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1

Active plasma resonance spectroscopy: a kinetic functional analytic description

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term active plasma resonance spectroscopy (APRS) denotes a class of related techniques which utilize, for diagnostic purposes, the natural ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the electron plasma frequency ?pe: a radio frequent signal (in the GHz range) is coupled into the plasma via an antenna or probe, the spectral response is recorded, and a mathematical model is used to determine plasma parameters such as the electron density or the electron temperature. This paper provides a kinetic description of APRS valid for all pressures and probe geometries. Subject of the description is the interaction of the probe with the plasma of its influence domain. In a first step, the kinetic free energy of that domain is established which has a definite time derivative with respect to the radio frequency (RF) power. In the absence of RF excitation, it assumes the properties of a Lyapunov functional; its minimum provides the stable equilibrium of the plasma-probe system. Equipped with a scalar product motivated by the second variation of the free energy, the set of all perturbations of the equilibrium forms a Hilbert space. The dynamics of the perturbations can be cast in an evolution equation in that space. The spectral response function of the plasma-probe system consists of matrix elements of the resolvent of the dynamical operator. An interpretation in terms of an equivalent electric circuit model is given and the residual broadening of the spectrum in the collisionless regime is explained.

Oberrath, J.; Brinkmann, R. P.

2014-08-01

2

On kinetic description of electromagnetic processes in a quantum plasma

A nonlinear kinetic equation for nonrelativistic quantum plasma with electromagnetic interaction of particles is obtained in the Hartree's mean-field approximation. It is cast in a convenient form of Vlasov-Boltzmann-type equation with ''quantum interference integral'', which allows for relatively straightforward modification of existing classical Vlasov codes to incorporate quantum effects (quantum statistics and quantum interference of overlapping particles wave functions), without changing the bulk of the codes. Such modification (upgrade) of existing Vlasov codes may provide a direct and effective path to numerical simulations of nonlinear electrostatic and electromagnetic phenomena in quantum plasmas, especially of processes where kinetic effects are important (e.g., modulational interactions and stimulated scattering phenomena involving plasma modes at short wavelengths or high-order kinetic modes, dynamical screening and interaction of charges in quantum plasma, etc.) Moreover, numerical approaches involving such modified Vlasov codes would provide a useful basis for theoretical analyses of quantum plasmas, as quantum and classical effects can be easily separated there.

Tyshetskiy, Yu.; Vladimirov, S. V.; Kompaneets, R. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

2011-11-15

3

Generalized Kinetic Description of Steady-State Collisionless Plasmas

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a general solution to the collisionless Boltzmann (Vlasov) equation for a free-flowing plasma along a magnetic field line using Liouville's theorem, allowing for an arbitrary potential structure including non-monotonicities. The constraints of the existing collisionless kinetic transport models are explored, and the need for a more general approach to the problem of self- consistent potential energy calculations is described. Then a technique that handles an arbitrary potential energy distribution along the field line is presented and discussed. For precipitation of magnetospherically trapped hot plasma, this model yields moment calculations that vary by up to a factor of two for various potential energy structures with the same total potential drop. The differences are much greater for the high-latitude outflow scenario, giving order of magnitude variations depending on the shape of the potential energy distribution.

Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Krivorutsky, E. N.

1997-01-01

4

Kinetic description of average trajectories in turbulent plasmas

The evolution of one- and two-particle dynamical functions in a turbulent plasma is studied by means of a propagator formalism. The relevant average propagators are derived, both for forward and for backward motion, in the 'weak-coupling RQL approximation', i.e., the simplest nontrivial approximation taking turbulent effects into account. Explicit results are given for various averages and correlation functions of interest,

J. H. Misguich; R. Balescu

1977-01-01

5

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A largely unsolved theoretical issue in controlled fusion research is the consistent kinetic treatment of slowly-time varying plasma states occurring in collisionless and magnetized axisymmetric plasmas. The phenomenology may include finite pressure anisotropies as well as strong toroidal and poloidal differential rotation, characteristic of Tokamak plasmas. Despite the fact that physical phenomena occurring in fusion plasmas depend fundamentally on the microscopic particle phase-space dynamics, their consistent kinetic treatment remains still essentially unchallenged to date. The goal of this paper is to address the problem within the framework of Vlasov-Maxwell description. The gyrokinetic treatment of charged particles dynamics is adopted for the construction of asymptotic solutions for the quasi-stationary species kinetic distribution functions. These are expressed in terms of the particle exact and adiabatic invariants. The theory relies on a perturbative approach, which permits to construct asymptotic analytical solutions of the Vlasov-Maxwell system. In this way, both diamagnetic and energy corrections are included consistently into the theory. In particular, by imposing suitable kinetic constraints, the existence of generalized bi-Maxwellian asymptotic kinetic equilibria is pointed out. The theory applies for toroidal rotation velocity of the order of the ion thermal speed. These solutions satisfy identically also the constraints imposed by the Maxwell equations, i.e., quasi-neutrality and Ampere's law. As a result, it is shown that, in the presence of nonuniform fluid and EM fields, these kinetic equilibria can sustain simultaneously toroidal differential rotation, quasi-stationary finite poloidal flows and temperature anisotropy.

Cremaschini, Claudio; Tessarotto, Massimo

2011-11-01

6

Generalized kinetic description of a plasma in an arbitrary field-aligned potential energy structure

We present a general solution to the collisionless Boltzmann (Vlasov) equation for a free-flowing plasma along a magnetic field line using Liouville's theorem, allowing for an arbitrary field-aligned potential energy structure including nonmonotonicities. The constraints of the existing collisionless kinetic transport models are explored, and the need for a more general approach to the problem of self-consistent potential energy calculations

G. V. Khazanov; M. W. Liemohn; E. N. Krivorutsky; T. E. Moore

1998-01-01

7

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aim of this work is to extend the results obtained in a previous study on the magnetic confinement and stability of a quantum degenerate non-neutral fermion plasma. This extension consists in the inclusion in the previously set up model of the effects of the exchange forces, and generalises the Thomas-Fermi (TF) approach used in the referenced work towards a Thomas-Fermi-Dirac (TFD) statistical description. The TF model has not only been used extensively and with success in these years to study atomic, nuclear and molecular properties, or to evaluate features of matter in extreme conditions such as low temperatures and/or high densities typical of astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion experiments, but also to found hydrodynamic theories for the diffusion and stability of fermion plasmas, one component non-neutral degenerate fluids, plasmas etc. In this paper an equation for density profiles in cylindrical symmetry is found, from the semiclassical kinetic theory of quantum gases, which takes into account the effects of temperature, average velocity, external magnetic field and quantum exchange. Numerical solutions of this equation for the case of complete quantum degeneracy are given and comparisons with the previous results are carried out.

Molinari, V. G.; Rocchi, F.; Sumini, M.

2002-01-01

8

Contrib. Plasma Phys. 41 (2001) 2-3, 259-262 Quantum Kinetic Theory of Laser Plasmas

Contrib. Plasma Phys. 41 (2001) 2-3, 259-262 Quantum Kinetic Theory of Laser Plasmas D. Krempa.kremp@physik.uni-rostock.de Received 29 September 2000, in final form 8 December 2000 Abstract A quantum kinetic equation for plasmas a generalization to a quantum kinetic description. An important problem is the energy transfer between the plasma

Bonitz, Michael

9

Wave-kinetic description of atmospheric turbulence

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a wave-kinetic description of atmospheric turbulence, where the turbulence spectrum is described as a gas of quasi-particles. We apply this description to the case of zonal structures in the atmosphere, which can be excited by internal gravity wave turbulence. A general expression for the instability growth rates is derived, and the particular example of a nearly mono-kinetic turbulent spectrum is discussed.

Mendonça, J. T.; Onishchenko, O. G.; Pokhotelov, O. A.; Stenflo, L.

2014-12-01

10

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the kinetic point of view using the Vlasov equation for describing the charge carrier motion in a piezo-plasma-like medium, the excitation of elasto-acoustic waves in the presence of an external electric field has been shown. It has been found that such excitation occurs when the direct velocity of the electrons due to the external electric field exceeds the acoustic wave velocity.

Alavi, S. Kh; Shokri, B.

11

Kinetic Profiles in NSTX Plasmas

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio (R/a approximately 1.3) device with auxiliary heating from neutral-beam injection (NBI) and high-harmonic fast-wave heating (HHFW). Typical NSTX parameters are R(subscript ''0'') = 85 cm, a = 67 cm, I(subscript ''p'') = 0.7-1.4 MA, B(subscript ''phi'') = 0.25-0.45 T. Three co-directed deuterium neutral-beam sources have injected P(subscript ''NB'') less than or equal to 4.7 MW. HHFW plasmas typically have delivered P(subscript ''RF'') less than or equal to 3 MW. Important to the understanding of NSTX confinement are the new kinetic profile diagnostics: a multi-pulse Thomson scattering system (MPTS) and a charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) system. The MPTS diagnostic currently measures electron density and temperature profiles at 30 Hz at ten spatial locations. The CHERS system has recently become available to measure carbon ion temperature and toroidal flow at 17 radial positions spanning the outer half of the minor radius with 20 msec time resolution during NBI. Experiments conducted during the last year have produced a wide range of kinetic profiles in NSTX. Some interesting examples are presented below.

R.E. Bell; B.P. LeBlanc; C. Bourdelle; D.R. Ernst; E.D. Fredrickson; D.A. Gates; J.C. Hosea; D.W. Johnson; S.M. Kaye; R. Maingi; S. Medley; J.E. Menard; D. Mueller; M. Ono; F. Paoletti; M. Peng; S.A. Sabbagh; D. Stutman; D.W. Swain; E.J. Synakowski; and J.R. Wilson

2001-07-10

12

Computer models for kinetic equations of magnetically confined plasmas

This paper presents four working computer models developed by the computational physics group of the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center. All of the models employ a kinetic description of plasma species. Three of the models are collisional, i.e., they include the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation in velocity space. The fourth model is collisionless and treats the plasma ions by a fully three-dimensional particle-in-cell method.

Killeen, J.; Kerbel, G.D.; McCoy, M.G.; Mirin, A.A.; Horowitz, E.J.; Shumaker, D.E.

1987-01-01

13

A fluid description of plasma double-layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space-charge double-layer that forms between two plasmas with different densities and thermal energies was investigated using three progressively realistic models which are treated by fluid theory, and take into account four species of particles: electrons and ions reflected by the double-layer, and electrons and ions transmitted through it. The two plasmas are assumed to be cold, and the self-consistent potential, electric field and space-charge distributions within the double-layer are determined. The effects of thermal velocities are taken into account for the reflected particles, and the modifications to the cold plasma solutions are established. Further modifications due to thermal velocities of the transmitted particles are examined. The applicability of a one dimensional fluid description, rather than plasma kinetic theory, is discussed. Theoretical predictions are compared with double layer potentials and lengths deduced from laboratory and space plasma experiments.

Levine, J. S.; Crawford, F. W.

1979-01-01

14

Detailed and reduced chemical-kinetic descriptions for hydrocarbon combustion

Numerical and theoretical studies of autoignition processes of fuels such as propane are in need of realistic simplified chemical-kinetic descriptions that retain the essential features of the detailed descriptions. These descriptions should be computationally feasible and cost-effective. Such descriptions are useful for investigating ignition processes that occur, for example, in homogeneous-charge compression-ignition engines, for studying the structures and dynamics of

Maria V. Petrova

2005-01-01

15

Kinetic theory of the interdiffusion coefficient in dense plasmas

Naive applications of Spitzer's theory to very dense plasmas can lead to negative diffusion coefficients. The interdiffusion coefficients in Binary Ionic Mixtures (two species of point ions in a uniform neutralizing background) have been calculated recently using molecular dynamics techniques. These calculations can provide useful benchmarks for theoretical evaluations of the diffusion coefficient in dense plasma mixtures. This paper gives a brief description of a kinetic theoretic approximation to the diffusion coefficient which generalizes Spitzer to high density and is in excellent agreement with the computer simulations. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Boercker, D.B.

1986-08-01

16

Relativistic (covariant) kinetic theory of linear plasma waves and instabilities

The fundamental kinetic description is of vital importance in high-energy astrophysics and fusion plasmas where wave phenomena evolve on scales small comparing with binary collision scales. A rigorous relativistic analysis is required even for nonrelativistic plasma temperatures for which the classical theory yielded unphysical results: e.g. collisonless damping of superluminal waves (phase velocity exceeds the speed of light). The existing nonrelativistic approaches are now improved by covariantly correct dispersion theory. As an important application, the Weibel instability has been recently investigated and confirmed as the source of primordial magnetic field in the intergalactic medium.

Lazar, M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); 'Alexandru Ioan Cuza' University, Faculty of Physics, 6600 Iasi (Romania); Schlickeiser, R. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Centre for Plasma Science and Astrophysics, Ruhr-University, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2006-06-19

17

A kinetic description of antifreeze glycoprotein activity.

The antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGP) of polar fish have the ability to depress the freezing temperature of water approximately 500 times the amount expected based on the number of AFGP molecules in solution; yet AFGP solutions have a purely colligative melting point depression. The difference of solution melting and freezing temperatures is the antifreeze activity of AFGP. One characteristic of AFGP activity that requires further examination is the effect of concentration on antifreeze activity, especially whether the activity saturates at high concentrations or the measured activity increases ad infinitum. This study first surveys the activity of the various antifreeze components from both Pagothenia borchgrevinki and the Arg-containing antifreeze glycoprotein from Eleginus gracilis (EgAF). It was found that all AFGP components examined have a plateau in activity at high concentration, but the actual value of the plateau activity differs between the different length AFGP components and between AFGP and EgAF. While the low molecular weight components of both AFGP and EgAF lose activity at deep supercooling, at high concentration activity is restored. The activity data is then shown to fit a reversible kinetic model of AFGP activity, and the coefficients obtained are used to compare the activity differences between AFGP components and between AFGP and EgAF. The model is also shown to describe the activity of the antifreeze protein of the fish Pseudopleuronectes americanus and the thermal hysteresis protein of the insect, Tenebrio molitor. PMID:3700396

Burcham, T S; Osuga, D T; Yeh, Y; Feeney, R E

1986-05-15

18

Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

2014-04-15

19

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider in terms of the Vlasov Maxwell kinetic approach a classical problem of inductive generation by the solar wind flow of the 3D solar streamer tail structures originating by magnetic flux sources at the Sun magnetoactive regions The input flow is a hot collisionless plasma with maxwellian distribution function We separated magnetic field interacting particles on trapped and untrapped fly by particles Trapped particles partly are parameterized by magnetic flux source configuration The source is approximated by densities of magnetic dipole and magnetic toroid currents distributed on the characteristic scale and characterized by ratio of their integral currents Fly by particles motion we treat via perturbations resulting a linear analytical approach to the flowing plasma Plasma appeared as a result in the problem like resistive and diamagnetic media Non local resistive currents are characterized by anomalous skin scale and diamagnetic currents by magnetic Debye scale Ratio of the diamagnetic currents to the resistive currents is a Quality of the streamer magnetosphere We get integral representation of a selfconsistent global 3D magnetic configuration which is defined via two different kinds of cylindrical harmonics For maxwellian plasma we get a low Quality regime when 3D structure is with resistive currents and only parameter is a specific collisionless magnetic Reynolds number A dipole generates 3D two wire multi magnetic ropes current configuration cylindrical dipole harmonics which is observed in the far down tail

Gubchenko, V. M.; Biernat, H. K.; Rucker, H. O.

20

Fundamental Statistical Descriptions of Plasma Turbulence in Magnetic Fields

A pedagogical review of the historical development and current status (as of early 2000) of systematic statistical theories of plasma turbulence is undertaken. Emphasis is on conceptual foundations and methodology, not practical applications. Particular attention is paid to equations and formalism appropriate to strongly magnetized, fully ionized plasmas. Extensive reference to the literature on neutral-fluid turbulence is made, but the unique properties and problems of plasmas are emphasized throughout. Discussions are given of quasilinear theory, weak-turbulence theory, resonance-broadening theory, and the clump algorithm. Those are developed independently, then shown to be special cases of the direct-interaction approximation (DIA), which provides a central focus for the article. Various methods of renormalized perturbation theory are described, then unified with the aid of the generating-functional formalism of Martin, Siggia, and Rose. A general expression for the renormalized dielectric function is deduced and discussed in detail. Modern approaches such as decimation and PDF methods are described. Derivations of DIA-based Markovian closures are discussed. The eddy-damped quasinormal Markovian closure is shown to be nonrealizable in the presence of waves, and a new realizable Markovian closure is presented. The test-field model and a realizable modification thereof are also summarized. Numerical solutions of various closures for some plasma-physics paradigms are reviewed. The variational approach to bounds on transport is developed. Miscellaneous topics include Onsager symmetries for turbulence, the interpretation of entropy balances for both kinetic and fluid descriptions, self-organized criticality, statistical interactions between disparate scales, and the roles of both mean and random shear. Appendices are provided on Fourier transform conventions, dimensional and scaling analysis, the derivations of nonlinear gyrokinetic and gyrofluid equations, stochasticity criteria for quasilinear theory, formal aspects of resonance-broadening theory, Novikov's theorem, the treatment of weak inhomogeneity, the derivation of the Vlasov weak-turbulence wave kinetic equation from a fully renormalized description, some features of a code for solving the direct-interaction approximation and related Markovian closures, the details of the solution of the EDQNM closure for a solvable three-wave model, and the notation used in the article.

John A. Krommes

2001-02-16

21

Granular description of charging kinetics in silicon nanocrystals memories

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a new model of charging kinetics in Silicon nanocrystals memories based on a granular charging of a floating gate. In 2000, a previous model, due to De Salvo and co-workers, was based on a continuous charging of a floating gate, borrowed from the conventional of non-volatile floating gate memories model. We will summarise the main equations of the latter and try to compare the results with current-voltage and current-time measurements. We will show that this approach only allows a qualitative description of the charging kinetics but is not accurate enough to perfectly fit the experimental data. Its main limitation lies in a lack of describing the granular nature of the storage nodes: a fraction of an electron—or of a hole—can be stored inside a nanocrystal. This, of course, is not really correct. Instead, our new model admits only two available states: a nanocrystal is neutral or is charged with one electron. This simple logic will enable an accurate description of nanocrystals memories with granular effects unpredictable with De Salvo's approach. The charging kinetics in our model is more accurately described in all regimes and better incorporates the effect of the nanocrystals size distribution permitting direct extraction of this one from current-voltage measurements. An advantage of our model is enhanced by the analytical leading equations approach easy to incorporate in a simulator and directly applicable to memory devices. It is fast and easy to handle.

Busseret, C.; Ferraton, S.; Montès, L.; Zimmermann, J.

2006-02-01

22

Propagation of radiation in fluctuating multiscale plasmas: Kinetic theory and simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propagation of radiation in plasmas with small scale fluctuations is very important in many applications, especially in the systems involving multiscale physics where plasma nonuniformities are highly prevalent. A theory of radiation propagation in a large scale plasma with small scale fluctuations is developed using a kinetic description of the radiation in terms of the probability distribution function of the radiation in space, time, and wave vector space. Large scale effects associated with the refractive index of the plasma and small scale effects such as scattering of radiation by density clumps in fluctuating plasma, spontaneous emission, damping, mode coupling, and mode conversion are included in the multiscale kinetic description of the radiation. A finite difference algorithm is developed to solve the kinetic equation governing propagation of radiation. The algorithm is tested and verified for diffusion in wave-vector space, nonuniform plasma and small scale density fluctuations. The multiscale simulations verify the main physical effects in plasma profiles that approximate those in space plasmas, and demonstrate that realistic simulations can be carried out in a feasible amount of computational time.

Pal Singh, Kunwar; Robinson, P. A.; Tyshetskiy, Yu.; Cairns, Iver H.

2011-11-01

23

Kinetic plasma modeling with quiet Monte Carlo direct simulation.

The modeling of collisions among particles in space plasma media poses a challenge for computer simulation. Traditional plasma methods are able to model well the extremes of highly collisional plasmas (MHD and Hall-MHD simulations) and collisionless plasmas (particle-in-cell simulations). However, neither is capable of trealing the intermediate, semi-collisional regime. The authors have invented a new approach to particle simulation called Quiet Monte Carlo Direct Simulation (QMCDS) that can, in principle, treat plasmas with arbitrary and arbitrarily varying collisionality. The QMCDS method will be described, and applications of the QMCDS method as 'proof of principle' to diffusion, hydrodynamics, and radiation transport will be presented. Of particular interest to the space plasma simulation community is the application of QMCDS to kinetic plasma modeling. A method for QMCDS simulation of kinetic plasmas will be outlined, and preliminary results of simulations in the limit of weak pitch-angle scattering will be presented.

Albright, B. J. (Brian J.); Jones, M. E. (Michael E.); Lemons, D. S. (Don S.); Winske, D. (Dan)

2001-01-01

24

Solitary kinetic Alfven waves in dusty plasmas

Solitary kinetic Alfven waves in dusty plasmas are studied by considering the dust charge variation. The effect of the dust charge-to-mass ratio on the soliton solution is discussed. The Sagdeev potential is derived analytically with constant dust charge and then calculated numerically by taking the dust charge variation into account. We show that the dust charge-to-mass ratio plays an important role in the soliton properties. The soliton solutions are comprised of two branches. One branch is sub-Alfvenic and the soliton velocity is obviously smaller than the Alfven speed. The other branch is super-Alfvenic and the soliton velocity is very close to or greater than the Alfven speed. Both compressive and rarefactive solitons can exist. For the sub-Alfvenic branch, the rarefactive soliton is bell-shaped and it is much narrower than the compressive one. However, for the super-Alfvenic branch, the compressive soliton is bell-shaped and narrower, and the rarefactive one is broadened. When the charge-to-mass ratio of the dust grains is sufficiently high, the width of the rarefactive soliton, in the super-Alfvenic branch, will broaden extremely and a electron depletion will be observed. It is also shown that the bell-shaped soliton can transition to a cusped structure when the velocity is sufficiently high.

Li Yangfang [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China); Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, 85748 Garching (Germany); Wu, D. J. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China); Morfill, G. E. [Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2008-08-15

25

Plasma kinetics in ethanol/water/air mixture in a 'tornado'-type electrical discharge

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a theoretical and experimental study of plasma-assisted reforming of ethanol into molecular hydrogen in a modified 'tornado'-type electrical discharge. Numerical modelling clarifies the nature of non-thermal conversion and explains the kinetic mechanism of non-equilibrium plasma chemical transformations in the gas-liquid system and the evolution of hydrogen during the reforming as a function of discharge parameters and ethanol-to-water ratio in the mixture. We also propose a scheme of chemical reactions for plasma kinetics description. It is shown that some characteristics of the investigated reactor are at least not inferior to the characteristics of other plasma chemical reactors.

Levko, D.; Shchedrin, A.; Chernyak, V.; Olszewski, S.; Nedybaliuk, O.

2011-04-01

26

Detailed and reduced chemical-kinetic descriptions for hydrocarbon combustion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical and theoretical studies of autoignition processes of fuels such as propane are in need of realistic simplified chemical-kinetic descriptions that retain the essential features of the detailed descriptions. These descriptions should be computationally feasible and cost-effective. Such descriptions are useful for investigating ignition processes that occur, for example, in homogeneous-charge compression-ignition engines, for studying the structures and dynamics of detonations and in fields such as multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Reduced chemistry has previously been developed successfully for a number of other hydrocarbon fuels, however, propane has not been considered in this manner. This work focuses on the fuels of propane, as well propene, allene and propyne, for several reasons. The ignition properties of propane resemble those of other higher hydrocarbons but are different from those of the lower hydrocarbons (e.g. ethylene and acetylene). Propane, therefore, may be the smallest hydrocarbon that is representative of higher hydrocarbons in ignition and detonation processes. Since the overall activation energy and ignition times for propane are similar to those of other higher hydrocarbons, including liquid fuels that are suitable for many applications, propane has been used as a model fuel for several numerical and experimental studies. The reason for studying elementary chemistry of propene and C3H4 (allene or propyne) is that during the combustion process, propane breaks down to propene and C3H4 before proceeding to products. Similarly, propene combustion includes C3H4 chemistry. In studying propane combustion, it is therefore necessary to understand the underlying combustion chemistry of propene as well as C3H 4. The first part of this thesis focuses on obtaining and testing a detailed chemical-kinetic description for autoignition of propane, propene and C 3H4, by comparing predictions obtained with this detailed mechanism against numerous experimental data available from shock-tube studies and flame-speed measurements. To keep the detailed mechanism small, attention is restricted to pressures below about 100 atm, temperatures above about 1000 K and equivalence ratios less than about 3. Based on this detailed chemistry description, short (or skeletal) mechanisms are then obtained for each of the three fuels by eliminating reactions that are unimportant for the autoignition process under conditions presented above. This was achieved by utilizing tools such as sensitivity and reaction pathway analyses. Two distinct methodologies were then used in order to obtain a reduced mechanism for autoignition from the short mechanisms. A Systematic Reduction approach is first taken that involves introducing steady-state approximations to as many species as analytically possible. To avoid resorting to numerical methods, the analysis for obtaining ignition times for heptane, presented by Peters and co-workers is followed in order to obtain a rough estimate for an expression of propane ignition time. The results from this expression are then compared to the ignition times obtained computationally with the detailed mechanism. The second method is an Empirical Approach in which chemistry is not derived formally, but rather postulated empirically on the basis of experimental, computational and theoretical observations. As a result, generalized reduced mechanisms are proposed for autoignition of propane, propene and C3H 4. Expressions for ignition times obtained via this empirical approach are compared to the computational results obtained from the detailed mechanism.

Petrova, Maria V.

27

A new technique to study plasma chemistry kinetics

Accurate kinetics of plasma processes are necessary for modeling of the chemistry occurring in the upper atmosphere, re-entry, combustion, and discharges. While a great deal of data exists in the literature for most types of plasma chemistry processes, there remain gaps for reactions less amenable to traditional measurements. In particular ion-ion mutual neutralization reactions have received relatively little study, and

Nicholas S. Shuman; Thomas M. Miller; Raymond Bemish; Albert A. Viggiano

2011-01-01

28

Kinetic study of ion-acoustic plasma vortices

The kinetic theory of electron plasma waves with finite orbital angular momentum has recently been introduced by Mendonca. This model shows possibility of new kind of plasma waves and instabilities. We have extended the theory to ion-acoustic plasma vortices carrying orbital angular momentum. The dispersion equation is derived under paraxial approximation which exhibits a kind of linear vortices and their Landau damping. The numerical solutions are obtained and compared with analytical results which are in good agreement. The physical interpretation of the ion-acoustic plasma vortices and their Landau resonance conditions are given for typical case of Maxwellian plasmas.

Khan, S. A. [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Aman-ur-Rehman, E-mail: amansadiq@gmail.com [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Mendonca, J. T. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Téchnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

2014-09-15

29

Kinetic treatment of nonlinear magnetized plasma motions - General geometry and parallel waves

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The expansion of kinetic equations in the limit of a strong magnetic field is presented. This gives a natural description of the motions of magnetized plasmas, which are slow compared to the particle gyroperiods and gyroradii. Although the approach is 3D, this very general result is used only to focus on the parallel propagation of nonlinear Alfven waves. The derivative nonlinear Schroedinger-like equation is obtained. Two new terms occur compared to earlier treatments, a nonlinear term proportional to the heat flux along the magnetic field line and a higher-order dispersive term. It is shown that kinetic description avoids the singularities occurring in magnetohydrodynamic or multifluid approaches, which correspond to the degenerate case of sound speeds equal to the Alfven speed, and that parallel heat fluxes cannot be neglected, not even in the case of low parallel plasma beta. A truly stationary soliton solution is derived.

Khabibrakhmanov, I. KH.; Galinskii, V. L.; Verheest, F.

1992-01-01

30

Pedestal Fueling Simulations with a Coupled Kinetic-kinetic Plasma-neutral Transport Code

A Monte Carlo neutral transport routine, based on DEGAS2, has been coupled to the guiding center ion-electron-neutral neoclassical PIC code XGC0 to provide a realistic treatment of neutral atoms and molecules in the tokamak edge plasma. The DEGAS2 routine allows detailed atomic physics and plasma-material interaction processes to be incorporated into these simulations. The spatial pro le of the neutral particle source used in the DEGAS2 routine is determined from the uxes of XGC0 ions to the material surfaces. The kinetic-kinetic plasma-neutral transport capability is demonstrated with example pedestal fueling simulations.

D.P. Stotler, C.S. Chang, S.H. Ku, J. Lang and G.Y. Park

2012-08-29

31

Surface kinetics and plasma equipment model for Si etching by fluorocarbon plasmas

the properties of the bulk plasma. To address this coupling of bulk and surface processes the surface kinetics with the goal of combining plasma chemistry and surface chemistry in a self-consistent fashion. The SKM obtains processing is towards the use of low pressure, high plasma density etching reactors in which re- active

Kushner, Mark

32

Global limits on kinetic Alfvenon speed in quasineutral plasmas

Large-amplitude kinetic Alfvenon (exact Alfven soliton) matching condition is investigated in quasineutral electron-ion and electron-positron-ion plasmas immersed in a uniform magnetic field. Using the standard pseudopotential method, the magnetohydrodynamics equations are exactly solved, and a global allowed matching condition for propagation of kinetic solitary waves is derived. It is remarked that, depending on the plasma parameters, the kinetic solitons can be sub-Alfvenic or super-Alfvenic, in general. It is further revealed that, either upper or lower soliton speed-limit is independent of fractional plasma parameters. Furthermore, the soliton propagation angle with respect to that of the uniform magnetic field is found to play a fundamental role in controlling the soliton matching speed-range.

Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, 51745-406 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-04-15

33

Kinetic theory and simulation of multi-species plasmas in tokamaks excited with ICRF microwaves

This paper presents a description of a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck quasilinear model for the kinetic description of tokamak plasmas. The non-linear collision and quasilinear resonant diffusion operators are represented in a form conducive to numerical solution with specific attention to the treatment of the boundary layer separating trapped and passing orbit regions of velocity space. The numerical techniques employed are detailed in so far as they constitute significant departure from those used in the conventional uniform magnetic field case. Examples are given to illustrate the combined effects of collisional and resonant diffusion.

Kerbel, G.D.; McCoy, M.G.

1984-12-21

34

General kinetic description of multioxide silicate mineral and glass dissolution

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolution mechanisms of multioxide silicate minerals and glasses differ from those of single (hydr)oxides because their dissolution may require the breaking of more than one metal-oxygen bond type. A general kinetic description of major rock forming multioxide silicate dissolution is developed in the present study by assuming the following: (1) the relative rates at which various metal-oxygen bonds are broken within a multioxide structure are consistent with the relative dissolution rates of the single (hydr)oxides; (2) the difference in the rates of breaking each metal-oxygen bond type is sufficiently large such that the reaction breaking one bond type can attain equilibrium before breaking substantial quantities of slower breaking metal-oxygen bonds; and (3) those metal oxygen bonds that break before the final destruction of the structure liberate metal atoms via metal-proton exchange reactions. Multioxide dissolution proceeds via a series of metal-proton exchange reactions until the mineral or glass structure is destroyed. This metal-proton exchange reaction sequence is shown to be consistent with leached layer compositions at acidic conditions. The last metal-proton exchange reaction in the series is slowest and thus rate controlling. Of these slowest exchanging metals, those partially freed from the structure by being adjacent to previously exchanged metals are liberated faster than those completely attached to the mineral or glass and thus constitute the rate-controlling precursor complex. The identity and reactions forming this precursor complex are used within the context of transition-state theory to derive equations that describe accurately the dissolution rates of the major rock-forming multioxide silicate minerals and glasses as a function of solution composition over the full range of chemical affinity.

Oelkers, Eric H.

2001-11-01

35

Simulations of Magnetic Reconnection - Kinetic Mechanisms Underlying the Fluid Description of Ions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of its ability to transfer the energy stored in magnetic field together with the breaking of the flux freezing constraint, magnetic reconnection is considered as one of the most important phenomena in plasma physics. When it happens in a collision less environment such as the terrestrial magnetosphere, it should a priori be modelled with in the framework of kinetic physics. The evidence of kinetic features has incidentally for a long time, been shown by researchers with the help of both numerical simulations and satellite observations. However, most of our understanding of the process comes from the more intuitive fluid interpretation with simple closure hypothesis which do not include kinetic effects. To what extent are these two separate descriptions of the same phenomenon related? What is the role of kinetic effects in the averaged/fluid dynamics of reconnection? This thesis addresses these questions for the proton population in the particular case of anti parallel merging with the help of 2D Hybrid simulations. We show that one can not assume, as is usually done, that the acceleration of the proton flow is only due to the Laplace force. Our results show, for symmetric and asymmetric connection, the importance of the pressure force, opposed to the electric one on the separatrices, in the decoupling region. In the symmetric case, we emphasize the kinetic origin of this force by analyzing the proton distribution functions and explain their structure by studying the underlying particle dynamics. Protons, as individual particles, are shown to bounce in the electric potential well created by the Hall effect. The spatial divergence of this well results in a mixing in phase space responsible for the observed structure of the pressure tensor. A detailed energy budget analysis confirms the role of the pressure force for the acceleration; but, contrary to what is sometimes assumed, it also reveals that the major part of the incoming Poynting flux is transferred to the thermal energy flux rather than to the convective kinetic energy flux, although the latter is generally supposed dominant. In the symmetric case, we propose the pressure tensor to be an additional proxy of the ion decoupling region in satellite data and verify this suggestion by studying a reconnection event encountered by the Cluster spacecrafts. Finally, the last part of this thesis is devoted to the study of the kinetic structure of asymmetric tangential current sheets where connection can develop. This theoretical part consists in finding a steady state solution to the Vlasov-Maxwell system for the protons in such a configuration. We present the theory and its first confrontation to numerical tests.

Aunai, icolas; Belmont, Gerard; Smets, Roch

2012-01-01

36

Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus

Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions, x-rays, and neutrons. Megajoule-scale DPFs can generate 10{sup 12} neutrons per pulse in deuterium gas through a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However, the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously, we reported on the first fully kinetic simulations of a kilojoule-scale DPF and demonstrated that both kinetic ions and kinetic electrons are needed to reproduce experimentally observed features, such as charged-particle beam formation and anomalous resistivity. Here, we present the first fully kinetic simulation of a MegaJoule DPF, with predicted ion and neutron spectra, neutron anisotropy, neutron spot size, and time history of neutron production. The total yield predicted by the simulation is in agreement with measured values, validating the kinetic model in a second energy regime.

Schmidt, A.; Link, A.; Tang, V.; Halvorson, C.; May, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore California 94550 (United States); Welch, D. [Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States); Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada 89030 (United States)

2014-10-15

37

Nonlocal, Kinetic Stimulated Raman Scattering in Nonuniform Plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excitation of continuously phase-locked (autoresonant) plasma waves in a nonuniform plasma via stimulated Raman backscattering is analyzed with a focus on the kinetic regime (k?D˜1). The dominant nonlinear effect in this regime is that of resonant particles and the plasma wave excitation is a nonlocal process involving formation and transport of the electron phase space holes. Whitham's averaged variational principle is applied in studying the coupled plasma, laser pump and seed waves dynamics. A flat-top electron velocity distribution is used as the simplest model allowing a variational formulation within the water bag theory. The corresponding Lagrangian, averaged over the fast phase variable, yields evolution equations for the slow field variables. The adiabatic multiple water bag extension of the theory for application to autoresonant plasma waves in nonuniform plasmas with more realistic initial distributions is also discussed. Numerical solutions of the system of slow variational equations are compared with Vlasov-Ampere simulations.

Khain, Pavel; Friedland, Lazar; Shagalov, Arkadiy; Wurtele, Jonathan

2012-10-01

38

The possible occurrence of equilibrium off-equatorial tori in the gravitational and electromagnetic fields of astrophysical compact objects has been recently proved based on non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory. These stationary structures can represent plausible candidates for the modeling of coronal plasmas expected to arise in association with accretion disks. However, accretion disk coronae are formed by a highly diluted environment, and so the fluid description may be inappropriate. The question is posed of whether similar off-equatorial solutions can also be determined in the case of collisionless plasmas for which treatment based on kinetic theory, rather than a fluid one, is demanded. In this paper the issue is addressed in the framework of the Vlasov-Maxwell description for non-relativistic, multi-species axisymmetric plasmas subject to an external dominant spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic field. Equilibrium configurations are investigated and explicit solutions for the species kinetic distribution function are constructed, which are expressed in terms of generalized Maxwellian functions characterized by isotropic temperature and non-uniform fluid fields. The conditions for the existence of off-equatorial tori are investigated. It is proved that these levitating systems are admitted under general conditions when both gravitational and magnetic fields contribute to shaping the spatial profiles of equilibrium plasma fluid fields. Then, specifically, kinetic effects carried by the equilibrium solution are explicitly provided and identified here with diamagnetic energy-correction and electrostatic contributions. It is shown that these kinetic terms characterize the plasma equation of state by introducing non-vanishing deviations from the assumption of thermal pressure.

Cremaschini, Claudio; Ková?, Ji?í; Slaný, Petr; Stuchlík, Zden?k [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nám.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic); Karas, Vladimír [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences, Bo?ní II, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic)

2013-11-01

39

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of bumpy torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied included the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings, the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.

Roth, J. R.

1976-01-01

40

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power-law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of the potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied include the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings (and hence the direction of the radial electric field), the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.

Roth, J. R.

1976-01-01

41

Macroscopic Quantum Electrodynamics of a Plasma Model: Derivation of the Vlasov Kinetics

Macroscopic Quantum Electrodynamics of a Plasma Model: Derivation of the Vlasov Kinetics derive the largeÂscale Vlasov kinetics of a plasma model from its underlying quantum electrodynamics with the extraction of the largeÂscale kinetics of a plasma model from its underlying quantum electrodynamics

42

The kinetic description of relativistic plasmas in the presence of time-varying and spatially non-uniform electromagnetic (EM) fields is a fundamental theoretical issue both in astrophysics and plasma physics. This refers, in particular, to the treatment of collisionless and strongly-magnetized plasmas in the presence of intense radiation sources. In this paper, the problem is investigated in the framework of a covariant gyrokinetic treatment for Vlasov–Maxwell equilibria. The existence of a new class of kinetic equilibria is pointed out, which occur for spatially-symmetric systems. These equilibria are shown to exist in the presence of non-uniform background EM fields and curved space-time. In the non-relativistic limit, this feature permits the determination of kinetic equilibria even for plasmas in which particle energy is not conserved due to the occurrence of explicitly time-dependent EM fields. Finally, absolute stability criteria are established which apply in the case of infinitesimal symmetric perturbations that can be either externally or internally produced.

Cremaschini, Claudio, E-mail: claudiocremaschini@gmail.com; Stuchlík, Zden?k [Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nám.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)] [Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nám.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic); Tessarotto, Massimo [Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nám.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic) [Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nám.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic); Department of Mathematics and Geosciences, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 12, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

2014-03-15

43

Kinetic description of fermion production in the oscillator representation

We investigate the fermion creation in quantum kinetic theory by applying ``oscillator representation'' approach, which was earlier developed for bosonic systems. We show that in some particular cases (Yukawa-like interaction, fixed direction of external vector field) resulting Kinetic Equation (KE) reduces to KE obtained by time-dependent Bogoliubov transformation method. We conclude ``oscillator representation'' approach to be more universal for the derivation of quantum transport equations in strong space-homogeneous time-dependent fields. We discuss some possible applications of obtained KE to cosmology and particle production in strong laser fields.

V. N. Pervushin; V. V. Skokov

2006-11-25

44

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of formulating a kinetic treatment for quasi-stationary collisionless plasmas in axisymmetric systems subject to the possibly independent presence of local strong velocity-shear and supersonic rotation velocities is posed. The theory is developed in the framework of the Vlasov-Maxwell description for multi-species non-relativistic plasmas. Applications to astrophysical accretion discs arising around compact objects and to plasmas in laboratory devices are considered. Explicit solutions for the equilibrium kinetic distribution function (KDF) are constructed based on the identification of the relevant particle adiabatic invariants. These are shown to be expressed in terms of generalized non-isotropic Gaussian distributions. A suitable perturbative theory is then developed which allows for the treatment of non-uniform strong velocity-shear/supersonic plasmas. This yields a series representation for the equilibrium KDF in which the leading-order term depends on both a finite set of fluid fields as well as on the gradients of an appropriate rotational frequency. Constitutive equations for the fluid number density, flow velocity, and pressure tensor are explicitly calculated. As a notable outcome, the discovery of a new mechanism for generating temperature and pressure anisotropies is pointed out, which represents a characteristic feature of plasmas considered here. This is shown to arise as a consequence of the canonical momentum conservation and to contribute to the occurrence of temperature anisotropy in combination with the adiabatic conservation of the particle magnetic moment. The physical relevance of the result and the implications of the kinetic solution for the self-generation of quasi-stationary electrostatic and magnetic fields through a kinetic dynamo are discussed.

Cremaschini, Claudio; Stuchlík, Zden?k; Tessarotto, Massimo

2013-05-01

45

The problem of formulating a kinetic treatment for quasi-stationary collisionless plasmas in axisymmetric systems subject to the possibly independent presence of local strong velocity-shear and supersonic rotation velocities is posed. The theory is developed in the framework of the Vlasov-Maxwell description for multi-species non-relativistic plasmas. Applications to astrophysical accretion discs arising around compact objects and to plasmas in laboratory devices are considered. Explicit solutions for the equilibrium kinetic distribution function (KDF) are constructed based on the identification of the relevant particle adiabatic invariants. These are shown to be expressed in terms of generalized non-isotropic Gaussian distributions. A suitable perturbative theory is then developed which allows for the treatment of non-uniform strong velocity-shear/supersonic plasmas. This yields a series representation for the equilibrium KDF in which the leading-order term depends on both a finite set of fluid fields as well as on the gradients of an appropriate rotational frequency. Constitutive equations for the fluid number density, flow velocity, and pressure tensor are explicitly calculated. As a notable outcome, the discovery of a new mechanism for generating temperature and pressure anisotropies is pointed out, which represents a characteristic feature of plasmas considered here. This is shown to arise as a consequence of the canonical momentum conservation and to contribute to the occurrence of temperature anisotropy in combination with the adiabatic conservation of the particle magnetic moment. The physical relevance of the result and the implications of the kinetic solution for the self-generation of quasi-stationary electrostatic and magnetic fields through a kinetic dynamo are discussed.

Cremaschini, Claudio; Stuchlík, Zden?k [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nám.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)] [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nám.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic); Tessarotto, Massimo [Department of Mathematics and Geosciences, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 12, 34127 Trieste (Italy)] [Department of Mathematics and Geosciences, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 12, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

2013-05-15

46

Nonlocal kinetics of the electrons in a low-pressure afterglow plasma

Low-pressure pulsed plasmas are widely used in various technological applications. Understanding of the phenomena taking place in afterglow phase of the discharge makes possible the optimization of the operation conditions and improvement of the technical parameters. At low pressure the electron component of the plasma determines the main features of the discharge since its behavior dominates all other plasma properties. We study the electron kinetics in a low-pressure afterglow plasma of an inductively coupled discharge by means of a self-consistent model which uses the nonlocal kinetic approach. The main features of the model are given. Special attention is paid to determination of the steady state of the discharge from which the decay of the plasma begins. Emphasis is also put on the description of the collisional interaction between the electrons and gas. Results of theoretical investigations for argon at a pressure of 2-4 Pa are presented. Calculated temporal evolutions of the isotropic part of the electron velocity distribution function, electron density, mean electron energy, and wall potential are discussed in comparison with experimental data.

Gorchakov, Sergey; Uhrlandt, Dirk; Hebert, Michael J.; Kortshagen, Uwe [INP Greifswald, Fr.-L.-Jahn-Strasse 19, Greifswald 17489 (Germany); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, 111 Church Street Southeast, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

2006-05-15

47

Kinetic Alfvén solitary and rogue waves in superthermal plasmas

We investigate the small but finite amplitude solitary Kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) in low ? plasmas with superthermal electrons modeled by a kappa-type distribution. A nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation describing the evolution of KAWs is derived by using the standard reductive perturbation method. Examining the dependence of the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients of the KdV equation on the superthermal parameter ?, plasma ?, and obliqueness of propagation, we show that these parameters may change substantially the shape and size of solitary KAW pulses. Only sub-Alfvénic, compressive solitons are supported. We then extend the study to examine kinetic Alfvén rogue waves by deriving a nonlinear Schrödinger equation from the KdV equation. Rational solutions that form rogue wave envelopes are obtained. We examine how the behavior of rogue waves depends on the plasma parameters in question, finding that the rogue envelopes are lowered with increasing electron superthermality whereas the opposite is true when the plasma ? increases. The findings of this study may find applications to low ? plasmas in astrophysical environments where particles are superthermally distributed.

Bains, A. S.; Li, Bo, E-mail: bbl@sdu.edu.cn; Xia, Li-Dong [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, 264209 Weihai (China)] [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, 264209 Weihai (China)

2014-03-15

48

Kinetic Alfvén solitary and rogue waves in superthermal plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the small but finite amplitude solitary Kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) in low ? plasmas with superthermal electrons modeled by a kappa-type distribution. A nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation describing the evolution of KAWs is derived by using the standard reductive perturbation method. Examining the dependence of the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients of the KdV equation on the superthermal parameter ?, plasma ?, and obliqueness of propagation, we show that these parameters may change substantially the shape and size of solitary KAW pulses. Only sub-Alfvénic, compressive solitons are supported. We then extend the study to examine kinetic Alfvén rogue waves by deriving a nonlinear Schrödinger equation from the KdV equation. Rational solutions that form rogue wave envelopes are obtained. We examine how the behavior of rogue waves depends on the plasma parameters in question, finding that the rogue envelopes are lowered with increasing electron superthermality whereas the opposite is true when the plasma ? increases. The findings of this study may find applications to low ? plasmas in astrophysical environments where particles are superthermally distributed.

Bains, A. S.; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong

2014-03-01

49

Species separation and kinetic effects in collisional plasma shocks

The properties of collisional shock waves propagating in uniform plasmas are studied with ion-kinetic calculations, in both slab and spherical geometry and for the case of one and two ion species. Despite the presence of an electric field at the shock front—and in contrast to the case where an interface is initially present [C. Bellei et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 044702 (2013)]—essentially no ion reflection at the shock front is observed due to collisions, with a probability of reflection ?10{sup ?4} for the cases presented. A kinetic two-ion-species spherical convergent shock is studied in detail and compared against an average-species calculation, confirming effects of species separation and differential heating of the ion species at the shock front. The effect of different ion temperatures on the DT and D{sup 3}He fusion reactivity is discussed in the fluid limit and is estimated to be moderately important.

Bellei, C., E-mail: bellei1@llnl.gov; Wilks, S. C.; Amendt, P. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Rinderknecht, H.; Zylstra, A.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2014-05-15

50

Species separation and kinetic effects in collisional plasma shocksa)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of collisional shock waves propagating in uniform plasmas are studied with ion-kinetic calculations, in both slab and spherical geometry and for the case of one and two ion species. Despite the presence of an electric field at the shock front—and in contrast to the case where an interface is initially present [C. Bellei et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 044702 (2013)]—essentially no ion reflection at the shock front is observed due to collisions, with a probability of reflection ?10-4 for the cases presented. A kinetic two-ion-species spherical convergent shock is studied in detail and compared against an average-species calculation, confirming effects of species separation and differential heating of the ion species at the shock front. The effect of different ion temperatures on the DT and D3He fusion reactivity is discussed in the fluid limit and is estimated to be moderately important.

Bellei, C.; Rinderknecht, H.; Zylstra, A.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Wilks, S. C.; Amendt, P. A.

2014-05-01

51

On bias of kinetic temperature measurements in complex plasmas

The kinetic temperature in complex plasmas is often measured using particle tracking velocimetry. Here, we introduce a criterion which minimizes the probability of faulty tracking of particles with normally distributed random displacements in consecutive frames. Faulty particle tracking results in a measurement bias of the deduced velocity distribution function and hence the deduced kinetic temperature. For particles with a normal velocity distribution function, mistracking biases the obtained velocity distribution function towards small velocities at the expense of large velocities, i.e., the inferred velocity distribution is more peaked and its tail is less pronounced. The kinetic temperature is therefore systematically underestimated in measurements. We give a prescription to mitigate this type of error.

Kantor, M. [Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany) [Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Association Euratom-FOM Institute DIFFER, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Ioffe Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Moseev, D., E-mail: dmitry.moseev@ipp.mpg.de [Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Association Euratom-FOM Institute DIFFER, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Salewski, M. [Association Euratom-DTU, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Ris o Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)] [Association Euratom-DTU, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Ris o Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

2014-02-15

52

Mixed particle-grid method for kinetic simulation of plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Latest development of a hybrid PIC-Vlasov method [1] for the kinetic modeling of collisionless plasmas is presented. Such plasma system is described by Poisson equation for self-consistent electric potential, and by set of Vlasov equations for electron and ionic plasma species. Traditional approach uses either PIC or Vlasov method. PIC suffers from high statistical noise, while Vlasov shows high numerical diffusion. New hybrid method combines best features of the two methods, while suppressing both numerical noise and diffusion. A comparison of various methods will be given for a few model problems raging from beam-plasma system [2] to plasma-wall interaction. First results of coupling new particle-mesh method with adaptive RRC method, which utilizes adaptive grid refinement and coarsening will be reported. [1] O.Batishchev , Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Num. Sim. of Plasmas, Banff, Canada, May 2000, p.24; [2] O.Batishchev et al., Bull. Aps 45 (7) DPP/ICPP 2000 Meeting, Quebec City, Canada, Bull. APS 45 (7) 72, 2000; [3] A.Batishcheva and O.Batishchev, Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Num. Sim. of Plasmas, p.29, 2000.

