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Sample records for king county nearshore

  1. King County Nearshore Habitat Mapping Data Report: Picnic Point to Shilshole Bay Marina

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Farley, Paul J.; Borde, Amy B.; Southard, John A.; Thom, Ronald M.

    2000-12-31

    The objective of this study is to provide accurate, georeferenced maps of benthic habitats to assist in the siting of a new wastewater treatment plant outfall and the assessment of habitats of endangered, threatened, and economically important species. The mapping was conducted in the fall of 1999 using two complementary techniques: side-scan sonar and underwater videography. Products derived from these techniques include geographic information system (GIS) compatible polygon data of substrate type and vegetation cover, including eelgrass and kelp. Additional GIS overlays include underwater video track line data of total macroalgae, selected macroalgal species, fish, and macroinvertebrates. The combined tools of geo-referenced side-scan sonar and underwater video is a powerful technique for assessing and mapping of nearshore habitat in Puget Sound. Side-scan sonar offers the ability to map eelgrass with high spatial accuracy and resolution, and provides information on patch size, shape, and coverage. It also provides information on substrate change and location of specific targets (e.g., piers, docks, pilings, large boulders, debris piles). The addition of underwater video is a complementary tool providing both groundtruthing for the sonar and additional information on macro fauna and flora. As a groundtruthing technique, the video was able to confirm differences between substrate types, as well as detect subtle spatial changes in substrate. It also verified information related to eelgrass, including the density classification categories and the type of substrate associated with eelgrass, which could not be determined easily with side- scan sonar. Video is also a powerful tool for mapping the location of macroalgae, (including kelp and Ulva), fish and macroinvertebrates. The ability to geo-locate these resources in their functional habitat provides an added layer of information and analytical potential.

  2. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David;

    2011-01-01

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.

  3. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    ScienceCinema

    Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David;

    2013-05-29

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.

  4. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  5. Third Annual Report: 2006 Pre-Construction Eelgrass Monitoring and Propagation for King County Outfall Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Southard, Susan S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Anderson, Michael G.; Vavrinec, John

    2007-02-01

    King County proposes to build a new sewer outfall discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. Construction is scheduled for 2008. The Point Wells site was selected to minimize effects on the nearshore marine environment, but unavoidable impacts to eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds are anticipated during construction. To mitigate for these impacts and prepare for post-construction restoration, King County began implementation of a multi-year eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions. Major program elements are a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditions and degree of fluctuation over 5 years prior to construction, b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagating and stockpiling of local plantstock, and post-construction planting, and c) post-construction monitoring. The program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2006). This report describes calendar year 2006 pre-construction activities conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of King County. Activities included continued propagation of eelgrass shoots and monitoring of the experimental harvest plots in the marine outfall corridor area to evaluate recovery rates relative to harvest rates. Approximately 1500 additional shoots were harvested from the marine outfall corridor in August 2006 to supplement the plants in the propagation tank at the PNNL Marine Sciences Laboratory in Sequim, Washington, bringing the total number of shoots to 4732. Eelgrass densities were monitored in the five experimental harvest plots established in the marine outfall corridor. Changes in eelgrass density were evaluated in year-to-year comparisons with initial harvest rates. Net eelgrass density decreased from 2004 post-harvest to 2006 in all plots, despite density increases observed in 2005 in some plots and at some harvest rates. Eelgrass densities within individual subplots were highly variable from year to year, and the change in density in any interannual period did not correlate to the initial 2004 harvest rate. Continued monitoring should help project managers determine an optimum harvest rate that supports rapid recovery of donor eelgrass beds.

