Science.gov

Sample records for kinetics parameters variations

  1. Non-Isothermic Chemical Kinetics in the Undergraduate Laboratory: Arrhenius Parameters from Experiments with Hyperbolic Temperature Variation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, F.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes a method which adapts itself to the characteristics of the kinetics of a chemical reaction in solution, enabling students to determine the Arrhenius parameters with satisfactory accuracy by means of a single non-isothermic experiment. Both activation energy and the preexponential factor values can be obtained by the method. (JN)

  2. Kinetic parameters from thermogravimetric analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    High performance polymeric materials are finding increased use in aerospace applications. Proposed high speed aircraft will require materials to withstand high temperatures in an oxidative atmosphere for long periods of time. It is essential that accurate estimates be made of the performance of these materials at the given conditions of temperature and time. Temperatures of 350 F (177 C) and times of 60,000 to 100,000 hours are anticipated. In order to survey a large number of high performance polymeric materials on a reasonable time scale, some form of accelerated testing must be performed. A knowledge of the rate of a process can be used to predict the lifetime of that process. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has frequently been used to determine kinetic information for degradation reactions in polymeric materials. Flynn and Wall studied a number of methods for using TGA experiments to determine kinetic information in polymer reactions. Kinetic parameters, such as the apparent activation energy and the frequency factor, can be determined in such experiments. Recently, researchers at the McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratory suggested that a graph of the logarithm of the frequency factor against the apparent activation energy can be used to predict long-term thermo-oxidative stability for polymeric materials. Such a graph has been called a kinetic map. In this study, thermogravimetric analyses were performed in air to study the thermo-oxidative degradation of several high performance polymers and to plot their kinetic parameters on a kinetic map.

  3. Photochemical ozone creation potentials for oxygenated volatile organic compounds: sensitivity to variations in kinetic and mechanistic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkin, Michael E.; Hayman, Garry D.

    The sensitivity of Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials (POCP) to a series of systematic variations in the rates and products of reactions of radical intermediates and oxygenated products is investigated for the C 4 alcohols, 1-butanol ( n-butanol) and 2-methyl-1-propanol ( i-butanol), using the recently developed Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) as the base case. The POCP values are determined from the calculated formation of ozone in the boundary layer over a period of approximately five days along an idealised straight line trajectory, using a photochemical trajectory model and methodology described in detail previously. The results allow the relative impacts on calculated ozone formation of various classes of chemical reaction within the degradation chemistry to be assessed. The calculated POCP is found to be very insensitive to many of the changes investigated. However, it is found to be sensitive to variations in the rate coefficient for the initiating reaction with OH ( kOH), although the sensitivity decreases with increasing kOH. The POCP appears to vary approximately linearly with kOH at low values (i.e. kOH less than ca. 4×10 -13 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1), whereas at high reactivities (i.e. kOH greater than ca. 4×10 -11 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1), the calculated POCP value is comparatively insensitive to the precise value of kOH. The POCP is also very sensitive to mechanistic changes which influence the yields of unreactive oxygenated products (i.e. those with OH reactivities below ca. 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1), for example acetone. The propensity of the organic compound to produce organic nitrates (which act as comparatively unreactive reservoirs for free radicals and NO x) also appears to have a notable influence on the calculated POCP. Recently reported information relevant to the degradation of oxygenated VOCs is then used to update the chemical schemes for the 17 alcohols and glycols, 10 ethers and glycol ethers, and 8 esters included in the MCM

  4. Magnetic hyperthermia properties of nanoparticles inside lysosomes using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations: Influence of key parameters and dipolar interactions, and evidence for strong spatial variation of heating power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, R. P.; Carrey, J.; Respaud, M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the influence of dipolar interactions in magnetic hyperthermia experiments is of crucial importance for fine optimization of nanoparticle (NP) heating power. In this study we use a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm to calculate hysteresis loops that correctly account for both time and temperature. This algorithm is shown to correctly reproduce the high-frequency hysteresis loop of both superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic NPs without any ad hoc or artificial parameters. The algorithm is easily parallelizable with a good speed-up behavior, which considerably decreases the calculation time on several processors and enables the study of assemblies of several thousands of NPs. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of magnetic NPs dispersed inside spherical lysosomes is studied as a function of several key parameters: volume concentration, applied magnetic field, lysosome size, NP diameter, and anisotropy. The influence of these parameters is illustrated and comprehensively explained. In summary, magnetic interactions increase the coercive field, saturation field, and hysteresis area of major loops. However, for small amplitude magnetic fields such as those used in magnetic hyperthermia, the heating power as a function of concentration can increase, decrease, or display a bell shape, depending on the relationship between the applied magnetic field and the coercive/saturation fields of the NPs. The hysteresis area is found to be well correlated with the parallel or antiparallel nature of the dipolar field acting on each particle. The heating power of a given NP is strongly influenced by a local concentration involving approximately 20 neighbors. Because this local concentration strongly decreases upon approaching the surface, the heating power increases or decreases in the vicinity of the lysosome membrane. The amplitude of variation reaches more than one order of magnitude in certain conditions. This transition occurs on a thickness corresponding to approximately

  5. qPIPSA: Relating enzymatic kinetic parameters and interaction fields

    PubMed Central

    Gabdoulline, Razif R; Stein, Matthias; Wade, Rebecca C

    2007-01-01

    . Outliers may arise due to variation in the importance of different contributions to the kinetic parameters, such as protein stability and conformational changes. The qPIPSA approach can assist in the validation as well as estimation of kinetic parameters, and provide insights into enzyme mechanism. PMID:17919319

  6. Determination of kinetic parameters for biomass combustion.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, A; Pizarro, C; García, R; Bueno, J L; Lavín, A G

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a wide database of kinetic data for the most common biomass by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). Due to the characteristic parameters of DTG curves, a two-stage reaction model is proposed and the kinetic parameters obtained from model-based methods with energy activation values for first and second stages in the range 1.75·10(4)-1.55·10(5)J/mol and 1.62·10(4)-2.37·10(5)J/mol, respectively. However, it has been found that Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose model-free methods are not suitable to determine the kinetic parameters of biomass combustion since the assumptions of these two methods were not accomplished in the full range of the combustion process. PMID:27233095

  7. Variation of Parameters in Differential Equations (A Variation in Making Sense of Variation of Parameters)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Terry; Rai, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    The method of variation of parameters can be found in most undergraduate textbooks on differential equations. The method leads to solutions of the non-homogeneous equation of the form y = u[subscript 1]y[subscript 1] + u[subscript 2]y[subscript 2], a sum of function products using solutions to the homogeneous equation y[subscript 1] and…

  8. The use of automated parameter searches to improve ion channel kinetics for neural modeling.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Eric B; Edgerton, Jeremy R; Jaeger, Dieter

    2011-10-01

    The voltage and time dependence of ion channels can be regulated, notably by phosphorylation, interaction with phospholipids, and binding to auxiliary subunits. Many parameter variation studies have set conductance densities free while leaving kinetic channel properties fixed as the experimental constraints on the latter are usually better than on the former. Because individual cells can tightly regulate their ion channel properties, we suggest that kinetic parameters may be profitably set free during model optimization in order to both improve matches to data and refine kinetic parameters. To this end, we analyzed the parameter optimization of reduced models of three electrophysiologically characterized and morphologically reconstructed globus pallidus neurons. We performed two automated searches with different types of free parameters. First, conductance density parameters were set free. Even the best resulting models exhibited unavoidable problems which were due to limitations in our channel kinetics. We next set channel kinetics free for the optimized density matches and obtained significantly improved model performance. Some kinetic parameters consistently shifted to similar new values in multiple runs across three models, suggesting the possibility for tailored improvements to channel models. These results suggest that optimized channel kinetics can improve model matches to experimental voltage traces, particularly for channels characterized under different experimental conditions than recorded data to be matched by a model. The resulting shifts in channel kinetics from the original template provide valuable guidance for future experimental efforts to determine the detailed kinetics of channel isoforms and possible modulated states in particular types of neurons. PMID:21243419

  9. Seasonal variations of haematological parameters in athletes.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The influence of training and competition workloads is crucial for evaluation of longitudinal haematological data in athletes. There are only a few papers on the variation of haematological parameters during long-lasting periods and, especially, during an entire competitive season. We summarized that some haematological parameters can be influenced by long-term training and competition periods. Haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Ht) are decreased during the more intense periods of training, throughout the season. In different sport disciplines, the decline of Hb ranges from 3 to 8% during the competition season, while the range of reticulocytes (Ret%) varies from 5 to 21%. Reticulocytes are also decreased after long periods of training and competitions, but their variation is not necessarily associated with that of Hb. The qualitative variations (trend of modifications) of haematological parameters are roughly independent of the sport discipline, but quantitatively (amount of modifications) dependent on sport discipline. The modifications are more evident in cycling, running, swimming than they are in football and rugby. The variations of haematological parameters within the same sport discipline are qualitatively concordant and quantitatively different among separate but consecutive competitive seasons. These findings are described in aerobic and team sports sportsmen. The definition of reliable reference ranges in sportsmen would only be possible by following the best laboratory practices. For antidoping purposes more studies investigating haematological modifications during the season are advisable. PMID:20842374

  10. Obtaining and estimating kinetic parameters from the literature.

    PubMed

    Neves, Susana R

    2011-09-20

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes, slides, and a student assignment for a lecture on strategies for the development of mathematical models. Many biological processes can be represented mathematically as systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Simulations with these mathematical models can provide mechanistic insight into the underlying biology of the system. A prerequisite for running simulations, however, is the identification of kinetic parameters that correspond closely with the biological reality. This lecture presents an overview of the steps required for the development of kinetic ODE models and describes experimental methods that can yield kinetic parameters and concentrations of reactants, which are essential for the development of kinetic models. Strategies are provided to extract necessary parameters from published data. The homework assignment requires students to find parameters appropriate for a well-studied biological regulatory system, convert these parameters into appropriate units, and interpret how different values of these parameters may lead to different biological behaviors. PMID:21934111

  11. Obtaining and Estimating Kinetic Parameters from the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Susana R.

    2014-01-01

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes, slides, and a student assignment for a lecture on strategies for the development of mathematical models. Many biological processes can be represented mathematically as systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Simulations with these mathematical models can provide mechanistic insight into the underlying biology of the system. A prerequisite for running simulations, however, is the identification of kinetic parameters that correspond closely with the biological reality. This lecture presents an overview of the steps required for the development of kinetic ODE models and describes experimental methods that can yield kinetic parameters and concentrations of reactants, which are essential for the development of kinetic models. Strategies are provided to extract necessary parameters from published data. The homework assignment requires students to find parameters appropriate for a well-studied biological regulatory system, convert these parameters into appropriate units, and interpret how different values of these parameters may lead to different biological behaviors. PMID:21934111

  12. UPRE method for total variation parameter selection

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlberg, Brendt; Lin, Youzuo

    2008-01-01

    Total Variation (TV) Regularization is an important method for solving a wide variety of inverse problems in image processing. In order to optimize the reconstructed image, it is important to choose the optimal regularization parameter. The Unbiased Predictive Risk Estimator (UPRE) has been shown to give a very good estimate of this parameter for Tikhonov Regularization. In this paper we propose an approach to extend UPRE method to the TV problem. However, applying the extended UPRE is impractical in the case of inverse problems such as de blurring, due to the large scale of the associated linear problem. We also propose an approach to reducing the large scale problem to a small problem, significantly reducing computational requirements while providing a good approximation to the original problem.

  13. Macroscopic Kinetic Effect of Cell-to-Cell Variation in Biochemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Pan-Jun; Price, Nathan D.

    2010-04-01

    Genetically identical cells under the same environmental conditions can show strong variations in protein copy numbers due to inherently stochastic events in individual cells. We here develop a theoretical framework to address how variations in enzyme abundance affect the collective kinetics of metabolic reactions observed within a population of cells. Kinetic parameters measured at the cell population level are shown to be systematically deviated from those of single cells, even within populations of homogeneous parameters. Because of these considerations, Michaelis-Menten kinetics can even be inappropriate to apply at the population level. Our findings elucidate a novel origin of discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro kinetics, and offer potential utility for analysis of single-cell metabolomic data.

  14. Kinetic parameters of some tissue equivalent thermoluminescence materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitis, G.; Furetta, C.; Prokic, M.; Prokic, V.

    2000-06-01

    The paper reports a study on the kinetic parameters of some thermoluminescent tissue equivalent materials recently prepared in Vinca Institute: Li2B4O7:Mn,Si, Li2B4O7:Cu, Li2B4O7:Cu,In and MgB4O7:Dy,Na. The kinetics parameters have been determined using several methods. The temperature lag effect, which could produce large errors in the parameters' determination when they are determined using high heating rates, has also been taken into consideration.

  15. Estimation of beech pyrolysis kinetic parameters by Shuffled Complex Evolution.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yanming; Wang, Changjian; Chaos, Marcos; Chen, Ruiyu; Lu, Shouxiang

    2016-01-01

    The pyrolysis kinetics of a typical biomass energy feedstock, beech, was investigated based on thermogravimetric analysis over a wide heating rate range from 5K/min to 80K/min. A three-component (corresponding to hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) parallel decomposition reaction scheme was applied to describe the experimental data. The resulting kinetic reaction model was coupled to an evolutionary optimization algorithm (Shuffled Complex Evolution, SCE) to obtain model parameters. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study in which SCE has been used in the context of thermogravimetry. The kinetic parameters were simultaneously optimized against data for 10, 20 and 60K/min heating rates, providing excellent fits to experimental data. Furthermore, it was shown that the optimized parameters were applicable to heating rates (5 and 80K/min) beyond those used to generate them. Finally, the predicted results based on optimized parameters were contrasted with those based on the literature. PMID:26551654

  16. Breakdown parameter for kinetic modeling of multiscale gas flows.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jianping; Dongari, Nishanth; Reese, Jason M; Zhang, Yonghao

    2014-06-01

    Multiscale methods built purely on the kinetic theory of gases provide information about the molecular velocity distribution function. It is therefore both important and feasible to establish new breakdown parameters for assessing the appropriateness of a fluid description at the continuum level by utilizing kinetic information rather than macroscopic flow quantities alone. We propose a new kinetic criterion to indirectly assess the errors introduced by a continuum-level description of the gas flow. The analysis, which includes numerical demonstrations, focuses on the validity of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations and corresponding kinetic models and reveals that the new criterion can consistently indicate the validity of continuum-level modeling in both low-speed and high-speed flows at different Knudsen numbers. PMID:25019910

  17. Determining crystal growth kinetic parameters using optical fibre sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boerkamp, M.; Lamb, D. W.; Lye, P. G.

    2012-12-01

    The capability of an 'intrinsic exposed core optical fibre sensor' (IECOFS) as a monitoring device of scale formation has been evaluated. The IECOFS has been used to measure kinetics parameters of calcium carbonate heterogeneous crystal growth such as the activation energy, the crystal growth rate and the induction time. The IECOFS was able to evaluate crystal growth inhibition through the use of chemical inhibitors.

  18. Least-squares estimation of batch culture kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Ong, S L

    1983-10-01

    This article concerns the development of a simple and effective least-squares procedure for estimating the kinetic parameters in Monod expressions from batch culture data. The basic approach employed in this work was to translate the problem of parameter estimation to a mathematical model containing a single decision variable. The resulting model was then solved by an efficient one-dimensional search algorithm which can be adapted to any microcomputer or advanced programmable calculator. The procedure was tested on synthetic data (substrate concentrations) with different types and levels of error. The effect of endogeneous respiration on the estimated values of the kinetic parameters was also assessed. From the results of these analyses the least-squares procedure developed was concluded to be very effective. PMID:18548565

  19. Spectroscopic determination of kinetic parameters for frequency sweeping Alfven eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lesur, M.; Idomura, Y.; Shinohara, K.; Garbet, X.

    2010-12-15

    A method for analyzing fundamental kinetic plasma parameters, such as linear drive and external damping rate, based on experimental observations of chirping Alfven eigenmodes, is presented. The method, which relies on new semiempirical laws for nonlinear chirping characteristics, consists of fitting procedures between the so-called Berk-Breizman model and the experiment in a quasiperiodic chirping regime. This approach is applied to the toroidicity induced Alfven eigenmode (TAE) on JT-60 Upgrade (JT-60U) [N. Oyama et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104007 (2009)], which yields an estimation of the kinetic parameters and suggests the existence of TAEs far from marginal stability. Two collision models are considered, and it is shown that dynamical friction and velocity-space diffusion are essential to reproduce nonlinear features observed in experiments. The results are validated by recovering measured growth and decay of perturbation amplitude and by estimating collision frequencies from experimental equilibrium data.

  20. Variational energy principle for compressible, baroclinic flow. 1: First and second variations of total kinetic action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    The case of a cold gas in the absence of external force fields is considered. Since the only energy involved is kinetic energy, the total kinetic action (i.e., the space-time integral of the kinetic energy density) should serve as the total free-energy functional in this case, and as such should be a local minimum for all possible fluctuations about stable flow. This conjecture is tested by calculating explicit, manifestly covariant expressions for the first and second variations of the total kinetic action in the context of Lagrangian kinematics. The general question of the correlation between physical stability and the convexity of any action integral that can be interpreted as the total free-energy functional of the flow is discussed and illustrated for the cases of rectillinear and rotating shearing flows.

  1. Evaluation of kinetic parameters for water soluble crystals by thermo gravimetric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rama, S.; Surendra Dilip, C.; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana

    2015-01-01

    This work elevates the relevance of kinetic parameters of nucleation and thermal decomposition for water soluble crystals. The positive soluble Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) and negative soluble Lithium Sulfate Monohydrate (LSMH) materials were chosen for the kinetic evaluation. The results obtained from the classical nucleation theory are verified with the kinetic parameters which are evaluated from thermo gravimetric analysis. Nucleation parameters of a crystallization process such as interfacial energy (σ), volume free energy (ΔGv), critical energy barrier for nucleation (ΔG*), radius of the critical nucleus (r*) and nucleation rate (J) of the positive (KDP) and negative solubility (LSMH) crystals are determined from the classical nucleation theory of solubility-enthalpy relation. The kinetic parameters viz. the order of reaction, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy of activation, frequency factor, and entropy of activation are obtained from the TG based models viz. Horowitz-Metzger, Coats-Redfern and Piloyan-Novikova. The effect of varying temperature with relative variation on Gibbs free energy for both positive and negative solubility crystals is also discussed. The developed model holds good for both positive and negative solubility crystals.

  2. Vibroacoustic test plan evaluation: Parameter variation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, C. V.; Gongloef, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    Statistical decision models are shown to provide a viable method of evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternate vibroacoustic test plans and the associated test levels. The methodology developed provides a major step toward the development of a realistic tool to quantitatively tailor test programs to specific payloads. Testing is considered at the no test, component, subassembly, or system level of assembly. Component redundancy and partial loss of flight data are considered. Most and probabilistic costs are considered, and incipient failures resulting from ground tests are treated. Optimums defining both component and assembly test levels are indicated for the modified test plans considered. modeling simplifications must be considered in interpreting the results relative to a particular payload. New parameters introduced were a no test option, flight by flight failure probabilities, and a cost to design components for higher vibration requirements. Parameters varied were the shuttle payload bay internal acoustic environment, the STS launch cost, the component retest/repair cost, and the amount of redundancy in the housekeeping section of the payload reliability model.

  3. Kinetic parameters of composite propellants from thermogravimetric data

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, V.K.; Bardon, M.F.; Stowe, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents a method of estimating all three global kinetic parameters, A (preexponential factor), E (energy of activation), and n (reaction order), from the results of a single dynamic (nonisothermal) thermogravimetry (TG) run on a propellant sample. The procedure will also show how satisfactorily pyrolysis of the propellant can be represented by the simple relation of Eq. 4 (d{alpha}/dT = (1{minus}{alpha}){sup n}(A/{phi})e{sup {minus}E/RT}) with constant values of A, E, and n where {alpha} = fractional reaction, T = temperature, {phi} = programmed increase in T, and R = universal gas constant.

  4. [Photosynthetic Parameters Inversion Algorithm Study Based on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Induction Kinetics Curve].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiao-han; Zhang, Yu-jun; Yin, Gao-fang; Shi, Chao-yi; Yu, Xiao-ya; Zhao, Nan-jing; Liu, Wen-qing

    2015-08-01

    The fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction curve contains rich information of photosynthesis. It can reflect various information of vegetation, such as, the survival status, the pathological condition and the physiology trends under the stress state. Through the acquisition of algae fluorescence and induced optical signal, the fast phase of chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics curve was fitted. Based on least square fitting method, we introduced adaptive minimum error approaching method for fast multivariate nonlinear regression fitting toward chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics curve. We realized Fo (fixedfluorescent), Fm (maximum fluorescence yield), σPSII (PSII functional absorption cross section) details parameters inversion and the photosynthetic parameters inversion of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. And we also studied physiological variation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa under the stress of Cu(2+). PMID:26672292

  5. On a variational approach to some parameter estimation problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.

    1985-01-01

    Examples (1-D seismic, large flexible structures, bioturbation, nonlinear population dispersal) in which a variation setting can provide a convenient framework for convergence and stability arguments in parameter estimation problems are considered. Some of these examples are 1-D seismic, large flexible structures, bioturbation, and nonlinear population dispersal. Arguments for convergence and stability via a variational approach of least squares formulations of parameter estimation problems for partial differential equations is one aspect of the problem considered.

  6. Cell population kinetic parameters for acute epidermal reactions in man

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, L.

    1986-11-01

    Cell population kinetic parameters for acute reactions in squamous epithelium were estimated using available data on skin tolerance doses. Roughly equivalent doses for kilovoltage radiation delivered in equal daily fractions, as reported by F. Ellis (Br. J. Radiol. 15, 348-350 (1942)) and by R. Paterson (The Treatment of Malignant Disease by Radium and X-Rays. Edward Arnold, London, 1948), were combined with data for nonstandard fractionation at longer intervals of 1 or 2 weeks. By analyzing the combined data set, well-determined parameters could be derived. The data show that repopulation, with a potential cell doubling time of about 7 days, must occur in irradiated human skin, though this may possibly be limited to no more than seven doublings. The parameters derived are distinctly different from those associated with late-reacting dose-limiting tissues. The main difference is the steeper initial slope of the computed survival curve, that is a larger J parameter (multitarget model) or a larger alpha component (linear-quadratic model).

  7. Parameter estimation for models of ligninolytic and cellulolytic enzyme kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gangsheng; Post, Wilfred M; Mayes, Melanie; Frerichs, Joshua T; Jagadamma, Sindhu

    2012-01-01

    While soil enzymes have been explicitly included in the soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition models, there is a serious lack of suitable data for model parameterization. This study provides well-documented enzymatic parameters for application in enzyme-driven SOC decomposition models from a compilation and analysis of published measurements. In particular, we developed appropriate kinetic parameters for five typical ligninolytic and cellulolytic enzymes ( -glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, endo-glucanase, peroxidase, and phenol oxidase). The kinetic parameters included the maximum specific enzyme activity (Vmax) and half-saturation constant (Km) in the Michaelis-Menten equation. The activation energy (Ea) and the pH optimum and sensitivity (pHopt and pHsen) were also analyzed. pHsen was estimated by fitting an exponential-quadratic function. The Vmax values, often presented in different units under various measurement conditions, were converted into the same units at a reference temperature (20 C) and pHopt. Major conclusions are: (i) Both Vmax and Km were log-normal distributed, with no significant difference in Vmax exhibited between enzymes originating from bacteria or fungi. (ii) No significant difference in Vmax was found between cellulases and ligninases; however, there was significant difference in Km between them. (iii) Ligninases had higher Ea values and lower pHopt than cellulases; average ratio of pHsen to pHopt ranged 0.3 0.4 for the five enzymes, which means that an increase or decrease of 1.1 1.7 pH units from pHopt would reduce Vmax by 50%. (iv) Our analysis indicated that the Vmax values from lab measurements with purified enzymes were 1 2 orders of magnitude higher than those for use in SOC decomposition models under field conditions.

  8. Kinetic Parameters of Binary Iron/Oxidant Pyrolants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Mahdi Pourmortazavi, Seied; Fathollahi, Manochehr

    2012-04-01

    The thermal properties of pyrotechnic mixtures containing iron powder as fuel and KNO3, KClO3, and KClO4 as oxidants are reported. The thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis results for pure components and corresponding pyrotechnic mixtures revealed that the melting point, decomposition temperature, and rate of oxygen releasing of the oxidants have dominant effects on ignition reaction of the pyrotechnic mixtures. The apparent activation energy and activation parameters for the combustion processes were evaluated from the differential scanning calorimetry experiments. Based on the ignition temperatures obtained and the resulting kinetic data, the thermal reactivity of the pyrotechnic mixtures was found to decrease as in the order Fe + KClO3 > Fe + KNO3 > Fe + KClO4.

  9. Pyrolysis of Sawdust, Rice Husk and Sugarcane Bagasse: Kinetic Modeling and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters using Different Optimization Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khonde, Ruta Dhanram; Chaurasia, Ashish Subhash

    2015-04-01

    The present study provides the kinetic model to describe the pyrolysis of sawdust, rice-husk and sugarcane bagasse as biomass. The kinetic scheme used for modelling of primary pyrolysis consisting of the two parallel reactions giving gaseous volatiles and solid char. Estimation of kinetic parameters for pyrolysis process has been carried out for temperature range of 773-1,173 K. As there are serious issues regarding non-convergence of some of the methods or solutions converging to local-optima, the proposed kinetic model is optimized to predict the best values of kinetic parameters for the system using three approaches—Two-dimensional surface fitting non-linear regression technique, MS-Excel Solver Tool and COMSOL software. The model predictions are in agreement with experimental data over a wide range of pyrolysis conditions. The estimated value of kinetic parameters are compared with earlier researchers and found to be matching well.

  10. Unscented Kalman filter with parameter identifiability analysis for the estimation of multiple parameters in kinetic models.

    PubMed

    Baker, Syed Murtuza; Poskar, C Hart; Junker, Björn H

    2011-01-01

    In systems biology, experimentally measured parameters are not always available, necessitating the use of computationally based parameter estimation. In order to rely on estimated parameters, it is critical to first determine which parameters can be estimated for a given model and measurement set. This is done with parameter identifiability analysis. A kinetic model of the sucrose accumulation in the sugar cane culm tissue developed by Rohwer et al. was taken as a test case model. What differentiates this approach is the integration of an orthogonal-based local identifiability method into the unscented Kalman filter (UKF), rather than using the more common observability-based method which has inherent limitations. It also introduces a variable step size based on the system uncertainty of the UKF during the sensitivity calculation. This method identified 10 out of 12 parameters as identifiable. These ten parameters were estimated using the UKF, which was run 97 times. Throughout the repetitions the UKF proved to be more consistent than the estimation algorithms used for comparison. PMID:21989173

  11. MPC for LPV systems with bounded parameter variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungers, Marc; Oliveira, Ricardo C. L. F.; Peres, Pedro L. D.

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the model predictive control (MPC) design problem for systems which are linearly dependent on a time-varying parameter. The main novelty is that, motivated by practical issues, the bounds on the rate of variation of the parameters are taken into account in the control design. Moreover, a Lyapunov function depending multiaffinely on the parameters computed at a set of instants of time and a parameter-dependent control gain are used to provide an upper bound to a quadratic performance index. The solution is obtained by means of a semidefinite programming algorithm. Examples illustrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  12. Kinetic parameters of uracil dosimeter in simulated extraterrestrial UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, G.; Gróf, P.; Bérces, A.; Patel, M. R.; Lammer, H.; Rontó, Gy.

    Studies of the solar UV environment on Earth 2.0 Gyr to 3.8 Gyr ago suggest that the terrestrial atmosphere was essentially anoxic, resulting in an ozone column abundance insufficient for protecting the planetary surface in the UV-B (280 nm - 315 nm) and the UV-C (200 nm - 280 nm) ranges. Since, short wavelength solar UV radiation in the UV-B and UV-C range penetrated through the atmosphere to the unprotected early Earth's surface, associated biological consequences may be expected. We discuss experimental data obtained as follows: Radiation sources applied were solar simulator and high power deuterium lamp, the wavelength were adjusted by interference filters (210, 230, 250 nm) and the irradiances were measured by OL754 spectroradiometer. The photo-reverse effect depends highly on the wavelength of the exposed radiation. Shorter wavelength UV radiation of about 200 nm is strongly effective in monomerization, while the longer wavelengths prefer the production of dimerization. In case of polychromatic light, like in space or on a planetary surface which is unprotected by an ozone layer the two processes run parallel. We could demonstrate experimentally, for the case of a uracil thin-layer that the photo-reaction process of the nucleotides can be both dimerization and the reverse process: monomerization. These results are important for the study of solar UV effects on organisms in the early terrestrial environment as well as for the search for life on Mars since we can show that biological harmful effects can also be reduced by shorter wavelength UV radiation, which is of importance in reducing DNA damages provoked by wavelengths longer than about 240 nm. Our earlier results showed that dimerization of the pyrimidin base uracil can be described by a first order kinetics, and this reaction gives the possibility to determine the dose of the UV source applied. This work is a theoretical and experimental approach to the relevant parameters of the first order kinetics.

  13. Pseudohyphal variations of yeasts exposed to specific space flight parameters.

    PubMed

    Volz, P A; Hunter, R L

    1998-01-01

    Phenotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhodotorula rubra exposed to specific parameters of space flight, which were measured both quantitatively and qualitatively, produced variations in pseudohyphal formation. Both the length of the parent and branch psuedohyphal filaments varied according to specific wavelengths and energy levels of UV light exposures when phenotypic isolates were compared with the parent or ground control isolate of each yeast species. PMID:9881461

  14. Additional Investigations of Ice Shape Sensitivity to Parameter Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Dean R.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Langhals, Tammy J.

    2006-01-01

    A second parameter sensitivity study was conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) using a 36 in. chord (0.91 m) NACA-0012 airfoil. The objective of this work was to further investigate the feasibility of using ice shape feature changes to define requirements for the simulation and measurement of SLD and appendix C icing conditions. A previous study concluded that it was feasible to use changes in ice shape features (e.g., ice horn angle, ice horn thickness, and ice shape mass) to detect relatively small variations in icing spray condition parameters (LWC, MVD, and temperature). The subject of this current investigation extends the scope of this previous work, by also examining the effect of icing tunnel spray-bar parameter variations (water pressure, air pressure) on ice shape feature changes. The approach was to vary spray-bar water pressure and air pressure, and then evaluate the effects of these parameter changes on the resulting ice shapes. This paper will provide a description of the experimental method, present selected experimental results, and conclude with an evaluation of these results.

  15. Sensitivity of acoustic predictions to variation of input parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Burley, Casey L.; Marcolini, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    Rotor noise prediction codes predict the thickness and loading noise produced by a helicopter rotor, given the blade motion, rotor operating conditions, and fluctuating force distribution over the blade surface. However, the criticality of these various inputs, and their respective effects on the predicted acoustic field, have never been fully addressed. This paper examines the importance of these inputs, and the sensitivity of the acoustic predicitions to a variation of each parameter. The effects of collective and cyclic pitch, as well as coning and cyclic flapping, are presented. Blade loading inputs are examined to determine the necessary spatial and temporal resolution, as well as the importance of the chordwise distribution. The acoustic predictions show regions in the acoustic field where significant errors occur when simplified blade motions or blade loadings are used. An assessment of the variation in the predicted acoustic field is balanced by a consideration of Central Processing Unit (CPU) time necessary for the various approximations.

  16. Sensitivity of acoustic predictions to variation of input parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Burley, Casey L.

    1991-01-01

    The noise prediction code WOPWOP predicts the thickness and loading noise produced by a helicopter rotor, given the blade motion, rotor operating conditions, and fluctuating force distribution over the blade surface. However, the criticality of these various inputs, and their respective effects on the predicted acoustic field, have never been fully addressed. This paper examines the importance of these inputs, and the sensitivity of the acoustic predictions to a variation of each parameter. The effects of collective and cyclic pitch, as well as coning and flapping, are presented. Blade loading inputs are examined to determine the necessary spatial and temporal resolution, as well as the importance of the cordwise distribution. The acoustic predictions show regions in the acoustic field where significant errors occur when simplified blade motions or blade loadings are used. An assessment of the variation in the predicted acoustic field is balanced by a consideration of CPU time necessary for the various approximations.

  17. Computation of photovoltaic parameters under lunar temperature variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Santiago, James V.

    1993-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) arrays with regenerative-fuel-cell energy storage is a prime, power-system candidate for lunar photo-power. The PV module performance decreases at higher temperatures. Surface temperature variations of the moon are extreme, the maximum (noon) temperature being 384 K. The present work utilizes detailed computations of photovoltaic parameters with computer program developed earlier for the computation of optimum bandgaps of single- and two-junction solar cells at different temperatures, and calculates the power output of single and two-junction solar modules under different configurations which constitutes an improvement over the assumption of a linear variation of efficiency with temperature. The program also calculates the necessary PV-array size to satisfy stipulated levels of day- and night-time power consumption.

  18. Describing variations of the Fisher-matrix across parameter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Björn Malte; Reischke, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Forecasts in cosmology, both with Monte Carlo Markov-chain methods and with the Fisher-matrix formalism, depend on the choice of the fiducial model because both the signal strength of any observable and the model non-linearities linking observables to cosmological parameters vary in the general case. In this paper we propose a method for extrapolating Fisher-forecasts across the space of cosmological parameters by constructing a suitable basis. We demonstrate the validity of our method with constraints on a standard dark energy model extrapolated from a ΛCDM-model, as can be expected from two-bin weak lensing tomography with an Euclid-like survey, in the parameter pairs (Ωm, σ8), (Ωm, w0) and (w0, wa). Our numerical results include very accurate extrapolations across a wide range of cosmological parameters in terms of shape, size and orientation of the parameter likelihood, and a decomposition of the change of the likelihood contours into modes, which are straightforward to interpret in a geometrical way. We find that in particular the variation of the dark energy figure of merit is well captured by our formalism.

  19. Parameter Estimates in Differential Equation Models for Chemical Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the need for devoting time in differential equations courses to modelling and the completion of the modelling process with efforts to estimate the parameters in the models using data. We estimate the parameters present in several differential equation models of chemical reactions of order n, where n = 0, 1, 2, and apply more general…

  20. Differential scanning calorimetry in determining kinetics parameter of Si oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruque, Sk. Abdul Kader Md.; Chakraborty, Supratic

    2016-05-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique is employed here to study the oxidation of silicon by solid-gas reaction at a constant heating rate. The diffusion coefficient of oxygen into silicon at 900 °C is estimated from the kinetic equation of 1-dimensional diffusion controlled growth. The diffusion coefficient, D estimated as 4.5 × 10-5 exp (1.01ev/κBT) m2/s, as is in well agreement with the standard value available in literature.