Batishchev, Oleg

2001-06-01

53

Kinetics of low-temperature plasmas for plasma-assisted combustion and aerodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetic processes in a weakly ionized non-equilibrium plasma are considered under conditions that are typical for plasma-assisted ignition/combustion and flow control. The focus is on the simulation of active species production that leads to ignition delay reduction, flame stabilization and expansion of the flammability limit of combustible mixtures. We discuss the lack of information on electron cross sections for hydrocarbons and the accuracy of widely used approaches to simulate kinetics of active species production in air and combustible mixtures. Fast gas heating after a high-voltage nanosecond discharge is studied for various gas mixtures and reduced electric fields. We analyze the effect of negative ions generated in the afterglow of a high-voltage discharge with regard to plasma-assisted ignition and plasma aerodynamics application.

Aleksandrov, N. L.; Kindysheva, S. V.; Kochetov, I. V.

2014-02-01

54

Quantitative description of realistic wealth distributions by kinetic trading models

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on wealth distributions in trading markets show a power law behavior x-(1+?) at the high end, where, in general, ? is greater than 1 (Pareto’s law). Models based on kinetic theory, where a set of interacting agents trade money, yield power law tails if agents are assigned a saving propensity. In this paper we are solving the inverse problem, that is, in finding the saving propensity distribution which yields a given wealth distribution for all wealth ranges. This is done explicitly for two recently published and comprehensive wealth datasets.

Lammoglia, Nelson; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Toledo, Benjamín; Zarama, Roberto; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

2008-10-01

55

Quantum kinetic theory of plasmas in strong laser fields D. Kremp, Th. Bornath, and M. Bonitz

Quantum kinetic theory of plasmas in strong laser fields D. Kremp, Th. Bornath, and M. Bonitz recently, kinetic properties of dense quantum plasmas in strong static fields have been investigated 10 Received 9 February 1999 A kinetic theory for quantum many-particle systems in time

Bonitz, Michael

56

Fluid description of multi-component solar partially ionized plasma

We derive self-consistent formalism for the description of multi-component partially ionized solar plasma, by means of the coupled equations for the charged and neutral components for an arbitrary number of chemical species, and the radiation field. All approximations and assumptions are carefully considered. Generalized Ohm's law is derived for the single-fluid and two-fluid formalism. Our approach is analytical with some order-of-magnitude support calculations. After general equations are developed, we particularize to some frequently considered cases as for the interaction of matter and radiation.

Khomenko, E., E-mail: khomenko@iac.es; Collados, M.; Vitas, N. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Díaz, A. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

2014-09-15

57

Kinetic phenomena in charged particle transport in gases and plasmas

The key difference between equilibrium (thermal) and non-equilibrium (low temperature - a.k.a. cold) plasmas is in the degree in which the shape of the cross sections influences the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). In this paper we will discuss the issue of kinetic phenomena from two different angles. The first will be how to take advantage of the strong influence and use low current data to obtain the cross sections. This is also known as the swarm technique and the product of a ''swarm analysis'' is a set of cross sections giving good number, momentum and energy balances of electrons or other charged particles. At the same time understanding the EEDF is based on the cross section data. Nevertheless sometimes the knowledge of the cross sections and even the behaviour of individual particles are insufficient to explain collective behaviour of the ensemble. The resulting ''kinetic'' effects may be used to favour certain properties of non-equilibrium plasmas and even may be used as the basis of some new plasma applications.

Petrovic, Zoran Lj.; Dujko, Sasa; Sasic, Olivera; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Malovic, Gordana [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 68 11080 Zemun (Serbia); Faculty of Traffic Engineering, University of Belgrade Belgrade (Serbia); Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 68 11080 Zemun (Serbia)

2012-05-25

58

Phase Transition in Dusty Plasmas: A Microphysical Description

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dust grains immersed in plasma discharges acquire a large negative charge and settle into a dust cloud at the edge of the sheath. In this region, the plasma ions stream toward the electrode at a velocity u approx. cs=(T(sub e)/m(sub i))(exp 1/2). Experimentally at sufficiently high gas pressure P, the random kinetic energy of the grains is damped by gas friction, and the grains are strongly coupled and self-organize into a crystalline configuration. For lower pressures despite the dissipation of grain kinetic energy to gas friction, the dust grains reach a steady-state kinetic temperature T(sub d) which is much larger than the temperature of any other component in the plasma. T(sub d) is so large that the dust acts like a fluid. We have used the dynamically shielded dust (DSD) model to simulate these physical processes. We find that the known experimental features are nicely reproduced in the simulations, and that additional features are revealed. In the figure we plot the variation of T(sub d) as P is continuously varied in a DSD code run. A marked difference is evident between the critical pressure P(sub m) for the melting transition as P is decreased, and the critical pressure P(sub c) for the condensation transition as P is increased. For P(sub m) is less than P is less than P(sub c), mixed phase states are seen. This hysteresis occurs because the instability which triggers melting is different from the instability that heats the dust in the fluid phase and inhibits freezing. At low pressure, the dust is subject to a two-stream instability with the ions. This instability is responsible for the high temperature of the dust at low pressure. The basic physics underlying the melting transition has been elucidated in a series of papers. We are developing a first-principles analytic approach to the melting transition, which embodies the same physics that is present in the DSD code.

Joyce, Glenn; Ganguli, Gurudas; Lampe, Martin

2002-01-01

59

Propagation of radiation in fluctuating multiscale plasmas. II. Kinetic simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical algorithm is developed and tested that implements the kinetic treatment of electromagnetic radiation propagating through plasmas whose properties have small scale fluctuations, which was developed in a companion paper. This method incorporates the effects of refraction, damping, mode structure, and other aspects of large-scale propagation of electromagnetic waves on the distribution function of quanta in position and wave vector, with small-scale effects of nonuniformities, including scattering and mode conversion approximated as causing drift and diffusion in wave vector. Numerical solution of the kinetic equation yields the distribution function of radiation quanta in space, time, and wave vector. Simulations verify the convergence, accuracy, and speed of the methods used to treat each term in the equation. The simulations also illustrate the main physical effects and place the results in a form that can be used in future applications.

Pal Singh, Kunwar; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.; Tyshetskiy, Yu.

2012-11-01

60

Adaptive Kinetic Simulation of Plasma Propulsion by Laser Ablation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CPA Ti:Sa lasers can generate 10-30fs, ˜1-10mJ pulses at a ˜10KHz repetition rate, opening a wide range of average exerted forces against solid density targets. Estimates show that at 1KW mean power the reactive force of about 1mN is achievable. We are trying to assess via numerical simulation the prospects of thrust production using ultrafast target ablation. An adaptive kinetic method is being presently developed. It simulates self-consistent electromagnetic wave propagation, solid target ionization, laser light absorption by plasma, and plume formation and expansion. High accuracy, careful resolution of sharp fronts and shocks, and large simulation domain capability are achieved by combining adaptive grid RRC method with PIC-Vlasov hybrid approach. Possible thrust generation under various conditions and configurations is studied numerically. Results of our kinetic modeling will be presented and discussed. *This work is supported by US AFRL

Batishcheva, Alla; Batishchev, Oleg

2004-11-01

61

Propagation of radiation in fluctuating multiscale plasmas. II. Kinetic simulations

A numerical algorithm is developed and tested that implements the kinetic treatment of electromagnetic radiation propagating through plasmas whose properties have small scale fluctuations, which was developed in a companion paper. This method incorporates the effects of refraction, damping, mode structure, and other aspects of large-scale propagation of electromagnetic waves on the distribution function of quanta in position and wave vector, with small-scale effects of nonuniformities, including scattering and mode conversion approximated as causing drift and diffusion in wave vector. Numerical solution of the kinetic equation yields the distribution function of radiation quanta in space, time, and wave vector. Simulations verify the convergence, accuracy, and speed of the methods used to treat each term in the equation. The simulations also illustrate the main physical effects and place the results in a form that can be used in future applications.

Pal Singh, Kunwar; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.; Tyshetskiy, Yu. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

2012-11-15

62

Kinetic theory of low-frequency cross-field instability in a weakly ionized plasma. I

A consistent kinetic theory is developed for the description of electrons under conditions of a low-frequency two-stream {bold E}{times}{bold B} instability in collisionally dominated, weakly ionized plasmas. Starting from the Boltzmann collision integral, a simplified kinetic equation for the electron distribution function has been derived, which takes into account strong pitch-angle scattering of electrons by neutrals, velocity dependence of the electron--neutral collision frequency, etc. Linearized equations describing small oscillations of the electron distribution function and ion density are presented. For the asymptotic case of short waves, the dispersion relation of the {bold E}{times}{bold B} instability has been obtained and analyzed under conditions typical for the lower ionosphere. Under certain conditions, the rigorous kinetic consideration yields substantial changes in results compared to previous theories. The general approach may be applied to other linear and nonlinear low-frequency processes in a weakly ionized plasma. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Dimant, Y.S.; Sudan, R.N. [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

1995-04-01

63

Kinetic description of electron beams in the solar chromosphere

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We formulate the relativistic Fokker-Plank equation for a beam of accelerated electrons interacting with a partially ionized plasma. In our derivation we conserved those terms contributing to velocity diffusion and found that this effect cannot be neglected a priori. We compute the terms accounting for elastic and inelastic collisions with neutral hydrogen and helium. Collisions with neutral hydrogen are found to be dominant throughout the chromosphere, except at the uppermost layers close to the transition region. As an application, we compute the loss of energy and momentum for a power-law beam impinging on the solar chromosphere, for a particular case in which the Fokker-Planck equation can be integrated analytically. We find that most of the beam energy is deposited in a relatively thin region of the chromosphere, a result which is largely insensitive to the theoretical method employed to compute the energy deposition rate.

Gomez, Daniel O.; Mauas, Pablo J.

1992-01-01

64

Ultrahigh performance three-dimensional electromagnetic relativistic kinetic plasma simulation

The algorithms, implementation details, and applications of VPIC, a state-of-the-art first principles 3D electromagnetic relativistic kinetic particle-in-cell code, are discussed. Unlike most codes, VPIC is designed to minimize data motion, as, due to physical limitations (including the speed of light{exclamation_point}), moving data between and even within modern microprocessors is more time consuming than performing computations. As a result, VPIC has achieved unprecedented levels of performance. For example, VPIC can perform {approx}0.17 billion cold particles pushed and charge conserving accumulated per second per processor on IBM's Cell microprocessor--equivalent to sustaining Los Alamos's planned Roadrunner supercomputer at {approx}0.56 petaflop (quadrillion floating point operations per second). VPIC has enabled previously intractable simulations in numerous areas of plasma physics, including magnetic reconnection and laser plasma interactions; next generation supercomputers like Roadrunner will enable further advances.

Bowers, K. J.; Albright, B. J.; Yin, L.; Bergen, B.; Kwan, T. J. T. [Plasma Theory and Applications (X-1-PTA), Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F699, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2008-05-15

65

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weak collisionality typical of turbulence in many diffuse astrophysical plasmas invalidates an MHD description of the turbulent dynamics, motivating the development of a more comprehensive theory of kinetic turbulence. In particular, a kinetic approach is essential for the investigation of the physical mechanisms responsible for the dissipation of astrophysical turbulence and the resulting heating of the plasma. This chapter reviews the limitations of MHD turbulence theory and explains how kinetic considerations may be incorporated to obtain a kinetic theory for astrophysical plasma turbulence. Key questions about the nature of kinetic turbulence that drive current research efforts are identified. A comprehensive model of the kinetic turbulent cascade is presented, with a detailed discussion of each component of the model and a review of supporting and conflicting theoretical, numerical, and observational evidence.

Howes, Gregory G.

66

discharge Plasma flame chemistry reactions Path flux analysis Counterflow extinction Partially premixed processes in plasmaÂflame interactions [1Â17]. However, plasma assisted combustion involves strong couplingKinetic effects of non-equilibrium plasma-assisted methane oxidation on diffusion flame extinction

Ju, Yiguang

67

Complex (dusty) plasmas-kinetic studies of strong coupling phenomena

'Dusty plasmas' can be found almost everywhere-in the interstellar medium, in star and planet formation, in the solar system in the Earth's atmosphere, and in the laboratory. In astrophysical plasmas, the dust component accounts for only about 1% of the mass, nevertheless this component has a profound influence on the thermodynamics, the chemistry, and the dynamics. Important physical processes are charging, sputtering, cooling, light absorption, and radiation pressure, connecting electromagnetic forces to gravity. Surface chemistry is another important aspect. In the laboratory, there is great interest in industrial processes (e.g., etching, vapor deposition) and-at the fundamental level-in the physics of strong coupling phenomena. Here, the dust (or microparticles) are the dominant component of the multi-species plasma. The particles can be observed in real time and space, individually resolved at all relevant length and time scales. This provides an unprecedented means for studying self-organisation processes in many-particle systems, including the onset of cooperative phenomena. Due to the comparatively large mass of the microparticles (10{sup -12}to10{sup -9}g), precision experiments are performed on the ISS. The following topics will be discussed: Phase transitions, phase separation, electrorheology, flow phenomena including the onset of turbulence at the kinetic level.

Morfill, Gregor E.; Ivlev, Alexei V.; Thomas, Hubertus M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany)

2012-05-15

68

Kinetic studies of microinstabilities in toroidal plasmas: Simulation and theory

A comprehensive program for the development and use of particle simulation techniques for solving the gyrokinetic Vlasov-Maxwell equations on massively parallel computers has been carried out at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. This is a key element of our ongoing theoretical efforts to systematically investigate physics issues vital to understanding tokamak plasmas. In this paper, our focus is on spatial-gradient-driven microinstabilities. Their importance is supported by the recent progress in achieving a physics-based understanding of anomalous transport in toroidal systems which has been based on the proposition that these drift-type electrostatic modes dependent on ion temperature gradient (ITG) and trapped particle effects are dominant in the bulk (``confinement``) region. Although their presence is consistent with a number of significant confinement trends, results from high temperature tokamaks such as TFTR have highlighted the need for better insight into the nonlinear properties of such instabilities in long-mean-free-path plasmas. In addressing this general issue, we report important new results including (i) the first fully toroidal 3D gyrokinetic simulation of ITG modes and (ii) realistic toroidal eigenmode calculations demonstrating the unique capability to deal with large scale kinetic behavior extending over many rational surfaces. The effects of ITG modes (iii) on the inward pinch of impurities in 3D slab geometry and (iv) on the existence of microtearing modes in 2D slab are also discussed. Finally, (v) sheared toroidal flow effects on trapped-particle modes are presented.

Lee, W.W.; Haham, T.S.; Parker, S.E.; Perkins, F.W.; Rath, S.; Rewoldt, G.; Reynders, J.V.W.; Santoro, R.A.; Tang, W.M.

1992-12-01

69

Kinetic studies of microinstabilities in toroidal plasmas: Simulation and theory

A comprehensive program for the development and use of particle simulation techniques for solving the gyrokinetic Vlasov-Maxwell equations on massively parallel computers has been carried out at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. This is a key element of our ongoing theoretical efforts to systematically investigate physics issues vital to understanding tokamak plasmas. In this paper, our focus is on spatial-gradient-driven microinstabilities. Their importance is supported by the recent progress in achieving a physics-based understanding of anomalous transport in toroidal systems which has been based on the proposition that these drift-type electrostatic modes dependent on ion temperature gradient (ITG) and trapped particle effects are dominant in the bulk ( confinement'') region. Although their presence is consistent with a number of significant confinement trends, results from high temperature tokamaks such as TFTR have highlighted the need for better insight into the nonlinear properties of such instabilities in long-mean-free-path plasmas. In addressing this general issue, we report important new results including (i) the first fully toroidal 3D gyrokinetic simulation of ITG modes and (ii) realistic toroidal eigenmode calculations demonstrating the unique capability to deal with large scale kinetic behavior extending over many rational surfaces. The effects of ITG modes (iii) on the inward pinch of impurities in 3D slab geometry and (iv) on the existence of microtearing modes in 2D slab are also discussed. Finally, (v) sheared toroidal flow effects on trapped-particle modes are presented.

Lee, W.W.; Haham, T.S.; Parker, S.E.; Perkins, F.W.; Rath, S.; Rewoldt, G.; Reynders, J.V.W.; Santoro, R.A.; Tang, W.M.

1992-12-01

70

Electromagnetic effects of kinetic geodesic acoustic mode in tokamak plasmas

Electromagnetic effects of the kinetic geodesic acoustic modes (KGAMs) are numerically studied in low {beta}(= plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) tokamak plasmas. The parallel component of the perturbed vector potential is considered along with the electrostatic potential perturbation. The finite Larmor radius and finite orbit width of the ions as well as electron parallel dynamics are all taken into account. Systematic harmonic and ordering analysis is performed for collisionless damping of the KGAMs, assuming {beta}{approx}({kappa}{rho}{sub i}){sup 2}, where {kappa}and {rho}{sub i}are the radial component of the KGAM wave vector and the Larmor radius of the ions, respectively. It is found that the electron parallel dynamics enhances the damping of the electrostatic KGAM modes when the safety factor q is high. In addition, the electromagnetic (finite {beta} effect is revealed to enhance and weaken the damping of the modes in plasmas of low and high safety factor q{approx}2.0 and 5.5, respectively. The harmonic features of the KGAMs are discussed as well.

Wang Lingfeng; Shen, Y.; He, H. D. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Dong, J. Q. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

2011-05-15

71

Kinetic theory of instability-enhanced collective interactions in plasma

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A kinetic theory for collective interactions that accounts for electrostatic instabilities in unmagnetized plasmas is developed and applied to two unsolved problems in low-temperature plasma physics: Langmuir's paradox and determining the Bohm criterion for multiple-ion-species plasmas. The basic theory can be considered an extension of the Lenard-Balescu equation to include the effects of wave-particle scattering by instability-amplified fluctuations that originate from discrete particle motion. It can also be considered an extension of quasilinear theory that identifies the origin of fluctuations from discrete particle motion. Emphasis is placed on plasmas with convective instabilities that either propagate out of the domain of interest, or otherwise modify the distribution functions to limit the instability amplitude, before nonlinear amplitudes are reached. Specification of the discrete particle origin of instabilities allows one to show properties of the resultant collision operator that cannot be shown from conventional quasilinear theory (which does not specify an origin of fluctuations). Two important properties for the applications we consider are momentum conservation for collisions between individual species and that instabilities drive each species toward Maxwellian distributions. Langmuir's paradox is a measurement. of anomalous electron scattering rapidly establishing a Maxwellian distribution near the boundary of a gas discharge plasma with low temperature and pressure. We show that this may be explained by instability-enhanced scattering in the plasma-boundary transition region (presheath) where convective ion-acoustic instabilities are excited. These instabilities exponentially [˜ exp(2gammat)] enhance the electron-electron scattering frequency by more than two orders of magnitude, but convect out of the plasma before reaching nonlinear amplitudes. The Bohm criterion for multiple ion species is a single condition that ion flow speeds must obey at the sheath edge; but it is insufficient to determine the flow speed of individual species. We show that an instability-enhanced collisional friction, due to ion-ion streaming instabilities in the presheath, determines this criterion. In this case the strong frictional force modifies the equilibrium, which reduces the instability growth rate and limits the instability amplitude to a low enough level that the basic theory remains valid.

Baalrud, Scott David

72

of the charged particles is not significantly different from the kinetic energy of the neutral species. We refer in an otherwise neutral gas is referred to as plasma. If we apply a potential difference to plasma, the electric not move far between the collisions or the electric field is weak or both, the kinetic energy

Yeung, Man-Chung

73

Effects of Kinetic Processes in Shaping Io's Global Plasma Environment: A 3D Hybrid Model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral components in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter's corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io. The stationary simulation of this problem was done in the MHD and the electrodynamics approaches. One of the main significant results from the simplified two-fluid model simulations was a production of the structure of the double-peak in the magnetic field signature of the I0 flyby that could not be explained by standard MHD models. In this paper, we develop a method of kinetic ion simulation. This method employs the fluid description for electrons and neutrals whereas for ions multilevel, drift-kinetic and particle, approaches are used. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes. Our model provides much more accurate description for ion dynamics and allows us to take into account the realistic anisotropic ion distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations. The first results of such simulation of the dynamics of ions in the Io's environment are discussed in this paper.

Lipatov, Alexander S.; Combi, Michael R.

2004-01-01

74

Astrophysical plasmas in the surrounding of compact objects and subject to intense gravitational and electromagnetic fields are believed to give rise to relativistic regimes. Theoretical and observational evidences suggest that magnetized plasmas of this type are collisionless and can persist for long times (e.g., with respect to a distant observer, coordinate, time), while exhibiting geometrical structures characterized by the absence of well-defined spatial symmetries. In this paper, the problem is posed whether such configurations can correspond to some kind of kinetic equilibrium. The issue is addressed from a theoretical perspective in the framework of a covariant Vlasov statistical description, which relies on the method of invariants. For this purpose, a systematic covariant variational formulation of gyrokinetic theory is developed, which holds without requiring any symmetry condition on the background fields. As a result, an asymptotic representation of the relativistic particle magnetic moment is obtained from its formal exact solution, in terms of a suitably defined invariant series expansion parameter (perturbative representation). On such a basis, it is shown that spatially non-symmetric kinetic equilibria can actually be determined, an example being provided by Gaussian-like distributions. As an application, the physical mechanisms related to the occurrence of a non-vanishing equilibrium fluid 4-flow are investigated.

Cremaschini, Claudio, E-mail: claudiocremaschini@gmail.com; Stuchlík, Zden?k [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nám.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)] [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nám.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic); Tessarotto, Massimo [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nám.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic) [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nám.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic); Department of Mathematics and Geosciences, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 12, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

2014-05-15

75

Advances in petascale kinetic plasma simulation with VPIC and Roadrunner

VPIC, a first-principles 3d electromagnetic charge-conserving relativistic kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code, was recently adapted to run on Los Alamos's Roadrunner, the first supercomputer to break a petaflop (10{sup 15} floating point operations per second) in the TOP500 supercomputer performance rankings. They give a brief overview of the modeling capabilities and optimization techniques used in VPIC and the computational characteristics of petascale supercomputers like Roadrunner. They then discuss three applications enabled by VPIC's unprecedented performance on Roadrunner: modeling laser plasma interaction in upcoming inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), modeling short pulse laser GeV ion acceleration and modeling reconnection in magnetic confinement fusion experiments.

Bowers, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albright, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, Lin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daughton, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roytershteyn, Vadim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwan, Thomas J T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

76

D-Dimensional Radiative Plasma: A Kinetic Approach

The covariant kinetic approach for the radiative plasma, a mixture of a relativistic moving gas plus radiation quanta (photons, neutrinos, or gravitons) is generalized to D spatial dimensions. The operational and physical meaning of Eckart's temperature is reexamined and the D-dimensional expressions for the transport coefficients (heat conduction, bulk and shear viscosity) are explicitly evaluated to first order in the mean free time of the radiation quanta. Weinberg's conclusion that the mixture behaves like a relativistic imperfect simple fluid (in Eckart's formulation) depends neither on the number of spatial dimensions nor on the details of the collisional term. The case of Thomson scaterring is studied in detail, and some consequences for higher dimensional cosmologies are also discussed.

A. Maia Jr.; J. A. S. Lima

1996-10-31

77

Air plasma kinetics under the influence of sprites

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A full time-dependent kinetic study is presented for the main microscopic collisional and radiative processes underlying the optical flashes associated with an impulsive (? = 5 µs) discharge in the form of a single sprite streamer passing through an air region of the mesosphere at three different altitudes (63, 68 and 78 km). The kinetic formalism developed includes the coupling of the rate equations of each of the different species considered (electrons, ions, atoms and molecules) with the Boltzmann transport equation so that, in this way, all the kinetics is self-consistent, although, in the present approach, the electrodynamics (no Poisson equation is considered) is not coupled. The chemical model set up for air plasmas includes more than 75 species and almost 500 reactions. In addition, a complete set of reactions (more than 110) has been considered to take into account the possible impact of including H2O (humid chemistry) in the generated air plasmas. This study also considers the vibrational kinetics of N2 and CO2 and explicitly evaluates the optical emissions associated with a number of excited states of N2, O2, O in the visible, CO2 in the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) emissions of sprite streamers due to the N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) and the NO-? band systems. All the calculations are conducted for midnight conditions in mid-latitude regions (+38°N) and 0° longitude, using as initial values for the neutral species those provided by the latest version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). According to our calculations, the impact of 4 ppm of H2O is only slightly visible in O_{3}^{-} at 68 and 78 km while it strongly affects the behaviour of the anion CO_{4}^{-} at all the altitudes investigated. The local enhancement of NOx predicted by the present model varies with the altitude. At 68 km, the concentrations of NO and NO2 increase by about one order of magnitude while that of NO3 exhibits a remarkable growth of up to almost three orders of magnitude. The variation of the O3 density predicted by the model in the sprite streamer head is negligible in all the altitudes investigated. The analysis of the time dependence of the electron distribution function (EDF) in the sprite plasma during the pulse reveals that the EDF transient is quite fast, reaching its 'steady' values during the pulse in less than 100 ns (much shorter than streamer head lifetimes). In addition, the calculated EDF during the pulse and in the afterglow is far from being Maxwellian, especially for energetic electrons (with ? > 30 eV). Finally, the evaluation of the mid-latitude nighttime electrical conductivity of air plasmas under the influence of a single sprite event reveals an increase of up to four orders of magnitude (at 68 km) above its measured background level of 10^{-11}\\,\\mho\\,cm^{-1} at an altitude of ~70 km. This sudden increase in the electrical conductivity lasts for 100 ms (at 68 km), being shorter (~1 ms) and longer (1 s) at 63 km and 78 km, respectively. The total power delivered by the streamer head of a single sprite event has been estimated to be approximately 1677 W (at 78 km), 230 kW (at 68 km) and 78 MW (at 63 km).

Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.

2008-12-01

78

Air Plasma Kinetics Under the Influence of Sprites

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A full time-dependent kinetic study is presented for the main microscopic collisional and radiative processes underlying the optical flashes associated to an impulsive (t = 5 ms) discharge in the form of a single sprite streamer going through an air region of the mesosphere at three different altitudes (63 km, 68 km and 78 km). The kinetic formalism developed includes the coupling of the rate equations of each of the different species considered (electrons, ions, atoms and molecules) with the Boltzmann transport equation so that, in this way, all the kinetics is self-consistent, although, in the present approach, the electrodynamics (no Poisson equation is considered) is not coupled. The chemical model set up for air plasmas includes more than 75 species and almost 500 reactions. In addition, a complete set of reactions (more than 110) has been considered to take into account the possible impact of including H2O (humid chemistry) in the generated air plasmas. This study also considers the vibrational kinetics of N2 and CO2, and explicitly evaluates the optical emissions associated to a number of excited states of N2, O2, O in the visible, CO2 in the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) emissions of sprite streamers due to the N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) and the NO-? band systems. All the calculations are conducted for midnight conditions in mid- latitude regions (+ 38°), and 0° longitude, using as initial values for the neutral species those provided by the latest version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). According to our calculations, the impact of 4 ppm of H2O is only slightly visible in O3- at 68 km and 78 km while it strongly affects the behaviour of the anion CO4- at all the altitudes investigated. The local enhancement of NOX predicted by the present model varies with the altitude. At 68 km, the concentrations of NO and NO2 increase in about one order of magnitude while that of NO3 exhibits a remarkable growth of up to almost three orders of magnitude. The variation of the O3 density predicted by the model in the sprite streamer head is negligible in all the altitudes investigated. The analysis of the time dependence of the electron distribution function (EDF) in the sprite plasma during the pulse reveals that the EDF transient is quite fast, reaching its "steady" values during the pulse in less than 100 nanoseconds (much shorter than streamer head lifetimes). In addition, the calculated EDF during the pulse and in the afterglow is far from being Maxwellian, especially for energetic electrons (with ? > 30 eV). Finally, the evaluation of the mid-latitude nighttime electrical conductivity of air plasmas under the influence of a single sprite event reveals an increase of up to four orders of magnitude (at 68 km) above its measured background level of 10-11 mho/cm at an altitude of ~ 70 km. This sudden increase of the electrical conductivity lasts for 100 ms (at 68 km), being shorter (~ 1 ms) and longer (1 s) at 63 km and 78 km, respectively. The total power delivered by the streamer head of a single sprite event has been estimated to be approximately 1677 W (at 78 km), 230 kW (at 68 km) and 78 MW (at 63 km).

Gordillo-Vazquez, F. J.

2008-12-01

79

Linking the hydrodynamic and kinetic description of a dissipative relativistic conformal theory

We use the entropy production variational method to associate a one-particle distribution function to the assumed known energy-momentum and entropy currents describing a relativistic conformal fluid. Assuming a simple form for the collision operator we find this one-particle distribution function explicitly, and show that this method of linking the hydro and kinetic descriptions is a nontrivial generalization of Grad's ansatz. The resulting constitutive relations are the same as in the conformal dissipative type theories discussed by J. Peralta-Ramos and E. Calzetta [Phys. Rev. D 80, 126002 (2009)]. Our results may prove useful in the description of freeze-out in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions.

Calzetta, E.; Peralta-Ramos, J. [CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires-Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Doutor Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271 - Bloco II, 01140-070 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2010-11-15

80

Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of escaping core plasma particles to the scrape-off layer.1088/0029-5515/53/7/073023 Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of escaping core plasma particles to the scrape-off layer for accurate on plasma-facing and nearby components. An ab initio Monte Carlo-based kinetic model of the escaping core

Harilal, S. S.

81

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in several related research areas such as first-principles electronic-structure calculations of atoms and diatomic molecules, theory of elementary processes, kinetics, and numerical engineering, and also continued exponential growth in computational resources enhanced by recent advances in massively parallel computing have opened the possibility of directly designing kinetics mechanisms to describe chemical processes and light emission in such complex media as nonequilibrium plasmas and reacting gases. It is important that plasma and combustion kinetics can be described in the framework of this direct approach to a sufficiently high accuracy, which makes it an independent predictive research tool complementary to experimental techniques. This paper demonstrates the capabilities of the first-principles based approach to develop kinetic mechanisms. Two examples are discussed in detail: (1) the mechanism of hydrocarbon fuel combustion at high temperatures and (2) light emission in non-thermal glow discharge plasma of metal halides; special attention is paid to a comparison of the results obtained at every level of system description with the appropriate experimental data. In house software tools that can be used in such multilevel theoretical works are discussed as well.

Astapenko, Valerie; Bagatur'yants, Alexander; Chernishova, Irina; Deminsky, Maxim; Eletskii, Alexander; Kirillov, Igor; Knizhnik, Andrei; Potapkin, Boris; Rykova, Elena; Umanskii, Stanislaw; Zaitsevskii, Andrei; Strelkova, Marina; Sukhanov, Leonid; Safonov, Andrei; Cotzas, George M.; Dean, Anthony; Michael, J. Darryl; Midha, Vikas; Smith, David J.; Sommerer, Timothy J.; Varatharajan, Bala; Tentner, Adrian

2007-04-01

82

Effect of electrostatic plasma oscillations on the kinetic energy of a charged macroparticle

Effect of electrostatic plasma oscillations on the kinetic energy of a charged macroparticle O. S The stochastic energy acquired by an isolated charged macroparticle "dust" particle due to electrostatic of complex dusty plasmas are done in a weakly ionized plasma of a gas dis- charge with the pressure P

Goree, John

83

In this work, we detail the derivation of a plasma kinetic theory leading to the components of the dielectric tensor for a magnetized dusty plasma with variable charge on the dust particles, considering that the dust component of the plasma contains spherical dust particles with different sizes, which are charged both by inelastic collisions of electrons and ions and by photoionization.

Galvao, R. A.; Ziebell, L. F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2012-09-15

84

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in processor technology provide the opportunity to simulate space plasma dynamics at unprecedented resolution. As processor clock speeds have begun to plateau in recent years, new technologies have emerged that maintain exponential growth in computational capability, in particular multi-core processors and heterogeneous approaches to computing, e.g., the STI Cell processor and general purpose GPUs. We will discuss two projects that aim at porting existing codes to efficiently run on heterogeneous processors. The Particle Simulation Code (PSC) is a 3D fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code, solving the kinetic plasma equations, including a collision operator. This code is applied to problems requiring a kinetic model, like particle acceleration and modeling the microscopic structure of a reconnecting current sheets. We will discuss the performance gains enabled by porting the code to NVIDIA's GPU CUDA programming environment, as well as the challenges in exploiting the full capabilities of GPUs for the current deposition step. OpenGGCM is a community global magnetosphere model. The main computational challenge is the solution of the 3D MHD equations which are discretized using finite-difference / finite-volume. We ported this code to the Cell processor using a novel code generator. This approach allows us to specify the discretized equations in near-symbolic form as a stencil computation, and then have highly-optimized code be generated automatically. From the same description we are able to generate plain C code, C code with SIMD/SSE2 extensions and code for the Cell processor, yielding significant performance gains. We will also present first results of a new extension to the code generator that creates CUDA code for GPUs.

Germaschewski, K.; Raeder, J.; Ruhl, H.

2010-12-01

85

Kinetic spectrofluorimetric determination of certain cephalosporins in human plasma.

An accurate, reliable, specific and sensitive kinetic spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of seven cephalosporin antibiotics namely cefotaxime sodium, cephapirin sodium, cephradine dihydrate, cephalexin monohydrate, cefazoline sodium, ceftriaxone sodium and cefuroxime sodium. The method is based on their degradation under an alkaline condition producing fluorescent products. The factors affecting the degradation and the determination were studied and optimized. The reaction is followed spectrofluorimetrically by measuring the rate of change of fluorescence intensity at specified emission wavelength. The initial rate and fixed time methods were used for the construction of calibration graphs to determine the concentration of the studied drugs. The calibration graphs are linear in the concentration ranges 0.2-1.2 microg mL(-1) and 0.2-2.2 microg mL(-1) using the initial rate and fixed time methods, respectively. The results were statistically validated and checked through recovery studies. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of the studied cephalosporins in commercial dosage forms. The high sensitivity of the proposed method allows the determination of investigated cephalosporins in human plasma. The statistical comparisons of the results with the reference methods show an excellent agreement and indicate no significant difference in accuracy and precision. PMID:19084655

Omar, Mahmoud A; Abdelmageed, Osama H; Attia, Tamer Z

2009-02-15

86

Plasma and Urine Kinetics of Erythritol after Oral Ingestion by Healthy Humans

The plasma and urine kinetics of erythritol and the effect of erythritol on plasma glucose and insulin levels were studied in human volunteers administered a single oral dose of 1 g erythritol\\/kg body wt. The plasma level of erythritol increased during the first 30 to 40 min, reaching a maximum value of approximately 2.2 mg\\/ml after 90 min. Plasma levels

F. R. J. Bornet; A. Blayo; F. Dauchy; G. Slama

1996-01-01

87

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Vlasov's kinetic theory, describing the plasma wake field interaction, the collective transport of a warm nonlaminar relativistic charged particle beam is analyzed in the strongly nonlocal regime, where the beam spot-size is much less than the plasma wavelength. This is done in the overdense regime, i.e., the beam density is much less than the plasma density. The beam is supposed to be sufficiently long to experience the adiabatic shielding by the plasma. In these conditions, we neglect the longitudinal beam dynamics and focus on the transverse one only. We derive the virial description (envelope description) from the 2D Vlasov-Poisson-type system of equations that governs the transverse self-consistent plasma wake field excitation. The resulting envelope equation is then reduced, in the aberration-less approximation, to a differential equation for the beam spot size, where the role of the ambient magnetic field is evaluated in both laboratory and astrophysical environments. An analysis of the beam envelope self-modulation is then carried out and the criteria for the occurrence of the instability are found. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Vlasov Equation", edited by Francesco Pegoraro, Francesco Califano, Giovanni Manfredi and Philip J. Morrison.

Fedele, Renato; Mannan, Abdul; De Nicola, Sergio; Jovanovi?, Dusan; Akhter, Tahmina

2014-09-01

88

The Plasma Interaction Experiment (PIX) description and test program. [electrometers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plasma interaction experiment (PIX) is a battery powered preprogrammed auxiliary payload on the LANDSAT-C launch. This experiment is part of a larger program to investigate space plasma interactions with spacecraft surfaces and components. The varying plasma densities encountered during available telemetry coverage periods are deemed sufficient to determine first order interactions between the space plasma environment and the biased experimental surfaces. The specific objectives of the PIX flight experiment are to measure the plasma coupling current and the negative voltage breakdown characteristics of a solar array segment and a gold plated steel disk. Measurements will be made over a range of surface voltages up to plus or minus kilovolt. The orbital environment will provide a range of plasma densities. The experimental surfaces will be voltage biased in a preprogrammed step sequence to optimize the data returned for each plasma region and for the available telemetry coverage.

Ignaczak, L. R.; Haley, F. A.; Domino, E. J.; Culp, D. H.; Shaker, F. J.

1978-01-01

89

Particle abundance in a thermal plasma: quantum kinetics vs. Boltzmann equation

We study the abundance of a particle species in a thermalized plasma by introducing a quantum kinetic description based on the non-equilibrium effective action. A stochastic interpretation of quantum kinetics in terms of a Langevin equation emerges naturally. We consider a particle species that is stable in the vacuum and interacts with \\emph{heavier} particles that constitute a thermal bath in equilibrium and define of a fully renormalized single particle distribution function. The distribution function thermalizes on a time scale determined by the \\emph{quasiparticle} relaxation rate. The equilibrium distribution function depends on the full spectral density and features off-shell contributions to the particle abundance. A model of a bosonic field $\\Phi$ in interaction with two \\emph{heavier} bosonic fields is studied. We find substantial departures from the Bose-Einstein result both in the high temperature and the low temperature but high momentum region. In the latter the abundance is exponentially suppressed but larger than the Bose-Einstein result. We obtain the Boltzmann equation in renormalized perturbation theory and highlight the origin of the differences. We argue that the corrections to the abundance of cold dark matter candidates are observationally negligible and that recombination erases any possible spectral distortions of the CMB. However we expect that the enhancement at high temperature may be important for baryogenesis.

D. Boyanovsky; K. Davey; C. M. Ho

2004-11-02

90

Effect of antenna size on electron kinetics in inductively coupled plasmas

Spatially resolved measurements of electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) are investigated in inductively coupled plasmas with two planar antenna coils. When the plasma is sustained by the antenna with a diameter of 18 cm, the nonlocal kinetics is preserved in the argon gas pressure range from 2 mTorr to 20 mTorr. However, electron kinetics transit from nonlocal kinetics to local kinetics in discharge sustained by the antenna coil with diameter 34 cm. The results suggest that antenna size as well as chamber length are important parameters for the transition of the electron kinetics. Spatial variations of plasma potential, effective electron temperature, and EEDF in terms of total electron energy scale are also presented.

Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-15

91

Effects of Kinetic Processes in Shaping Io's Global Plasma Environment: A 3D Hybrid Model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral gases in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter s corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io. Stationary simulations of this problem have already been done using the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and the electrodynamics approaches. One of the major results of recent simplified two-fluid model simulations [Saur, J., Neubauer, F.M., Strobel, D.F., Summers, M.E., 2002. J. Geophys. Res. 107 (SMP5), 1-18] was the production of the structure of the double-peak in the magnetic field signature of the Io flyby. These could not be explained before by standard MHD models. In this paper, we present a hybrid simulation for Io with kinetic ions and fluid electrons. This method employs a fluid description for electrons and neutrals, whereas for ions a particle approach is used. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes and solve self-consistently for electric and magnetic fields. Our model may provide a much more accurate description for the ion dynamics than previous approaches and allows us to account for the realistic anisotropic ion velocity distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations with isotropic temperatures. The first results of such a simulation of the dynamics of ions in Io s environment are discussed in this paper. Comparison with the Galileo IO flyby results shows that this approach provides an accurate physical basis for the interaction and can therefore naturally reproduce all the observed salient features.

Lipatov, Alexander S.; Combi, Michael R.

2006-01-01

92

Generation of kinetic Alfven waves by beam-plasma interaction in non-uniform plasma

This work reports a novel mechanism of the generation of kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) using a two-dimensional hybrid simulation: the KAWs are generated by ion beam-plasma interaction in a non-uniform plasma boundary layer, in which the bulk velocity of the ion beam is assumed to be parallel to the ambient magnetic field. As a result of the beam-plasma interaction, strong shear Alfven waves as well as fast mode compressional waves are first generated on the side of the boundary layer with a high density and thus a low Alfven speed, propagating along the background magnetic field. Later, Alfven waves also form inside the boundary layer with a continuous spectrum. As the perpendicular wave number k{sub Up-Tack} of these unstably excited waves increases with time, large-amplitude, short wavelength KAWs with k{sub Up-Tack } Much-Greater-Than k{sub ||} clearly form in the boundary layer. The physics for the generation of KAWs is discussed.

Hong, M. H. [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, CAS, Beijing 100029 (China); Lin, Y. [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849-5311 (United States); Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, USTC, Hefei 230026 (China); Wang, X. Y. [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849-5311 (United States)

2012-07-15

93

A statistical approach to a self-consistent description of kinetic and hydrodynamic processes in systems of interacting particles is formulated on the basis of the nonequilibrium statistical operator method by D.N.Zubarev. It is shown how to obtain the kinetic equation of the revised Enskog theory for a hard sphere model, the kinetic equations for multistep potentials of interaction and the Enskog-Landau kinetic equation for a system of charged hard spheres. The BBGKY hierarchy is analyzed on the basis of modified group expansions. Generalized transport equations are obtained in view of a self-consistent description of kinetics and hydrodynamics. Time correlation functions, spectra of collective excitations and generalized transport coefficients are investigated in the case of weakly nonequilibrium systems of interacting particles.

M. V. Tokarchuk; I. P. Omelyan; A. E. Kobryn

1999-03-04

94

Kinetic extensions of magnetohydrodynamic models for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas

A nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code (NOVA-K) has been developed to integrate a set of non-Hermitian integro-differential eigenmode equations due to energetic particles for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas in a general flux coordinate system with an arbitrary Jacobian. The NOVA-K code employs the Galerkin method involving Fourier expansions in the generalized poloidal angle theta and generalized toroidal angle /zeta/ directions, and cubic-B spline finite elements in the radial /Psi/ direction. Extensive comparisons with the existing variational ideal MHD codes show that the ideal MHD version of the NOVA-K code converges faster and gives more accurate results. The NOVA-K code is employed to study the effects of energetic particles on MHD-type modes: the stabilization of ideal MHD internal kink modes and the excitation of ''fishbone'' internal kink modes; and the alpha particle destabilization of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) via transit resonances. Analytical theories are also presented to help explain the NOVA-K results. For energetic trapped particles generated by neutral beam injection (NBI) or ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH), a stability window for the n = 1 internal kink mode in the hot particle beta space exists even in the absence of the core ion finite Larmor radius effect. On the other hand, the trapped alpha particles are found to have negligible effects on the stability of the n = 1 internal kink mode, but the circulating alpha particles can strongly destabilize TAE modes via inverse Landau damping associated with the spatial gradient of the alpha particle pressure. 60 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

Cheng, C.Z.

1989-04-01

95

Jupiter's magnetosphere: Plasma description from the Ulysses flyby

Plasma observations at Jupiter show that the outer regions of the Jovian magnetosphere are remarkably similar to those of Earth. Bow-shock precursor electrons and ions were detected in the upstream solar wind, as at Earth. Plasma changes across the bow shock and properties of the magnetosheath electrons were much like those at Earth, indicating that similar processes are operating. A

S. J. Bame; B. L. Barraclough; W. C. Feldman; G. R. Gisler; J. T. Gosling; D. J. McComas; J. L. Phillips; M. F. Thomsen; B. E. Goldstein; M. Neugebauer

1992-01-01

96

Numerical Simulation of Downstream Kinetics of an Atmospheric-Pressure Nitrogen Plasma Jet

We report the results of the numerical simulation of an atmospheric-pressure nitrogen plasma jet with the focus on the downstream kinetics. The goal is to assess the effect of ambient air on the spatial profile of reactive species densities of the plasma jet. The modeling results show that oxygen readily enters the jet downstream, and the excited-state nitrogen densities decrease

I-Hung Tsai; Cheng-Che Hsu

2010-01-01

97

Electron kinetics and non-Joule heating in near-collisionless inductively coupled plasmas V. I of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4792 Received 1 July 1996 Electron kinetics in an inductively coupled plasma magnetic field induced by the coil current and the finite dimension of the plasma on electron heating

Economou, Demetre J.

98

Implicit Methods for the Magnetohydrodynamic Description of Magnetically Confined Plasmas

Implicit algorithms are essential for predicting the slow growth and saturation of global instabilities in today’s magnetically confined fusion plasma experiments. Present day algorithms for obtaining implicit solutions to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for highly magnetized plasma have their roots in algorithms used in the 1960s and 1970s. However, today’s computers and modern linear and non?linear solver techniques make practical much more comprehensive implicit algorithms than were previously possible. Combining these advanced implicit algorithms with highly accurate spatial representations of the vector fields describing the plasma flow and magnetic fields and with improved methods of calculating anisotropic thermal conduction now makes possible simulations of fusion experiments using realistic values of plasma parameters and actual configuration geometry.

S.C. Jardin

2010-09-28

99

New Kinetic Equations and Bogolyubov Energy Spectrum in a Fermi Quantum Plasma

New type of quantum kinetic equations of the Fermi particles are derived. The Bogolyubov's type of dispersion relation, which is valid for the Bose fluid, is disclosed. Model of neutral Bose atoms in dense strongly coupled plasmas with attractive interaction is discussed. A set of fluid equations describing the quantum plasmas is obtained. Furthermore, the equation of state of a degenerate Fermi plasma is derived.

Nodar L. Tsintsadze; Levan N. Tsintsadze

2009-03-31

100

Numerical description of discharge characteristics of the plasma needle

The plasma needle is a small atmospheric, nonthermal, radio-frequency discharge, generated at the tip of a needle, which can be used for localized disinfection of biological tissues. Although several experiments have characterized various qualities of the plasma needle, discharge characteristics and electrical properties are still not well known. In order to provide initial estimates on electrical properties and quantities such as particle densities, we employed a two-dimensional, time-dependent fluid model to describe the plasma needle. In this model the balance equation is solved in the drift-diffusion approach for various species and the electron energy, as well as Poisson's equation. We found that the plasma production occurs in the sheath region and results in a steady flux of reactive species outwards. Even at small (<0.1%) admixtures of N{sub 2} to the He background, N{sub 2}{sup +} is the dominant ion. The electron density is typically 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and the dissipated power is in the order of 10 mW. These results are consistent with the experimental data available and can give direction to the practical development of the plasma needle.

Brok, W.J.M.; Bowden, M.D.; Dijk, J. van; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der; Kroesen, G.M.W. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2005-07-01

101

A fluid description of plasma double-layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space-charge double layer forming between two plasmas with different densities and thermal energies is described. The double layer is analyzed using fluid theory. The case of cold particles is treated. Thermal effects for the reflected particles and for the transmitted particles are considered. Emphasis is placed on finding a relationship between the magnitude of the potential step and the parameters characterizing the adjoining plasmas. Qualitative statements are made about the length of the double layer, and a characteristic length useful as a quantitative measure is defined and discussed.

Levine, J. S.; Crawford, F. W.

1980-01-01

102

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a systematic kinetic characterization of a low pressure high power hydrogen plasma. The plasma physics is described with a global model coupled to a homogeneous kinetic model for hydrogen. This model involves reactions which describe the vibrational and electronic excited kinetics of H2, the positive ?ft( H{+}{,}H2{+}{,}H3{+} \\right) and negative (H?) ion kinetics and the H chemistry. This enables the estimation of the particle density and the electron temperature and their evolutions as a function of power (1–100 kW) and pressure (0.3–4 Pa). These very specific plasma conditions involve physical phenomena not occurring in more usual plasmas, such as gas depletion. To account for this gas depletion, we incorporate in the global model both the H neutral heat equation to calculate the H temperature, and the gas pumping. Indeed, the gas depletion is mainly due to H atom heating leading to a higher pumping loss for H atoms. The consideration of the gas depletion allows us to obtain similar behaviors to the experiments when varying power and pressure. From an accurate analysis of the main formation and destruction pathways for each particle, the species kinetics is discussed and a simplified kinetic model that may be used to describe the non-equilibrium plasma in the negative source for ITER is proposed. Finally, the results point to strong coupling existing between the H atom wall recombination coefficient ?H and the gas depletion. An increase of ?H reduces the gas depletion, affecting the electron temperature and the electron density as well as the whole plasma kinetics.

Gaboriau, F.; Boeuf, J. P.