  6. Fourth Annual Report: 2007 Pre-Construction Eelgrass Monitoring and Propagation for King County Outfall Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Southard, Susan S.; Vavrinec, John

    2007-10-04

    King County proposes to build a new sewer outfall discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. Construction is scheduled for 2008. The Point Wells site was selected to minimize effects on the nearshore marine environment, but unavoidable impacts to eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds are anticipated during construction. To mitigate these impacts and prepare for post-construction restoration, King County began implementing a multiyear eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions. Major program elements related to eelgrass are (a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditions and degree of fluctuation over 5 years prior to construction, (b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagating, and stockpiling of local plants for post-construction planting, and (c) post-construction planting and subsequent monitoring. The program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2006). This report describes calendar year 2007 pre-construction activities conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for King County. Activities included continued propagation of eelgrass shoots at the PNNL Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) in Sequim, Washington, and monitoring of the experimental harvest plots in the marine outfall corridor area to evaluate recovery rates relative to harvest rates. In addition, 490 eelgrass shoots were also harvested from the Marine Outfall Corridor in July 2007 to supplement the plants in the propagation tank at the MSL, bringing the total number of shoots to 1464. Eelgrass densities were monitored in four of five experimental harvest plots established in the Marine Outfall Corridor. Changes in eelgrass density were evaluated in year-to-year comparisons with initial harvest rates. A net increase in eelgrass density from 2004 post-harvest to 2007 was observed in all plots, despite density decreases observed in 2006 in all plots and at most harvest rates. Eelgrass densities within individual subplots were highly variable from year to year, and the change in density in any interannual period was not related to initial 2004 harvest rate. Harvest rates of neighboring subplots did not appear to affect subplot eelgrass density (Woodruff et al. 2007). Three years post-harvest, eelgrass shoot densities were not significantly different from pre-harvest shoot densities at any harvest level. Additional plans are being discussed with King County to harvest all eelgrass from the construction corridor and hold in the propagation tanks at the MSL for post-construction planting. Under this plan, plants that would have been lost to construction will be held offsite until construction is completed. This strategy reduces and possibly eliminates the need to harvest eelgrass from donor beds located south of the construction area, allowing them to remain undisturbed. However, if eelgrass is harvested from donor beds, the monitoring of eelgrass growth at different harvest rates should help determine an optimum harvest rate that supports rapid recovery of donor eelgrass beds.

  7. Radiological Risk Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-05

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document develops plausible and/or likely scenarios, including the identification of likely radioactive materials and quantities of those radioactive materials to be involved. These include 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra, plutonium, and 241Am. Two broad categories of scenarios are considered. The first category includes events that may be suspected from the outset, such as an explosion of a "dirty bomb" in downtown Seattle. The explosion would most likely be heard, but the type of explosion (e.g., sewer methane gas or RDD) may not be immediately known. Emergency first responders must be able to quickly detect the radioisotopes previously listed, assess the situation, and deploy a response to contain and mitigate (if possible) detrimental effects resulting from the incident. In such scenarios, advance notice of about an hour or two might be available before any contaminated wastewater reaches a treatment plant. The second category includes events that could go initially undetected by emergency personnel. Examples of such a scenario would be the inadvertent or surreptitious introduction of radioactive material into the sewer system. Intact rogue radioactive sources from industrial radiography devices, well-logging apparatus, or moisture density gages may get into wastewater and be carried to a treatment plant. Other scenarios might include a terrorist deliberately putting a dispersible radioactive material into wastewater. Alternatively, a botched terrorism preparation of an RDD may result in radioactive material entering wastewater without anyone's knowledge. Drinking water supplies may also be contaminated, with the result that some or most of the radioactivity ends up in wastewater.