  1. Anisotropic parameter estimation using velocity variation with offset analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Herawati, I.; Saladin, M.; Pranowo, W.; Winardhie, S.; Priyono, A.

    2013-09-09

    Seismic anisotropy is defined as velocity dependent upon angle or offset. Knowledge about anisotropy effect on seismic data is important in amplitude analysis, stacking process and time to depth conversion. Due to this anisotropic effect, reflector can not be flattened using single velocity based on hyperbolic moveout equation. Therefore, after normal moveout correction, there will still be residual moveout that relates to velocity information. This research aims to obtain anisotropic parameters, ε and δ, using two proposed methods. The first method is called velocity variation with offset (VVO) which is based on simplification of weak anisotropy equation. In VVO method, velocity at each offset is calculated and plotted to obtain vertical velocity and parameter δ. The second method is inversion method using linear approach where vertical velocity, δ, and ε is estimated simultaneously. Both methods are tested on synthetic models using ray-tracing forward modelling. Results show that δ value can be estimated appropriately using both methods. Meanwhile, inversion based method give better estimation for obtaining ε value. This study shows that estimation on anisotropic parameters rely on the accuracy of normal moveout velocity, residual moveout and offset to angle transformation.

  2. k-Cone analysis: determining all candidate values for kinetic parameters on a network scale.

    PubMed

    Famili, Iman; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2005-03-01

    The absence of comprehensive measured kinetic values and the observed inconsistency in the available in vitro kinetic data has hindered the formulation of network-scale kinetic models of biochemical reaction networks. To meet this challenge we present an approach to construct a convex space, termed the k-cone, which contains all the allowable numerical values of the kinetic constants in large-scale biochemical networks. The definition of the k-cone relies on the incorporation of in vivo concentration data and a simplified approach to represent enzyme kinetics within an established constraint-based modeling approach. The k-cone approach was implemented to define the allowable combination of numerical values for a full kinetic model of human red blood cell metabolism and to study its correlated kinetic parameters. The k-cone approach can be used to determine consistency between in vitro measured kinetic values and in vivo concentration and flux measurements when used in a network-scale kinetic model. k-Cone analysis was successful in determining whether in vitro measured kinetic values used in the reconstruction of a kinetic-based model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae central metabolism could reproduce in vivo measurements. Further, the k-cone can be used to determine which numerical values of in vitro measured parameters are required to be changed in a kinetic model if in vivo measured values are not reproduced. k-Cone analysis could identify what minimum number of in vitro determined kinetic parameters needed to be adjusted in the S. cerevisiae model to be consistent with the in vivo data. Applying the k-cone analysis a priori to kinetic model development may reduce the time and effort involved in model building and parameter adjustment. With the recent developments in high-throughput profiling of metabolite concentrations at a whole-cell scale and advances in metabolomics technologies, the k-cone approach presented here may hold the promise for kinetic

  3. k-Cone Analysis: Determining All Candidate Values for Kinetic Parameters on a Network Scale

    PubMed Central

    Famili, Iman; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2005-01-01

    The absence of comprehensive measured kinetic values and the observed inconsistency in the available in vitro kinetic data has hindered the formulation of network-scale kinetic models of biochemical reaction networks. To meet this challenge we present an approach to construct a convex space, termed the k-cone, which contains all the allowable numerical values of the kinetic constants in large-scale biochemical networks. The definition of the k-cone relies on the incorporation of in vivo concentration data and a simplified approach to represent enzyme kinetics within an established constraint-based modeling approach. The k-cone approach was implemented to define the allowable combination of numerical values for a full kinetic model of human red blood cell metabolism and to study its correlated kinetic parameters. The k-cone approach can be used to determine consistency between in vitro measured kinetic values and in vivo concentration and flux measurements when used in a network-scale kinetic model. k-Cone analysis was successful in determining whether in vitro measured kinetic values used in the reconstruction of a kinetic-based model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae central metabolism could reproduce in vivo measurements. Further, the k-cone can be used to determine which numerical values of in vitro measured parameters are required to be changed in a kinetic model if in vivo measured values are not reproduced. k-Cone analysis could identify what minimum number of in vitro determined kinetic parameters needed to be adjusted in the S. cerevisiae model to be consistent with the in vivo data. Applying the k-cone analysis a priori to kinetic model development may reduce the time and effort involved in model building and parameter adjustment. With the recent developments in high-throughput profiling of metabolite concentrations at a whole-cell scale and advances in metabolomics technologies, the k-cone approach presented here may hold the promise for kinetic

  4. Estimation of kinetic parameters related to biochemical interactions between hydrogen peroxide and signal transduction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Paula M.; Antunes, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The lack of kinetic data concerning the biological effects of reactive oxygen species is slowing down the development of the field of redox signaling. Herein, we deduced and applied equations to estimate kinetic parameters from typical redox signaling experiments. H2O2-sensing mediated by the oxidation of a protein target and the switch-off of this sensor, by being converted back to its reduced form, are the two processes for which kinetic parameters are determined. The experimental data required to apply the equations deduced is the fraction of the H2O2 sensor protein in the reduced or in the oxidized state measured in intact cells or living tissues after exposure to either endogenous or added H2O2. Either non-linear fittings that do not need transformation of the experimental data or linearized plots in which deviations from the equations are easily observed can be used. The equations were shown to be valid by fitting to them virtual time courses simulated with a kinetic model. The good agreement between the kinetic parameters estimated in these fittings and those used to simulate the virtual time courses supported the accuracy of the kinetic equations deduced. Finally, equations were successfully tested with real data taken from published experiments that describe redox signaling mediated by the oxidation of two protein tyrosine phosphatases, PTP1B and SHP-2, which are two of the few H2O2-sensing proteins with known kinetic parameters. Whereas for PTP1B estimated kinetic parameters fitted in general the present knowledge, for SHP-2 results obtained suggest that reactivity toward H2O2 as well as the rate of SHP-2 regeneration back to its reduced form are higher than previously thought. In conclusion, valuable quantitative kinetic data can be estimated from typical redox signaling experiments, thus improving our understanding about the complex processes that underlie the interplay between oxidative stress and redox signaling responses. PMID:25325054

  5. A Sight on the Variation of Spectral Parameters in GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Hafizi, Mimoza; Boci, Sonila

    2010-01-21

    Gamma ray bursts (GRBs) are high energy photons detected during a short interval of time. They are signs of the most energetic events in the universe. Photons detected show a non thermal spectrum, very well described by the peak energy and two smoothly connected power laws with different slopes or indices. This spectrum is named Band spectrum and serves actually as the most important source of information on their physical origin. It characterizes not only the overall emission, but also the instantaneous one, found in small successive intervals of time during the event. The time-resolved spectra show an obvious evolution in energy, which is generally accepted and supported by several arguments. There is also some evidence in measuring a kind of evolution in slope parameters, which would be considered as a serious source of information for the physical mechanism. In this work we try to examine the limit in observation bands, which we suspect as a reason for the apparent variation in time of spectral indices. Our work is based on a numeric and certified code. We simulate GRBs assuming synchrotron emission in the internal shocks model. For each time-resolved spectrum we find spectral parameters based on the Band function.

  6. Further examples of seasonal variations of ELF radio propagation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannister, Peter R.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we use experimentally determined values of effective attenuation rate, excitation factor, and relative phase velocity, along with the theoretical expressions derived by C. and P. Greifinger, to establish the seasonal variation of representative ionospheric conductivity parameters. These parameters include the reflection heights h0 and h1 (or hE), inverse scale height β, and reference height H. The basis for this analysis is provided by the 1990-1992 76-Hz field strength measurements taken at four land-based ELF monitoring sites established by the U.S. Navy. The source for these measurements was the U.S. Navy's dual-antenna transmitting system (WTF/MTF). The main conclusion of this paper is that the summertime and January nighttime attenuation rates are substantially lower than during other times of the year. This nighttime attenuation rate decrease appears to be mainly due to an increase in the inverse scale height β, rather than to an increase in the reflection heights h0 and hE.

  7. Simulation of the interannual variations of aerosols in China: role of variations in meteorological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Q.; Liao, H.

    2014-09-01

    We used the nested grid version of the global three-dimensional Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to examine the interannual variations (IAVs) of aerosols over heavily polluted regions in China for years 2004-2012. The role of variations in meteorological parameters was quantified by a simulation with fixed anthropogenic emissions at year 2006 levels and changes in meteorological parameters over 2004-2012. Simulated PM2.5 (particles with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less) aerosol concentrations exhibited large IAVs in North China (NC; 32-42° N, 110-120° E), with regionally averaged absolute percent departure from the mean (APDM) values of 17, 14, 14, and 11% in December-January-February (DJF), March-April-May (MAM), June-July-August (JJA), and September-October-November (SON), respectively. Over South China (SC; 22-32° N, 110-120° E), the IAVs in PM2.5 were found to be the largest in JJA, with the regional mean APDM values of 14% in JJA and of about 9% in other seasons. The concentrations of PM2.5 over the Sichuan Basin (SCB; 27-33° N, 102-110° E) were simulated to have the smallest IAVs among the polluted regions examined in this work, with APDM values of 8-9% in all seasons. All aerosol species (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon) were simulated to have the largest IAVs over NC in DJF, corresponding to the large variations in meteorological parameters over NC in this season. Process analyses were performed to identify the key meteorological parameters that determined the IAVs of different aerosol species in different regions. While the variations in temperature and specific humidity, which influenced the gas-phase formation of sulfate, jointly determined the IAVs of sulfate over NC in both DJF and JJA, wind (or convergence of wind) in DJF and precipitation in JJA were the dominant meteorological factors to influence IAVs of sulfate over SC and the SCB. The IAVs in temperature and specific humidity

  8. Determining the Kinetic Parameters Characteristic of Microalgal Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Sancho, Maria Eugenie; And Others

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students obtain a growth curve for algae, identify the exponential and linear growth phases, and calculate the parameters which characterize both phases is described. The procedure, a list of required materials, experimental conditions, analytical technique, and a discussion of the interpretations of individual results are…

  9. Validity of repeated initial rise thermoluminescence kinetic parameter determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Kierstead, J.A.; Levy, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    The validity of thermoluminescence (TL) analysis by repeated initial rise measurements has been studied by computer simulation. Thermoluminescence described by 1st Order, 2nd Order, General One Trap and Interactive TL Kinetics was investigated. In the simulation each of the repeated temperature increase and decrease cycles contains a linear temperature increase followed by a decrease appropriate for radiative cooling, i.e. the latter is approximated by a decreasing exponential. The activation energies computed from the simulated emission are readily compared with those used to compute the TL emission. In all cases studied, the repeated initial rise technique provides reliable results only for single peak glow curves or for glow curves containing peaks that do not overlap and, if sufficiently separated, the lowest temperature peak in multipeak curves. Also the temperatures, or temperature cycles corresponding to correct activation energies occur on the low temperature side of the normal glow curve, often well below the peak temperature. A variety of misleading and/or incorrect results an be obtained when the repeated initial rise technique is applied to TL systems that produce overlapping peaks in the usual glow curve. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Simultaneous determination of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters from fast-reaction kinetic measurements.

    PubMed

    Trimm, H H; Ushio, H; Patel, R C

    1981-10-01

    A combined stopped-flow temperature-jump apparatus interfaced with a dedicated microcomputer has been used to study the complexation reaction of iron(III) with thiocyanate in aqueous solution. Kinetic rate-constants (k(f) = 143 l.mole(-1) .sec(-1) from T-jump, k(f) = 150 l.mole(-1) .sec(-1) from stopped flow), equilibrium constants (K = 143 from T-jump, K = 150 from stopped flow) and the thermodynamic enthalpy change (DeltaH(c) = -6.7 kJ/mole) could be independently determined from the simultaneous application of the two techniques. PMID:18962997

  11. Inverse modeling approach for evaluation of kinetic parameters of a biofilm reactor using tabu search.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B Shiva; Venkateswarlu, Ch

    2014-08-01

    The complex nature of biological reactions in biofilm reactors often poses difficulties in analyzing such reactors experimentally. Mathematical models could be very useful for their design and analysis. However, application of biofilm reactor models to practical problems proves somewhat ineffective due to the lack of knowledge of accurate kinetic models and uncertainty in model parameters. In this work, we propose an inverse modeling approach based on tabu search (TS) to estimate the parameters of kinetic and film thickness models. TS is used to estimate these parameters as a consequence of the validation of the mathematical models of the process with the aid of measured data obtained from an experimental fixed-bed anaerobic biofilm reactor involving the treatment of pharmaceutical industry wastewater. The results evaluated for different modeling configurations of varying degrees of complexity illustrate the effectiveness of TS for accurate estimation of kinetic and film thickness model parameters of the biofilm process. The results show that the two-dimensional mathematical model with Edward kinetics (with its optimum parameters as mu(max)rho(s)/Y = 24.57, Ks = 1.352 and Ki = 102.36) and three-parameter film thickness expression (with its estimated parameters as a = 0.289 x 10(-5), b = 1.55 x 10(-4) and c = 15.2 x 10(-6)) better describes the biofilm reactor treating the industry wastewater. PMID:25306783

  12. Influence of the mutable kinetic parameters on the adhesion and debonding of thin viscoelastic films.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Abir; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2016-09-01

    Detachment of a surface from a viscoelastic layer, such as a film of glue, engenders bridges between the surfaces until separation. Such surface instabilities arising during contact and detachment of viscoelastic films with rigid contactors have been theoretically explored by linear stability analysis and nonlinear simulations. The contact instabilities of viscoelastic materials are found to manifest in either a 'critical' or a 'dominant' mode in which the former is preferred when the contactor is slowly brought near the film while the latter manifests when the film is 'hard-pressed' against it. The nonlinear analysis considers the movement of contactor during adhesion-debonding cycle, which uncovers that the kinetic parameters can overshadow the thermodynamically predicted area of contact, average force for pull-off, energy of contactor-film separation, and pathways of debonding. Three distinct pathways of debonding - peeling, catastrophic column collapse, and column coalescence, are found to manifest with the variation in the ratio of the elastic to viscous compliances of the viscoelastic film. The study also reveals that in the dominant mode of instability, a smaller length scale with a larger area contact between the contactor and film can develop patterns having aspect ratio ∼10 times larger than the same obtained from elastic film. PMID:27254253

  13. Fuzzy Stochastic Petri Nets for Modeling Biological Systems with Uncertain Kinetic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Heiner, Monika; Yang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic Petri nets (SPNs) have been widely used to model randomness which is an inherent feature of biological systems. However, for many biological systems, some kinetic parameters may be uncertain due to incomplete, vague or missing kinetic data (often called fuzzy uncertainty), or naturally vary, e.g., between different individuals, experimental conditions, etc. (often called variability), which has prevented a wider application of SPNs that require accurate parameters. Considering the strength of fuzzy sets to deal with uncertain information, we apply a specific type of stochastic Petri nets, fuzzy stochastic Petri nets (FSPNs), to model and analyze biological systems with uncertain kinetic parameters. FSPNs combine SPNs and fuzzy sets, thereby taking into account both randomness and fuzziness of biological systems. For a biological system, SPNs model the randomness, while fuzzy sets model kinetic parameters with fuzzy uncertainty or variability by associating each parameter with a fuzzy number instead of a crisp real value. We introduce a simulation-based analysis method for FSPNs to explore the uncertainties of outputs resulting from the uncertainties associated with input parameters, which works equally well for bounded and unbounded models. We illustrate our approach using a yeast polarization model having an infinite state space, which shows the appropriateness of FSPNs in combination with simulation-based analysis for modeling and analyzing biological systems with uncertain information. PMID:26910830

  14. Fuzzy Stochastic Petri Nets for Modeling Biological Systems with Uncertain Kinetic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fei; Heiner, Monika; Yang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic Petri nets (SPNs) have been widely used to model randomness which is an inherent feature of biological systems. However, for many biological systems, some kinetic parameters may be uncertain due to incomplete, vague or missing kinetic data (often called fuzzy uncertainty), or naturally vary, e.g., between different individuals, experimental conditions, etc. (often called variability), which has prevented a wider application of SPNs that require accurate parameters. Considering the strength of fuzzy sets to deal with uncertain information, we apply a specific type of stochastic Petri nets, fuzzy stochastic Petri nets (FSPNs), to model and analyze biological systems with uncertain kinetic parameters. FSPNs combine SPNs and fuzzy sets, thereby taking into account both randomness and fuzziness of biological systems. For a biological system, SPNs model the randomness, while fuzzy sets model kinetic parameters with fuzzy uncertainty or variability by associating each parameter with a fuzzy number instead of a crisp real value. We introduce a simulation-based analysis method for FSPNs to explore the uncertainties of outputs resulting from the uncertainties associated with input parameters, which works equally well for bounded and unbounded models. We illustrate our approach using a yeast polarization model having an infinite state space, which shows the appropriateness of FSPNs in combination with simulation-based analysis for modeling and analyzing biological systems with uncertain information. PMID:26910830

  15. Solid State Kinetic Parameters and Chemical Mechanism of the Dehydration of CoCl2.6H2O.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribas, Joan; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents an experimental example illustrating the most common methods for the determination of kinetic parameters. Discusses the different theories and equations to be applied and the mechanism derived from the kinetic results. (CW)

  16. Variational methods to estimate terrestrial ecosystem model parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahaies, Sylvain; Roulstone, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Carbon is at the basis of the chemistry of life. Its ubiquity in the Earth system is the result of complex recycling processes. Present in the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide it is adsorbed by marine and terrestrial ecosystems and stored within living biomass and decaying organic matter. Then soil chemistry and a non negligible amount of time transform the dead matter into fossil fuels. Throughout this cycle, carbon dioxide is released in the atmosphere through respiration and combustion of fossils fuels. Model-data fusion techniques allow us to combine our understanding of these complex processes with an ever-growing amount of observational data to help improving models and predictions. The data assimilation linked ecosystem carbon (DALEC) model is a simple box model simulating the carbon budget allocation for terrestrial ecosystems. Over the last decade several studies have demonstrated the relative merit of various inverse modelling strategies (MCMC, ENKF, 4DVAR) to estimate model parameters and initial carbon stocks for DALEC and to quantify the uncertainty in the predictions. Despite its simplicity, DALEC represents the basic processes at the heart of more sophisticated models of the carbon cycle. Using adjoint based methods we study inverse problems for DALEC with various data streams (8 days MODIS LAI, monthly MODIS LAI, NEE). The framework of constraint optimization allows us to incorporate ecological common sense into the variational framework. We use resolution matrices to study the nature of the inverse problems and to obtain data importance and information content for the different type of data. We study how varying the time step affect the solutions, and we show how "spin up" naturally improves the conditioning of the inverse problems.

  17. Longitudinal variations in fitting parameters for adult cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Mosca, F; Grassia, R; Leone, C A

    2014-04-01

    In patients with a cochlear implant (CI), the first critical point in processing auditory information from sound stimuli that leads to comprehension is the interface between the electrode and the cochlear nerve, which is dependent on providing appropriate current input. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the longitudinal differences in psychoacoustic fitting parameters in CI users. We studied 26 profoundly deaf adults, aged between 18 and 58 years, who had been implanted in our department between 2009 and 2011. The lowest current levels that evoked an auditory sensation (T-level) and the highest current levels that did not elicit an uncomfortable loud sensation (C-level) were recorded at the time of activation, approximately 30 days after implantation (mean 28.5 days) (T0), after one month (T1), 3 months (T3), 6 months (T6) and one year (T12). Impedance values were calculated for electrode groups: basal, middle and apical. In all cases, the same model of perimodiolar implant (Cochlear™ Nucleus(®) CI24RE) and the same surgical technique (cochleostomy) were used. The values of T-level and C-level showed significant incremental changes between T0 and T1 and between T1 and T3. T-levels in the basal regions of the cochlea were higher than in other sites. T-levels in the basal turn exhibited higher values consistent with a greater amount of fibrosis, as reported in other studies. Our findings suggest that fitting sessions should be scheduled more frequently during the first three months as indicated by the greater slope of T- and C- level variations during that time frame. PMID:24843221

  18. A novel method for measuring the concentration of chloroform based on kinetic parameters at atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuguo; Han, Haiyan; Chang, Tao; Liu, Xiuhong; Zhu, Qiaofen; Liu, Feng; Yan, Yongliang; Shen, Chengyin; Chu, Yannan

    2016-06-01

    A novel method is proposed to detect chloroform concentrations based on the kinetic parameters using ion mobility spectrometer with a negative corona discharge ion source operating at atmospheric pressure. Unlike conventional sample introduction mode, in this technique, CHCl3 enters into the drift tube from the end of drift region carried by the drift gas. There are two tails before Cl- and (CHCl3)·Cl- ion peaks, which fit to the ions formed in the drift region. Utilizing the kinetic parameters, concentration for CHCl3 can be calculated. This method not only offers a new way to get concentrations of CHCl3 under atmospheric pressure.

  19. A Comparison of Isoconversional and Model-Fitting Approaches to Kinetic Parameter Estimation and Application Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A K

    2006-05-17

    Chemical kinetic modeling has been used for many years in process optimization, estimating real-time material performance, and lifetime prediction. Chemists have tended towards developing detailed mechanistic models, while engineers have tended towards global or lumped models. Many, if not most, applications use global models by necessity, since it is impractical or impossible to develop a rigorous mechanistic model. Model fitting acquired a bad name in the thermal analysis community after that community realized a decade after other disciplines that deriving kinetic parameters for an assumed model from a single heating rate produced unreliable and sometimes nonsensical results. In its place, advanced isoconversional methods (1), which have their roots in the Friedman (2) and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (3) methods of the 1960s, have become increasingly popular. In fact, as pointed out by the ICTAC kinetics project in 2000 (4), valid kinetic parameters can be derived by both isoconversional and model fitting methods as long as a diverse set of thermal histories are used to derive the kinetic parameters. The current paper extends the understanding from that project to give a better appreciation of the strengths and weaknesses of isoconversional and model-fitting approaches. Examples are given from a variety of sources, including the former and current ICTAC round-robin exercises, data sets for materials of interest, and simulated data sets.

  20. Evaluation of Anaerobic Biofilm Reactor Kinetic Parameters Using Ant Colony Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Satya, Eswari Jujjavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Chimmiri

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Fixed bed reactors with naturally attached biofilms are increasingly used for anaerobic treatment of industry wastewaters due their effective treatment performance. The complex nature of biological reactions in biofilm processes often poses difficulty in analyzing them experimentally, and mathematical models could be very useful for their design and analysis. However, effective application of biofilm reactor models to practical problems suffers due to the lack of knowledge of accurate kinetic models and uncertainty in model parameters. In this work, an inverse modeling approach based on ant colony optimization is proposed and applied to estimate the kinetic and film thickness model parameters of wastewater treatment process in an anaerobic fixed bed biofilm reactor. Experimental data of pharmaceutical industry wastewater treatment process are used to determine the model parameters as a consequence of the solution of the rigorous mathematical models of the process. Results were evaluated for different modeling configurations derived from the combination of mathematical models, kinetic expressions, and optimization algorithms. Analysis of results showed that the two-dimensional mathematical model with Haldane kinetics better represents the pharmaceutical wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactor. The mathematical and kinetic modeling of this work forms a useful basis for the design and optimization of industry wastewater treating biofilm reactors. PMID:24065871

  1. Evaluation of Anaerobic Biofilm Reactor Kinetic Parameters Using Ant Colony Optimization.

    PubMed

    Satya, Eswari Jujjavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Chimmiri

    2013-09-01

    Fixed bed reactors with naturally attached biofilms are increasingly used for anaerobic treatment of industry wastewaters due their effective treatment performance. The complex nature of biological reactions in biofilm processes often poses difficulty in analyzing them experimentally, and mathematical models could be very useful for their design and analysis. However, effective application of biofilm reactor models to practical problems suffers due to the lack of knowledge of accurate kinetic models and uncertainty in model parameters. In this work, an inverse modeling approach based on ant colony optimization is proposed and applied to estimate the kinetic and film thickness model parameters of wastewater treatment process in an anaerobic fixed bed biofilm reactor. Experimental data of pharmaceutical industry wastewater treatment process are used to determine the model parameters as a consequence of the solution of the rigorous mathematical models of the process. Results were evaluated for different modeling configurations derived from the combination of mathematical models, kinetic expressions, and optimization algorithms. Analysis of results showed that the two-dimensional mathematical model with Haldane kinetics better represents the pharmaceutical wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactor. The mathematical and kinetic modeling of this work forms a useful basis for the design and optimization of industry wastewater treating biofilm reactors. PMID:24065871

  2. Determination of Kinetic Parameters within a Single Nonisothermal On-Flow Experiment by Nanoliter NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gomez, M Victoria; Rodriguez, Antonio M; de la Hoz, Antonio; Jimenez-Marquez, Francisco; Fratila, Raluca M; Barneveld, Peter A; Velders, Aldrik H

    2015-10-20

    Conventional methods to determine the kinetic parameters for a certain reaction require multiple, separate isothermal experiments, resulting in time- and material-consuming processes. Here, an approach to determine the kinetic information within a single nonisothermal on-flow experiment is presented, consuming less than 10 μmol of reagents and having a total measuring time of typically 10 min. This approach makes use of a microfluidic NMR chip hyphenated to a continuous-flow microreactor and is based on the capabilities of the NMR chip to analyze subnanomole quantities of material in the 25 nL detection volume. Importantly, useful data are acquired from the microreactor platform in specific isothermal and nonisothermal frames. A model fitting the experimental data enables rapid determination of kinetic parameters, as demonstrated for a library of isoxazole and pyrazole derivatives. PMID:26383715

  3. The geomagnetic secular variation S parameter: A mathematical artifact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, J. M.; Gilder, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Secular variation, the change in the Earth's magnetic field through time, reflects the energy state of the geodynamo. Secular variation is commonly quantified by the standard deviation of the angular distances of the virtual geomagnetic poles to their mean pole, known as the S value. The S value has long been thought to exhibit latitude dependence [S(λ)] whose origin is widely attributed to a combination of time-varying dipole and non-dipole components. The slope, magnitude and uncertainty of S(λ) are taken as a basis to model the geomagnetic field and understand its evolution. Here we show that variations in S stem from a mathematical aberration of the conversion from directions to poles. A new method to quantify secular variation is proposed.

  4. Kinetic Parameters for the Noncatalyzed and Enzyme-Catalyzed Mutarotation of Glucose Using a Blood Glucometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, John R.; Delgado, Bryan; Jones, Wray

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic parameters for the conversion of alpha-D-glucose to beta-D-glucose were measured using a blood glucometer. The reaction order, rate constant, and Arrhenius activation energy are reported for the noncatalyzed reaction and turnover number and Michaelis constant are reported for the reaction catalyzed by porcine kidney mutarotase. The…

  5. Combined Yamamoto approach for simultaneous estimation of adsorption isotherm and kinetic parameters in ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rüdt, Matthias; Gillet, Florian; Heege, Stefanie; Hitzler, Julian; Kalbfuss, Bernd; Guélat, Bertrand

    2015-09-25

    Application of model-based design is appealing to support the development of protein chromatography in the biopharmaceutical industry. However, the required efforts for parameter estimation are frequently perceived as time-consuming and expensive. In order to speed-up this work, a new parameter estimation approach for modelling ion-exchange chromatography in linear conditions was developed. It aims at reducing the time and protein demand for the model calibration. The method combines the estimation of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters based on the simultaneous variation of the gradient slope and the residence time in a set of five linear gradient elutions. The parameters are estimated from a Yamamoto plot and a gradient-adjusted Van Deemter plot. The combined approach increases the information extracted per experiment compared to the individual methods. As a proof of concept, the combined approach was successfully applied for a monoclonal antibody on a cation-exchanger and for a Fc-fusion protein on an anion-exchange resin. The individual parameter estimations for the mAb confirmed that the new approach maintained the accuracy of the usual Yamamoto and Van Deemter plots. In the second case, offline size-exclusion chromatography was performed in order to estimate the thermodynamic parameters of an impurity (high molecular weight species) simultaneously with the main product. Finally, the parameters obtained from the combined approach were used in a lumped kinetic model to simulate the chromatography runs. The simulated chromatograms obtained for a wide range of gradient lengths and residence times showed only small deviations compared to the experimental data. PMID:26306913

  6. Identification of random variation in structures and their parameter estimates.

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C. R.; Aumann, R. J.; McCarty, A. A.; Olson, C. C.

    2002-01-01

    Structures that are members of an ensemble of nominally identical systems actually differ due to variations in details among individuals. Furthermore, there are variations in the system response of an individual structure that can be attributed to unmeasured conditions (such as temperature and humidity) that are present during experiments. Finally, noise is present in all measurements of structural excitations and responses. For these reasons, there is always random variation associated with the characterizations of structural dynamic systems, and descriptions of results must be in statistical or probabilistic terms;. This study identifies and assesses the sources and the degrees of randomness in a metric of structural dynamics of a given system through experiments and analysis.

  7. Comparison of gasification kinetics parameters of different types of nuclear graphite

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, M. S.; Tournier, J. M. P.

    2012-07-01

    A chemical-reaction kinetics model of nuclear graphite gasification has recently been developed and successfully validated with gasification rate measurements for nuclear graphite grades of IG-110, IG-430, NBG-18 and NBG-25. The model employs 4 elementary chemical reactions with applicable parameters, including the values and Gaussian-like distributions of the specific activation energies, the pre-exponential coefficients for adsorption of oxygen and desorption of CO and CO{sub 2} gases, and the surface area of free active sites. These parameters are determined from the reported measurements of the total gasification and transient weight loss using a multi-parameter optimization algorithm. The determined chemical kinetics parameters for IG-100 and NB-25 are nearly the same, but slightly different from those for NBG-18 and IG-430. The initial specific area of free active sites is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass or volume of the graphite specimens used in experiments. The recommended chemical kinetics parameters in this paper for these grades of nuclear graphite should be applicable to future safety analysis of high-temperature gas cooled reactors in the unlikely event of a massive air ingress accident. (authors)

  8. Thermal kinetic and dielectric parameters of acenaphthene crystal grown by vertical Bridgman technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppusamy, S.; Dinesh Babu, K.; Nirmal Kumar, V.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2016-05-01

    The bulk acenaphthene crystal was grown in a single-wall ampoule by vertical Bridgman technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the orthorhombic crystal system of title compound with space group Pcm21. Thermal behavior of compound was studied using thermogravimetry—differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Thermal kinetic parameters like activation energy, frequency factor, Avrami exponent, reaction rate and degree of conversion were calculated using Kissingers and Ozawa methods under non-isothermal condition for acenaphthene crystal and reported for the first time. The calculated thermal kinetic parameters are presented. Dielectric studies were performed to calculate the dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss, AC conductivity, and activation energy from Arrhenius plot.

  9. A compilation of rate parameters of water-mineral interaction kinetics for application to geochemical modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palandri, James L.; Kharaka, Yousif K.

    2004-01-01

    Geochemical reaction path modeling is useful for rapidly assessing the extent of water-aqueous-gas interactions both in natural systems and in industrial processes. Modeling of some systems, such as those at low temperature with relatively high hydrologic flow rates, or those perturbed by the subsurface injection of industrial waste such as CO2 or H2S, must account for the relatively slow kinetics of mineral-gas-water interactions. We have therefore compiled parameters conforming to a general Arrhenius-type rate equation, for over 70 minerals, including phases from all the major classes of silicates, most carbonates, and many other non-silicates. The compiled dissolution rate constants range from -0.21 log moles m-2 s-1 for halite, to -17.44 log moles m-2 s-1 for kyanite, for conditions far from equilibrium, at 25 ?C, and pH near neutral. These data have been added to a computer code that simulates an infinitely well-stirred batch reactor, allowing computation of mass transfer as a function of time. Actual equilibration rates are expected to be much slower than those predicted by the selected computer code, primarily because actual geochemical processes commonly involve flow through porous or fractured media, wherein the development of concentration gradients in the aqueous phase near mineral surfaces, which results in decreased absolute chemical affinity and slower reaction rates. Further differences between observed and computed reaction rates may occur because of variables beyond the scope of most geochemical simulators, such as variation in grain size, aquifer heterogeneity, preferred fluid flow paths, primary and secondary mineral coatings, and secondary minerals that may lead to decreased porosity and clogged pore throats.

  10. Characterisation of sugar cane straw waste as pozzolanic material for construction: Calcining temperature and kinetic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Frias, Moises

    2007-07-01

    This paper reports on the influence of calcining temperature (800 and 1000 deg. C) on the pozzolanic activation of sugar cane straw (SCS). The reaction kinetics of SCS ash-lime mixtures were inferred from physicochemical characteristics (X-ray diffraction patterns and thermogravimetry analysis. The fitting of a kinetic-diffusive model to the experimental data (fixed lime versus time) allowed the computing of the kinetic parameters (reaction rate constant) of the pozzolanic reaction. Results obtained confirm that the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA) calcined at 800 and 1000 deg. C have properties indicative of very high pozzolanic activity. No influence of calcining temperature on the pozzolanic activity was observed. Also, no crystalline compounds during the pozzolanic reaction were identified up to 90 days of reaction. Environmental durability and strength of the consequential mortars remain to be assessed.

  11. Kinetic parameters for the thermal inactivation of quality-related enzymes in carrots and potatoes.

    PubMed

    Anthon, Gordon E; Barrett, Diane M

    2002-07-01

    Kinetic parameters for the thermal inactivation of several enzymes in carrot and potato homogenates have been determined. In carrots the most heat-resistant activity was polygalacturonase, followed by peroxidase and pectinmethylesterase. In potatoes peroxidase was the most resistant, followed by pectin methylesterase, polyphenol oxidase, and lipoxygenase. There were several notable similarities between the inactivation kinetics in the two vegetables. In both cases peroxidase activity gave simple first-order inactivation kinetics but yielded a curved Arrhenius plot for the temperature dependence. Pectin methylesterase in both commodities consisted of a labile and a resistant form. The relative amounts of the two forms and the temperature dependences for their inactivation were also similar. PMID:12083894

  12. Systematic variational method for statistical nonlinear state and parameter estimation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jingxin; Rey, Daniel; Kadakia, Nirag; Eldridge, Michael; Morone, Uriel I; Rozdeba, Paul; Abarbanel, Henry D I; Quinn, John C

    2015-11-01

    In statistical data assimilation one evaluates the conditional expected values, conditioned on measurements, of interesting quantities on the path of a model through observation and prediction windows. This often requires working with very high dimensional integrals in the discrete time descriptions of the observations and model dynamics, which become functional integrals in the continuous-time limit. Two familiar methods for performing these integrals include (1) Monte Carlo calculations and (2) variational approximations using the method of Laplace plus perturbative corrections to the dominant contributions. We attend here to aspects of the Laplace approximation and develop an annealing method for locating the variational path satisfying the Euler-Lagrange equations that comprises the major contribution to the integrals. This begins with the identification of the minimum action path starting with a situation where the model dynamics is totally unresolved in state space, and the consistent minimum of the variational problem is known. We then proceed to slowly increase the model resolution, seeking to remain in the basin of the minimum action path, until a path that gives the dominant contribution to the integral is identified. After a discussion of some general issues, we give examples of the assimilation process for some simple, instructive models from the geophysical literature. Then we explore a slightly richer model of the same type with two distinct time scales. This is followed by a model characterizing the biophysics of individual neurons. PMID:26651756

  13. Systematic variational method for statistical nonlinear state and parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jingxin; Rey, Daniel; Kadakia, Nirag; Eldridge, Michael; Morone, Uriel I.; Rozdeba, Paul; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.; Quinn, John C.