2014-12-01

103

Jupiter's magnetosphere: Plasma description from the Ulysses flyby

Plasma observations at Jupiter show that the outer regions of the Jovian magnetosphere are remarkably similar to those of Earth. Bow-shock precursor electrons and ions were detected in the upstream solar wind, as at Earth. Plasma changes across the bow shock and properties of the magnetosheath electrons were much like those at Earth, indicating that similar processes are operating. A boundary layer populated by a varying mixture of solar wind and magnetospheric plasmas was found inside the magnetopause, again as at Earth. In the middle magnetosphere, large electron density excursions were detected with a 10-hour periodicity as planetary rotation carried the tilted plasma sheet past Ulysses. Deep in the magnetosphere, Ulysses crossed a region, tentatively described as magnetically connected to the Jovian polar cap on one end and to the interplanetary magnetic field on the other. In the inner magnetosphere and Io torus, where corotation plays a dominant role, measurements could not be made because of extreme background rates from penetrating radiation belt particles.

Bame, S.J.; Barraclough, B.L.; Feldman, W.C.; Gisler, G.R.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L.; Thomsen, M.F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Goldstein, B.E.; Neugebauer, M. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (United States))

1992-09-11

104

Kinetic limit of N-body description of wave-particle self-consistent interaction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The system of N particles ?^N=(x_1, v_1, ... x_N,v_N) interacting with M waves Zn = An exp( i ?_n) has been used to study the dynamics of Landau damping [1] and warm beam-plasma instability [2]. Given initial data (Z(0), ?^N(0)), it evolves according to hamiltonian dynamics to (Z^N(t), ?^N(t)). In the limit N arrow ?, the hamiltonian dynamics generates a Vlasov-like kinetic equation for f(x,v) coupled to envelope equations for the Zn : initial data (Z(0), f(0)) evolve to (Z(t), f(t)). We show that, for any time T>0, given a sequence of initial data with N arrow ? particles distributed so that f^N(0) arrow f(0) weakly, the states generated by the hamiltonian dynamics at all times 0

Firpo, M. C.; Elskens, Y.

1996-11-01

105

Fully kinetic numerical modeling of a plasma thruster

A Hall effect plasma thruster with conductive acceleration channel walls was numerically modeled using 2D3V Particle-in-Cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo Collision (MCC) methodolo- gies. Electron, ion, and neutral dynamics were ...

Szabo, James Joseph, 1969-

2001-01-01

106

Plasma kinetics in ethanol\\/water\\/air mixture in a 'tornado'-type electrical discharge

This paper presents the results of a theoretical and experimental study of plasma-assisted reforming of ethanol into molecular hydrogen in a modified 'tornado'-type electrical discharge. Numerical modelling clarifies the nature of non-thermal conversion and explains the kinetic mechanism of non-equilibrium plasma chemical transformations in the gas-liquid system and the evolution of hydrogen during the reforming as a function of discharge

D. Levko; A. Shchedrin; V. Chernyak; S. Olszewski; O. Nedybaliuk

2011-01-01

107

Nonlocal, kinetic stimulated Raman scattering in nonuniform plasmas: Averaged variational approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excitation of continuously phase-locked (autoresonant) plasma waves in a nonuniform plasma via stimulated Raman backscattering is analyzed with a focus on the kinetic regime (k?D˜1). The dominant nonlinear effect in this regime is that of resonant particles, and the plasma wave excitation is a nonlocal process involving formation and transport of the electron phase space holes. Whitham's averaged variational principle is applied in studying the coupled plasma, laser pump, and seed waves dynamics. A flat-top electron velocity distribution is used as the simplest model allowing a variational formulation within the water bag theory. The corresponding Lagrangian, averaged over the fast phase variable, yields evolution equations for the slow field variables. The adiabatic multiple water bag extension of the theory for application to autoresonant plasma waves in nonuniform plasmas with more realistic initial distributions is also discussed. Numerical solutions of the system of slow variational equations are compared with Vlasov-Ampere simulations.

Khain, P.; Friedland, L.; Shagalov, A. G.; Wurtele, J. S.

2012-07-01

108

Nonlocal, kinetic stimulated Raman scattering in nonuniform plasmas: Averaged variational approach

Excitation of continuously phase-locked (autoresonant) plasma waves in a nonuniform plasma via stimulated Raman backscattering is analyzed with a focus on the kinetic regime (k{lambda}{sub D}{approx}1). The dominant nonlinear effect in this regime is that of resonant particles, and the plasma wave excitation is a nonlocal process involving formation and transport of the electron phase space holes. Whitham's averaged variational principle is applied in studying the coupled plasma, laser pump, and seed waves dynamics. A flat-top electron velocity distribution is used as the simplest model allowing a variational formulation within the water bag theory. The corresponding Lagrangian, averaged over the fast phase variable, yields evolution equations for the slow field variables. The adiabatic multiple water bag extension of the theory for application to autoresonant plasma waves in nonuniform plasmas with more realistic initial distributions is also discussed. Numerical solutions of the system of slow variational equations are compared with Vlasov-Ampere simulations.

Khain, P.; Friedland, L. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Shagalov, A. G. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ekaterinburg 620219 (Russian Federation); Wurtele, J. S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2012-07-15

109

Theoretical description of spherically confined, strongly correlated Yukawa plasmas.

A theoretical description of the radial density profile for charged particles with Yukawa interaction in a harmonic trap is described. At strong Coulomb coupling shell structure is observed in both computer simulations and experiments. Correlations responsible for such shell structure are described here using a recently developed model based in density functional theory. A wide range of particle number, Coulomb coupling, and screening lengths is considered within the fluid phase. A hypernetted chain approximation shows the formation of shell structure, but fails to give quantitative agreement with Monte Carlo simulation results at strong coupling. Significantly better agreement is obtained within the hypernetted chain structure using a renormalized coupling constant, representing bridge function corrections. PMID:22181283

Bruhn, H; Kählert, H; Ott, T; Bonitz, M; Wrighton, J; Dufty, J W

2011-10-01

110

EXCITATION OF KINETIC ALFVEN WAVES BY DENSITY STRIATION IN MAGNETO-PLASMAS

Field-aligned density striation is one of the most common inhomogeneity phenomena in magneto-plasmas, such as in the solar coronal plasma and terrestrial auroral plasma. Kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) can play an important role in the inhomogeneous heating of coronal magneto-plasmas as well as in the local acceleration of auroral energetic electrons. In this paper, we study the dispersion and instability of KAWs in a magneto-plasma with density striation structures. Results show that KAWs become unstable in the presence of the density striation and the corresponding instability has a maximal growth rate at the perpendicular wavelength close to the spatial scale of the density gradient. Related experimental phenomena in both laboratory and space plasmas are discussed. It is suggested that the excitation of KAWs by the density striation of magneto-plasmas can be of potential importance in understanding the physics of the formation of magneto-plasma filaments and their heating mechanisms, which are often present in the terrestrial auroral plasma, the solar coronal plasma, and other astrophysical plasmas.

Wu, D. J.; Chen, L., E-mail: clvslc214@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

2013-07-01

111

Kinetic dissipation and anisotropic heating in a turbulent collisionless plasma

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetic evolution of the Orszag-Tang vortex is studied using collisionless hybrid simulations. In magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) this configuration leads rapidly to broadband turbulence. At large length scales, the evolution of the hybrid simulations is very similar to MHD, with magnetic power spectra displaying scaling similar to a Kolmogorov scaling of -5/3. At small scales, differences from MHD arise, as energy dissipates into heat almost exclusively through the magnetic field. The magnetic energy spectrum of the hybrid simulation shows a break where linear theory predicts that the Hall term in Ohm's law becomes significant, leading to dispersive kinetic Alfvén waves. A key result is that protons are heated preferentially in the plane perpendicular to the mean magnetic field, creating a proton temperature anisotropy of the type observed in the corona and solar wind.

Parashar, T. N.; Shay, M. A.; Cassak, P. A.; Matthaeus, W. H.

2009-03-01

112

Drift kinetic Alfvén wave in temperature anisotropic plasma

By using the gyrokinetic theory, the kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) are discussed to emphasize the drift effects through the density inhomogeneity and the temperature anisotropy on their dispersion characteristics. The dependence of stabilization mechanism of the drift-Alfvén wave instability on the temperature anisotropy is highlighted. The estimate of the growth rate and the threshold condition for a wide range of parameters are also discussed.

Naim, Hafsa, E-mail: roohi-phy@yahoo.com; Bashir, M. F. [Salam Chair in Physics, G. C. University Lahore, Katchery Road, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan) [Salam Chair in Physics, G. C. University Lahore, Katchery Road, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, G. C. University Lahore, Katchery Road, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Salam Chair in Physics, G. C. University Lahore, Katchery Road, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)] [Salam Chair in Physics, G. C. University Lahore, Katchery Road, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

2014-03-15

113

Gas Kinetic Study of Magnetic Field Effects on Plasma Plumes

the co-chair of my committee from who I learned a great deal about the eld of plasma physics. He provided a needed experimental perspective to my research and gave valuable research input and advice. I would also like to thank Dr. Jacques Richard... for introducing me to the great elds of space propulsion and plasma physics and for his encouragement and guidance through the years. Lastly I would like to thank Dr. John Shebalin for becoming my mentor at NASA. I have not only learned a great deal about...

Ebersohn, Frans 1987-

2012-12-07

114

Solar wind kinetic instabilities at small plasma betas

The ordinary perpendicular mode of drifting bi-Maxwellian plasma particle distributions with and without temperature anisotropy can provide aperiodic instabilities. These instabilities occur if the perpendicular thermal energy is much smaller than the streaming energy. This provides instabilities at small parallel plasma betas ?{sub ?}<1 and temperature anisotropies A?

Ibscher, D., E-mail: ibscher@tp4.rub.de; Schlickeiser, R. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)] [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2014-02-15

115

Description of plasma focus current sheath as the Turner relaxed state of a Hall magnetofluid

The central mystery of plasma focus research is the two orders-of-magnitude-higher-than-thermal fusion reaction rate and the fact that both the space-resolved neutron spectra and space-resolved reaction proton spectra show features which can be ascribed only to a rotational motion of the center-of-mass of the reacting deuteron population. It has been suggested earlier [S. K. H. Auluck, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 25, 37 (1997)] that this and other experimental observations can be consistently explained in terms of a hypothesis involving rotation of the current carrying plasma annulus behind the imploding gas-dynamic shock. Such rotation (more generally, mass flow) is an in-built feature of relaxed state of a two-fluid plasma [R. N. Sudan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1277 (1979)]. Relaxation in the 'Hall magnetofluid' approximation, in which the generalized Ohm's law includes the Hall effect term and the magnetic convection term but omits the contributions to the electric field from resistive dissipation, electron pressure gradient, thermoelectric effect, electron inertia, etc., has been extensively studied by many authors. In the present paper, Turner's [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-14, 849 (1986)] degenerate solution for the relaxed state of the Hall magnetohydrodynamic plasma has been adapted to the case of an infinitely long annular current carrying plasma, a tractable idealization of the current sheath of a plasma focus. The resulting model is consistent with experimental values of ion kinetic energy and observation of predominantly radially directed neutron emission in good shots.

Auluck, S. K. H. [Advanced Technology Systems Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

2009-12-15

116

Fluctuation-dissipation relations for a plasma-kinetic Langevin equation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

abstract-type="normal"> A linearised kinetic equation describing electrostatic perturbations of a Maxwellian equilibrium in a weakly collisional plasma forced by a random source is considered. The problem is treated as a kinetic analogue of the Langevin equation and the corresponding fluctuation-dissipation relations are derived. The kinetic fluctuation-dissipation relation reduces to the standard ``fluid'' one in the regime where the Landau damping rate is small and the system has no real frequency; in this case the simplest possible Landau-fluid closure of the kinetic equation coincides with the standard Langevin equation. Phase mixing of density fluctuations and emergence of fine scales in velocity space is diagnosed as a constant flux of free energy in Hermite space; the fluctuation-dissipation relations for the perturbations of the distribution function are derived, in the form of a universal expression for the Hermite spectrum of the free energy. Finite-collisionality effects are included. This work is aimed at establishing the simplest fluctuation-dissipation relations for a kinetic plasma, clarifying the connection between Landau and Hermite-space formalisms, and setting a benchmark case for a study of phase mixing in turbulent plasmas.

Kanekar, A.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Dorland, W.; Loureiro, N. F.

2015-01-01

117

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Kinetic Effects of Non-Equilibrium Plasma 2011, Orlando, Florida AIAA 2011-971 Copyright Â© 2011 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved. #12;American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2 Xf = fuel mole

Ju, Yiguang

118

Low frequency electromagnetic and kinetic Alfvén waves in a magnetized dusty plasma

Electromagnetic waves in a dusty plasma up to frequencies between the ion cyclotron frequency and the cyclotron frequency of the charged dusty grains are investigated. Kinetic Alfvén waves in these and lower ranges of frequency are studied. Physical phenomena based on these waves are discussed.

N. Ya Kotsarenko; S. V. Koshevaya; A. N. Kotsarenko

1997-01-01

119

Low frequency electromagnetic and kinetic Alfvén waves in a magnetized dusty plasma

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic waves in a dusty plasma up to frequencies between the ion cyclotron frequency and the cyclotron frequency of the charged dusty grains are investigated. Kinetic Alfvén waves in these and lower ranges of frequency are studied. Physical phenomena based on these waves are discussed.

Kotsarenko, N. Ya; Koshevaya, S. V.; Kotsarenko, A. N.

1997-10-01

120

Kinetic analysis of nuclear and Coulomb scattering in high-temperature tandem mirror plasmas

A two-dimensional kinetic theory analysis is used to determine distribution functions in high-temperature mirror plasmas in which both Coulomb and nuclear elastic scattering are important. The discrete nature of nuclear scattering and the continuous nature of Coulomb scattering are incorporated. The distribution functions are used to obtain the energy deposition and energy and particle loss rates for fusion reaction products

F. D. Kantrowitz; R. W. Conn

1984-01-01

121

We present a covariant approach to the kinetic theory of quantum electrodynamic plasma in a strong electromagnetic field. The method is based on the relativistic von Neumann equation for the nonequilibrium statistical operator defined on spacelike hyperplanes in Minkowski space. We use the canonical quantization of the system on hyperplanes and a covariant generalization of the Coulomb gauge. The condensate

V. G. Morozov; G. Röpke; A. Höll

2002-01-01

122

Localization of linear kinetic Alfvén wave in an inhomogeneous plasma and generation of turbulence

This paper presents a model for the propagation of Kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) in inhomogeneous plasma when the inhomogeneity is transverse to the background magnetic field. The semi-analytical technique and numerical simulations have been performed to study the KAW dynamics when plasma inhomogeneity is incorporated in the dynamics. The model equations are solved in order to study the localization of KAW and their magnetic power spectrum which indicates the direct transfer of energy from lower to higher wave numbers. The inhomogeneity scale length plays a very important role in the turbulence generation and its level. The relevance of these investigations to space and laboratory plasmas has also been pointed out.

Sharma, R. P.; Goyal, R., E-mail: ravig.iitd@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi-110016 (India); Scime, Earl E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)] [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Dwivedi, N. K. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042 Graz (Austria)] [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042 Graz (Austria)

2014-04-15

123

High-order continuum kinetic method for modeling plasma dynamics in phase space

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuum methods offer a high-fidelity means of simulating plasma kinetics. While computationally intensive, these methods are advantageous because they can be cast in conservation-law form, are not susceptible to noise, and can be implemented using high-order numerical methods. Advances in continuum method capabilities for modeling kinetic phenomena in plasmas require the development of validation tools in higher dimensional phase space and an ability to handle non-cartesian geometries. To that end, a new benchmark for validating Vlasov-Poisson simulations in 3D (x,vx,vy) is presented [1]. The benchmark is based on the Dory-Guest-Harris instability and is successfully used to validate a continuum finite volume algorithm. To address challenges associated with non-cartesian geometries, unique features of cylindrical phase space coordinates are described. Preliminary results of continuum kinetic simulations in 4D (r,z,vr,vz) phase space are presented.

Vogman, G. V.; Colella, P.; Shumlak, U.

2014-12-01

124

Transition from gas to plasma kinetic equilibria in gravitating axisymmetric structures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the transition from gas to plasma in gravitating axisymmetric structures is addressed under the assumption of having initial and final states realized by kinetic Maxwellian-like equilibria. In astrophysics, the theory applies to accretion-disc scenarios around compact objects. A formulation based on non-relativistic kinetic theory for collisionless systems is adopted. Equilibrium solutions for the kinetic distribution functions describing the initial neutral matter and the resulting plasma state are constructed in terms of single-particle invariants and expressed by generalized Maxwellian distributions. The final plasma configuration is related to the initial gas distribution by the introduction of appropriate functional constraints. Qualitative aspects of the solution are investigated and physical properties of the system are pointed out. In particular, the admitted functional dependences of the fluid fields carried by the corresponding equilibrium distributions are determined. Then, the plasma is proved to violate the condition of quasi-neutrality, implying a net charge separation between ions and electrons. This result is shown to be independent of the precise realization of the plasma distribution function, while a physical mechanism able to support a non-neutral equilibrium state is proposed.

Cremaschini, Claudio; Stuchlík, Zden?k

2014-04-01

125

One-dimensional hybrid-direct kinetic simulation of the discharge plasma in a Hall thruster

In order to model the non-equilibrium plasma within the discharge region of a Hall thruster, the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) must be obtained accurately. A direct kinetic (DK) simulation method that directly solves the plasma Boltzmann equation can achieve better resolution of VDFs in comparison to particle simulations, such as the particle-in-cell (PIC) method that inherently include statistical noise. In this paper, a one-dimensional hybrid-DK simulation, which uses a DK simulation for heavy species and a fluid model for electrons, is developed and compared to a hybrid-PIC simulation. Time-averaged results obtained from the hybrid-DK simulation are in good agreement with hybrid-PIC results and experimental data. It is shown from a comparison of using a kinetic simulation and solving the continuity equation that modeling of the neutral atoms plays an important role for simulations of the Hall thruster discharge plasma. In addition, low and high frequency plasma oscillations are observed. Although the kinetic nature of electrons is not resolved due to the use of a fluid model, the hybrid-DK model provides spatially and temporally well-resolved plasma properties and an improved resolution of VDFs for heavy species with less statistical noise in comparison to the hybrid-PIC method.

Hara, Kentaro; Boyd, Iain D. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Kolobov, Vladimir I. [CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama 35805 (United States)

2012-11-15

126

Transition from gas to plasma kinetic equilibria in gravitating axisymmetric structures

The problem of the transition from gas to plasma in gravitating axisymmetric structures is addressed under the assumption of having initial and final states realized by kinetic Maxwellian-like equilibria. In astrophysics, the theory applies to accretion-disc scenarios around compact objects. A formulation based on non-relativistic kinetic theory for collisionless systems is adopted. Equilibrium solutions for the kinetic distribution functions describing the initial neutral matter and the resulting plasma state are constructed in terms of single-particle invariants and expressed by generalized Maxwellian distributions. The final plasma configuration is related to the initial gas distribution by the introduction of appropriate functional constraints. Qualitative aspects of the solution are investigated and physical properties of the system are pointed out. In particular, the admitted functional dependences of the fluid fields carried by the corresponding equilibrium distributions are determined. Then, the plasma is proved to violate the condition of quasi-neutrality, implying a net charge separation between ions and electrons. This result is shown to be independent of the precise realization of the plasma distribution function, while a physical mechanism able to support a non-neutral equilibrium state is proposed.

Cremaschini, Claudio; Stuchlík, Zden?k [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nám.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)] [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nám.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

2014-04-15

127

0.374 Pflop\\/s trillion-particle kinetic modeling of laser plasma interaction on roadrunner

We demonstrate the outstanding performance and scalability of the VPIC kinetic plasma modeling code on the heterogeneous IBM Roadrunner supercomputer at Los Alamos National Laboratory. VPIC is a three-dimensional, relativistic, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell (PIC) code that self-consistently evolves a kinetic plasma. VPIC simulations of laser plasma interaction were conducted at unprecedented fidelity and scale-up to 1.0 times 1012 particles on as

K. J. Bowers; B. J. Albright; B. Bergen; L. Yin; K. J. Barker; D. J. Kerbyson

2008-01-01

128

Plasma-resistivity-induced strong damping of the kinetic resistive wall mode.

An energy-principle-based dispersion relation is derived for the resistive wall mode, which incorporates both the drift kinetic resonance between the mode and energetic particles and the resistive layer physics. The equivalence between the energy-principle approach and the resistive layer matching approach is first demonstrated for the resistive plasma resistive wall mode. As a key new result, it is found that the resistive wall mode, coupled to the favorable average curvature stabilization inside the resistive layer (as well as the toroidal plasma flow), can be substantially more stable than that predicted by drift kinetic theory with fast ion stabilization, but with the ideal fluid assumption. Since the layer stabilization becomes stronger with decreasing plasma resistivity, this regime is favorable for reactor scale, high-temperature fusion devices. PMID:25379920

He, Yuling; Liu, Yueqiang; Liu, Yue; Hao, Guangzhou; Wang, Aike

2014-10-24

129

Plasma-Resistivity-Induced Strong Damping of the Kinetic Resistive Wall Mode

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An energy-principle-based dispersion relation is derived for the resistive wall mode, which incorporates both the drift kinetic resonance between the mode and energetic particles and the resistive layer physics. The equivalence between the energy-principle approach and the resistive layer matching approach is first demonstrated for the resistive plasma resistive wall mode. As a key new result, it is found that the resistive wall mode, coupled to the favorable average curvature stabilization inside the resistive layer (as well as the toroidal plasma flow), can be substantially more stable than that predicted by drift kinetic theory with fast ion stabilization, but with the ideal fluid assumption. Since the layer stabilization becomes stronger with decreasing plasma resistivity, this regime is favorable for reactor scale, high-temperature fusion devices.

He, Yuling; Liu, Yueqiang; Liu, Yue; Hao, Guangzhou; Wang, Aike

2014-10-01

130

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recently developed kinetic theory for low-frequency turbulence propagating parallel to the ambient magnetic field [P. H. Yoon, Phys. Plasmas 14, 10230 (2007); P. H. Yoon and T.-M. Fang, Phys. Plasmas 14, 102303 (2007); P. H. Yoon and T.-M. Fang, Plasmas Phys. Control. Fusion 50, 085007 (2008)], the effects arising from the discrete particle nature, or the spontaneous thermal effects were ignored. Such an assumption thus limited the theory to purely collisionless "Vlasov" regime. In the present paper the previous formalism is generalized to include discrete-particle effects by reformulating the problem on the basis of the Klimontovich equation. The new terms that appear in the particle and wave kinetic equations as a result of the new formalism are the spontaneous drag term associated with the particles and the spontaneous emission and scattering terms associated with the waves.

Yoon, Peter H.; Fang, Ta-Ming

2008-12-01

131

Arbitrary amplitude kinetic Alfven solitary waves and double layers in a non-Maxwellian plasma

To investigate the existence of kinetic Alfven wave solitons, warm adiabatic ions and kappa distributed electrons are considered in a magnetized plasma. The kappa distribution (having the spectral index {kappa}) is a velocity distribution that has a high energy tail but approaches the Maxwellian when {kappa}{yields}{infinity}. In this work, by using the Sagdeev pseudopotential method, an exact analytical expression for arbitrary amplitude solitary kinetic Alfven wave is derived. For different sets of plasma parameter values, the Sagdeev potential {Psi} ({phi}) has been calculated numerically. It is found that the spectral index {kappa} plays a significant role in determining the shape and size of the solitary waves and double layers. Also, it is observed that both compressive solitary waves and double layers exist depending on the values of different plasma parameters.

Gogoi, Runmoni; Khan, Manoranjan [Department of Instrumentation Science and Centre for Plasma Studies, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

2010-11-15

132

Kinetic shear Alfvén instability in the presence of impurity ions in tokamak plasmas

The effects of impurity ions on the kinetic shear Alfvén (KSA) instability in tokamak plasmas are investigated by numerically solving the integral equations for the KSA eigenmode in the toroidal geometry. The kinetic effects of hydrogen and impurity ions, including transit motion, finite ion Larmor radius, and finite-orbit-width, are taken into account. Toroidicity induced linear mode coupling is included through the ballooning-mode representation. Here, the effects of carbon, oxygen, and tungsten ions on the KSA instability in toroidal plasmas are investigated. It is found that, depending on the concentration and density profile of the impurity ions, the latter can be either stabilizing or destabilizing for the KSA modes. The results here confirm the importance of impurity ions in tokamak experiments and should be useful for analyzing experimental data as well as for understanding anomalous transport and control of tokamak plasmas.

Lu, Gaimin; Shen, Y.; Xie, T.; He, Zhixiong; He, Hongda [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Qi, Longyu [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)] [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cui, Shaoyan [School of Mathematics and Information, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)] [School of Mathematics and Information, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)

2013-10-15

133

Kinetic simulations of argon dusty plasma afterglow including metastable atom kinetics

The afterglow of a dusty plasma of rf discharge in argon is simulated by the particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision (PIC-MCC) method. The experimental observation that heavy dust contamination of plasma leads to an anomalous increase in the electron density at the beginning of afterglow is explained by release of electrons from the dust surface. Under the assumption that the floating potential of particles is in equilibrium with plasma conditions, the fast cooling of electrons in afterglow plasma due to a rapid escape of hot electrons from the volume leads to a decrease in the magnitude of the floating potential and hence to a loss of charge by dust. The intensive desorption of electrons from nanoparticles is the origin of anomalous behavior of the electron density. At the next stage of afterglow, when the electrons become cool, the plasma decay is defined by ambipolar diffusion. The effect of metastable argon atoms is also considered. Additional ionization due to metastable atom collisions affects the electron temperature but does not change the behavior of the electron density qualitatively.

Alexandrov, A. L., E-mail: a_alex@itam.nsc.ru; Schweigert, I. V.; Ariskin, D. A. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (Russian Federation)

2013-04-15

134

Alfven continuum deformation by kinetic geodesic effect in rotating tokamak plasmas

Using a quasitoroidal set of coordinates with coaxial circular magnetic surfaces, Vlasov equation is solved for collisionless plasmas in drift approach and a perpendicular dielectric tensor is found for large aspect ratio tokamaks in a low frequency band. Taking into account plasma rotation and charge separation parallel electric field, it is found that an ion geodesic effect deform Alfven wave continuum producing continuum minimum at the rational magnetic surfaces, which depends on the plasma rotation and poloidal mode numbers. In kinetic approach, the ion thermal motion defines the geodesic effect but the mode frequency also depends on electron temperature. A geodesic ion Alfven mode predicted below the continuum minimum has a small Landau damping in plasmas with Maxwell distribution but the plasma rotation may drive instability.

Elfimov, A. G. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2010-02-15

135

Kinetic simulation of plasma flows in the inner magnetosphere

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-dimensional hybrid particle code is used to study the interactions between upflowing thermal ions from conjugate ionospheres. The simulation model allows for multiple species, convection of plasmaspheric flux tubes, and Coulomb self-collisions which conserve momentum and energy locally. The model incorporates a variable-flux boundary condition where the flux, at the boundaries, approaches zero as the plasmasphere fills and equilibrium conditions are reached. The effects of two important processes on plasmaspheric refilling have been considered. The first includes convection of the plasmaspheric flux tube. The second is the interaction of ionospheric thermal plasma and particle injection from an external source. Particle injection seems to play an important role in the evolution of the total particle distribution on the early timescales (t less than 1 hour); however, for late timescales (t larger than 8 days) the thermal plasma from the ionosphere dominates the particle distribution.

Miller, Ronald H.; Rasmussen, Craig E.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Khazanov, Georgi V.; Winske, Dan

1993-01-01

136

Cefpiramide kinetics and plasma protein binding in cholestasis.

Cefpiramide is a new parenteral cephalosporin mainly excreted in the bile. Eight patients with cholestasis and 11 healthy subjects received a single 1 g i.v. dose. Cefpiramide concentrations in plasma and urine were measured by h.p.l.c. and plasma binding was determined by ultrafiltration. Total clearance of cefpiramide (mean +/- s.d.) was 15.5 +/- 7.1 ml min-1 in patients and 25.6 +/- 4.6 ml min-1 in healthy subjects. As a result, the terminal elimination half-life was longer in patients (12.0 +/- 2.9 h vs 5.3 +/- 0.9 h). Owing to impaired biliary elimination of cefpiramide in cholestasis, the urinary recovery of unchanged drug in patients was about five times greater than in healthy subjects (85.1 +/- 10.3% vs 16.2 +/- 3.9%). Plasma binding was significantly lower in cholestasis (fu = 0.23 +/- 0.13 vs 0.02 +/- 0.004 in healthy subjects). Accordingly, the dosage regimen of cefpiramide should be modified in patients with cholestasis. PMID:8198940

Demontes-Mainard, F; Vinçon, G; Labat, L; Amouretti, M; Necciari, J; Kieffer, G; Bannwarth, B

1994-01-01

137

Kinetic theory of the turbulent energy pinch in tokamak plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turbulent energy fluxes, including up-gradient 'energy pinch' effects, are derived using the nonlinear bounce-kinetic equation for trapped electrons and the nonlinear gyrokinetic equation for ions in toroidal geometry. The quasi-universal type of inward turbulent equipartition (TEP) energy pinch is recovered for both ions and trapped electrons, with different field dependence coefficients due to toroidal effects. A contribution from the density gradient to an outward convective energy flux is also obtained. The direction of the total energy convection is primarily determined by the competition between the TEP energy pinch and the outward density gradient driven energy convection. The magnetic shear dependence of the electron energy pinch is discussed. The energy pinches can provide possible explanations for some puzzling experimental observations.

Wang, Lu; Diamond, P. H.

2011-08-01

138

to the application of these discharges in plasma processing, laser technology, analytical chemistry, etc. RFCIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 27, NO. 5, OCTOBER 1999 1339 Semianalytical Description of Nonlocal Secondary Electrons in a Radio Frequency Capacitively Coupled Plasma at Intermediate Pressures

Kaganovich, Igor

139

Kinetic theory of a two-dimensional magnetized plasma.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several features of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of a two-dimensional plasma in a uniform dc magnetic field are investigated. The charges are assumed to interact only through electrostatic potentials. The problem is considered both with and without the guiding-center approximation. With the guiding-center approximation, an appropriate Liouville equation and BBGKY hierarchy predict no approach to thermal equilibrium for the spatially uniform case. For the spatially nonuniform situation, a guiding-center Vlasov equation is discussed and solved in special cases. For the nonequilibrium, nonguiding-center case, a Boltzmann equation, and a Fokker-Planck equation are derived in the appropriate limits. The latter is more tractable than the former, and can be shown to obey conservation laws and an H-theorem, but contains a divergent integral which must be cut off on physical grounds. Several unsolved problems are posed.

Vahala, G.; Montgomery, D.

1971-01-01

140

A Hybrid Fluid-Kinetic Theory for Plasma Physics

We parameterize the phase space density by time dependent diffeomorphic, Poisson preserving transformations on phase space acting on a reference density solution. We can look at these as transformations which fix time on the extended space of phase space and time. In this formulation the Vlasov equation is replaced by a constraint equation for the above maps. The new equations are formulated in terms of hamiltonian generators of one parameter families of diffeomorphic, Poisson preserving maps e.g. generators with respect to time or a perturbation parameter. We also show that it is possible to parameterize the space of solutions of the Vlasov equation by composition of maps subject to certain compatibility conditions on the generators. By using this composition principle we show how to formulate new equations for a hybrid fluid kinetic theory. This is done by observing that a certain subgroup of the group of phase space maps with generators which are linear in momentum correspond to the group of diffeomorphic maps parameterizing the continuity equation in fluid theory.

Tor Fla

2001-10-30

141

Kinetic Alfvén wave instability driven by a field-aligned current in high-? plasmas.

Including the ion-gyroradius effect, a general low-frequency kinetic dispersion equation is presented, which simultaneously takes account of a field-aligned current and temperature anisotropy in plasmas. Based on this dispersion equation, kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW) instability driven by the field-aligned current, which is carried by the field-aligned drift of electrons relative to ions at a drift velocity V(D), is investigated in a high-? plasma, where ? is the kinetic-to-magnetic pressure ratio in the plasma. The numerical results show that the KAW instability driven by the field-aligned current has a nonzero growth rate in the parallel wave-number range 0

Chen, L; Wu, D J; Hua, Y P

2011-10-01

142

On PIC-Fokker-Planck hybrid for kinetic modeling of plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional approach to kinetic simulation of plasmas utilizes either PIC or Vlasov (Fokker-Planck) method. There are well known shortcomings for both of the approaches. For instance, PIC suffers from high statistical noise, while Vlasov shows high numerical diffusion. New hybrid method [1] combines best features of the two methods by suppressing both numerical noise and numerical diffusion. Relative effectiveness of PIC, Vlasov and hybrid methods is demonstrated for a classical problem of non-linear saturation of a strong beam-plasma instability [2]. Further development of the hybrid PIC-Vlasov method [4] for the kinetic modeling of mixed-collisional plasma is discussed. First results on coupling of our hybrid particle-mesh method with adaptive RRC method [3], which uses adaptive grid refinement and coarsening, are presented. [1] O.Batishchev, Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Num. Sim. Plasmas, p.24, Banff, Canada, May 2000; [2] O.Batishchev et al., Bull. APS 45 (7) 72, APS DPP meeting, Quebec City, Canada, October 2000; [3] A.Batishcheva and O.Batishchev, Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Num. Sim. Plasmas, p.29, 2000; [4] O.Batishchev, APS DcomP-2001 meeting, R1.025, Cambridge, June 2001.

Batishchev, Oleg

2001-10-01

143

Weakly relativistic quantum kinetic theory for electrostatic wave modes in magnetized plasmas

We have derived the electrostatic dispersion relation in a magnetized plasma using a recently developed quantum kinetic model based on the Dirac equation. The model contains weakly relativistic spin effects such as Thomas precession, the polarization currents associated with the spin and the spin-orbit coupling. It turns out that for strictly electrostatic perturbations the non-relativistic spin effects vanish, and the modification of the classical dispersion relation is solely associated with the relativistic terms. Several new wave modes appear due the electron spin effects, and an example for astrophysical plasmas are given.

Hussain, Azhar [Department of Physics, GC University Lahore, 54000 Lahore (Pakistan)] [Department of Physics, GC University Lahore, 54000 Lahore (Pakistan); Stefan, Martin; Brodin, Gert [Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden)] [Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden)

2014-03-15

144

Major accidents scenarios used for LUP and off-site emergency planning : Importance of kinetic in particular, faced with several industrial accidents, like one of the most serious one, the AZF explosion. Keywords : Land Use Planning ; off-site emergency planning ; chemical accident scenario ; kinetic 1

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

145

Kinetic theory of low-frequency cross-field instability in a weakly ionized plasma. II

The consistent kinetic approach developed in Paper I [Ya. S. Dimant and R. N. Sudan, Phys. Plasmas {bold 2}, 1157 (1995)] is applied to obtain the general dispersion relation of the two-stream {bold E}{times}{bold B} instability in collisionally dominated weakly ionized plasmas for wave frequencies small compared to the ion--neutral collision frequency. This dispersion relation covers the whole low-frequency band from the asymptotic short-wave limit studied in Paper I to the long-wave limit. Previous theories employing simplified kinetic theory or fluid equations for electron behavior are only correct in the long-wave limit. The principal new results are that the threshold conditions for this instability and the growth rates are altered from those predicted by earlier simplified theories. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Dimant, Y.S.; Sudan, R.N. [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

1995-04-01

146

AEGIS-K code for linear kinetic analysis of toroidally axisymmetric plasma stability

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linear kinetic stability code for tokamak plasmas: AEGIS-K (Adaptive EiGenfunction Independent Solutions-Kinetic), is described. The AEGIS-K code is based on the newly developed gyrokinetic theory [L.J. Zheng, M.T. Kotschenreuther, J.W. Van Dam, Phys. Plasmas 14 (2007) 072505]. The success in recovering the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) from this newly developed gyrokinetic theory in the proper limit leads the AEGIS-K code to be featured by being fully kinetic in essence but hybrid in appearance. The radial adaptive shooting scheme based on the method of the independent solution decomposition in the MHD AEGIS code [L.J. Zheng, M.T. Kotschenreuther, J. Comp. Phys. 211 (2006) 748] is extended to the kinetic calculation. A numerical method is developed to solve the gyrokinetic equation of lowest order for the response to the independent solutions of the electromagnetic perturbations, with the quasineutrality condition taken into account. A transform method is implemented to allow the pre-computed Z-function (i.e., the plasma dispersion function) to be used to reduce the integration dimension in the moment calculation and to assure the numerical accuracy in determining the wave-particle resonance effects. Periodic boundary condition along the whole banana orbit is introduced to treat the trapped particles, in contrast to the usual reflection symmetry conditions at the banana tips. Due to the adaptive feature, the AEGIS-K code is able to resolve the coupling between the kinetic resonances and the shear Alfvén continuum damping. Application of the AEGIS-K code to compute the resistive wall modes in ITER is discussed.

Zheng, L. J.; Kotschenreuther, M. T.; Van Dam, J. W.

2010-05-01

147

Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic plasmas using double adiabatic model and gyro-kinetic equation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic tokamak plasmas is theoretically analyzed by using double adiabatic model and gyro-kinetic equation. The bi-Maxwellian distribution function for guiding-center ions is assumed to obtain a self-consistent form, yielding pressures satisfying the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) anisotropic equilibrium condition. The double adiabatic model gives the dispersion relation of geodesic acoustic mode (GAM), which agrees well with the one derived from gyro-kinetic equation. The GAM frequency increases with the ratio of pressures, p?/p?, and the Landau damping rate is dramatically decreased by p?/p?. MHD result shows a low-frequency zonal flow existing for all p?/p?, while according to the kinetic dispersion relation, no low-frequency branch exists for p?/p?? 2.

Ren, Haijun; Cao, Jintao

2014-12-01

148

Von Kármán energy decay and heating of protons and electrons in a kinetic turbulent plasma.

Decay in time of undriven weakly collisional kinetic plasma turbulence in systems large compared to the ion kinetic scales is investigated using fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations initiated with transverse flow and magnetic disturbances, constant density, and a strong guide field. The observed energy decay is consistent with the von Kármán hypothesis of similarity decay, in a formulation adapted to magnetohydrodyamics. Kinetic dissipation occurs at small scales, but the overall rate is apparently controlled by large scale dynamics. At small turbulence amplitudes the electrons are preferentially heated. At larger amplitudes proton heating is the dominant effect. In the solar wind and corona the protons are typically hotter, suggesting that these natural systems are in the large amplitude turbulence regime. PMID:24093244

Wu, P; Wan, M; Matthaeus, W H; Shay, M A; Swisdak, M

2013-09-20

149

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes an Adaptive Mesh in Phase Space (AMPS) technique for solving kinetic equations with deterministic mesh-based methods. The AMPS technique allows automatic generation of adaptive Cartesian mesh in both physical and velocity spaces using a Tree-of-Trees data structure. We illustrate advantages of AMPS for simulations of rarefied gas dynamics and electron kinetics on low temperature plasmas. In particular, we consider formation of the velocity distribution functions in hypersonic flows, particle kinetics near oscillating boundaries, and electron kinetics in a radio-frequency sheath. AMPS provide substantial savings in computational cost and increased efficiency of the mesh-based kinetic solvers.

Kolobov, Vladimir; Arslanbekov, Robert; Frolova, Anna

2014-12-01

150

We have developed a fully kinetic electromagnetic model to study instabilities and waves in planetary plasma environments. In the particle-in-a-cell (PIC) model both ions and electrons are modeled as particles. An important feature of the developed global kinetic model, called HYB-em, compared to other electromagnetic codes is that it is built up on an earlier quasi-neutral hybrid simulation platform called

Valter Pohjola; Esa Kallio

2010-01-01

151

Nonlinear Interaction of 3D Kinetic Alfvén Waves and Ion Acoustic Waves in Solar Wind Plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the nonlinear interaction between a 3D kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW) and an ion acoustic wave (IAW) in solar wind plasmas. A set of dimensionless equations was developed that describes the pump KAW perturbed by a low-frequency ion acoustic wave. The dependence of the growth rate of the modulational instability on the perturbation wave number was studied. We simulated numerically the dynamical equation of KAW with a pseudo-spectral method, taking ponderomotive nonlinearity into account. The 3D KAW itself propagates in the form of a vortex beam in a magnetised plasma, which manifests the presence of orbital angular momentum of the wave eigenmodes. We discuss the evolution of these vortex structures. Our results reveal that the Kolmogorov scaling is followed by a steeper scaling of power spectra, which is consistent with the solar wind observations by the Cluster spacecraft. We discuss the relevance of our investigation for solar wind plasmas.

Yadav, N.; Sharma, R. P.

2014-05-01

152

The LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations are determined by the activity of a complex network of reactions in several organs. Physiologically-based kinetic (PBK) computational models can be used to describe these different reactions in an integrated, quantitative manner. A PBK model to predict plasma cholesterol levels in the mouse was developed, validated, and analyzed. Kinetic parameters required for defining the model were obtained using data from published experiments. To construct the model, a set of appropriate submodels was selected from a set of 65,536 submodels differing in the kinetic expressions of the reactions. A submodel was considered appropriate if it had the ability to correctly predict an increased or decreased plasma cholesterol level for a training set of 5 knockout mouse strains. The model thus defined consisted of 8 appropriate submodels and was validated using data from an independent set of 9 knockout mouse strains. The model prediction is the average prediction of 8 appropriate submodels. Remarkably, these submodels had in common that the rate of cholesterol transport from the liver to HDL was not dependent on hepatic cholesterol concentrations. The model appeared able to accurately predict in a quantitative way the plasma cholesterol concentrations of all 14 knockout strains considered, including the frequently used Ldlr-/- and Apoe-/- mouse strains. The model presented is a useful tool to predict the effect of knocking out genes that act in important steps in cholesterol metabolism on total plasma cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C in the mouse. PMID:21320632

van de Pas, Niek C A; Woutersen, Ruud A; van Ommen, Ben; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; de Graaf, Albert A

2011-05-01

153

In terms of the Vlasov-Maxwell kinetic approach we consider analytically the global Chapman- Ferraro problem (CFP) of inductive generation by the solar wind plasma flow of 3D magnetotail\\/solar streamer (M\\/S) structures in the process of electromagnetic (e.m.) interaction of the flow with the magnetized region. The input undisturbed flow is a hot collisionless plasma with an isotropic velocity distribution function

Vladimir Gubchenko

2008-01-01

154

PHYS 626 -- Fundamentals of Plasma Physics -- Sections 3.1 - 3.2 1. The description of a plasma using single particle motions is the most simplistic theory one can think of. 2. The two basic of particles; (ii) the motion of a single charged particle is not affected by the motions of other particles (i

Ng, Chung-Sang

155

Determination of plasma-free fatty acid kinetics with tracers: Methodologic considerations

Plasma-free fatty acids (FFA) are an important source of energy for a variety of tissues. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the measurement of FFA kinetics in vivo, using radiolabeled or stable isotopic tracers. Standard techniques for measurement of FFA-specific activity are relatively imprecise and have limited sensitivity. The authors have developed a method for determination of the concentration and specific activity of individual plasma FFA that is precise (coefficient of variation less than 2%) and sensitive (detection limit in the high femptomolar to low picomolar range). Using this method, one can measure the kinetics of three or more long-chain fatty acids simultaneously. Its sensitivity is a particular advantage if one wishes to measure low rates of FFA turnover such as are encountered during hyperinsulinemia. It has been suggested that, for optimal accuracy in the determination of substrate kinetics, the tracer should be administered in the left ventricle and mixed venous blood samples should be obtained from the right heart. They have conducted experiments in dogs which demonstrate that peripheral tracer infusion and more conventional arterial (or arterialized venous) sampling actually provide more accurate estimates of FFA turnover; this is fortunate, since intracardiac infusion and sampling are not practical for human studies. 39 references.

Miles, J.M.; Jensen, M.D. (Mayo Medical School, Rochester, MN (USA))

1991-05-01

156

A Hamiltonian fluid-kinetic model for a two-species non-neutral plasma

A model for describing the dynamics of a pure electron plasma in the presence of a population of massive charged particles is presented. The model couples the fluid dynamics of the pure electron plasma with the dynamics of the massive particle population, the latter being treated kinetically. The model is shown to possess a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and to preserve invariants analogous to those of the two-dimensional (2D) Euler equation for an incompressible inviscid fluid, and of the Vlasov equation. The Hamiltonian structure of the model is used to derive a set of stability conditions for rotating coherent structures of the two-species system, in the case of negatively charged massive particles. According to these conditions, stability is attained if both the equilibrium distribution function of the kinetic species and the equilibrium density of the electron fluid are monotonically decreasing functions of the corresponding single-particle energies in the rotating frame. For radially confined equilibria near the axis, the stability condition corresponds to the existence of a finite interval of rotation frequencies for the reference frame, with the upper bound determined by the presence of the kinetic population.

Tassi, E.; Chandre, C. [Aix-Marseille Université, Université de Toulon, CNRS CPT UMR 7332, 13288 Marseille (France)] [Aix-Marseille Université, Université de Toulon, CNRS CPT UMR 7332, 13288 Marseille (France); Romé, M. [INFN Sezione di Milano and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN Sezione di Milano and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

2014-04-15

157

Kinetics of ion and prompt electron emission from laser-produced plasma

We investigated ion emission dynamics of laser-produced plasma from several elements, comprised of metals and non-metals (C, Al, Si, Cu, Mo, Ta, W), under vacuum conditions using a Faraday cup. The estimated ion flux for various targets studied showed a decreasing tendency with increasing atomic mass. For metals, the ion flux is found to be a function of sublimation energy. A comparison of temporal ion profiles of various materials showed only high-Z elements exhibited multiple structures in the ion time of flight profile indicated by the observation of higher peak kinetic energies, which were absent for low-Z element targets. The slower ions were seen regardless of the atomic number of target material propagated with a kinetic energy of 1–5 keV, while the fast ions observed in high-Z materials possessed significantly higher energies. A systematic study of plasma properties employing fast photography, time, and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy, and electron analysis showed that there existed different mechanisms for generating ions in laser ablation plumes. The origin of high kinetic energy ions is related to prompt electron emission from high-Z targets.

Farid, N. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States) [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, School of Physics and Optical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China); Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Ding, H. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, School of Physics and Optical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)] [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, School of Physics and Optical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)

2013-07-15

158

A Hamiltonian fluid-kinetic model for a two-species non-neutral plasma

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for describing the dynamics of a pure electron plasma in the presence of a population of massive charged particles is presented. The model couples the fluid dynamics of the pure electron plasma with the dynamics of the massive particle population, the latter being treated kinetically. The model is shown to possess a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and to preserve invariants analogous to those of the two-dimensional (2D) Euler equation for an incompressible inviscid fluid, and of the Vlasov equation. The Hamiltonian structure of the model is used to derive a set of stability conditions for rotating coherent structures of the two-species system, in the case of negatively charged massive particles. According to these conditions, stability is attained if both the equilibrium distribution function of the kinetic species and the equilibrium density of the electron fluid are monotonically decreasing functions of the corresponding single-particle energies in the rotating frame. For radially confined equilibria near the axis, the stability condition corresponds to the existence of a finite interval of rotation frequencies for the reference frame, with the upper bound determined by the presence of the kinetic population.

Tassi, E.; Romé, M.; Chandre, C.

2014-04-01

159

Dispersion characteristics of kinetic Alfven waves in a multi-ion cometary plasma

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the stability of the kinetic Alfven wave in a plasma composed of hydrogen and positively and negatively charged oxygen ions and electrons which approximates very well the plasma environment around comet Halley. In the direction parallel to the magnetic field, the electrons have been modelled by a drifting Maxwellian distribution. In the perpendicular direction, another ring simulated by a loss cone type distribution, obtained by subtracting two Maxwellians with different temperatures, model all the constituents of the plasma. The dispersion relation derived for KAWs is a generalisation of the pioneering dispersion relation of Hasegawa on two counts: it has been extended to a plasma described by a generalised distribution function and to a multi - ion plasma containing positively and negatively charged ions. We find that the dispersion characteristics of the KAW can be made independent of the heavy ion parameters by an appropriate choice of densities and temperatures. The source of free energy for the instability is the drift velocity of the electrons; the growth rate increases with increasing drift velocity of the electrons. The positively charged heavier ions enhance the instability while the negatively charged heavier ions tend to damp the wave.

Jayapal, R.; Abraham, Noble P.; Blesson, Jose; Antony, S.; Anilkumar, C. P.; Venugopal, Chandu

160

Kinetics of general electromagnetic fluctuations in unmagnetized plasmas: aperiodic thermal noise

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any fully-ionized collisionless plasma with finite random particle velocities contains electric and magnetic field fluctuations which are of three different types: weakly damped, weakly propagating or aperiodic. The kinetics of these fluctuations in general unmagnetized plasmas is governed by the competition of spontaneous emission, absorption and stimulated emission processes. The generalized Kirchhoff laws for both collective and non-collective fluctuations are derived, which in stationary plasmas provide the equilibrium energy densities of electromagnetic fluctuations by the ratio of the respective spontaneous emission and true absorption coefficients. The equilibrium energy densities of aperiodic transverse collective electric and magnetic fluctuations in an isotropic thermal electron–proton plasma of density ne is calculated as \\mid ? B\\mid =\\sqrt{{{(? B)}2}}=2.8{{({{n}e}{{m}e}{{c}2})}1/2}{{g}1/2}? e7/4 and \\mid ? E\\mid =\\sqrt{{{(? E)}2}}=3.2{{({{n}e}{{m}e}{{c}2})}1/2}{{g}1/3}? e2 , where g and ?e denote the plasma parameter and the thermal electron velocity in units of the speed of light. For densities and temperatures of the reionized early intergalactic medium ??B? = 6 · 10?18 G and ??E? = 2 · 10?16 G result.

Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

2015-01-01

161

Any fully ionized collisionless plasma with finite random particle velocities contains electric and magnetic field fluctuations. The fluctuations can be of three different types: weakly damped, weakly propagating, or aperiodic. The kinetics of these fluctuations in general unmagnetized plasmas, governed by the competition of spontaneous emission, absorption, and stimulated emission processes, is investigated, extending the well-known results for weakly damped fluctuations. The generalized Kirchhoff radiation law for both collective and noncollective fluctuations is derived, which in stationary plasmas provides the equilibrium energy densities of electromagnetic fluctuations by the ratio of the respective spontaneous emission coefficient and the true absorption coefficient. As an illustrative example, the equilibrium energy densities of aperiodic transverse collective electric and magnetic fluctuations in an isotropic thermal electron-proton plasmas of density n{sub e} are calculated as |?B|=?((?B){sup 2})=2.8(n{sub e}m{sub e}c{sup 2}){sup 1/2}g{sup 1/2}?{sub e}{sup 7/4} and |?E|=?((?E){sup 2})=3.2(n{sub e}m{sub e}c{sup 2}){sup 1/2}g{sup 1/3}?{sub e}{sup 2}, where g and ?{sub e} denote the plasma parameter and the thermal electron velocity in units of the speed of light, respectively. For densities and temperatures of the reionized early intergalactic medium, |?B|=6·10{sup ?18}G and |?E|=2·10{sup ?16}G result.

Yoon, P. H., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: uk@tp4.rub.de [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Schlickeiser, R., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: uk@tp4.rub.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Research Department Plasmas with Complex Interactions, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Kolberg, U., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: uk@tp4.rub.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2014-03-15

162

Electron and ion kinetic effects on non-linearly driven electron plasma and ion acoustic waves

Fully non-linear kinetic simulations of electron plasma and ion acoustic waves (IAWs) have been carried out with a new multi-species, parallelized Vlasov code. The numerical implementation of the Vlasov model and the methods used to compute the wave frequency are described in detail. For the first time, the nonlinear frequency of IAWs, combining the contributions from electron and ion kinetic effects and from harmonic generation, has been calculated and compared to Vlasov results. Excellent agreement of theory with simulation results is shown at all amplitudes, harmonic generation being an essential component at large amplitudes. For IAWs, the positive frequency shift from trapped electrons is confirmed and is dominant for the effective electron-to-ion temperature ratio, Z T{sub e}/T{sub i} Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10 with Z as the charge state. Furthermore, numerical results demonstrate unambiguously the dependence [R. L. Dewar, Phys. Fluids 15, 712 (1972)] of the kinetic shifts on details of the distribution of the trapped particles, which depends in turn on the conditions under which the waves were generated. The trapped particle fractions and energy distributions are derived and, upon inclusion of harmonic effects, shown to agree with the simulation results, completing a consistent picture. Fluid models of the wave evolution are considered but prove unable to capture essential details of the kinetic simulations. Detrapping by collisions and sideloss is also discussed.

Berger, R. L.; Chapman, T.; Divol, L.; Still, C. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Brunner, S. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CRPP-PPB, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Valeo, E. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

2013-03-15

163

Kinetic description of coagulation and fragmentation in dilute granular particle ensembles

We derive kinetic equations covering coagulation and fragmentation of granular gases including a combined dynamics of the mass spectrum and the velocity distribution. We will focus on coagulation, that can only occur at low impact velocities where attractive forces and dissipation prevent a post-collisional separation. We calculate an impact speed-dependent threshold velocity gc for coagulation to occur based on binary

F. Spahn; N. Albers; M. Sremcevic; C. Thornton

2004-01-01

164

Kinetic microtearing modes and reconnecting modes in strongly magnetised slab plasmas

The problem of the linear microtearing mode in a slab magnetised plasma, and its connection to kinetic reconnecting modes, is addressed. Electrons are described using a novel hybrid fluid-kinetic model that captures electron heating, ions are gyrokinetic. Magnetic reconnection can occur as a result of either electron conductivity and inertia, depending on which one predominates. We eschew the use of an energy dependent collision frequency in the collisional operator model, unlike previous works. A model of the electron conductivity that matches the weakly collisional regime to the exact Landau result at zero collisionality and gives the correct electron isothermal response far from the reconnection region is presented. We identify in the breaking of the constant-$A_{\\parallel}$ approximation the necessary condition for microtearing instability in the collisional regime. Connections with the theory of collisional non-isothermal (or semicollisional) and collisionless tearing-parity electron temperature gradient...

Zocco, A; Dickinson, D; Numata, R; Roach, C M

2014-01-01

165

Nonlinear interaction and parametric instability of kinetic Alfven waves in multicomponent plasmas

Nonlinear couplings among kinetic Alfven waves are investigated for a three-component plasma consisting of electrons, protons, and heavy ions. The parametric instability is investigated, and the growth rate is obtained. In the kinetic regime, the growth rate for the parallel decay instability increases with the heavy ion content, but the growth rate for the reverse decay is independent of the latter since the perpendicular wavelength is much larger than the ion gyroradius. It decreases with the heavy ion content when the perpendicular wavelength is of the order of the ion gyroradius. It is also found that in the short perpendicular wavelength limit, the growth rate is only weakly affected by the heavy ions. On the other hand, in the inertial regime, for both parallel and reverse decay cases, the growth rate decreases as the number of heavy ions becomes large.

Zhao, J. S.; Yang, L. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, D. J. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Lu, J. Y. [College of Mathematics and Statistics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); National Center for Space Weather, China Meteorology Administration, Beijing 100081 (China)

2013-03-15

166

Plasma Physics for Nuclear Fusion

The book focuses on the properties of gaseous plasmas needed in the attainment of controlled fusion reactions. The first five chapters develop the fundamentals of plasma physics and present the conditions of nuclear fusion reactions. The next four provide a magnetohydrodynamic description of plasmas, followed by four chapters that explain wave phenomena and instabilities by means of a kinetic model.

K. Miyamoto; Robert L. Dewar

1980-01-01

167

Collisionless beam-plasma instabilities are expected to play a crucial role during the early phase of the relativistic electron transport in the Fast Ignition scheme. This Letter presents a theoretical study of these instabilities in a two-dimensional geometry, highlighting the role of unstable modes propagating obliquely to the beam direction. The main features identified through a linearized analysis in a very general kinetic framework are examined by means of a particle-in-cell simulation. Good agreement between the two approaches is observed in the linear phase. Beam trapping is found to account for the nonlinear wave saturation.

Gremillet, L.; Benisti, D.; Lefebvre, E.; Bret, A. [Departement de Physique Theorique et Appliquee, CEA/DIF, Boite Postale 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

2007-04-15

168

A global model has been developed for low-pressure, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) SF{sub 6}/O{sub 2}/Ar mixtures. This model is based on a set of mass balance equations for all the considered species, coupled with the discharge power balance equation and the charge neutrality condition. The present study is an extension of the kinetic global model previously developed for SF{sub 6}/Ar ICP plasma discharges [Lallement et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 18, 025001 (2009)]. It is focused on the study of the impact of the O{sub 2} addition to the SF{sub 6}/Ar gas mixture on the plasma kinetic properties. The simulation results show that the electron density increases with the %O{sub 2}, which is due to the decrease of the plasma electronegativity, while the electron temperature is almost constant in our pressure range. The density evolutions of atomic fluorine and oxygen versus %O{sub 2} have been analyzed. Those atomic radicals play an important role in the silicon etching process. The atomic fluorine density increases from 0 up to 40% O{sub 2} where it reaches a maximum. This is due to the enhancement of the SF{sub 6} dissociation processes and the production of fluorine through the reactions between SF{sub x} and O. This trend is experimentally confirmed. On the other hand, the simulation results show that O(3p) is the preponderant atomic oxygen. Its density increases with %O{sub 2} until reaching a maximum at almost 40% O{sub 2}. Over this value, its diminution with O{sub 2}% can be justified by the high increase in the loss frequency of O(3p) by electronic impact in comparison to its production frequency by electronic impact with O{sub 2}.

Pateau, Amand [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniére 44322 Nantes, France and ST Microelectronics, 10 rue Thals de Milet, 37071 Tours (France); Rhallabi, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.rhallabi@univ-nantes.fr; Fernandez, Marie-Claude [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniére 44322 Nantes (France); Boufnichel, Mohamed; Roqueta, Fabrice [ST Microelectronics, 10 rue Thales de Milet, 37071 Tours (France)

2014-03-15

169

Stability of the kinetic Alfven wave in a current-less plasma

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two potential theory of Hasegawa has been used to derive the dispersion relation for the kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) in a plasma composed of hydrogen, oxygen and electrons. All three components have been modeled by ring distributions (obtained by subtracting two Maxwellian distributions with different temperatures) with the hydrogen and electrons drifting, respectively, with velocities V_{dH} and V_{de}. For the most general case, the dispersion equation is a polynomial equation of order five; it reduces to a relation which supports only one mode when V_{dH}=0. For typical parameters at comet Halley, we find that both V_{dH} and V_{de} can drive the wave unstable; the KAW is thus driven unstable in a current-less plasma. Such an instability was found for the ion acoustic wave by Vranjes et al.

Abraham, Noble P.; C, Venugopal; Sebastian, Sijo; Renuka, G.; Balan, Nanan; Sreekala, G.

170

Kinetic simulation of capacitively coupled plasmas driven by trapezoidal asymmetric voltage pulses

A kinetic Particle-In-Cell simulation with Monte Carlo Collisions was performed of a geometrically symmetric capacitively coupled, parallel-plate discharge in argon, driven by trapezoidal asymmetric voltage pulses with a period of 200?ns. The discharge was electrically asymmetric, making the ion energy distributions at the two electrodes different from one another. The fraction of the period (?), during which the voltage was kept at a constant (top-flat) positive value, was a critical control parameter. For the parameter range investigated, as ? increased, the mean ion energy on the grounded electrode increased and the ions became more directional, whereas the opposite was found for the ions striking the powered electrode. The absolute value of the DC self-bias voltage decreased as ? increased. Plasma instabilities, promoted by local double layers and electric field reversals during the time of the positive voltage excursion, were characterized by electron plasma waves launched from the sheath edge.

Diomede, Paola, E-mail: padiomede@gmail.com; Economou, Demetre J., E-mail: economou@uh.edu [Plasma Processing Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4004 (United States)

2014-06-21

171

Excited-state kinetics and radiation transport in low-temperature plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An advanced self-consistent plasma physics model including non-equilibrium vibrational kinetics, a collisional radiative model for atomic species, a Boltzmann solver for the electron energy distribution function, a radiation transport module coupled to a steady inviscid flow solver and, has been applied to study non-equilibrium in high enthalpy flows for Jupiter’s atmosphere. Two systems have been considered, a hypersonic shock tube and nozzle expansion, emphasizing the role of radiation reabsorption on macroscopic and microscopic flow properties. Large differences are found between thin and thick plasma conditions not only for the distributions, but also for the macroscopic quantities. In particular, in the nozzle expansion case, the electron energy distribution functions are characterized by a rich structure induced by superelastic collisions between excited species and cold electrons.

Colonna, G.; D’Ammando, G.; Pietanza, L. D.; Capitelli, M.

2015-01-01

172

Electron energy distribution functions have been calculated by a self-consistent model which couples the electron Boltzmann equation with vibrationally and electronically excited state kinetics and plasma chemistry. Moderate pressure nitrogen gas discharges in the E/N range from 30 to 60 Townsend are investigated comparing an electron-impact cross section set considering transitions starting from all the vibrational states, with reduced models, taking into account only collisions involving the ground vibrational level. The results, while confirming the important role of second kind collisions in affecting the eedf, show a large dependence of the eedf on the set of inelastic processes involving vibrationally and electronically excited molecules, pointing out the need of using a cross section database including processes linking excited states in non-equilibrium plasma discharge models.

Capitelli, Mario [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universitá di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy) [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universitá di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); CNR-IMIP, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Colonna, Gianpiero; D'Ammando, Giuliano; Laricchiuta, Annarita [CNR-IMIP, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy)] [CNR-IMIP, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Laporta, Vincenzo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

2013-10-15

173

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a fully kinetic electromagnetic model to study instabilities and waves in planetary plasma environments. In the particle-in-a-cell (PIC) model both ions and electrons are modeled as particles. An important feature of the developed global kinetic model, called HYB-em, compared to other electromagnetic codes is that it is built up on an earlier quasi-neutral hybrid simulation platform called HYB and that it can be used in conjunction with earlier hybrid models. The HYB models have been used during the past ten years to study globally the flowing plasma interaction with various Solar System objects: Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Saturnian moon Titan and asteroids. The new model enables us to (1) study the stability of various planetary plasma regions in three dimensional space, (2) analyze the propagation of waves in a plasma environment derived from the other global HYB models. All particle processes in a multi-ion plasma which are implemented on the HYB platform (e.g. ion-neutral-collisions, chemical processes, particle loss and production processes) are also automatically included in HYB-em model. In this presentation we study the developed approach by analyzing the propagation of high frequency electromagnetic waves in non-magnetized plasma in two cases: We study (1) expansion of a spherical wave generated from a point source and (2) propagation of a plane wave in plasma. We demonstrate that the HYB-em model is capable of describing these space plasma situations successfully. The analysis suggests the potential of the developed model to study both high density-high magnetic field plasma environments, such as Mercury, and low density-low magnetic field plasma environments, such as Venus and Mars.

Pohjola, Valter; Kallio, Esa

2010-05-01

174

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a fully kinetic electromagnetic model to study instabilities and waves in planetary plasma environments. In the particle-in-a-cell (PIC) model both ions and electrons are modeled as particles. An important feature of the developed global kinetic model, called HYB-em, compared to other electromagnetic codes is that it is built up on an earlier quasi-neutral hybrid simulation platform called HYB and that it can be used in conjunction with earlier hybrid models. The HYB models have been used during the past ten years to study globally the flowing plasma interaction with various Solar System objects: Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Saturnian moon Titan and asteroids. The new model enables us to (1) study the stability of various planetary plasma regions in three dimensional space, (2) analyze the propa-gation of waves in a plasma environment derived from the other global HYB models. All particle processes in a multi-ion plasma which are implemented on the HYB platform(e.g. ion-neutral collisions, chemical processes, particle loss and production processes) are also automatically included in HYB-em model. In this presentation we study the developed approach by analyzing the propagation of high frequency electromagnetic waves in non-magnetized plasma in two cases: We study (1) expan-sion of a spherical wave generated from a point source and (2) propagation of a plane wave in plasma. We demonstrate that the HYB-em model is capable of describing these space plasma situations successfully. The analysis suggests the potential of the developed model to study both high density-high magnetic field plasma environments, such as Mercury, and low density-low magnetic field plasma environments, such as Venus and Mars.

Pohjola, Valter; Kallio, Esa; Jarvinen, Riku

175

Merging for Particle-Mesh Complex Particle Kinetic Modeling of the Multiple Plasma Beams

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We suggest a merging procedure for the Particle-Mesh Complex Particle Kinetic (PMCPK) method in case of inter-penetrating flow (multiple plasma beams). We examine the standard particle-in-cell (PIC) and the PMCPK methods in the case of particle acceleration by shock surfing for a wide range of the control numerical parameters. The plasma dynamics is described by a hybrid (particle-ion-fluid-electron) model. Note that one may need a mesh if modeling with the computation of an electromagnetic field. Our calculations use specified, time-independent electromagnetic fields for the shock, rather than self-consistently generated fields. While a particle-mesh method is a well-verified approach, the CPK method seems to be a good approach for multiscale modeling that includes multiple regions with various particle/fluid plasma behavior. However, the CPK method is still in need of a verification for studying the basic plasma phenomena: particle heating and acceleration by collisionless shocks, magnetic field reconnection, beam dynamics, etc.

Lipatov, Alexander S.

2011-01-01

176

Kinetic description of ionospheric dynamics in the three-fluid approximation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conservation equations are developed in the three-fluid approximation for general application problems of ionospheric dynamics in the altitude region 90 km to 800 km for all geographic locations. These equations are applied to a detailed study of auroral E region neutral winds and their relationship to ionospheric plasma motions.

Comfort, R. H.

1975-01-01

177

The systemic availability of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) is the net result of the absorption of the glucocorticoid from the lower respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and metabolism in the lung, plasma, and other sites. The metabolism kinetics of BDP and its active metabolite, beclomethasone 17-monopropionate (17-BMP), in human lung 1000 x g supernatant (HLu) and human plasma (HP) at 37 degrees C were compared. The effect of MgCl(2) and/or an NADPH-generating system on the decomposition of BDP and 17-BMP in HLu was also investigated. The concentrations of BDP and its metabolites were determined by HPLC with UV detection at 242 nm. Kinetics of decomposition of BDP and 17-BMP in HLu and HP were qualitatively and quantitatively different. The decomposition of BDP in HLu involved only hydrolysis. In comparison, three reactions are involved following incubation of BDP in HP; namely, hydrolysis, transesterification, and loss of hydrogen chloride. The hydrolysis of BDP and 17-BMP in HLu seem to be inhibited appreciably by MgCl(2) with the NADPH-generating system. Effective activation of BDP in HLu, in combination with transesterification of 17-BMP in HP, might favor a high ratio of local antiinflammatory activity to systemic side effects following inhalation of BDP. PMID:10944379

Foe, K; Brown, K F; Seale, J P

2000-09-01

178

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface chemistry of a synthetic material in contact with a biological system has a strong influence on the adhesion of proteins to the surface of the material and requires careful consideration in biomedical applications. The structure of plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) treated polymer and its surface free energy depend on the ion fluence delivered during the treatment and on the time after the PIII treatment. These dependences have been investigated using the example of nitrogen plasma implanted polystyrene (PS). Contact angle measurements, FTIR-ATR spectra and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectra were acquired as a function of ion fluence and time after treatment. The results showed a close relationship to the kinetics of free radicals that had been examined in a previous study. The kinetics of oxidation and surface free energy had two stages, one with a characteristic time of several hours and the other with a characteristic time of several days. The concentration of nitrogen-containing groups decreased with time after PIII treatment, partly, due to their release from the PS surface.

Kosobrodova, E.; Kondyurin, A.; McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.

2013-06-01

179

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a physiologic plasma concentration of ?-ketoglutarate (?KG) influences the kinetic interaction of ligands with organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1). The effect of extracellular ?KG on the kinetics of para-aminohippurate (PAH) and cidofovir transport was examined along with its effect on the potency of 10 drugs in five different classes (uricosuric, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, loop diuretics, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, and ?-lactam antibiotics) to inhibit OAT1 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Extracellular ?KG competitively inhibited PAH and cidofovir transport with Ki values (?5 ?M) approximating its unbound plasma concentration (determined by equilibrium dialysis). When PAH was the substrate, extracellular ?KG (5 ?M) significantly increased IC50 values for some inhibitors (up to 4-fold), such as probenecid, but not for others (an inhibitor-dependent effect). For some inhibitors, a significant increase in IC50 value was observed when cidofovir was the substrate, but not PAH (a substrate-dependent effect). A significant increase in IC50 value was also observed for inhibition of PAH transport by probenecid in renal basolateral membrane vesicles (5.2-fold). The substrate- and inhibitor-dependent effect of extracellular ?KG on ligand interactions with OAT1 highlights the complexity of the OAT1 ligand-binding surface. The effect of extracellular ?KG on the potency of OAT1 inhibition should be considered when assessing drug-drug interaction potential at the transporter. PMID:24770989

Ingraham, Leslie; Li, Mansong; Renfro, J Larry; Parker, Sonda; Vapurcuyan, Arpine; Hanna, Imad; Pelis, Ryan M

2014-07-01

180

Anomalous kinetic energy of a system of dust particles in a gas discharge plasma

The system of equations of motion of dust particles in a near-electrode layer of a gas discharge has been formulated taking into account fluctuations of the charge of a dust particle and the features of the nearelectrode layer of the discharge. The molecular dynamics simulation of the system of dust particles has been carried out. Performing a theoretical analysis of the simulation results, a mechanism of increasing the average kinetic energy of dust particles in the gas discharge plasma has been proposed. According to this mechanism, the heating of the vertical oscillations of dust particles is initiated by induced oscillations generated by fluctuations of the charge of dust particles, and the energy transfer from vertical to horizontal oscillations can be based on the parametric resonance phenomenon. The combination of the parametric and induced resonances makes it possible to explain an anomalously high kinetic energy of dust particles. The estimate of the frequency, amplitude, and kinetic energy of dust particles are close to the respective experimental values.

Norman, G. E., E-mail: norman@ihed.ras.ru; Stegailov, V. V., E-mail: stegailov@gmail.com; Timofeev, A. V., E-mail: timofeevalvl@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

2011-11-15

181

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetic excitation and/or damping of plasma waves in a high-? tokamak plasma is studied using linear gyrokinetic simulations. A new code was developed to accurately simulate excitations in a broad range of frequencies and wavelengths. It describes the evolution of the electromagnetic fields ?B, ?B and ?E subject to effects of kinetic compression of thermal and energetic ions, finite Larmor radii and finite drift orbit widths. The s-? equilibrium model and ballooning representation are employed. For example, the code is capable of investigating kinetic ballooning modes, Alfv'enic ion temperature gradient modes, ?- and toroidicity-induced Alfv'en eigenmodes, and energetic particle modes. Our current focus is on the parameter regime near the second ballooning stability boundary, where the properties of Alfv'enic instabilities including kinetic thermal ion compression will be examined. Corresponding results will be reported as they become available.

Bierwage, Andreas; Chen, Liu

2007-11-01

182

Energy transport by kinetic-scale electromagnetic waves in fast plasma sheet flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report observations from the THEMIS spacecraft characterizing the nature and importance of low frequency electromagnetic fluctuations on kinetic scales embedded within fast flows in the Earth's plasma sheet. A consideration of wave property variations with frequency and flow speed suggest that for spacecraft frame frequencies satisfying |vf|/ñi ? ùsc ? 100|vf|/ñi (or 0.2 ? fsc ? 20 Hz) these fluctuations can generally be described as kinetic Alfvén waves. Here vf is the flow speed, ñi the ion gyroradius, and ùsc and fsc are the angular and cyclical frequencies respectively in the spacecraft frame. The statistics of energy transport via Poynting flux (S) in these fluctuations and ion energy flux (å) in the flow follow log normal distributions with mean values of ~~ = 101.1 ± 0.7 and = 102.4 ± 0.4 mW/m2 respectively where the values are ‘mapped’ to a reference magnetic field at 100 km altitude. Here the indices following ‘ ± ’ correspond to one standard deviation. We find that ~~~~ = 10-1.3 ± 0.7 or that kinetic Alfvén waves on average transport ˜5% of the total energy transport in the flow but note that the values larger than 25% are within one standard deviation of the mean. Our observations show that these waves are continually radiated outward from the flow toward the auroral oval, low latitude boundary layer or lobes and that over several Earth-radii the integrated energy loss from the flow channel can be comparable to the total energy content of the flow itself. We find that this plasma sheet energy loss process is particularly effective within |XGSE| ? 15 RE.~~

Chaston, C. C.; Bonnell, J. W.; Clausen, L.; Angelopoulos, V.

2012-09-01

183

A mechanistic description of radiation-induced damage to normal tissue and its healing kinetics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a novel mechanistic model of the yield of tissue damage at the end of radiation treatment and of the subsequent healing kinetics. We find explicit expressions for the total number of functional proliferating cells as well as doomed (functional but non-proliferating) cells as a function of time post treatment. This leads to the possibility of estimating—for any given cohort of patients undergoing radiation therapy—the probability distribution of those kinetic parameters (e.g. proliferation rates) that determine times to injury onset and ensuing resolution. The model is suitable for tissues with simple duplication organization, meaning that functionally competent cells are also responsible for tissue renewal or regeneration following injury. An extension of the model to arbitrary temporal patterns of dose rate is presented. To illustrate the practical utility of the model, as well as its limitations, we apply it to data on the time course of urethral toxicity following fractionated radiation treatment and brachytherapy for prostate cancer.

Hanin, Leonid; Zaider, Marco

2013-02-01

184

We have developed a fully kinetic electromagnetic model to study instabilities and waves in planetary plasma environments. In the particle-in-a-cell (PIC) model both ions and electrons are modeled as particles. An important feature of the developed global kinetic model, called HYB-em, compared to other electromagnetic codes is that it is built up on an earlier quasi-neutral hybrid simulation platform called

V. Pohjola; E. Kallio

2010-01-01

185

Comparison of hydrodynamic and semi-kinetic treatments for plasma flow along closed field lines

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrodynamic and semi-kinetic treatments of plasma flow along closed geomagnetic field lines are compared. The hydrodynamic treatment is based on a simplified 16-moment set of transport equations as the equations for the heat flows are not solved; the heat flows are treated heuristically. The semi-kinetic treatment is based on a particle code. The comparison deals with the distributions of the plasma density, flow velocity, and parallel and perpendicular temperatures as obtained from the two treatments during the various stages of the flow. In the kinetic treatment, the appropriate boundary condition is the prescription of the velocity distribution functions for the particles entering the flux tubes at the ionospheric boundaries; those particles leaving the system are determined by the processes occurring in the flux tube. The prescribed distributions are half-Maxwellian with temperature T(sub 0) and density n(sub 0). In the hydrodynamic model, the prescribed boundary conditions are on density (n(sub 0)), flow velocity (V(sub 0)) and temperature (T(sub 0). It was found that results from the hydrodynamic treatment critically depend on V(sub 0); for early stages of the flow this treatment yields results in good agreement with those from the kinetic treatment, when V(sub 0) = square root of (kT(sub 0)/2 (pi)m), which is the average velocity of particles moving in a given direction for a Maxwellian distribution. During this early stage, the flows developing form the conjugate ionospheres show some distinct transitions. For the first hour or so, the flows are highly supersonic and penetrate deep into the opposite hemispheres, and both hydrodynamics and kinetic treatments yield almost similar features. It is found that during this period heatflow effects are negligibly small. When a flow penetrates deep into the opposite hemisphere, the kinetic treatment predicts reflection and setting up of counterstreaming. In contrast, the hydrodynamic treatment yields a shock in the flow. The reasons for this difference in the two treatments is discussed, showing that in view of the relatively warm ions, the coupling of ion beams and the consequent shock formation in the offequatorial region are not likely due to the enhancements in the beam temperatures. The counterstreaming in the kinetic treatment and the shock in the hydrodynamic treatment first advance upward to the equator and then downward to the ionospheric boundary from where the flow originated. The transit time for this advancement is found to be about 1 hour for the respective models. After 2 hours or so, both models predict that the flows from the ionospheric boundaries are generally subsonic with respect to the local ion-sound speed. At late stages of the flow, when a substantial fraction of ions entering the flux tube begin to return back in the kinetic treatment, the hydrodynamic treatment with the boundary condition V(sub 0) = square root of (kT(sub 0)/2(pi)m) yields an over-refilling, and the choice of V(sub 0) becomes uncertain.

Singh, Nagendra; Wilson, G. R.; Horwitz, J. L.

1993-01-01

186

MHD and Kinetic Models for the Interchange Mode in a Confined Plasma.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The curvature driven interchange mode is studied. If the mode is in the pure flute regime (k(,z) = 0), then the ideal MHD equations are equivalent to an L-R-C circuit with the resistor representing linetying. The capacitance (ion polarization drift) and the inductance (curvature drift) are obtained from the plasma density, pressure, and magnetic field profiles. At large beta, a conducting wall close to the plasma enhances the stability of the lowest order (displacement) mode by constraining the perturbed magnetic field. The wall also produces a stabilizing finite ion Larmor radius effect on the displacement mode by imposing a structure on the perturbed electric field. Ion-ion collisions or turbulence can strongly affect the mode even when the inverse radial confinement time is much less than the mode frequency. The unperturbed radial electric field changes the dispersion relation of the interchange mode. The combination of a radial electric field and linetying gives a real (oscillatory) part of the frequency. A z dependent radial electric field produces an electrostatic finite-k(,z) effect. Resonant effects between the wave and the azimuthal curvature drift are not normally important but may be important for a tandem mirror reactor if the central cell is very long and the endplug is very short. A calculation of parallel kinetic effects indicates that the ideal MHD ballooning mode equation is not valid for a collisionless plasma. Experiments were performed to verify several aspects of the theory. The Q of the L-R-C circuit was measured on the three-meter multiple mirror (Marshall gun source) and compared with theory. An anomalous capacitance was observed at the sheath of the ten-meter multiple mirror that could be due to a presheath that accelerates ions out of the plasma. A dispersion relation applicable to the axisymmetric mirror (Ba plasma) at UC Irvine is derived and compared with experiment.

Vandegrift, Guy George

187

What are the plasma targets of the oxidant hypochlorous acid? A kinetic modeling approach.

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme enzyme, released by activated leukocytes at sites of inflammation, which catalyzes the formation of the potent oxidant, hypochlorous acid (HOCl), from H2O2. HOCl is a key component of the inflammatory response and is bactericidal but has been linked with several human pathologies as a result of damage to host tissue. Elevated plasma MPO levels are a strong independent risk factor, and predictor of outcomes, for cardiovascular disease. Rate constants for reaction of HOCl with individual biological targets and the products of these reactions have been determined, but the targets of HOCl in complex biological fluids such as plasma are incompletely defined. In this study, rate constants (M(-1) s(-1)) for the reactions of ascorbate with HOCl (ca. 6 x 10(6)) and imidazole chloramine (7.7 x 10(4)) have been determined to supplement known kinetic parameters. HOCl-mediated oxidation of the major plasma protein, albumin, was investigated both experimentally and computationally; these approaches provide consistent data. The computational studies were extended to examine the fate of HOCl in plasma. The model predicts that plasma proteins consume the majority of HOCl with limited damage to other materials. Ascorbate or alpha-tocopherol, even at the levels achieved in human supplementation studies, do not attenuate these reactions. In contrast, elevated levels of thiocyanate ions (SCN(-)), as detected in heavy smokers, can modulate HOCl-mediated reactions as a result of the formation of the highly specific oxidant hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN). These observations support the hypothesis that MPO-generated HOSCN is a key agent in smoking-enhanced atherosclerosis. PMID:19326902

Pattison, David I; Hawkins, Clare L; Davies, Michael J

2009-05-01

188

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conceptual questions about kinetics. For example, "[w]hat are the reaction velocity, the rates of formation of N2 and H2, and the rate of decomposition of ammonia for the decomposition of ammonia on a tungsten surface under the conditions reflected in the figure."

Nurrenbern, Susan C.; Robinson, William R.

2008-02-27

189

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the results of a finite difference implementation of the kinetic Fokker-Planck model with an exact form of the nonlinear collisional operator, The model is time dependent and three-dimensional; one spatial dimension and two in velocity space. The spatial dimension is aligned with the local magnetic field, and the velocity space is defined by the magnitude of the velocity and the cosine of pitch angle. An important new feature of model, the concept of integration along the particle trajectories, is discussed in detail. Integration along the trajectories combined with the operator time splitting technique results in a solution scheme which accurately accounts for both the fast convection of the particles along the magnetic field lines and relatively slow collisional process. We present several tests of the model's performance and also discuss simulation results of the evolution of the plasma distribution for realistic conditions in Earth's plasmasphere under different scenarios.

Khazanov, George V.; Khabibrakhmanov, Ildar K.; Glocer, Alex

2012-01-01

190

Kinetic effects and nonlinear heating in intense x-ray-laser-produced carbon plasmas.

The x-ray laser-matter interaction for a low-Z material, carbon, is studied with a particle-in-cell code that solves the photoionization and x-ray transport self-consistently. Photoionization is the dominant absorption mechanism and nonthermal photoelectrons are produced with energy near the x-ray photon energy. The photoelectrons ionize the target rapidly via collisional impact ionization and field ionization, producing a hot plasma column behind the laser pulse. The radial size of the heated region becomes larger than the laser spot size due to the kinetic nature of the photoelectrons. The plasma can have a temperature of more than 10 000 K (>1eV), an energy density greater than 10^{4} J/cm^{3}, an ion-ion Coulomb coupling parameter ??1, and electron degeneracy ??1, i.e., strongly coupled warm dense matter. By increasing the laser intensity, the plasma temperature rises nonlinearly from tens of eV to hundreds of eV, bringing it into the high energy density matter regime. The heating depth and temperature are also controllable by changing the photon energy of the incident laser light. PMID:25493733

Sentoku, Y; Paraschiv, I; Royle, R; Mancini, R C; Johzaki, T

2014-11-01

191

Jovian Plasma Torus Interaction with Europa: 3D Hybrid Kinetic Simulation. First results

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hybrid kinetic model supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa-moon-magnetosphere system with respect to variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical for improving the interpretation of the existing Europa flyby measurements from the Galileo orbiter mission, and for planning flyby and orbital measurements, (including the surface and atmospheric compositions) for future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa (Cassidy etal.,2007;Shematovichetal.,2005). In contrast to previous approaches with MHD simulations, the hybrid model allows us to fully take into account the finite gyro radius effect and electron pressure, and to correctly estimate the ion velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field (assuming an initial Maxwellian velocity distribution for upstream background ions).Non-thermal distributions of upstream plasma will be addressed in future work. Photoionization,electron-impact ionization, charge exchange and collisions between the ions and neutrals are also included in our model. We consider two models for background plasma:(a) with O(++) ions; (b) with O(++) and S(++) ions. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended cold population (Cassidyetal.,2007). A few first simulations already include an induced magnetic dipole; however, several important effects of induced magnetic fields arising from oceanic shell conductivity will be addressed in later work.

Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J. F.; Paterson, W. R.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Simpson, D. G.

2010-01-01

192

In-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ex-situ Fourier transform infrared studies of He plasma and Ar{sup +} ion bombardment pretreatments of organosilicate glass demonstrate that such pretreatments inhibit subsequent O{sub 2} plasma-induced carbon loss by forming a SiO{sub 2}-like damaged overlayer, and that the degree of protection correlates directly with increased ion kinetic energies, but not with the thickness of the SiO{sub 2} overlayer. This thickness is observed by XPS to be roughly constant and <1 nm regardless of ion energies involved. The data indicate that ion kinetic energies are an important parameter in protective noble gas plasma pretreatments to inhibit O{sub 2} plasma-induced carbon loss.

Lee, Joe; Graves, David B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kazi, Haseeb; Gaddam, Sneha; Kelber, Jeffry A. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Electronic Materials Processing and Integration, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)

2013-07-15

193

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a fully kinetic electromagnetic model to study instabilities and waves in planetary plasma environments. In the particle-in-a-cell (PIC) model both ions and electrons are modeled as particles. An important feature of the developed global kinetic model, called HYB-em, compared to other electromagnetic codes is that it is built up on an earlier quasi-neutral hybrid simulation platform called HYB and that it can be used in conjunction with earlier hybrid models. The HYB models have been used during the past ten years to study globally the flowing plasma interaction with various Solar System objects: Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Saturnian moon Titan and asteroids. The new stand-alone fully kinetic model enables us to (1) study the stability of various planetary plasma regions in three-dimensional space, (2) analyze the propagation of waves in a plasma environment derived from the other global HYB models. All particle processes in a multi-ion plasma which are implemented on the HYB platform (e.g. ion-neutral-collisions, chemical processes, particle loss and production processes) are also automatically included in HYB-em model. In this brief report we study the developed approach by analyzing the propagation of high frequency electromagnetic waves in non-magnetized plasma in two cases: We study (1) expansion of a spherical wave generated from a point source and (2) propagation of a plane wave in plasma. The analysis shows that the HYB-em model is capable of describing these space plasma situations successfully. The analysis also suggests the potential of the developed model to study both high density-high magnetic field plasma environments, such as Mercury, and low density-low magnetic field plasma environments, such as Venus and Mars.

Pohjola, V.; Kallio, E.

2010-03-01

194

The author discusses the applicability of a hydrodynamic description of high energy hadronic collisions. The author reviews the results of recent computations of the mean free paths of quarks and gluons in a quark-gluon plasma, and the corresponding results for viscous coefficients. These quantities are employed to evaluate the limits to the application of perfect fluid hydrodynamics as a description of time evolution of matter produced in various hadronic collisions. 22 references.

McLerran, L.

1984-11-01

195

The paper reviews the vaporization phenomena at a target heated by heat flux from an adjacent plasma in vacuum and in low-pressure discharges. The kinetics of a nonequilibrium layer and the direct and returned mass fluxes formed in the vicinity of the target are described. The mechanism of cathode vaporization taking into account cathode electron emission in vacuum arcs is

Isak I. Beilis

2006-01-01

196

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sacrificial bonds and hidden length in structural molecules account for the greatly increased fracture toughness of biological materials compared to synthetic materials without such structural features, by providing a molecular-scale mechanism of energy dissipation. One example of occurrence of sacrificial bonds and hidden length is in the polymeric glue connection between collagen fibrils in animal bone. In this talk, we propose a simple kinetic model that describes the breakage of sacrificial bonds and the revelation of hidden length, based on Bell's theory. We postulate a master equation governing the rates of bond breakage and formation, at the mean-field level, allowing for the number of bonds and hidden lengths to take up non-integer values between successive, discrete bond-breakage events. This enables us to predict the mechanical behavior of a quasi-one-dimensional ensemble of polymers at different stretching rates. We find that both the rupture peak heights and maximum stretching distance increase with the stretching rate. In addition, our theory naturally permits the possibility of self-healing in such biological structures.

Lieou, Charles K. C.; Elbanna, Ahmed E.; Carlson, Jean M.

2013-03-01

197

Kinetic Vlasov simulations of one-dimensional finite amplitude Electron Plasma Waves are performed in a multi-wavelength long system. A systematic study of the most unstable linear sideband mode, in particular its growth rate ? and quasi- wavenumber ?k, is carried out by scanning the amplitude and wavenumber of the initial wave. Simulation results are successfully compared against numerical and analytical solutions to the reduced model by Kruer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 838 (1969)] for the Trapped Particle Instability (TPI). A model recently suggested by Dodin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 215006 (2013)], which in addition to the TPI accounts for the so-called Negative Mass Instability because of a more detailed representation of the trapped particle dynamics, is also studied and compared with simulations.

Brunner, S., E-mail: stephan.brunner@epfl.ch; Hausammann, L. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confédération Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CRPP-PPB, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Berger, R. L., E-mail: berger5@llnl.gov; Cohen, B. I. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Valeo, E. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

2014-10-15

198

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetic Vlasov simulations of one-dimensional finite amplitude Electron Plasma Waves are performed in a multi-wavelength long system. A systematic study of the most unstable linear sideband mode, in particular its growth rate ? and quasi- wavenumber ?k, is carried out by scanning the amplitude and wavenumber of the initial wave. Simulation results are successfully compared against numerical and analytical solutions to the reduced model by Kruer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 838 (1969)] for the Trapped Particle Instability (TPI). A model recently suggested by Dodin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 215006 (2013)], which in addition to the TPI accounts for the so-called Negative Mass Instability because of a more detailed representation of the trapped particle dynamics, is also studied and compared with simulations.

Brunner, S.; Berger, R. L.; Cohen, B. I.; Hausammann, L.; Valeo, E. J.

2014-10-01

199

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A slow drift mirror (SDM) instability has been analyzed in the scope of kinetic approximation, with accounting for the electron pressure for different particle distribution functions. The dependence of the SDM instability increment growth rate on the parameters of the anisotropic ? distribution with the loss cone, which is used to model real space plasma particle distributions, has been studied. An analysis indicated that the appearance of the loss cone in the ion distribution function results in a decrease in the SDM mode frequency, and an enhancement of the suprathermal tail (a decrease in ?) increases the SDM mode frequency as compared to the Maxwellian distribution. In other words, particle redistribution from the region of low velocities into that of high velocities results in an increase in the SDM mode frequency.

Feygin, F. Z.; Khabazin, Yu. G.

2014-11-01

200

We discuss complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory for the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate contribution of the Darwin...

Andreev, Pavel A

2014-01-01

201

Fully kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnction in semi-collisional plasmas

The influence of Coulomb collisions on the dynamics of magnetic reconnection is examined using fully kinetic simulations with a Monte-Carlo treatment of the Fokker-Planck collision operator. This powerful first-principles approach offers a bridge between kinetic and fluid regimes, which may prove useful for understanding the applicability of various fluid models. In order to lay the necessary groundwork, the collision algorithm is first carefully bench marked for a homogeneous plasma against theoretical predictions for beam-plasma interactions and electrical resistivity. Next, the collisional decay of a current layer is examined as a function of guide field, allowing direct comparisons with transport theory for the parallel and perpendicular resistivity as well as the thermoelectric force. Finally, the transition between collisional and collision less reconnection is examined in neutral sheet geometry. For modest Lundquist numbers S {approx}< 1000, a distinct transition is observed when the thickness of the Sweet-Parker layers falls below the ion inertia length {delta}{sub sp} {approx}< d,. At higher Lundquist number, deviations from the Sweet-Parker scaling are observed due to the growth of plasmoids (secondary-islands) within the elongated resistive layer. In certain cases, this instability leads to the onset of fast reconnection sooner than expected from {delta}{sub sp} {approx} d, condition. After the transition to fast reconnection, elongated electron current layers are formed which are unstable to the formation of new plasmoids. The structure and time-dependence of the electron diffusion region in these semi-collisional regimes is profoundly different than reported in two-fluid simulations.

Daughton, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roytershteyn, Vadim S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albright, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, Lin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bowers, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Karimabadi, Homa [UCSD

2009-01-01

202

Kinetic simulation of the O-X conversion process in dense magnetized plasmas

One scheme for heating a dense magnetized plasma core, such as in a tokamak, involves launching an ordinary (O) electromagnetic wave at the low density edge. It is converted to a reflected extraordinary (X) electromagnetic wave under certain conditions, and then transformed into an electron Bernstein wave able to reach high density regions inaccessible to most other waves. The O-X mode conversion is important in heating and diagnostic processes in different devices such as tokamaks, stellarators, and some types of pinches. The goal of this study has been to demonstrate that the kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) scheme is suitable for modeling the O-X conversion process as the first step toward a more complete simulation of O-X-B heating. The O-X process is considered and simulated with a kinetic particle model for parameters of the TJ-II stellarator using the PIC code, XOOPIC. This code is able to model the non-monotonic density and the magnetic profile of the TJ-II stellarator. It can also statistically represent the self-consistent distribution function of the plasma, which has not been possible in previous fluid models. By considering the electric and magnetic components of launched and reflected waves, the O-mode and X-mode waves can be detected, and the O-X conversion can be demonstrated. In this work, the optimum angle for conversion efficiency, as predicted by the previous theory and experimentally confirmed, is used. Via considering the power of the launched O-mode wave and the converted X-mode wave, the efficiency of 63% for O-X conversion for the optimum theoretical launch angle of 47{sup ?} is obtained, which is in good agreement with efficiencies computed via full-wave simulations.

Ali Asgarian, M. [Physics Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Physics Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, Michigan 48824-1226 (United States); Verboncoeur, J. P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, Michigan 48824-1226 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, Michigan 48824-1226 (United States); Parvazian, A. [Physics Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Physics Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Trines, R. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom)] [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom)

2013-10-15

203

The kinetic equation of non - Markovian type for description of the vacuum creation of parton - antiparton pairs under action of a space homogeneous time - dependent chromo - electric field of the arbitrary polarization is obtained on the strict non - pertubative foundation in the framework of the oscillator representation. A comparison of the effectiveness of vacuum creation with the case of linear polarization one is fulfilled.

A. V. Filatov; S. A. Smolyansky; A. V. Tarakanov

2009-01-05

204

Protein binding kinetics of lincomycin (LM) and clindamycin (CM) were studied using plasma, albumin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) derived from humans, dogs, cattle and sheep. Based on Rosenthal plots of LM and CM, drug-binding property in plasma presented specific and non-specific binding, except for LM in cattle and sheep and for CM in sheep, where only non-specific binding was demonstrated. Dissociation constant (Kd) and binding capacity (Bmax) for specific binding and proportionality constant (PC) for non-specific binding were as follows: Kd = 3.14 mumol/L, Bmax = 15.28 mumol/L, PC = 0.19 for humans; Kd = 3.84 mumol/L, Bmax = 6.55 mumol/L, PC = 0.14 for dogs; PC = 0.12 for cattle; PC = 0.16 for sheep in LM and Kd = 0.94 mumol/L, Bmax = 12.24 mumol/L, PC = 4.98 for humans; Kd = 1.48 mumol/L, Bmax = 9.52 mumol/L, PC = 2.91 for dogs; Kd = 1.22 mumol/L, Bmax = 4.45 mumol/L, PC = 2.40 for cattle; PC = 1.48 for sheep in CM. The specific binding for each species was different, showing more difference in Bmax compared with Kd. The non-specific binding of LM was similar among species whereas that of CM was different, implying species difference. The drug-binding property of AGP for each species was all specific binding and the Kd was comparable to that obtained from plasma, indicating that AGP is a major specific binder in plasma. The lack of detection of specific binding for LM in cattle and sheep and for CM in sheep plasma could be attributable to a higher Kd and lower plasma AGP concentration compared with other species. The drug-binding property of albumin was characterized as all non-specific, without a great difference among species. Except for CM in sheep, the lower PC in albumin solution compared with that in plasma suggested the presence of another non-specific binder in plasma, i.e. lipoprotein. From the simulation of drug-binding percentage to AGP concentrations, AGP could be a major contributor to drug-plasma protein binding in pathological states. The degree of AGP-drug binding for each species could vary according to the degree of increase of AGP concentrations from a healthy to a pathological state, inducing a decrease in the unbound fraction (fp): 6.1 fold for dogs, 4.6 fold for humans, 1.8 fold for sheep and 1.4 fold for cattle in LM; 5.8 fold for dogs, 5.7 fold for cattle, 4.0 fold for humans and 1.5 fold for sheep in CM. Therefore, the disposition and efficacy of lincosamides affected by fp can be modified differently by the change of fp attributable to the alteration of plasma AGP concentration in each species. PMID:9507455

Son, D S; Osabe, M; Shimoda, M; Kokue, E

1998-02-01

205

Jet-induced gauge field instabilities in the quark-gluon plasma: A kinetic theory approach

We discuss the properties of the collective modes of a system composed by a thermalized quark-gluon plasma traversed by a relativistic jet of partons. The transport equations obeyed by the components of the plasma and of the jet are studied in the Vlasov approximation. Assuming that the partons in the jet can be described with a tsunami-like distribution function we derive the expressions of the dispersion law of the collective modes. Then the behavior of the unstable gauge modes of the system is analyzed for various values of the velocity of the jet, of the momentum of the collective modes and of the angle between these two quantities. We find that the most unstable modes are those with momentum orthogonal to the velocity of the jet and that these instabilities appear when the velocity of the jet is higher than a threshold value, which depends on the plasma and jet frequencies. The results obtained within the Vlasov approximation are compared with the corresponding results obtained using a chromohydrodynamical approach.The effect we discuss here suggests a possible collective mechanism for the description of the jet quenching phenomena in heavy ion collisions.

Massimo Mannarelli; Cristina Manuel

2007-07-26

206

Reliable kinetic and thermodynamic data are required to model the evolution of electric discharge or electron-beam decomposition chemistry of gases in humid air streams. In this first segment of a continuing series, we provide a core database describing the initially dominant ion-neutral molecule reactions in humid air plasmas. Recommended reaction rate data and extrapolation tools are presented in a manner

L. Wayne Sieck; John T. Herron; David S. Green

2000-01-01

207

2D Axisymmetric Coupled CFD-kinetics Modeling of a Nonthermal Arc Plasma Torch for Diesel Fuel

. In the first case, diesel fuel reacts with air while in the second case it reacts with diesel engine exhaust1 2D Axisymmetric Coupled CFD-kinetics Modeling of a Nonthermal Arc Plasma Torch for Diesel Fuel-assisted diesel fuel reformer developed for two different applications: (i) onboard H2 production for fuel cell

Boyer, Edmond

208

KINETIC PLASMA TURBULENCE IN THE FAST SOLAR WIND MEASURED BY CLUSTER

The k-filtering technique and wave polarization analysis are applied to Cluster magnetic field data to study plasma turbulence at the scale of the ion gyroradius in the fast solar wind. Waves are found propagating in directions nearly perpendicular to the background magnetic field at such scales. The frequencies of these waves in the solar wind frame are much smaller than the proton gyrofrequency. After the wavevector k is determined at each spacecraft frequency f{sub sc}, wave polarization property is analyzed in the plane perpendicular to k. Magnetic fluctuations have {delta}B > {delta}B{sub Parallel-To} (here the Parallel-To and refer to the background magnetic field B{sub 0}). The wave magnetic field has right-handed polarization at propagation angles {theta}{sub kB} < 90 Degree-Sign and >90 Degree-Sign . The magnetic field in the plane perpendicular to B{sub 0}, however, has no clear sense of a dominant polarization but local rotations. We discuss the merits and limitations of linear kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) and coherent Alfven vortices in the interpretation of the data. We suggest that the fast solar wind turbulence may be populated with KAWs, small-scale current sheets, and Alfven vortices at ion kinetic scales.