  8. Characterization of "Hydrocarbon" Dry Cleaning in King County, Washington.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Stephen G; Taylor, Jessie; Van Hooser, Linda M

    2015-09-01

    In King County, Washington, the most frequently used alternative solvent to perchloroethylene is a hydrotreated petroleum hydrocarbon. The objectives of the authors' study were to 1) determine the frequency of use of process chemicals used in "hydrocarbon" dry cleaning and gather other operational information; 2) chemically characterize the process chemicals; 3) characterize the still bottoms and separator water wastes according to dangerous waste and wastewater discharge regulations; 4) identify linkages between work practices, process chemicals, and the chemical composition of the waste streams; and 5) evaluate the aquatic toxicity of the hydrocarbon solvent and detergent. Many hydrocarbon dry cleaners are using process chemicals that contain hazardous substances, including trichloroethylene. One sample of separator water contained 13,000 µg/L trichloroethylene. This sample was determined to be federal hazardous waste, state-only dangerous waste (i.e., according to Washington state-specific regulations), and failed wastewater discharge thresholds. All still bottoms were determined to be state-only dangerous wastes. Efforts should be directed towards replacing hazardous spot cleaning chemicals with safer alternatives and ensuring that wastes are disposed of appropriately. PMID:26502560

  9. Survey of fish consumption patterns of King County (Washington) recreational anglers.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, David B; Robinson, Sue; Simmonds, Jim

    2007-11-01

    Three fish consumption surveys were conducted in King County, WA during 1997-2003. These surveys were conducted to support environmental analyses of proposed capital improvement projects planned by the King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks. Personal interviews were conducted at marine, estuarine, and freshwater locations throughout King County. Over 1300 anglers participated in the survey and provided consumption information. A majority of the respondents from the surveys (30-71%) were Caucasian, while the remaining respondents comprised various ethnic groups. The mean consumption rates for consumers of marine fish, shellfish, and freshwater fish were 53, 25, and 10 g/day, respectively. Results indicate that the consumption patterns of marine anglers from King County have remained consistent since the mid-1980s. The consumption distribution for marine anglers suggests that some respondents may consume fish as a large portion of their diet. The consumption habits of freshwater anglers are comparable to those of other recreational anglers throughout the United States. The survey results provide distributions of marine and freshwater fish consumption suitable for risk assessments conducted for anglers residing in King County, WA. PMID:17311032

  10. Fifth Annual Report: 2008 Pre-Construction Eelgrass Monitoring and Propagation for King County Outfall Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Judd, Chaeli; Thom, Ronald M.; Sather, Nichole K.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    This is the fifth and final report in a series documenting progress of the pre-construction eelgrass restoration and mitigation activities for the proposed King County Brightwater marine outfall, discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. King County began implementing a multiyear eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions, after construction of the outfall. Major eelgrass mitigation program elements include: a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditions and degree of fluctuation over a 5 year period prior to construction, b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagation and stockpiling of local plants for post-construction planting, and c) post-construction planting and subsequent monitoring, occurring in 2009 and beyond. The overall program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2008).

  11. Radiological Instrumentation Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.; McConn, Ronald J.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.

    2005-05-19

    The King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into its combined sanitary and storm sewer system. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material. Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. Volume 2 of PNNL-15163 assesses the radiological instrumentation needs for detection of radiological or nuclear terrorism, in support of decisions to treat contaminated wastewater or to bypass the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP), and in support of radiation protection of the workforce, the public, and the infrastructure of the WPTP. Fixed radiation detection instrumentation should be deployed in a defense-in-depth system that provides 1) early warning of significant radioactive material on the way to the WPTP, including identification of the radionuclide(s) and estimates of the soluble concentrations, with a floating detector located in the wet well at the Interbay Pump Station and telemetered via the internet to all authorized locations; 2) monitoring at strategic locations within the plant, including 2a) the pipe beyond the hydraulic ram in the bar screen room; 2b) above the collection funnels in the fine grit facility; 2c) in the sampling tank in the raw sewage pump room; and 2d) downstream of the concentration facilities that produce 6% blended and concentrated biosolids. Engineering challenges exist for these applications. It is necessary to deploy both ultra-sensitive detectors to provide early warning and identification and detectors capable of functioning in high-dose rate environments that are likely under some scenarios, capable of functioning from 10 microrems per hour (background) up to 1000 rems per hour. Software supporting fixed spectroscopic detectors is needed to provide prompt, reliable, and simple interpretations of spectroscopic outputs that are of use to operators and decision-makers. Software to provide scientists and homeland security personnel with sufficient technical detail for identification, quantification, waste management decisions, and for the inevitable forensic and attribution needs must be developed. Computational modeling using MCNP software has demonstrated that useful detection capabilities can be deployed. In particular, any of the isotopes examined can be detected at levels between 0.01 and 0.1 ?Ci per gallon. General purpose instruments that can be used to determine the nature and extent of radioactive contamination and measure radiation levels for purposes of protecting personnel and members of the public should be available. One or more portable radioisotope identifiers (RIIDs) should be available to WTD personnel. Small, portable battery-powered personal radiation monitors should be widely available WTD personnel. The personal monitors can be used for personal and group radiation protection decisions, and to alert management to the need to get expert backup. All considerations of radiological instrumentation require considerations of training and periodic retraining of personnel, as well as periodic calibration and maintenance of instruments. Routine “innocent” alarms will occur due to medical radionuclides that are legally discharged into sanitary sewers on a daily basis.