    2015-11-01

    In statistical data assimilation one evaluates the conditional expected values, conditioned on measurements, of interesting quantities on the path of a model through observation and prediction windows. This often requires working with very high dimensional integrals in the discrete time descriptions of the observations and model dynamics, which become functional integrals in the continuous-time limit. Two familiar methods for performing these integrals include (1) Monte Carlo calculations and (2) variational approximations using the method of Laplace plus perturbative corrections to the dominant contributions. We attend here to aspects of the Laplace approximation and develop an annealing method for locating the variational path satisfying the Euler-Lagrange equations that comprises the major contribution to the integrals. This begins with the identification of the minimum action path starting with a situation where the model dynamics is totally unresolved in state space, and the consistent minimum of the variational problem is known. We then proceed to slowly increase the model resolution, seeking to remain in the basin of the minimum action path, until a path that gives the dominant contribution to the integral is identified. After a discussion of some general issues, we give examples of the assimilation process for some simple, instructive models from the geophysical literature. Then we explore a slightly richer model of the same type with two distinct time scales. This is followed by a model characterizing the biophysics of individual neurons.

  14. Study of the kinetic parameters for synthesis and hydrolysis of pharmacologically active salicin isomer catalyzed by baker's yeast maltase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veličković, D. V.; Dimitrijević, A. S.; Bihelović, F. J.; Jankov, R. M.; Milosavić, N.

    2011-12-01

    One of the key elements for understanding enzyme reactions is determination of its kinetic parameters. Since transglucosylation is kinetically controlled reaction, besides the reaction of synthesis, very important is the reaction of enzymatic hydrolysis of created product. Therefore, in this study, kinetic parameters for synthesis and secondary hydrolysis of pharmacologically active α isosalicin by baker's yeast maltase were calculated, and it was shown that specifity of maltase for hydrolysis is approximately 150 times higher then for synthesis.

  15. Thermoluminescence systems with two or more glow peaks described by anomalous kinetic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    The usual first and second order TL kinetic expressions are based on a number of assumptions, including the usually unstated assumption that charges released from one type of trap, giving rise to one glow peak, are not retrapped on other types of traps, associated with other glow peaks. Equations have been developed describing TL systems in which charges released from one type of trap may be retrapped in other types of traps. Called interactive kinetic equations, they are quite simple but have been studied by numerical methods. In particular, glow curves computed from the interactive kinetic equations have been regarded as data and analyzed by fitting them to the usual first and second order kinetic expressions. All of the anomalous features described above are reproduced. For example, usually the computed glow peaks are well fitted by the first and second order expressions over their upper 60 to 80% but not in the wings. This explains why the usual analysis methods, especially those utilizing peak temperature, full width, etc. appear to describe such peaks. Often unrealistic kinetic parameters are often obtained. Furthermore, the computed glow curves often reproduce the observed dependence on dose.

  16. A methodology for modeling photocatalytic reactors for indoor pollution control using previously estimated kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Passalía, Claudio; Alfano, Orlando M; Brandi, Rodolfo J

    2012-04-15

    A methodology for modeling photocatalytic reactors for their application in indoor air pollution control is carried out. The methodology implies, firstly, the determination of intrinsic reaction kinetics for the removal of formaldehyde. This is achieved by means of a simple geometry, continuous reactor operating under kinetic control regime and steady state. The kinetic parameters were estimated from experimental data by means of a nonlinear optimization algorithm. The second step was the application of the obtained kinetic parameters to a very different photoreactor configuration. In this case, the reactor is a corrugated wall type using nanosize TiO(2) as catalyst irradiated by UV lamps that provided a spatially uniform radiation field. The radiative transfer within the reactor was modeled through a superficial emission model for the lamps, the ray tracing method and the computation of view factors. The velocity and concentration fields were evaluated by means of a commercial CFD tool (Fluent 12) where the radiation model was introduced externally. The results of the model were compared experimentally in a corrugated wall, bench scale reactor constructed in the laboratory. The overall pollutant conversion showed good agreement between model predictions and experiments, with a root mean square error less than 4%. PMID:22030272

  17. Association between plasma zinc concentration and zinc kinetic parameters in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Katsuhiko; Egger, Norman G; Ramanujam, V M Sadagopa; Alcock, Nancy W; Dayal, Hari H; Penland, James G; Sandstead, Harold H

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to measure relationships between plasma zinc (Zn) concentrations and Zn kinetic parameters and to measure relationships of Zn status with taste acuity, food frequency, and hair Zn in humans. The subjects were 33 premenopausal women not taking oral contraceptives and dietary supplements containing iron and Zn. Main outcomes were plasma Zn concentrations, Zn kinetic parameters based on the three-compartment mammillary model using 67Zn as a tracer, electrical taste detection thresholds, and food frequencies. Lower plasma Zn was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with smaller sizes of the central and the lesser peripheral Zn pools, faster disappearance of tracer from plasma, and higher transfer rate constants from the lesser peripheral pool to the central pool and from the central pool to the greater peripheral pool. The break points in the plasma Zn-Zn kinetics relationship were found between 9.94 and 11.5 micromol/l plasma Zn. Smaller size of the lesser peripheral pool was associated with lower frequency of beef consumption and higher frequency of bran breakfast cereal consumption. Hypozincemic women with plasma Zn <10.7 micromol/l or 700 ng/ml had decreased thresholds of electrical stimulation for gustatory nerves. Our results based on Zn kinetics support the conventional cutoff value of plasma Zn (10.7 micromol/l or 700 ng/ml) between normal and low Zn status. PMID:12865259

  18. Diurnal Variation of Meteorological Parameters in the Land Surface Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, J. S.

    A pilot land surface processes experiment was conducted at Anand, Gujarat, situated in the western part of India, from April to July 1995. The diurnal variation of air and soil temperature with respect to solar radiation was studied in two selected periods, one in summer and the other during monsoon. It was observed that during summer, there was a considerable lag in the temperature maxima with respect to solar radiation, as compared to the monsoon period. Also, in summer, when there was an increase in wind speed from near zero values in the early morning hours, the soil surface as well as the air temperature minima were raised.

  19. An investigation on the catalytic capacity of dolomite in transesterification and the calculation of kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Niu, Sheng-Li; Huo, Meng-Jia; Lu, Chun-Mei; Liu, Meng-Qi; Li, Hui

    2014-04-01

    The catalytic capacity of dolomite in transesterification was investigated and the kinetic parameters were calculated. The activated dolomites as transesterification catalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and desorption and Hammett indicator method, where the original dolomite was analyzed by thermogravimetric and X-ray fluorescence in advance. Its potential catalytic capacity was validated from aspects of the activated temperature and the reused property, where the reliability of the experimental system was also examined. Then, influences of the catalyst added amount, the mole ratio of methanol to oil, the transesterification temperature and the transesterification time on the catalytic capacity were investigated. Finally, kinetic parameters of the transesterification catalyzed by the activated dolomite were calculated. PMID:24583217

  20. Effects of correlated parameters and uncertainty in electronic-structure-based chemical kinetic modelling.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Jonathan E; Guo, Wei; Katsoulakis, Markos A; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2016-04-01

    Kinetic models based on first principles are becoming common place in heterogeneous catalysis because of their ability to interpret experimental data, identify the rate-controlling step, guide experiments and predict novel materials. To overcome the tremendous computational cost of estimating parameters of complex networks on metal catalysts, approximate quantum mechanical calculations are employed that render models potentially inaccurate. Here, by introducing correlative global sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification, we show that neglecting correlations in the energies of species and reactions can lead to an incorrect identification of influential parameters and key reaction intermediates and reactions. We rationalize why models often underpredict reaction rates and show that, despite the uncertainty being large, the method can, in conjunction with experimental data, identify influential missing reaction pathways and provide insights into the catalyst active site and the kinetic reliability of a model. The method is demonstrated in ethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production for fuel cells. PMID:27001728

  1. Effects of correlated parameters and uncertainty in electronic-structure-based chemical kinetic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Jonathan E.; Guo, Wei; Katsoulakis, Markos A.; Vlachos, Dionisios G.

    2016-04-01

    Kinetic models based on first principles are becoming common place in heterogeneous catalysis because of their ability to interpret experimental data, identify the rate-controlling step, guide experiments and predict novel materials. To overcome the tremendous computational cost of estimating parameters of complex networks on metal catalysts, approximate quantum mechanical calculations are employed that render models potentially inaccurate. Here, by introducing correlative global sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification, we show that neglecting correlations in the energies of species and reactions can lead to an incorrect identification of influential parameters and key reaction intermediates and reactions. We rationalize why models often underpredict reaction rates and show that, despite the uncertainty being large, the method can, in conjunction with experimental data, identify influential missing reaction pathways and provide insights into the catalyst active site and the kinetic reliability of a model. The method is demonstrated in ethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production for fuel cells.

  2. Nonlinear estimation of Monod growth kinetic parameters from a single substrate depletion curve.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, J A; Tiedje, J M

    1983-01-01

    Monod growth kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting sigmoidal substrate depletion data to the integrated Monod equation, using nonlinear least-squares analysis. When the initial substrate concentration was in the mixed-order region, nonlinear estimation of simulated data sets containing known measurement errors provided accurate estimates of the mu max, Ks, and Y values used to create these data. Nonlinear regression analysis of sigmoidal substrate depletion data was also evaluated for H2-limited batch growth of Desulfovibrio sp. strain G11. The integrated Monod equation can be more convenient for the estimation of growth kinetic parameters, particularly for gaseous substrates, but it must be recognized that the estimates of mu max, Ks, and Y obtained may be influenced by the growth rate history of the inoculum. PMID:6870238

  3. Preliminary Investigation of Ice Shape Sensitivity to Parameter Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Dean R.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Langhals, Tammy J.

    2005-01-01

    A parameter sensitivity study was conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) using a 36 in. chord (0.91 m) NACA-0012 airfoil. The objective of this preliminary work was to investigate the feasibility of using ice shape feature changes to define requirements for the simulation and measurement of SLD icing conditions. It was desired to identify the minimum change (threshold) in a parameter value, which yielded an observable change in the ice shape. Liquid Water Content (LWC), drop size distribution (MVD), and tunnel static temperature were varied about a nominal value, and the effects of these parameter changes on the resulting ice shapes were documented. The resulting differences in ice shapes were compared on the basis of qualitative and quantitative criteria (e.g., mass, ice horn thickness, ice horn angle, icing limits, and iced area). This paper will provide a description of the experimental method, present selected experimental results, and conclude with an evaluation of these results, followed by a discussion of recommendations for future research.

  4. Semiannual variation of the geomagnetic activity and solar wind parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, M.; Moreno, G.; Parisi, M.; Storini, M.

    1993-10-01

    The semiannual variation of the geomagnetic activity is investigated in connection with a large set of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field data (4494 daily averages from 1965 to 1987). Our analysis confirms that the geomagnetic activity (described by the aa index), is mainly modulated by the southward component of the magnetic field (BS), as suggested by Russell and McPherron. On the other hand, it is also found that the solar wind velocity (V) has a relevant role in this phenomenon. In fact, the amplitude of the aa modulation is best correlated with the function BSV2. We also explore the linkage between the annual trend of aa and the sunspot activity (1868-1989), showing that the modulation of the geomagnetic activity follows a more regular pattern during the descending phase of the solar cycle than during the rising and maximum parts.

  5. [Determination of kinetic parameters lymphocyte populations in cows with chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, V A; Feofanova, T V; Busol, V A; Nikolaeva, N V

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed changes in the number of lymphocytes in the blood of cows with chronic lymphoid leukemia using the Gomperts equation of population dynamics. The parameters of this equation were determined. Coefficients beta and gamma proved to be the most variable. The former reflects the delay and the latter characterizes the maximum rate of growth of the lymphocyte population. According to these parameters, three groups of animals were distinguished with different kinetics of leucosis and different correlations between immuno-hematological indices. PMID:7670356

  6. Reliability of spatiotemporal and kinetic gait parameters determined by a new instrumented treadmill system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the emerging use of treadmills integrated with pressure platforms as outcome tools in both clinical and research settings, published evidence regarding the measurement properties of these new systems is limited. This study evaluated the within– and between–day repeatability of spatial, temporal and vertical ground reaction force parameters measured by a treadmill system instrumented with a capacitance–based pressure platform. Methods Thirty three healthy adults (mean age, 21.5 ± 2.8 years; height, 168.4 ± 9.9 cm; and mass, 67.8 ± 18.6 kg), walked barefoot on a treadmill system (FDM–THM–S, Zebris Medical GmbH) on three separate occasions. For each testing session, participants set their preferred pace but were blinded to treadmill speed. Spatial (foot rotation, step width, stride and step length), temporal (stride and step times, duration of stance, swing and single and double support) and peak vertical ground reaction force variables were collected over a 30–second capture period, equating to an average of 52 ± 5 steps of steady–state walking. Testing was repeated one week following the initial trial and again, for a third time, 20 minutes later. Repeated measures ANOVAs within a generalized linear modelling framework were used to assess between–session differences in gait parameters. Agreement between gait parameters measured within the same day (session 2 and 3) and between days (session 1 and 2; 1 and 3) were evaluated using the 95% repeatability coefficient. Results There were statistically significant differences in the majority (14/16) of temporal, spatial and kinetic gait parameters over the three test sessions (P < .01). The minimum change that could be detected with 95% confidence ranged between 3% and 17% for temporal parameters, 14% and 33% for spatial parameters, and 4% and 20% for kinetic parameters between days. Within–day repeatability was similar to that observed between days. Temporal

  7. Narrow-track wheeled agricultural tractor parameter variation.

    PubMed

    Guzzomi, A; Rondelli, V

    2013-10-01

    Despite a general consensus among farmers, manufacturers, and researchers that wheeled agricultural tractor design has changed over time, there is little published evidence. There is debate as to whether the standardized rollover protective structure (ROPS) energy and force requirements, based on a tractor reference mass and pertaining to studies conducted more than 40 years ago, are appropriate for modern tractors. This article investigated the physical parameters of 326 modern narrow-track tractors, measured according to OECD Code 6 over 16 years (1993 to 2008 inclusive): 252 (-77%) were fixed-chassis tractors and 74 (-23%) were articulated. To understand the significance of design changes, the data were analyzed with respect to time and as a function of tractor mass. Articulated and fixed-chassis data were treated separately. The time data allowed qualitative analysis, while the mass data allowed quantitative analysis. The parameters show some changes over time and clearly indicate differences between articulated and fixed-chassis types. The parameter changes, along with the differences between types, may have important safety ramifications for ROPS energy absorption requirements, and these aspects are discussed. Regression lines with R2 values were fitted to the mass-related data for fixed-chassis and articulated tractors to determine the suitability of fit. The mass relations also displayed differences between fixed-chassis and articulated tractors. Thus, the most significant recommendation from this study is that the standardized testing procedure for narrow-track wheeled agricultural tractor category should be split into two groups: fixed-chassis and articulated. PMID:24673034

  8. Kinetics of Bacterial Phospholipase C Activity at Micellar Interfaces: Effect of Substrate Aggregate Microstructure and a Model for the Kinetic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jasmeet; Ranganathan, Radha; Hajdu, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Activity at micellar interfaces of bacterial phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus on phospholipids solubilized in micelles was investigated with the goal of elucidating the role of the interface microstructure and developing further an existing kinetic model. Enzyme kinetics and physicochemical characterization of model substrate aggregates were combined; thus enabling the interpretation of kinetics in the context of the interface. Substrates were diacylphosphatidylcholine of different acyl chain lengths in the form of mixed micelles with dodecyldimethylammoniopropanesulfonate. An early kinetic model, reformulated to reflect the interfacial nature of the kinetics, was applied to the kinetic data. A better method of data treatment is proposed, use of which makes the presence of microstructure effects quite transparent. Models for enzyme-micelle binding and enzyme-lipid binding are developed and expressions incorporating the microstructural properties are derived for the enzyme-micelle dissociation constant KS and the interface Michaelis-Menten constant, KM. Use of these expressions in the interface kinetic model brings excellent agreement between the kinetic data and the model. Numerical values for the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters are determined. Enzyme-lipid binding is found to be an activated process with an acyl chain length dependent free energy of activation that decreases with micelle lipid molar fraction with a coefficient of about −15 RT and correlates with the tightness of molecular packing in the substrate aggregate. Thus the physical insight obtained includes a model for the kinetic parameters that shows that these parameters depend on the substrate concentration and acyl chain length of the lipid. Enzyme-micelle binding is indicated to be hydrophobic and solvent mediated with a dissociation constant of 1.2 mM. PMID:19367944

  9. Optimization of kinetic parameters for the degradation of plasmid DNA in rat plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhry, Q. A.

    2014-12-01

    Biotechnology is a rapidly growing area of research work in the field of pharmaceutical sciences. The study of pharmacokinetics of plasmid DNA (pDNA) is an important area of research work. It has been observed that the process of gene delivery faces many troubles on the transport of pDNA towards their target sites. The topoforms of pDNA has been termed as super coiled (S-C), open circular (O-C) and linear (L), the kinetic model of which will be presented in this paper. The kinetic model gives rise to system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), the exact solution of which has been found. The kinetic parameters, which are responsible for the degradation of super coiled, and the formation of open circular and linear topoforms have a great significance not only in vitro but for modeling of further processes as well, therefore need to be addressed in great detail. For this purpose, global optimization techniques have been adopted, thus finding the optimal results for the said model. The results of the model, while using the optimal parameters, were compared against the measured data, which gives a nice agreement.

  10. Kinetic parameters related to sources and sinks of vibrationally excited OH in the nightglow

    SciTech Connect

    McDade, I.C.; Llewellyn, E.J. )

    1987-07-01

    Kinetic parameters related to vibrational deactivation and chemical removal of vibrationally excited OH radicals in the mesosphere are deduced from ground-based measurements of the mean vibrational distribution of the OH Meinel bands in the nightglow. The derived parameters, which rely on a laboratory measured rate coefficient for the removal of OH(v = 9) by O{sub 2} and a set of relative Meinel band transition probabilities, have been obtained for two limiting Meinel band excitation models that differ in the extent to which single-quantum vibrational deactivation and sudden death' collisional removal processes determine the OH vibrational distribution. It is shown that the OH Meinel band emission can be adequately explained with the deduced parameters and the H + O{sub 3} {yields} OH + O{sub 2} reaction as the only chemical source of vibrationally excited OH. Evidence is presented which suggests that the reaction HO{sub 2} + O {leftrightarrow} HO + O{sub 2} may perhaps be involved as a sink of vibrationally excited OH rather than as a potential source. The deduced kinetic parameters should be particularly useful in future Meinel band studies as they have been obtained from an analysis for which there is no assumption about the very uncertain OH radiative lifetimes.

  11. Variation in the modal parameters of space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Barlow, Mark S.; Van Schoor, Marthinus C.; Bicos, Andrew S.

    1992-01-01

    An analytic and experimental study of gravity and suspension influences on space structural test articles is presented. A modular test article including deployable, erectable, and rotary modules was assembled in three one- and two-dimensional structures. The two deployable modules utilized cable diagonal bracing rather than rigid cross members; within a bay of one of the deployable modules, the cable preload was adjustable. A friction lock was used on the alpha joint to either allow or prohibit rotary motion. Suspension systems with plunge fundamentals of 1, 2, and 5 Hz were used for ground testing to evaluate the influences of suspension stiffness. Assembly and reassembly testing was performed, as was testing on two separate shipsets at two test sites. Trends and statistical variances in modal parameters are presented as a function of force amplitude, joint preload, reassembly, shipset and suspension. Linear finite element modeling of each structure provided analytical results for 0-g unsuspended and 1-g suspended models, which are correlated with the analytical model.

  12. Wind turbine response to parameter variation of analytic inflow vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, M. Maureen; Robinson, Michael C.; Balas, Mark J.

    2006-05-01

    As larger wind turbines are placed on taller towers, rotors frequently operate in atmospheric conditions that support organized, coherent turbulent structures. It is hypothesized that these structures have a detrimental impact on the blade fatigue life experienced by the wind turbine. These structures are extremely difficult to identify with sophisticated anemometry such as ultrasonic anemometers. This study was performed to identify the vortex characteristics that contribute to high-amplitude cyclic blade loads, assuming that these vortices exist under certain atmospheric conditions. This study does not attempt to demonstrate the existence of these coherent turbulent structures. In order to ascertain the idealized worst-case scenario for vortical inflow structures impinging on a wind turbine rotor, we created a simple, analytic vortex model. The Rankine vortex model assumes that the vortex core undergoes solid body rotation to avoid a singularity at the vortex centre and is surrounded by a two-dimensional potential flow field. Using the wind turbine as a sensor and the FAST wind turbine dynamics code with limited degrees of freedom, we determined the aerodynamic loads imparted to the wind turbine by the vortex structure. We varied the size, strength, rotational direction, plane of rotation, and location of the vortex over a wide range of operating parameters. We identified the vortex conformation with the most significant effect on the blade root bending moment cyclic amplitude. Vortices with radii on the scale of the rotor diameter or smaller caused blade root bending moment cyclic amplitudes that contribute to high damage density. The rotational orientation, clockwise or counter-clockwise, produces little difference in the bending moment response. Vortices in the XZ plane produce bending moment amplitudes significantly greater than vortices in the YZ plane. Published in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Received: 9 April 2004; Revised: 14 March 2005; Accepted: 19

  13. Wind Turbine Response to Analytic Inflow Vortex Parameters Variation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.; Robinson, M. C.; Balas, M. J.

    2003-11-01

    As larger wind turbines are placed on taller towers, rotors frequently operate in atmospheric conditions that support organized, coherent turbulent structures. It is hypothesized that these structures have a detrimental impact on the blade fatigue life experienced by the wind turbine. These structures are extremely difficult to identify with sophisticated anemometry such as ultra-sonic anemometers. In order to ascertain the idealized worst-case scenario for vortical inflow structures impinging on a wind turbine rotor, we created a simple, analytic vortex model. The Rankine vortex model assumes the vortex core undergoes solid body rotation to avoid a singularity at the vortex center and is surrounded by a 2-dimensional potential flow field. Using the wind turbine as a sensor and the FAST wind turbine dynamics code with limited degrees of freedom, we determined the aerodynamic loads imparted to the wind turbine by the vortex structure. The size, strength, rotational direction, plan e of rotation, and location of the vortex were varied over a wide range of operating parameters. We identified the vortex conformation with the most significant effect on blade root bending moment cycle amplitude. Vortices with radii on the scale of the rotor diameter or smaller caused blade root bending moment cyclic amplitudes that lead to reduced fatigue life. The rotational orientation, clockwise or counter-clockwise produces little difference in the bending moment response. Vortices in the XZ plane produce bending moment amplitudes significantly greater than vortices in the YZ plane. The response to vortices in the inflow is similar for both 2- and 3-blade turbines.

  14. Evaluation of thermoluminescent kinetics parameters of inorganic dust from the camomile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furetta, C.; Favalli, A.; Zaragoza, E. Cruz; Gomez-Ros, J. M.; Kitis, G.

    The polymineral dust extracted from the camomile herb was exposed to gamma radiation. The glow curves from these polyminerals show a large, single thermoluminiscence (TL) peak, centred at about 440 K. Because the large structure of the glow curves, it seems that the TL signal could be produced by a trap distribution instead of a single level of traps. The kinetic parameters of the glow curves have been accurately analysed using the computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) method applied at different steps during a fading experiment at room temperature (RT). Deconvolution has been performed using a continuous distribution of trapping levels, uniformly distributed, including one additional peak in the high temperature region. This peak has been modelled with second-order kinetics of trap motion.

  15. Examination of parameter variations in the U. S. Navy Global Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Carolyn A.; Ridout, James A.; McLay, Justin G.

    2011-10-01

    The impact of parameter variations on the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System ensemble performance is examined, and subsets of ensemble members are used to identify the relative impact of the individual parameters. Two sets of parameter variations are considered. The first set has variations in the parametrization of cumulus convection only. The second set has variations in both convection and boundary layer parametrizations. In the tropics, parameter variations significantly increase ensemble spread in wind and temperature fields, and significantly reduce Brier scores for low-level wind speed and temperature, primarily through improvements to the resolution (the impact in the extratropics is negligible). There are also small but significant improvements in the ensemble mean tropical cyclone track forecasts. For the metrics considered here, the second set of parameter variations outperforms the first set. Examination of the spread within ensemble subsets suggests that the parameter with the biggest overall impact is one that helps to control the convective updraft parcel temperature deficit at cloud base level. Variations in the von Kármán constant significantly increase ensemble spread in the low-level tropical winds near the date line, and in the low-level temperature field throughout the tropics and subtropics.

  16. Effects of Spatial Variations in Packing Fraction on Reactor Physics Parameters in Pebble-Bed Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    William K. Terry; A. M. Ougouag; Farzad Rahnema; Michael Scott McKinley

    2003-04-01

    The well-known spatial variation of packing fraction near the outer boundary of a pebble-bed reactor core is cited. The ramifications of this variation are explored with the MCNP computer code. It is found that the variation has negligible effects on the global reactor physics parameters extracted from the MCNP calculations for use in analysis by diffusion-theory codes, but for local reaction rates the effects of the variation are naturally important. Included is some preliminary work in using first-order perturbation theory for estimating the effect of the spatial variation of packing fraction on the core eigenvalue and the fision density distribution.

  17. Identification of the crystallization kinetic parameters of a semi-crystalline polymer by using PVTα measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, X.; Sobotka, V.; Boyard, N.; Delaunay, D.

    2011-05-01

    Injection molding is the most widely used process in the plastic industry. In the case of semi-crystalline polymer, crystallization kinetics impacts directly the quality of the piece, both on dimensional and mechanical aspects. The characterization of these kinetics is therefore of primary importance to model the process, in particular during the cooling phase. To be representative, this characterization must be carried out under conditions as close as possible to those encountered in the process: high pressure, high cooling rate, shearing, and potential presence of fibers. However, conventional apparatus such as the differential scanning calorimeter do not allow to reach these conditions. A PVTα apparatus, initially developed in the laboratory for the characterization of thermoset composites, was adapted to identify the crystallization kinetics. The aim of the presented study is to demonstrate the feasibility of the identification. This device allows the molding of a circular sample of 40 mm diameter and 6 mm thick by controlling the applied pressure on the sample and the temperature field on its surfaces. This mold is designed such as heat transfer is 1D within the thickness of the sample. It is equipped with two heat flux sensors to determine the average crystallization rate through the thickness and a displacement sensor for the determination of the volume change. The heat transfer problem between the polymer and the molding cavity is modeled by using a 1D conduction problem with a moving boundary, in which the control volume is a uniform temperature disk with a variable volume, and coupled to a crystallization kinetic model. An inverse method is used to identify the parameters of the crystallization kinetic model by minimizing an objective function based on the difference between the evolutions of the experimental and computed volume of the sample. The first validation of this methodology was to compare the kinetic parameters identified with this apparatus

  18. Kinetic Parameter Extraction of Square Wave Voltammograms from DNA-Modified Gold Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, Marc; Wohlgamuth, Chris; Slinker, Jason

    2012-10-01

    The field of surface bound electrochemistry is important in a variety of applications specifically sensing. A fundamental understanding of the processes involved could help to improve detection limits, optimize rates of detection and direct changes in device design. Accurate extraction of electrochemical kinetic parameters such as the rate constant k and charge transfer coefficient α from cyclic voltammograms can be challenging when confronted with large background currents and relatively weak signals. The commonly used technique of Laviron analysis is both time consuming and somewhat subjective. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) is therefore an ideal alternative method given that it maximizes signal while minimizing capacitive effects. In this experiment kinetic parameters of DNA-modified gold electrodes are obtained from SWV curves through background subtraction followed by nonlinear least squares fitting using a first order quasi-reversible surface process model. The fitting is accomplished using the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm with standard parameters and a convergence condition of less than 0.0001%. General agreement with experimental data is shown with varying levels of confidence. Difficulties specific to this experiment are discussed as well as the possible benefits of utilizing the Bayesian statistical approach of nested sampling when confronted with multiple peaks of interest and the background source is well defined.

  19. A BAYESIAN METHOD OF ESTIMATING KINETIC PARAMETERS FOR THE INACTIVATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS WITH CHLORINE DIOXIDE AND OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main objective of this paper is to use Bayesian methods to estimate the kinetic parameters for the inactivation kinetics of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts with chlorine dioxide or ozone which are characterized by the delayed Chick-Watson model, i.e., a lag phase or shoulder f...

  20. Efficient estimation of dynamic cardiac SPECT kinetic parameters using singular value decomposition reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Gulberg, G.T.; Huesman, R.H.; Zeng, G.L. |

    1994-05-01

    Error estimates of time activity curves are necessary to obtain efficient estimates of dynamic of dynamic cardiac SPECT kinetic parameters which are determined using weighted least squares fitting that incorporates these error estimates. In cardiac SPECT, iterative algorithms are used to obtain attenuation corrected reconstructions, and the use of an iterative algorithm makes it difficult to estimate the errors of the estimated reconstruction. An alternate approach is to estimate the reconstruction by solving the system of normal equations using singular value decomposition. This method was applied to dynamic data acquired from a canine study. A canine was injected with 25 mCi of Tc-99m-teboroxime and was imaged using a three-detector SPECT system (Picker PRISM 3000). Sequential 5 sec tomographic acquisitions were acquired for 15 min, allowing both the wash-in and wash-out of teboroxime to be measured. The projection data were reconstructed into 64x64 transaxial slices for each 5 sec acquisition using singular value decomposition to calculate the reconstructed estimate, the variance of the estimate, and the covariance between tissue and blood regions-of-interest. One 4096x4096 singular value decomposition was obtained in 71 hours using a 40 mHz Supper SPARC processor. Tissue and blood time-activity curves were generated from the attenuation corrected transaxial reconstructions. The blood activity curve was generated from a region drawn inside the left ventricle. A two-compartment model was fit to the blood and tissue activity curves to give weighted least squares estimates of blood volume fraction and wash-in and wash-out rate constants specifying teboroxime kinetics for regions of the left ventricular myocardium. As expected the weighted least squares estimates of the kinetic parameters had smaller variances than the unweighted estimates, thus demonstrating more efficient parameter estimation.

  1. Plyometric Long Jump Training With Progressive Loading Improves Kinetic and Kinematic Swimming Start Parameters.

    PubMed

    Rebutini, Vanessa Z; Pereira, Gleber; Bohrer, Roberta C D; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Rodacki, André L F

    2016-09-01

    Rebutini, VZ, Pereira, G, Bohrer, RCD, Ugrinowitsch, C, and Rodacki, ALF. Plyometric long jump training with progressive loading improves kinetic and kinematic swimming start parameters. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2392-2398, 2016-This study was aimed to determine the effects of a plyometric long jump training program on torque around the lower limb joints and kinetic and kinematics parameters during the swimming jump start. Ten swimmers performed 3 identical assessment sessions, measuring hip and knee muscle extensors during maximal voluntary isometric contraction and kinetic and kinematics parameters during the swimming jump start, at 3 instants: INI (2 weeks before the training program, control period), PRE (2 weeks after INI measurements), and POST (24-48 hours after 9 weeks of training). There were no significant changes from INI to PRE measurements. However, the peak torque and rate of torque development increased significantly from PRE to POST measurements for both hip (47 and 108%) and knee (24 and 41%) joints. There were significant improvements to the horizontal force (7%), impulse (9%), and angle of resultant force (19%). In addition, there were significant improvements to the center of mass displacement (5%), horizontal takeoff velocity (16%), horizontal velocity at water entrance (22%), and peak angle velocity for the knee (15%) and hip joints (16%). Therefore, the plyometric long jump training protocol was effective to enhance torque around the lower limb joints and to control the resultant vector direction, to increase the swimming jump start performance. These findings suggest that coaches should use long jump training instead of vertical jump training to improve swimming start performance. PMID:24531431

  2. Study of inertia welding: the sensitivity of weld configuration and strength to variations in welding parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Mote, M.W.

    1981-12-01

    An experiment is described which is designed to demonstrate the forgiveness of inertia welding, that is, the relative insensitivity of weld strength to variations in energy (rotational speed of parts) and axial force. Although easily observed variations in the welding parameters produced easily observed changes in weldment configuration and changes in dimension (upset), only extremes in parameters produced changes in weld strength. Consequently, process monitoring and product inspection would be sufficient for quality assurance in a production environment.

  3. A robust method for the joint estimation of yield coefficients and kinetic parameters in bioprocess models.

    PubMed

    Vastemans, V; Rooman, M; Bogaerts, Ph

    2009-01-01

    Bioprocess model structures that require nonlinear parameter estimation, thus initialization values, are often subject to poor identification performances because of the uncertainty on those initialization values. Under some conditions on the model structure, it is possible to partially circumvent this problem by an appropriate decoupling of the linear part of the model from the nonlinear part of it. This article provides a procedure to be followed when these structural conditions are not satisfied. An original method for decoupling two sets of parameters, namely, kinetic parameters from maximum growth, production, decay rates, and yield coefficients, is presented. It exhibits the advantage of requiring only initialization of the first subset of parameters. In comparison with a classical nonlinear estimation procedure, in which all the parameters are freed, results show enhanced robustness of model identification with regard to parameter initialization errors. This is illustrated by means of three simulation case studies: a fed-batch Human Embryo Kidney cell cultivation process using a macroscopic reaction scheme description, a process of cyclodextrin-glucanotransferase production by Bacillus circulans, and a process of simultaneous starch saccharification and glucose fermentation to lactic acid by Lactobacillus delbrückii, both based on a Luedeking-Piret model structure. Additionally, perspectives of the presented procedure in the context of systematic bioprocess modeling are promising. PMID:19455623

  4. Calculating kinetics parameters and reactivity changes with continuous-energy Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Kiedrowski, Brian C; Brown, Forrest B; Wilson, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The iterated fission probability interpretation of the adjoint flux forms the basis for a method to perform adjoint weighting of tally scores in continuous-energy Monte Carlo k-eigenvalue calculations. Applying this approach, adjoint-weighted tallies are developed for two applications: calculating point reactor kinetics parameters and estimating changes in reactivity from perturbations. Calculations are performed in the widely-used production code, MCNP, and the results of both applications are compared with discrete ordinates calculations, experimental measurements, and other Monte Carlo calculations.