Roberts, O. W.; Li, X. [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Li, B., E-mail: xxl@aber.ac.uk [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University, Weihai 246209 (China)

2013-05-20

209

Kinetics of Densification and Grain Growth of Pure Tungsten During Spark Plasma Sintering

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of densification and grain growth of tungsten during spark plasma sintering (SPS) was studied under isothermal conditions. The results show that using SPS, high-density (>97 pct) pure tungsten can be produced without the addition of sintering aids. The estimated sintering exponent ( m = 0.4 ± 0.03) suggests that the rate-controlling mechanism of sintering is diffusion along the grain contacts into the interparticles neck region. The activation energy of tungsten self-diffusion was calculated ( Q = 277 ± 15 kJ/mol) in the temperature range 1523 K to 1773 K (1250 °C to 1500 °C). The activation energy is smaller than the values in previous studies using conventional sintering. This suggests that there may be some differences in the sintering conditions and mechanisms during SPS processing compared to conventional sintering. Grain-growth kinetics was studied in the range 1873 K to 2073 K (1600 °C to 1800 °C) and classified as normal grain growth according to the estimated grain-growth exponent ( m = 2 ± 0.2). The grain-growth activation energy was calculated as 231 ± 15 kJ/mol.

Gao, Zhipeng; Viola, Giuseppe; Milsom, Ben; Whitaker, Iain; Yan, Haixue; Reece, Mike J.

2012-12-01

210

s-A kinetic model was developed for generation and utilization of the transmembrane electro chemical proton gradient in primary photosynthetic processes in chloroplasts. The model gives a detailed description of the catalytic cycles in photosysterns J and II, the cytochrome b,:t\\

CELL BIOPHYSICS; G. V. Lebedeva; N. E. Belyaeva; O. V. Demin; G. Yu; A. B. Rubinl

211

Lagrangian fluid description with simple applications in compressible plasma and gas dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lagrangian fluid description, in which the dynamics of fluids is formulated in terms of trajectories of fluid elements, not only presents an alternative to the more common Eulerian description but has its own merits and advantages. This aspect, which seems to be not fully explored yet, is getting increasing attention in fluid dynamics and related areas as Lagrangian codes and experimental techniques are developed utilizing the Lagrangian point of view with the ultimate goal of a deeper understanding of flow dynamics. In this tutorial review we report on recent progress made in the analysis of compressible, more or less perfect flows such as plasmas and dilute gases. The equations of motion are exploited to get further insight into the formation and evolution of coherent structures, which often exhibit a singular or collapse type behavior occurring in finite time. It is argued that this technique of solution has a broad applicability due to the simplicity and generality of equations used. The focus is on four different topics, the physics of which being governed by simple fluid equations subject to initial and/or boundary conditions. Whenever possible also experimental results are mentioned. In the expansion of a semi-infinite plasma into a vacuum the energetic ion peak propagating supersonically towards the vacuum-as seen in laboratory experiments-is interpreted by means of the Lagrangian fluid description as a relic of a wave breaking scenario of the corresponding inviscid ion dynamics. The inclusion of viscosity is shown numerically to stabilize the associated density collapse giving rise to a well defined fast ion peak reminiscent of adhesive matter. In purely convection driven flows the Lagrangian flow velocity is given by its initial value and hence the Lagrangian velocity gradient tensor can be evaluated accurately to find out the appearance of singularities in density and vorticity and the emergence of new structures such as wavelets in one-dimension (1D). In cosmology referring to the pancake model of Zel'dovich and the adhesion model of Gurbatov and Saichev, both assuming a clumping of matter at the intersection points of fluid particle trajectories (i.e. at the caustics), the foam-like large-scale structure of our Universe observed recently by Chandra X-ray observatory may be explained by the 3D convection of weakly interacting dark matter. Recent developments in plasma and nanotechnology-the miniaturization and fabrication of nanoelectronic devices being one example-have reinforced the interest in the quasi-ballistic electron transport in diodes and triodes, a field which turns out to be best treated by the Lagrangian fluid description. It is shown that the well-known space-charge-limited flow given by Child-Langmuir turns out to be incorrect in cases of finite electron injection velocities at the emitting electrode. In that case it is an intrinsic bifurcation scenario which is responsible for current limitation rather than electron reflection at the virtual cathode as intuitively assumed by Langmuir. The inclusion of a Drude friction term in the electron momentum equation can be handled solely by the Lagrangian fluid description. Exploiting the formula in case of field emission it is possible to bridge ballistic and drift-dominated transport. Furthermore, the transient processes in the electron transport triggered by the switching of the anode potential are shown to be perfectly accounted for by means of the Lagrangian fluid description. Finally, by use of the Lagrangian ion fluid equations in case of a two component, current driven plasma we derive a system of two coupled scalar wave equations which involve the specific volume of ions and electrons, respectively. It has a small amplitude strange soliton solution with unusual scaling properties. In case of charge neutrality the existence of two types of collapses are predicted, one being associated with a density excavation, the other one with a density clumping as in the laser induced ion expansion problem and in the cosmic sticking matter problem. Howev

Schamel, Hans

2004-03-01

212

Ion probe beam experiments and kinetic modeling in a dense plasma focus Z-pinch

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Z-pinch phase of a dense plasma focus (DPF) emits multiple-MeV ions in a ˜cm length. The mechanisms through which these physically simple devices generate such high energy beams in a relatively short distance are not fully understood. We are exploring the origins of these large gradients using measurements of an ion probe beam injected into a DPF during the pinch phase and the first kinetic simulations of a DPF Z-pinch. To probe the accelerating fields in our table top experiment, we inject a 4 MeV deuteron beam along the z-axis and then sample the beam energy distribution after it passes through the pinch region. Using this technique, we have directly measured for the first time the acceleration of an injected ion beam. Our particle-in-cell simulations have been benchmarked on both a kJ-scale DPF and a MJ-scale DPF. They have reproduced experimentally measured neutron yields as well as ion beams and EM oscillations which fluid simulations do not exhibit. Direct comparisons between the experiment and simulations enhance our understanding of these plasmas and provide predictive design capability for accelerator and neutron source applications.

Schmidt, A.; Ellsworth, J.; Falabella, S.; Link, A.; McLean, H.; Rusnak, B.; Sears, J.; Tang, V.; Welch, D.

2014-12-01

213

Implementation of the Kinetic Plasma Code with Locally Recursive non-Locally Asynchronous Algorithms

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulation is presently considered impractical for several relevant plasma kinetics problems due to limitations of computer hardware even with the use of supercomputers. To overcome the existing limitations it is suggested to develop algorithms which would effectively utilize the computer memory subsystem hierarchy to optimize the dependency graph traversal rules. The ideas for general cases of numerical simulation and implementation of such algorithms to particle-in-cell code is discussed in the paper. This approach enables the simulation of previously unaccessible for modeling problems and the execution of series of numerical experiments in reasonable time. The latter is demonstrated on a multiscale problem of the development of filamentation instability in laser interaction with overdense plasma. One variant of the simulation with parameters typical for simulations on supercomputers is performed with the use of one cluster node. The series of such experiments revealed the dependency of energy loss on incoming laser pulse amplitude to be nonmonotonic and reach over 4%, an interesting result for research of fast ignition concept.

Perepelkina, A. Yu; Levchenko, V. D.; Goryachev, I. A.

2014-05-01

214

Kinetic Alfven wave instability in a Lorentzian dusty plasma: Non-resonant particle approach

Analysis of the electromagnetic streaming instability is carried out which is related to the cross field drift of kappa distributed ions. The linear dispersion relation for electromagnetic wave using Vlasov-fluid equations in a dusty plasma is derived. Modified two stream instability (MTSI) in a dusty plasma has been discussed in the limit {omega}{sub pd}{sup 2}/c{sup 2}k{sub perpendicular}{sup 2}<<1. Numerical calculations of the growth rate of instability have been carried out. Growth rates of kinetic Alfven instability are found to be small as compared to MTSI. Maximum growth rates for both instabilities occur in oblique directions for V{sub 0}{>=}V{sub A}. It is shown that the presence of both the charged dust particles and perpendicular ion beam sensibly modify the dispersion relation of low-frequency electromagnetic wave. The dispersion characteristics are found to be insensible to the superthermal character of the ion distribution function. Applications to different intersteller regions are discussed.

Rubab, N.; Biernat, H. K. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz (Austria); Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Erkaev, V. [Institute of Computational Modelling, 660036 Krasnoyarsk, Russia and Siberian Federal University, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Langmayr, D. [Virtual Vehicle Competence Center (vif), Inffeldgasse 21a, 8010 Graz (Austria)

2011-07-15

215

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their extremely high damage threshold, plasmas can sustain much higher light intensities than conventional solid state optical materials. Because of this, lately much attention has been devoted to the possibility of using parametric instabilities in plasmas to generate very intense light pulses in a low-cost way. Although short-pulse amplification based on the Raman approach has been successful and goes back a long time, it is shown that using Brillouin in the so called strong-coupling regime (sc-SBS) has several advantages and is very well suited to amplify and compress laser seed pulses on short distances to very high intensities. We present here recent multi-dimensional kinetic simulations that show the feasibility of achieving amplified light pulses of up to 1018W/cm2. Contrary to what was traditionally thought, this scheme is able to amplify pulses of extremely short duration. Although seed amplification via sc-SBS has already been shown experimentally, these results suggest further experimental exploration, in order to improve the energy transfer.

Riconda, C.; Weber, S.; Fuchs, J.; Lancia, L.; Marquès, J.-R.; Mourou, G.

2013-05-01

216

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of current-aligned instabilities on magnetic reconnection is investigated using state-of-the-art fully kinetic simulations with boundary conditions mimicking Magnetic Reconnection eXperiment (MRX). MRX is a controlled, well-diagnosed reconnection experiment that provides a unique opportunity to perform detailed comparison between simulations and observations in ways that are not as easily possible with spacecraft data. At the same time, simulations help extrapolate the experimental results to the parameter regimes (e.g. collisionless regimes) not accessible in the real device. We present the first results from 3D simulations that have been recently carried out as a part of the open science campaign on Roadrunner, the world’s first petascale computer. The simulations were performed using a high-performance Particle-In-Cell code VPIC, which utilizes a Monte-Carlo model for Coulomb collisions thus allowing regimes with arbitrary collisionality to be studied [4]. Simulations in MRX geometry are compared to those performed in large-scale collisionless systems with open boundary conditions. Fluctuations with characteristic frequency and wavenumbers in the lower-hybrid range are observed in both geometries and in case of MRX simulations compare well with the ones detected in MRX. The possible role of these fluctuations in global reconnection dynamics is discussed. [1] T. Carter, et al., Phys. Plasmas, 9, 3272, 2002 [2] H. Ji, et al., Phys. Rev. Letters 92, 115001, 2004 [3] S. Dorfman, et al., Phys. of Plasmas 15, 102107, 2008 [4] W. Daughton et al. Phys. Plasmas 16, 072117, 2009

Roytershteyn, V.; Daughton, W. S.; Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Bowers, K.; Dorfman, S.; Ji, H.; Yamada, M.; Karimabadi, H.

2009-12-01

217

Nonlinear Gyrokinetics: A Powerful Tool for the Description of Microturbulence in Magnetized Plasmas

Gyrokinetics is the description of low-frequency dynamics in magnetized plasmas. In magnetic-confinement fusion, it provides the most fundamental basis for numerical simulations of microturbulence; there are astrophysical applications as well. In this tutorial, a sketch of the derivation of the novel dynamical system comprising the nonlinear gyrokinetic (GK) equation (GKE) and the coupled electrostatic GK Poisson equation will be given by using modern Lagrangian and Lie perturbation methods. No background in plasma physics is required in order to appreciate the logical development. The GKE describes the evolution of an ensemble of gyrocenters moving in a weakly inhomogeneous background magnetic field and in the presence of electromagnetic perturbations with wavelength of the order of the ion gyroradius. Gyrocenters move with effective drifts, which may be obtained by an averaging procedure that systematically, order by order, removes gyrophase dependence. To that end, the use of the Lagrangian differential one-form as well as the content and advantages of Lie perturbation theory will be explained. The electromagnetic fields follow via Maxwell's equations from the charge and current density of the particles. Particle and gyrocenter densities differ by an important polarization effect. That is calculated formally by a "pull-back" (a concept from differential geometry) of the gyrocenter distribution to the laboratory coordinate system. A natural truncation then leads to the closed GK dynamical system. Important properties such as GK energy conservation and fluctuation noise will be mentioned briefly, as will the possibility (and diffculties) of deriving nonlinear gyro fluid equations suitable for rapid numerical solution -- although it is probably best to directly simulate the GKE. By the end of the tutorial, students should appreciate the GKE as an extremely powerful tool and will be prepared for later lectures describing its applications to physical problems.

John E. Krommes

2010-09-27

218

Statistical description of the fluctuation particle fluxes in the plasma edge

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma turbulence studies carried out in the last few decades have shown that the measured distributions of amplitudes of the fluctuational particle fluxes in the laboratory plasma as well as in the solar wind have non-Gaussian probability density functions. These distributions are leptocurtic and have slowly decreasing exponential tails. Fractional stable densities (FSD) « ? Î²?? Î²?? q(x;?,Î²,Î&)cedil; = 0 g(xy ;?,Î&)cedil;g(y;Î²,1)y dy, was applied for it description, where 0 < ? ? 2, 0 < Î² ? 1, |Î&|cedil;? min(1,2?? - 1) and g(x;?,Î&)cedil; and g(y;Î²,1) respectively is strictly stable and one sided strictly stable distribution. This distributions have heavy slowly decreasing exponential tails too. As is well known [1] through the FSD the solution of the generalization diffusion equation ?Î²p(x,t) ??2 t-Î²^(x) --?tÎ²---= - D(- ) p(x,t)+ Î? (1--Î²) is expressed. Here Î² ??tÎ² is Riman-Liuville fractional derivative and (-)??2 is Laplacian of the fractional order. The probability density function of the fluctuational particle fluxes in plasma peripheral region of stellarator L-2m is studied in the work. The parameters of fractional stable distributions were statistically estimated from measured signals [2]. It is shown that fractional stable distributions give a good fit to the probability density functions of amplitudes of fluctuating particle fluxes. The Hurst parameter was calculated for all the discharges under study. Its values lie in the range 0.64 to 0.75, which agrees with results obtained in other devices. Algorithms for data processing and the algorithm for estimation of parameters of FS densities, along with results of calculations, will be presented in the report. The work is completed under the support of the Russian Fund for Basic Research (projects No's. 07-01-00517, 07-02-00455, 08-02-00651) References [1] V. V. Uchaikin. International Journal of Theoretical Physics 39 p. 2087 (2000). [2] V. E. Bening, V. Yu. Korolev, V. N. Kolokol'tsov, V. V. Saenko, V. V. Uchaikin, and V. M. Zolotarev. J. Math. Sci., 123 p.3722 (2004)

Saenko, V.

2009-04-01

219

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser wave mixing is presented as an effective technique for spatially resolved kinetic temperature measurements in an atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma. Measurements are performed in a 1 kW, 27 MHz RF plasma using a continuous-wave, tunable 811.5-nm diode laser to excite the 4s(sup 3)P2 approaches 4p(sup 3)D3 argon transition. Kinetic temperature measurements are made at five radial steps from the center of the torch and at four different torch heights. The kinetic temperature is determined by measuring simultaneously the line shape of the sub-Doppler backward phase-conjugate degenerate four-wave mixing and the Doppler-broadened forward-scattering degenerate four-wave mixing. The temperature measurements result in a range of 3,500 to 14,000 K+/-150 K. Electron densities measured range from 6.1 (+/-0.3) x 10(exp 15)/cu cm to 10.1 (+/-0.3) x 10(exp 15)/cu cm. The experimental spectra are analyzed using a perturbative treatment of the backward phase-conjugate and forward-geometry wave-mixing theory. Stark width is determined from the collisional broadening measured in the phase-conjugate geometry. Electron density measurements are made based on the Stark width. The kinetic temperature of the plasma was found to be more than halved by adding deionized water through the nebulizer.

Schafer, Julia; Lyons, Wendy; Tong, WIlliam G.; Danehy, Paul M.

2008-01-01

220

Kinetics of plasma membrane and mitochondrial alterations in cells undergoing apoptosis

Programmed cell death or apoptosis is characterized by typical morphological alterations. By transmission electron microscopy, apoptotic cells are identified by condensation of the chromatin in tight apposition to the nuclear envelope, alteration of the nuclear envelope and fragmentation of the nucleus, whereas integrity of the plasma membrane and organelles is preserved. Conversely cells undergoing necrosis display and early desintegration of cytoplasmic membrane and swelling of mitochondria. In this study we assessed by flow cytometry the sequential alterations of forward angle light scatter, 90{degrees} light scatter, and fluorescence associated with fluorescein diacetate, rhodamine 123, and propidium iodide in two human B cell lines undergoing apoptosis induced by the topoisomerase II inhibitor VP-16. The kinetics of these modifications were compared to those of cells undergoing necrosis induced by the topoisomerase II inhibitor VP-16. The kinetics of these modifications were compared to those of cells undergoing necrosis induced by sodium azide. At the same time intervals, cells were examined by transmission electron microscopy and by UV microscopy after staining with Hoechst 33342. We report that sequential changes in light scatters and fluorescein diacetate are similar in cells undergoing apoptosis or necrosis, whereas apoptosis is characterized by a slightly delayed decrease of mitochondrial activity as assessed by rhodamine 123 staining. Surprisingly, a part of cells undergoing apoptosis displayed an early uptake of propidium iodide followed by a condensation and then a fragmentation of their nuclei. It is concluded that uptake of propidium iodide is a very early marker of cell death which does not discriminate between necrosis and apoptosis. Along with biochemical criteria, nuclear morphology revealed by staining with Hoechst 33342 would seem to be of the most simple and most discriminative assay of apoptosis. 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Lizard, G.; Fournel, S.; Genestier, L.; Dhedin, N. [Hospital Edouard Herriot, Lyon (France)] [and others

1995-11-01

221

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anisotropic nature of the scaling properties of solar wind magnetic turbulence fluctuations is investigated scale by scale using high cadence in situ magnetic field measurements from the Cluster, ACE and STEREO spacecraft missions in both fast and slow quiet solar wind conditions. The data span five decades in scales from the inertial range to the electron Larmor radius. We find a clear transition in scaling behaviour between the inertial and kinetic range of scales, which provides a direct, quantitative constraint on the physical processes that mediate the cascade of energy through these scales. In the inertial (magnetohydrodynamic) range the statistical nature of turbulent fluctuations are known to be anisotropic, both in the vector components of the magnetic field fluctuations (variance anisotropy) and in the spatial scales of these fluctuations (wavevector or k-anisotropy). We show for the first time that, when measuring parallel to the local magnetic field direction, the full statistical signature of the magnetic and Elsasser field fluctuations is that of a non-Gaussian globally scale-invariant process. This is distinct from the classic multi-exponent statistics observed when the local magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow direction. These observations suggest the weakness, or absence, of a parallel magnetofluid turbulence energy cascade. In contrast to the inertial range, there is a successive increase toward isotropy between parallel and transverse power at scales below the ion Larmor radius, with isotropy being achieved at the electron Larmor radius. Computing higher-order statistics, we show that the full statistical signature of both parallel, and perpendicular fluctuations at scales below the ion Larmor radius are that of an isotropic globally scale-invariant non-Gaussian process. Lastly, we perform a survey of multiple intervals of quiet solar wind sampled under different plasma conditions (fast, slow wind; plasma beta etc.) and find that the above results on the scaling transition between inertial and kinetic range scales are qualitatively robust, and that quantitatively, there is a spread in the values of the scaling exponents.

Kiyani, Khurom; Chapman, Sandra; Osman, Kareem; Sahraoui, Fouad; Hnat, Bogdan

2014-05-01

222

In this article the major kinetics models for plasma-surface interactions were reviewed highlighting their strengths and limitations. As a subset of reactive-site modeling, mixing-layer kinetics model was developed based upon the assumption of random atomic mixing in the top surface layer. The translation of the layer enabled the modeling of both etching and deposition. A statistical concept, nearest-neighbor bonding probability, was defined to express the concentration of any surface moieties with the surface elemental composition. A lumped set of reactions was adopted to carry on the overall physichemical processes including ion incorporation, neutral adsorption, physical sputtering, ion-enhanced etching, dangling bond generation and annihilation, and spontaneous etching. The rate coefficients were fitted to the experimental etching yields at various beam etching conditions. The good match between the kinetics modeling and the experimental results verified the capability of the mixing-layer model of predicting the poly-Si etching in chlorine plasma at various operating conditions. Then the kinetics model was incorporated into the three-dimensional Monte Carlo profile simulator. The concept of the mixing layer was simulated by a cellular-based model through composition averaging among neighboring cells. The reactions were sorted out in terms of ion initiated and neutral initiated, respectively, as discrete events. The reaction rates were calculated based upon the cellular composition and used as probabilities to remove particles from the cell. Results showed that the profile simulation combined with the kinetics, the numeric kinetics model, and the experimental etching yields are in quantitative agreement, which demonstrated the accuracy of kinetics after incorporation into the profile simulation. The simulation was compared to the published research work comprehensively including the etching yields, surface compositions, and dominant product distributions.

Guo Wei; Bai Bo; Sawin, Herbert H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2009-03-15

223

Transport coefficients of Quark-Gluon Plasma in a Kinetic Theory approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main results of heavy ions collision at relativistic energy experiments is the very small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, close to the conjectured lower bound ?/s = 1/4? for systems in the infinite coupling limit. Transport coefficients like shear viscosity are responsible of non-equilibrium properties of a system: Green- Kubo relations give us an exact expression to compute these coefficients. We computed shear viscosity numerically using Green-Kubo relation in the framework of Kinetic Theory solving the relativistic transport Boltzmann equation in a finite box with periodic boundary conditions. We investigated different cases of particles, for one component system (gluon matter), interacting via isotropic or anisotropic cross-section in the range of temperature of interest for HIC. Green-Kubo results are in agreement with Chapman-Enskog approximation while Relaxation Time approximation can underestimates the viscosity of a factor 2. Another transport coefficient of interest is the electric conductivity ?el which determines the response of QGP to the electromagnetic fields present in the early stage of the collision. We study the ?el dependence on microscopic details of interaction and we find also in this case that Relaxation Time Approximation is a good approximation only for isotropic cross-section.

Puglisi, A.; Plumari, S.; Scardina, F.; Greco, V.

2014-07-01

224

Shear viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma in a kinetic theory approach

One of the main results of heavy ions collision (HIC) at relativistic energy experiments is the very small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, close to the conjectured lower bound ?/s=1/4? for systems in the infinite coupling limit. Transport coefficients like shear viscosity are responsible of non-equilibrium properties of a system: Green-Kubo relations give us an exact expression to compute these coefficients. We compute shear viscosity numerically using Green-Kubo relation in the framework of Kinetic Theory solving the relativistic transport Boltzmann equation in a finite box with periodic boundary conditions. We investigate a system of particles interacting via anisotropic and energy dependent cross-section in the range of temperature of interest for HIC. Green-Kubo results are in agreement with Chapman-Enskog approximation while Relaxation Time approximation can underestimates the viscosity of a factor 2. The correct analytic formula for shear viscosity can be used to develop a transport theory with a fixed ?/s and have a comparison with physical observables like elliptic flow.

Puglisi, A.; Plumari, S.; Scardina, F.; Greco, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania, Italy and Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 63, I-95125 Catania (Italy)

2014-05-09

225

It is shown that the dispersion relation for whistler waves is identical for a high or low beta plasma. Furthermore, in the high-beta solar wind plasma, whistler waves meet the Landau resonance with electrons for velocities less than the thermal speed, and consequently, the electric force is small compared to the mirror force. As whistlers propagate through the inhomogeneous solar wind, the perpendicular wave number increases through refraction, increasing the Landau damping rate. However, the whistlers can survive because the background kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) turbulence creates a plateau by quasilinear (QL) diffusion in the solar wind electron distribution at small velocities. It is found that for whistler energy density of only {approx}10{sup -3} that of the kinetic Alfven waves, the quasilinear diffusion rate due to whistlers is comparable to KAW. Thus, very small amplitude whistler turbulence can have a significant consequence on the evolution of the solar wind electron distribution function.

Mithaiwala, Manish; Crabtree, Chris; Ganguli, Gurudas [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5346 (United States); Rudakov, Leonid [Icarus Research Inc., P.O. Box 30780, Bethesda, Maryland 20824-0780 (United States)

2012-10-15

226

In this paper we show that identical collision terms are known by different names in gaseous plasmas and solids. Method used by plasma physicists and the one used by solid state physicists to solve Kinetic equation are also exactly same but they are also known by different names. In fact the physical explanation of damping of plasma Waves given by plasma physicists is quite similar to that given by solid state physicists to explain the absorption of acoustic waves in solids.

Sharma, S. K. [Department of Physics, Dilla University, P.O.Box 419, Dilla (Ethiopia)

2010-11-23

227

Reliable kinetics data are necessary input for models describing the decomposition of gases in electric discharge or electron-beam devices. In this second part of a continuing series, we provide a core database describing the dominant reactions of neutral species in nonthermal low temperature (300–700K) pulsed plasmas containing humid air. Recommended rate constants and extrapolation methods are provided in a manner

John T. Herron; David S. Green

2001-01-01

228

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In terms of the Vlasov-Maxwell kinetic approach we consider analytically the global Chapman- Ferraro problem (CFP) of inductive generation by the solar wind plasma flow of 3D magnetotail/solar streamer (M/S) structures in the process of electromagnetic (e.m.) interaction of the flow with the magnetized region. The input undisturbed flow is a hot collisionless plasma with an isotropic velocity distribution function (VDF) of any form, characterized by the introduced dimensionless kinetic parameter G. The 3D analytical stationary solution and set of new CFP parameters are a result of the classical simplification method based on separation of plasma particles in the velocity phase space into "trapped" and "flyby" groups that interact electromagnetically. The "flyby" particles form the "flowing media" with large scale kinetic inductive e.m. plasma eigenmodes disturbing the plasma VDF. The trapped particles in the magnetic dipole field form the prescribed "magnetic quasiparticle". The quasiparticle is described as stationary 3D spatial magnetization formed by the superposition of dipole like magnetization with N and S poles and toroidal circular magnetization without the poles. The spatial scale of the "quasiparticle", the ratio of the integral currents in the dipole and the toroidal components, and angle of mutual orientation of the components are the "quasiparticle" parameters. The "quasiparticle" models magnetic loop, sigma and helmet magnetoactive structures for the Sun and models circular and partial ring currents in the internal magnetosphere. The "quasiparticle" induces downflow the elongated quasicylindrical "dipole"-like and "toroidal"-like 3D M/S structures with fine multyrope and multicurrent sheets forming magnetic reconnection topology inside described by the package of inductive modes. Currents in the structures have resistive and diamagnetic components, which are related with "thin" structures inside "thick" current systems, respectively. Current scales are related with two different e.m. plasma kinetic spatial dispersion scales induced by the flow. They are defined by two dimensionless parameters of the plasma flow anisotropy. The anomalous skin scale defined via the "flow pulse" anisotropy stipulated by "resonant" particles which, in turn, provide resistivity in the flow. The magnetic Debye skin scale defined via the "flow energy" anisotropy formed by "nonresonant" particles which provide the diamagnetizm. We obtain these effects only in the subthermal (with respect to electrons) regime of the flow velocity. Squared ratio of two scales defines "quality" G equal to cotangent of the "losses angle" which measures the flow reactivity also and G can be a new characteristic for space weather. The value of G depends only on the form factor of the VDF and determines topology of the M/S states. We obtain the asymmetric "the resistive elongated state" for M/S when G is small with possibility of adiabatic transition to symmetric "the diamagnetic dipolized state" when G is large. Nonadiabatic transitions can be considered as substorm/CME relaxation substructure in the M/S structures.

Gubchenko, Vladimir

229

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is widely used in inorganic analytical chemistry for element and/or isotope ratio measurements. The presence of interferences, which is one of the main limitations of this method, has been addressed in recent years with the introduction of collision/reaction cell devices on ICP-MS apparatus. The study of ion-molecule reactions in the gas phase then became of great importance for the development of new analytical strategies. Knowing the kinetic energy and the electronic states of the ions prior to their entrance into the cell, i.e., just before they react, thereby constitutes crucial information for the interpretation of the observed reactivities. Such studies on an ICP-MS commonly used for routine analyses require the determination of the influence of different instrumental parameters on the energy of the ions and on the plasma temperature from where ions are sampled. The kinetic energy of ions prior to their entrance into the cell has been connected to the voltage applied to the hexapole according to a linear relationship determined from measurements of ion energy losses due to collisions with neutral gas molecules. The effects of the plasma forward power, sampling depth, and the addition of a torch shield to the ICP source were then examined. A decrease of the plasma potential due to the torch shielding, already mentioned in the literature, has been quantified in this study at about 3 V. PMID:19215651

Favre, Georges; Brennetot, René; Chartier, Frédéric; Tortajada, Jeanine

2009-02-01

230

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most applications helium-based plasma jets operate in an open-air environment. The presence of humid air in the plasma jet will influence the plasma chemistry and can lead to the production of a broader range of reactive species. We explore the influence of humid air on the reactive species in radio frequency (rf)-driven atmospheric-pressure helium-oxygen mixture plasmas (He-O2, helium with 5000 ppm admixture of oxygen) for wide air impurity levels of 0-500 ppm with relative humidities of from 0% to 100% using a zero-dimensional, time-dependent global model. Comparisons are made with experimental measurements in an rf-driven micro-scale atmospheric pressure plasma jet and with one-dimensional semi-kinetic simulations of the same plasma jet. These suggest that the plausible air impurity level is not more than hundreds of ppm in such systems. The evolution of species concentration is described for reactive oxygen species, metastable species, radical species and positively and negatively charged ions (and their clusters). Effects of the air impurity containing water humidity on electronegativity and overall plasma reactivity are clarified with particular emphasis on reactive oxygen species.

Murakami, Tomoyuki; Niemi, Kari; Gans, Timo; O'Connell, Deborah; Graham, William G.

2013-02-01

231

We discuss complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory for the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions. Existence of conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that annihilation interaction plays an important role in quantum electron-positron plasmas giving contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction.

Pavel A. Andreev

2014-04-18

232

INTERMITTENT HEATING IN SOLAR WIND AND KINETIC SIMULATIONS

Low-density astrophysical plasmas may be described by magnetohydrodynamics at large scales, but require kinetic description at ion scales in order to include dissipative processes that terminate the cascade. Here kinetic plasma simulations and high-resolution spacecraft observations are compared to facilitate the interpretation of signatures of various dissipation mechanisms. Kurtosis of increments indicates that kinetic scale coherent structures are present, with some suggestion of incoherent activity near ion scales. Conditioned proton temperature distributions suggest heating associated with coherent structures. The results reinforce the association of intermittent turbulence, coherent structures, and plasma dissipation.

Wu, P.; Wan, M.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Shay, M. A. [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Perri, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, I-87036 Cosenza (Italy); Osman, K.; Chapman, S. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick (United Kingdom); Goldstein, M. L. [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Karimabadi, H., E-mail: penny@udel.edu, E-mail: whm@udel.edu [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

2013-02-01

233

Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of a convecting plasma in a two-dimensional dipole field

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Charged particle guiding center motion is considered in the magnetic field of a two-dimensional ('line') dipole on which is superimposed a small, static, perpendicular electric field. The parallel equation of motion is that of a simple harmonic oscillator for cos theta, the cosine of magnetic colatitude theta. Equations for the perpendicular electric and magnetic drifts are derived as well as their bounce-averaged forms. The latter are solved to yield a bounce-averaged guiding center trajectory, which is the same as that obtained from conversation of magnetic moment mu, longitudinal invariant J, and total (kinetic plus electrostatic) energy K. The algebraic simplicity of the trajectory equations is also manifest in the forms of the invariants. An interesting result is that guiding centers drift in such a way that they preserve the values of their equatorial pitch angles and (equivalently) mirror latitudes. The most general Maxwellian form of the equilibrium one-particle distribution function f is constructed from the invariants, and spatially varying density and pressure moments, parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, are identified. Much of the paper deals with the more restricted problem in which f is specified as a bi-Maxwellian over a straight line of finite length in the equatorial plane of the dipole and perpendicular to field lines. This might be thought of as specifying a cross-tail ion injection source; our formalism then describes the subsequent spatial development. The distribution away from the source is a scaled bi-Maxwellian but one that is cut off at large and small kinetic energies, which depend on position. Density and pressure components are reduced from the values they would have if the total content of individual flux tubes convected intact. The equatorial and meridional variations of density and pressure components are examined and compared systematically for the isotropic and highly anisotropic situations. There appears to be little qualitative difference due to anisotropy. An anisotropy measure is defined, and its spatial variation determined as a signature of possible MHD instability. Extreme values are found, larger than at the source, but the plasma beta in such regions is probably so low as to render the effect inconsequential energetically. Finally, the possible consequence of 'nonadia- batic' pressure profiles on electrostatic interchanges is considered, and a boundary delineating stabilizing and destabilizing regions determined.

Huang, T. S.; Birmingham, T. J.

1994-01-01

234

Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of a convecting plasma in a two-dimensional dipole field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charged particle guiding center motion is considered in the magnetic field of a two-dimensional ('line') dipole on which is superimposed a small, static, perpendicular electric field. The parallel equation of motion is that of a simple harmonic oscillator for cos theta, the cosine of magnetic colatitude theta. Equations for the perpendicular electric and magnetic drifts are derived as well as their bounce-averaged forms. The latter are solved to yield a bounce-averaged guiding center trajectory, which is the same as that obtained from conversation of magnetic moment mu, longitudinal invariant J, and total (kinetic plus electrostatic) energy K. The algebraic simplicity of the trajectory equations is also manifest in the forms of the invariants. An interesting result is that guiding centers drift in such a way that they preserve the values of their equatorial pitch angles and (equivalently) mirror latitudes. The most general Maxwellian form of the equilibrium one-particle distribution function f is constructed from the invariants, and spatially varying density and pressure moments, parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, are identified. Much of the paper deals with the more restricted problem in which f is specified as a bi-Maxwellian over a straight line of finite length in the equatorial plane of the dipole and perpendicular to field lines. This might be thought of as specifying a cross-tail ion injection source; our formalism then describes the subsequent spatial development. The distribution away from the source is a scaled bi-Maxwellian but one that is cut off at large and small kinetic energies, which depend on position. Density and pressure components are reduced from the values they would have if the total content of individual flux tubes convected intact. The equatorial and meridional variations of density and pressure components are examined and compared systematically for the isotropic and highly anisotropic situations. There appears to be little qualitative difference due to anisotropy. An anisotropy measure is defined, and its spatial variation determined as a signature of possible MHD instability. Extreme values are found, larger than at the source, but the plasma beta in such regions is probably so low as to render the effect inconsequential energetically. Finally, the possible consequence of 'nonadia- batic' pressure profiles on electrostatic interchanges is considered, and a boundary delineating stabilizing and destabilizing regions determined.

Huang, T. S.; Birmingham, T. J.

1994-09-01

235

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The degree of toroidal symmetry of the plasma, the number of midplane electrode rings, the configuration of electrode rings, and the location of the diagnostic instruments with respect to the electrode rings used to generate the plasma are discussed. Impurities were deliberately introduced into the plasma, and the effects of the impurity fraction on ion kinetic temperature and electron number density were observed. It is concluded that, if necessary precautions are taken, the plasma communicates extremely well along the magnetic field lines and displays a high degree of symmetry from sector to sector for a wide range of electrode ring configurations and operating conditions. Finally, some characteristic data taken under nonoptimized conditions are presented, which include the highest electron number density and the longest particle containment time (1.9 msec) observed. Also, evidence from a paired comparison test is presented which shows that the electric field acting along the minor radius of the toroidal plasma improves the plasma density and the calculated containment time more than an order of magnitude if the electric field points inward, relative to the values observed when it points (and pushes ions) radially outward.

Roth, J. R.

1977-01-01

236

_____________________________________________ Â· Description Fusion energy is released by burning light elements using nuclear reactions which consume mass to be economically attractive. With Lawson product only ~20% higher, "ignition" is obtained, where the plasma is self

237

a large electric field at the cathode surface (like ), or a virtual cathode ( ), or double plasma sheath on the cathode material. Index Terms--Ablative wall, current structure, current-car- rying plasma, double sheath. INTRODUCTION ELECTRICAL current in vacuum can be maintained if neu- tral or charge particles are generated

Kaganovich, Igor

238

CONFERENCE DESCRIPTION Theory of Fusion Plasmas: Varenna-Lausanne International Workshop

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Joint Varenna-Lausanne international workshop on Theory of Fusion Plasmas takes place every other year in a place particularly favourable for informal and in-depth discussions. Invited and contributed papers present state-of-the-art research in theoretical plasma physics, covering all domains relevant to fusion plasmas. This workshop always welcomes a fruitful mix of experienced researchers and students, to allow a better understanding of the key theoretical physics models and applications. Theoretical issues related to burning plasmas Anomalous Transport (Turbulence, Coherent Structures, Microinstabilities) RF Heating and Current Drive Macroinstabilities Plasma-Edge Physics and Divertors Fast particles instabilities Further details: http://Varenna-Lausanne.epfl.ch The conference is organized by: Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Association EURATOM - Confédération Suisse 'Piero Caldirola' International Centre for the Promotion of Science and International School of Plasma Physics Istituto di Fisica del Plasma del CNR, Milano Editors: X Garbet (CEA, Cadarache, France) and O Sauter (CRPP-EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland)

Garbet, X.; Sauter, O.

2010-12-01

239

Vlasov simulations of kinetic enhancement of Raman backscatter in laser fusion plasmas

Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is studied in plasmas relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The Eulerian Vlasov-Maxwell code ELVIS was developed and run for this purpose. Plasma waves are heavily Landau damped ...

Strozzi, D. J. (David J.)

2006-01-01

240

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the indicated period of performance, we had a number of publications concerned with kinetic polar ionosphere-lower magnetosphere plasma transport. For the IUGG 1991-4 Quadrennial Report, we reviewed aspects of U.S. accomplishments concerned with polar plasma transport, among other issues. In another review, we examined the computer simulations of multiple-scale processes in space plasmas, including polar plasma outflow and transport. We also examined specifically multiscale processes in ionospheric outflows. We developed a Generalized Semi-Kinetic(GSK) model for the topside-lower magnetosphere which explored the synergistic action of wave heating and electric potentials in the formation of auroral Ion conics, in particular the "pressure cooker" mechanism. We extended the GSK model all the way down to 120 km and applied this code to illustrate the response of the ionosphere- magnetosphere to soft-electron precipitation and convection-driven frictional ion heating, respectively. Later, the convection-driven heating work was extended to a paper for the Journal of Geophysical Research. In addition to the above full published papers, we also presented the first developments of the coupled fluid-semikinetic model for polar plasma transport during this period. The results from a steady-state treatment were presented, with the second presentation being concerned with the effects of photo-electrons on the polar wind, and the first garnering an outstanding student paper award from the American Geophysical Union. We presented the first results from a time-dependent version of this coupled fluid-semikinetic model.

Horwitz, James L.

1996-01-01

241

Kinetic Simulation of Inhomogeneous Plasma with a Variable Sized Grid System

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space plasmas are usually inhomogeneous and irregular. Particle in cell (PIC) plasma simulations, however, often consider the plasma to be homogeneous and periodic. Here non-periodic PIC simulations with inhomogeneities in the density, temperature and background magnetic field are considered. Boundary conditions and a variable sized grid system are discussed, along with an application to a magnetospheric plasma physics problem in the auroral zone.

Schriver, David

2003-01-01

242

DEMOCRITUS code: A kinetic approach to the simulation of complex plasmas

The DEMOCRITUS code is a particle-based code for plasma-material interaction simulation. The code makes use of particle in cell (PIC) methods to simulate each plasma species, the material, and their interaction. In this study, we concentrate on a dust particle immersed in a plasma. We start with the simplest case, in which the dust particle is not allowed to emit.

Nimlan Arinaminpat; Chris Fichtl; Leonardo Patacchini; Giovanni Lapenta; Gian Luca Delzanno

2006-01-01

243

Mechanism and kinetics of tetrachlorosilane reactions in an argon-hydrogen microwave plasma

The dissociation mechanism of silicontetrachloride to silicon by plasma with argon or in mixtures of argon and hydrogen was investigated by sampling the microwave induced plasma and its chemical components by (i) electrostatic double floating probe system (DFPS), (ii) quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), and (iii) electron spin resonance (ESR). Plasma diagnostics, i.e., determination of mean electron energy and positive ion

N. Mayo; U. Carmi; I. Rosenthal; R. Avni; R. Manory; A. Grill

1984-01-01

244

This work characterized the Cl2/HBr ion enhanced plasma-surface interactions with poly-silicon as a function of the gas composition, ion energy, ion incident angle and other important process parameters. A realistic ...

Jin, Weidong, 1975-

2004-01-01

245

A Self-Consistent Zero-Dimensional Numerical Description of a Nonequilibrium Hydrogen Plasma

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a zero-dimensional model to determine gas temperature and composition, electron density and temperature for a microwave generated hydrogen plasma. Low pressure microwave discharges are characterized as two-temperature plasmas with non-Maxwellian electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs). A self-consistent analysis is performed through simultaneous numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation, electron energy equation, and the rate equations for various ionic (H^+, H_2^+, H_3^+) and neutral particle (H, H_2, H^/*, H_2^/*) densities. The ground and excited state densities of H predicted by this comprehensive model are in good agreement with our previous footnote M.H. Gordon and U.M. Kelkar, Phy. Plasmas, Vol. 3, 1 (1996) predictions which relied on only an atomic hydrogen model. For a 1.6 kW, 40 Torr hydrogen plasma, the numerical results are validated by the optical emission spectroscopic measurements of H excited state and electron number densities.

Kelkar, U. M.; Gordon, M. H.; Roe, L. A.

1996-10-01

246

Descriptions of a linear device developed for research on advanced plasma imaging and dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research on advanced plasma imaging and dynamics (RAPID) device is a newly developed linear electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma device. It has a variety of axial magnetic field profiles provided by eight water-cooled magnetic coils and two dc power supplies. The positions of the magnetic coils are freely adjustable along the axial direction and the power supplies can be operated with many combinations of electrical wiring to the coils. A 6 kW 2.45 GHz magnetron is used to produce steady-state ECR plasmas with central magnetic fields of 875 and/or 437.5 G (second harmonic). The cylindrical stainless steel vacuum chamber is 300 mm in diameter and 750 mm in length and has eight radial and ten axial ports including 6-in. and 8-in. viewing windows for heating and diagnostics. Experimental observation of ECR plasma heating has been recently carried out during the initial plasma operation. The main diagnostic systems including a 94 GHz heterodyne interferometer, a high-resolution 25 channel one-dimensional array spectrometer, a single channel survey spectrometer, and an electric probe have been also prepared. The RAPID device is a flexible simulator for the understanding of tokamak edge plasma physics and new diagnostic system development. In this work, we describe the RAPID device and initial operation results.

Chung, J.; Lee, K. D.; Seo, D. C.; Nam, Y. U.; Ko, W. H.; Lee, J. H.; Choi, M. C.

2009-10-01

247

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a novel chemical kinetics for quantitative description of chemical fluctuations in a small, heterogeneous biological reaction system. At first, we discuss the recently proposed renewal chemical kinetics, and its application to quantitative interpretation of the randomness in fluctuating enzymatic turnover times of a-galactosidase. From the analysis of the randomness parameter data of the single enzyme reaction, one can extract valuable quantitative information about the enzyme reaction system, beyond the reach of the conventional Michaelis-Menten analysis. Next, we discuss a new universal behavior in the time dependence of the chemical fluctuation of product density for a small, heterogeneous reaction system, which is predicted from an exact analytic study for a general reaction model and confirmed by stochastic simulation results. We also discuss the dependence of the chemical noise on substrate concentrations for a heterogeneous enzyme reaction system, which turns out qualitatively different from that for a homogeneous enzyme reaction system.

Sung, Jaeyoung

2012-02-01

248

Indium kinetics during the plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of semipolar (11-22) InGaN layers

We report on the growth kinetics of semipolar (11-22) InGaN layers by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Similarly to (0001)-oriented InGaN, optimum growth conditions for this crystallographic orientation correspond to the stabilization of two atomic layers of In on the growing InGaN surface, and the limits of this growth window in terms of substrate temperature and In flux lie at same values for both polar and semipolar material. However, in semipolar samples, the incorporation of In is inhibited, even for growth temperatures within the Ga-limited regime of polar InGaN growth.

Das, A.; Kotsar, Y.; Kandaswamy, P. K.; Gayral, B.; Monroy, E. [CEA/CNRS group 'Nanophysique et semiconducteurs', INAC/SP2M/NPSC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Magalhaes, S.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E. [Unidade de Fisica e Aceleradores, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Ruterana, P. [CIMAP, UMR 6252 CNRS-ENSICAEN, 6 Boulevard du Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France)

2010-05-03

249

An efficient analytical calculation approach is presented for the Tsytovich-Angelis dust-dust collision functions consisting of the kinetic theory of dusty plasmas. This method is based on the use of binomial expansion theorem for the analytical representation of the dust-dust collision functions. The analytical calculation offers the advantage that leads to a mathematical expression, which allows the direct calculation of the dust-dust collision functions. The proposed algorithm is implemented numerically using a computer program, and its convergence properties are investigated.

Mamedov, B. A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat 60100 (Turkey)

2010-11-15

250

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A versatile code DLAYZ based on collisional-radiative model is developed for investigating the population kinetics and radiative properties of plasmas in non-local thermodynamic equilibrium. DLAYZ is implemented on the detailed level accounting (DLA) approach and can be extended to detailed configuration accounting (DCA) and hybrid DLA/DCA approaches. The code can treat both steady state and time-dependent problems. The implementation of the main modules of DLAYZ is discussed in detail including atomic data, rates, population distributions and radiative properties modules. The complete set of basic atomic data is obtained using relativistic quantum mechanics. For dense plasmas, the basic atomic data with plasma screening effects can be obtained. The populations are obtained by solving the coupled rate equations, which are used to calculate the radiative properties. A parallelized version is implemented in the code to treat the large-scale rate equations. Two illustrative examples of a steady state case for carbon plasmas and a time-dependent case for the relaxation of a K-shell excited argon are employed to show the main features of the present code.

Gao, Cheng; Zeng, Jiaolong; Li, Yongqiang; Jin, Fengtao; Yuan, Jianmin

2013-09-01

251

A non-LTE kinetic model for quick analysis of K-shell spectra from Z-pinch plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyzing and modeling K-shell spectra emitted by low-to moderate-atomic number plasma is a useful and effective way to retrieve temperature density of z-pinch plasmas. In this paper, a non-LTE population kinetic model for quick analysis of K-shell spectra was proposed. The model contains ionization stages from bare nucleus to neutral atoms and includes all the important atomic processes. In the present form of the model, the plasma is assumed to be both optically thin and homogeneous with constant temperature and density, and only steady-state situation is considered. According to the detailed calculations for aluminum plasmas, contours of ratios of certain K-shell lines in electron temperature and density plane as well as typical synthesized spectra were presented and discussed. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated by analyzing the spectrum from a neon gas-puff Z-pinch experiment performed on a 1 MA pulsed-power accelerator.

Li, J.; Huang, X. B.; Cai, H. C.; Yang, L. B.; Xie, W. P.; Duan, S. C.

2014-12-01

252

Excitation of kinetic geodesic acoustic modes by drift waves in nonuniform plasmas

Effects of system nonuniformities and kinetic dispersiveness on the spontaneous excitation of Geodesic Acoustic Mode (GAM) by Drift Wave (DW) turbulence are investigated based on nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. The coupled nonlinear equations describing parametric decay of DW into GAM and DW lower sideband are derived and then solved both analytically and numerically to investigate the effects on the parametric decay process due to system nonuniformities, such as nonuniform diamagnetic frequency, finite radial envelope of DW pump, and kinetic dispersiveness. It is found that the parametric decay process is a convective instability for typical tokamak parameters when finite group velocities of DW and GAM associated with kinetic dispersiveness and finite radial envelope are taken into account. When, however, nonuniformity of diamagnetic frequency is taken into account, the parametric decay process becomes, time asymptotically, a quasi-exponentially growing absolute instability.