  12. NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACYERIA SPP ISOLATED FROM RESIDENTS OF KING COUNTY, WASHINGTON, 1999-2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Pathogenic nontuberculous Mycobacteria spp. (NTM) are not known to be transmitted among persons, but may be acquired from exposure to contaminated media such as soil, food and water. We examined the spectrum of NTM isolated from human specimens in King County, WA.
    ...

  13. Workplace Skills Enhancement Project, Seattle-King County Private Industry Council (PIC). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snedeker, David M.

    Evaluative information is provided on 18 completed workplace literacy classes conducted in the Seattle-King County, Washington, area for 218 limited English proficient workers. The programs were operated by the Employment Opportunities Center and the Refugee Service Federation. Participants were members of the following ethnic groups: Vietnamese,…

  14. Impact of Foreign-Born Persons on HIV Diagnosis Rates among Blacks in King County, Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, James B.

    2005-01-01

    To characterize HIV and AIDS cases in foreign-born persons in King County, Washington, HIV surveillance data were analyzed by place of birth, race and ethnicity, mode of transmission, and year of HIV diagnosis. The proportion of new HIV diagnoses among foreign-born Blacks increased from 3.5% during the 3-year period from 1995 to 1997 to 7.5%…

  15. Bus Fleet Type and Age Replacement Optimization: A case study utilizing King County Metro fleet data

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Introduction Transit agencies typically own hundreds or thousands of buses, large transit agencies may have multiple fleets of buses with different types of buses serving different routes. For example, King County routes, hilly or flat routes). There is an optimal bus type of all the candidates that minimizes total

  16. The Impact of a Community-Based Chronic Disease Prevention Initiative: Evaluation Findings from "Steps to Health King County"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheadle, Allen; Bourcier, Emily; Krieger, James; Beery, William; Smyser, Michael; Vinh, Diana V.; Lessler, Dan; Alfonsi, Lorrie

    2011-01-01

    "Steps to Health King County" ("Steps KC"; Seattle, Washington) was one of 40 community-level initiatives funded in 2003 as part of the "Steps to a HealthierUS" initiative. "Steps KC" goals included reducing the impact of chronic diseases through a comprehensive, coordinated approach and reducing health disparities due to chronic illness. "Steps…

  17. The area of North King County was once forested with deep woods and braided with creeks, where wild-

    E-print Network

    Matrajt, Graciela

    The area of North King County was once forested with deep woods and braided with creeks, where wild time to drive by and visit every site on this map. Take pleasure in the welcoming, cohesive nature, yet Established in 1952, the park has matured to become a nature walk, playground with equipment, picnicking site

  18. COMPILATON OF REPORT AND DATA SUPPORTING THE EPA STUDY, "ASIAN AND PACIFIC ISLANDER SEAFOOD CONSUMPTION STUDY IN KING COUNTY, WASHINGTON".

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1996 and 1999, EPA published the results of a community-centered approach for documenting the seafood consumption patterns of Asian American and Pacific Islanders (API) in the King County area of Washington state. Summary statistics were included in the project reports, but n...