  5. Effects of metformin on cell kinetic parameters of MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Topcul, Mehmet; Cetin, Idil

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antiproliferative effects of the metformin was evaluated on MCF-7 Cells (human breast adenocarcinoma cell line). For this purpose cell kinetic parameters including cell proliferation assay, mitotic index and labelling index analysis were used. 30 μM, 65 μM and 130 μM Metformin doses were applied to cells for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The results showed that there was a significant decrease in cell proliferation, mitotic index and labelling index for all experimental groups (p<0.05) for all applications. PMID:25824763

  6. A Computer Program for the Calculation of Reactivity and Kinetic Parameters by Two-Dimensional Neutron Transport Perturbation Theory.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1985-02-01

    Version 00 TP2 is a transport theory code, developed to determine reactivity effects and kinetic parameters such as effective delayed neutron fractions and mean generation time by applying the usual perturbation formalism for two-dimensional geometry.

  7. A Computer Code System for the Calculation of Reactivity and Kinetic Parameters by One-Dimensional Neutron Transport Perturbation Theory.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1985-02-01

    Version 00 TP1 is a transport theory code, developed to determine reactivity effects and kinetic parameters such as effective delayed neutron fractions and mean generation time by applying the usual perturbation formalism for one-dimensional geometry.

  8. Large variation in the Rubisco kinetics of diatoms reveals diversity among their carbon-concentrating mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Young, Jodi N; Heureux, Ana M C; Sharwood, Robert E; Rickaby, Rosalind E M; Morel, François M M; Whitney, Spencer M

    2016-05-01

    While marine phytoplankton rival plants in their contribution to global primary productivity, our understanding of their photosynthesis remains rudimentary. In particular, the kinetic diversity of the CO2-fixing enzyme, Rubisco, in phytoplankton remains unknown. Here we quantify the maximum rates of carboxylation (k cat (c)), oxygenation (k cat (o)), Michaelis constants (K m) for CO2 (K C) and O2 (K O), and specificity for CO2 over O2 (SC/O) for Form I Rubisco from 11 diatom species. Diatom Rubisco shows greater variation in K C (23-68 µM), SC/O (57-116mol mol(-1)), and K O (413-2032 µM) relative to plant and algal Rubisco. The broad range of K C values mostly exceed those of C4 plant Rubisco, suggesting that the strength of the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) in diatoms is more diverse, and more effective than previously predicted. The measured k cat (c) for each diatom Rubisco showed less variation (2.1-3.7s(-1)), thus averting the canonical trade-off typically observed between K C and k cat (c) for plant Form I Rubisco. Uniquely, a negative relationship between K C and cellular Rubisco content was found, suggesting variation among diatom species in how they allocate their limited cellular resources between Rubisco synthesis and their CCM. The activation status of Rubisco in each diatom was low, indicating a requirement for Rubisco activase. This work highlights the need to better understand the correlative natural diversity between the Rubisco kinetics and CCM of diatoms and the underpinning mechanistic differences in catalytic chemistry among the Form I Rubisco superfamily. PMID:27129950

  9. Large variation in the Rubisco kinetics of diatoms reveals diversity among their carbon-concentrating mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jodi N.; Heureux, Ana M.C.; Sharwood, Robert E.; Rickaby, Rosalind E.M.; Morel, François M.M.; Whitney, Spencer M.

    2016-01-01

    While marine phytoplankton rival plants in their contribution to global primary productivity, our understanding of their photosynthesis remains rudimentary. In particular, the kinetic diversity of the CO2-fixing enzyme, Rubisco, in phytoplankton remains unknown. Here we quantify the maximum rates of carboxylation (k cat c), oxygenation (k cat o), Michaelis constants (K m) for CO2 (K C) and O2 (K O), and specificity for CO2 over O2 (SC/O) for Form I Rubisco from 11 diatom species. Diatom Rubisco shows greater variation in K C (23–68 µM), SC/O (57–116mol mol−1), and K O (413–2032 µM) relative to plant and algal Rubisco. The broad range of K C values mostly exceed those of C4 plant Rubisco, suggesting that the strength of the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) in diatoms is more diverse, and more effective than previously predicted. The measured k cat c for each diatom Rubisco showed less variation (2.1–3.7s−1), thus averting the canonical trade-off typically observed between K C and k cat c for plant Form I Rubisco. Uniquely, a negative relationship between K C and cellular Rubisco content was found, suggesting variation among diatom species in how they allocate their limited cellular resources between Rubisco synthesis and their CCM. The activation status of Rubisco in each diatom was low, indicating a requirement for Rubisco activase. This work highlights the need to better understand the correlative natural diversity between the Rubisco kinetics and CCM of diatoms and the underpinning mechanistic differences in catalytic chemistry among the Form I Rubisco superfamily. PMID:27129950

  10. Determination of the kinetic parameters of BeO using isothermal decay method.

    PubMed

    Azorin Nieto, Juan; Vega, Claudia Azorin; Montalvo, Teodoro Rivera; Cabrera, Eugenio Torijano

    2016-02-01

    Most of the existing methods for obtaining the frequency factors make use of the trap depth (activation energy) making some assumptions about the order of the kinetics. This causes inconsistencies in the reported values of trapping parameters due that the values of the activation energy obtained by different methods differ appreciably among them. Then, it is necessary to use a method independent of the trap depth making use of the isothermal luminescence decay (ILD) method. The trapping parameters associated with the prominent glow peak of BeO (280°C) are reported using ILD method. As a check, the trap parameters are also calculated by glow curve shape (Chen's) method after isolating the prominent glow peak by thermal cleaning technique. Our results show a very good agreement between the trapping parameters calculated by the two methods. ILD method was used for determining the trapping parameters of BeO. Results obtained applying this method are in good agreement with those obtained using other methods, except in the value of the frequency factor. PMID:26656428

  11. Accounting for the kinetics in order parameter analysis: Lessons from theoretical models and a disordered peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezovska, Ganna; Prada-Gracia, Diego; Mostarda, Stefano; Rao, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    Molecular simulations as well as single molecule experiments have been widely analyzed in terms of order parameters, the latter representing candidate probes for the relevant degrees of freedom. Notwithstanding this approach is very intuitive, mounting evidence showed that such descriptions are inaccurate, leading to ambiguous definitions of states and wrong kinetics. To overcome these limitations a framework making use of order parameter fluctuations in conjunction with complex network analysis is investigated. Derived from recent advances in the analysis of single molecule time traces, this approach takes into account the fluctuations around each time point to distinguish between states that have similar values of the order parameter but different dynamics. Snapshots with similar fluctuations are used as nodes of a transition network, the clusterization of which into states provides accurate Markov-state-models of the system under study. Application of the methodology to theoretical models with a noisy order parameter as well as the dynamics of a disordered peptide illustrates the possibility to build accurate descriptions of molecular processes on the sole basis of order parameter time series without using any supplementary information.

  12. Parameters and kinetics of olive mill wastewater dephenolization by immobilized Rhodotorula glutinis cells.

    PubMed

    Bozkoyunlu, Gaye; Takaç, Serpil

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) with total phenol (TP) concentration range of 300-1200 mg/L was treated with alginate-immobilized Rhodotorula glutinis cells in batch system. The effects of pellet properties (diameter, alginate concentration and cell loading (CL)) and operational parameters (initial TP concentration, agitation rate and reusability of pellets) on dephenolization of OMW were studied. Up to 87% dephenolization was obtained after 120 h biodegradations. The utilization number of pellets increased with the addition of calcium ions into the biodegradation medium. The overall effectiveness factors calculated for different conditions showed that diffusional limitations arising from pellet size and pellet composition could be neglected. Mass transfer limitations appeared to be more effective at high substrate concentrations and low agitation rates. The parameters of logistic model for growth kinetics of R. glutinis in OMW were estimated at different initial phenol concentrations of OMW by curve-fitting of experimental data with the model. PMID:25244135

  13. Kinetic parameters of the conversion of methane precursors to methane in a hypereutrophic lake sediment.

    PubMed

    Strayer, R F; Tiedje, J M

    1978-08-01

    The kinetic parameters K(m), V(max), T(t) (turnover time), and v (natural velocity) were determined for H(2) and acetate conversion to methane by Wintergreen Lake sediment, using short-term (a few hours) methods and incubation temperatures of 10 to 14 degrees C. Estimates of the Michaelis-Menten constant, K(m), for both the consumption of hydrogen and the conversion of hydrogen to methane by sediment microflora averaged about 0.024 mumol g of dry sediment. The maximal velocity, V(max), averaged 4.8 mumol of H(2) g h for hydrogen consumption and 0.64 mumol of CH(4) g h for the conversion of hydrogen to methane during the winter. Estimated natural rates of hydrogen consumption and hydrogen conversion to methane could be calculated from the Michaelis-Menten equation and estimates of K(m), V(max), and the in situ dissolved-hydrogen concentration. These results indicate that methane may not be the only fate of hydrogen in the sediment. Among several potential hydrogen donors tested, only formate stimulated the rate of sediment methanogenesis. Formate conversion to methane was so rapid that an accurate estimate of kinetic parameters was not possible. Kinetic experiments using [2-C]acetate and sediments collected in the summer indicated that acetate was being converted to methane at or near the maximal rate. A minimum natural rate of acetate conversion to methane was estimated to be about 110 nmol of CH(4) g h, which was 66% of the V(max) (163 nmol of CH(4) g h). A 15-min preincubation of sediment with 5.0 x 10 atm of hydrogen had a pronounced effect on the kinetic parameters for the conversion of acetate to methane. The acetate pool size, expressed as the term K(m) + S(n) (S(n) is in situ substrate concentration), decreased by 37% and T(t) decreased by 43%. The V(max) remained relatively constant. A preincubation with hydrogen also caused a 37% decrease in the amount of labeled carbon dioxide produced from the metabolism of [U-C]valine by sediment heterotrophs. PMID

  14. Local field potentials in primate motor cortex encode grasp kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Milekovic, Tomislav; Truccolo, Wilson; Grün, Sonja; Riehle, Alexa; Brochier, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Reach and grasp kinematics are known to be encoded in the spiking activity of neuronal ensembles and in local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from primate motor cortex during movement planning and execution. However, little is known, especially in LFPs, about the encoding of kinetic parameters, such as forces exerted on the object during the same actions. We implanted two monkeys with microelectrode arrays in the motor cortical areas MI and PMd to investigate encoding of grasp-related parameters in motor cortical LFPs during planning and execution of reach-and-grasp movements. We identified three components of the LFP that modulated during grasps corresponding to low (0.3-7Hz), intermediate (~10-~40Hz) and high (~80-250Hz) frequency bands. We show that all three components can be used to classify not only grip types but also object loads during planning and execution of a grasping movement. In addition, we demonstrate that all three components recorded during planning or execution can be used to continuously decode finger pressure forces and hand position related to the grasping movement. Low and high frequency components provide similar classification and decoding accuracies, which were substantially higher than those obtained from the intermediate frequency component. Our results demonstrate that intended reach and grasp kinetic parameters are encoded in multiple LFP bands during both movement planning and execution. These findings also suggest that the LFP is a reliable signal for the control of parameters related to object load and applied pressure forces in brain-machine interfaces. PMID:25869861

  15. Local field potentials in primate motor cortex encode grasp kinetic parameters

    PubMed Central

    Milekovic, Tomislav; Truccolo, Wilson; Grün, Sonja; Riehle, Alexa; Brochier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reach and grasp kinematics are known to be encoded in the spiking activity of neuronal ensembles and in local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from primate motor cortex during movement planning and execution. However, little is known, especially in LFPs, about the encoding of kinetic parameters, such as forces exerted on the object during the same actions. We implanted two monkeys with microelectrode arrays in the motor cortical areas MI and PMd to investigate encoding of grasp-related parameters in motor cortical LFPs during planning and execution of reach-and-grasp movements. We identified three components of the LFP that modulated during grasps corresponding to low (0.3 - 7Hz), intermediate (∼10 - ∼40Hz) and high (∼80 - 250Hz) frequency bands. We show that all three components can be used to classify not only grip types but also object loads during planning and execution of a grasping movement. In addition, we demonstrate that all three components recorded during planning or execution can be used to continuously decode finger pressure forces and hand position related to the grasping movement. Low and high frequency components provide similar classification and decoding accuracies, which were substantially higher than those obtained from the intermediate frequency component. Our results demonstrate that intended reach and grasp kinetic parameters are encoded in multiple LFP bands during both movement planning and execution. These findings also suggest that the LFP is a reliable signal for the control of parameters related to object load and applied pressure forces in brain-machine interfaces. PMID:25869861

  16. Variation ranges of motion parameters for space debris in the geosynchronous ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chang-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Jiang; Yu, Sheng-Xian; Xiong, Jian-Ning; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Ting-Lei

    2016-06-01

    We propose a method that uses only one set of known orbital elements to directly determine the motion state and variation ranges of motion parameters, including the inclination, right ascension of the ascending node (RAAN), evolution period of the orbital plane, maximum libration amplitude of the semi-major axis, commensurable angle, libration period and drift period, for space debris in the geosynchronous ring. These variation ranges of motion parameters characterize the evolution of debris quantitatively and illustrate the three-dimensional (3D) variations. Employing the proposed method, we study the motion state and variation ranges of motion parameters for catalogued and uncontrolled space debris with existing two-line element (TLE) data in the geosynchronous ring, and present specific results. We also compare our results with actual observational results derived from long-term TLE historical data, and find that, in the vast majority of cases, our proposed method of determining the motion state and variation ranges of motion parameters via only one set of known orbital elements is effective. In addition, before the elaboration of the variation ranges of motion parameters stated above, we obtain the statistical distribution of space debris in the orbital plane and the daily motion from the TLE historical data. We then derive two mathematical formulae that explain the statistical distribution and daily motion on the basis of the essence of dynamics, which contributes to the characterization of the evolution of debris.

  17. Optimization of glycerol fed-batch fermentation in different reactor states: a variable kinetic parameter approach.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dongming; Liu, Dehua; Zhu, Haoli; Zhang, Jianan

    2002-05-01

    To optimize the fed-batch processes of glycerol fermentation in different reactor states, typical bioreactors including 500-mL shaking flask, 600-mL and 15-L airlift loop reactor, and 5-L stirred vessel were investigated. It was found that by reestimating the values of only two variable kinetic parameters associated with physical transport phenomena in a reactor, the macrokinetic model of glycerol fermentation proposed in previous work could describe well the batch processes in different reactor states. This variable kinetic parameter (VKP) approach was further applied to model-based optimization of discrete-pulse feed (DPF) strategies of both glucose and corn steep slurry for glycerol fed-batch fermentation. The experimental results showed that, compared with the feed strategies determined just by limited experimental optimization in previous work, the DPF strategies with VKPs adjusted could improve glycerol productivity at least by 27% in the scale-down and scale-up reactor states. The approach proposed appeared promising for further modeling and optimization of glycerol fermentation or the similar bioprocesses in larger scales. PMID:12049203

  18. Mathematical model for studying the variation of the electrical parameters in functioning of nonlinear loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rob, Raluca; Rat, Cezara

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a study concerning the variation of the most important electrical parameters, measured during the functioning of an electrothermal installation with electromagnetic induction. Two measuring methods are described: the first method consists in using a power and energy quality analyzer and the second uses a data acquisition system that contains an adapting interface and a data acquisition board connected to a computer. In order to compute the electrical parameters, a LabVIEW application was designed. The data acquisition system is able to measure in real time the variation of the parameters and also to save the obtained information.

  19. Variational Formulation of Particle Algorithms for Kinetic E&M Plasma Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Alexander; Shadwick, Bradley; Evstatiev, Evstati

    2013-10-01

    A rigorous variational method was used to derive a self-consistent set of equations of motion from a discretized Lagrangian to study kinetic plasmas. Discretization of the Lagrangian was performed by reduction of the phase-space distribution function to a collection of finite-sized macro-particles of arbitrary shape and discretization of field quantities onto a spatial grid. The equations of motion were then obtained by demanding the action be stationary. This approach may be used in both lab frame and moving window coordinates, which improve computational efficiency when modeling laser-plasma interactions. The primary advantage of the variational approach is preservation of Lagrangian symmetries, which in our case leads to energy conservation and avoids difficulties with grid heating. Additionally, this approach decouples particle size from grid spacing and relaxes restrictions on particle shape, leading to a decrease in numerical noise. The variational approach also guarantees consistent ordering and is amiable to higher order methods in both space and time. Simulations conducted with the new equations of motion demonstrate the desired energy conservation and a decrease in numerical noise. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Education grant P200A090156 and by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-08ER55000.

  20. The role of test parameters on the kinetics and thermodynamics of glass leaching. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C M

    1988-01-01

    The relative durabilities of nuclear waste, natural, and ancient glasses have been assessed by standard laboratory leach tests. Different test conditions result in different glass surface areas (SA), leachant volumes (V), and test durations (t). Leachate concentrations are known to be a parabolic function of the kinetic test parameter SAV/center dot/t. Based on durability experiments of glass monoliths at low (SAV)/center dot/ glass durability has been shown to be a logarithmic function of the thermodynamic hydration free energy, ..delta..G/sub hyd/. The thermodynamic hydration free energy, ..delta..G/sub hyd/, can be calculated from glass composition and solution pH. In the repository environment high effective glass surface areas to solution volume ratios may occur as a result of slow groundwater flow rates. The application of hydration thermodynamics to crushed glass, high (SAV)/center dot/t, durability tests has been demonstrated. The relative contributions of the kinetic test parameters, (SAV)/center dot/t, and the thermodynamic parameter, ..delta..G/sub hyd/, have been shown to define a plane in ..delta..G/sub hyd/-concentration-(SAV)/center dot/t space. At constant test conditions, e.g. constant (SAV/center dot/t, the intersection with this surface indicates that all /delta G//sub hyd/-concentration plots should have similar slopes and predict the same relative durabilities for various glasses as a function of glass composition. Using this approach, the durability of nuclear waste glasses has been interpolated to be -- 10/sup 6/ years and no less than 10/sup 3/ years. 28 refs., 24 figs.

  1. {sup 82}Rb kinetic parameter variability due to depth of anesthesia in the anesthetized canine

    SciTech Connect

    Coxson, P.G.; Brennan, K.M.; Yang, L.

    1995-05-01

    The effect of {open_quotes}depth of anesthesia{close_quotes} on {sup 82}Rb kinetic parameter estimates in the myocardium was tested in a series of replicated studies on six dogs using the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph. A single lateral slice through the myocardium was imaged following each of four successive injections of {sup 82}Rb. For three of the injections the animals were lightly anesthetized (mean blood pressure about 90 mmHg). For the second injection, the amount of anesthetic was increased until blood pressure dipped to about 70 mHg. The fourth injection was preceded by an infusion of dipyridamole to induce a stress-state. The entire sequence was repeated at least twice with each of the six animals. A two compartment model with parameters k{sub 1} (uptake rate), k{sub 2} (wash-out rate), and f{sub v} (vascular fraction) was fit to the data. There was a consistent finding of a 20% to 30% decrease in k{sub 1} during the deeply anesthetized state compared with the two lightly anesthetized rest states. Analysis of variance showed that the difference observed is significant, though small in comparison with the difference between the rest and stress states (60% to 160% increase). The difference between the two lightly anesthetized states was not significant. Kinetic PET studies using dogs are routinely carried out with the animal anesthetized. Depth of anesthesia has been suspected as as source of variability in parameter estimates, but this conjecture has not previously been systematically investigated. These studies at extremes in the depth of anesthesia show a small but predictable effect on the uptake k{sub 1} of {sup 82}Rb.

  2. Chemical kinetics parameters and model validation for the gasification of PCEA nuclear graphite

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, Mohamed S; Tournier, Jean-Michel; Contescu, Cristian I

    2014-01-01

    A series of gasification experiments, using two right cylinder specimens (~ 12.7 x 25.4 mm and 25.4 x 25.4 mm) of PCEA nuclear graphite in ambient airflow, measured the total gasification flux at weight losses up to 41.5% and temperatures (893-1015 K) characteristics of those for in-pores gasification Mode (a) and in-pores diffusion-limited Mode (b). The chemical kinetics parameters for the gasification of PCEA graphite are determined using a multi-parameters optimization algorithm from the measurements of the total gasification rate and transient weight loss in experiments. These parameters are: (i) the pre-exponential rate coefficients and the Gaussian distributions and values of specific activation energies for adsorption of oxygen and desorption of CO gas; (ii) the specific activation energy and pre-exponential rate coefficient for the breakup of stable un-dissociated C(O2) oxygen radicals to form stable (CO) complexes; (iii) the specific activation energy and pre-exponential coefficient for desorption of CO2 gas and; (iv) the initial surface area of reactive free sites per unit mass. This area is consistently 13.5% higher than that for nuclear graphite grades of NBG-25 and IG-110 and decreases inversely proportional with the square root of the initial mass of the graphite specimens in the experiments. Experimental measurements successfully validate the chemical-reactions kinetics model that calculates continuous Arrhenius curves of the total gasification flux and the production rates of CO and CO2 gases. The model results at different total weight losses agree well with measurements and expand beyond the temperatures in the experiments to the diffusion-limited mode of gasification. Also calculated are the production rates of CO and CO2 gases and their relative contributions to the total gasification rate in the experiments as functions of temperature, for total weight losses of 5% and 10%.

  3. Kinetic modeling of molecular motors: pause model and parameter determination from single-molecule experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, José A.; Ibarra, Borja; Cao, Francisco J.

    2016-05-01

    Single-molecule manipulation experiments of molecular motors provide essential information about the rate and conformational changes of the steps of the reaction located along the manipulation coordinate. This information is not always sufficient to define a particular kinetic cycle. Recent single-molecule experiments with optical tweezers showed that the DNA unwinding activity of a Phi29 DNA polymerase mutant presents a complex pause behavior, which includes short and long pauses. Here we show that different kinetic models, considering different connections between the active and the pause states, can explain the experimental pause behavior. Both the two independent pause model and the two connected pause model are able to describe the pause behavior of a mutated Phi29 DNA polymerase observed in an optical tweezers single-molecule experiment. For the two independent pause model all parameters are fixed by the observed data, while for the more general two connected pause model there is a range of values of the parameters compatible with the observed data (which can be expressed in terms of two of the rates and their force dependencies). This general model includes models with indirect entry and exit to the long-pause state, and also models with cycling in both directions. Additionally, assuming that detailed balance is verified, which forbids cycling, this reduces the ranges of the values of the parameters (which can then be expressed in terms of one rate and its force dependency). The resulting model interpolates between the independent pause model and the indirect entry and exit to the long-pause state model

  4. Evaluation of the interindividual human variation in bioactivation of methyleugenol using physiologically based kinetic modeling and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Al-Subeihi, Ala A A; Alhusainy, Wasma; Kiwamoto, Reiko; Spenkelink, Bert; van Bladeren, Peter J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Punt, Ans

    2015-03-01

    The present study aims at predicting the level of formation of the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of methyleugenol, 1'-sulfooxymethyleugenol, in the human population by taking variability in key bioactivation and detoxification reactions into account using Monte Carlo simulations. Depending on the metabolic route, variation was simulated based on kinetic constants obtained from incubations with a range of individual human liver fractions or by combining kinetic constants obtained for specific isoenzymes with literature reported human variation in the activity of these enzymes. The results of the study indicate that formation of 1'-sulfooxymethyleugenol is predominantly affected by variation in i) P450 1A2-catalyzed bioactivation of methyleugenol to 1'-hydroxymethyleugenol, ii) P450 2B6-catalyzed epoxidation of methyleugenol, iii) the apparent kinetic constants for oxidation of 1'-hydroxymethyleugenol, and iv) the apparent kinetic constants for sulfation of 1'-hydroxymethyleugenol. Based on the Monte Carlo simulations a so-called chemical-specific adjustment factor (CSAF) for intraspecies variation could be derived by dividing different percentiles by the 50th percentile of the predicted population distribution for 1'-sulfooxymethyleugenol formation. The obtained CSAF value at the 90th percentile was 3.2, indicating that the default uncertainty factor of 3.16 for human variability in kinetics may adequately cover the variation within 90% of the population. Covering 99% of the population requires a larger uncertainty factor of 6.4. In conclusion, the results showed that adequate predictions on interindividual human variation can be made with Monte Carlo-based PBK modeling. For methyleugenol this variation was observed to be in line with the default variation generally assumed in risk assessment. PMID:25549870

  5. An identification algorithm of model kinetic parameters of the interfacial layer growth in fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubov, V.; Lurie, S.; Solyaev, Y.

    2016-04-01

    This paper considers the identification algorithm of parameters included in a parabolic law that is often used to predict the time dependence of the thickness of the interfacial layers in the structure of composite materials based on a metal matrix. The incubation period of the process and the speed of reaction and pressure are taken into account. The proposed algorithm of identification is based on the introduction of a minimized objective function of a special kind. The problem of identification of unknown parameters in the parabolic law is formulated in a variational form. The authors of the paper have determined the desired parameters, under which the objective function has a minimum value. It is shown that on the basis of four known experimental values of the interfacial layer thickness, corresponding to different values of temperature, pressure and the time of the interfacial layer growth, it is possible to identified four model parameters. They are the activation energy, a pre-exponential parameter, the delay time of the start of the interfacial layer formation, and the parameter determining the pressure effect on the rate of interfacial layer growth. The stability of the proposed identification algorithm is also studied.

  6. Seasonal, diurnal and vertical variation in photosynthetic parameters in Phyllostachys humilis bamboo plants.

    PubMed

    Van Goethem, Davina; Potters, Geert; De Smedt, Sebastiaan; Gu, Lianhong; Samson, Roeland

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, temperate bamboo species have been introduced in Europe for multiple uses such as renewable bio-based materials (wood, composites, fibres, biochemicals…) and numerous ecological functions (soil and water conservation, erosion control, phytoremediation…). Despite their interesting potential, little is known on the ecophysiology of these plants in their new habitat. Therefore, we studied gas exchange parameters on a full soil bamboo plantation of Phyllostachys humilis on a test field in Ireland (Europe). We evaluated the seasonal, diurnal and vertical variation of the parameters of two commonly used photosynthetic models, i.e. the light response curve (LRC) model and the model of Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB). Furthermore, we tested if there were environmental effects on the photosynthetic parameters of these models and if a correlation between photosynthetic parameters and fluorescence parameters was present, fluorescence parameters can be easily and fast determined. Our results show that the gas exchange parameters do not vary diurnally or vertically. Only seasonal variations were found and should, therefore, be taken into account when using the LRC or FvCB model when modelling canopy growth. Therefore, a big-leaf model or a sunlit-shade model can be used for modelling bamboo growth in Western Europe. There is no straightforward relation between environmental variables and the photosynthetic parameters. Although fluorescence parameters showed a correlation with the photosynthetic parameters, application of such correlation may be limited. PMID:24585025

  7. A new multi-wavelength model-based method for determination of enzyme kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Sorouraddin, Mohammad-Hossein; Amini, Kaveh; Naseri, Abdolhossein; Vallipour, Javad; Hanaee, Jalal; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza

    2010-09-01

    Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis is the most widely used method to determine enzyme kinetic parameters. In the spectrophotometric determination of enzyme activity using the Lineweaver-Burk plot, it is necessary to find a wavelength at which only the substrate or the product has absorbance without any spectroscopic interference of the other reaction components. Moreover, in this method, different initial concentrations of the substrate should be used to obtain the initial velocities required for Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. In the present work, a multi-wavelength model-based method has been developed and validated to determine Michaelis-Menten constants for some enzyme reactions. In this method, a selective wavelength region and several experiments with different initial concentrations of the substrate are not required. The absorbance data of the kinetic assays are fitted by non-linear regression coupled to the numeric integration of the related differential equation. To indicate the applicability of the proposed method, the Michaelis-Menten constants for the oxidation of phenanthridine, 6-deoxypenciclovir and xanthine by molybdenum hydroxylases were determined using only a single initial concentration of the substrate, regardless of any spectral overlap. PMID:20826949

  8. Kinetic study of the anaerobic biodegradation of alkyl polyglucosides and the influence of their structural parameters.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Francisco; Fernández-Arteaga, Alejandro; Lechuga, Manuela; Jurado, Encarnación; Fernández-Serrano, Mercedes

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports a study of the anaerobic biodegradation of non-ionic surfactants alkyl polyglucosides applying the method by measurement of the biogas production in digested sludge. Three alkyl polyglucosides with different length alkyl chain and degree of polymerization of the glucose units were tested. The influence of their structural parameters was evaluated, and the characteristics parameters of the anaerobic biodegradation were determined. Results show that alkyl polyglucosides, at the standard initial concentration of 100 mgC L(-1), are not completely biodegradable in anaerobic conditions because they inhibit the biogas production. The alkyl polyglucoside having the shortest alkyl chain showed the fastest biodegradability and reached the higher percentage of final mineralization. The anaerobic process was well adjusted to a pseudo first-order equation using the carbon produced as gas during the test; also, kinetics parameters and a global rate constant for all the involved metabolic process were determined. This modeling is helpful to evaluate the biodegradation or the persistence of alkyl polyglucosides under anaerobic conditions in the environment and in the wastewater treatment. PMID:26820643

  9. Kinetics of surface segregation in metallic alloys with first-principles interaction parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Wille, L.T. |; Ouannasser, S.; Dreysse, H.

    1996-12-31

    The authors report the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the kinetics of surface segregation at the (001) face of CuNi and MoW alloys. These two systems were selected because they are based on different lattice structures and show contrasting segregation behavior: CuNi exhibits a monotonic profile, while that of MoW is oscillatory. To describe the energetics they have determined a set of effective cluster interactions (ECI) which govern the ordering or clustering tendencies of these alloys. The ECI were obtained by means of tight-binding electronic structure calculations in which no adjustable or experimentally determined parameters were used. Equilibrium segregation profiles are calculated and a series of quenches are performed. The layer concentrations are studied as a function of time and the existence of metastable phases in the surface region is investigated.

  10. Characterization of DuPont photopolymer: determination of kinetic parameters in a diffusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Vincent; Renotte, Yvon; Lion, Yves

    2002-06-01

    We investigate the recording dynamics of Omnidex photopolymer film from DuPont. We use a reviewed version of the diffusion model proposed by Zhao and Mouroulis [J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1929 (1994)] in order to describe the recording response that combined photopolymerization and free-monomer diffusion process. Two different experiments are detailed that lead to the determination of material kinetic parameters. These values are introduced in the numerical model to provide quantitative simulations of a grating formation under various holographic exposures. Theoretical results are experimentally checked as a validation of the model. We extend its applications to several secondary investigations, such as volume-shrinkage influence on refractive-index distribution and spectral selectivity of reflection gratings. This study improves the understanding of the recording process and consequently allows to build more accurate holographic components in this material to be built.

  11. Sensitivity of natural gas HCCI combustion to fuel and operating parameters using detailed kinetic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S; Dibble, R; Flowers, D; Smith, J R; Westbrook, C K

    1999-07-19

    This paper uses the HCT (Hydrodynamics, Chemistry and Transport) chemical kinetics code to analyze natural gas HCCI combustion in an engine. The HCT code has been modified to better represent the conditions existing inside an engine, including a wall heat transfer correlation. Combustion control and low power output per displacement remain as two of the biggest challenges to obtaining satisfactory performance out of an HCCI engine, and these are addressed in this paper. The paper considers the effect of natural gas composition on HCCI combustion, and then explores three control strategies for HCCI engines: DME (dimethyl ether) addition, intake heating and hot EGR addition. The results show that HCCI combustion is sensitive to natural gas composition, and an active control may be required to compensate for possible changes in composition. The three control strategies being considered have a significant effect in changing the combustion parameters for the engine, and should be able to control HCCI combustion.

  12. Kinetic and temporospatial parameters in male and female cats walking over a pressure sensing walkway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several factors may influence kinetic data measurements, including body conformation and body mass. In addition, gender differences in gait pattern have been observed in healthy humans. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the kinetic and temporospatial parameters in clinically healthy male and female cats using a pressure-sensitive walkway. Eighteen crossbreed adult cats were divided into two groups: G1 had ten male cats (nine neutered) aged from 1 to 4 years and body mass 3.1-6.8 kg; G2 had eight spayed female cats, aged from 1 to 6 years and body mass 3.3-4.75 kg. The data from the first five valid trials were collected for each cat. A trial was considered valid if the cat maintained a velocity between 0.54-0.74 m/s and acceleration from -0.20 to 0.20 m/s2. The peak vertical force (PVF), vertical impulse (VI), gait cycle time, stance time, swing time, stride length, and percentage body weight distribution among the four limbs were determined. In addition, the lengths of each forelimb and each hind limb were measured using a tape with the animal standing. Results No significant differences were observed in each group in either the forelimbs or the hind limbs or between the left and right sides for any of the variables. For both groups, the PVF (%BW), the VI, and the percentage body weight distribution were higher at the forelimbs than the hind limbs. The stride length was larger for males; however, the other kinetic and temporospatial variables did not show any statistically significant differences between the groups. The lengths of the forelimbs and hind limbs were larger in the male cats. There was a significant moderate positive correlation between the stride length and the length of the limbs. Conclusions In conclusion, the only difference observed between male and female cats was the stride length, and this was due to the greater body size of male cats. This difference did not affect other temporospatial or kinetics variables

  13. Optimization of Process Parameters and Kinetic Model of Enzymatic Extraction of Polyphenols from Lonicerae Flos

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Fansheng; Yu, Shujuan; Bi, Yongguang; Huang, Xiaojun; Huang, Mengqian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To optimize and verify the cellulase extraction of polyphenols from honeysuckle and provide a reference for enzymatic extracting polyphenols from honeysuckle. Materials and Methods: The uniform design was used According to Fick's first law and kinetic model, fitting analysis of the dynamic process of enzymatic extracting polyphenols was conducted. Results: The optimum enzymatic extraction parameters for polyphenols from honeysuckle are found to be 80% (v/v) of alcohol, 35:1 (mL/g) of liquid-solid ratio, 80°C of extraction temperature, 8.5 of pH, 6.0 mg of enzyme levels, and 130 min of extraction time. Under the optimal conditions, the extraction rate of polyphenols was 3.03%. The kinetic experiments indicated kinetic equation had a good linear relationship with t even under the conditions of different levels of enzyme and temperature, which means fitting curve tallies well with the experimental values. Conclusion: The results of quantification showed that the results provide a reference for enzymatic extracting polyphenols from honeysuckle. SUMMARY Lonicerae flos (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is a material of traditional Chinese medicine and healthy drinks, of which active compounds mainly is polyphenols. At present, plant polyphenols are the hotspots centents of food, cosmetic and medicine, because it has strong bioactivity. Several traditional methods are available for the extraction of plant polyphenols including impregnation, solvent extraction, ultrasonic extraction, hot-water extraction, alkaline dilute alcohol or alkaline water extraction, microwave extraction and Supercritical CO2 extraction. But now, an increasing number of research on using cellulase to extract active ingredients from plants. Enzymatic method is widely used for enzyme have excellent properties of high reaction efficiency and specificity, moderate reaction conditions, shorter extraction time and easier to control, less damage to the active ingredient. At present, the enzymatic

  14. Sensitivity of tire response to variations in material and geometric parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Tanner, John A.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1992-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for evaluating the analytic sensitivity derivatives of the tire response with respect to material and geometric parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled by using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in material and geometric parameters included. The computational procedure is applied to the case of uniform inflation pressure on the Space Shuttle nose-gear tire when subjected to uniform inflation pressure. Numerical results are presented showing the sensitivity of the different response quantities to variations in the material characteristics of both the cord and the rubber.