Qiu, Z. [Inst. Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou 310027 (China)] [Inst. Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, L. [Inst. Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou 310027 (China) [Inst. Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou 310027 (China); Dept. Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of California, Irvine, California 92697-4575 (United States); Zonca, F. [Inst. Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou 310027 (China) [Inst. Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou 310027 (China); Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.P. 65 - I-00044 - Frascati (Italy)

2014-02-15

253

Vlasov simulations of kinetic Alfvén waves at proton kinetic scales

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetic Alfvén waves represent an important subject in space plasma physics, since they are thought to play a crucial role in the development of the turbulent energy cascade in the solar wind plasma at short wavelengths (of the order of the proton gyro radius ?p and/or inertial length dp and beyond). A full understanding of the physical mechanisms which govern the kinetic plasma dynamics at these scales can provide important clues on the problem of the turbulent dissipation and heating in collisionless systems. In this paper, hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell simulations are employed to analyze in detail the features of the kinetic Alfvén waves at proton kinetic scales, in typical conditions of the solar wind environment (proton plasma beta ?p = 1). In particular, linear and nonlinear regimes of propagation of these fluctuations have been investigated in a single-wave situation, focusing on the physical processes of collisionless Landau damping and wave-particle resonant interaction. Interestingly, since for wavelengths close to dp and ?p ? 1 (for which ?p ? dp) the kinetic Alfvén waves have small phase speed compared to the proton thermal velocity, wave-particle interaction processes produce significant deformations in the core of the particle velocity distribution, appearing as phase space vortices and resulting in flat-top velocity profiles. Moreover, as the Eulerian hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell algorithm allows for a clean almost noise-free description of the velocity space, three-dimensional plots of the proton velocity distribution help to emphasize how the plasma departs from the Maxwellian configuration of thermodynamic equilibrium due to nonlinear kinetic effects.

Vásconez, C. L.; Valentini, F.; Camporeale, E.; Veltri, P.

2014-11-01

254

Spatially modulated phase in the holographic description of quark-gluon plasma.

We present a string theory construction of a gravity dual of a spatially modulated phase. Our earlier work shows that the Chern-Simons term in the five-dimensional Maxwell theory destabilizes the Reissner-Nordström black holes in anti-de Sitter space if the Chern-Simons coupling is sufficiently high. In this Letter, we show that a similar instability is realized on the world volume of 8-branes in the Sakai-Sugimoto model in the quark-gluon plasma phase. Our result suggests a new spatially modulated phase in quark-gluon plasma when the baryon density is above 0.8Nf??fm(-3) at temperature 150 MeV. PMID:21405455

Ooguri, Hirosi; Park, Chang-Soon

2011-02-11

255

Macroscopic description for a quantum plasma micro-instability: the quantum Weibel solution

The Weibel instability in the quantum plasma case is treated by means of a fluid-like (moments) approach. Quantum modifications to the macroscopic equations are then identified as effects of first or second kind. Quantum effects of the first kind correspond to a dispersive term, similar to the Bohm potential in the quantum hydrodynamic equations for plasmas. Effects of the second kind are due to the Fermi statistics of the charge carriers and can become the dominant influence for strong degeneracy. The macroscopic dispersion relations are of higher order than those for the classical Weibel instability. This corresponds to the presence of a cutoff wave-number even for the strong temperature anisotropy case.

Fernando Haas; Marian Lazar

2008-01-25

256

The GHIBLI plasma wind tunnel: Description of the new CIRA-PWT facility

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new plasma wind tunnel is under construction at the Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA) located at Capua. It is named GHIBLI and the plasma is generated by a segmented arc heater whose power is about 2 MW. Such a new facility will be able to perform test campaigns on models up to 80 mm in diameter, and may be used to develop researches in the aerospace field of the hypersonic plasma flows from the reentry technologies to the validation of CFD codes for the theoretical predictions of aerothermodynamic phenomena. Target of the present paper is the presentation of results obtained by means of CFD simulation by using the well-known FLUENT code, Such a code has been used to simulate the aerothermodynamic field inside the conical nozzle of the facility to obtain some analytical correlations (fits) between the main aerodynamic parameters at the nozzle exit, such as the Mach number, flow density, mass flow rate, etc. and the reservoir conditions inside the arc heater column, total pressure and total enthalpy. Such fits allow fast theoretical prediction of the facility operation parameters for given reservoir conditions.

Purpura, Carlo; Filippis, Federico De; Graps, Egidio; Trifoni, Eduardo; Savino, Raffaele

2007-06-01

257

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LSENS, the Lewis General Chemical Kinetics Analysis Code, has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase chemical kinetics problems and contains sensitivity analysis for a variety of problems, including nonisothermal situations. This report is part 2 of a series of three reference publications that describe LSENS, provide a detailed guide to its usage, and present many example problems. Part 2 describes the code, how to modify it, and its usage, including preparation of the problem data file required to execute LSENS. Code usage is illustrated by several example problems, which further explain preparation of the problem data file and show how to obtain desired accuracy in the computed results. LSENS is a flexible, convenient, accurate, and efficient solver for chemical reaction problems such as static system; steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow; reaction behind incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; and perfectly stirred (highly backmixed) reactor. In addition, the chemical equilibrium state can be computed for the following assigned states: temperature and pressure, enthalpy and pressure, temperature and volume, and internal energy and volume. For static problems the code computes the sensitivity coefficients of the dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of the dependent variables and/or the three rate coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions. Part 1 (NASA RP-1328) derives the governing equations describes the numerical solution procedures for the types of problems that can be solved by lSENS. Part 3 (NASA RP-1330) explains the kinetics and kinetics-plus-sensitivity-analysis problems supplied with LSENS and presents sample results.

Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Bittker, David A.

1994-01-01

258

We discuss the modeling of population kinetics of nonequilibrium steady-state plasmas using a collisional-radiative model and code based on analytical rates (ABAKO). ABAKO can be applied to low-to-high Z ions for a wide range of laboratory plasma conditions: coronal, local thermodynamic equilibrium or nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium, and optically thin or thick plasmas. ABAKO combines a set of analytical approximations to atomic rates, which yield substantial savings in computer running time, still comparing well with more elaborate codes and experimental data. A simple approximation to calculate the electron capture cross section in terms of the collisional excitation cross section has been adapted to work in a detailed-configuration-accounting approach, thus allowing autoionizing states to be explicitly included in the kinetics in a fast and efficient way. Radiation transport effects in the atomic kinetics due to line trapping in the plasma are taken into account via geometry-dependent escape factors. Since the kinetics problem often involves very large sparse matrices, an iterative method is used to perform the matrix inversion. In order to illustrate the capabilities of the model, we present a number of results which show that the ABAKO compares well with customized models and simulations of ion population distribution. The utility of ABAKO for plasma spectroscopic applications is also outlined. PMID:20365078

Florido, R; Rodríguez, R; Gil, J M; Rubiano, J G; Martel, P; Mínguez, E; Mancini, R C

2009-11-01

259

Kinetics modeling and 3-dimensional simulation of surface roughness during plasma etching

The control of feature profiles in directional plasma etching processes is crucial as critical dimension, line-edge roughening, and other artifacts affect device performance and process yields. A profile simulator is ...

Guo, Wei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

260

We present numerical kinetic modeling of generation and evolution of the plasma produced as a result of resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) in Argon gas. The particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision (PIC/MCC) simulations capture non-equilibrium effects in REMPI plasma expansion by considering the major collisional processes at the microscopic level: elastic scattering, electron impact ionization, ion charge exchange, and recombination and quenching for metastable excited atoms. The conditions in one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) formulations correspond to known experiments in Argon at a pressure of 5?Torr. The 1D PIC/MCC calculations are compared with the published results of local drift-diffusion model, obtained for the same conditions. It is shown that the PIC/MCC and diffusion-drift models are in qualitative and in reasonable quantitative agreement during the ambipolar expansion stage, whereas significant non-equilibrium exists during the first few 10?s of nanoseconds. 2D effects are important in the REMPI plasma expansion. The 2D PIC/MCC calculations produce significantly lower peak electron densities as compared to 1D and show a better agreement with experimentally measured microwave radiation scattering.

Tholeti, Siva Sashank; Alexeenko, Alina A., E-mail: alexeenk@purdue.edu [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Shneider, Mikhail N. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2014-06-15

261

Comparison of Two-fluid and Gyrokinetic Models for Kinetic Alfvén Waves in Solar and Space Plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical comparative study of a two-fluid and a gyrokinetic model of kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) is presented for various solar and space plasma environments. Based on the linear KAW dispersion relation for gyrokinetics (Howes et al. 2006), the wave group velocity and electromagnetic polarizations are obtained analytically. Then the gyrokinetic wave properties are compared with those of the two-fluid model. The results show that both models agree well with each other not only in the long wavelength regime (Gt the ion gyroradius ? i ) for all cases considered, but also in wavelengths ~? i and Lt? i (still much larger than the electron gyroscale) for a moderate or low (lsim 1) and a high (Gt1) ion/electron temperature ratio T 0i /T 0e , respectively. However, the fluid model calculations deviate strongly from the gyrokinetic model at scales plasma ? i can make the gyrokinetic dispersion relation of KAWs become complex and sometimes have an oscillation-like structure. With the inherent simplicity of the fluid theory, these results may improve our understanding of the applicability of the two-fluid model, and may have important implications for computer simulation studies of KAWs in the solar and space plasma surroundings.

Yang, L.; Wu, D. J.; Wang, S. J.; Lee, L. C.

2014-09-01

262

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present numerical kinetic modeling of generation and evolution of the plasma produced as a result of resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) in Argon gas. The particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision (PIC/MCC) simulations capture non-equilibrium effects in REMPI plasma expansion by considering the major collisional processes at the microscopic level: elastic scattering, electron impact ionization, ion charge exchange, and recombination and quenching for metastable excited atoms. The conditions in one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) formulations correspond to known experiments in Argon at a pressure of 5 Torr. The 1D PIC/MCC calculations are compared with the published results of local drift-diffusion model, obtained for the same conditions. It is shown that the PIC/MCC and diffusion-drift models are in qualitative and in reasonable quantitative agreement during the ambipolar expansion stage, whereas significant non-equilibrium exists during the first few 10 s of nanoseconds. 2D effects are important in the REMPI plasma expansion. The 2D PIC/MCC calculations produce significantly lower peak electron densities as compared to 1D and show a better agreement with experimentally measured microwave radiation scattering.

Tholeti, Siva Sashank; Shneider, Mikhail N.; Alexeenko, Alina A.

2014-06-01

263

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulent transport in high-beta toroidal plasmas is investigated by means of an electromagnetic gyrokinetic model and a newly developed electromagnetic hybrid model consisting of the gyrokinetic equation for ions and drift-Landau-fluid equations for electrons. Full gyrokinetic simulation results for Cyclone base case tokamak and for Large Helical Device (LHD) plasmas are quickly and accurately reproduced by the hybrid simulation. In the kinetic ballooning mode (KBM)-driven turbulence the ion heat and particle fluxes are mainly caused by electrostatic perturbation, and the contribution of magnetic perturbation is small and negative. The electron heat flux is caused by both electrostatic and magnetic perturbations. The numerical solutions satisfy the entropy balance equation, and the entropy is transferred from ions to electrons through electrostatic and magnetic perturbations. An analysis based on the entropy balance equation shows that the zonal structure is produced by magnetic nonlinearity corresponding to the Maxwell stress in the fluid limit but is weakened by the electrostatic one related to the Reynolds stress. A linear analysis on the standard configuration of LHD plasmas shows the suppression of the ion temperature gradient mode by finite-beta effects and the destabilization of KBM at high beta.

Ishizawa, A.; Maeyama, S.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.; Nakajima, N.

2013-05-01

264

Kinetic Alfven wave instability in a Lorentzian dusty plasma: Non-resonant particle approach

Analysis of the electromagnetic streaming instability is carried out which is related to the cross field drift of kappa distributed ions. The linear dispersion relation for electromagnetic wave using Vlasov-fluid equations in a dusty plasma is derived. Modified two stream instability (MTSI) in a dusty plasma has been discussed in the limit omegapd2\\/c2k?2<<1. Numerical calculations of the growth rate of

N. Rubab; V. Erkaev; H. K. Biernat; D. Langmayr

2011-01-01

265

SELENIUM METABOLISM IN HUMANS: RESPONSE OF KINETIC POOLS IN PLASMA TO 2 YR SUPPLEMENTATION

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Selenium (Se) is a particularly promising cancer chemopreventive agent. We have been investigating the effects of oral Se supplementation on the metabolism of two forms of Se, selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenite (Sel), by comparing kinetics for 4-mo before (PK1) and after (PK2) 2 yrs of supplemen...

266

Intermittent Dissipation at Kinetic Scales in Collisionless Plasma Turbulence W. H. Matthaeus,1

. Chapman6 1 Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware approach a self-similar ``inertial range'' state that is terminated by viscous dissi- pation at small of the solar wind [5]. Recently we showed, using state of the art kinetic simulations [10], that a hierarchy

Shay, Michael

267

This study aimed to compare fat oxidation, hormonal and plasma metabolite kinetics during exercise in lean (L) and obese (O) men. Sixteen L and 16 O men [Body Mass Index (BMI): 22.9±0.3 and 39.0±1.4 kg.m?2] performed a submaximal incremental test (Incr) on a cycle-ergometer. Fat oxidation rates (FORs) were determined using indirect calorimetry. A sinusoidal model, including 3 independent variables (dilatation, symmetry, translation), was used to describe fat oxidation kinetics and determine the intensity (Fatmax) eliciting maximal fat oxidation. Blood samples were drawn for the hormonal and plasma metabolite determination at each step of Incr. FORs (mg.FFM?1.min?1) were significantly higher from 20 to 30% of peak oxygen uptake () in O than in L and from 65 to 85% in L than in O (p?0.05). FORs were similar in O and in L from 35 to 60% . Fatmax was 17% significantly lower in O than in L (p<0.01). Fat oxidation kinetics were characterized by similar translation, significantly lower dilatation and left-shift symmetry in O compared with L (p<0.05). During whole exercise, a blunted lipolysis was found in O [lower glycerol/fat mass (FM) in O than in L (p?0.001)], likely associated with higher insulin concentrations in O than in L (p<0.01). Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were significantly higher in O compared with L (p<0.05). Despite the blunted lipolysis, O presented higher NEFA availability, likely due to larger amounts of FM. Therefore, a lower Fatmax, a left-shifted and less dilated curve and a lower reliance on fat oxidation at high exercise intensities suggest that the difference in the fat oxidation kinetics is likely linked to impaired muscular capacity to oxidize NEFA in O. These results may have important implications for the appropriate exercise intensity prescription in training programs designed to optimize fat oxidation in O. PMID:24523934

Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Salvadori, Alberto; Brunani, Amelia; Malatesta, Davide

2014-01-01

268

The Ulysses solar wind plasma investigation: Description and initial in-ecliptic results

During the in-ecliptic flight of Ulysses from the Earth toward its encounter with Jupiter, the Los Alamos solar wind plasma experiment has performed well. Briefly described, the instrumentation contains two independent electrostatic analyzers, one for ions and one for electrons. Initial analysis of solar wind electron core temperatures obtained between 1.15 and 3.76 AU yields a gradient of T {proportional to} R{sup {minus}0.7} which is flatter than expected for adiabatic expansion of a single-temperature Maxwellian velocity distribution and steeper than that obtained from Mariner-Voyager.

Bame, S.J.; Phillips, J.L.; McComas, D.J.; Gosling, J.T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Goldstein, B.E. (Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States))

1991-01-01

269

Kinetic Self-Organization of Microinstabilities in Astrophysical and in Laboratory Plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microinstabilities can be considered as effective collisions. The small scale electromagnetic fluctuations due to microinstabilties can be considered as collisions on the particles, leading to a similar point-like and instantaneous-like change in the particle momentum. This paradigm, the anomalous transport paradigm, requires us to derive theories that can predict the correct transport parameters (particularly the anomalous viscosity and anomalous resistivity) from the properties of the microinstabilties. Our recent work [1-3] has shown that another possible effect of microinstabilties is to lead to a direct macroscopic change in the equilibrium by affecting the plasma flow, temperature anisotropy and current profile on a macroscopic level. Our previous work has focused on space and astrophysical systems. But similar effects can be considered for experimental plasmas. A particularly intriguing possible analogy is with zonal flows and ``angular momentum generation'' believed to be happening in accretion disks in astrophysical systems [4] and with the ``spontaneous toroidal rotation'' of axisymmetric plasmas in fusion devices such as Jet and Alcator C-Mod [5]. [1] G. Lapenta, J.U. Brackbill, W.S. Daughton, Phys. Plasmas, 10, 1577 (2003). [2] W. Daughton, G. Lapenta, P. Ricci, Phys. Rev. Lett., 93, 105004, 2004 [3] P. Ricci, J.U. Brackbill, W.S. Daughton, G. Lapenta, Phys. Plasmas, 11, 4102, 2004. [4] B. Coppi 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 1-4 [5] E. S. Marmar, et al., Fusion Energy 2002 (IAEA, Vienna) Paper OV/4-1

Lapenta, Giovanni

2006-04-01

270

DEMOCRITUS code: A kinetic approach to the simulation of complex plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DEMOCRITUS code is a particle-based code for plasma-material interaction simulation. The code makes use of particle in cell (PIC) methods to simulate each plasma species, the material, and their interaction. In this study, we concentrate on a dust particle immersed in a plasma. We start with the simplest case, in which the dust particle is not allowed to emit. From here, we expand the DEMOCRITUS code to include thermionic and photo emission algorithms and obtain our data. Next we expand the physics processes present to include the presence of magnetic fields and collisional processes with a neutral gas. Finally we describe new improvements of the code including a new mover that allows for particle subcycling and a new grid adaptation approach.

Arinaminpat, Nimlan; Fichtl, Chris; Patacchini, Leonardo; Lapenta, Giovanni; Delzanno, Gian Luca

2006-10-01

271

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new high-resolution numerical model for the simulation of crystallization and texture evolution using arbitrary rates of crystal nucleation and growth. The algorithm models single or multiphase solidification in a three-dimensional domain and 17 simulations using constant, linearly increasing, exponential, and Gaussian functions for the rates of nucleation and growth yield equigranular to seriate textures. Conventional crystal size distributions of all textures are nearly linear to concave-down (previously interpreted as formed by equilibration coarsening), and identical distribution patterns can result from multiple non-unique combinations of nucleation and growth rates. The clustering index is always a non-monotonous function, which initially increases then decreases with increasing crystal fraction. For texture from random homogeneous nucleation the index is substantially lower than previous predictions based on a random sphere distribution line, hence, natural samples interpreted as clustered now have greater degrees of randomness or ordering. The average number of contact neighbors and the average neighbor distance of a crystal depend linearly on crystal size, but one of the two remains insensitive to nucleation and growth kinetics and represents potential indicator of other crystallization processes than random nucleation and crystal growth. Simultaneous comparison of size, spatial and clustering patterns and of their departures from expected values are suggested to allow for separation of effects of crystallization kinetics, melt-mineral mechanical interactions, suspension mixing, or postcrystallization re-equilibration and coarsening on natural igneous rocks.

Špillar, Václav; Dolejš, David

2014-04-01

272

Kinetic processes in the plasma formed in combustion of hydrocarbon fuels

An analysis of the basic kinetic processes responsible for the formation of ions, electrons, charged and neutral carbon clusters\\u000a and particles of nanometer size in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels has been made. It has been shown that the formation\\u000a of a polydisperse ensemble of positively and negatively charged particles is mainly caused by the ion adhesion to primary\\u000a particles

A. M. Starik; A. M. Savel’ev; N. S. Titova

2011-01-01

273

Optimization of kinetic parameters for the degradation of plasmid DNA in rat plasma

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biotechnology is a rapidly growing area of research work in the field of pharmaceutical sciences. The study of pharmacokinetics of plasmid DNA (pDNA) is an important area of research work. It has been observed that the process of gene delivery faces many troubles on the transport of pDNA towards their target sites. The topoforms of pDNA has been termed as super coiled (S-C), open circular (O-C) and linear (L), the kinetic model of which will be presented in this paper. The kinetic model gives rise to system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), the exact solution of which has been found. The kinetic parameters, which are responsible for the degradation of super coiled, and the formation of open circular and linear topoforms have a great significance not only in vitro but for modeling of further processes as well, therefore need to be addressed in great detail. For this purpose, global optimization techniques have been adopted, thus finding the optimal results for the said model. The results of the model, while using the optimal parameters, were compared against the measured data, which gives a nice agreement.

Chaudhry, Q. A.

2014-12-01

274

Asymptotic description of finite lifetime effects on the photon emission from a quark-gluon plasma

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct photons play an important role as electromagnetic probes from the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) which occurs during ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. In this context, it is of particular interest how the finite lifetime of the QGP affects the resulting photon production. Earlier investigations on this question were accompanied by a divergent contribution from the vacuum polarization and by the remaining contributions not being integrable in the ultraviolet (UV) domain. In this work, we provide a different approach in which we do not consider the photon number density at finite times, but for free asymptotic states obtained by switching the electromagnetic interaction according to the Gell-Mann and Low theorem. This procedure eliminates a possible unphysical contribution from the vacuum polarization and, moreover, renders the photon number density UV integrable. It is emphasized that the consideration of free asymptotic states is, indeed, crucial to obtain such physically reasonable results.

Michler, Frank; van Hees, Hendrik; Dietrich, Dennis D.; Greiner, Carsten

2014-06-01

275

Quantitative description of ion transport via plasma membrane of yeast and small cells

Modelling of ion transport via plasma membrane needs identification and quantitative understanding of the involved processes. Brief characterisation of ion transport systems of a yeast cell (Pma1, Ena1, TOK1, Nha1, Trk1, Trk2, non-selective cation conductance) and estimates concerning the number of molecules of each transporter per a cell allow predicting the corresponding ion flows. Comparison of ion transport in small yeast cell and several animal cell types is provided and importance of cell volume to surface ratio is stressed. Role of cell wall and lipid rafts is discussed in aspect of required increase in spatial and temporary resolution of measurements. Conclusions are formulated to describe specific features of ion transport in a yeast cell. Potential directions of future research are outlined based on the assumptions.

Vadim Volkov

2012-12-18

276

This introduction will define the plasma fourth state of matter, where we find plasmas on earth and beyond, and why they are useful. There are applications to many consumer items, fusion energy, scientific devices, satellite communications, semiconductor processing, spacecraft propulsion, and more. Since 99% of our observable universe is ionized gas, plasma physics determines many important features of astrophysics, space physics, and magnetosphere physics in our solar system. We describe some plasma characteristics, examples in nature, some useful applications, how to create plasmas. A brief introduction to the theoretical framework includes the connection between kinetic and fluid descriptions, quasi neutrality, Debye shielding, ambipolar electric fields, some plasma waves. Hands-on demonstrations follow. More complete explanations will follow next week.

Intrator, Thomas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-30

277

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a powerful kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm that allows one to simulate the growth of nanocrystalline silicon by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for film thicknesses as large as several hundreds of monolayers. Our method combines a standard n-fold KMC algorithm with an efficient Markovian random walk scheme accounting for the surface diffusive processes of the species involved in PECVD. These processes are extremely fast compared to chemical reactions, thus in a brute application of the KMC method more than 99% of the computational time is spent in monitoring them. Our method decouples the treatment of these events from the rest of the reactions in a systematic way, thereby dramatically increasing the efficiency of the corresponding KMC algorithm. It is also making use of a very rich kinetic model which includes 5 species (H, SiH3, SiH2, SiH, and Si2H5) that participate in 29 reactions. We have applied the new method in simulations of silicon growth under several conditions (in particular, silane fraction in the gas mixture), including those usually realized in actual PECVD technologies. This has allowed us to directly compare against available experimental data for the growth rate, the mesoscale morphology, and the chemical composition of the deposited film as a function of dilution ratio.

Tsalikis, D. G.; Baig, C.; Mavrantzas, V. G.; Amanatides, E.; Mataras, D.

2013-11-01

278

Nonlocal, kinetic stimulated Raman scattering in nonuniform plasmas: Averaged variational approach

pump, and seed waves dynamics. A flat-top electron velocity distribution is used as the simplest model space holes. Whitham's averaged variational principle is applied in studying the coupled plasma, laser is a resonant three-wave interaction in which the energy flux of an incident laser wave (pump) is transferred

Friedland, Lazar

279

MULTICOMPARTMENT KINETIC MODEL FOR LEAD. PART 3. LEAD IN BLOOD PLASMA AND ERYTHROCYTES

Multicompartment models have been fitted to experimental data on plasma lead and blood lead concentrations of subjects studied by de Silva (1981, Brit. J. Industr. Med. 38, 209-217) and one subject studied by Manton and Malloy (1983, Brit. J. Industr. Med., 40, 51-57). Nonlinear ...

280

MHD and Kinetic Models for the Interchange Mode in a Confined Plasma

The curvature driven interchange mode is studied. If the mode is in the pure flute regime (k(,z) = 0), then the ideal MHD equations are equivalent to an L-R-C circuit with the resistor representing linetying. The capacitance (ion polarization drift) and the inductance (curvature drift) are obtained from the plasma density, pressure, and magnetic field profiles. At large beta, a

Guy George Vandegrift

1982-01-01

281

Kinetics of plasma potassium concentrations during exhausting exercise in trained and untrained men

The purpose of this study was to examine the time course of changes in plasma potassium concentration during high intensity exercise and recovery in trained and untrained men. The subjects performed two exercise protocols, an incremental test and a sprint, on a cycle ergometer. A polyethylene catheter was inserted into the antecubital vein to obtain blood samples for the analysis

E. Marcos; J. Ribas

1995-01-01

282

Kinetics of plasma FLT3 ligand concentration in hematopoietic stem cell transplanted patients.

The present study aimed to follow-up variations in plasma Flt3 ligand (FL) concentration after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and to compare the influence of conditioning regimens on variations in FL concentration. Ten patients undergoing a conditioning regimen, including BEAM, cyclophosphamide (Cy) + total body irradiation or Cy + anti-thymocyte globulins (ATG), which was then followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, were studied. Plasma FL concentrations, white blood cell (WBC) expression of both FL mRNA and the membrane-bound form of FL were carried out at different times post-treatment. The results indicated that plasma FL concentration increased rapidly after the conditioning regimen in all patients, in correlation with the decrease in number of WBCs. The area under the curve of FL according to time was directly correlated with the duration of pancytopenia, except when ATG was included in the conditioning regimen. Although the number of patients was limited in this study, the comparison of ATG-treated patients and other patients suggests that plasma FL concentration is regulated by a complex mechanism partly involving circulating blood cells. PMID:16321831

Prat, Marie; Frick, Johanna; Laporte, Jean-Philippe; Thierry, Dominique; Gorin, Norbert-Claude; Bertho, Jean-Marc

2006-01-01

283

Kinetic modelling for an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet in humid air

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A zero-dimensional, semi-empirical model is used to describe the plasma chemistry in an argon plasma jet flowing into humid air, mimicking the experimental conditions of a setup from the Eindhoven University of Technology. The model provides species density profiles as a function of the position in the plasma jet device and effluent. A reaction chemistry set for an argon/humid air mixture is developed, which considers 84 different species and 1880 reactions. Additionally, we present a reduced chemistry set, useful for higher level computational models. Calculated species density profiles along the plasma jet are shown and the chemical pathways are explained in detail. It is demonstrated that chemically reactive H, N, O and OH radicals are formed in large quantities after the nozzle exit and H2, O2(1?g), O3, H2O2, NO2, N2O, HNO2 and HNO3 are predominantly formed as ‘long living’ species. The simulations show that water clustering of positive ions is very important under these conditions. The influence of vibrational excitation on the calculated electron temperature is studied. Finally, the effect of varying gas temperature, flow speed, power density and air humidity on the chemistry is investigated.

Van Gaens, W.; Bogaerts, A.

2013-07-01

284

Workshop on Long Time Simulations of Kinetic Plasmas (April 21, 2006, Dallas, TX)

planets plus sun interact with 1/r^3 using leap-frog to study stability of the solar system for millions.e. - How many particles per wavelength are needed to resolve e-phi/T of X% on scale y for time T? 2.) What in Fusion Plasmas (cont.) #12;Deviations from the original Vlasov-Maxwell system Â· Debye shielding

285

Comparison of initial value and eigenvalue codes for kinetic toroidal plasma instabilities

In plasma physics, linear instability calculations can be implemented either as initial value calculations or as eigenvalue calculations. Here, comparisons between comprehensive linear gyrokinetic calculations employing the ballooning formalism for high-n (toroidal mode number) toroidal instabilities are described. One code implements an initial value calculation on a grid using a Lorentz collision operator and the other implements an eigenvalue calculation

Mike Kotschenreuther; G. Rewoldt; W. M. Tang

1995-01-01

286

Kinetics of plasma membrane and mitochondrial alterations in cells undergoing apoptosis

Programmed cell death or apoptosis is characterized by typical morphological alterations. By transmission electron microscopy, apoptotic cells are identified by condensation of the chromatin in tight apposition to the nuclear envelope, alteration of the nuclear envelope and fragmentation of the nucleus, whereas integrity of the plasma membrane and organelles is preserved. Conversely cells undergoing necrosis display and early desintegration of

Gérard Lizard; Sylvie Fournel; Laurent Genestier; Nathalie Dhedin; Christophe Chaput; Monique Flacher; Mireille Mutin; Geneviève Panaye; Jean-Pierre Revillard

1995-01-01

287

A kinetic description of intense nonneutral beam propagation through a periodic solenoidal focusing field B{sup sol}({rvec x}) is developed. The analysis is carried out for a thin beam with characteristic beam radius r{sub b} {much_lt} S, and directed axial momentum {gamma}{sub b}m{beta}{sub b}c (in the z-direction) large compared with the transverse momentum and axial momentum spread of the beam particles. Making use of the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations for general distribution function f{sub b}({rvec x},{rvec p},t) and self-consistent electrostatic field consistent with the thin-beam approximation, the kinetic model is used to investigate detailed beam equilibrium properties for a variety of distribution functions. Examples are presented both for the case of a uniform solenoidal focusing field B{sub z}(z) = B{sub 0} = const. and for the case of a periodic solenoidal focusing field B{sub z}(z + S) = B{sub z}(z). The nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations are simplified in the thin-beam approximation, and an alternative Hamiltonian formulation is developed that is particularly well-suited to intense beam propagation in periodic focusing systems. Based on the present analysis, the Vlasov-Maxwell description of intense nonneutral beam propagation through a periodic solenoidal focusing field {rvec B}{sup sol}({rvec x}) is found to be remarkably tractable and rich in physics content. The Vlasov-Maxwell formalism developed here can be extended in a straightforward manner to investigate detailed stability behavior for perturbations about specific choices of beam equilibria.

Davidson, R.C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Plasma Physics Lab.; Chen, C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center

1997-08-01

288

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sacrificial bonds and hidden length in structural molecules account for the greatly increased fracture toughness of biological materials compared to synthetic materials without such structural features by providing a molecular-scale mechanism for energy dissipation. One example is in the polymeric glue connection between collagen fibrils in animal bone. In this paper we propose a simple kinetic model that describes the breakage of sacrificial bonds and the release of hidden length, based on Bell's theory. We postulate a master equation governing the rates of bond breakage and formation. This enables us to predict the mechanical behavior of a quasi-one-dimensional ensemble of polymers at different stretching rates. We find that both the rupture peak heights and maximum stretching distance increase with the stretching rate. In addition, our theory naturally permits the possibility of self-healing in such biological structures.

Lieou, Charles K. C.; Elbanna, Ahmed E.; Carlson, Jean M.

2013-07-01

289

We use a kinetic treatment to study the linear transverse dispersion relation for a magnetized isotropic relativistic electron-positron plasma with finite relativistic temperature. The explicit linear dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves propagating along a constant background magnetic field is presented, including an analytical continuation to the whole complex frequency plane for the case of Maxwell-Jüttner velocity distribution functions. This dispersion relation is studied numerically for various temperatures. For left-handed solutions, the system presents two branches, the electromagnetic ordinary mode and the Alfvén mode. In the low frequency regime, the Alfvén branch has two dispersive zones, the normal zone (where ??/?k?>?0) and an anomalous zone (where ??/?k?plasma frequency with the temperature. We complemented the analytical and numerical approaches with relativistic full particle simulations, which consistently agree with the analytical results.

López, Rodrigo A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Moya, Pablo S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington DC, DC 20064 (United States); Muñoz, Víctor [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Valdivia, J. Alejandro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile)

2014-09-15

290

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decay kinetics of luminescence at 5.2 eV and those of sustained electron emission from MgO crystal powders were investigated in order to understand the mechanism of discharge delay in ac plasma display panels and sustained electron emission from insulator. The decay of UV-luminescence was nonexponential and the decay was enhanced by increasing the temperature after showing negligible temperature dependence at low temperature. Existence of carrier traps was indicated by thermoluminescence measurements. As a possible mechanism, luminescence from a donor-acceptor pair in combination with thermal activation from carrier traps was introduced. The electron emission properties were evaluated by the measurement of statistical discharge delay time in ac plasma display panels as an indicator. By coating MgO crystal powders on the MgO protective film, the intensity of electron emission increased and its time and temperature dependence was reduced. A comparison under the same excitation revealed that the decay of UV-luminescence was steeper than that of electron emission. To explain the experimental data, we proposed the involvement of direct electron emission from electron traps synchronized with measuring voltages in addition to luminescence-associated electron emission.

Okada, Takeru; Naoi, Taro; Yoshioka, Toshihiro

2009-06-01

291

A global model for C4F8 plasmas coupling gas phase and wall surface reaction kinetics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global or zero-dimensional model for C4F8 plasmas is formulated by coupling gas phase and wall surface reaction kinetics. A set of surface reactions implements experimental findings and quantifies the effect of the fluorocarbon film formed on the reactor walls on the densities of species in the gas phase. The model allows the calculation of the pressure change after the ignition of the discharge and the effective sticking (surface loss) coefficients of the neutral species on the wall surface. The model is validated by comparison with experimental measurements, i.e. pressure rise and densities of F atoms, CF2 and CF radicals, in an inductively coupled plasma reactor. It is predicted that C4F8 is vastly dissociated and CF4 becomes the dominant species even at low power conditions. A net production of CF3 radical and a net consumption of CF2 radical at the reactor walls are predicted. A study on the contribution of each reaction to the production and consumption of the species shows that at least one surface reaction is among the major sinks or sources of CF4, CFx radicals and F.

Kokkoris, George; Goodyear, Andy; Cooke, Mike; Gogolides, Evangelos

2008-10-01

292

Temporal description of aluminum laser-induced plasmas by means of a collisional-radiative model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 0D numerical approach including a Collisional-Radiative model is elaborated in the purpose of describing the behavior of the nascent plasma resulting from the interaction between a laser pulse (? = 532 nm, ? = 4 ns and F = 6.5 J cm-2) with an aluminum sample. The species considered are Al, Al+, Al2+ and Al3+ on their different excited states and free electrons. Both groups of particles are characterized by their translation temperature in thermal non-equilibrium state. Besides, each population density is assumed to be in chemical non-equilibrium and behaves freely through the seven involved elementary processes (electron impact induced excitation and ionization, elastic collisions, multi-photon ionization, inverse laser Bremsstrahlung, direct electron Bremsstrahlung and spontaneous emission). Atoms passing from sample to gas phase are described by considering classical vaporization phenomena so that the surface temperature is limited to values less than the critical point. The relative role of the elementary processes is discussed and the time-evolution of the excitation of the species is analyzed.

Morel, Vincent; Bultel, Arnaud; Chéron, Bruno G.

2014-05-01

293

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation and propagation of nonlinear plasma waves is studied using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We concentrate on regimes of interest to inertial fusion and space physics in which wave-particle interactions are important. Experiments soon to be performed at the National Ignition Facility require the understanding and control of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) for their success. The SRS instability occurs when an incident laser decays into a backscattered light wave and an electron plasma wave. Recent computer simulations of SRS indicate that the daughter plasma waves have finite longitudinal and transverse extent and that they reach large amplitudes. The nonlinear behavior of such waves determines the growth, saturation, and recurrence of SRS. However, little attention has been paid to the behavior of plasma waves having these properties, and their study in SRS simulations is complicated by the large-amplitude light waves associated with the instability. Most theory and simulation work on SRS and its daughter plasma waves has been limited to infinite plane waves, often in the one-dimension limit. This thesis therefore studies isolated electron plasma waves over a wide range of parameters in one and multiple dimensions using PIC simulations. The simulations are performed with the goal of understanding the wave's behavior for parameters relevant to SRS, but the normalized parameters have general applicability to a range of densities and temperatures. Accordingly, an external ponderomotive driver generates traveling waves, driving them either continuously to study their peak amplitude and saturation mechanisms, or impulsively to study their propagation. Several novel effects are identified and characterized, including nonlinear resonance for driven waves, wave packet etching for finite-length waves, and localization and local damping for finite-width waves. Finite-length wave packets are found to erode away at a constant rate due to particle trapping at the rear edge, and a simple physical model is presented that accurately predicts the rate over a wide range of amplitudes and wavelengths. In multiple dimensions, finite width waves are shown to damp along their sides as resonant particles enter from outside the wave and trap. This local damping leads to the localization of a wave around its center. These effects, among others, are related to SRS saturation and behavior when appropriate.

Fahlen, Jay Edward

294

Kinetics of electron-positron pair plasmas using an adaptive Monte Carlo method

A new algorithm for implementing the adaptive Monte Carlo method is given. It is used to solve the relativistic Boltzmann equations that describe the time evolution of a nonequilibrium electron-positron pair plasma containing high-energy photons and pairs. The collision kernels for the photons as well as pairs are constructed for Compton scattering, pair annihilation and creation, bremsstrahlung, and Bhabha & Moller scattering. For a homogeneous and isotropic plasma, analytical equilibrium solutions are obtained in terms of the initial conditions. For two non-equilibrium models, the time evolution of the photon and pair spectra is determined using the new method. The asymptotic numerical solutions are found to be in a good agreement with the analytical equilibrium states. Astrophysical applications of this scheme are discussed.

Ravi P. Pilla; Jacob Shaham

1997-02-21

295

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavevector anisotropy of ion-scale plasma turbulence is studied at various values of ion beta. Two complementary methods are used. One is multi-point measurements of magnetic field in the near-Earth solar wind as provided by the Cluster spacecraft mission, and the other is hybrid numerical simulation of two-dimensional plasma turbulence. Both methods demonstrate that the wavevector anisotropy is reduced with increasing values of ion beta. Furthermore, the numerical simulation study shows the existence of a scaling law between ion beta and the wavevector anisotropy of the fluctuating magnetic field that is controlled by the thermal or hybrid particle-in-cell simulation noise. Likewise, there is weak evidence that the power-law scaling can be extended to the turbulent fluctuating cascade. This fact can be used to construct a diagnostic tool to determine or to constrain ion beta using multi-point magnetic field measurements in space.

Comi?el, H.; Narita, Y.; Motschmann, U.

2014-11-01

296

Cyclophosphamide plasma and cerebrospinal fluid kinetics with and without dimethyl sulfoxide

Ten patients with brain tumors and indwelling ventricular reservoirs were pretreated with 5% to 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (intravenous, oral, or both) and were then treated with 1.0 to 1.25 gm\\/m2 cyclophosphamide (CYC). All patients were also on anticonvulsants and dexamethasone. CYC and alkylating activity (alk act) in plasma and concomitant ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured by gas chromatography

Merrill J Egorin; Richard S Kaplan; Michael Salcman; Joseph Aisner; Michael Colvin; Peter H Wiernik; Nicholas R Bachur

1982-01-01

297

In situ real time ellipsometry has been applied to control and monitor GaAs exposure to H2, O2 and N2 plasmas for the processes of native oxide removal, oxidation and nitridation, respectively. Single wavelength ellipsometry is suitable for detecting the cleaning end-point and for defining the optimal cleaning conditions, whereas both single wavelength and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements are needed to elucidate

M. Losurdo; P Capezzuto; G Bruno

1998-01-01

298

A kinetic equation for linear fractional stable motion with applications to space plasma physics

Levy flights and fractional Brownian motion (fBm) have become exemplars of the heavy tailed jumps and long-ranged memory seen in space physics and elsewhere. Natural time series frequently combine both effects, and Linear Fractional Stable Motion (LFSM) is a model process of this type, combining alpha-stable jumps with a memory kernel. In contrast complex physical spatiotemporal diffusion processes where both the above effects compete-dubbed "ambivalent" by Brockmann et al (2006}-have for many years been modelled using the fully fractional (FF) kinetic equation for the continuous time random walk (CTRW), with power laws in the pdfs of both jump size and waiting time. We derive the analogous kinetic equation for LFSM and show that it has a diffusion coefficient with a power law in time rather than having a fractional time derivative like the CTRW. We develop earlier comments by Lutz (2001) on how fBm differs from its fractional time process counterpart. We go on to argue more physically why LFSM and the FFCTRW might indeed be expected to differ, and discuss some preliminary results on the scaling of burst "sizes" and "durations" in LFSM time series, with applications to modelling existing observations in space physics.

Nicholas W. Watkins; Daniel Credgington; Raul Sanchez; Sandra C. Chapman

2008-03-19

299

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Localized plasma structures, such as thin current sheets, generally are associated with localized magnetic and electric fields. In space plasmas localized electric fields not only play an important role for particle dynamics and acceleration but may also have significant consequences on larger scales, e.g., through magnetic reconnection. Also, it has been suggested that localized electric fields generated in the magnetosphere are directly connected with quasi-steady auroral arcs. In this context, we present a two-dimensional model based on Vlasov theory that provides the electric potential for a large class of given magnetic field profiles. The model uses an expansion for small deviation from gyrotropy and besides quasineutrality it assumes that electrons and ions have the same number of particles with their generalized gyrocenter on any given magnetic field line. Specializing to one dimension, a detailed discussion concentrates on the electric potential shapes (such as "U" or "S" shapes) associated with magnetic dips, bumps, and steps. Then, it is investigated how the model responds to quasi-steady evolution of the plasma. Finally, the model proves useful in the interpretation of the electric potentials taken from two existing particle simulations.

Schindler, K.; Birn, J.; Hesse, M.

2012-08-01

300

Toroidal kinetic (eta)(sub i)-mode study in high temperature plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new kinetic integral equation for the study of the ion temperature gradient driven mode in toroidal geometry is developed that includes the ion toroidal (curvature and magnetic gradient) drift motion omega sub D, the mode coupling from finite kappa sub (parallel) due to the toroidal feature of the sheared magnetic configuration. The integral equation allows the stability study for arbitrary kappa sub (parallel) upsilon sub i/(omega - omega sub D) and kappa (perpendicular) rho sub i. A systematic parameter study is carried out for the low beta circular flux surface equilibrium. Possible correlations between the unstable mode characteristics and some experimental results such as fluctuation spectrum and anomalous ion transport measurements are discussed.

Dong, J. Q.; Horton, W.; Junm, H. T.

1991-11-01

301

Toroidal kinetic. eta. sub i -mode study in high temperature plasmas

A new kinetic integral equation for the study of the ion temperature gradient driven mode in toroidal geometry is developed that includes the ion toroidal (curvature and magnetic gradient) drift motion {omega}{sub D}, the mode coupling from finite {kappa}{sub {parallel}} due to the toroidal feature of the sheared magnetic configuration. The integral equation allows the stability study for arbitrary {kappa}{sub {parallel}} {upsilon}{sub i}/({omega} {minus} {omega}{sub D}) and {kappa}{perpendicular}{rho}{sub i}. A systematic parameter study is carried out for the low {beta} circular flux surface equilibrium. Possible correlations between the unstable mode characteristics and some experimental results such as fluctuation spectrum and anomalous ion transport measurements are discussed.

Dong, J.Q., Horton, W.; Kim, J.Y.

1991-11-01

302

Toroidal kinetic {eta}{sub i}-mode study in high temperature plasmas

A new kinetic integral equation for the study of the ion temperature gradient driven mode in toroidal geometry is developed that includes the ion toroidal (curvature and magnetic gradient) drift motion {omega}{sub D}, the mode coupling from finite {kappa}{sub {parallel}} due to the toroidal feature of the sheared magnetic configuration. The integral equation allows the stability study for arbitrary {kappa}{sub {parallel}} {upsilon}{sub i}/({omega} {minus} {omega}{sub D}) and {kappa}{perpendicular}{rho}{sub i}. A systematic parameter study is carried out for the low {beta} circular flux surface equilibrium. Possible correlations between the unstable mode characteristics and some experimental results such as fluctuation spectrum and anomalous ion transport measurements are discussed.

Dong, J.Q., Horton, W.; Kim, J.Y.

1991-11-01

303

The interaction of TeV gamma-rays from distant blazars with the extragalactic background light produces relativistic electron-positron pair beams by the photon-photon annihilation process. Using the linear instability analysis in the kinetic limit, which properly accounts for the longitudinal and the small but finite perpendicular momentum spread in the pair momentum distribution function, the growth rate of parallel propagating electrostatic oscillations in the intergalactic medium is calculated. Contrary to the claims of Miniati and Elyiv, we find that neither the longitudinal nor the perpendicular spread in the relativistic pair distribution function significantly affect the electrostatic growth rates. The maximum kinetic growth rate for no perpendicular spread is even about an order of magnitude greater than the corresponding reactive maximum growth rate. The reduction factors in the maximum growth rate due to the finite perpendicular spread in the pair distribution function are tiny and always less than 10{sup –4}. We confirm earlier conclusions by Broderick et al. and our group that the created pair beam distribution function is quickly unstable in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium. Therefore, there is no need to require the existence of small intergalactic magnetic fields to scatter the produced pairs, so that the explanation (made by several authors) for the Fermi non-detection of the inverse Compton scattered GeV gamma-rays by a finite deflecting intergalactic magnetic field is not necessary. In particular, the various derived lower bounds for the intergalactic magnetic fields are invalid due to the pair beam instability argument.

Schlickeiser, R.; Krakau, S.; Supsar, M., E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: steffen.krakau@rub.de, E-mail: markus.supsar@rub.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2013-11-01

304

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced computing is generally recognized to be an increasingly vital tool for accelerating progress in scientific research in the 21st Century. The imperative is to translate the combination of the rapid advances in super-computing power together with the emergence of effective new algorithms and computational methodologies to help enable corresponding increases in the physics fidelity and the performance of the scientific codes used to model complex physical systems. If properly validated against experimental measurements and verified with mathematical tests and computational benchmarks, these codes can provide more reliable predictive capability for the behavior of complex systems, including fusion energy relevant high temperature plasmas. The magnetic fusion energy research community has made excellent progress in developing advanced codes for which computer run-time and problem size scale very well with the number of processors on massively parallel supercomputers. A good example is the effective usage of the full power of modern leadership class computational platforms from the terascale to the petascale and beyond to produce nonlinear particle-in-cell simulations which have accelerated progress in understanding the nature of plasma turbulence in magnetically-confined high temperature plasmas. Illustrative results provide great encouragement for being able to include increasingly realistic dynamics in extreme-scale computing campaigns to enable predictive simulations with unprecedented physics fidelity. Some illustrative examples will be presented of the algorithmic progress from the magnetic fusion energy sciences area in dealing with low memory per core extreme scale computing challenges for the current top 3 supercomputers worldwide. These include advanced CPU systems (such as the IBM-Blue-Gene-Q system and the Fujitsu K Machine) as well as the GPU-CPU hybrid system (Titan).

Tang, William

2013-04-01

305

Plasma reactivity in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering through oxygen kinetics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atomic oxygen metastable dynamics in a Reactive High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (R-HiPIMS) discharge has been characterized using time-resolved diode laser absorption in an Ar/O2 gas mixture with a Ti target. Two plasma regions are identified: the ionization region (IR) close to the target and further out the diffusion region (DR), separated by a transition region. The ?s temporal resolution allows identifying the main atomic oxygen production and destruction routes, which are found to be very different during the pulse as compared to the afterglow as deduced from their evolution in space and time.

Vitelaru, Catalin; Lundin, Daniel; Brenning, Nils; Minea, Tiberiu

2013-09-01

306

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The description of dynamics of particles size distribution function (PDF) in processes of new phase formation is important task in various technologies. Moments method is one of modern approaches which meet demands of accuracy and moderate usage of computer resources. Modified moments method which permits one to describe correctly both particles growth (in results of nucleation, coagulation and surface reactions) and gasification is proposed and developed in this work. Proposed approach connect correctly balance between growing particles and chemical precursors in contrary to present state of art. This is important when rates of particle decomposition, gasification, combustion are compatible with the rate of particle growth. The model calculations were carried out to show that approach gives incorrect rate of soot formation in the mentioned above case. Modified method of moment was applied for simulation of hydrocarbons combustion and conversion. In particular steam reforming of methane was simulated in details. The processes of soot formation include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) lumping mechanism, soot formation in results of PAH coagulation in three dimensional structures, coagulation of soot particles, soot particles growth and gasification due to surface chemistry. Chemical mechanism also includes the general chemistry of methane decomposition with PAH and soot precursors formation. The comparison of theoretical and experimental results demonstrates that developed approach can describe species concentration and PDF evolution adequately.

Durov, A.; Deminsky, M.; Strelkova, M.; Potapkin, B. V.