  19. How to Identify Food Deserts: Measuring Physical and Economic Access to Supermarkets in King County, Washington

    PubMed Central

    Moudon, Anne V.; Ulmer, Jared; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We explored new ways to identify food deserts. Methods. We estimated physical and economic access to supermarkets for 5 low-income groups in Seattle–King County, Washington. We used geographic information system data to measure physical access: service areas around each supermarket were delineated by ability to walk, bicycle, ride transit, or drive within 10 minutes. We assessed economic access by stratifying supermarkets into low, medium, and high cost. Combining income and access criteria generated multiple ways to estimate food deserts. Results. The 5 low-income group definitions yielded total vulnerable populations ranging from 4% to 33% of the county’s population. Almost all of the vulnerable populations lived within a 10-minute drive or bus ride of a low- or medium-cost supermarket. Yet at most 34% of the vulnerable populations could walk to any supermarket, and as few as 3% could walk to a low-cost supermarket. Conclusions. The criteria used to define low-income status and access to supermarkets greatly affect estimates of populations living in food deserts. Measures of access to food must include travel duration and mode and supermarket food costs. PMID:22897554

  20. Uranium in the Copper King Mine, Black Hawk No. 1 Claim, Larimer County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granger, Harry Clifford; King, Robert Ugstad

    1951-01-01

    Radioactive rock was discovered on the dump of the Copper King mine, sec. 8, T. 10 N., R. 72 W., Larirrier County, Colo., in the summer of 1949. The mine had been prospected intermittently for copper and zinc since 1,916, but there is no record that ore was produced. The country rock is pre-Cambrian granite containing many schist inclusions and narrow pegmatite dikes. Pitchblende disseminated in chlorite and sulfides was deposited in an obscure vein system during an intermediate stage of mineralization. This stage was preceded by biotitic alteration of amphiboles and sulfide deposition. The latest stage of mineralization is represented-by the limonitic dense quartz vein followed during mining. The uranium-bearing vein is about 2-3 feet wide and the dense quartz vein is less than 6 inches wide. Both veins are bordered by 1-3 feet of biotite- and sulfide-bearing granite and arriphibole schist. The uranium content of 26 samples taken in the mine and on the dump ranges from 0.002 to 1.40 percent. These samples contained as much as 2.97 percent copper and 5.96 percent zinc. The general outlook for further prospecting near the Copper King shaft is not favorable, because much of the 'immediately surrounding area has been thoroughly investigated without finding abnormal radioactivity. The most favorable environment for concentration of uranium minerals appears to have been in or near schist inclusions in granite, and further exploration in nearby prospects may result in the discovery of other uranium-bearing deposits. In the Copper King mine, additional exploration would aid in determining the extent of the uranium-bearing material.

  1. Numerical model of the salt-wedge reach of the Duwamish River estuary, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prych, Edmund A.; Haushild, W.L.; Stoner, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical model of a salt-wedge estuary developed by Fischer (1974) has been expanded and used to calculate the distributions of salinity, temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved-oxygen concentration in the Duwamish River estuary, King County, Wash. The model was used to predict the dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Duwamish River estuary when the Renton Treatment Plant sewage-effluent discharge is increased to its proposed maximum of 223 cubic feet per second. The computed monthly average dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the estuary decreased by a maximum of 2 milligrams per liter when compared with computations for the summer of 1971, when the effluent discharge averaged 37 cubic feet per second. The increase in effluent discharge is not expected to cause large changes in phytoplankton concentrations in the estuary. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Residential property values are associated with obesity among women in King County, WA, USA