  15. Simulation of the interannual variations of tropospheric ozone over China: Roles of variations in meteorological parameters and anthropogenic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Sijia; Liao, Hong; Yang, Yang; Mu, Qing

    2015-12-01

    We quantify the interannual variations (IAVs) of tropospheric O3 over China for the years 2004-2012 by using the one-way nested-grid version of the global three-dimensional Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). The roles of variations in meteorological fields and anthropogenic emissions of O3 precursors are examined separately and together through sensitivity simulations. With variations in both meteorological parameters and emissions, simulated seasonal mean surface-layer O3 concentrations over North China (NC, 110-120°E, 32-42°N) exhibit the largest IAVs in June-July-August (JJA). The regionally averaged absolute percent departure from the mean (APDM) values over NC are 0.7%, 3.2%, 3.9%, and 2.1% in December-January-February (DJF), March-April-May (MAM), and September-October-November (SON), respectively. Over South China (SC, 110-120°E, 22-32°N), the IAVs of O3 are found maximum in MAM, and minimum in JJA; the APDM values are 2.7%, 3.7%, 1.4%, and 2.6% in DJF, MAM, JJA, and SON, respectively. With respect to the IAVs of O3 over the Sichuan Basin (SCB, 102-110°E, 27-33°N), the APDM values are simulated to be 2.7-3.8% throughout the year. The IAVs in surface-layer O3 by variations in meteorological fields are simulated to be larger than those by variations in anthropogenic emissions throughout the year in NC and SC except for JJA in SC. The relatively more important role of variations in anthropogenic emissions is simulated in SCB in all seasons. Process analyses are performed to identify key meteorological parameters that influence the IAVs of O3 over NC, SC, and SCB. Over all of these regions, variations in winds are found to have the largest impact on the IAVs of O3, followed by those in temperature and specific humidity. Considering that the APDM values represent the IAVs averaged over 2004-2012, the magnitudes of IAVs of O3 for specific years can be more significant than the numbers reported here. Our results have

  16. Stochastic modelling of daily rainfall in Nigeria: intra-annual variation of model parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimoh, O. D.; Webster, P.

    1999-09-01

    A Markov model of order 1 may be used to describe the occurrence of wet and dry days in Nigeria. Such models feature two parameter sets; P01 to characterise the probability of a wet day following a dry day and P11 to characterise the probability of a wet day following a wet day. The model parameter sets, when estimated from historical records, are characterised by a distinctive seasonal behaviour. However, the comparison of this seasonal behaviour between rainfall stations is hampered by the noise reflecting the high variability of parameters on successive days. The first part of this article is concerned with methods for smoothing these inherently noisy parameter sets. Smoothing has been approached using Fourier series, averaging techniques, or a combination thereof. It has been found that different methods generally perform well with respect to estimation of the average number of wet events and the frequency duration curves of wet and dry events. Parameterisation of the P01 parameter set is more successful than the P11 in view of the relatively small number of wet events lasting two or more days. The second part of the article is concerned with describing the regional variation in smoothed parameter sets. There is a systematic variation in the P01 parameter set as one moves northwards. In contrast, there is limited regional variation in the P11 set. Although this regional variation in P01 appears to be related to the gradual movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone, the contrasting behaviour of the two parameter sets is difficult to explain on physical grounds.

  17. Evaluation of the interindividual human variation in bioactivation of methyleugenol using physiologically based kinetic modeling and Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Subeihi, Ala' A.A.; Alhusainy, Wasma; Kiwamoto, Reiko; Spenkelink, Bert; Bladeren, Peter J. van; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Punt, Ans

    2015-03-01

    The present study aims at predicting the level of formation of the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of methyleugenol, 1′-sulfooxymethyleugenol, in the human population by taking variability in key bioactivation and detoxification reactions into account using Monte Carlo simulations. Depending on the metabolic route, variation was simulated based on kinetic constants obtained from incubations with a range of individual human liver fractions or by combining kinetic constants obtained for specific isoenzymes with literature reported human variation in the activity of these enzymes. The results of the study indicate that formation of 1′-sulfooxymethyleugenol is predominantly affected by variation in i) P450 1A2-catalyzed bioactivation of methyleugenol to 1′-hydroxymethyleugenol, ii) P450 2B6-catalyzed epoxidation of methyleugenol, iii) the apparent kinetic constants for oxidation of 1′-hydroxymethyleugenol, and iv) the apparent kinetic constants for sulfation of 1′-hydroxymethyleugenol. Based on the Monte Carlo simulations a so-called chemical-specific adjustment factor (CSAF) for intraspecies variation could be derived by dividing different percentiles by the 50th percentile of the predicted population distribution for 1′-sulfooxymethyleugenol formation. The obtained CSAF value at the 90th percentile was 3.2, indicating that the default uncertainty factor of 3.16 for human variability in kinetics may adequately cover the variation within 90% of the population. Covering 99% of the population requires a larger uncertainty factor of 6.4. In conclusion, the results showed that adequate predictions on interindividual human variation can be made with Monte Carlo-based PBK modeling. For methyleugenol this variation was observed to be in line with the default variation generally assumed in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Interindividual human differences in methyleugenol bioactivation were simulated. • This was done using in vitro incubations, PBK modeling

  18. Study of kinetic parameters in a mechanistic model for bioethanol production through a screening technique and optimization.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Rivera, Elmer Ccopa; Atala, Daniel I P; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Filho, Francisco Maugeri; Costa, Aline C

    2009-08-01

    The accurate description of the kinetics and robust modeling of biotechnological processes can only be achieved by incorporating reliable methodologies to easily update the model when there are changes in operational conditions. The purpose of this work is to provide a systematic approach with which to perform model parameters screening and updating in biotechnological processes. Batch experiments are performed to develop a mechanistic model, considering the effect of temperature on the kinetics, and further experiments (batch fermentations using sugar cane molasses from a different harvest) are used to validate the effectiveness of screening before parameters updating. The reduction in the number of kinetic parameters to be re-estimated enabled by the screening procedure reduces significantly the complexity of the optimization, which makes the updating procedure to be significantly quicker, while resulting in accurate performance of the updated model. PMID:19125302

  19. A new methodology to determine kinetic parameters for one- and two-step chemical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantel, T.; Egolfopoulos, F. N.; Bowman, C. T.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a new methodology to determine kinetic parameters for simple chemical models and simple transport properties classically used in DNS of premixed combustion is presented. First, a one-dimensional code is utilized to performed steady unstrained laminar methane-air flame in order to verify intrinsic features of laminar flames such as burning velocity and temperature and concentration profiles. Second, the flame response to steady and unsteady strain in the opposed jet configuration is numerically investigated. It appears that for a well determined set of parameters, one- and two-step mechanisms reproduce the extinction limit of a laminar flame submitted to a steady strain. Computations with the GRI-mech mechanism (177 reactions, 39 species) and multicomponent transport properties are used to validate these simplified models. A sensitivity analysis of the preferential diffusion of heat and reactants when the Lewis number is close to unity indicates that the response of the flame to an oscillating strain is very sensitive to this number. As an application of this methodology, the interaction between a two-dimensional vortex pair and a premixed laminar flame is performed by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) using the one- and two-step mechanisms. Comparison with the experimental results of Samaniego et al. (1994) shows a significant improvement in the description of the interaction when the two-step model is used.

  20. Turbulence intensity and turbulent kinetic energy parameters over a heterogeneous terrain of Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Ping; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Runyuan; Li, Yaohui; Wang, Sheng

    2015-09-01

    A deep understanding of turbulence structure is important for investigating the characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer, especially over heterogeneous terrain. In the present study, turbulence intensity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) parameters are analyzed for different conditions with respect to stability, wind direction and wind speed over a valley region of the Loess Plateau of China during December 2003 and January 2004. The purpose of the study is to examine whether the observed turbulence intensity and TKE parameters satisfy Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST), and analyze the wind shear effect on, and thermal buoyancy function of, the TKE, despite the terrain heterogeneity. The results demonstrate that the normalized intensity of turbulence follows MOST for all stability in the horizontal and vertical directions, as well as the normalized TKE in the horizontal direction. The shear effect of the wind speed in the Loess Plateau region is strong in winter and could enhance turbulence for all stability conditions. During daytime, the buoyancy and shear effect together constitute the generation of TKE under unstable conditions. At night, the contribution of buoyancy to TKE is relatively small, and mechanical shearing is the main production form of turbulence.

  1. Modeling kinetic rate variation in third generation DNA sequencing data to detect putative modifications to DNA bases.

    PubMed

    Schadt, Eric E; Banerjee, Onureena; Fang, Gang; Feng, Zhixing; Wong, Wing H; Zhang, Xuegong; Kislyuk, Andrey; Clark, Tyson A; Luong, Khai; Keren-Paz, Alona; Chess, Andrew; Kumar, Vipin; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Sondheimer, Neal; Korlach, Jonas; Kasarskis, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Current generation DNA sequencing instruments are moving closer to seamlessly sequencing genomes of entire populations as a routine part of scientific investigation. However, while significant inroads have been made identifying small nucleotide variation and structural variations in DNA that impact phenotypes of interest, progress has not been as dramatic regarding epigenetic changes and base-level damage to DNA, largely due to technological limitations in assaying all known and unknown types of modifications at genome scale. Recently, single-molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing has been reported to identify kinetic variation (KV) events that have been demonstrated to reflect epigenetic changes of every known type, providing a path forward for detecting base modifications as a routine part of sequencing. However, to date no statistical framework has been proposed to enhance the power to detect these events while also controlling for false-positive events. By modeling enzyme kinetics in the neighborhood of an arbitrary location in a genomic region of interest as a conditional random field, we provide a statistical framework for incorporating kinetic information at a test position of interest as well as at neighboring sites that help enhance the power to detect KV events. The performance of this and related models is explored, with the best-performing model applied to plasmid DNA isolated from Escherichia coli and mitochondrial DNA isolated from human brain tissue. We highlight widespread kinetic variation events, some of which strongly associate with known modification events, while others represent putative chemically modified sites of unknown types. PMID:23093720

  2. A theoretical model of phase changes of a klystron due to variation of operating parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kupiszewski, A.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model for phase changes of the VA-876 CW klystron amplifier output is presented and variations of several operating parameters are considered. The theoretical approach to the problem is based upon a gridded gap modeling with inclusion of a second order correction term so that actual gap geometry is reflected in the formulation. Physical measurements are contrasted to theoretical calculations.

  3. Diurnal variation of oxygen and carbonate system parameters in Tampa Bay and Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Dufore, C.; Smiley, N.; Jackson, C.; Halley, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen and carbonate system parameters were measured, in situ, over diurnal cycles in Tampa Bay and Florida Bay, Florida. All system parameters showed distinct diurnal trends in Tampa Bay with an average range of diurnal variation of 39.1 μmol kg− 1 for total alkalinity, 165.1 μmol kg− 1 for total CO2, 0.22 for pH, 0.093 mmol L− 1 for dissolved oxygen, and 218.1 μatm for pCO2. Average range of diurnal variation for system parameters in Tampa Bay was 73% to 93% of the seasonal range of variability for dissolved oxygen and pH. All system parameters measured in Florida Bay showed distinct variation over diurnal time-scales. However, clear diurnal trends were less evident. The average range of diurnal variability in Florida Bay was 62.8 μmol kg− 1 for total alkalinity, 130.4 μmol kg− 1 for total CO2, 0.13 for pH, 0.053 mmol L− 1 for dissolved oxygen, and 139.8 μatm for pCO2. The average range of diurnal variation was 14% to 102% of the seasonal ranges for these parameters. Diurnal variability in system parameters was most influenced by primary productivity and respiration of benthic communities in Tampa Bay, and by precipitation and dissolution of calcium carbonate in Florida Bay. Our data indicate that use of seasonal data sets without careful consideration of diurnal variability may impart significant error in calculations of annual carbon and oxygen budgets. These observations reinforce the need for higher temporal resolution measurements of oxygen and carbon system parameters in coastal ecosystems.

  4. Study of variation in human upper body parameters and motion for use in robotics based simulation.

    PubMed

    Lura, Derek J; Carey, Stephanie L; Dubey, Rajiv V

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the variations in human upper body motion of subjects completing activities of daily living. This study was completed to serve as a reference to evaluate the quality of simulated of human motion. In this paper we define the variation in motion as the variation in subjects' parameters (link lengths), joint angles, and hand positions, for a given task. All of these variations are related by forward kinematic equations. Motion data from eight healthy right hand dominant adults performing three activities of daily living (brushing hair, drinking from a cup, and opening a door) were collected using an eight camera Vicon motion analysis system. Subject parameters were calculated using relative positions of functional joint center locations between segments. Joint angles were calculated by Euler angle rotations between body segments. Hand position was defined as the origin of the hand frame relative to the pelvis frame. The variance of recorded human motion was analyzed based on the standard deviations of subject parameters, joint angles, and hand positions. Variances in joint angles were found to be similar in magnitude to root mean squared error of kinematics based motion simulation. To evaluate the relative variance, the forward kinematic solutions of the trials were found after removing subject parameter variance and reducing joint angle variance. The variance in the forward kinematic solution was then compared to the recorded hand position variance. Reductions in subject parameter and joint angle variance produced a proportionally much smaller reduction in the calculated hand position variance. Using the average instead of individual subject parameters had only a small impact on hand position variance. Modifying joint angles to reduce variance had a greater impact on the calculated hand position variance than using average subject parameters, but was still a relatively small change. Future work will focus on using these results to create formalized

  5. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water. [effects of measurable plant parameters on multispectral signal variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Reflectance of crop residues, that are important in reducing wind and water erosion, was more often different from bare soil in band 4 than in bands 5, 6, or 7. The plant parameters leaf area index, plant population, plant cover, and plant height explained 95.9 percent of the variation in band 7 (reflective infrared) digital counts for cotton and 78.2 percent of the variation in digital counts for the combined crops sorghum and corn; hence, measurable plant parameters explain most of the signal variation recorded for corpland. Leaf area index and plant population are both highly correlated with crop yields; since plant population can be readily measured (or possibly inferred from seeding rates), it is useful measurement for calibrating ERTS-type MSS digital data in terms of yield.

  6. Computer controlled automated assay for comprehensive studies of enzyme kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Bonowski, Felix; Kitanovic, Ana; Ruoff, Peter; Holzwarth, Jinda; Kitanovic, Igor; Bui, Van Ngoc; Lederer, Elke; Wölfl, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Stability and biological activity of proteins is highly dependent on their physicochemical environment. The development of realistic models of biological systems necessitates quantitative information on the response to changes of external conditions like pH, salinity and concentrations of substrates and allosteric modulators. Changes in just a few variable parameters rapidly lead to large numbers of experimental conditions, which go beyond the experimental capacity of most research groups. We implemented a computer-aided experimenting framework ("robot lab assistant") that allows us to parameterize abstract, human-readable descriptions of micro-plate based experiments with variable parameters and execute them on a conventional 8 channel liquid handling robot fitted with a sensitive plate reader. A set of newly developed R-packages translates the instructions into machine commands, executes them, collects the data and processes it without user-interaction. By combining script-driven experimental planning, execution and data-analysis, our system can react to experimental outcomes autonomously, allowing outcome-based iterative experimental strategies. The framework was applied in a response-surface model based iterative optimization of buffer conditions and investigation of substrate, allosteric effector, pH and salt dependent activity profiles of pyruvate kinase (PYK). A diprotic model of enzyme kinetics was used to model the combined effects of changing pH and substrate concentrations. The 8 parameters of the model could be estimated from a single two-hour experiment using nonlinear least-squares regression. The model with the estimated parameters successfully predicted pH and PEP dependence of initial reaction rates, while the PEP concentration dependent shift of optimal pH could only be reproduced with a set of manually tweaked parameters. Differences between model-predictions and experimental observations at low pH suggest additional protonation-sites at the

  7. Variational cross-validation of slow dynamical modes in molecular kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    Markov state models are a widely used method for approximating the eigenspectrum of the molecular dynamics propagator, yielding insight into the long-timescale statistical kinetics and slow dynamical modes of biomolecular systems. However, the lack of a unified theoretical framework for choosing between alternative models has hampered progress, especially for non-experts applying these methods to novel biological systems. Here, we consider cross-validation with a new objective function for estimators of these slow dynamical modes, a generalized matrix Rayleigh quotient (GMRQ), which measures the ability of a rank-m projection operator to capture the slow subspace of the system. It is shown that a variational theorem bounds the GMRQ from above by the sum of the first m eigenvalues of the system’s propagator, but that this bound can be violated when the requisite matrix elements are estimated subject to statistical uncertainty. This overfitting can be detected and avoided through cross-validation. These result make it possible to construct Markov state models for protein dynamics in a way that appropriately captures the tradeoff between systematic and statistical errors. PMID:25833563

  8. Thermodynamic, Kinetic, and Equilibrium Parameters for the Removal of Lead and Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions with Calcium Alginate Beads

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro-Cuevas-Villanueva, Ruth; Hidalgo-Vázquez, Aura Roxana; Cortés Penagos, Consuelo de Jesús; Cortés-Martínez, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    The sorption of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by calcium alginate beads (CAB) from aqueous solutions in batch systems was investigated. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters, as well as the sorption capacities of CAB in each system at different temperatures, were evaluated. The rate of sorption for both metals was rapid in the first 10 minutes and reached a maximum in 50 minutes. Sorption kinetic data were fitted to Lagergren, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models and it was found that the second-order kinetic model describes these data for the two metals; comparing kinetic parameters for Cd and Pb sorption a higher kinetic rate (K2) for Pb was observed, indicating that the interaction between lead cations and alginate beads was faster than for cadmium. Similarly, isotherm data were fitted to different models reported in literature and it was found that the Langmuir-Freundlich (L-F) and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models describe the isotherms in all cases. CAB sorption capacity for cadmium was 27.4 mg/g and 150.4 mg/g for lead, at 25°C. Sorption capacities of Cd and Pb increase as temperature rises. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the cadmium and lead adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. It was also found that pH has an important effect on the adsorption of these metals by CAB, as more were removed at pH values between 6 and 7. PMID:24587740

  9. Daily, monthly and seasonal variation in PSA levels and the association with weather parameters.

    PubMed

    Connolly, D; van Leeuwen, P J; Bailie, J; Black, A; Murray, L J; Keane, P F; Gavin, A

    2011-03-01

    PSA levels have shown daily and seasonal variation, although data are conflicting regarding the season with higher PSA levels and the clinical relevance of this. We assessed the correlation of total PSA levels with meteorological data on a daily, weekly, monthly and seasonal basis. Data from 53,224 men aged 45-74 years, with an initial PSA <10.0 ng ml(-1) were correlated with temperature (°C), duration of bright sunshine (hours) and rainfall (mm). There was seasonal variation in PSA levels, with median PSA being higher in spring compared with other seasons (1.18 vs 1.10 ng ml(-1), P = 0.004). Seasonal variation was not apparent when PSA levels were age-adjusted (P = 0.112). Total PSA was not correlated with daily, weekly or monthly hours of sunshine, rainfall or mean temperature. In contrast, age-adjusted PSA varied with weekday, with higher PSA levels on Thursday and Friday compared with other days (1.16 vs 1.10 ng ml(-1), respectively). On multivariate analysis, only age predicted for PSA levels >3.0 ng ml(-1). In conclusion, PSA levels did show seasonal variation, although there was no direct correlation between PSA and any meteorological parameter. The degree of seasonal variation is small and the decision to proceed to prostate biopsy should be independent of season or weather parameters. PMID:20975738

  10. High frequency variations of Earth Rotation Parameters from GPS and GLONASS observations.

    PubMed

    Wei, Erhu; Jin, Shuanggen; Wan, Lihua; Liu, Wenjie; Yang, Yali; Hu, Zhenghong

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's rotation undergoes changes with the influence of geophysical factors, such as Earth's surface fluid mass redistribution of the atmosphere, ocean and hydrology. However, variations of Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP) are still not well understood, particularly the short-period variations (e.g., diurnal and semi-diurnal variations) and their causes. In this paper, the hourly time series of Earth Rotation Parameters are estimated using Global Positioning System (GPS), Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS), and combining GPS and GLONASS data collected from nearly 80 sites from 1 November 2012 to 10 April 2014. These new observations with combining different satellite systems can help to decorrelate orbit biases and ERP, which improve estimation of ERP. The high frequency variations of ERP are analyzed using a de-trending method. The maximum of total diurnal and semidiurnal variations are within one milli-arcseconds (mas) in Polar Motion (PM) and 0.5 milli-seconds (ms) in UT1-UTC. The semidiurnal and diurnal variations are mainly related to the ocean tides. Furthermore, the impacts of satellite orbit and time interval used to determinate ERP on the amplitudes of tidal terms are analyzed. We obtain some small terms that are not described in the ocean tide model of the IERS Conventions 2010, which may be caused by the strategies and models we used or the signal noises as well as artifacts. In addition, there are also small differences on the amplitudes between our results and IERS convention. This might be a result of other geophysical excitations, such as the high-frequency variations in atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) and hydrological angular momentum (HAM), which needs more detailed analysis with more geophysical data in the future. PMID:25635416

  11. High Frequency Variations of Earth Rotation Parameters from GPS and GLONASS Observations

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Erhu; Jin, Shuanggen; Wan, Lihua; Liu, Wenjie; Yang, Yali; Hu, Zhenghong

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's rotation undergoes changes with the influence of geophysical factors, such as Earth's surface fluid mass redistribution of the atmosphere, ocean and hydrology. However, variations of Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP) are still not well understood, particularly the short-period variations (e.g., diurnal and semi-diurnal variations) and their causes. In this paper, the hourly time series of Earth Rotation Parameters are estimated using Global Positioning System (GPS), Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS), and combining GPS and GLONASS data collected from nearly 80 sites from 1 November 2012 to 10 April 2014. These new observations with combining different satellite systems can help to decorrelate orbit biases and ERP, which improve estimation of ERP. The high frequency variations of ERP are analyzed using a de-trending method. The maximum of total diurnal and semidiurnal variations are within one milli-arcseconds (mas) in Polar Motion (PM) and 0.5 milli-seconds (ms) in UT1-UTC. The semidiurnal and diurnal variations are mainly related to the ocean tides. Furthermore, the impacts of satellite orbit and time interval used to determinate ERP on the amplitudes of tidal terms are analyzed. We obtain some small terms that are not described in the ocean tide model of the IERS Conventions 2010, which may be caused by the strategies and models we used or the signal noises as well as artifacts. In addition, there are also small differences on the amplitudes between our results and IERS convention. This might be a result of other geophysical excitations, such as the high-frequency variations in atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) and hydrological angular momentum (HAM), which needs more detailed analysis with more geophysical data in the future. PMID:25635416

  12. Re-examination of safety parameters using kinetic theory of nano-granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillard, Jacques Xavier; Marchal, Philippe; Henry, François; Vignes, Alexis; Dufaud, Olivier; Perrin, Laurent; Plasari, Edouard

    2011-07-01

    The origin of the kinetic theory of granular flow was originally credited to Bagnold [1]. By using a very primitive expression of the particle collision frequency, he derived an expression for the repulsive pressure of the particles in uniform shear flows. His repulsive pressure was proportional to the square of the velocity gradient and the particle diameter and directly proportional to the particle density. This theory was later extended by Savage [2] and Gidaspow [3]. Such theories provide insight on the dependence of the viscosity, and various moduli (elastic, non elastic, viscous...) in terms of the granular temperature and the associated shear-rates. Until recently, such parameters were difficult to measure because of the lack of specifically designed equipment. This challenge was successfully taken up and resolved by P. Marchal of ENSIC who designed a new rheometer for powders (figure 1). This equipment can put in evidence the importance of the granular temperature on the elastic and viscous behaviors of the granular flows. Such rheological behavior is important in risk analysis for nanopowders, because as the nanopowder may be subjected to process shear rates and stresses, its structural and topological changes, in terms of the transformation of agglomerates into primary nanoparticles, have strong impacts on emission factors of nanosized particles that can be released in the environment or into a workplace from such dense-phase nanopowder processes. Such transformation can be analyzed by studying the nano-granular rheological signature of the system. Such risk assessment approach using these new fundamental rheological safety parameters is described in this paper.

  13. Quantification of kinetic parameters for heterotrophic bacteria via respirometry in a hybrid reactor.

    PubMed

    Trapani, Daniele Di; Mannina, Giorgio; Torregrossa, Michele; Viviani, Gaspare

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade new technologies are emerging even more for wastewater treatment. Among the new technologies, a recent possible solution regards Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBRs) that represent an effective alternative to conventional processes. More specifically such systems consist in the introduction of plastic elements inside the aerobic reactor as carrier material for the growth of attached biomass. Recently, one of the mostly used alternatives is to couple the Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) process with the conventional activated sludge process, and the resulting process is usually called HMBBR (Hybrid MBBR). In the MBBR process the biofilm grows attached on small plastic elements that are kept in constant motion throughout the entire volume of the reactor. Indeed, in such a system, a competition between the two biomasses, suspended and attached, can arise for the availability of the substrates, leading, as a consequence, to a modification in the biokinetic parameters of the two biomasses, compared to that of a pure suspended or attached biomass process. This paper presents the first results of a study aimed at estimating the kinetic heterotrophic constants in a HMBBR pilot plant using respirometric techniques. The pilot plant was built at the Acqua dei Corsari (Palermo) wastewater treatment plant and consisted of two parallel lines realized in a pre-anoxic scheme, in one of which the carrier material was added to the aerobic reactor with a filling ratio of 30%. PMID:20371934

  14. [Comparison of kinematic and kinetic parameters between the locomotion patterns in nordic walking, walking and running].

    PubMed

    Kleindienst, F I; Michel, K J; Schwarz, J; Krabbe, B

    2006-03-01

    Based on a higher cardio-pulmonary and cardio-vascular benefit and a promised reduction of mechanical load of the musculoskeletal system Nordic Walking (NW) shows an increased market potential. The present study should investigate whether there are biomechanical differences between the locomotion patterns NW, walking and running. Moreover possible resultant load differences should be determined. Eleven subjects, who were already experienced with the NW-technique, participated in this experiment. The kinematic data were collected using two high-speed camera systems from posterior and from lateral at the same time. Simultaneously the ground reaction forces were recorded. The kinematic and the kinetic data reveal differences between the three analyzed locomotion patterns. For NW as well as walking the mechanical load of the lower extremity is lower compared to running. None of the kinematic parameters suggest a "physiological benefit" of NW compared to walking. Moreover NW shows higher vertical and horizontal forces during landing. Exclusively the lower vertical force peak during push off indicates a lower mechanical load for NW in comparison to walking. Consequently it is questionable is NW -- based on its promised "biomechanical benefits" compared to walking -- should be still recommended for overweight people and for people with existing musculoskeletal problems of the lower limb. PMID:16544213

  15. Isopeptidase activity of human transglutaminase 2: disconnection from transamidation and characterization by kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Király, Róbert; Thangaraju, Kiruphagaran; Nagy, Zsófia; Collighan, Russell; Nemes, Zoltán; Griffin, Martin; Fésüs, László

    2016-01-01

    Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional protein with diverse catalytic activities and biological roles. Its best studied function is the Ca(2+)-dependent transamidase activity leading to formation of γ-glutamyl-ε-lysine isopeptide crosslinks between proteins and γ-glutamyl-amine derivatives. TG2 has a poorly studied isopeptidase activity cleaving these bonds. We have developed and characterised TG2 mutants which are significantly deficient in transamidase activity while have normal or increased isopeptidase activity (W332F) and vice versa (W278F). The W332F mutation led to significant changes of both the K m and the V max kinetic parameters of the isopeptidase reaction of TG2 while its calcium and GTP sensitivity was similar to the wild-type enzyme. The W278F mutation resulted in six times elevated amine incorporating transamidase activity demonstrating the regulatory significance of W278 and W332 in TG2 and that mutations can change opposed activities located at the same active site. The further application of our results in cellular systems may help to understand TG2-driven physiological and pathological processes better and lead to novel therapeutic approaches where an increased amount of crosslinked proteins correlates with the manifestation of degenerative disorders. PMID:26250429

  16. Rate Equations and Kinetic Parameters of the Reactions Involved in Pyrite Oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Lizama, H M; Suzuki, I

    1989-11-01

    Rate equations and kinetic parameters were obtained for various reactions involved in the bacterial oxidation of pyrite. The rate constants were 3.5 muM Fe per min per FeS(2) percent pulp density for the spontaneous pyrite dissolution, 10 muM Fe per min per mM Fe for the indirect leaching with Fe, 90 muM O(2) per min per mg of wet cells per ml for the Thiobacillus ferrooxidans oxidation of washed pyrite, and 250 muM O(2) per min per mg of wet cells per ml for the T. ferrooxidans oxidation of unwashed pyrite. The K(m) values for pyrite concentration were similar and were 1.9, 2.5, and 2.75% pulp density for indirect leaching, washed pyrite oxidation by T. ferrooxidans, and unwashed pyrite oxidation by T. ferrooxidans, respectively. The last reaction was competitively inhibited by increasing concentrations of cells, with a K(i) value of 0.13 mg of wet cells per ml. T. ferrooxidans cells also increased the rate of Fe production from Fe plus pyrite. PMID:16348054

  17. A study of line widths and kinetic parameters of ions in the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Wu, D. J.; Wang, C. B.

    2014-10-01

    Solar extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lines emitted by highly charged ions have been extensively studied to discuss the issue of coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Based on observations of the polar corona by the SUMER/SOHO spectrometer, this paper investigates the relation between the line widths and kinetic parameters of ions. It is shown that there exists a strongly linear correlation between two variables ( σ/ λ)2 and M -1, where σ, λ and M are the half-width of the observed line profile at , the wavelength and the ion mass, respectively. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients exceed 0.9. This finding tends to suggest that the ions from a given height of polar corona have a common temperature and a common non-thermal velocity in terms of existing equation. The temperature and non-thermal velocity are obtained by linear least-square fit. The temperature is around 2.8 MK at heights of 57″ and 102″. The non-thermal velocity is typical 21.6 km s-1 at height of 57″ and 25.2 km s-1 at height of 102″.

  18. Determination of the kinetic parameters of the CALIBAN metallic core reactor from stochastic neutron measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Casoli, P.; Authier, N.; Chapelle, A.

    2012-07-01

    Several experimental devices are operated by the Criticality and Neutron Science Research Dept. of the CEA Valduc Laboratory. One of these is the Caliban metallic core reactor. The purpose of this study is to develop and perform experiments allowing to determinate some of fundamental kinetic parameters of the reactor. The prompt neutron decay constant and particularly its value at criticality can be measured with reactor noise techniques such as Rossi-{alpha} and Feynman variance-to-mean methods. Subcritical, critical, and even supercritical experiments were performed. Fission chambers detectors were put nearby the core and measurements were analyzed with the Rossi-{alpha} technique. A new value of the prompt neutron decay constant at criticality was determined, which allows, using the Nelson number method, new evaluations of the effective delayed neutron fraction and the in core neutron lifetime. As an introduction of this paper, some motivations of this work are given in part 1. In part 2, principles of the noise measurements experiments performed at the CEA Valduc Laboratory are reminded. The Caliban reactor is described in part 3. Stochastic neutron measurements analysis techniques used in this study are then presented in part 4. Results of fission chamber experiments are summarized in part 5. Part 6 is devoted to the current work, improvement of the experimental device using He 3 neutron detectors and first results obtained with it. Finally, conclusions and perspectives are given in part 7. (authors)

  19. Effects of heating rate on slow pyrolysis behavior, kinetic parameters and products properties of moso bamboo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dengyu; Zhou, Jianbin; Zhang, Qisheng

    2014-10-01

    Effects of heating rate on slow pyrolysis behaviors, kinetic parameters, and products properties of moso bamboo were investigated in this study. Pyrolysis experiments were performed up to 700 °C at heating rates of 5, 10, 20, and 30 °C/min using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a lab-scale fixed bed pyrolysis reactor. The results show that the onset and offset temperatures of the main devolatilization stage of thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) curves obviously shift toward the high-temperature range, and the activation energy values increase with increasing heating rate. The heating rate has different effects on the pyrolysis products properties, including biochar (element content, proximate analysis, specific surface area, heating value), bio-oil (water content, chemical composition), and non-condensable gas. The solid yields from the fixed bed pyrolysis reactor are noticeably different from those of TGA mainly because the thermal hysteresis of the sample in the fixed bed pyrolysis reactor is more thorough. PMID:25063973

  20. The Effect of Kinetic Properties on Statistical Variations of Ultrasound Signals Backscattered from Flowing Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Lin, Yi-Hsun; Wang, Shyh-Hau

    2009-02-01

    Yet very little is known about the effect of “black hole” (BH) phenomenon on backscattering signal statistics under the laminar flow. To further explore this issue, measurements were performed from the porcine blood (with hematocrits of 20 and 50%) circulating in a mock flow loop under various steady flows at velocities ranged from 15 to 122 mm/s using a 10 MHz ultrasonic transducer. Results showed that the BH was apparent for the 50% blood flowing at a low velocity. The BH tended to be decreased with the increase of flow velocity and that it was hardly observed from the 20% blood. The probability density function of signals backscattered from blood tended to distribute as pre-Rayleigh statistics and the Nakagami parameter was less than 1. The spatial distribution of red cell aggregation in the flow tube is a predominant factor leading to statistical variations of ultrasonic backscattering in the flowing blood.