2004-05-01

307

Ion plasma wave and its instability in interpenetrating plasmas

Some essential features of the ion plasma wave in both kinetic and fluid descriptions are presented. The wave develops at wavelengths shorter than the electron Debye radius. Thermal motion of electrons at this scale is such that they overshoot the electrostatic potential perturbation caused by ion bunching, which consequently propagates as an unshielded wave, completely unaffected by electron dynamics. So in the simplest fluid description, the electrons can be taken as a fixed background. However, in the presence of magnetic field and for the electron gyro-radius shorter than the Debye radius, electrons can participate in the wave and can increase its damping rate. This is determined by the ratio of the electron gyro-radius and the Debye radius. In interpenetrating plasmas (when one plasma drifts through another), the ion plasma wave can easily become growing and this growth rate is quantitatively presented for the case of an argon plasma.

Vranjes, J., E-mail: jvranjes@yahoo.com [Institute of Physics Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Zemun (Serbia); Kono, M., E-mail: kono@fps.chuo-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Policy Studies, Chuo University, Tokyo (Japan)

2014-04-15

308

Modeling the chemical kinetics of atmospheric plasma for cell treatment in a liquid solution

Low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas have been known to be effective for living cell inactivation in a liquid solution but it is not clear yet which species are key factors for the cell treatment. Using a global model, we elucidate the processes through which pH level in the solution is changed from neutral to acidic after plasma exposure and key components with pH and air variation. First, pH level in a liquid solution is changed by He{sup +} and He(2{sup 1}S) radicals. Second, O{sub 3} density decreases as pH level in the solution decreases and air concentration decreases. It can be a method of removing O{sub 3} that causes chest pain and damages lung tissue when the density is very high. H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, HO{sub 2}, and NO radicals are found to be key factors for cell inactivation in the solution with pH and air variation.

Kim, H. Y.; Kang, S. K.; Lee, H. Wk. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H. W. [Medipl Corporation, Pohang 790-834 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G. C. [Medipl Corporation, Pohang 790-834 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Oral Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Medipl Corporation, Pohang 790-834 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-15

309

Kinetics and mechanical study of plasma electrolytic carburizing for pure iron

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, plasma electrolytic surface carburizing of pure iron in aqueous solution consisting of water, glycerin and NH4Cl was investigated. Surface carburizing was carried out in 20% glycerin solution treated at 750 °C, 800 °C, 900 °C and 950 °C temperatures for 5, 10 and 30 min. The formation of hard carbon-rich layer on the surface of pure iron was confirmed by XRD analysis. Metallographic and SEM studies revealed a rough and dense carburized layer on the surface of the pure iron. Experimental results showed that the thickness of the carburized layers changes with the time and temperature. The average thickness of the carburized layer ranged from 20 to 160 ?m. The hardness of the carburized samples decreased with the distance from the surface to the interior of the test material. The average hardness values of the carburized layers on the substrate ranged 550-850 HV, while the hardness of the substrate ranged from 110 HV to 170 HV. The dominant phases formed on the pure iron were found to be a mixture of cementite (Fe3C), martensite (Fe + C) and austenite (FCC iron) confirmed by XRD. Wear resistance in all plasma electrolytic carburized samples is considerably improved in relation to the untreated specimen. After carburizing, surface roughness of the samples was increased. Friction coefficients were also increased because of high surface roughness.

Çavu?lu, F.; Usta, M.

2011-02-01

310

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the solar wind - magnetosheath - magnetopause plasma transfer using two global simulations. In the first part of the presentation, we use a newly developed global kinetic simulation Vlasiator to investigate foreshock and magnetosheath plasma properties. Vlasiator models the evolution of the proton distribution function using the Vlasov equation in self consistent electromagnetic fields determined by electrons modeled with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. This approach allows Vlasiator to address multi-component plasmas beyond the MHD approach, featuring distribution functions with unprecedented quality and including kinetic effects such as foreshock ULF waves, cavities, hot flow anomalies and the like. In recent simulations, Vlasiator was used to simulate the foreshock, bow shock and magnetosheath regions in the ecliptic plane under radial and Parker spiral type interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. We investigate the properties of the 3-dimensional proton distribution functions within the foreshock, including transfer through the bow shock as well as the backstreaming reflected populations taking part in the formation of the global foreshock ULF wave field. Within the magnetosheath, we investigate the modulation of the transferred population as it makes its way towards the flanks and the subsolar magnetopause. Since Vlasiator is currently still semi-global in the ordinary space, at this point we introduce the second global simulation used in the presentation; a global 3-dimensional MHD simulation GUMICS-4, which is used to characterize the global magnetopause plasma transfer under several IMF and solar wind conditions. We find that in GUMICS-4, plasma transfer is majorly controlled by the magnetopause reconnection process while also solar wind dynamic pressure has a role in modulating magnetopause plasma transfer. The largest plasma inflow occurs during northward IMF and lobe reconnection, while for southward IMF plasma is accelerated outwards from the closed field region.

Palmroth, Minna; Laitinen, Tiera; Von Alfthan, Sebastian; Kempf, Yann; Hannuksela, Otto; Hoilijoki, Sanni; Pokhotelov, Dimitry

311

A series of numerical simulations based on a recurrence-free Vlasov kinetic algorithm presented earlier [Abbasi et al., Phys. Rev. E 84, 036702 (2011)] are reported. Electron-ion plasmas and three-component (electron-ion-dust) dusty, or complex, plasmas are considered, via independent simulations. Considering all plasma components modeled through a kinetic approach, the nonlinear behavior of ionic scale acoustic excitations is investigated. The focus is on Bernstein–Greene–Kruskal (BGK) modes generated during the simulations. In particular, we aim at investigating the parametric dependence of the characteristics of BGK structures, namely of their time periodicity (?{sub trap}) and their amplitude, on the electron-to-ion temperature ratio and on the dust concentration. In electron-ion plasma, an exponential relation between ?{sub trap} and the amplitude of BGK modes and the electron-to-ion temperature ratio is observed. It is argued that both characteristics, namely, the periodicity ?{sub trap} and amplitude, are also related to the size of the phase-space vortex which is associated with BGK mode creation. In dusty plasmas, BGK modes characteristics appear to depend on the dust particle density linearly.

Hosseini Jenab, S. M., E-mail: mehdi.jenab@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kourakis, I., E-mail: IoannisKourakisSci@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2014-04-15

312

Kinetic theory of electromagnetic plane wave obliquely incident on bounded plasma slab

The effects of electromagnetic plane waves obliquely incident on a warm bounded plasma slab of finite length L are studied by solving the coupled Vlasov-Maxwell set of equations. It is shown that the solution can be greatly simplified in the limit where thermal effects are most important by expanding in small parameters and introducing self-similar variables. These solutions reveal that the coupling of thermal effects with the angle of incidence is negligible in the region of bounce resonance and anomalous skin effect. In the region of the anomalous skin effect, the heating is shown to scale linearly with the anomalous skin depth {delta}{sub a} when {delta}{sub a}<

Angus, J. R.; Krasheninnikov, S. I. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0411 (United States); Smolyakov, A. I. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

2010-10-15

313

The higher-order growth rate of instability for obliquely propagating kinetic Alfvén and ion-acoustic solitons in a magnetized non-thermal plasma have been obtained by the multiple-scale perturbation expansion method developed by Allen and Rowlands (1993). The growth rate of instability is obtained correct to order k2, where k is the wave number of a long-wavelength plane-wave perturbation. The corresponding lowest-order stability

Anup Bandyopadhyay; K. P. Das

2001-01-01

314

We evaluated the comparative plasma and abomasal fluid disposition kinetics of albendazole (ABZ) and its metabolites in calves either grazing on pasture or fed a grain-based concentrate diet. Six male Holstein calves (weight 180 to 200 kg) were allowed to graze on lush pasture for three weeks before intraruminal administration of ABZ at 10 mg kg–1(pasture group). After a three-week

S SÁNCHEZ; L ALVAREZ; A PIS; C LANUSSE

1999-01-01

315

In this paper, first we represent the differences between spatial and temporal dispersions and their dependence on the measurement techniques for electrostatic waves in unmagnetized collisionless plasma. Then, three different experimental data are compared to the solutions of exact nonextensive dispersion relations for electron-ion and pair plasma. The results confirm the existence of new acoustic plasma waves. Furthermore, these comparisons yield a Maxwellian and a nonextensive plasma with nonextensive parameter q larger than one, and a Maxwellian plasma with some abnormal dispersion properties.

Ebrahimi, V.; Esfandyari-Kalejahi, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 53714-161 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-09-15

316

Human muscle sympathetic nerve activity and plasma noradrenaline kinetics in space

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts returning from space have reduced red blood cell masses, hypovolaemia and orthostatic intolerance, marked by greater cardio-acceleration during standing than before spaceflight, and in some, orthostatic hypotension and presyncope. Adaptation of the sympathetic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for these postflight alterations. We tested the hypotheses that exposure to microgravity reduces sympathetic neural outflow and impairs sympathetic neural responses to orthostatic stress. We measured heart rate, photoplethysmographic finger arterial pressure, peroneal nerve muscle sympathetic activity and plasma noradrenaline spillover and clearance, in male astronauts before, during (flight day 12 or 13) and after the 16 day Neurolab space shuttle mission. Measurements were made during supine rest and orthostatic stress, as simulated on Earth and in space by 7 min periods of 15 and 30 mmHg lower body suction. Mean (+/- S.E.M.) heart rates before lower body suction were similar pre-flight and in flight. Heart rate responses to -30 mmHg were greater in flight (from 56 +/- 4 to 72 +/- 4 beats min(-1)) than pre-flight (from 56 +/- 4 at rest to 62 +/- 4 beats min(-1), P < 0.05). Noradrenaline spillover and clearance were increased from pre-flight levels during baseline periods and during lower body suction, both in flight (n = 3) and on post-flight days 1 or 2 (n = 5, P < 0.05). In-flight baseline sympathetic nerve activity was increased above pre-flight levels (by 10-33 %) in the same three subjects in whom noradrenaline spillover and clearance were increased. The sympathetic response to 30 mmHg lower body suction was at pre-flight levels or higher in each subject (35 pre-flight vs. 40 bursts min(-1) in flight). No astronaut experienced presyncope during lower body suction in space (or during upright tilt following the Neurolab mission). We conclude that in space, baseline sympathetic neural outflow is increased moderately and sympathetic responses to lower body suction are exaggerated. Therefore, notwithstanding hypovolaemia, astronauts respond normally to simulated orthostatic stress and are able to maintain their arterial pressures at normal levels.

Ertl, Andrew C.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Levine, Benjamin D.; Robertson, Rose Marie; Cox, James F.; Zuckerman, Julie H.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Ray, Chester A.; Buckey, Jay C Jr; Lane, Lynda D.; Shiavi, Richard; Gaffney, F. Andrew; Costa, Fernando; Holt, Carol; Blomqvist, C. Gunnar; Eckberg, Dwain L.; Baisch, Friedhelm J.; Robertson, David

2002-01-01

317

Human muscle sympathetic nerve activity and plasma noradrenaline kinetics in space

Astronauts returning from space have reduced red blood cell masses, hypovolaemia and orthostatic intolerance, marked by greater cardio–acceleration during standing than before spaceflight, and in some, orthostatic hypotension and presyncope. Adaptation of the sympathetic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for these postflight alterations. We tested the hypotheses that exposure to microgravity reduces sympathetic neural outflow and impairs sympathetic neural responses to orthostatic stress. We measured heart rate, photoplethysmographic finger arterial pressure, peroneal nerve muscle sympathetic activity and plasma noradrenaline spillover and clearance, in male astronauts before, during (flight day 12 or 13) and after the 16 day Neurolab space shuttle mission. Measurements were made during supine rest and orthostatic stress, as simulated on Earth and in space by 7 min periods of 15 and 30 mmHg lower body suction. Mean (± s.e.m.) heart rates before lower body suction were similar pre–flight and in flight. Heart rate responses to ?30 mmHg were greater in flight (from 56 ± 4 to 72 ± 4 beats min?1) than pre–flight (from 56 ± 4 at rest to 62 ± 4 beats min?1, P < 0.05). Noradrenaline spillover and clearance were increased from pre–flight levels during baseline periods and during lower body suction, both in flight (n = 3) and on post–flight days 1 or 2 (n = 5, P < 0.05). In–flight baseline sympathetic nerve activity was increased above pre–flight levels (by 10–33 %) in the same three subjects in whom noradrenaline spillover and clearance were increased. The sympathetic response to 30 mmHg lower body suction was at pre–flight levels or higher in each subject (35 pre–flight vs. 40 bursts min?1 in flight). No astronaut experienced presyncope during lower body suction in space (or during upright tilt following the Neurolab mission). We conclude that in space, baseline sympathetic neural outflow is increased moderately and sympathetic responses to lower body suction are exaggerated. Therefore, notwithstanding hypovolaemia, astronauts respond normally to simulated orthostatic stress and are able to maintain their arterial pressures at normal levels. PMID:11773339

Ertl, Andrew C; Diedrich, André; Biaggioni, Italo; Levine, Benjamin D; Robertson, Rose Marie; Cox, James F; Zuckerman, Julie H; Pawelczyk, James A; Ray, Chester A; Buckey, Jay C; Lane, Lynda D; Shiavi, Richard; Gaffney, F Andrew; Costa, Fernando; Holt, Carol; Blomqvist, C Gunnar; Eckberg, Dwain L; Baisch, Friedhelm J; Robertson, David

2002-01-01

318

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The task was to provide an analytical elementary magnetosphere-like model in kinetics for verification of the 3D EM PIC codes created for space/aerospace and HED plasmas applications. Kinetic approach versus cold MHD approach takes into account different behavior in the EM fields of resonant and non resonant particles in the velocity phase space, which appears via shape characteristics of the particle velocity distribution function (PVDF) and via the spatial dispersion effect forming the collisionless dissipation in the EM fields. The external flow is a hot collisionless plasma characterized by the particle velocity distribution function (PVDF) with different shapes: Maxwellian, kappa, etc. The flow is in a “hot regime”: it can be supersonic but its velocity remains less the thermal velocity of the electrons. The “internal” part of the magnetosphere formed by trapped particles is the prescribed 3D stationary magnetization considered as a spherical “quasiparticle” with internal magnetodipole and toroidal moments represented as a broadband EM driver. We obtain after the linearization of Vlasov/Maxwell equations a self-consistent 3D large scale kinetic solution of the classic problem. Namely, we: model the “outer” part of the magnetosphere formed by external hot plasma flow of the flyby particles. Solution of the Vlasov equation expressed via a tensor of dielectric permittivity of nonmagnetized and magnetized flowing plasma. Here, we obtain the direct kinetic dissipative effect of the magnetotail formation and the opposite diamagnetic effect of the magnetosphere “dipolization”. We get MHD wave cone in flow magnetized by external guiding magnetic (GM) field. Magnetosphere in our consideration is a 3D dissipative “wave” package structure of the skinned EM fields formed by the “waves” excited at frequency bands where we obtain negative values and singularities (resonances) of squared EM refractive index of the cold plasma. The hot regime provides kinetic effects near singularities depending from reshaping of the PVDF. Flow behaves as metal with generation of inductive conductive currents or as dielectric with diamagnetic polarization currents. The basic high beta flow regime is equivalent to the absence of the GM field, nonmagnetized plasma flow particles, and operation with a diagonal tensor, that is, the Chapman approach to magnetosphere modeling considered often as “minimagnetosphere” modeling. The magnetosphere formation is the wide band Cerenkov resonance effect of interaction of the magnetization with “resonant” and “nonresonant” plasma flow particles. We also obtain the resistive (“thin”) scale of anomalous skin which is related with process of resonant particle acceleration by inductive fields providing EM dissipation and the effect of magnetic reconnection. We get also the diamagnetic (“thick”) scale which is related to the magnetic field action on the plasma flow particles. The ratio of the diamagnetic to resistive current densities in the 3D magnetosphere forms the flow quality parameter G. The EM value G depends on the shape of the PDF of the incoming flow only. The parameter G characterizes the EM part of the “space weather”. For the Maxwellian PDF G is much less then 1 - metal-like flow and the formation of the magnetotail state, reshaping PDF to G more then 1 - diamagnetic flow, which provides a transition to the dipolized state. Note that the acoustic Mach number characterizes the SW compressibility and the shock wave formation effect only. The low-beta hot-flow regime is equivalent to the magnetized by the GM field plasma flow (Dangey approach). Here, the tensor is non diagonal, and by the GM field action plasma became MHD transparent in the nontransparent band, which provides MHD radiation in the Alvenic cone. Negative values of the squared refractive index are at the cyclotron and at the modified Cerenkov EM narrow band frequency resonances for the EM fields with ordinary and non ordinary polarizations. This takes place for the packages with the “waves”

Gubchenko, Vladimir

319

The impact of etching kinetics and etching chemistries on surface roughening was investigated by etching thermal silicon dioxide and low-k dielectric coral materials in C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/Ar plasma beams in an inductive coupled plasma beam reactor. The etching kinetics, especially the angular etching yield curves, were measured by changing the plasma pressure and the feed gas composition which influence the effective neutral-to-ion flux ratio during etching. At low neutral-to-ion flux ratios, the angular etching yield curves are sputteringlike, with a peak around 60 deg. -70 deg. off-normal angles; the surface at grazing ion incidence angles becomes roughened due to ion scattering related ion-channeling effects. At high neutral-to-ion flux ratios, ion enhanced etching dominates and surface roughening at grazing angles is mainly caused by the local fluorocarbon deposition induced micromasking mechanism. Interestingly, the etched surfaces at grazing angles remain smooth for both films at intermediate neutral-to-ion flux ratio regime. Furthermore, the oxygen addition broadens the region over which the etching without roughening can be performed.

Yin Yunpeng; Sawin, Herbert H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2007-07-15

320

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A minimum model of plasma turbulence in a kinetic framework is presented. It is based on trapped ion turbulence, gyro and bounce averaged, and implemented in the versatile and efficient code TERESA. Zonal flow - streamer interplay are readily shown to be key players that govern the confinement properties of the model. The parameter space of the model is explored with brute force numerics. A generic result is either a streamer dominated pattern with large transport, or a staircase temperature profile with very marked corrugations and quenched transport. A case with off-axis heating is found to exhibit quasiperiodic relaxation events relevant to investigate dynamical turbulence self-organisation.

Cartier-Michaud, T.; Ghendrih, P.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Drouot, T.; Estève, D.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Norscini, C.; Passeron, C.

2014-11-01

321

Properties of kinetic Alfvén waves: A comparison of fluid models with kinetic theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the solar wind, as a collisionless plasma, is properly described by the kinetic Maxwell-Vlasov description, it can be argued that much of our understanding of the solar wind is based on a fluid description of magnetohydrodynamics that derives from interpretation of observational data together with numerical modeling. In recent years, there has been significant interest in better understanding the importance of kinetic effects, i.e., the differences between kinetic and fluid descriptions. Here we concentrate on the physical properties of oblique kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) that appear to be a key ingredient in the solar wind turbulence cascade. We use three different fluid models with various degrees of complexity and calculate the polarization and magnetic compressibility of KAWs (propagation angle ? = 88°), which we compare to solutions derived from linear kinetic theory. We explore a wide range of possible proton plasma ? = [0.1, 10.0] and a wide range of length scales k?rL = [0.001, 10.0], where rL denotes the proton gyroscale. It is shown that the ``classical'' isotropic two-fluid model is very compressible in comparison with kinetic theory and that the largest discrepancy occurs at scales larger than the proton gyroscale. We also show that the two-fluid model contains a large error in the polarization of electric field, even at scales k?rL << 1. Furthermore, to understand these discrepancies between the two-fluid model and the kinetic theory, we employ two versions of the Landau fluid model that incorporate linear low-frequency kinetic effects such as Landau damping and finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections into the fluid description. We show that allowing for anisotropic pressure fluctuations and Landau damping is crucial for correct modeling of magnetic compressibility and that FLR corrections (i.e., nongyrotropic contributions) are required to correctly capture the polarization. We also show that, in addition to Landau damping, FLR corrections are necessary to accurately describe the damping rate of KAWs. We conclude that kinetic effects are important even at scales which are significantly larger than the proton gyroscale k?rL << 1.

Hunana, P.; Goldstein, M. L.; Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.; Laveder, D.; Zank, G. P.

2013-06-01

322

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives, equipment, and techniques for the plasma diagnostics package (PDP) carried by the OSS-1 instrument payload of the STS-4 and scheduled for the Spacelab-2 mission are described. The goals of the first flight were to examine the Orbiter-magnetoplasma interactions by measuring the electric and magnetic field strengths, the ionized particle wakes, and the generated waves. The RMS was employed to lift the unit out of the bay in order to allow characterization of the fields, EM interference, and plasma contamination within 15 m of the Orbiter. The PDP will also be used to examine plasma depletion, chemical reaction rates, waves, and energized plasma produced by firing of the Orbiter thrusters. Operation of the PDP was carried out in the NASA Space Environment Simulation Laboratory test chamber, where the PDP was used to assay the fields, fluxes, wave amplitudes, and particle energy spectra. The PDP instrumentation is also capable of detecting thermal ions, thermal electrons suprathermal particles, VHF/UHF EMI levels, and the S-band field strength.

Shawhan, S. D.

1982-01-01

323

A model is presented that describes the kinetics of the oxidation of micropollutants in water with the combination of ozone and hydrogen peroxide in a sparged, semibatch reactor. The model is based on known reactions of the Oâ\\/HâOâ system plus mass-transfer characteristics of the reactor. The principal kinetic species for micropollutant oxidation is assumed to be the hydroxyl radical. The

William H. Glaze; Joon Wun Kang

1989-01-01

324

In the present work a closed system of kinetic equations is obtained from the truncation of the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy for the description of the vacuum creation of an electron-positron plasma and secondary photons due to a strong laser field. This truncation is performed in the Markovian approximation for the one-photon annihilation channel which is accessible due to the presence of the strong external field. Estimates of the photon production rate are obtained for different domains of laser field parameters (frequency {nu} and field strength E). A huge quantity of optical photons of the quasiclassical laser field is necessary to satisfy the conservation laws of the energy and momentum of the constituents (e{sup -}, e{sup +} and {gamma}) in this channel. Since the number of these optical photons corresponds to the order of perturbation theory, a vanishingly small photon production rate results for the optical region and strongly subcritical fields E<

Blaschke, D. B. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland); Bogoliubov Laboratory for Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU - 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Dmitriev, V. V.; Smolyansky, S. A. [Department of Physics, Saratov State University, RU - 410026 Saratov (Russian Federation); Roepke, G. [Institut fuer Physik, University of Rostock, D - 18051 Rostock (Germany)

2011-10-15

325

1 Treatment of methyl t-butyl ether contaminated water using a dense medium plasma reactor-7369 Email: david.dandy@colostate.edu Abstract Plasma treatment of contaminated water appears reactor configurations and two pin array spin rates. The oxidation products from the treatment of MTBE

Dandy, David

326

Intravirion reverse transcripts have been identified in the blood plasma of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. In the present studies, the kinetic processes of intravirion HIV-1 reverse transcription, in the blood plasma of HIV-1-infected persons treated with nevirapine, were investigated. Nevirapine is a nonnucleoside inhibitor of reverse transcriptase (RT) which decreases the level of HIV-1 viral particles in the blood plasma of infected individuals. By analyzing HIV-1 virions at different time points prior to and after initiation of nevirapine therapy in vivo, the levels of intravirion reverse transcripts have been demonstrated to be dramatically susceptible to this anti-RT agent, out of proportion to effects on plasma virion load. The intravirion reverse transcripts were also documented to rebound to the pretreatment levels, concomitant with the development of resistant viral mutants. In addition, the infectivity of HIV-1 virions dramatically decreased after nevirapine treatment, further indicating that the effects of this anti-RT agent begin within the cell-free virions. Since the levels of intravirion reverse transcripts were altered according to the susceptibility or resistance of the HIV-1 RT enzyme to this inhibitor, these data demonstrate that the formation of intravirion reverse transcripts is a dynamic process in vivo. Moreover, because the alteration in ratios between intravirion HIV-1 reverse transcripts and viral genomic RNA directly reflects the efficiency of reverse transcription, we propose that the determination of these ratios in the blood plasma of HIV-1-positive patients may be a useful and, most importantly, a direct assay to monitor the efficacy of anti-RT agents in vivo. PMID:8523584

Zhang, H; Dornadula, G; Wu, Y; Havlir, D; Richman, D D; Pomerantz, R J

1996-01-01

327

Magnetic Susceptibility and Landau Diamagnetism of Quantum Collisional Maxwellian Plasmas

With the use of correct expression of the electric conductivity of quantum collisional plasmas (A. V. Latyshev and A. A. Yushkanov, {\\it Transverse electrical conductivity of a quantum collisional plasma in the Mermin approach}. - Theor. and Math. Phys., {\\bf 175}(1): 559-569 (2013)) the kinetic description of a magnetic susceptibility is obtained and the formula for calculation of Landau diamagnetism is deduced.

A. V. Latyshev; A. A. Yushkanov

2013-06-03

328

Magnetic susceptibility and Landau diamagnetism of quantum collisional degenerate plasmas

With the use of correct expression of the electric conductivity of quantum collisional degenerate plasmas (A. V. Latyshev and A. A. Yushkanov, Transverse electrical conductivity of a quantum collisional plasma in the Mermin approach, - Theor. and Math. Phys., {\\bf 175}(1): 559-569 (2013)) the kinetic description of a magnetic susceptibility is obtained and the formula for calculation of Landau diamagnetism is deduced.

A. V. Latyshev; A. A. Yushkanov

2013-05-21

329

We present new results on the physics of short-pulse laser-matter interaction of kilojoule-picosecond pulses at full spatial and temporal scale, using a new approach that combines a 3D collisional electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell code with an MHD-hybrid model of high-density plasma. In the latter, collisions damp out plasma waves so the displacement current can be neglected; and an Ohm's law with electron

Andreas Kemp; B Cohen; L Divol

2009-01-01

330

Mechanism and kinetics of HâS-COâ mixture dissociation in plasma of a microwave-discharge

Several experimental and theoretical investigations of plasma-chemical HâS dissociation have addressed the effects of different gas compositions and various types of discharges (such as microwave, radio-frequency, arc, and glidarc discharges). There are two primary reasons for these investigations: (1) the plasma-chemical process recovers both hydrogen (a valuable chemical reagent) and sulfur from HâS (as in the conventional Claus process), and

B. V. Potapkin; M. I. Strelkova; A. A. Fridman

1995-01-01

331

Kinetic Alfv en waves and plasma transport at the magnetopause Jay R. Johnson and C. Z. Cheng

the Alfven #12;eld-line resonance location (! = kkvA). We present a solution of the kinetic-MHD wave to the broadband nature of the observed waves these islands can overlap leading to stochastic transport which conditions the power level of wave activity is usually 10{100 times larger than the wave activity

332

Kinetic Alfv'en waves and plasma transport at the magnetopause Jay R. Johnson and C. Z. Cheng

near the Alfv'en fieldÂline resonance location (! = k k v A ). We present a solution of the kinetic location. Due to the broadband nature of the observed waves these islands can overlap leading to stochastic of the time, and under most conditions the power level of wave activity is usually 10--100 times larger than

333

We developed a system for quantitatively measuring arm movement. Our approach provides a method to simultaneously capture upper limb kinetic and kinematic data during assisted passive arm movements. Data are analysed with respect to Cartesian and upper limb coordinate systems to obtain upper limb joint angles and torques.We undertook an evaluation of the system in participants with stroke to show

P. R. Culmer; A. E. Jackson; S. G. Makower; J. A. Cozens; M. C. Levesley; M. Mon-Williams; B. Bhakta

2011-01-01

334

A Multi Water Bag model of drift kinetic electron plasmaa

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Multi Water Bag model is proposed for describing drift kinetic plasmas in a magnetized cylindrical geometry, relevant for various experimental devices, solar wind modeling... The Multi Water Bag (MWB) model is adapted to the description of a plasma with kinetic electrons as well as an arbitrary number of kinetic ions. This allows to describe the kinetic dynamics of the electrons, making possible the study of electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, in addition to the effects of non adiabatic electrons on the ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes, that are of prime importance in the magnetized plasmas micro-turbulence [X. Garbet, Y. Idomura, L. Villard, T.H. Watanabe, Nucl. Fusion 50, 043002 (2010); J.A. Krommes, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 44, 175 (2012)]. The MWB model is shown to link kinetic and fluid descriptions, depending on the number of bags considered. Linear stability of the ETG modes is presented and compared to the existing results regarding cylindrical ITG modes [P. Morel, E. Gravier, N. Besse, R. Klein, A. Ghizzo, P. Bertrand, W. Garbet, Ph. Ghendrih, V. Grandgirard, Y. Sarazin, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)].

Morel, Pierre; Ghiro, Florent Dreydemy; Berionni, Vincent; Coulette, David; Besse, Nicolas; Gürcan, Özgür D.

2014-08-01

335

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wave-particle interactions play a very important role in the plasma dynamics near Titan: mass loading, excitation of the low-frequency waves and the formation of the particle velocity distribution function, e.g. ring/shell-like distributions, etc. The kinetic approach is important for estimation of the collision processes e.g. a charge exchange. The particle velocity distribution function also plays a key role for understanding the observed particle fluxes. In this report we discuss the ion velocity distribution function dynamics from 3D hybrid modeling. The modeling is based on recent analysis of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) ion measurements during the TA flyby. In our model the background ions, all pickup ions, and ionospheric ions are considered as particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid. Inhomogeneous photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. The temperatures of the background electrons and pickup electrons were also included into the generalized Ohm's law. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. We use Chamberlain profiles for the exosphere's components and include a simple ionosphere model with M=28 ions that were generated inside the ionosphere. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. Our modeling shows that interaction between background plasma and pickup ions H+, H2+, CH4+ and N2+ has a more complicated structure than was observed in the T9 flyby and modeling due to the large gyroradius of the background O+ ions [1,2,3,4]. Special attention will be paid to comparing the simulated pickup ion velocity distribution with CAPS TA observations. We also compare our kinetic modeling with other hybrid and MHD modeling of Titan's environment. References [1] Sittler, E.C., et al., Energy Deposition Processes in Titan's Upper Atmosphere and Its Induced Magnetosphere. In: Titan from Cassini-Huygens, Brown, R.H., Lebreton J.P., Waite, J.H., Eds., Springer, (Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York, pp. 393-455, 2009). [2] Sittler, E.C., et al., Saturn's Magnetospheric Interaction with Titan as Defined by Cassini Encounters T9 and T18: New Results, Planet. Space Sci., doi.10.1016/j.pss.2009.09.017. [3] Coates, A.J., Interaction of Titan's ionosphere with Saturn's magnetosphere. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A (2009) 367, 773-788, doi: 10.1098/rsta.2008.0248. [4] Lipatov, A.S., et al., Background and pickup ion velocity distribution dynamics in Titan's plasma environment: 3D hybrid simulation and comparison with CAPS T9 observations. Adv. Space Res. 48, 1114-1125, 2011.

Simpson, D. G.; Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.

2013-12-01

336

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic equations of diffusional kinetics in alloys are statistically derived using the master equation approach. To describe diffusional transformations in substitution alloys, we derive the "quasi-equilibrium" kinetic equation that generalizes its earlier versions by taking possible "interaction renormalization" effects into account. For the interstitial alloys Me-X, we derive an explicit expression for the diffusivity D of an interstitial atom X. This expression notably differs from those used in previous phenomenological treatments. This microscopic expression for D is applied to describe the diffusion of carbon in austenite based on some simple models of carbon-carbon interaction. The results obtained enable us to make certain conclusions about the real form of these interactions and about the scale of the "transition state entropy" for diffusion of carbon in austenite.

Vaks, V. G.; Zhuravlev, I. A.

2012-10-01

337

Basic equations of diffusional kinetics in alloys are statistically derived using the master equation approach. To describe diffusional transformations in substitution alloys, we derive the 'quasi-equilibrium' kinetic equation that generalizes its earlier versions by taking possible 'interaction renormalization' effects into account. For the interstitial alloys Me-X, we derive an explicit expression for the diffusivity D of an interstitial atom X. This expression notably differs from those used in previous phenomenological treatments. This microscopic expression for D is applied to describe the diffusion of carbon in austenite based on some simple models of carbon-carbon interaction. The results obtained enable us to make certain conclusions about the real form of these interactions and about the scale of the 'transition state entropy' for diffusion of carbon in austenite.

Vaks, V. G., E-mail: vaks@mbslab.kiae.ru; Zhuravlev, I. A. [National Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute,' Dolgoprudnyi (Russian Federation)

2012-10-15

338

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study shows the dramatic effect of an electric field (EF) and use of nanosized cryomilled grains on accelerating sintering kinetics during spark plasma sintering of blended elemental powder compacts of Ti53Al47 targeted to produce ?-TiAl intermetallic compounds. The EF had the dominating effect since it reduced the activation barrier for diffusion through Al3Ti leading to faster growth of Al3Ti; the precursor to ?-TiAl. The Avrami exponent ( n) determined for the micrograin compact lies between 1.0 and 1.5, which indicates that reaction sintering is controlled by bulk diffusion in these compacts, while for cryomilled compacts this is between 0.7 and 1.0 suggesting the important role of dislocations and grain boundaries on the transformation during reaction sintering. The activation energies were found to be in increasing order as: cryomilled compacts with EF (182 kJ/mol); micrograin compacts with EF (290 kJ/mol); cryomilled compacts without EF (331 kJ/mol); and micrograin compacts without EF (379 kJ/mol). The cryomilled microstructure also enhanced the sintering kinetics because of the availability of faster diffusing paths in Al and Ti including larger grain boundary area and dislocation density.

Sun, Yu; Kulkarni, Kaustubh; Sachdev, Anil K.; Lavernia, Enrique J.

2014-06-01

339

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LSENS, the Lewis General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code, has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase chemical kinetics problems and contains sensitivity analysis for a variety of problems, including nonisothermal situations. This report is part II of a series of three reference publications that describe LSENS, provide a detailed guide to its usage, and present many example problems. Part II describes the code, how to modify it, and its usage, including preparation of the problem data file required to execute LSENS. Code usage is illustrated by several example problems, which further explain preparation of the problem data file and show how to obtain desired accuracy in the computed results. LSENS is a flexible, convenient, accurate, and efficient solver for chemical reaction problems such as static system; steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow; reaction behind incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; and perfectly stirred (highly backmixed) reactor. In addition, the chemical equilibrium state can be computed for the following assigned states: temperature and pressure, enthalpy and pressure, temperature and volume, and internal energy and volume. For static problems the code computes the sensitivity coefficients of the dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of the dependent variables and/or the three rate coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions. Part I (NASA RP-1328) derives the governing equations and describes the numerical solution procedures for the types of problems that can be solved by LSENS. Part III (NASA RP-1330) explains the kinetics and kinetics-plus-sensitivity-analysis problems supplied with LSENS and presents sample results.

Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Bittker, David A.

1994-01-01

340

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new results on the physics of short-pulse laser-matter interaction of kilojoule-picosecond pulses at full spatial and temporal scale, using a new approach that combines a 3D collisional electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell code with an MHD-hybrid model of high-density plasma. In the latter, collisions damp out plasma waves so the displacement current can be neglected; and an Ohm's law with electron inertia effects neglected determines the electric field. In addition to yielding orders of magnitude in speed-up while avoiding numerical instabilities, this allows us to model the whole problem in a single unified framework: the laser-plasma interaction at sub-critical densities, energy deposition at relativistic critical densities, and fast-electron transport in solid densities. Key questions such as the multi-picosecond temporal evolution of the laser energy conversion into hot electrons, the impact of return currents on the laser-plasma interaction, and the effect of self-generated electric and magnetic fields on electron transport will be addressed. We will report applications to current experiments at LLNL's Titan laser and Omega EP, and to a Fast-Ignition point design for forthcoming experiments on NIF-ARC.

Kemp, Andreas

2009-11-01

341

Esters of the cytostatic bendamustine (1), previously demonstrated to be much more potent than the parent compound as antiproliferative agents in vitro, were investigated for stability in buffer and plasma, as well as against porcine liver esterase in the presence of different amounts of albumin using a validated RP-HPLC method with fluorescence detection. The hydrolysis of the nitrogen mustard moiety was retarded (for 1: approximately 130 vs. 11min) in the presence of plasma proteins. For the derivatives, both cleavage of ester and nitrogen mustard moieties were analyzed. Enzymatic hydrolysis was very fast in the case of 2-pyrrolidino-, 2-piperidino- and 2-(4-methylpiperazino)-ethyl esters, whereas methyl, ethyl, morpholinoethyl and branched 2-pyrrolidinoethyl esters were considerably more stable (half-lives between 41 and 116min, compared to <5min). Inhibition by physostigmine indicated unspecific cholinesterases to be involved in the rapid ester cleavage. Due to lower protein content and higher enzymatic activity in murine compared to human plasma, reduced stability of all investigated esters in mouse plasma (t½<2min) has to be taken into account with respect to the design of animal studies. PMID:25499654

Huber, S; Antoni, F; Schickaneder, C; Schickaneder, H; Bernhardt, G; Buschauer, A

2015-02-01

342

We present new results on the physics of short-pulse laser-matter interaction of kilojoule-picosecond pulses at full spatial and temporal scale, using a new approach that combines a 3D collisional electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell code with an MHD-hybrid model of high-density plasma. In the latter, collisions damp out plasma waves, and an Ohm's law with electron inertia effects neglected determines the electric field. In addition to yielding orders of magnitude in speed-up while avoiding numerical instabilities, this allows us to model the whole problem in a single unified framework: the laser-plasma interaction at sub-critical densities, energy deposition at relativistic critical densities, and fast-electron transport in solid densities. Key questions such as the multi-picosecond temporal evolution of the laser energy conversion into hot electrons, the impact of return currents on the laser-plasma interaction, and the effect of self-generated electric and magnetic fields on electron transport will be addressed. We will report applications to current experiments.

Kemp, A; Cohen, B; Divol, L

2009-11-16

343

Beginning at an introductory level, this text presents a thorough treatment of plasma physics, including an extensive discussion of its applications in thermonuclear fusion research. A novel feature of this book is its comprehensive description of the various concepts and formulas widely used in fusion theory based on the fundamental equations of the plasma fluid. The physics of fusion plasmas

Kyoji Nishikawa; Masashiro Wakatani

1990-01-01

344

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion Sources are the most performing machines for the production of intense beams of multi-charged ions in fundamental science, applied physics and industry. Investigation of plasma dynamics in ECRIS still remains a challenge. A better comprehension of electron heating, ionization and diffusion processes, ion confinement and ion beam formation is mandatory in order to increase ECRIS performances both in terms of output beams currents, charge states, beam quality (emittance minimization, beam halos suppression, etc.). Numerical solution of Vlasov equation via kinetic codes coupled to FEM solvers is ongoing at INFN-LNS, based on a PIC strategy. Preliminary results of the modeling will be shown about wave-plasma interaction and electron-ion confinement: the obtained results are very helpful to better understand the influence of the different parameters (especially RF frequency and power) on the ion beam formation mechanism. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Vlasov Equation", edited by Francesco Pegoraro, Francesco Califano, Giovanni Manfredi and Philip J. Morrison.

Mascali, David; Torrisi, Giuseppe; Neri, Lorenzo; Sorbello, Gino; Castro, Giuseppe; Celona, Luigi; Gammino, Santo

2015-01-01

345

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas phase and reactor wall-surface kinetics are coupled in a global model for SF6 plasmas. A complete set of gas phase and surface reactions is formulated. The rate coefficients of the electron impact reactions are based on pertinent cross section data from the literature, which are integrated over a Druyvesteyn electron energy distribution function. The rate coefficients of the surface reactions are adjustable parameters and are calculated by fitting the model to experimental data from an inductively coupled plasma reactor, i.e. F atom density and pressure change after the ignition of the discharge. The model predicts that SF6, F, F2 and SF4 are the dominant neutral species while SF_5^+ and F- are the dominant ions. The fit sheds light on the interaction between the gas phase and the reactor walls. A loss mechanism for SFx radicals by deposition of a fluoro-sulfur film on the reactor walls is needed to predict the experimental data. It is found that there is a net production of SF5, F2 and SF6, and a net consumption of F, SF3 and SF4 on the reactor walls. Surface reactions as well as reactions between neutral species in the gas phase are found to be important sources and sinks of the neutral species.

Kokkoris, George; Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos; Goodyear, Andy; Cooke, Mike; Gogolides, Evangelos

2009-03-01

346

Water bag modeling of a multispecies plasma

We report in the present paper a new modeling method to study multiple species dynamics in magnetized plasmas. Such a method is based on the gyrowater bag modeling, which consists in using a multistep-like distribution function along the velocity direction parallel to the magnetic field. The choice of a water bag representation allows an elegant link between kinetic and fluid descriptions of a plasma. The gyrowater bag model has been recently adapted to the context of strongly magnetized plasmas. We present its extension to the case of multi ion species magnetized plasmas: each ion species being modeled via a multiwater bag distribution function. The water bag modelization will be discussed in details, under the simplification of a cylindrical geometry that is convenient for linear plasma devices. As an illustration, results obtained in the linear framework for ion temperature gradient instabilities are presented, that are shown to agree qualitatively with older works.

Morel, P.; Gravier, E.; Besse, N.; Klein, R.; Ghizzo, A.; Bertrand, P. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Universite Henri Poincare, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, F-13108 Cedex (France)

2011-03-15

347

Sheared rotation dynamics are widely believed to have significant influence on experimentally observed confinement transitions in advanced operating modes in major tokamak experiments, such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) with reversed magnetic shear regions in the plasma interior. The high-n toroidal drift modes destabilized by the combined effects of ion temperature gradients and trapped particles in toroidal geometry can be strongly affected by radially sheared toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation. In previous work with the FULL linear microinstability code, a simplified rotation model including only toroidal rotation was employed, and results were obtained. Here, a more complete rotation model, that includes contributions from toroidal and poloidal rotation and the ion pressure gradient to the total radial electric field, is used for a proper self-consistent treatment of this key problem. Relevant advanced operating mode cases for TFTR are presented. In addition, the complementary problem of the dynamics of fluctuation-driven E x B flow is investigated by an integrated program of gyrokinetic simulation in annulus geometry and gyrofluid simulation in flux tube geometry.

Rewoldt, G.; Beer, M.A.; Chance, M.S.; Hahm, T.S.; Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

1997-12-01

348

Sheared rotation dynamics are widely believed to have signficant influence on experimentally observed confinement transitions in advanced operating modes in major tokamak experiments, such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [D.J. Grove and D.M. Meade, Nuclear Fusion 25, 1167 (1985)], with reversed magnetic shear regions in the plasma interior. The high-n toroidal drift modes destabilized by the combined effects of ion temperature gradients and trapped particles in toroidal geometry can be strongly affected by radially sheared toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation. In previous work with the FULL linear microinstability code, a simplified rotation model including only toroidal rotation was employed, and results were obtained. Here, a more complete rotation model, that includes contributions from toroidal and poloidal rotation and the ion pressure gradient to the total radial electric field, is used for a proper self-consistent treatment of this key problem. Relevant advanced operating mode cases for TFTR are presented. In addition, the complementary problem of the dynamics of fluctuation-driven E x B flow is investigated by an integrated program of gyrokinetic simulation in annulus geometry and gyrofluid simulation in flux tube geometry.

Beer, M.A.; Chance, M.S.; Hahm, T.S.; Lin, Z.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

1997-11-01

349

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion and relaxation of defects in bulk systems is a complex process that can only be accessed directly through simulations. We characterize the mechanisms of low-temperature aging in self-implanted crystalline silicon, a model system used extensively to characterize both amorphization and return to equilibrium processes, over 11 orders of magnitudes in time, from 10 ps to 1 s, using a combination of molecular dynamics and kinetic activation-relaxation technique simulations. These simulations allow us to reassess the atomistic mechanisms responsible for structural relaxations and for the overall logarithmic relaxation, a process observed in a large number of disordered systems and observed here over the whole simulation range. This allows us to identify three microscopic regimes, annihilation, aggregation, and reconstruction, in the evolution of defects and to propose atomistic justification for an analytical model of logarithmic relaxation. Furthermore, we show that growing activation barriers and configurational space exploration are kinetically limiting the system to a logarithmic relaxation. Overall, our long-time simulations do not support the amorphous cluster model but point rather to a relaxation driven by elastic interactions between defect complexes of all sizes.

Béland, Laurent Karim; Mousseau, Normand

2013-12-01

350

Particle simulation model of transport in a bounded, Coulomb collisional plasma

The transport of particles and energy in a fully ionized, collisional plasma is studied through the use of a kinetic transport model. A particle-in-cell (PIC) code has been coupled to a Monte Carlo, binary particle model of Coulomb collisions, to provide a fully kinetic, self-consistent description of transport and potential formation in a single spatial dimension and two velocity components

Richard J. Procassini; Charles K. Birdsall

1991-01-01

351

Globally, over one-third of irrigated land is affected by salinity, including much of the land under lowland rice cultivation in the tropics, seriously compromising yields of this most important of crop species. However, there remains an insufficient understanding of the cellular basis of salt tolerance in rice. Here, three methods of 24Na+ tracer analysis were used to investigate primary Na+ transport at the root plasma membrane in a salt-tolerant rice cultivar (Pokkali) and a salt-sensitive cultivar (IR29). Futile cycling of Na+ at the plasma membrane of intact roots occurred at both low and elevated levels of steady-state Na+ supply ([Na+]ext=1?mM and 25?mM) in both cultivars. At 25?mM [Na+]ext, a toxic condition for IR29, unidirectional influx and efflux of Na+ in this cultivar, but not in Pokkali, became very high [>100??mol g (root FW)?1 h?1], demonstrating an inability to restrict sodium fluxes. Current models of sodium transport energetics across the plasma membrane in root cells predict that, if the sodium efflux were mediated by Na+/H+ antiport, this toxic scenario would impose a substantial respiratory cost in IR29. This cost is calculated here, and compared with root respiration, which, however, comprised only ?50% of what would be required to sustain efflux by the antiporter. This suggests that either the conventional ‘leak-pump’ model of Na+ transport or the energetic model of proton-linked Na+ transport may require some revision. In addition, the lack of suppression of Na+ influx by both K+ and Ca2+, and by the application of the channel inhibitors Cs+, TEA+, and Ba2+, questions the participation of potassium channels and non-selective cation channels in the observed Na+ fluxes. PMID:18854575

Malagoli, Philippe; Britto, Dev T.; Schulze, Lasse M.; Kronzucker, Herbert J.

2008-01-01

352

Quasineutrality and parallel force balance in kinetic magnetohydrodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

abstract-type="normal"> Kinetic magnetohydrodynamics refers usually to the hybrid fluid and kinetic description of a zero-Larmor-radius collisionless plasma, originally formulated in the classic papers of Kruskal and Oberman (1958) (Kruskal, M. D. and Oberman, C. R. 1958 Phys. Fluids 1, 275), Rosenbluth and Rostoker (1959) (Rosenbluth, M. N. and Rostoker, N. 1959 Phys. Fluids 2, 23), and Kulsrud (1962) (Kulsrud, R. 1962 Phys. Fluids 5, 192). Such a theory is revisited here, as a special limit of the more general description put forward in Ramos (2010, 2011) (Ramos, J. J. 2010 Phys. Plasmas, 17, 082502; Ramos, J. J. 2011 Phys. Plasmas, 18, 102506). The present approach has the advantage of fulfilling the quasineutrality condition and avoiding the redundancy between the fluid and kinetic parallel force balance conditions with a built-in, rigorous account of the parallel electric field, thus affording a clear-cut handling of these issues. At zero-frequency marginal stability, the Rosenbluth-Rostoker fluid closures for the parallel and perpendicular pressures are obtained, in a solution with vanishing parallel electric field and non-zero parallel fluid displacement that satisfies exactly the desired quasineutrality and parallel force balance.

Ramos, J. J.

2015-01-01

353

Magnetized Inhomogeneous Dusty Plasma Unstable Modes

The propagation of waves in unmagnetized dusty plasmas has been extensively studied in last years, describing DAW and DIAW modes. For magnetized, inhomogeneous dusty plasmas exists a series of works describing the theory of wave propagation, mainly fluid like description. However, there is a lack of detailed calculation and description of modes, being limited the recent works to magnetized electrons and neglecting the magnetization of ions and dust particles. In this work, we perform a detailed description of the whole magnetized system from full kinetic treatment and show detailed calculation of the unstable modes associated to ion and dust grains. High precision four pole approximations for the Z dispersion function are used. Comparison with previous results in the limiting cases are provided.