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Colin D; Moudon, Anne V; Hurvitz, Philip M; Drewnowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Studies of social determinants of weight and health in the US have typically relied on self-reported education and incomes as the two primary measures of socioeconomic status (SES). The assessed value of one’s home, an important component of wealth, may be a better measure of the underlying SES construct and a better predictor of obesity. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS), conducted in 2008-9, was a cross-sectional random digit dial telephone survey of 2001 adults in King County, Washington State, US. Participants’ addresses were geo-coded and residential property values for each tax parcel were obtained from the county tax assessor’s database. Prevalence ratios of obesity by property values, education, and household income were estimated separately for women and men, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, household size, employment status and home ownership. Among women, the inverse association between property values and obesity was very strong and independent of other SES factors. Women in the bottom quartile of property values were 3.4 times more likely to be obese than women in the top quartile. No association between property values and obesity was observed for men. The present data strengthen the evidence for a social gradient in obesity among women. Property values may represent a novel and objective measure of SES at the individual level in the US. Measures based on tax assessment data will provide a valuable resource for future health studies. PMID:22591823

  3. 2014 Urban Forest Symposium: Climate Change and the Urban Forest Matt Kuharic, King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks (DNRP)

    E-print Network

    Brown, Sally

    2014 Urban Forest Symposium: Climate Change and the Urban Forest Matt Kuharic, King County and Agriculture · Consumption and Materials Management Preparing for Climate Change Impacts Each goal area covers

  4. Hydrographs showing groundwater levels for selected wells in the Puyallup River watershed and vicinity, Pierce and King Counties, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, R.C.; Julich, R.J.; Justin, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrographs of groundwater levels for selected wells in and adjacent to the Puyallup River watershed in Pierce and King Counties, Washington, are presented using an interactive Web-based map of the study area to illustrate changes in groundwater levels on a monthly and seasonal basis. The interactive map displays well locations that link to the hydrographs, which in turn link to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System, Groundwater Site Inventory System.

  5. Increased hospital admissions associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Yost, Michael G; Hom, Elizabeth K; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Fenske, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Increased morbidity and mortality have been associated with extreme heat events, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the impact of extreme heat events on hospitalization rates in the Pacific Northwest region. This study quantifies the historic (May to September 1990-2010) heat-morbidity relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the association between heat and all non-traumatic hospitalizations on 99th percentile heat days, whereas a time series analysis using a piecewise linear model approximation was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on hospitalizations, adjusted for temporal trends and day of the week. A non-statistically significant 2% [95% CI: 1.02 (0.98, 1.05)] increase in hospitalization risk, on a heat day vs. a non-heat day, was noted for all-ages and all non-traumatic causes. When considering the effect of heat intensity on admissions, we found a statistically significant 1.59% (95% CI: 0.9%, 2.29%) increase in admissions per degree increase in humidex above 37.4°C. Admissions stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results with both relative risk and time series analyses for nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure, and natural heat exposure hospitalizations. This study demonstrates that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased hospital admissions. When stratified by age and cause of admission, the non-elderly age groups (<85 years) experience significant risk for nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure, natural heat exposure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma hospitalizations. PMID:25719287

  6. Increased mortality associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1980-2010.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Fenske, Richard A; Hom, Elizabeth K; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Yost, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Extreme heat has been associated with increased mortality, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the Pacific Northwest region in their analyses. This study quantified the historical (May to September, 1980-2010) heat-mortality relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the relationship between heat and all-cause mortality on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis, using a piece-wise linear model fit, was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on mortality, adjusted for temporal trends. For all ages, all causes, we found a 10 % (1.10 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.06, 1.14)) increase in the risk of death on a heat day versus non-heat day. When considering the intensity effect of heat on all-cause mortality, we found a 1.69 % (95 % CI, 0.69, 2.70) increase in the risk of death per unit of humidex above 36.0 °C. Mortality stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results using both types of analyses for: all-cause, non-traumatic, circulatory, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and diabetes causes of death. All-cause mortality was statistically significantly modified by the type of synoptic weather type. These results demonstrate that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased mortality on heat days, and that risk increases with heat's intensity. While age was the only individual-level characteristic found to modify mortality risks, statistically significant increases in diabetes-related mortality for the 45-64 age group suggests that underlying health status may contribute to these risks. PMID:25956805

  7. Increased mortality associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1980-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Fenske, Richard A.; Hom, Elizabeth K.; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Yost, Michael G.