  1. The diurnal variation of E-F valley parameters from incoherent scatter measurements at Arecibo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, K. K.; Sethi, N. K.; Pandey, V. K.

    1997-01-01

    The size and shape of the valley region between E and F layers is studied for nighttime conditions by using high resolution electron density profiles measured by the incoherent scatter radar at Arecibo, Puerto Rico, (18.3 degN,66.7 degW). Important valley parameters like width, depth and height of the valley minimum are derived from these measurements. By combining these nighttime results with our earlier daytime model (Mahajan, et. al, 1994), we now present a model for the full diurnal variation of the E-F valley parameters. Comparison with IRI-90 indicates significant differences between our model and the IRI valley model.

  2. Modeling the sorption kinetic of metsulfuron-methyl on Andisols and Ultisols volcanic ash-derived soils: kinetics parameters and solute transport mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Lizethly; Escudey, Mauricio; Fuentes, Edwar; Báez, María E

    2010-07-15

    Metsulfuron-methyl sorption kinetic was studied in Andisol and Ultisol soils in view of their distinctive physical and chemical properties: acidic pH and variable surface charge. Different kinetic models were applied to the experimental results. The pseudo-second-order model fitted sorption kinetics data better than the pseudo-first-order model. The rate constant and the initial rate constant values obtained through this model demonstrated the different behavior of metsulfuron-methyl in both kinds of soils, both parameters being the highest for Andisol. The application of Elovich equation, intraparticle diffusion model and a two-site nonequilibrium model (TSNE) allowed to conclude that: (i) the high organic matter content is the governing factor for Andisols where mass transfer across the boundary layer, and in a lesser degree, intraparticle diffusion were the two processes controlling sorption kinetic and (ii) the mineral composition was more relevant in Ultisols where rate was controlled almost exclusively by intraparticle diffusion into macropores and micropores. The slower sorption rate on Ultisols, the mechanism involved and the lower sorption capacity of this kind of soils must be taken into account to assess leaching behavior of this herbicide. PMID:20399011

  3. Seasonal variations of the humoral immune parameters of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Valero, Yulema; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Esteban, M Ángeles; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

    2014-08-01

    Seasonal cycles, mainly due to great variations in the light duration and temperature, are important and modulate several aspects of the animal behavior. In the case of poikilotherms animals such as fish this is very relevant. Thus, temperature changes fish immunity and affects disease resistance. We evaluate in this work the season variations of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) humoral innate parameters focusing on winter months, at which the culture of this specie is more difficult. Our results showed that not all the innate immune parameters are depressed by low temperatures. Moreover, some of them are more dependent than others to the season and both temperature and photoperiod are operating together. PMID:24852342

  4. Functional genomics of intraspecific variation in carbon and phosphorus kinetics in Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Priyanka Roy; Lopez, Jacqueline A; Weider, Lawrence J; Colbourne, John K; Jeyasingh, Punidan D

    2014-08-01

    Understanding how the genome interacts with the environment to produce a diversity of phenotypes is a central challenge in biology. However, we know little about how traits involved in nutrient processing interact with key ecological parameters, such as the supply of mineral nutrients, particularly in animals. The framework of ecological stoichiometry uses information on the content of key elements such as carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) in individuals to predict the success of species. Nevertheless, intraspecific variation in content and the underlying mechanisms that generate such variation has been poorly explored. We studied two genotypes (G1 and G2) of Daphnia pulex that exhibit striking genotype × environment (G × E) interaction in response to shifts in dietary stoichiometry (C:P). G1 had higher fitness under C:P ∼ 100 diet, while G2 performed better in C:P ∼ 800. Dual (14) C/(33) P radiotracer assays show that G1 was more efficient in C processing, while G2 was more efficient in P use. Microarrays revealed that after 3 days of incubation, the genotypes differentially expressed ∼ 25% (7,224) of the total genes on the array under C:P ∼ 100 diet, and ∼ 30% (8,880) of genes under C:P ∼ 800. These results indicate large differences in C and P use between two coexisting genotypes. Importantly, such physiological differences can arise via differential expression of the genome due to alterations in dietary stoichiometry. Basic frameworks such as ecological stoichiometry enable integration of physiological and transcriptomic data, and represent initial steps toward understanding the interplay between fundamental ecological parameters such as nutrient supply and important evolutionary processes such as G × E interactions. PMID:24838198

  5. Effects of variation of environmental parameters on the performance of Resistive Plate Chamber detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghna, K. K.; Biswas, S.; Jash, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Saha, S.

    2016-04-01

    Performance of single gap Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors is investigated under variation of environmental parameters, such as temperature and relative humidity. Operational characteristics of the RPCs depend on both the environmental temperature and the relative humidity. Sensitivity to such dependence is found to be more on temperature rather than the relative humidity. Qualitative interpretation of some of the results obtained is given based on the known properties of the electrode materials and gases used in the detectors.

  6. Diurnal and seasonal variations in the Schumann resonance parameters observed at Chinese observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongjuan; Yu, Haiyan; Cao, Bingxia; Qiao, Xiaolin

    2013-06-01

    The Schumann resonances (SRs) are of great significance for probing the global circuit. The diurnal and seasonal variations in mode amplitudes and frequencies of the first four modes of SR magnetic components based on 2 years measurements at the stations located in China are firstly presented here. The frequencies of all the four modes have their maxima during boreal winter and minima during summer, while the mode amplitudes change oppositely. The variations of both frequencies and amplitudes show their strong relationships with the lighting activity in south-east Asia (0800 UT) which is the nearest source to the observatories in China, while the other sources in Africa (1400 UT) and South America (2000 UT) have less effects on the mode amplitudes of both magnetic components. The effect of day-night asymmetry on SR parameters is estimated by a 3D-FDTD model of the Earth-ionosphere cavity with a single pulse traveling around the equator in a day. Two models of the Earth-ionosphere cavity, namely, a symmetric cavity and a cavity with day-night asymmetric conductivity profile are exploited. It is clear that the minima in the diurnal patterns of the mode frequencies near local sunrise/sunset times are mainly related to the migrations of the global lighting activity, not the day-night ionosphere asymmetry. Moreover, it is concluded that the ionosphere-induced variations of SR parameters including mode frequencies and amplitudes are much smaller than the variations resulting from lighting activity.

  7. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Variations in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber).

    PubMed

    Girling, Simon J; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Pizzi, Romain; Fraser, Mary A; Cracknell, Jonathan; Arnemo, Jon; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Haematology parameters (N = 24) and serum biochemistry parameters (N = 35) were determined for wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), between 6 months - 12 years old. Of the population tested in this study, N = 18 Eurasian beavers were from Norway and N = 17 originating from Bavaria but now living extensively in a reserve in England. All blood samples were collected from beavers via the ventral tail vein. All beavers were chemically restrained using inhalant isoflurane in 100% oxygen prior to blood sampling. Results were determined for haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the species and were compared between the two different populations with differences in means estimated and significant differences being noted. Standard blood parameters for the Eurasian beaver were determined and their ranges characterised using percentiles. Whilst the majority of blood parameters between the two populations showed no significant variation, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and white blood cell counts showed significantly greater values (p<0.01) in the Bavarian origin population than the Norwegian; neutrophil counts, alpha 2 globulins, cholesterol, sodium: potassium ratios and phosphorus levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Bavarian versus Norwegian; and potassium, bile acids, gamma globulins, urea, creatinine and total calcium values levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Norwegian versus Bavarian relict populations. No significant differences were noted between male and female beavers or between sexually immature (<3 years old) and sexually mature (≥3 years old) beavers in the animals sampled. With Eurasian beaver reintroduction encouraged by legislation throughout Europe, knowledge of baseline blood values for the species and any variations therein is essential when assessing their health and welfare and the success or failure of any reintroduction program. This is the first study to produce base

  8. Fuzzy C-mean clustering on kinetic parameter estimation with generalized linear least square algorithm in SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hon-Chit; Wen, Lingfeng; Eberl, Stefan; Feng, Dagan

    2006-03-01

    Dynamic Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has the potential to quantitatively estimate physiological parameters by fitting compartment models to the tracer kinetics. The generalized linear least square method (GLLS) is an efficient method to estimate unbiased kinetic parameters and parametric images. However, due to the low sensitivity of SPECT, noisy data can cause voxel-wise parameter estimation by GLLS to fail. Fuzzy C-Mean (FCM) clustering and modified FCM, which also utilizes information from the immediate neighboring voxels, are proposed to improve the voxel-wise parameter estimation of GLLS. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to generate dynamic SPECT data with different noise levels and processed by general and modified FCM clustering. Parametric images were estimated by Logan and Yokoi graphical analysis and GLLS. The influx rate (K I), volume of distribution (V d) were estimated for the cerebellum, thalamus and frontal cortex. Our results show that (1) FCM reduces the bias and improves the reliability of parameter estimates for noisy data, (2) GLLS provides estimates of micro parameters (K I-k 4) as well as macro parameters, such as volume of distribution (Vd) and binding potential (BP I & BP II) and (3) FCM clustering incorporating neighboring voxel information does not improve the parameter estimates, but improves noise in the parametric images. These findings indicated that it is desirable for pre-segmentation with traditional FCM clustering to generate voxel-wise parametric images with GLLS from dynamic SPECT data.

  9. Kinetic and mass transfer parameters of maltotriose hydrolysis catalyzed by glucoamylase immobilized on macroporous silica and wrapped in pectin gel.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, L R; Suzuki, G S; Giordano, R C; Giordano, R L

    2001-01-01

    Kinetic and mass transport parameters were estimated for maltotriose hydrolysis using glucoamylase immobilized on macroporous silica and wrapped in pectin gel at 30 degrees C. Free enzyme assays were used to obtain the intrinsic kinetic parameters of a Michaelis-Menten equation, with product inhibition by glucose. The uptake method, based on transient experimental data, was employed in the estimation of mass transfer parameters. Effective diffusivities of maltotriose in pectin gel were estimated by fitting a classical diffusion model to experimental data of maltotriose diffusion into particles of pectin gel in the absence of silica. The effective diffusivities of maltotriose in silica were obtained after fitting a bidisperse model to experimental data of maltotriose hydrolysis using glucoamylase immobilized in silica and wrapped in pectin gel. PMID:11963897

  10. Evaluation of kinetic parameters for enzymatic interesterification synthesis of L-ascorbyl lactate by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Jiang, Yanjun; Huang, Zhihong; Zhou, Liya

    2007-02-01

    The kinetics of lipase-catalyzed interesterification synthesis of L-ascorbyl lactate was studied. To determine the enzyme kinetic constants of the interesterification, a three-factor and five-level central composite design was used. The factors studied were ethyl lactate concentration, reaction temperature (T), and water content (w). Moreover, a statistical approach called the response surface method (RSM) was used to predict the kinetic constants. Finally, the relationships between the kinetic constants (Vm and Km) and the reaction parameters (T and w) were obtained. To assess the accuracy of the RSM approach for determining Vm and Km, detailed validation experiments were carried out by the conventional approach at four different reaction parameters(35 degrees C, 10 microL; 45 degrees C, 20 microL; 55 degrees C, 15 microL; 65 degrees C, 18 microL). The results indicated that the RSM approach gave reasonable results for the determination of Vm and Km in the range of tested parameters. PMID:17496337

  11. Kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation in intertidal marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arvind K; Sherry, Angela; Gray, Neil D; Jones, D Martin; Bowler, Bernard F J; Head, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    Availability of inorganic nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorous, is often a primary control on crude oil hydrocarbon degradation in marine systems. Many studies have empirically determined optimum levels of inorganic N and P for stimulation of hydrocarbon degradation. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of information on fundamental kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation that can be used to model the fate of crude oil in bioremediation programmes that use inorganic nutrient addition to stimulate oil biodegradation. Here we report fundamental kinetic parameters (Ks and qmax) for nitrate- and phosphate-stimulated crude oil biodegradation under nutrient limited conditions and with respect to crude oil, under conditions where N and P are not limiting. In the marine sediments studied, crude oil degradation was limited by both N and P availability. In sediments treated with 12.5 mg/g of oil but with no addition of N and P, hydrocarbon degradation rates, assessed on the basis of CO2 production, were 1.10 ± 0.03 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day which were comparable to rates of CO2 production in sediments to which no oil was added (1.05 ± 0.27 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day). When inorganic nitrogen was added alone maximum rates of CO2 production measured were 4.25 ± 0.91 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. However, when the same levels of inorganic nitrogen were added in the presence of 0.5% P w/w of oil (1.6 μmol P/g wet sediment) maximum rates of measured CO2 production increased more than four-fold to 18.40 ± 1.04 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. Ks and qmax estimates for inorganic N (in the form of sodium nitrate) when P was not limiting were 1.99 ± 0.86 μmol/g wet sediment and 16.16 ± 1.28 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day respectively. The corresponding values for P were 63 ± 95 nmol/g wet sediment and 12.05 ± 1.31 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. The qmax values with respect to N and P were not significantly different (P < 0.05). When N and P

  12. Kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation in intertidal marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvind K.; Sherry, Angela; Gray, Neil D.; Jones, D. Martin; Bowler, Bernard F. J.; Head, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Availability of inorganic nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorous, is often a primary control on crude oil hydrocarbon degradation in marine systems. Many studies have empirically determined optimum levels of inorganic N and P for stimulation of hydrocarbon degradation. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of information on fundamental kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation that can be used to model the fate of crude oil in bioremediation programmes that use inorganic nutrient addition to stimulate oil biodegradation. Here we report fundamental kinetic parameters (Ks and qmax) for nitrate- and phosphate-stimulated crude oil biodegradation under nutrient limited conditions and with respect to crude oil, under conditions where N and P are not limiting. In the marine sediments studied, crude oil degradation was limited by both N and P availability. In sediments treated with 12.5 mg/g of oil but with no addition of N and P, hydrocarbon degradation rates, assessed on the basis of CO2 production, were 1.10 ± 0.03 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day which were comparable to rates of CO2 production in sediments to which no oil was added (1.05 ± 0.27 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day). When inorganic nitrogen was added alone maximum rates of CO2 production measured were 4.25 ± 0.91 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. However, when the same levels of inorganic nitrogen were added in the presence of 0.5% P w/w of oil (1.6 μmol P/g wet sediment) maximum rates of measured CO2 production increased more than four-fold to 18.40 ± 1.04 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. Ks and qmax estimates for inorganic N (in the form of sodium nitrate) when P was not limiting were 1.99 ± 0.86 μmol/g wet sediment and 16.16 ± 1.28 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day respectively. The corresponding values for P were 63 ± 95 nmol/g wet sediment and 12.05 ± 1.31 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. The qmax values with respect to N and P were not significantly different (P < 0.05). When N and P

  13. Interaction between chitosan and uranyl ions. Role of physical and physicochemical parameters on the kinetics of sorption

    SciTech Connect

    Piron, E. |; Accominotti, M.; Domard, A.

    1997-03-19

    This work corresponds to the first part of our studies on the interactions between chitosan particles dispersed in water and uranyl ions. The measurements were obtained by ICP, and we considered the role of various physical and physicochemical parameters related to chitosan. We showed that the crystallinity, the particle dimensions, and the swelling in water of chitosan are parameters which are connected together and govern the kinetic laws of metal diffusion and sorption. The molecular mobility of the polymer chains is then essential parameter. 31 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Tolerable Variation in Item Parameter Estimates for Linear and Adaptive Computer-Based Testing. Research Report No. 04-28

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizavi, Saba; Way, Walter D.; Davey, Tim; Herbert, Erin

    2004-01-01

    Item parameter estimates vary for a variety of reasons, including estimation error, characteristics of the examinee samples, and context effects (e.g., item location effects, section location effects, etc.). Although we expect variation based on theory, there is reason to believe that observed variation in item parameter estimates exceeds what…

  15. Investigation of thermoluminescence and kinetic parameters of CaMgB2O5: Dy3+ nanophosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manhas, M.; Kumar, Vinay; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Swart, H. C.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, thermoluminescence (TL) properties of Dy3+ (1.5 mol %) doped CaMgB2O5 nanophosphor after being exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiations (λ=254nm) were investigated. In UV exposed samples, the thermoluminescence glow curve consists of a broad glow peak located at 380 K with a small shoulder at 507 K. A shift in glow peak temperature from 367 K to 380 K after the UV exposure for 80 min was observed, which clearly shows that glow peaks follow the second order kinetics. The TL intensity of the peaks increases with an increase in the exposure time of UV rays (10-180 min). The TL Anal program was used to analyze the glow curve. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E), the frequency factor (s) and the order of kinetics (b) were calculated for CaMgB2O5: Dy3+ nanophosphors.

  16. A new approach to relate kinetic parameters, composition and temperatures of igneous minerals: the case of Villarrica Volcano 1971 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, C.; Parada, M. A.; Morgado, E. E.; Castruccio, A.

    2014-12-01

    This contribution provides a new approach to calculate the plagioclase composition of a given igneous rock based on kinetics parameters of crystallization obtained from CSD analyses of plagioclase. The procedure we use includes the following steps: 1) determination of the effective rates of crystal growth and nucleation based on the maximum time interval of mineral crystallization obtained from the CSD segment with the minimum slope and extrapolated to rest of the segments; 2) calculation of the total crystallization time; 3) determination of the time-dependent variation of plagioclase volume fraction based on crystal population density and CSD slopes; 4) calculation of the ideal rates of crystal growth and nucleation; 5) determination of temperature of plagioclase crystallization as a function of the ideal crystal growth rate; 6) determination of plagioclase composition as a function of the ideal crystal growth rate. We apply our model for plagioclase of 17 samples of The Villarrica Volcano 1971 eruption lava flow. All CSD show two segments with a break at 0.3 mm. The first segment is interpreted as the syn-eruptive crystallization and the second as the within-reservoir crystallization. An interval of 1.5 years as a maximum crystallization time for the syn-eruptive stage was estimated from Cashman's (1993) expression. Crystal growth rates in the reservoir stage took place during two stages. The first stage varies from 10^-8.9 to 10^-9.4 mm s-1 and the second one varied from 10^-9.4 to 10^-9.1 mm s-1. Finally, the crystal growth rate as high as 10^-7.8 mm s-1 were estimated for the syn-eruptive stage. Nucleation rates varies exponentially from 10^-13 to 10^-8 s-1 in the reservoir stage and from 10^-8 to 10^-1 s^-1 in the syn-eruptive stage. The total crystallization interval varies from 120 to 390 years. A mean total volume fraction of plagioclase of 0.55 was obtained (0.98 for all minerals) whereas a mean value of 0.054 was obtained at the onset of the eruption (0

  17. Determination of char combustion kinetics parameters: Comparison of point detector and imaging-based particle-sizing pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiemann, Martin; Geier, Manfred; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Vorobiev, Nikita; Scherer, Viktor

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the char burnout characteristics of two German coals (a lignite and a high-volatile bituminous coal) were investigated using two different experimental configurations and optical techniques in two distinct laboratories for measurement of temperature and size of burning particles. The optical diagnostic hardware is quite different in the two systems, but both perform two-color pyrometry and optical sizing measurements on individual particles burning in isolation from each other in high-temperature laminar flows to characterize the char consumption kinetics. The performance of the specialized systems is compared for two different combustion atmospheres (with 6.6 and 12 vol.% O2) and gas temperatures between 1700 and 1800 K. The measured particle temperatures and diameters are converted to char burning rate parameters for several residence times during the course of the particles' burnout. The results confirm that comparable results are obtained with the two configurations, although higher levels of variability in the measured data were observed in the imaging-based pyrometer setup. Corresponding uncertainties in kinetics parameters were larger, and appear to be more sensitive to systematic measurement errors when lower oxygen contents are used in the experiments. Consequently, burnout experiments in environments with sufficiently high O2 contents may be used to measure reliable char burning kinetics rates. Based on simulation results for the two coals, O2 concentrations in the range 10%-30% are recommended for kinetic rate measurements on 100 μm particles.

  18. Arsenic Species in Chicken Breast: Temporal Variations of Metabolites, Elimination Kinetics, and Residual Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingqing; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Zuidhof, Martin J.; Li, Xing-Fang; Le, X. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chicken meat has the highest per capita consumption among all meat types in North America. The practice of feeding 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, Rox) to chickens lasted for more than 60 years. However, the fate of Rox and arsenic metabolites remaining in chicken are poorly understood. Objectives: We aimed to determine the elimination of Rox and metabolites from chickens and quantify the remaining arsenic species in chicken meat, providing necessary information for meaningful exposure assessment. Methods: We have conducted a 35-day feeding experiment involving 1,600 chickens, of which half were control and the other half were fed a Rox-supplemented diet for the first 28 days and then a Rox-free diet for the final 7 days. We quantified the concentrations of individual arsenic species in the breast meat of 229 chickens. Results: Rox, arsenobetaine, arsenite, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, and a new arsenic metabolite, were detected in breast meat from chickens fed Rox. The concentrations of arsenic species, except arsenobetaine, were significantly higher in the Rox-fed than in the control chickens. The half-lives of elimination of these arsenic species were 0.4–1 day. Seven days after termination of Rox feeding, the concentrations of arsenite (3.1 μg/kg), Rox (0.4 μg/kg), and a new arsenic metabolite (0.8 μg/kg) were significantly higher in the Rox-fed chickens than in the control. Conclusion: Feeding of Rox to chickens increased the concentrations of five arsenic species in breast meat. Although most arsenic species were excreted rapidly when the feeding of Rox stopped, arsenic species remaining in the Rox-fed chickens were higher than the background levels. Citation: Liu Q, Peng H, Lu X, Zuidhof MJ, Li XF, Le XC. 2016. Arsenic species in chicken breast: temporal variations of metabolites, elimination kinetics, and residual concentrations. Environ Health Perspect 124:1174–1181; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  19. Simulations of a epidemic model with parameters variation analysis for the dengue fever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardim, C. L. T. F.; Prates, D. B.; Silva, J. M.; Ferreira, L. A. F.; Kritz, M. V.

    2015-09-01

    Mathematical models can be widely found in the literature for describing and analyzing epidemics. The models that use differential equations to represent mathematically such description are specially sensible to parameters involved in the modelling. In this work, an already developed model, called SIR, is analyzed when applied to a scenario of a dengue fever epidemic. Such choice is powered by the existence of useful tools presented by a variation of this original model, which allow an inclusion of different aspects of the dengue fever disease, as its seasonal characteristics, the presence of more than one strain of the vector and of the biological factor of cross-immunity. The analysis and results interpretation are performed through numerical solutions of the model in question, and a special attention is given to the different solutions generated by the use of different values for the parameters present in this model. Slight variations are performed either dynamically or statically in those parameters, mimicking hypothesized changes in the biological scenario of this simulation and providing a source of evaluation of how those changes would affect the outcomes of the epidemic in a population.

  20. An alternating direction algorithm for total variation reconstruction of distributed parameters.

    PubMed

    Brás, Nuno B; Bioucas-Dias, J; Martins, Raul C; Serra, A C

    2012-06-01

    Augmented Lagrangian variational formulations and alternating optimization have been adopted to solve distributed parameter estimation problems. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is one of such formulations/optimization methods. Very recently, the number of applications of the ADMM, or variants of it, to solve inverse problems in image and signal processing has increased at an exponential rate. The reason for this interest is that ADMM decomposes a difficult optimization problem into a sequence of much simpler problems. In this paper, we use the ADMM to reconstruct piecewise-smooth distributed parameters of elliptical partial differential equations from noisy and linear (blurred) observations of the underlying field. The distributed parameters are estimated by solving an inverse problem with total variation (TV) regularization. The proposed instance of the ADMM solves, in each iteration, an l(2) and a decoupled l(2) - l(1) optimization problems. An operator splitting is used to simplify the treatment of the TV regularizer, avoiding its smooth approximation and yielding a simple yet effective ADMM reconstruction method compared with previously proposed approaches. The competitiveness of the proposed method, with respect to the state-of-the-art, is illustrated in simulated 1-D and 2-D elliptical equation problems, which are representative of many real applications. PMID:22345538

  1. Sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation for distributed hydrological modeling: potential of variational methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaings, W.; Dartus, D.; Le Dimet, F.-X.; Saulnier, G.-M.

    2009-04-01

    Variational methods are widely used for the analysis and control of computationally intensive spatially distributed systems. In particular, the adjoint state method enables a very efficient calculation of the derivatives of an objective function (response function to be analysed or cost function to be optimised) with respect to model inputs. In this contribution, it is shown that the potential of variational methods for distributed catchment scale hydrology should be considered. A distributed flash flood model, coupling kinematic wave overland flow and Green Ampt infiltration, is applied to a small catchment of the Thoré basin and used as a relatively simple (synthetic observations) but didactic application case. It is shown that forward and adjoint sensitivity analysis provide a local but extensive insight on the relation between the assigned model parameters and the simulated hydrological response. Spatially distributed parameter sensitivities can be obtained for a very modest calculation effort (~6 times the computing time of a single model run) and the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the Jacobian matrix provides an interesting perspective for the analysis of the rainfall-runoff relation. For the estimation of model parameters, adjoint-based derivatives were found exceedingly efficient in driving a bound-constrained quasi-Newton algorithm. The reference parameter set is retrieved independently from the optimization initial condition when the very common dimension reduction strategy (i.e. scalar multipliers) is adopted. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis results suggest that most of the variability in this high-dimensional parameter space can be captured with a few orthogonal directions. A parametrization based on the SVD leading singular vectors was found very promising but should be combined with another regularization strategy in order to prevent overfitting.

  2. Study of gain variation as a function of physical parameters of GEM foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Supriya

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC has planned to upgrade the TPC by replacing the MWPC with GEM based detecting elements to restrict the IBF to a tolerable value. However the variation of the gain as a function of physical parameters of industrially produced large size GEM foils is needed to be studied as a part of the QA procedure for the detector. The size of the electron avalanche and consequently the gain for GEM based detectors depend on the electric field distribution inside the holes. Geometry of a hole plays an important role in defining the electric field inside it. In this work we have studied the variation of the gain as a function of the hole diameters using Garfield++ simulation package.

  3. Long-period variations of wind parameters in the mesopause region and the solar cycle dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greisiger, K. M.; Schminder, R.; Kuerschner, D.

    1987-01-01

    The solar cycle dependence of wind parameters below 100 km on the basis of long term continuous ionospheric drift measurements in the low frequency range is discussed. For the meridional prevailing wind no significant variation was found. The same comparison as for winter was done for summer where the previous investigations gave no correlation. Now the radar meteor wind measurement values, too, showed a significant negative correlation of the zonal prevailing wind with solar activity for the years 1976 to 1983. The ionospheric drift measurement results of Collm have the same tendency but a larger dispersion due to the lower accuracy of the harmonic analysis because of the shorter daily measuring interval in summer. Continuous wind observations in the upper mesopause region over more than 20 years revealed distinct long term variations, the origin of which cannot be explained with the present knowledge.

  4. Temporal variation of tidal parameters in superconducting gravimeter time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurers, Bruno; Van Camp, Michel; Francis, Olivier; Pálinkáš, Vojtech

    2016-04-01

    Analysing independent 1-yr data sets of 10 European superconducting gravimeters (SG) reveals statistically significant temporal variations of M2 tidal parameters. Both common short-term (<2 yr) and long-term (>2 yr) features are identified in all SG time-series but one. The averaged variations of the amplitude factor are about 0.2‰. The path of load vector variations equivalent to the temporal changes of tidal parameters suggests the presence of an 8.85 yr modulation (lunar perigee). The tidal waves having the potential to modulate M2 with this period belong to the 3rd degree constituents. Their amplitude factors turn out to be much closer to body tide model predictions than that of the main 2nd degree M2, which indicates ocean loading for 3rd degree waves to be less prominent than for 2nd degree waves within the M2 group. These two different responses to the loading suggest that the observed modulation is more due to insufficient frequency resolution of limited time-series rather than to time variable loading. Presently, SG gravity time-series are still too short to prove if time variable loading processes are involved too as in case of the annual M2 modulation known to appear for analysis intervals of less than 1 yr. Whatever the variations are caused by, they provide the upper accuracy limit for earth model validation and permit estimating the temporal stability of SG scale factors and assessing the quality of gravity time-series.

  5. Linear and nonlinear response to parameter variations in a mesoscale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, J.; Snyder, C.

    2009-04-01

    simple lagged-regression techniques. Only one of the parameters that are perturbed leads to noticeable changes in model bias. The response to each parameter is different in magnitude and direction in the model state space; it does not simply follow a common sensitivity pattern. We deduce a nonlinear response from lack of measurable linear sensitivity and also by noting departures from statistical normality in the response. We argue that a linear relationship between parameters and predictions is potentially useful for parameter estimation via data assimilation. The fact that this linear relationship varies in space and time suggests that the parameters themselves should be spatially and temporally varying. Parameters can then be treated as unobserved variables with spatial and temporal scales inferred from the scales of variation of the parameter-state relationships. One implication for ensemble data assimilation, for example, is that the number of ensemble members may need to be large, or some form of localization may need to be imposed, to effectively estimate parameters.

  6. Fourier domain closed-form formulas for estimation of kinetic parameters in reversible multi-compartment models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Compared with static imaging, dynamic emission computed tomographic imaging with compartment modeling can quantify in vivo physiologic processes, providing useful information about molecular disease processes. Dynamic imaging involves estimation of kinetic rate parameters. For multi-compartment models, kinetic parameter estimation can be computationally demanding and problematic with local minima. Methods This paper offers a new perspective to the compartment model fitting problem where Fourier linear system theory is applied to derive closed-form formulas for estimating kinetic parameters for the two-compartment model. The proposed Fourier domain estimation method provides a unique solution, and offers very different noise response as compared to traditional non-linear chi-squared minimization techniques. Results The unique feature of the proposed Fourier domain method is that only low frequency components are used for kinetic parameter estimation, where the DC (i.e., the zero frequency) component in the data is treated as the most important information, and high frequency components that tend to be corrupted by statistical noise are discarded. Computer simulations show that the proposed method is robust without having to specify the initial condition. The resultant solution can be fine tuned using the traditional iterative method. Conclusions The proposed Fourier-domain estimation method has closed-form formulas. The proposed Fourier-domain curve-fitting method does not require an initial condition, it minimizes a quadratic objective function and a closed-form solution can be obtained. The noise is easier to control, simply by discarding the high frequency components, and emphasizing the DC component. PMID:22995548

  7. Variation of photon interaction parameters with energy for some Cu-Pb alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Tejbir Kaur, Sarpreet; Kaur, Parminder; Kaur, Harvinder; Singh, Parjit S.

    2015-08-28

    Various photon interaction parameters (mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and effective electron numbers) have been computed for different compositions of Cu-Pb alloys in the wide energy regime of 1 keV to 100 GeV. The mass attenuation coefficients have been computed using mixture rule with the help of WinXCom (mass attenuation coefficient database for elements). The variation of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron density has been analysed and discussed in terms of dominance of different photon interaction processes viz. Compton scattering, photoelectric effect and pair production.

  8. A normalized wave number variation parameter for acoustic black hole design.

    PubMed

    Feurtado, Philip A; Conlon, Stephen C; Semperlotti, Fabio

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, the concept of the Acoustic Black Hole has been developed as an efficient passive, lightweight absorber of bending waves in plates and beams. Theory predicts greater absorption for a higher thickness taper power. However, a higher taper power also increases the violation of an underlying theory smoothness assumption. This paper explores the effects of high taper power on the reflection coefficient and spatial change in wave number and discusses the normalized wave number variation as a spatial design parameter for performance, assessment, and optimization. PMID:25096139

  9. Variation of photon interaction parameters with energy for some Cu-Pb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Tejbir; Kaur, Sarpreet; Kaur, Parminder; Kaur, Harvinder; Singh, Parjit S.

    2015-08-01

    Various photon interaction parameters (mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and effective electron numbers) have been computed for different compositions of Cu-Pb alloys in the wide energy regime of 1 keV to 100 GeV. The mass attenuation coefficients have been computed using mixture rule with the help of WinXCom (mass attenuation coefficient database for elements). The variation of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron density has been analysed and discussed in terms of dominance of different photon interaction processes viz. Compton scattering, photoelectric effect and pair production.

  10. Monoculture parameters successfully predict coculture growth kinetics of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and two Bifidobacterium strains.

    PubMed

    Van Wey, A S; Cookson, A L; Roy, N C; McNabb, W C; Soboleva, T K; Shorten, P R

    2014-11-17

    Microorganisms rarely live in isolation but are most often found in a consortium. This provides the potential for cross-feeding and nutrient competition among the microbial species, which make it challenging to predict the growth kinetics in coculture. In this paper we developed a mathematical model to describe substrate consumption and subsequent microbial growth and metabolite production for bacteria grown in monoculture. The model characterized substrate utilization kinetics of 18 Bifidobacterium strains. Some bifidobacterial strains demonstrated preferential degradation of oligofructose in that sugars with low degree of polymerization (DP) (DP≤3 or 4) were metabolized before sugars of higher DP, or vice versa. Thus, we expanded the model to describe the preferential degradation of oligofructose. In addition, we adapted the model to describe the competition between human colonic bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262 and Bifidobacterium longum LMG 11047 or Bifidobacterium breve Yakult for inulin as well as cross-feeding of breakdown products from the extracellular hydrolysis of inulin by B. thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262. We found that the coculture growth kinetics could be predicted based on the respective monoculture growth kinetics. Using growth kinetics from monoculture experiments to predict coculture dynamics will reduce the number of in vitro experiments required to parameterize multi-culture models. PMID:25282609

  11. Effects of Multiple-Bond Ruptures on Kinetic Parameters Extracted from Force Spectroscopy Measurements: Revisiting Biotin-Streptavidin Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Senli; Ray, Chad; Kirkpatrick, Andrea; Lad, Nimit; Akhremitchev, Boris B.