Cereceda, Carlo; Puerta, Julio; Castro, Enrique [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apdo. 89000, Caracas (Venezuela)

2006-12-04

354

Mode coupling of low frequency electromagnetic waves in magnetized dusty plasmas

A kinetic description is used to analyze wave propagation in dusty plasmas, taking into account the fluctuation of the charge of the dust particles due to inelastic collisions with electrons and ions. The case of propagation of waves exactly parallel to the external magnetic field and Maxwellian distributions for the electrons and ions in the equilibrium is considered, and a

L. F. Ziebell; M. C. de Juli; R. S. Schneider; V. Jatenco-Pereira

2005-01-01

355

High-Frequency Conductivity of Quantum Plasma in a Magnetic Field

The problem of the electromagnetic absorption coefficient in a quantum plasma in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is investigated by a kinetic description. The finite duration of encounters is taken into account in a self-consistent fashion which includes collective effects properly. This treatment is the quantum extension of an earlier classical study. The application of this theory to

Carl Oberman; Amiram Ron

1963-01-01

356

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tungsten is a leading candidate material for the diverter in future nuclear fusion reactors. Previous experiments have demonstrated that surface defects and bubbles form in tungsten when ex- posed to helium and hydrogen plasmas, even at modest ion energies. In some regimes, between 1000K and 2000K, and for He energies below 100eV, "fuzz" like features form. The mechanisms leading to these surfaces comprised of nanometer sized tungsten tendrils which include visible helium bubbles are not currently known. The role of helium bubble formation in tendril morphology could very likely be the starting point of these mechanisms. Using Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the role of helium and hydrogen exposure in the initial formation mechanisms of tungsten "fuzz" are investigated. Molecular dynamics simulations are well suited to describe the time and length scales associated with initial formation of helium clusters that eventually grow to nano-meter sized helium bubbles. MD simulations also easily enable the modeling of a variety of surfaces such as single crystals, grain boundaries or "tendrils". While the sputtering yield of tungsten is generally low, previous observations of surface modification due to plasma exposure raise questions about the effects of surface morphology and sub-surface helium bubble populations on the sputtering behavior. Results of computational molecular dynamics are reported that investigate the influence of sub-surface helium bubble distributions on the sputtering yield of tungsten (100) and (110) surfaces induced by helium ion exposure in the range of 300 eV to 1 keV. The calculated sputtering yields are in reasonable agreement with a wide range of experimental data; but do not show any significant variation as a result of the pre-existing helium bubbles. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal a number of sub-surface mechanisms leading to nanometer- sized "fuzz" in tungsten exposed to low-energy helium plasmas. We find that during the bubble formation process, helium clusters create self-interstitial defect clusters in tungsten by a trap mutation process, followed by the migration of these defects to the surface that leads to the formation of layers of adatom islands on the tungsten surface. As the helium clusters grow into nanometer sized bubbles, their proximity to the surface and extremely high gas pressures can cause them to rupture the surface thus enabling helium release. Helium bubble bursting induces additional surface damage and tungsten mass loss which varies depending on the nature of the surface. We then show tendril-like geometries have surfaces that are more resilient to helium clustering and bubble formation and rupture. Finally, the study includes hydrogen to reveal the effect of a mixed 90%H-10%He plasma mix on the tungsten surface. We find that hydrogen greatly affects the tungsten surface, with a near surface hydrogen saturation layer, and that helium clusters still form and are attractive trapping sites for hydrogen. Molecular dynamics simulations have also investigated the effect of sub-surface helium bubble evolution on tungsten surface morphology. The helium bubble/tungsten surface interaction has been systematically studied to determine how parameters such as bubble shape and size, temperature, tungsten surface orientation and ligament thickness above the bubble impact bubble stability and surface evolution. The tungsten surface is roughened by a combination of adatom islands, craters and pinholes. The study provides insight into the mechanisms and conditions leading to various tungsten topology changes, most notably the formation of nanoscale fuzz. An atomistic study of the mechanisms behind initial phases of tungsten nano-fuzz growth has determined that tungsten surfaces are affected by sub-displacement energy helium and hydrogen fluxes through a series of mechanisms. Sub-surface helium atom clustering, bubble nucleation, growth and rupture lead to tungsten surface deformation. Helium clustering processes vary near grain boundaries o

Sukumar, Harikrishnan

357

We present extended applications of an established theoretical and computational machinery suitable for the study of the dynamics of CO2+CO2 collisions, focusing on vibrational energy exchange, considered over a wide range of energies and rotational temperatures. Calculations are based on quasi-classical trajectories on a potential energy function (a critical component of dynamics simulations), tailored to accurately describe the intermolecular interactions, modeled by the recently proposed bond-bond semiempirical formulation that allows the colliding molecules to be stretchable, rather than frozen at their equilibrium geometry. In a previous work, the same potential energy surface has been used to show that modifications in the geometry (and in physical properties such as polarizability and charge distribution) of the colliding partners affect the intermolecular interaction and determine the features of the energy exchange, to a large extent driven by long-range forces. As initial partitioning of the energy among the molecular degrees of freedom, we consider the excitation of the vibrational bending mode, assuming an initial rotational distribution and a rotational temperature. The role of the vibrational angular momentum is also carefully assessed. Results are obtained by portable implementations of this approach in a Grid-computing framework and on high performance platforms. Cross sections are basic ingredients to obtain rate constants of use in advanced state-to-state kinetic models, under equilibrium or nonequilibrium conditions, and this approach is suitable for gas dynamics applications to plasmas and modeling of hypersonic flows. PMID:24117231

Lombardi, Andrea; Faginas-Lago, Noelia; Pacifici, Leonardo; Costantini, Alessandro

2013-11-14

358

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measured in situ, the particle velocity distributions in the solar wind plasma reveal two distinct components: a Maxwellian (thermal) core, and a less dense but hotter suprathermal halo with a power-law distribution described by Lorentzian/Kappa distribution function. Despite this evidence, the existing attempts to parametrize anisotropic distributions and the resulting wave instabilities are limited to idealized models, which either ignore the suprathermal populations, or minimize the core, assuming it is cold. Here, a more realistic approach is identified, combining an isotropic Maxwellian core and an anisotropic bi-Kappa halo. This model is relevant at large heliocentric distances and for the slow winds, when the field-aligned strahl is less pronounced and kinetic energy densities in the core and halo are comparable. A comparative study with the cold-core-based model is performed on the electron whistler-cyclotron instability driven by the anisotropic halo. Derived exactly numerically, the instability thresholds and growth rates confirm the expectation that cyclotron instabilities are inhibited by the core thermal spread. This effect is enhanced by the increase of the halo-core relative density with heliocentric distance, suggesting that local conditions for this instability to develop at large radial distances in the solar wind are less favourable than predicted before.

Lazar, M.; Poedts, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Dumitrache, C.

2015-01-01

359

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical considerations relevant to the rate of thermal relaxation of a two-dimensional plasma in a strong uniform dc magnetic field are developed. The Vahala-Montgomery (1971) kinetic description is completed by providing a cut-off time for the time of interaction of two particles contributing to the collision term. The kinetic equation is shown to predict that thermal relaxation varies as a function of defined dimensionless time.

Hsu, J.-Y.; Joyce, G.; Montgomery, D.

1974-01-01

360

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a video see-through head-mounted display (HMD) augmented reality (AR) system for image-guided neurosurgical planning and navigation. The surgeon wears a HMD that presents him with the augmented stereo view. The HMD is custom fitted with two miniature color video cameras that capture a stereo view of the real-world scene. We are concentrating specifically at this point on cranial neurosurgery, so the images will be of the patient's head. A third video camera, operating in the near infrared, is also attached to the HMD and is used for head tracking. The pose (i.e., position and orientation) of the HMD is used to determine where to overlay anatomic structures segmented from preoperative tomographic images (e.g., CT, MR) on the intraoperative video images. Two SGI 540 Visual Workstation computers process the three video streams and render the augmented stereo views for display on the HMD. The AR system operates in real time at 30 frames/sec with a temporal latency of about three frames (100 ms) and zero relative lag between the virtual objects and the real-world scene. For an initial evaluation of the system, we created AR images using a head phantom with actual internal anatomic structures (segmented from CT and MR scans of a patient) realistically positioned inside the phantom. When using shaded renderings, many users had difficulty appreciating overlaid brain structures as being inside the head. When using wire frames, and texture-mapped dot patterns, most users correctly visualized brain anatomy as being internal and could generally appreciate spatial relationships among various objects. The 3D perception of these structures is based on both stereoscopic depth cues and kinetic depth cues, with the user looking at the head phantom from varying positions. The perception of the augmented visualization is natural and convincing. The brain structures appear rigidly anchored in the head, manifesting little or no apparent swimming or jitter. The initial evaluation of the system is encouraging, and we believe that AR visualization might become an important tool for image-guided neurosurgical planning and navigation.

Maurer, Calvin R., Jr.; Sauer, Frank; Hu, Bo; Bascle, Benedicte; Geiger, Bernhard; Wenzel, Fabian; Recchi, Filippo; Rohlfing, Torsten; Brown, Christopher R.; Bakos, Robert J.; Maciunas, Robert J.; Bani-Hashemi, Ali R.

2001-05-01

361

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen is one of the most commonly used background gases for pulsed laser deposition of oxide thin films. In this work the properties of a 308 nm laser-induced La0.4Ca0.6MnO3 plasma were analyzed using a quadrupole mass spectrometer combined with an energy analyzer, to investigate the interaction between the various plasma species and the background gas. The composition and kinetic energies of the plasma species were compared in vacuum and an O2 background gas at different pressures. It has been observed that the O2 background gas decreases the kinetic energy of the positively charged atomic plasma species. In addition, the interaction with the O2 background gas causes the generation of positive diatomic oxide species of LaO+, CaO+ and MnO+. The amount of negatively charged diatomic or tri-atomic oxide species decreases in the O2 background compared to vacuum, while the amount of O2- increases strongly.

Chen, Jikun; Stender, Dieter; Bator, Matthias; Schneider, Christof W.; Lippert, Thomas; Wokaun, Alexander

2013-08-01

362

Using a kinetic description to analyze wave propagation in dusty plasmas, taking into account the fluctuation of the charge of the dust particles due to inellastic collisions with electrons and ions, we consider the case of propagation of waves exactly parallel to the external magnetic field and Maxwellian distributions for the electrons and ions in the equilibrium, and investigate the

M. C. de Juli; R. S. Schneider; L. F. Ziebell; V. Jatenco-Pereira

2005-01-01

363

Self-consistent Equilibrium Model of Low-aspect-ratio Toroidal Plasma with Energetic Beam Ions

A theoretical model is developed which allows the self-consistent inclusion of the effects of energetic beam ions in equilibrium calculations of low-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. A two-component plasma is considered, where the energetic ions are treated using a kinetic Vlasov description, while a one-fluid magnetohydrodynamic description is used to represent the thermal plasma. The model allows for an anisotropic distribution function and a large Larmor radius of the beam ions. Numerical results are obtained for neutral-beam-heated plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Self-consistent equilibria with an anisotropic fast-ion distribution have been calculated for NSTX. It is shown for typical experimental parameters that the contribution of the energetic neutral-beam ions to the total current can be comparable to that of the background plasma, and that the kinetic modifications of the equilibrium can be significant. The range of validity of the finite-Larmor-radius expansion and of the reduced kinetic descriptions for the beam ions in NSTX is discussed. The calculated kinetic equilibria can be used for self-consistent numerical studies of beam-ion-driven instabilities in NSTX.

E.V. Belova; N.N. Gorelenkov; C.Z. Cheng

2003-04-09

364

Alfven waves in dusty plasmas with plasma particles described by anisotropic kappa distributions

We utilize a kinetic description to study the dispersion relation of Alfven waves propagating parallelly to the ambient magnetic field in a dusty plasma, taking into account the fluctuation of the charge of the dust particles, which is due to inelastic collisions with electrons and ions. We consider a plasma in which the velocity distribution functions of the plasma particles are modelled as anisotropic kappa distributions, study the dispersion relation for several combinations of the parameters {kappa}{sub Parallel-To} and {kappa}{sub Up-Tack }, and emphasize the effect of the anisotropy of the distributions on the mode coupling which occurs in a dusty plasma, between waves in the branch of circularly polarized waves and waves in the whistler branch.

Galvao, R. A.; Ziebell, L. F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354-Campus UFPel, CEP: 96010-900 Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Juli, M. C. de [Centro de Radio-Astronomia e Astrofisica Mackenzie-CRAAM, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Rua da Consolacao 896, CEP: 01302-907 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2012-12-15

365

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities.

Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

1996-05-01

366

What constitutes a comprehensive description of drought, a description forming a basis for answering why a drought occurred is outlined. The description entails two aspects that are "naturally" coupled, named physical and economic, and treats the set of hydrologic measures of droughts in terms of their multivariate distribution, rather than in terms of a collection of the marginal distributions. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

Matalas, N.C.

1991-01-01

367

Ion temperature in plasmas with intrinsic Alfven waves

This Brief Communication clarifies the physics of non-resonant heating of protons by low-frequency Alfvenic turbulence. On the basis of general definition for wave energy density in plasmas, it is shown that the wave magnetic field energy is equivalent to the kinetic energy density of the ions, whose motion is induced by the wave magnetic field, thus providing a self-consistent description of the non-resonant heating by Alfvenic turbulence. Although the study is motivated by the research on the solar corona, the present discussion is only concerned with the plasma physics of the heating process.

Wu, C. S. [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, C. B. [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China)

2014-10-15

368

Ion temperature in plasmas with intrinsic Alfven waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Brief Communication clarifies the physics of non-resonant heating of protons by low-frequency Alfvenic turbulence. On the basis of general definition for wave energy density in plasmas, it is shown that the wave magnetic field energy is equivalent to the kinetic energy density of the ions, whose motion is induced by the wave magnetic field, thus providing a self-consistent description of the non-resonant heating by Alfvenic turbulence. Although the study is motivated by the research on the solar corona, the present discussion is only concerned with the plasma physics of the heating process.

Wu, C. S.; Yoon, P. H.; Wang, C. B.

2014-10-01

369

Kinetic Damping of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes

The damping of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes in JET plasmas is investigated by using a reduced kinetic model. Typically no significant damping is found to occur near the center of the plasma due to mode conversion to kinetic Alfven waves. In contrast, continuum damping from resonance near the plasma edge may be significant, and when it is, it gives rise to damping rates that are compatible with the experimental observations.

G.Y. Fu; H.L. Berk; A. Pletzer

2005-05-03

370

Antibiotic Attack (Kinetic City)

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game is a part of the Tau Pack of the Kinetic City site (see description below). In this simulation, the patient's bodies are filled with bacteria. The object is to cure as many patients as possible. Learning concepts enforced here are that antibiotics are specific for the type of bacteria they treat, their strength, and that the bacteria may also become resistant to the bacteria by mutations.KINETIC CITY DESCRIPTION: "Kinetic City" (www.kineticcity.com) is a fun, Web-based after-school science club for kids, ages 8 through 11. It combines exciting online animations and activities with boxes of hands-on science experiments. Children earn "Kinetic City" power points and collect stickers as they complete missions and learn standards-based science content. Here's how it works: The "Kinetic City" super crew (Keisha, Curtis, Megan and Max) needs the help of Earth kids to save their planet Vearth, from the science-distorting computer virus Deep Delete. Each of Deep Delete's 60 hideous strains attacks a different area of science with disastrous consequences. After each attack, teams of Earth kids fight back by viewing a short online animation describing the situation on Vearth; performing a series of activities to re-learn the lost science and going on a mission to Vearth during which they answer science questions and gobble up Deep Delete viruses. Their scores appear on their own Kinetic City Club Web page. "Kinetic City" is produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), with a grant from the National Science Foundation. AAAS writes the "Project 2061 Benchmarks for Science Literacy," which forms the basis of most state science standards.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-01-01

371

A kinetic model of the plasma-etching process has been developed to describe the etching of Si and SiO/sub 2/ in C/sub n/F/sub m//O/sub 2/ and C/sub n/F/sub m//H/sub 2/ plasmas (C/sub n/F/sub m/ equivalentCF/sub 4/, C/sub 2/F/sub 6/). The model has obtained good agreement with experiment for demonstrating the selective etching of SiO/sub 2/ in C/sub n/F/sub m//H/sub 2/ plasmas, and the enhancement of the etch rate of Si in C/sub n/F/sub m//O/sub 2/ plasmas. Good agreement is also obtained with mass spectroscopic measurements of neutral species from a CF/sub 4//H/sub 2/ plasma. Results from the model indicate that the adsorption of atomic hydrogen on silicon surfaces from C/sub n/F/sub m//H/sub 2/ plasmas, which then reacts with adsorbed fluorine, can significantly effect the selectivity of etching SiO/sub 2/ with respect to Si. Similarly, the adsorption of atomic oxygen, which then reacts with adsorbed carbon thereby cleansing the surface, may be responsible for the large etch rates of Si seen in C/sub n/F/sub m//O/sub 2/ plasmas. The selectivity of etching SiO/sub 2/ in C/sub n/F/sub m//H/sub 2/ plasmas has been found to be a sensitive function of the C/F ratio of the carbon-bearing molecules which desorb from the surface, and a C/F ratio of 0.5 shows best agreement with experiment. Results from the model favor ion drift as a dominant mechanism by which radicals are transported to the surface.

Kushner, M.J.

1982-04-01

372

Electron density measurements have been made in steady-state plasmas in a spherical inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) discharge using microwave interferometry. Plasma cores interior to two cathodes, having diameters of 15 and 23 cm, respectively, were probed over a transverse range of 10 cm with a spatial resolution of about 1.4 cm for buffer gas pressures from 0.2 to 6 Pa

Chris C. Dobson; Ivana Hrbud

2004-01-01

373

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere-Polar Wind System is complex; it varies on a wide range in spatial and temporal scales, exhibits relatively thin ion-scale boundaries (e.g., bow shock, magnetopause, magnetotail), contains hot and cold particle populations, and the particle distribution functions are typically non-Maxwellian. The existing space weather frameworks are based on global fluid models and therefore cannot address many important issues concerning particle, momentum, and energy coupling in the system. To remedy this situation, we have formed a multi-disciplinary team to create a new kinetic modeling framework. The new framework will include kinetic electron and ion formulations for the ionosphere, plasmasphere, and polar wind domains, and kinetic ions and fluid electrons for the magnetosphere. The proposed methodology is expected to lead to breakthroughs in studying numerous problems/issues, including the self-consistent formation of the ring current, the self-consistent formation of ion scale turbulence and waves, the calculation of appropriate reconnection rates, the effect that multiple species and ion outflows from the ionosphere have on the development and evolution of storms/substorms, among others. The presentation will focus on the current state and capabilities of the global kinetic models that form the framework for the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere-Polar Wind Model.

Karimabadi, H.; Omelchenko, Y.; Schunk, R. W.; Barakat, A. R.; Gardner, L. C.; Khazanov, G. V.; Glocer, A.; Kistler, L. M.

2013-12-01

374

The evaluation of electric fields is of prime interest for the description of plasma characteristics. In this work, different methods for determining the electric field profile in low-pressure discharges using one- and two-dimensional Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements are presented and discussed. The energy conservation, fluid, and kinetic approaches appear to be well-suited for the electric field evaluation in this region of the plasma flow. However, the numerical complexity of a two-dimensional kinetic model is penalizing due to the limited signal-to-noise ratio that can be achieved, making the computation of the electric field subject to large error bars. The ionization contribution which appears in the fluid model makes it unattractive on an experimental viewpoint. The energy conservation and 1D1V kinetic approaches should therefore be preferred for the determination of the electric field when LIF data are used.

Vaudolon, J., E-mail: julien.vaudolon@cnrs-orleans.fr; Mazouffre, S., E-mail: stephane.mazouffre@cnrs-orleans.fr [CNRS - ICARE (Institut de Combustion Aérothermique Réactivité et Environnement), 1 C Av. de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)

2014-09-15

375

Numerical model of an ac plasma display panel cell in neon-xenon mixtures

We present a self-consistent 1D model of the discharge initiated in an ac plasma display panel cell. The model is based on a two-moments fluid description of electron and ion transport, coupled with Poisson’s equation, and with a set of kinetic equations characterizing the evolution of the population of excited states leading to UV emission in neon-xenon mixtures. Results are

J. Meunier; Ph. Belenguer; J. P. Boeuf

1995-01-01

376

Screening of a dust grain in a weakly ionized plasma is studied for a wide range of collisional regimes. The problem is considered on the basis of the Vlasov-Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equations for plasma particles. The equations are solved numerically on parallel processors by means of a high-order finite-volume method. The computations are carried out for different pressures of plasma background and different grain sizes. The values of the total grain charge, distributions of the electric potential, and basic macroscopic parameters of plasma particles (concentration, temperature, and velocity) are obtained. For two limiting cases of the collisionless and strongly collisional background, the obtained results are found to be in good agreement with those computed using the commonly known models (nonlinear collisionless models of Bystrenko et al.[Phys. Lett. A 299, 383 (2002)] and Ratynskaia et al.[Phys. Plasmas 13, 104508 (2006)] and drift-diffusion approach). For the transitional collisional regime, it is shown that the electric potential also has the Coulomb-type asymptotical behavior related to the presence of charging currents and existence of some residual (unscreened) grain charge. Both total and residual grain charges are found to increase as the collisional regime tends to the continuum limit. In addition, the influence of collisions on the ion distribution function near the grain surface is demonstrated.

Semenov, I. L.; Krivtsun, I. V. [E. O. Paton Electric Welding Institute, 11 Bozhenko str., Kiev 03680 (Ukraine); Zagorodny, A. G. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 14B Metrolohichna str., Kiev 03680 (Ukraine)

2011-10-15

377

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electron density measurements have been made in steady-state plasmas in a spherical inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) discharge using microwave interferometry. Plasma cores interior to two cathodes, having diameters of 15 and 23 cm, respectively, were probed over a transverse range of 10 cm with a spatial resolution of about 1.4 cm for buffer gas pressures from 0.2 to 6 Pa in argon and deuterium. The transverse profiles are generally flat, in some cases with eccentric symmetric minima, and give mean densities of from approx. = 0.4 to 7 x 10(exp 10)/cu cm, the density generally increasing with the neutral gas pressure. Numerical solutions of the one-dimensional Poisson equation for IEC plasmas are reviewed and energy distribution functions are identified which give flat transverse profiles. These functions are used with the plasma approximation to obtain solutions which also give densities consistent with the measurements, and a double potential well solution is obtained which has minima qualitatively similar to those observed. Explicit consideration is given to the compatibility of the solutions interior and exterior to the cathode, and to grid transparency. Deuterium fusion neutron emission rates were also measured and found to be isotropic, to within the measurement error, over two simultaneous directions. Anisotropy was observed in residual emissions during operation with nonfusing hydrogen- 1. The deuterium rates are consistent with predictions from the model.

Dobson, Chris C.; Hrbud, Ivana

2004-01-01

378

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electron density measurements have been made in steady-state plasmas in a spherical inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) discharge using microwave interferometry. Plasma cores interior to two cathodes, having diameters of 15 and 23 cm, respectively, were probed over a transverse range of 10 cm with a spatial resolution of about 1.4 cm for buffer gas pressures from 0.2 to 6 Pa in argon and deuterium. The transverse profiles are generally flat, in some cases with eccentric symmetric minima, and give mean densities of from approx. = 0.4 to 7x 10(exp 10)/cu cm, the density generally increasing with the neutral gas pressure. Numerical solutions of the 1-D Poisson equation for EC plasmas are reviewed and energy distribution functions are identified which give flat transverse profiles. These functions are used with the plasma approximation to obtain solutions which also give densities consistent with the measurements, and a double potential well solution is obtained which has minima qualitatively similar to those observed. Explicit consideration is given to the compatibility of the solutions interior and exterior to the cathode, and to grid transparency. Deuterium fusion neutron emission rates were also measured and found to be isotropic, to within the measurement error, over two simultaneous directions. Anisotropy was observed in residual emissions during operation with non-fusing hydrogen-1. The deuterium rates are consistent with predictions from the model.

Dobson, Chris C.; Hrbud, Ivana

2004-01-01

379

Plasma scattering of electromagnetic radiation

The scattered power spectrum is considered along with aspects of incoherent scattering, constraints on scattering experiments, optical systems, the theory concerning the scattered spectrum for a low-temperature plasma, and questions of scattering from a low-temperature stable plasma. Attention is also given to scattering from a magnetized plasma, scattering from a high-temperature plasma, scattering from unstable plasmas, the kinetic theory of

J. Sheffield

1975-01-01

380

Atmospheric pressure plasmas: A review

This article attempts to give an overview of atmospheric plasma sources and their applications. The aim is to introduce, in a first part, the main scientific background concerning plasmas as well as the different atmospheric plasma sources (description, working principle). The second part focuses on the various applications of the atmospheric plasma technologies, mainly in the field of surface treatments.Thus

Claire Tendero; Christelle Tixier; Pascal Tristant; Jean Desmaison; Philippe Leprince

2006-01-01

381

Ideas about the meaning of descriptions, aimed at clarifying the relationship between a formal specification and the domain of the system to be specified, are introduced. Understanding of specifications must rest on explicit statements of what they are about and what they assert. The authors argue that current formal specification techniques are inadequate in this respect, and therefore cannot offer

Michael Jackson; P. Zave

1993-01-01

382

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resrouce provides detailed protocols for performing a laboratory exercise in enzyme kinetics. The activity of enzymes are characterized both by reaction rates and the effect of different concentrations of substrates.

Carl Stiefbold (University of Oregon;); Karen Sprague (University of Oregon;); Will Goodwin (University of Oregon;); Sam Donovan (University of Oregon;); Vicki Chandler (University of Oregon;)

1998-01-01

383

Kinetic Actviation Relaxation Technique

We present a detailed description of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si, self-interstitial diffusion in Fe and structural relaxation in amorphous silicon.

Béland, Laurent Karim; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

2011-01-01

384

Modulational interactions in quantum plasmas

A formalism for treating modulational interactions of electrostatic fields in collisionless quantum plasmas is developed, based on the kinetic Wigner-Poisson model of quantum plasma. This formalism can be used in a range of problems of nonlinear interaction between electrostatic fields in a quantum plasma, such as development of turbulence, self-organization, as well as transition from the weak turbulent state to strong turbulence. In particular, using this formalism, we obtain the kinetic quantum Zakharov equations that describe nonlinear coupling of high frequency Langmuir waves to low frequency plasma density variations, for cases of non-degenerate and degenerate plasma electrons.

Sayed, F.; Tyshetskiy, Yu. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Vladimirov, S. V. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia) [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Metamaterials Laboratory, National Research University of Information Technology, Mechanics, and Optics, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Ishihara, O. [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)] [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

2013-07-15

385

Theory of warm ionized gases: equation of state and kinetic Schottky anomaly.

Based on accurate Lennard-Jones-type interaction potentials, we derive a closed set of state equations for the description of warm atomic gases in the presence of ionization processes. The specific heat is predicted to exhibit peaks in correspondence to single and multiple ionizations. Such kinetic analog in atomic gases of the Schottky anomaly in solids is enhanced at intermediate and low atomic densities. The case of adiabatic compression of noble gases is analyzed in detail and the implications on sonoluminescence are discussed. In particular, the predicted plasma electron density in a sonoluminescent bubble turns out to be in good agreement with the value measured in recent experiments. PMID:24229140

Capolupo, A; Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F

2013-10-01

386

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present an efficient strategy to deal with plasma physics simulations in which localized departures from thermodynamical equilibrium are present. The method is based on the introduction of intermediate regions which allows smooth transitions between kinetic and fluid zones. In this paper we extend Domain Decomposition techniques, obtained through dynamic coupling and buffer zones, to the study of plasmas and, moreover, we combine them with Asymptotic Preserving and Asymptotically Accurate strategies for the time integration. We use a hybrid scheme in which both kinetic and fluid descriptions are considered and coupled together while the kinetic model is solved by asymptotic preserving and accurate methods, in order to guarantee high efficiency and accuracy in all regimes. The numerical scheme is validated and its performances are analyzed by numerical simulations.

Dimarco, Giacomo; Mieussens, Luc; Rispoli, Vittorio

2014-10-01

387

Summary Introduction. Different series emphasized the necessity of rehabilitation program after infiltration of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in case of tendinopathy. However, most of them describe only briefly the reeducation protocol and these programs vary. Our aim was to extensively describe a specific standardized rehabilitation program. Methods. After a review of literature of post-PRP infiltration protocols, we had developed a standardized rehabilitation protocol. This protocol was evaluated by 30 subjects with chronic jumper’s knee who. A standardised progressive sub-maximal eccentric program supervised by a physical therapist for 6 weeks was started 1 week post-infiltration. The patient benefited also from electromyostimulation, isometric strengthening and stretching of the quadriceps, cycloergometer and cryotherapy. After the supervised program, the patient had to make an auto-reeducation added to the reathletisation protocol for 6 more weeks which was followed by maintenance exercises up to 1 year. The assessments were made using a VAS, IKDC and VISA-P scores. Results. The VAS, IKDC and VISA-P scores decreased very significantly with time. The compliance to auto-reeducation was good. Conclusions. We proposed a simple and efficient protocol based on sub-maximal eccentric reeducation to add to PRP infiltrations in case of patellar tendinopathy. PMID:24932453

Kaux, Jean-François; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Namurois, Marie-Hélène; Bauvir, Philippe; Defawe, Nathalie; Delvaux, François; Lehance, Cédric; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis

2014-01-01

388

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a kinetic description to analyze wave propagation in dusty plasmas, taking into account the fluctuation of the charge of the dust particles due to inellastic collisions with electrons and ions, we consider the case of propagation of waves exactly parallel to the external magnetic field and Maxwellian distributions for the electrons and ions in the equilibrium, and investigate the phenomena of mode coupling which may occur due to the presence of the dust.

de Juli, M. C.; Schneider, R. S.; Ziebell, L. F.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

2005-10-01

389

Using a kinetic description to analyze wave propagation in dusty plasmas, taking into account the fluctuation of the charge of the dust particles due to inellastic collisions with electrons and ions, we consider the case of propagation of waves exactly parallel to the external magnetic field and Maxwellian distributions for the electrons and ions in the equilibrium, and investigate the phenomena of mode coupling which may occur due to the presence of the dust.

Juli, M.C. de; Jatenco-Pereira, V. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Schneider, R.S.; Ziebell, L.F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2005-10-31

390

KINETICS STUDY OF CHLORIDE IN RAT

The kinetics of chloride were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats following the oral administration of Na36Cl. The half-life for (36)Cl(-1) absorption from plasma was 19.2 hr corresponding to a rate constant of 0.0361 hr, while the half-life for (36)Cl(-1) elimination from plasma was ...

391

Plasma stability in a dipole magnetic field

The MHD and kinetic stability of an axially symmetric plasma, confined by a poloidal magnetic field with closed lines, is considered. In such a system the stabilizing effects of plasma compression and magnetic field ...

Simakov, Andrei N., 1974-

2001-01-01

392

Kinetic closure conditions for quasi-stationary collisionless axisymmetric magnetoplasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A characteristic feature of fluid theories concerns the difficulty of uniquely defining consistent closure conditions for the fluid equations. In fact it is well known that fluid theories cannot generally provide a closed system of equations for the fluid fields. This feature is typical of collisionless plasmas where, in contrast to collisional plasmas, asymptotic closure conditions do not follow as a consequence of an H-theorem This issue is of particular relevance in astrophysics where fluid approaches are usually adopted. On the other hand, it is well known that the determination of the closure conditions is in principle achievable in the context of kinetic theory. In the case of multi-species thermal magnetoplasmas this requires the determination of the species tensor pressure and of the corresponding heat fluxes. In this paper we investigate this problem in the framework of the Vlasov-Maxwell description for collisionless axisymmetric magnetoplasmas arising in astrophysics, with particular reference to accretion discs around compact objects (like black holes and neutron stars). The dynamics of collisionless plasmas in these environments is determined by the simultaneous presence of gravitational and magnetic fields, where the latter may be both externally produced and self-generated by the plasma currents. Our starting point here is the construction of a solution for the stationary distribution function describing slowly-varying gyrokinetic equilibria. The treatment is applicable to non-relativistic axisymmetric systems characterized by temperature anisotropy and differential rotation flows. It is shown that the kinetic formalism allows one to solve the closure problem and to consistently compute the relevant fluid fields with the inclusion of finite Larmor-radius effects. The main features of the theory and relevant applications are discussed.

Cremaschini, Claudio; Miller, John C.; Tessarotto, Massimo

2011-06-01

393

High-affinity nitrate transport was examined in intact root hair cells of Arabidopsis thaliana using electrophysiological recordings to characterise the response of the plasma membrane to NO\\u000a3\\u000a–\\u000achallenge and to quantify transport activity. The NO\\u000a3\\u000a–\\u000a-associated membrane current was determined using a three-electrode voltage clamp to bring membrane voltage under experimental control and to compensate for current

A. A. Meharg; M. R. Blatt

1995-01-01

394

A Fluid-kinetic Hybrid Electron Model for Electromagnetic Simulations

A fluid-kinetic hybrid electron model for electromagnetic simulations of finite-beta plasmas is developed based on an expansion of the electron response using the electron-ion mass ratio as a small parameter (Here beta is the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure.) The model accurately recovers low-frequency plasma dielectric responses and faithfully preserves nonlinear kinetic effects (e.g., phase space trapping). Maximum numerical efficiency is achieved by overcoming the electron Courant condition and suppressing high-frequency modes. This method is most useful for nonlinear kinetic (particle-in-cell or Vlasov) simulations of electromagnetic microturbulence and Alfvenic instabilities in magnetized plasmas.

Zhihong Lin; Liu Chen

2001-01-30

395

Kinetic theory molecular dynamics and hot dense matter: theoretical foundations.

Electrons are weakly coupled in hot, dense matter that is created in high-energy-density experiments. They are also mildly quantum mechanical and the ions associated with them are classical and may be strongly coupled. In addition, the dynamical evolution of plasmas under these hot, dense matter conditions involve a variety of transport and energy exchange processes. Quantum kinetic theory is an ideal tool for treating the electrons but it is not adequate for treating the ions. Molecular dynamics is perfectly suited to describe the classical, strongly coupled ions but not the electrons. We develop a method that combines a Wigner kinetic treatment of the electrons with classical molecular dynamics for the ions. We refer to this hybrid method as "kinetic theory molecular dynamics," or KTMD. The purpose of this paper is to derive KTMD from first principles and place it on a firm theoretical foundation. The framework that KTMD provides for simulating plasmas in the hot, dense regime is particularly useful since current computational methods are generally limited by their inability to treat the dynamical quantum evolution of the electronic component. Using the N-body von Neumann equation for the electron-proton plasma, three variations of KTMD are obtained. Each variant is determined by the physical state of the plasma (e.g., collisional versus collisionless). The first variant of KTMD yields a closed set of equations consisting of a mean-field quantum kinetic equation for the electron one-particle distribution function coupled to a classical Liouville equation for the protons. The latter equation includes both proton-proton Coulombic interactions and an effective electron-proton interaction that involves the convolution of the electron density with the electron-proton Coulomb potential. The mean-field approach is then extended to incorporate equilibrium electron-proton correlations through the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjolander (STLS) ansatz. This is the second variant of KTMD. The STLS contribution produces an effective electron-proton interaction that involves the electron-proton structure factor, thereby extending the usual mean-field theory to correlated but near equilibrium systems. Finally, a third variant of KTMD is derived. It includes dynamical electrons and their correlations coupled to a MD description for the ions. A set of coupled equations for the one-particle electron Wigner function and the electron-electron and electron-proton correlation functions are coupled to a classical Liouville equation for the protons. This latter variation has both time and momentum dependent correlations. PMID:25314544

Graziani, F R; Bauer, J D; Murillo, M S

2014-09-01

396

Kinetic effects on robustness of electron magnetohydrodynamic structures

Following recent remarkable progress in the development of high-power short-pulse lasers, exploration is ongoing into hitherto unknown phenomena at fast time scales of electrons, the understanding of which is becoming crucial. For a simplified description of such phenomena, the Electron Magnetohydrodynamics (EMHDs) fluid description is often adopted. For the possibility of electron transport in high-density plasma, exact solutions of the EMHD model in the form of electron vortex currents, together with their associated magnetic fields, have been considered. However, the fluid EMHD model does not incorporate kinetic effects. Here, the finite Larmor radius effects owing to a finite electron temperature on the robustness of the exact EMHD structures are investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. It is found that larger EMHD vortex structures can sustain themselves for long periods, even in high temperature plasma; however, sustaining structures at higher temperatures tends to be difficult. With increasing temperature, electrons with finite Larmor radii become disengaged from the localized region. It is also shown that structures localized in smaller regions are more difficult to sustain. A quantitative criterion in terms of the structure size and Larmor radius has been established by simulations over a wide range of parameters. Finally, we conclude that a structure, larger than about eight times the typical Larmor radius at r=R, could form and exist even under the effects of finite electron temperature.

Hata, M. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Sakagami, H. [Fundamental Physics Simulation Research Division, National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Das, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

2013-04-15

397

The spatially dependent description of the electron kinetics in nonuniform electric fields is of primary importance for the modeling of gas-filled proportional counters and other plasma devices. For a typical example, the amplification of the gain signal in the gas counters is determined by the behavior of electron ionization processes in the cylindrically or spherically symmetric electric field around thin wire or tiny sphere anode. In this paper, the general formalism of the Boltzmann equation in these types of the nonuniform electric fields is presented for specifying the electron swarm dynamics affected by the field geometry. The behavior of electrons in the cylindrical or spherical field configuration is investigated by a Monte Carlo technique to exemplify the description, and the effects associated with the angular momentum of electrons are discussed in terms of the ionization coefficient. PMID:11736285

Date, H; Shimozuma, M

2001-12-01

398

Laser-seeded modulation instability in a proton driver plasma wakefield accelerator

A new method for initiating the modulation instability (MI) of a proton beam in a proton driver plasma wakefield accelerator using a short laser pulse preceding the beam is presented. A diffracting laser pulse is used to produce a plasma wave that provides a seeding modulation of the proton bunch with the period equal to that of the plasma wave. Using the envelope description of the proton beam, this method of seeding the MI is analytically compared with the earlier suggested seeding technique that involves an abrupt truncation of the proton bunch. The full kinetic simulation of a realistic proton bunch is used to validate the analytic results. It is further used to demonstrate that a plasma density ramp placed in the early stages of the laser-seeded MI leads to its stabilization, resulting in sustained accelerating electric fields (of order several hundred MV/m) over long propagation distances (?100–1000 m)

Siemon, Carl; Khudik, Vladimir; Austin Yi, S.; Shvets, Gennady [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Pukhov, Alexander [Institut für Theoretische Physik I, Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf 40225 (Germany)] [Institut für Theoretische Physik I, Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf 40225 (Germany)

2013-10-15

399

We present the first three-dimensional fully kinetic electromagnetic\\u000arelativistic particle-in-cell simulations of the collision of two\\u000ainterpenetrating plasma shells. The highly accurate plasma-kinetic\\u000a\\

L. O. Silva; R. A. Fonseca; J. W. Tonge; J. M. Dawson; W. B. Mori; M. V. Medvedev

2003-01-01

400

Excitation equilibria in plasmas; a classification

This review gives a classification of the excitation kinetics ruled by electrons in plasmas. It is a study on the atomic state distribution function (ASDF) and its relation with underlying processes, which, for the case of an electron excitation kinetics (EEK) plasma, is merely a competition between free and bound electrons, the same particles in different circumstances. In a quasi

J. A. M. van der Mullen

1990-01-01

401

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners build a tower thatâs at least 12 inches high with two or more parts that move (spin, sway, or flap) in the wind. This art meets construction activity allows learners to think about design challenges while creating a kinetic sculpture (a sculpture that moves). This is an excellent follow-up activity to "High Rise" from the same source.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

402

Numerical study of a dust-contaminated electron plasma

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collective behaviour of dusty plasmas is heavily affected by the presence of a small fraction of micrometric or sub-micrometric dust particles which collect a large surface charge. While dusty plasmas under study are usually quasi-neutral, we propose here an investigation on a magnetized nonneutral plasma (a situation found for example in Penning traps) where a conventional plasma with a single sign of charge (e.g. electrons) is contaminated by a dust population. We simulate the two-dimensional dynamics of such a plasma in the plane orthogonal to a homogeneous magnetic field with a tailored Particle-In-Cell code implementing a mass-less fluid (drift-Poisson) approximation for electrons and a kinetic description for the dust component, including gravity effects. Simulations with a range of initial conditions are performed to observe the influence of dust on the diocotron instability developing in the electron plasma. The early stage of the growth of diocotron modes is analyzed by Fourier decomposition. The fully non-linear evolution is studied by means of a statistical analysis of probability density functions and flatness of spatial vorticity increments in order to characterize the intermittency properties of the turbulence. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Vlasov Equation", edited by Francesco Pegoraro, Francesco Califano, Giovanni Manfredi and Philip J. Morrison.

Maero, Giancarlo; Romé, Massimiliano; Lepreti, Fabio; Cavenago, Marco

2014-10-01

403

The extent of changes in sperm structure and function affect the success of fertilization ultimately during the pathway to ovum in the female reproductive tract. The success of AI with frozen-thawed semen varies in dairy and beef breeds of bovine because of differed alterations in sperm during transport in female tract after insemination. To our knowledge, no report is available comparing the changes in dairy and beef sperm leading to death in female tract. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the changes in motility, generation of reactive oxygen species (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide), and their relation to sperm death [asymmetry (apoptosis) and rupture of plasma membrane] of dairy and beef frozen-thawed semen during incubation at 37°C for 24h. This incubation was aimed to mimic the environment of female reproductive tract. Frozen dairy semen (n=4 bulls) was procured from a Canadian breeding station, whereas beef semen was collected from breeding beef bulls (n=3; 5 replicates), diluted with Tris-based extender (composition was same as used in dairy semen), cooled to +4°C over 90min, and cryopreserved by programmable freezer using standard rate as used in dairy semen. Two straws per replicate were thawed at 37°C from both types of semen, pooled separately, and incubated at 37°C for 24h in capped tubes. Each pooled semen sample was evaluated for motility with CASA, superoxide (O2(-), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) radical using HE/YoPRO and H2DCFDA/PI assay, respectively, and asymmetry of plasma membrane using YoPRO/PI assay through flow cytometric analysis at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24h of incubation. The MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA) was used to analyse the data as 2×6 factorial model for 2 types of semen (dairy and beef) and 6 time points using time as repeated measure. A threshold limit of 30% was considered for motility and live sperm to get optimum fertility. Sperm motility remained higher (P<0.05) than threshold limit till 6h in dairy (50.95±2.62%) and 2h in beef semen (30.28±6.95%). Dairy semen possessed more (P<0.05) nonapoptotic sperm without O2(-) (HE-/YoPRO-) till 6h of incubation than beef semen. The increase in apoptotic sperm containing superoxide radical (HE+/YoPRO+) over time was more (P<0.05) in beef semen till 6h of incubation. The rise in dead sperm containing H2O2 (H2DCFDA+/PI+) was recorded more in beef than in dairy semen until 6h of incubation. Live sperm without apoptosis (YoPRO-/PI-) were higher until 24h in dairy (49.36±4.56%) compared with beef semen (24.89±3.85%), whereas viable sperm with apoptosis (YoPRO+/PI-) were found similar in both types of semen over time. In conclusion, dairy frozen-thawed semen possessed more live sperm without reactive oxygen species (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) until 6h of incubation than did beef semen. The decrease in superoxide radical was more in dairy than in beef semen. Dead and apoptotic sperm increased more in beef frozen-thawed semen over time during incubation. This inference suggests performing the insemination late near ovulation with beef frozen-thawed semen because of less viable life than dairy semen. PMID:25472099

Ahmad, M; Ahmad, N; Anzar, M

2014-12-01

404

Turbulence in the solar wind: Kinetic effects

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although a casual look at the fluctuating magnetic and velocity fields in the solar wind may be reminiscent of a chaotic and disordered flow, there is, nonetheless. considerable organization and structure in the temporal and spatial evolution of those fluctuations. Much of that evolution is controlled by processes operating on rather large scales for example, in the inner heliosphere, the fluctuations in magnetic and velocity are highly correlated in the sense of outward propagating Alfven waves. This correlation can be destroyed both in time and distance by the velocity gradients present between fast and slow streams and by other nonlinear processes which stir the medium, producing a turbulent cascade of energy from large to small scales. Many aspects of this turbulent evolution can be described using fluid models; however, at some scale the fluid approximation breaks down and a more detailed paradigm is necessary. The breakdown is evident in the power spectrum of magnetic fluctuations at scales approaching the wavelength of ion cyclotron waves. At those scales, as evident in Mariner 10 and other magnetometer data, the spectrum bends over and the fluctuations damp, possibly heating the ambient plasma. Some evidence for heating of the solar wind is present in the Voyager data. Fluid models can be modified to some extent to incorporate aspects of a kinetic treatment. This is done by modifying the dissipation terms in the fluid equations and by including extra terms, such as the Hall term. As the scale lengths of phenomena shrink further and approach the spatial and temporal scales characteristic of electron phenomena, the fluid description must be abandoned altogether and a fully kinetic treatment is required. One example is the generation of Langmuir solitons produced by the electron beams that generate type 3 solar radio bursts.

Goldstein, M. L.

1995-01-01

405

Experimental Plasma Research project summaries

This report contains descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Diagnostics; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report.

None

1980-09-01

406

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains two Physlets that are able to share data using their common superclass, SApplet. The Molecular Physlet is able to tag a particle as a data source. In particular, any tagged particle can deliver x, y, vx, and vy values to a data listener. This script tags two particles and assigns these data sources to two different series in the DataGraph Physlet. The connection can show any analytic function of the position and velocity components including the particle speed or kinetic energy.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-09

407

In previous papers we provided evidence for a glucocorticoid (GC) responsive site in a highly purified rat liver plasma membrane (PM) fraction, which has proved to be osmotically active, 'right side-out' vesicles, free of CBG, glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and ATP (J. Steroid Biochem. Molec. Biol. 42 (1992) 737-756 and 757-771). This site, now called 'GC importer', mediates active transmembrane transport of corticosterone (B). Pronounced specificity, including stereo- and enantiomeric specificity, of ligand-GC importer interaction was demonstrated by competition assays using 54 different steroidal hormones and molecules. Important structural prerequisites for ligands with high specificity for the GC importer are plane C21-steroid hormones with 1-ene and/or 4-ene or 5alpha-reduced configuration, and/or OH-group(s) at C11beta>C17alpha>C21. Unexpectedly, other preferred ligands are C17alpha-ethynyl steroids like estrogens with an OH- or OCH3-group at C3 (EE2, mestranol) as well as progestins with C3-OH and 4-ene configuration (ethynodiol). C21-steroids with 11alpha-OH, 11-keto, 16alpha-CH3, 16beta-CH3, 16alpha-OH or 5beta-reduced configuration are low specificity ligands. The importer even displays different specificity for enantiomers (levonorgestrel>L-norgestrel). Altogether, the GC importer preferentially recognizes active GC and natural progestins which act as GC-antagonist (e.g. prednisolone>11beta-cortisol = B > or = progestins). Synthetic GC-agonists (e.g. dexamethasone, betamethasone, triamcinolone), most synthetic progestins, biologically inactive GC (e.g. 11alpha-cortisol, prednisone, cortisone, 11-dehydro-B), mineralocorticoids (aldosterone), natural estrogens (e.g. E1, E2, E3), DES and vitamin D3 derivatives do not interact with the GC importer. Osmotic shrinkage experiments revealed that interaction of high as well as low specificity ligands with the GC importer comprises reversible binding and transport through the PM. The ligand specificity profile of the GC importer and the GR exhibit pronounced differences, suggesting that both GC recognizing sites are different proteins. Performing immunoblotting, using specific mono- and polyclonal antibodies directed against the intracellular rat GR, of the PM pretreated with the membrane protein solubilizing detergent CHAPSO, we found that specific steroid binding to the PM site is not due to contamination with GR. Colchicine, daunorubicine, quinine, reserpine, verapamil and vinblastine, representatives of lipophilic xenobiotics which are known to be transported out of cells by the glycoprotein P170, did not compete with B for uptake into PM-vesicles, indicating that the GC importer is not a member of the ABC/mdr superfamily. The GC importer seems to be an additional link in the chain of steroid signal transduction and may be functionally involved in the action of natural GC-agonists and GC-antagonists. PMID:9569012

Lackner, C; Daufeldt, S; Wildt, L; Alléra, A

1998-01-01

408

Kinetic effects in Hall thruster discharge

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the talk is to describe recent advances in nonlocal electron kinetics in low-pressure plasmas. The talk will briefly review the invited papers of ``Nonlocal, Collisionless Electron Transport in Plasmas'' workshop, which are published in the special issue of IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 34, N3 (2006). As an example of importance of taking into account kinetic effects, the Hall thruster will be discussed. Recent analytical studies and particle-in-cell simulations suggested that the electron velocity distribution function in a Hall thruster plasma is non-Maxwellian and anisotropic. The electron average kinetic energy in the direction parallel to walls is several times larger than the electron average kinetic energy in direction normal to the walls. Electrons are stratified into several groups depending on their origin (e.g., plasma discharge or thruster channel walls) and confinement (e.g., lost on the walls or trapped in the plasma). Practical analytical formulas are derived for wall fluxes, secondary electron fluxes, plasma parameters and conductivity. The calculations based on analytical formulas agree well with the results of numerical simulations. The self-consistent analysis demonstrates that elastic electron scattering on collisions with atoms and ions plays a key role in formation of the electron velocity distribution function and plasma-wall interaction. The fluxes of electrons from the plasma bulk are shown to be proportional to the rate of scattering to loss cone, thus collision frequency determines the wall potential and secondary electron fluxes. Secondary electron emission from the walls is shown to enhance the electron conductivity across the magnetic field, while having almost no effect on insulating properties of the near-wall sheaths. Such a self-consistent decoupling between secondary electron emission effects on electron energy losses and electron crossed-field transport is currently not captured by the existing fluid and hybrid models of the Hall thrusters.

Kaganovich, Igor

2006-10-01

409