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Felipe F; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a new promising strategy to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms such as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The search for new approaches that can kill bacteria but do not induce the appearance of undesired drug-resistant strains suggests that PDT may have advantages over traditional antibiotic therapy. PDT is a non-thermal photochemical reaction that involves the simultaneous presence of visible light, oxygen and a dye or photosensitizer (PS). Several PS have been studied for their ability to bind to bacteria and efficiently generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon photostimulation. ROS are formed through type I or II mechanisms and may inactivate several classes of microbial cells including Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are typically characterized by an impermeable outer cell membrane that contains endotoxins and blocks antibiotics, dyes, and detergents, protecting the sensitive inner membrane and cell wall. This review covers significant peer-reviewed articles together with US and World patents that were filed within the past few years and that relate to the eradication of Gram-negative bacteria via PDI or PDT. It is organized mainly according to the nature of the PS involved and includes natural or synthetic food dyes; cationic dyes such as methylene blue and toluidine blue; tetrapyrrole derivatives such as phthalocyanines, chlorins, porphyrins, chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll derivatives; functionalized fullerenes; nanoparticles combined with different PS; other formulations designed to target PS to bacteria; photoactive materials and surfaces; conjugates between PS and polycationic polymers or antibodies; and permeabilizing agents such as EDTA, PMNP and CaCl2. The present review also covers the different laboratory animal models normally used to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections with antimicrobial PDT. PMID:23550545