    2008-01-01

    Force spectroscopy measurements of the rupture of the molecular bond between biotin and streptavidin often results in a wide distribution of rupture forces. We attribute the long tail of high rupture forces to the nearly simultaneous rupture of more than one molecular bond. To decrease the number of possible bonds, we employed hydrophilic polymeric tethers to attach biotin molecules to the atomic force microscope probe. It is shown that the measured distributions of rupture forces still contain high forces that cannot be described by the forced dissociation from a deep potential well. We employed a recently developed analytical model of simultaneous rupture of two bonds connected by polymer tethers with uneven length to fit the measured distributions. The resulting kinetic parameters agree with the energy landscape predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. It is demonstrated that when more than one molecular bond might rupture during the pulling measurements there is a noise-limited range of probe velocities where the kinetic parameters measured by force spectroscopy correspond to the true energy landscape. Outside this range of velocities, the kinetic parameters extracted by using the standard most probable force approach might be interpreted as artificial energy barriers that are not present in the actual energy landscape. Factors that affect the range of useful velocities are discussed. PMID:18621812

  12. Anthropometric Indices Associated with Variation in Cardiovascular Parameters among Primary School Pupils in Ile-Ife

    PubMed Central

    Abiodun, Adedeji G.; Egwu, Michael O.; Adedoyin, Rufus A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigated the anthropometric indices associated with variations in cardiovascular parameters among primary school pupils in Ile-Ife. Method. One thousand and twenty-six pupils (age range 6–14 years, mean age 10.12 years) from ten schools were recruited with parents' informed consent. Anthropometric (Height (Ht), Weight (Wt), Abdominal Circumference (AC)) and cardiovascular (Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Heart Rate (HR)) parameters were measured using standard instruments and procedures. Blood pressure (BP) was measured after ten minutes of quiet sitting. Body Mass Index (BMI), Rate Pressure Product (RPP) and Pulse Pressure (PP) were estimated. Results. Age, Ht, Wt, BMI, and AC correlated significantly (P < .01) with BP and PP. AC and BMI were predictors of BP, HR, RPP, and PP. Conclusion. Significant correlations exist between age, Ht, Wt, BMI, AC, and BP with weight being a more viable predictor of SBP and age a more viable predictor of DBP. PMID:21747972

  13. Atmospheric and ionospheric electrical parameter variations inferred from sub - ionospheric seismo - electromagnetic VLF/LF observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingenschuh, K.; Eichelberger, H. U.; Besser, B. P.; Prattes, G.; Boudjada, M. Y.; Stangl, G.; Wolbang, D.; Rozhnoi, A.; Solovieva, M.; Biagi, P. F.; Friedrich, M.; Biernat, H.; Hayakawa, M.

    2012-04-01

    Subionospheric VLF/LF radio links are an essential tool to investigate seismo - electromagnetic phenomena. The propagation of very low (VLF) and low frequency (LF) frequency radio waves is mainly controlled by the index of refraction and electrical conductivity in the waveguide between the surface and the ionosphere. These parameters can be disturbed during seismic active periods by the lithospheric - atmospheric - ionospheric coupling. The signals of various navigational and time service transmitters are received by a European network of VLF/LF receivers. Several methods have been developed to analyse the received VLF/LF amplitude and phase in order to get information on the seismic activity along the radio path. We present a simple model for the estimation of the VLF/LF radio wave propagation parameters using mainly the amplitude observations of receivers in Italy, Austria and Russia. The main emphasis is on the L'Aquila earthquake from April 2009 with a magnitude of 6.3. This event has been observed with ground based VLF/LF radio links as well as with satellite VLF receivers. The influence of the electrophysical parameters in the immediate vicinity of the active-seismic region on ionospheric parameters is a hot debated issue, where definite physical answers are still expected to be found. Its consequences for the VLF/LF propagation in the sub-ionospheric waveguide are theoretically not well understood up to now, although empirically the issue is well established. For the analysis of pre-seismic activity the systematic variation of the terminator time (TT) and the night time amplitude variations (residual method) seem to be an important indicator. Therefore we studied theoretically the propagation and the influence of ionospheric parameter changes on the VLF/LF mode conversion at the solar terminator and near the seismic region. Our method is based on analytical models of Ledinegg et al. (1982). In particular, we will present prelininary results of the influence

  14. A multiscale variational approach to the kinetics of viscous classical liquids: The coarse-grained mean field approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Ortoleva, Peter J.

    2014-04-07

    A closed kinetic equation for the single-particle density of a viscous simple liquid is derived using a variational method for the Liouville equation and a coarse-grained mean-field (CGMF) ansatz. The CGMF ansatz is based on the notion that during the characteristic time of deformation a given particle interacts with many others so that it experiences an average interaction. A trial function for the N-particle probability density is constructed using a multiscale perturbation method and the CGMF ansatz is applied to it. The multiscale perturbation scheme is based on the ratio of the average nearest-neighbor atom distance to the total size of the assembly. A constraint on the initial condition is discovered which guarantees that the kinetic equation is mass-conserving and closed in the single-particle density. The kinetic equation has much of the character of the Vlasov equation except that true viscous, and not Landau, damping is accounted for. The theory captures condensation kinetics and takes much of the character of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the weak-gradient short-range force limit.

  15. Quantifying the performance of in vivo portal dosimetry in detecting four types of treatment parameter variations

    SciTech Connect

    Bojechko, C.; Ford, E. C.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To quantify the ability of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) dosimetry used during treatment (in vivo) in detecting variations that can occur in the course of patient treatment. Methods: Images of transmitted radiation from in vivo EPID measurements were converted to a 2D planar dose at isocenter and compared to the treatment planning dose using a prototype software system. Using the treatment planning system (TPS), four different types of variability were modeled: overall dose scaling, shifting the positions of the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves, shifting of the patient position, and changes in the patient body contour. The gamma pass rate was calculated for the modified and unmodified plans and used to construct a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve to assess the detectability of the different parameter variations. The detectability is given by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The TPS was also used to calculate the impact of the variations on the target dose–volume histogram. Results: Nine intensity modulation radiation therapy plans were measured for four different anatomical sites consisting of 70 separate fields. Results show that in vivo EPID dosimetry was most sensitive to variations in the machine output, AUC = 0.70 − 0.94, changes in patient body habitus, AUC = 0.67 − 0.88, and systematic shifts in the MLC bank positions, AUC = 0.59 − 0.82. These deviations are expected to have a relatively small clinical impact [planning target volume (PTV) D{sub 99} change <7%]. Larger variations have even higher detectability. Displacements in the patient’s position and random variations in MLC leaf positions were not readily detectable, AUC < 0.64. The D{sub 99} of the PTV changed by up to 57% for the patient position shifts considered here. Conclusions: In vivo EPID dosimetry is able to detect relatively small variations in overall dose, systematic shifts of the MLC’s, and changes in the patient habitus. Shifts in the

  16. Variational estimation of process parameters in a simplified atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Guokun; Koehl, Armin; Stammer, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    Parameterizations are used to simulate effects of unresolved sub-grid-scale processes in current state-of-the-art climate model. The values of the process parameters, which determine the model's climatology, are usually manually adjusted to reduce the difference of model mean state to the observed climatology. This process requires detailed knowledge of the model and its parameterizations. In this work, a variational method was used to estimate process parameters in the Planet Simulator (PlaSim). The adjoint code was generated using automatic differentiation of the source code. Some hydrological processes were switched off to remove the influence of zero-order discontinuities. In addition, the nonlinearity of the model limits the feasible assimilation window to about 1day, which is too short to tune the model's climatology. To extend the feasible assimilation window, nudging terms for all state variables were added to the model's equations, which essentially suppress all unstable directions. In identical twin experiments, we found that the feasible assimilation window could be extended to over 1-year and accurate parameters could be retrieved. Although the nudging terms transform to a damping of the adjoint variables and therefore tend to erases the information of the data over time, assimilating climatological information is shown to provide sufficient information on the parameters. Moreover, the mechanism of this regularization is discussed.

  17. An analytical method for Mathieu oscillator based on method of variation of parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianghong; Hou, Jingyu; Chen, Jufeng

    2016-08-01

    A simple, but very accurate analytical method for forced Mathieu oscillator is proposed, the idea of which is based on the method of variation of parameter. Assuming that the time-varying parameter in Mathieu oscillator is constant, one could easily obtain its accurately analytical solution. Then the approximately analytical solution for Mathieu oscillator could be established after substituting periodical time-varying parameter for the constant one in the obtained accurate analytical solution. In order to certify the correctness and precision of the proposed analytical method, the first-order and ninth-order approximation solutions by harmonic balance method (HBM) are also presented. The comparisons between the results by the proposed method with those by the numerical simulation and HBM verify that the results by the proposed analytical method agree very well with those by the numerical simulation. Moreover, the precision of the proposed new analytical method is not only higher than the approximation solution by first-order HBM, but also better than the approximation solution by the ninth-order HBM in large ranges of system parameters.

  18. Vibration control of an MR vehicle suspension system considering both hysteretic behavior and parameter variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Seong, Min-Sang; Ha, Sung-Hoon

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents vibration control responses of a controllable magnetorheological (MR) suspension system considering the two most important characteristics of the system; the field-dependent hysteretic behavior of the MR damper and the parameter variation of the suspension. In order to achieve this goal, a cylindrical MR damper which is applicable to a middle-sized passenger car is designed and manufactured. After verifying the damping force controllability, the field-dependent hysteretic behavior of the MR damper is identified using the Preisach hysteresis model. The full-vehicle suspension model is then derived by considering vertical, pitch and roll motions. An H_{\\infty } controller is designed by treating the sprung mass of the vehicle as a parameter variation and integrating it with the hysteretic compensator which produces additional control input. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control system, the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) methodology is adopted by integrating the suspension model with the proposed MR damper. Vibration control responses of the vehicle suspension system such as vertical acceleration are evaluated under both bump and random road conditions.

  19. Normal variation in cortical osteocyte lacunar parameters in healthy young males

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Yasmin; Suchorab, Jessica L; Thomas, C David L; Clement, John G; Cooper, David M L

    2014-01-01

    The most abundant cell in bone, osteocytes form an interconnected system upon which the regulation of healthy bone relies. Although the complete nature of the role of osteocytes has yet to be defined, they are generally accepted to play a part in the sensing of load and the initiation of damage repair. A previous study conducted by our group identified variation of up to 30% in osteocyte lacunar density and morphological parameters between regions of a single cross-section of human femoral shaft; that study, however, was limited to a single individual. The aim of the current study was to determine whether this pattern consistently occurs in healthy young male femora. Anterior, posterior, medial and lateral blocks were prepared from the proximal femoral shaft of seven males and synchrotron radiation micro-CT imaged. Average lacunar densities (± SD) from the anterior, posterior, medial and lateral regions were 23 394 ± 1705, 30 180 ± 4860, 35 946 ± 5990 and 29 678 ± 6081 lacunae per mm3 of bone tissue, respectively. These values were significantly different between the anterior and both the medial and posterior regions (P < 0.05). The density of the combined anterior and posterior regions was also significantly lower (P = 0.006) than the density of the combined medial and lateral regions. Although no difference was found in predominant orientation, shape differences were found; with the combined anterior-posterior regions having lacunae that were significantly more elongated and less flat than the combined medial-lateral values (P < 0.001). As expected, in this larger study, there was a dramatic difference in lacunar density between the medial and anterior region (up to ∼ 54%). The study clearly demonstrates that the high variation seen in osteocyte lacunar density as well as other lacunar parameters, noted in a number of biomechanical, age and pathology studies, are well within the range of normal variation; however, the reasons for and

  20. Controls on ostracod valve geochemistry, Part 1: Variations of environmental parameters in ostracod (micro-)habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decrouy, Laurent; Vennemann, Torsten Walter; Ariztegui, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    The variations of environmental conditions ( T°, pH, δ 13C DIC, [DIC], δ 18O, Mg/Ca, and Sr/Ca) of ostracod habitats were examined to determine the controls of environmental parameters on the chemical and isotopic composition of ostracod valves. Results of a one-year monitoring of environmental parameters at five sites, with depths of between 2 and 70 m, in Lake Geneva indicate that in littoral to sub-littoral zones (2, 5, and 13 m), the chemical composition of bottom water varies seasonally in concert with changes in temperature and photosynthetic activity. An increase of temperature and photosynthetic activity leads to an increase in δ 13C values of DIC and to precipitation of authigenic calcite, which results in a concomitant increase of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios of water. In deeper sites (33 and 70 m), the composition of bottom water remains constant throughout the year and isotopic values and trace element contents are similar to those of deep water within the lake. The chemical composition of interstitial pore water also does not reflect seasonal variations but is controlled by calcite dissolution, aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration with reduction of sulphate and/or nitrate, and methanogenesis that may occur in the sediment pores. Relative influence of each of these factors on the pore water geochemistry depends on sediment thickness and texture, oxygen content in bottom as well as pore water. Variations of chemical compositions of the ostracod valves of this study vary according to the specific ecology of the ostracod species analysed, that is its life-cycle and its (micro-)habitat. Littoral species have compositions that are related to the seasonal variations of temperature, δ 13C values of DIC, and of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios of water. In contrast, the compositions of profundal species are largely controlled by variations of pore fluids along sediment depth profiles according to the specific depth preference of the species. The control on the

  1. The influence of different space-related physiological variations on exercise capacity determined by oxygen uptake kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegemann, J.

    Oxygen uptake kinetics, following defined variations of work load changes allow to estimate the contribution of aerob and anaerob energy supply which is the base for determining work capacity. Under the aspect of long duration missions with application of adequate dosed countermeasures, a reliable estimate of the astronaut's work capacity is important to adjust the necessary inflight training. Since the kinetics of oxygen uptake originate in the working muscle group itself, while measurements are performed at the mouth, various influences within the oxygen transport system might disturb the determinations. There are not only detraining effects but also well-known other influences, such as blood- and fluid shifts induced by weightlessness. They might have an impact on the circulatory system. Some of these factors have been simulated by immersion, blood donation, and changing of the body position.

  2. Modelling cycle to cycle variations in an SI engine with detailed chemical kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Etheridge, Jonathan; Mosbach, Sebastian; Kraft, Markus; Wu, Hao; Collings, Nick

    2011-01-15

    This paper presents experimental results and a new computational model that investigate cycle to cycle variations (CCV) in a spark ignition (SI) engine. An established stochastic reactor model (SRM) previously used to examine homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion has been extended by spark initiation, flame propagation and flame termination sub-models in order to simulate combustion in SI engines. The model contains a detailed chemical mechanism but relatively short computation times are achieved. The flame front is assumed to be spherical and centred at the spark location, and a pent roof and piston bowl geometry are accounted for. The model is validated by simulating the pressure profile and emissions from an iso-octane fuelled single cylinder research engine that showed low CCV. The effects of key parameters are investigated. Experimental results that show cycle to cycle fluctuations in a four-cylinder naturally aspirated gasoline fuelled SI engine are presented. The model is then coupled with GT-Power, a one-dimensional engine simulation tool, which is used to simulate the breathing events during a multi-cycle simulation. This allows an investigation of the cyclic fluctuations in peak pressure. The source and magnitude of nitric oxide (NO) emissions produced by different cycles are then investigated. It was found that faster burning cycles result in increased NO emissions compared with cycles that have a slower rate of combustion and that more is produced in the early stages of combustion compared with later in the cycle. The majority of NO was produced via the thermal mechanism just after combustion begins. (author)

  3. A two-parameter kinetic model based on a time-dependent activity coefficient accurately describes enzymatic cellulose digestion

    PubMed Central

    Kostylev, Maxim; Wilson, David

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential source of renewable, low-carbon-footprint liquid fuels. Biomass recalcitrance and enzyme cost are key challenges associated with the large-scale production of cellulosic fuel. Kinetic modeling of enzymatic cellulose digestion has been complicated by the heterogeneous nature of the substrate and by the fact that a true steady state cannot be attained. We present a two-parameter kinetic model based on the Michaelis-Menten scheme (Michaelis L and Menten ML. (1913) Biochem Z 49:333–369), but with a time-dependent activity coefficient analogous to fractal-like kinetics formulated by Kopelman (Kopelman R. (1988) Science 241:1620–1626). We provide a mathematical derivation and experimental support to show that one of the parameters is a total activity coefficient and the other is an intrinsic constant that reflects the ability of the cellulases to overcome substrate recalcitrance. The model is applicable to individual cellulases and their mixtures at low-to-medium enzyme loads. Using biomass degrading enzymes from a cellulolytic bacterium Thermobifida fusca we show that the model can be used for mechanistic studies of enzymatic cellulose digestion. We also demonstrate that it applies to the crude supernatant of the widely studied cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei and can thus be used to compare cellulases from different organisms. The two parameters may serve a similar role to Vmax, KM, and kcat in classical kinetics. A similar approach may be applicable to other enzymes with heterogeneous substrates and where a steady state is not achievable. PMID:23837567

  4. Variations of the ionospheric parameters obtained from ground based measurements of ULF magnetic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakova, Elena; Kotik, Dmitry; Bösinger, Tilmann

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of the amplitude spectra and polarization parameter (epsilon)[1] of magnetic ULF noise were investigated during different seasons and high geomagnetic activity time using the data on the horizontal magnetic components monitoring at mid-latitude (New Life, Russia, 56 N, 46 E) and low-latitude stations (Crete, 35.15 N, 25.20 E). It was found that abrupt changes in the spectral polarization parameters can be linked as with variation of height of maximum and the electron density of the F-layer, and with a change in ionospheric parameters profiles at lower altitudes, for example, with the appearance of sporadic Es-layers and intermediate layers, located between the E and F-layers. It was detected the peculiarities in the daily dynamics of the epsilon parameter at low latitudes: a) the appearance in some cases more complicated than in the mid-latitudes, epsilon structure of the spectrum associated with the presence of two different values of the boundary frequency fB [2]; b) a decreasing of fB near local midnight observed in 70% of cases; c) observation of typical for dark time epsilon spectra after sunrise in the winter season. The numerical calculations of epsilon parameter were made using the IRI-2012 model with setting the models of sporadic and intermediate layers. The results revealed the dependence of the polarization spectra of the intensity and height of such thin layers. The specific changes in the electron density at altitudes of 80-350 km during the recovery phase of strong magnetic storms were defined basing on a comparative analysis of the experimental spectra and the results of the numerical calculations. References. 1. E. N. Ermakova, D. S. Kotik, A. V.Ryabov, A. V.Pershin, T. B.osinger, and Q. Zhou, Studying the variation of the broadband spectral maximum parameters in the natural ULF fields, Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 55, No. 10-11, March, 2013 p. 605-615. 2. T. Bosinger, A. G. Demekhov, E. N. Ermakova, C. Haldoupis and Q

  5. Covariations between Shell-Growth Parameters and the Control of the Ranges of Variation of Functionally Relevant Shell-Shape Parameters in Bivalves: A Theoretical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Béguinot, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Major traits of shell shape in bivalves may alternatively be described in terms of (i) functionally relevant parameters, assumed to play a significant role in the adaptation of bivalves molluscs to their environments (such as the shell-outline elongation E, ventral convexity K, and dissymmetry D), or (ii) growth-based parameters, directly controlled by the animal. Due to the geometrical linkage between functionally-relevant and growth-based parameters, adaptive constraints that may either widen or narrow the respective ranges of variations of the functional parameters lead to the onset of specific covariations (either positive or negative) between the growth-based parameters. This has practical interest since adaptive constraints are often difficult to identify directly, while they can be conveniently inferred indirectly via the easily recorded patterns of covariances between growth-based parameters. Hereafter, I provide the theoretical background of this tool, including (1) establishing the geometrical relationships between growth-based and functionally relevant parameters and (2) then specifying the correspondences between the different patterns of adaptive constraints, widening or narrowing the variations of the functional parameters and the corresponding patterns of covariations between the growth-based parameters. Illustrative examples of the practical use of this tool are provided, considering both interspecific and intraspecific variations within marine and fresh-water clams.

  6. Detecting spatial variations of erythrocytes by ultrasound backscattering statistical parameters under pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Chung

    2011-05-01

    The echogenicity of whole blood is known to vary during the flow cycle under pulsatile flow both in vitro and in vivo. However, the fundamental underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. The combined effects of flow acceleration and the shear rate were recently used to explain the cyclic variations of signals backscattered from flowing blood. However, testing this hypothesis requires determination of the spatial distributions of red blood cells (RBCs) in flowing blood. Recently, the Nakagami (m) and scaling (Ω) parameters have been used, respectively, to detect the spatial distributions of RBCs and the intensity of backscattering signal from blood under steady flow. For a better understanding of the relationship between the spatial distributions of RBCs and erythrocyte aggregation under pulsatile flow condition, these ultrasound backscattering statistical parameters were used, in this study, to characterize signals backscattered from both whole blood and RBC suspensions at different peak flow velocities (from 10 to 30 cm/s) and hematocrits (20% and 40%). The experiments were carried out by a 35-MHz ultrasound transducer. The m and Ω parameters were calculated for different blood properties and conditions, and the flow velocity in the center of blood flowing through a tube was measured synchronously. In whole blood, the results demonstrated that most RBCs were aggregated progressively toward the center of tube as the flow velocity started to accelerate, and that the increase in the intensity of the backscattered signal envelope to a maximum was attributable to larger rouleaux being formed in the center of tube. This phenomenon became apparent at a lower peak flow velocity with 40% hematocrit. However, there were no cyclic and spatial variations of the backscattering signal over a pulsatile cycle in RBC suspensions. PMID:21134805

  7. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Physico-chemical Parameters in the Merbok Estuary, Kedah, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Fatema, Kaniz; Wan Maznah, WO; Isa, Mansor Mat

    2014-01-01

    In this study, factor analysis (FA) was applied to extract the hidden factors responsible for water quality variations during both wet and dry seasons. Water samples were collected from six sampling stations (St. 1 Lalang River, St. 2 Semeling River, St. 3 Jagung River, St. 4 Teluk Wang River, St. 5 Gelam River and St. 6 Derhaka River) in the Merbok estuary, Malaysia from January to December 2011; the samples were further analysed in the laboratory. Correlation analysis of the data sets showed strong correlations between the parameters. Nutrients such as nitrate (NO3−), nitrite (NO2−), ammonia (NH3) and phosphate (PO43−) were determined to be critical indicators of water quality throughout the year. Influential water quality parameters during the wet season were conductivity, salinity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO) and chlorophyll a (Chla), whereas total suspended solid (TSS) and pH were critical water quality indicators during the dry season. The Kruskal-Wallis H test showed that water quality parameters were significantly different among the sampling months and stations (p<0.05), and Mann-Whitney U tests further revealed that the significantly different parameters were temperature, pH, DO, TSS, NO2− and BOD (p<0.01), whereas salinity, conductivity, NO3−, PO43−, NH3 and Chla were not significantly different (p>0.05). Water quality parameters in the estuary varied on both temporal and spatial scales and these results may serve as baseline information for estuary management, specifically for the Merbok estuary. PMID:27073596

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Physico-chemical Parameters in the Merbok Estuary, Kedah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Fatema, Kaniz; Wan Maznah, W O; Isa, Mansor Mat

    2014-12-01

    In this study, factor analysis (FA) was applied to extract the hidden factors responsible for water quality variations during both wet and dry seasons. Water samples were collected from six sampling stations (St. 1 Lalang River, St. 2 Semeling River, St. 3 Jagung River, St. 4 Teluk Wang River, St. 5 Gelam River and St. 6 Derhaka River) in the Merbok estuary, Malaysia from January to December 2011; the samples were further analysed in the laboratory. Correlation analysis of the data sets showed strong correlations between the parameters. Nutrients such as nitrate (NO3 (-)), nitrite (NO2 (-)), ammonia (NH3) and phosphate (PO4 (3-)) were determined to be critical indicators of water quality throughout the year. Influential water quality parameters during the wet season were conductivity, salinity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO) and chlorophyll a (Chla), whereas total suspended solid (TSS) and pH were critical water quality indicators during the dry season. The Kruskal-Wallis H test showed that water quality parameters were significantly different among the sampling months and stations (p<0.05), and Mann-Whitney U tests further revealed that the significantly different parameters were temperature, pH, DO, TSS, NO2 (-) and BOD (p<0.01), whereas salinity, conductivity, NO3 (-), PO4 (3-), NH3 and Chla were not significantly different (p>0.05). Water quality parameters in the estuary varied on both temporal and spatial scales and these results may serve as baseline information for estuary management, specifically for the Merbok estuary. PMID:27073596

  9. Intrinsic kinetic parameters of Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 strains and prediction of optimum carbon monoxide level for ideal bioreactor operation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yeseul; Jang, Nulee; Yasin, Muhammad; Park, Shinyoung; Chang, In Seop

    2016-02-01

    This study determines and compares the intrinsic kinetic parameters (Ks and Ki) of selected Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 strains (wild-type (WT), and mutants MC01, MC02, and WTC156T) using the substrate inhibition model. Ks and Ki values were used to find the optimum dissolved CO (CL) conditions inside the reactor. The results showed that in terms of the maximum specific CO consumption rates (qCO(max)) of WT, MC01, MC02, and WTC156T the optimum activities can be achieved by maintaining the CL levels at 0.56mM, 0.52mM, 0.58mM, and 0.75mM, respectively. The qCO(max) value of WTC156T at 0.75mM was found to be 1.5-fold higher than for the WT strain, confirming its superiority. Kinetic modeling was then used to predict the conditions required to maintain the optimum CL levels and high cell concentrations in the reactor, based on the kinetic parameters of the WTC156T strain. PMID:26638136

  10. Variations of immune parameters in terrestrial isopods: a matter of gender, aging and Wolbachia.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Mathieu; Chevalier, Frédéric; De Vlechouver, Mickaël; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Ecological factors modulate animal immunocompetence and potentially shape the evolution of their immune systems. Not only environmental parameters impact on immunocompetence: Aging is one major cause of variability of immunocompetence between individuals, and sex-specific levels of immunocompetence have also been frequently described. Moreover, a growing core of data put in light that vertically transmitted symbionts can dramatically modulate the immunocompetence of their hosts. In this study, we addressed the influence of gender, age and the feminising endosymbiont Wolbachia (wVulC) on variations in haemocyte density, total PO activity and bacterial load in the haemolymph of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. This host-symbiont system is of particular interest to address this question since: (1) wVulC was previously shown as immunosuppressive in middle-aged females and (2) wVulC influences sex determination. We show that age, gender and Wolbachia modulate together immune parameters in A. vulgare. However, wVulC, which interacts with aging, appears to be the prominent factor interfering with both PO activity and haemocyte density. This interference with immune parameters is not the only aspect of wVulC virulence on its host, as reproduction and survival are also altered. PMID:20676599

  11. Variations of immune parameters in terrestrial isopods: a matter of gender, aging and Wolbachia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Mathieu; Chevalier, Frédéric; de Vlechouver, Mickaël; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Ecological factors modulate animal immunocompetence and potentially shape the evolution of their immune systems. Not only environmental parameters impact on immunocompetence: Aging is one major cause of variability of immunocompetence between individuals, and sex-specific levels of immunocompetence have also been frequently described. Moreover, a growing core of data put in light that vertically transmitted symbionts can dramatically modulate the immunocompetence of their hosts. In this study, we addressed the influence of gender, age and the feminising endosymbiont Wolbachia ( wVulC) on variations in haemocyte density, total PO activity and bacterial load in the haemolymph of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. This host-symbiont system is of particular interest to address this question since: (1) wVulC was previously shown as immunosuppressive in middle-aged females and (2) wVulC influences sex determination. We show that age, gender and Wolbachia modulate together immune parameters in A. vulgare. However, wVulC, which interacts with aging, appears to be the prominent factor interfering with both PO activity and haemocyte density. This interference with immune parameters is not the only aspect of wVulC virulence on its host, as reproduction and survival are also altered.

  12. Colocalization Estimation Using Graphical Modeling and Variational Bayesian Expectation Maximization: Towards a Parameter-Free Approach.

    PubMed

    Awate, Suyash P; Radhakrishnan, Thyagarajan

    2015-01-01

    In microscopy imaging, colocalization between two biological entities (e.g., protein-protein or protein-cell) refers to the (stochastic) dependencies between the spatial locations of the two entities in the biological specimen. Measuring colocalization between two entities relies on fluorescence imaging of the specimen using two fluorescent chemicals, each of which indicates the presence/absence of one of the entities at any pixel location. State-of-the-art methods for estimating colocalization rely on post-processing image data using an adhoc sequence of algorithms with many free parameters that are tuned visually. This leads to loss of reproducibility of the results. This paper proposes a brand-new framework for estimating the nature and strength of colocalization directly from corrupted image data by solving a single unified optimization problem that automatically deals with noise, object labeling, and parameter tuning. The proposed framework relies on probabilistic graphical image modeling and a novel inference scheme using variational Bayesian expectation maximization for estimating all model parameters, including colocalization, from data. Results on simulated and real-world data demonstrate improved performance over the state of the art. PMID:26221663

  13. Open channel noise. VI. Analysis of amplitude histograms to determine rapid kinetic parameters.

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, S H; Sigworth, F J

    1991-01-01

    Recently we reported that rapid fluctuations of ion currents flowing through open gramicidin A channels exceed the expected level of pure transport noise at low ion concentrations (Heinemann, S. H. and F. J. Sigworth. 1990. Biophys. J. 57:499-514). Based on comparisons with kinetic ion transport models we concluded that this excess noise is likely caused by current interruptions lasting approximately 1 microsecond. Here we introduce a method using the higher-order cumulants of the amplitude distribution to estimate the kinetics of channel closing events far below the actual time resolution of the recording system. Using this method on data recorded with 10 kHz bandwidth, estimates for gap time constants on the order of 1 microsecond were obtained, similar to the earlier predictions. PMID:1718467

  14. Reaction kinetic parameters for ion transport from steady-state current-voltage curves.

    PubMed Central

    Gradmann, D; Klieber, H G; Hansen, U P

    1987-01-01

    This study demonstrates possible ways to estimate the rate constants of reaction kinetic models for ion transport from steady-state current-voltage data as measured at various substrate concentrations. This issue is treated theoretically by algebraic reduction and extension of a reaction kinetic four-state model for uniport. Furthermore, an example for application is given; current-voltage data from an open K+ selective channel (Schroeder, J.I., R. Hedrich, and J.M. Fernandez, 1984, Nature (Lond.), 312:361-362) supplemented by some new data have been evaluated. The analysis yields absolute numerical estimates of the 14 rate constants of a six-state model, which is discussed in a wider context. PMID:2437973

  15. Relevance of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of chemical vapor deposition precursors.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, J; Nagaraja, K S; Sathiyamoorthy, D

    2011-09-01

    We have studied various metallorganic and organometallic compounds by simultaneous nonisothermal thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses to confirm their volatility and thermal stability. The equilibrium vapor pressures of the metallorganic and organometallic compounds were determined by horizontal dual arm single furnace thermoanalyzer as transpiration apparatus. Antoine coefficients were calculated from the temperature dependence equilibrium vapor pressure data. The model-fitting solid-state kinetic analyses of Al(acac)3, (acac = acetylacetonato), Cr(CO)6, Fe(Cp)2, (Cp-cyclopentadienyl), Ga(acac)3, Mn(tmhd)3, and Y(tmhd)3 (tmhd = 2,2,6,6,-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato) revealed that the processes follow diffusion controlled, contracting area and zero order model sublimation or evaporation kinetics. The activation energy for the sublimation/evaporation processes were calculated by model-free kinetic methods. Thin films of nickel and lanthanum-strontium-manganite (LSM) are grown on silicon substrate at 573 K using selected metallorganic complexes of Ni[(acac)2en], La(tmhd)3, Sr(tmhd)2 and Mn(tmhd)3 as precursors by plasma assisted liquid injection chemical vapor deposition (PA-LICVD). The deposited films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis for their composition and morphology. PMID:22097553

  16. A variational approach for dissipative quantum transport in a wide parameter space

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu Kwok, YanHo; Chen, GuanHua; Yam, ChiYung

    2015-09-14

    Recent development of theoretical method for dissipative quantum transport has achieved notable progresses in the weak or strong electron-phonon coupling regime. However, a generalized theory for dissipative quantum transport in a wide parameter space had not been established. In this work, a variational polaron theory for dissipative quantum transport in a wide range of electron-phonon coupling is developed. The optimal polaron transformation is determined by the optimization of the Feynman-Bogoliubov upper bound of free energy. The free energy minimization ends up with an optimal mean-field Hamiltonian and a minimal interaction Hamiltonian. Hence, second-order perturbation can be applied to the transformed system, resulting in an accurate and efficient method for the treatment of dissipative quantum transport with different electron-phonon coupling strength. Numerical benchmark calculation on a single site model coupled to one phonon mode is presented.

  17. Effect of emitter parameter variation on the performance of heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Flood, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Metalorganic chemical-vapor-deposited heteroepitaxial indium phosphide (InP) solar cell experimental results were simulated by using a PC-1D computer model. The effect of emitter parameter variation on the performance of n(+)/p/p(+) heteroepitaxial InP/GaAs solar cell was presented. The thinner and lighter doped emitters were observed to offer higher cell efficiencies. The influence of emitter thickness and minority carrier diffusion length on the cell efficiency with respect to dislocation density was studied. Heteroepitaxial cells with efficiencies similar to present day homojunction InP efficiencies (greaater than 16 percent AM0) were shown to be attainable if a dislocation density lower than 10(exp 6)/sq cm could be achieved. A realistic optimized design study yielded InP solar cells of over 22 percent AM0 efficiency at 25 C.

  18. Effect of emitter parameter variation on the performance of heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    Metallorganic chemical-vapor-deposited heteroepitaxial indium phosphide (InP) solar cell experimental results were simulated by using a PC-1D computer model. The effect of emitter parameter variation on the performance of n(+)/p/p(+) heteroepitaxial InP/GaAs solar cell was presented. The thinner and lighter doped emitters were observed to offer higher cell efficiencies. The influence of emitter thickness and minority carrier diffusion length on the cell efficiency with respect to dislocation density was studied. Heteroepitaxial cells with efficiencies similar to present day homojunction InP efficiencies (greater than 16 percent AMO) were shown to be attainable if a dislocation density lower than 10(exp 6)/sq cm could be achieved. A realistic optimized design study yielded InP solar cells of over 22 percent AMO efficiency at 25 C.

  19. A variational approach for dissipative quantum transport in a wide parameter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Yam, ChiYung; Kwok, YanHo; Chen, GuanHua

    2015-09-01

    Recent development of theoretical method for dissipative quantum transport has achieved notable progresses in the weak or strong electron-phonon coupling regime. However, a generalized theory for dissipative quantum transport in a wide parameter space had not been established. In this work, a variational polaron theory for dissipative quantum transport in a wide range of electron-phonon coupling is developed. The optimal polaron transformation is determined by the optimization of the Feynman-Bogoliubov upper bound of free energy. The free energy minimization ends up with an optimal mean-field Hamiltonian and a minimal interaction Hamiltonian. Hence, second-order perturbation can be applied to the transformed system, resulting in an accurate and efficient method for the treatment of dissipative quantum transport with different electron-phonon coupling strength. Numerical benchmark calculation on a single site model coupled to one phonon mode is presented.

  20. Photodegradation of naproxen in water under simulated solar radiation: mechanism, kinetics, and toxicity variation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dujuan; Liu, Guoguang; Lv, Wenying; Yao, Kun; Zhang, Xiangdan; Xiao, Huahua

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the degradation mechanism, the reaction kinetics, and the evolution of toxicity of naproxen in waters under simulated solar radiation. These criteria were investigated by conducting quenching experiments with reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxygen concentration experiments, and toxicity evaluations with Vibrio fischeri bacteria. The results indicated that the degradation of naproxen proceeds via pseudo first-order kinetics in all cases and that photodegradation included degradation by direct photolysis and by self-sensitization via ROS; the contribution rates of self-sensitized photodegradation were 1.4%, 65.8%, and 31.7% via ·OH, (1)O₂ and O₂(•-), respectively. Furthermore, the oxygen concentration experiments indicated that dissolved oxygen inhibited the direct photodegradation of naproxen, and the higher the oxygen content, the more pronounced the inhibitory effect. The toxicity evaluation illustrated that some of the intermediate products formed were more toxic than naproxen. PMID:24638836

  1. Optimization of residual stresses in MMC's through the variation of interfacial layer architectures and processing parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Salzar, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this work was the development of efficient, user-friendly computer codes for optimizing fabrication-induced residual stresses in metal matrix composites through the use of homogeneous and heterogeneous interfacial layer architectures and processing parameter variation. To satisfy this objective, three major computer codes have been developed and delivered to the NASA-Lewis Research Center, namely MCCM, OPTCOMP, and OPTCOMP2. MCCM is a general research-oriented code for investigating the effects of microstructural details, such as layered morphology of SCS-6 SiC fibers and multiple homogeneous interfacial layers, on the inelastic response of unidirectional metal matrix composites under axisymmetric thermomechanical loading. OPTCOMP and OPTCOMP2 combine the major analysis module resident in MCCM with a commercially-available optimization algorithm and are driven by user-friendly interfaces which facilitate input data construction and program execution. OPTCOMP enables the user to identify those dimensions, geometric arrangements and thermoelastoplastic properties of homogeneous interfacial layers that minimize thermal residual stresses for the specified set of constraints. OPTCOMP2 provides additional flexibility in the residual stress optimization through variation of the processing parameters (time, temperature, external pressure and axial load) as well as the microstructure of the interfacial region which is treated as a heterogeneous two-phase composite. Overviews of the capabilities of these codes are provided together with a summary of results that addresses the effects of various microstructural details of the fiber, interfacial layers and matrix region on the optimization of fabrication-induced residual stresses in metal matrix composites.

  2. Effects of Spectral and Temporal Variations in Gamma Ray Burst Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejzak, L. M.; Melott, A. L.; Thomas, B. C.; Medvedev, M. V.

    2005-12-01

    It has previously been shown that a typical gamma ray burst could have significant effects on the Earth, including such considerations as ozone depletion and production of odd nitrogen compounds. These effects in turn contribute to processes such as DNA damage in organisms, increasing opacity of the atmosphere, and nitric acid rain. Our interest lies in the role that these processes may play in mass extinction events, in particular the Ordovician mass extinction 443 Mya. Here we investigate variations in certain burst parameters and the resulting variation in the severity of effect that the burst radiation has on the Earth's atmosphere. We extend the range of photon energies used in the model beyond the range used in previous studies, and model bursts with a number of different peak energies. We also alter the temporal profile of the radiation during the burst itself. This research is conducted with support from NASA's Astrobiology: Exobiology and Evolutionary Biology Program and in collaboration with NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and with supercomputer support from NCSA.

  3. A comparison of region-based and pixel-based CEUS kinetics parameters in the assessment of arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grisan, E.; Raffeiner, B.; Coran, A.; Rizzo, G.; Ciprian, L.; Stramare, R.

    2014-03-01

    Inflammatory rheumatic diseases are leading causes of disability and constitute a frequent medical disorder, leading to inability to work, high comorbidity and increased mortality. The gold-standard for diagnosing and differentiating arthritis is based on patient conditions and radiographic findings, as joint erosions or decalcification. However, early signs of arthritis are joint effusion, hypervascularization and synovial hypertrophy. In particular, vascularization has been shown to correlate with arthritis' destructive behavior, more than clinical assessment. Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) examination of the small joints is emerging as a sensitive tool for assessing vascularization and disease activity. The evaluation of perfusion pattern rely on subjective semi-quantitative scales, that are able to capture the macroscopic degree of vascularization, but are unable to detect the subtler differences in kinetics perfusion parameters that might lead to a deeper understanding of disease progression and a better management of patients. Quantitative assessment is mostly performed by means of the Qontrast software package, that requires the user to define a region of interest, whose mean intensity curve is fitted with an exponential function. We show that using a more physiologically motivated perfusion curve, and by estimating the kinetics parameters separately pixel per pixel, the quantitative information gathered is able to differentiate more effectively different perfusion patterns. In particular, we will show that a pixel-based analysis is able to provide significant markers differentiating rheumatoid arthritis from simil-rheumatoid psoriatic arthritis, that have non-significant differences in clinical evaluation (DAS28), serological markers, or region-based parameters.

  4. Applicability of fluorescence-based sensors to the determination of kinetic parameters for O2 in oxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Di Russo, Natali V.; Bruner, Steven D.; Roitberg, Adrian E.

    2015-01-01

    Optical methods for O2 determination based on dynamic fluorescence quenching have been applied to measure oxygen uptake rates in cell culture, and to determine intracellular oxygen levels. Here we demonstrate the applicability of fluorescence-based probes in determining kinetic parameters for O2 using as an example catalysis by a cofactor-independent oxygenase (DpgC). Fluorescence-based sensors provide a direct assessment of enzyme-catalyzed O2 consumption using commercially available, low-cost instrumentation that is easily customizable and thus constitute a convenient alternative to the widely-used Clark-type electrode, especially in cases where chemical interference is expected to be problematic. PMID:25637681

  5. Effects of rotor parameter variations on handling qualities of unaugmented helicopters in simulated terrain flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, P. D.; Dugan, D. D.; Chen, R. T. N.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    A coordinated analysis and ground simulator experiment was performed to investigate the effects on single rotor helicopter handling qualities of systematic variations in the main rotor hinge restraint, hub hinge offset, pitch-flap coupling, and blade lock number. Teetering rotor, articulated rotor, and hingeless rotor helicopters were evaluated by research pilots in special low level flying tasks involving obstacle avoidance at 60 to 100 knots airspeed. The results of the experiment are in the form of pilot ratings, pilot commentary, and some objective performance measures. Criteria for damping and sensitivity are reexamined when combined with the additional factors of cross coupling due to pitch and roll rates, pitch coupling with collective pitch, and longitudinal static stability. Ratings obtained with and without motion are compared. Acceptable flying qualities were obtained within each rotor type by suitable adjustment of the hub parameters, however, pure teetering rotors were found to lack control power for the tasks. A limit for the coupling parameter L sub q/L sub p of 0.35 is suggested.

  6. Material properties of evolutionary diverse spider silks described by variation in a single structural parameter

    PubMed Central

    Madurga, Rodrigo; Plaza, Gustavo R.; Blackledge, Todd A.; Guinea, Gustavo.V.; Elices, Manuel; Pérez-Rigueiro, José

    2016-01-01

    Spider major ampullate gland silks (MAS) vary greatly in material properties among species but, this variation is shown here to be confined to evolutionary shifts along a single universal performance trajectory. This reveals an underlying design principle that is maintained across large changes in both spider ecology and silk chemistry. Persistence of this design principle becomes apparent after the material properties are defined relative to the true alignment parameter, which describes the orientation and stretching of the protein chains in the silk fiber. Our results show that the mechanical behavior of all Entelegynae major ampullate silk fibers, under any conditions, are described by this single parameter that connects the sequential action of three deformation micromechanisms during stretching: stressing of protein-protein hydrogen bonds, rotation of the β-nanocrystals and growth of the ordered fraction. Conservation of these traits for over 230 million years is an indication of the optimal design of the material and gives valuable clues for the production of biomimetic counterparts based on major ampullate spider silk. PMID:26755434

  7. Seasonal variation of selected performance parameters in épée fencers.

    PubMed Central

    Koutedakis, Y; Ridgeon, A; Sharp, N C; Boreham, C

    1993-01-01

    In this study, anthropometric measurements were carried out on seven British international male épée fencers, using a maximal treadmill running test, a 20-s Wingate-type test, and isokinetic dynamometry. Testing was conducted on two occasions, 5 to 6 months apart, during mid-off-season (preparation) and mid-in-season (competition) periods. Maximal oxygen intake (VO2max) and maximal respiratory exchange ratio (Rmax) were among the parameters obtained from the treadmill test, while peak and mean anaerobic power outputs were measured during a 20-s maximal effort. Knee extensor and flexor muscle forces from both dominant (leading) and non-dominant (trailing) legs were assessed at 1.04, 3.14 and 4.19 rad sec-1. Statistical analyses revealed lower mean VO2max (P < 0.05) and mean Rmax values (P < 0.02) at the in-season assessments compared with off-season. In-season testing also demonstrated significantly lower peak torques for both dominant and non-dominant knee extensors compared with off-season assessments at all velocities (P < 0.05 to P < 0.004). Furthermore, in-season peak torque for the non-dominant leg flexors was lower (P < 0.03) at 4.19 rad sec-1 than off-season. We conclude that current training practices may account for the observed seasonal variations in performance related physiological parameters in fencers. PMID:8242273

  8. Material properties of evolutionary diverse spider silks described by variation in a single structural parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madurga, Rodrigo; Plaza, Gustavo R.; Blackledge, Todd A.; Guinea, Gustavo. V.; Elices, Manuel; Pérez-Rigueiro, José

    2016-01-01

    Spider major ampullate gland silks (MAS) vary greatly in material properties among species but, this variation is shown here to be confined to evolutionary shifts along a single universal performance trajectory. This reveals an underlying design principle that is maintained across large changes in both spider ecology and silk chemistry. Persistence of this design principle becomes apparent after the material properties are defined relative to the true alignment parameter, which describes the orientation and stretching of the protein chains in the silk fiber. Our results show that the mechanical behavior of all Entelegynae major ampullate silk fibers, under any conditions, are described by this single parameter that connects the sequential action of three deformation micromechanisms during stretching: stressing of protein-protein hydrogen bonds, rotation of the β-nanocrystals and growth of the ordered fraction. Conservation of these traits for over 230 million years is an indication of the optimal design of the material and gives valuable clues for the production of biomimetic counterparts based on major ampullate spider silk.

  9. Parameter study and optimization for piezoelectric energy harvester for TPMS considering speed variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toghi Eshghi, Amin; Lee, Soobum; Lee, Hanmin; Kim, Young-Cheol

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we perform design parameter study and design optimization for a piezoelectric energy harvester considering vehicle speed variation. Initially, a FEM model using ANSYS is developed to appraise the performance of a piezoelectric harvester in a rotating tire. The energy harvester proposed here uses the vertical deformation at contact patch area from the car weight and centrifugal acceleration. This harvester is composed of a beam which is clamped at both ends and a piezoelectric material is attached on the top of that. The piezoelectric material possesses the 31 mode of transduction in which the direction of applied field is perpendicular to that of the electric field. To optimize the harvester performance, we would change the geometrical parameters of the harvester to obtain the maximum power. One of the main challenges in the design process is obtaining the required power while considering the constraints for harvester weight and volume. These two concerns are addressed in this paper. Since the final goal of this study is the development of an energy harvester with a wireless sensor system installed in a real car, the real time data for varied velocity of a vehicle are taken into account for power measurements. This study concludes that the proposed design is applicable to wireless tire sensor systems.

  10. Material properties of evolutionary diverse spider silks described by variation in a single structural parameter.

    PubMed

    Madurga, Rodrigo; Plaza, Gustavo R; Blackledge, Todd A; Guinea, Gustavo V; Elices, Manuel; Pérez-Rigueiro, José

    2016-01-01

    Spider major ampullate gland silks (MAS) vary greatly in material properties among species but, this variation is shown here to be confined to evolutionary shifts along a single universal performance trajectory. This reveals an underlying design principle that is maintained across large changes in both spider ecology and silk chemistry. Persistence of this design principle becomes apparent after the material properties are defined relative to the true alignment parameter, which describes the orientation and stretching of the protein chains in the silk fiber. Our results show that the mechanical behavior of all Entelegynae major ampullate silk fibers, under any conditions, are described by this single parameter that connects the sequential action of three deformation micromechanisms during stretching: stressing of protein-protein hydrogen bonds, rotation of the β-nanocrystals and growth of the ordered fraction. Conservation of these traits for over 230 million years is an indication of the optimal design of the material and gives valuable clues for the production of biomimetic counterparts based on major ampullate spider silk. PMID:26755434

  11. Spatial Variation of the Relationship between PM2.5 Concentrations and Meteorological Parameters in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gang; Fu, Jingying; Jiang, Dong; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Qiao; Dong, Donglin

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies around the world have reported that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is closely associated with human health. The distribution of PM2.5 concentrations is influenced by multiple geographic and socioeconomic factors. Using a remote-sensing-derived PM2.5 dataset, this paper explores the relationship between PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological parameters and their spatial variance in China for the period 2001–2010. The spatial variations of the relationships between the annual average PM2.5, the annual average precipitation (AAP), and the annual average temperature (AAT) were evaluated using the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model. The results indicated that PM2.5 had a strong and stable correlation with meteorological parameters. In particular, PM2.5 had a negative correlation with precipitation and a positive correlation with temperature. In addition, the relationship between the variables changed over space, and the strong negative correlation between PM2.5 and the AAP mainly appeared in the warm temperate semihumid region and northern subtropical humid region in 2001 and 2010, with some localized differences. The strong positive correlation between the PM2.5 and the AAT mainly occurred in the mid-temperate semiarid region, the humid, semihumid, and semiarid warm temperate regions, and the northern subtropical humid region in 2001 and 2010. PMID:26295046

  12. Spatial Variation of the Relationship between PM 2.5 Concentrations and Meteorological Parameters in China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gang; Fu, Jingying; Jiang, Dong; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Qiao; Dong, Donglin

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies around the world have reported that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is closely associated with human health. The distribution of PM2.5 concentrations is influenced by multiple geographic and socioeconomic factors. Using a remote-sensing-derived PM2.5 dataset, this paper explores the relationship between PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological parameters and their spatial variance in China for the period 2001-2010. The spatial variations of the relationships between the annual average PM2.5, the annual average precipitation (AAP), and the annual average temperature (AAT) were evaluated using the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model. The results indicated that PM2.5 had a strong and stable correlation with meteorological parameters. In particular, PM2.5 had a negative correlation with precipitation and a positive correlation with temperature. In addition, the relationship between the variables changed over space, and the strong negative correlation between PM2.5 and the AAP mainly appeared in the warm temperate semihumid region and northern subtropical humid region in 2001 and 2010, with some localized differences. The strong positive correlation between the PM2.5 and the AAT mainly occurred in the mid-temperate semiarid region, the humid, semihumid, and semiarid warm temperate regions, and the northern subtropical humid region in 2001 and 2010. PMID:26295046

  13. On the optimal use of fictitious time in variation of parameters methods with application to BG14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    The optimal way to use fictitious time in variation of parameter methods is presented. Setting fictitious time to zero at the end of each step is shown to cure the instability associated with some types of problems. Only some parameters are reinitialized, thereby retaining redundant information.

  14. Kinetic parameters of red pepper waste as biomass to solid biofuel.

    PubMed

    Maia, Amanda Alves Domingos; de Morais, Leandro Cardoso

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed to study the kinetic of thermal degradation of red pepper waste as solid biofuel to bioenergy production. The thermal degradation experiments were conducted at three heating rates, 5°C/min, 7.5°C/min and 10°C/min in a thermogravimetric analyzer and oxidative atmosphere. The kinetic analysis was carried out applying the isoconversional model of Ozawa-Flynn-Wall. The activation energy was considerate low and varied 29.49-147.25k J/mol. The enthalpies revealed the energy difference between the reagent and the activated complex agreed with activation energies, the values of the pre-exponential factor indicated empirical first order reactions, Gibbs free energy varied from 71.77 kJ/mol to 207.03 kJ/mol and the changes of entropies had negative values, indicating that the degree of disorder of products formed through bond dissociations was lower than initial reactants. The calorific value was 19.5 MJ/kg, considered a relevant result for bioenergy production. PMID:26773950

  15. TOPICAL REVIEW: Kinetic phenomena in charged particle transport in gases, swarm parameters and cross section data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovic, Z. Lj; Suvakov, M.; Nikitovic, Z.; Dujko, S.; Sasic, O.; Jovanovic, J.; Malovic, G.; Stojanovic, V.

    2007-02-01

    In this review we discuss the current status of the physics of charged particle swarms, mainly electrons. The whole field is analysed mainly through its relationship to plasma modelling and illustrated by some recent examples developed mainly by our group. The measurements of the swarm coefficients and the availability of the data are briefly discussed. More time is devoted to the development of complete electron molecule cross section sets along with recent examples such as NO, CF4 and HBr. We extend the discussion to the availability of ion and fast neutral data and how swarm experiments may serve to provide new data. As a point where new insight into the kinetics of charge particle transport is provided, the role of kinetic phenomena is discussed and recent examples are listed. We focus here on giving two examples on how non-conservative processes make dramatic effects in transport, the negative absolute mobility and the negative differential conductivity for positrons in argon. Finally we discuss the applicability of swarm data in plasma modelling and the relationship to other fields where swarm experiments and analysis make significant contributions. Based on the general invited lecture presented by the first author at ESCAMPIG 2006 at Lecce in Italy.

  16. Seasonal variation of hemato-biochemical parameters in indigenous pig: Zovawk of Mizoram

    PubMed Central

    Mayengbam, P.; Tolenkhomba, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the influence of season on erythrocyte picture, plasma enzyme and electrolyte profile of local pig of Mizoram at a different age. Materials and Methods: A volume of 2 ml of blood samples were collected from 72 Zovawk pigs of three different age groups viz. pre-weaning, grower and adult pigs reared in College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram, India, livestock farm during summer and winter in order to find out influence of season on erythrocyte picture, enzyme and electrolyte profile. The hematological parameters were estimated by using an automatic blood analyzer. The biochemical parameters were estimated by using diagnostic kits. Results: The grower pigs had lower hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) during summer, rainy and winter seasons (p<0.05) and lower MCH concentration (MCHC) during summer season (p<0.05). Adult pigs had lower Hb with higher total erythrocyte count in rainy season. PCV and MCV of adult pigs decreased in summer (p<0.05). Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity of both the grower and adult groups increased during summer and rainy seasons (p<0.05). Zovawk pigs had higher sodium (Na) and lower potassium (K) in rainy season (p<0.05). Pre-weaning piglets had higher Na, K, calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) in summer than in winter. Grower pigs had higher Na, K and Ca in summer (p<0.05). Pi of pre-weaning and grower groups was higher in winter. Adult pigs had lower alkaline phosphatase activity and Ca in summer and higher Pi and Mg in winter (p<0.05). Conclusion: Seasonal variation in some hemato-biochemical parameters of Zovawk pig were investigated. Influence of season on the hemato-biochemical profile was most evident during the grower stage, followed by adults and pre-weaning piglets. PMID:27065639

  17. Variations in the elemental ratio of organic matter in the central Baltic Sea: Part II - Sensitivities of annual mass flux estimates to model parameter variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreus, Markus; Schartau, Markus

    2015-06-01

    This study describes a sensitivity analysis that allows the parameters of a one-dimensional ecosystem model to be ranked according to their specificity in determining biochemical key fluxes. Key fluxes of interest are annual (a) total production (TP), (b) remineralization above the halocline (RM), and (c) export at 50 m (EX) at the Baltic Sea monitoring site BY15 located in the Gotland Deep basin. The model resolves mass flux of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorous (P), while considering nitrogen fixation explicitly. Our first null hypothesis is that the variation of the value of every single model parameter affects each annual C, N, and P budget simultaneously. Our second null hypothesis states that the variation of every parameter value induces changes at least in either of the annual C, N or P budgets. Our analyses falsify both null hypotheses and reveal that 8 out of 36 parameters must be regarded redundant, as their variation neither alter annual key fluxes nor produce considerable time-shifts in model trajectories at the respective site. Seven parameters were found to induce substantial changes in annual C, N, and P flux estimates simultaneously. The assimilation efficiency of zooplankton turned out to be of vital importance. This parameter discriminates between the assimilation and destruction of algal prey during grazing. The fraction of unassimilated dead algal cells is critical for the amount of organic matter exported out of the euphotic zone. The maximum cellular N:C quota of diazotrophs and the degradation/hydrolysis rate of detrital carbon are two parameters that will likely remain unconstrained by time series data, but both affect the annual C budget considerably. Overall, our detailed specification of model sensitivities to parameter variations will facilitate the formulation of a well-posed inverse problem for the estimation of C, N and P fluxes from stock observations at the Gotland Deep.

  18. A physical parameter identification method of Lévy-driven vibratory systems based on multipower variation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiu-Li; Lin, Jin-Guan; Liu, Guo-Xiang; Zhou, Xiu-Qing

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we put forward a physical parameter identification method of Lévy-driven engineering structures. Based on the properties of the quadratic variation and multipower variation processes, the structural dynamic equation is decomposed into the Gaussian continuous-time autoregressive (CAR) equation and the pure jump-driven CAR equation. Both equations have the same unknown parameters as those included in the Lévy-driven system. The parameters of the Lévy-driven system are identified by the maximum likelihood estimation method of the Gaussian CAR system. The numerical results demonstrate that the method works well.

  19. Isotherm parameters and intraparticle mass transfer kinetics on molecularly imprinted polymers in acetonitrile/buffer mobile phases

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyunjung; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof; Guiochon, Georges A

    2006-03-01

    The equilibrium isotherm and the intraparticle mass transfer kinetics of the enantiomers of the template were investigated on an Fmoc-L-tryptophan (Fmoc-L-Trp) imprinted polymer at different pHs and water concentrations in acetonitrile/aqueous buffer mobile phases. The equilibrium isotherm data were measured using frontal analysis at 25 {+-} 2 C. The adsorption energy distribution was found to be trimodal, with narrow modes. Consistent with this distribution, the adsorption data were modeled using a tri-Langmuir isotherm equation and the best estimates of the isotherm parameters were determined. The intraparticle mass transfer parameters were derived by comparing the profiles of experimental overloaded bands and the profiles calculated using the isotherm model and the lumped pore diffusion (POR) model of chromatography. These results showed that different adsorption and mass transfer mechanisms exist in mobile phases made of acetonitrile/aqueous buffer and of acetonitrile/acetic acid solutions.

  20. Action of human pancreatic and salivary alpha-amylases on maltooligosaccharides: evaluation of kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Saito, N; Horiuchi, T; Yoshida, M; Imai, T

    1979-10-01

    The kinetic studies on the reactions of human pancreatic and salivary alpha-amylases with several maltooligosaccharides (maltotetraose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose, and maltoheptaose) were carried out. The susceptibility to hydrolysis with human pancreatic alpha-amylase decreased in the order of maltopentaose, maltohexaose, maltotetraose, and maltoheptaose, while with human salivary alpha-amylase maltopentaose was hydrolysed slightly slower than maltohexaose but fairly faster than maltotetraose or maltoheptaose from a viewpoint of the rates of reactions based on the amount of substrate changed. The relative rates of production of substrates, utilized in the coupled yeast alpha-glucosidase reaction, increased in the order of maltoheptaose, maltohexaose, maltotetraose, and maltopentaose with human pancreatic alpha-amylase, while with human salivary alpha-amylase in the order of maltoheptaose, maltotetraose, maltohexaose, and maltopentaose. Thus, maltopentaose was considered to be the best substrate over maltotetraose, maltohexaose or maltoheptaose for the alpha-glucosidase coupled method of alpha-amylase determination. PMID:385176

  1. Using kinetic parameter analysis of dynamic FDOPA-PET for brain tissue classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hong-Dun; Lin, Kang-Ping; Chung, Being-Tau; Yu, Chin-Lung; Wang, Rong-Fa; Wu, Liang-Chi; Liu, Ren-Shyan

    2002-04-01

    In clinically, structural image based brain tissue segmentation as a preprocess plays an important and essential role on a number of image preprocessing, such as image visualization, object recognition, image registration, and so forth. However, when we need to classify the tissues according to their physiological functions, those strategies are not satisfactory. In this study, we incorporated both tissue time-activity curves (TACs) and derived kinetic parametric curves (KPCs) information to segment brain tissues, such as striatum, gray and white matters, in dynamic FDOPA-PET studies. Four common clustering techniques, K-mean (KM), Fuzzy C-mean (FCM), Isodata (ISO), Markov Random Fields (MRF), and our method were compared to evaluate its precision. The results show 41% and 48% less mean errors in mean difference for KPCs and TACs, respectively, than other methods. Combined KPCs and TACs based clustering method provide the ability to define brain structure effectively.

  2. Crystallization kinetics of lithium niobate glass: determination of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov parameters.

    PubMed

    Choi, H W; Kim, Y H; Rim, Y H; Yang, Y S

    2013-06-28

    The formation of crystalline LiNbO3 (LN) from LN glass has been studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The LN glass with no glass former was prepared by the polymerized complex method. The isothermal kinetics of the crystallization process is described using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation and the Avrami exponent n is found to be ~2.0, indicating that the crystallization mechanism is diffusion-controlled growth with a decreasing nucleation rate. The effective activation energy of crystallization calculated from isothermal measurements is 6.51 eV. It is found that the LN glass directly transforms into a rhombohedral LN crystal without any intermediate crystalline phase and most crystal grains are confined within the size of ~40 nm irrespective of different isothermal temperatures. Application of JMAK theory to the non-isothermal thermoanalytical study of crystallization of LN glass is discussed. PMID:23677338

  3. Degradation of ciprofloxacin in water by advanced oxidation process: kinetics study, influencing parameters and degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Murtaza; Ismail, M; Khan, Sanaullah; Tabassum, Safia; Khan, Hasan M

    2016-03-01

    Gamma-radiation-induced degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) in aqueous solution and the factors affecting the degradation process have been investigated. The results showed that CIP (4.6 mg/L) was almost completely degraded at an absorbed dose of 870 Gy. The kinetic studies of aqueous solutions containing 4.6, 10, 15 and 17.9 mg/L indicated that the decomposition of CIP by gamma irradiation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and the decay constant (k) decreased from 5.9  ×  10(-3) to 1.6  ×  10(-3) Gy(-1) with an increase in CIP initial concentration from 4.6 to 17.9 mg/L. The effect of saturation of CIP solution with N2, N2O or air on radiation-induced degradation of CIP was also investigated. The effects of radical scavengers, such as t-BuOH and i-PrOH, showed the role of reactive radicals towards degradation of CIP in the order of [Formula: see text]. The apparent second-order rate constant of [Formula: see text] with CIP was calculated to be 2.64 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The effects of solution pH as well as natural water contaminants, such as [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], on CIP degradation by gamma-irradiation were also investigated. Major degradation products, including organic acids, were identified using UPLC-MS/MS and IC, and degradation pathways have been proposed. PMID:26208491

  4. HCV-NS3 inhibitors: determination of their kinetic parameters and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Flores, María Victoria; Strawbridge, Joanne; Ciaramella, Giuseppe; Corbau, Romuald

    2009-10-01

    Existing HCV protease inhibitors fall into two categories: reversible and non-covalent, such as BILN-2061, and covalent and reversible, exemplified by SCH-503034 and VX-950. In this work, the characterization of the kinetics of these three inhibitors is presented. SCH-503034 and VX-950 initially bind to the genotype 1b HCV NS3/4A protease to form a low affinity complex, with K(i) values of 5 and 5.8 microM respectively. The ability of those two compounds to form a second covalent complex (EI) results in a potency increase, with overall K(i) values of 20 and 45 nM, respectively. The increase in potency can be explained by their slow dissociation rate, forming complexes with half-lives of 2 h (VX-950) and 5 h (SCH-503034). Although BILN-2061 has been described as a fast reversible, non-covalent inhibitor, our results show a slow binding two-step mechanism. Contrary to SCH-503034 and VX-950, BILN-2061 can form a high affinity first complex with a K(i) value of 3.9 nM, and an overall K(i) of 0.14 nM. The half-life of the BILN-2061 EI complex is shorter (t(1/2) approximately 0.7 h) than that of the other two compounds. The potency of these compounds is genotype dependent, and a kinetic analysis using NS3/4A from genotype 3a indicates that the loss of potency of SCH-503034 and VX-950 relative to genotype 1 is mainly due to the slow on-rate and faster off-rate for the formation of the EI complex. In the case of BILN-2061, a better fit is obtained using a one-step model, indicating that the loss of potency is due to an increase in the off-rate of the EI complex. PMID:19505593

  5. The eye lens: age-related trends and individual variations in refractive index and shape parameters.

    PubMed

    Pierscionek, Barbara; Bahrami, Mehdi; Hoshino, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Regini, Justyn; Yagi, Naoto

    2015-10-13

    The eye lens grows throughout life by cell accrual on its surface and can change shape to adjust the focussing power of the eye. Varying concentrations of proteins in successive cell layers create a refractive index gradient. The continued growth of the lens and age-related changes in proteins render it less able to alter shape with loss of capacity by the end of the sixth decade of life. Growth and protein ageing alter the refractive index but as accurate measurement of this parameter is difficult, the nature of such alterations remains uncertain. The most accurate method to date for measuring refractive index in intact lenses has been developed at the SPring-8 synchrotron. The technique, based on Talbot interferometry, has an X-ray source and was used to measure refractive index in sixty-six human lenses, aged from 16 to 91 years. Height and width were measured for forty-five lenses. Refractive index contours show decentration in some older lenses but individual variations mask age-related trends. Refractive index profiles along the optic axis have relatively flat central sections with distinct micro-fluctuations and a steep gradient in the cortex but do not exhibit an age-related trend. The refractive index profiles in the equatorial aspect show statistical significance with age, particularly for lenses below the age of sixty that had capacity to alter shape in vivo. The maximum refractive index in the lens centre decreases slightly with age with considerable scatter in the data and there are age-related variations in sagittal thickness and equatorial height. PMID:26416418

  6. The eye lens: age-related trends and individual variations in refractive index and shape parameters

    PubMed Central

    Pierscionek, Barbara; Bahrami, Mehdi; Hoshino, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Regini, Justyn; Yagi, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    The eye lens grows throughout life by cell accrual on its surface and can change shape to adjust the focussing power of the eye. Varying concentrations of proteins in successive cell layers create a refractive index gradient. The continued growth of the lens and age-related changes in proteins render it less able to alter shape with loss of capacity by the end of the sixth decade of life. Growth and protein ageing alter the refractive index but as accurate measurement of this parameter is difficult, the nature of such alterations remains uncertain. The most accurate method to date for measuring refractive index in intact lenses has been developed at the SPring-8 synchrotron. The technique, based on Talbot interferometry, has an X-ray source and was used to measure refractive index in sixty-six human lenses, aged from 16 to 91 years. Height and width were measured for forty-five lenses. Refractive index contours show decentration in some older lenses but individual variations mask age-related trends. Refractive index profiles along the optic axis have relatively flat central sections with distinct micro-fluctuations and a steep gradient in the cortex but do not exhibit an age-related trend. The refractive index profiles in the equatorial aspect show statistical significance with age, particularly for lenses below the age of sixty that had capacity to alter shape in vivo. The maximum refractive index in the lens centre decreases slightly with age with considerable scatter in the data and there are age-related variations in sagittal thickness and equatorial height. PMID:26416418

  7. Sensitivity analysis of large system of chemical kinetic parameters for engine combustion simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, H; Sanz-Argent, J; Petitpas, G; Havstad, M; Flowers, D

    2012-04-19

    In this study, the authors applied the state-of-the art sensitivity methods to downselect system parameters from 4000+ to 8, (23000+ -> 4000+ -> 84 -> 8). This analysis procedure paves the way for future works: (1) calibrate the system response using existed experimental observations, and (2) predict future experiment results, using the calibrated system.

  8. Variation in climate sensitivity and feedback parameters during the historical period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, J. M.; Andrews, T.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the climate feedback parameter α (W m-2 K-1) during the historical period (since 1871) in experiments using the HadGEM2 and HadCM3 atmosphere general circulation models (AGCMs) with constant preindustrial atmospheric composition and time-dependent observational sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice boundary conditions. In both AGCMs, for the historical period as a whole, the effective climate sensitivity is ˜2 K (α≃1.7 W m-2 K-1), and α shows substantial decadal variation caused by the patterns of SST change. Both models agree with the AGCMs of the latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Project in showing a considerably smaller effective climate sensitivity of ˜1.5 K (α = 2.3 ± 0.7 W m-2 K-1), given the time-dependent changes in sea surface conditions observed during 1979-2008, than the corresponding coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) give under constant quadrupled CO2 concentration. These findings help to relieve the apparent contradiction between the larger values of effective climate sensitivity diagnosed from AOGCMs and the smaller values inferred from historical climate change.

  9. Parameter-specific electronic measurement and analysis of sources of variation using ring oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lynn T.-N.; Pang, Liang-Teck; Neureuther, Andrew R.; Nikolić, Borivoje

    2009-03-01

    Parameter-specific and simulation-calibrated ring oscillator (RO) inverter layouts are described for identifying and quantitatively modeling sources of circuit performance variation from source/drain stress, shallow trench isolation (STI) stress, lithography, etch, and misalignment. This paper extends the RO approach by adding physical modeling/simulation of the sources of variability to tune the layouts of monitors for enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. Poly and diffusion layout choices have been guided by fast-CAD pattern matching. The accuracy of the fast-CAD estimate from the Pattern Matcher for these lithography issues is corroborated by simulations in Mentor Graphics Calibre. Generic conceptual results are given based on the experience from preparing of proprietary layouts that pass DRC check for a 45 nm test chip with ST Micro. Typical improvements in sensitivity of 2 fold are possible with layouts for lithography focus. A layout monitor for poly to diffusion misalignment based on programmable off-sets shows a 0.8% change in RO frequency per 1nm poly to diffusion off-set. Layouts are also described for characterizing stress effects associated with diffusion area size, asymmetry, vertical spacing, and multiple gate lengths.

  10. Spatial and temporal variations of reddening parameters toward HII regions in the Milky Way galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Alvarez, Carlos A.

    The purpose of this thesis is to determine if the value of the total-to-selective extinction ratio, RV, has spatial and temporal variations as dust is modified by UV photons. Historically this value has been assumed to be 3.1 after averaging the values along different sightlines in the Milky Way Galaxy. This work will also demonstrate, that for areas of recent star formation with heavy extinction a proper study can not be done when assuming the nominal value, but a local value of RV must first be determined. For this purpose I will analyze the reddening parameters RV and A V toward the massive cluster Westerlund 2 and several mid-IR bubbles located in the G38.91-0.42 complex. Three reddening laws that made different assumptions about RV are applied to the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the observed stars. These SEDs are compared to the available optical and IR photometry searching for the RV and AV that minimizes the chi 2 of the fit.