    2015-05-01

    Extreme heat has been associated with increased mortality, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the Pacific Northwest region in their analyses. This study quantified the historical (May to September, 1980-2010) heat-mortality relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the relationship between heat and all-cause mortality on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis, using a piece-wise linear model fit, was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on mortality, adjusted for temporal trends. For all ages, all causes, we found a 10 % (1.10 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.06, 1.14)) increase in the risk of death on a heat day versus non-heat day. When considering the intensity effect of heat on all-cause mortality, we found a 1.69 % (95 % CI, 0.69, 2.70) increase in the risk of death per unit of humidex above 36.0 °C. Mortality stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results using both types of analyses for: all-cause, non-traumatic, circulatory, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and diabetes causes of death. All-cause mortality was statistically significantly modified by the type of synoptic weather type. These results demonstrate that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased mortality on heat days, and that risk increases with heat's intensity. While age was the only individual-level characteristic found to modify mortality risks, statistically significant increases in diabetes-related mortality for the 45-64 age group suggests that underlying health status may contribute to these risks.

  8. A health and environmental profile of the dry cleaning industry in King County, Washington.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Stephen G; Johanson, Chantrelle A

    2013-06-01

    Workers in the dry cleaning industry are exposed to a variety of harmful solvents, and poor work practices can result in extensive environmental contamination. Of particular concern is perchloroethylene (PERC), which is the most commonly used cleaning solvent. This chlorinated hydrocarbon is a pervasive environmental contaminant and a probable human carcinogen. PERC is also a neurotoxin and is toxic to the liver and kidneys. The study described here was comprised of key informant interviews, site visits, and a countywide business survey. The 64% response rate to the survey suggests that the results are likely representative of King County's dry cleaning industry. Dry cleaning was determined to be dominated by small, Korean-owned, family-run businesses. Although the use of PERC as the primary dry cleaning agent has decreased in recent years, this solvent is still used by the majority of businesses. This industry would benefit from regulatory intervention in concert with an educational campaign and enhanced technical and financial assistance. For any intervention to be effective, however, it must account for the unique financial and demographic characteristics of this industry. PMID:23858662

  9. HTLV-2 infection in injection drug users in King County, Washington

    PubMed Central

    ZUNT, JOSEPH R.; TAPIA, KEN; THIEDE, HANNE; LEE, RONG; HAGAN, HOLLY

    2009-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) is endemic in injection drug users (IDU), and native American populations in the Americas. Transmission is associated with high-risk injection and sexual practices. A cohort of 2561 IDU in King County, Washington completed 2 study visits over 1 y. HTLV-2 infection was detected in 190 (7.4%) of 2561 IDU, and 13 (7.8 cases per 1000 person-y) incident infections occurred during the study. Prevalent infection was associated with female gender, non-white race, longer duration as IDU, having a tattoo, combined injection of heroin and cocaine, and with serologic evidence of hepatitis B and C infection. Seroconversion was more common in women, and was associated with African American race, heterosexual identity and longer duration as IDU. In conclusion, increased risk of HTLV-2 infection was associated with non-white race, and injection drug of choice, suggesting injection networks may play an important role in transmission of HTLV-2. The high correlation of HTLV-2 infection with HCV infection suggests the major route of transmission in IDU is via injection practices. Additional studies are needed to examine the clinical manifestations of HTLV-2 infection, as well as the clinical and virological manifestations of HTLV-2/HCV coinfection. PMID:16857611

  10. Combined geological and surface geochemical methods discover King Sand production, Concho County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.K; Burson, K.R.; Saunders, D.F. ); Brown, J.J. )

    1991-03-01

    From December, 1987 to September, 1990, 16 prospects within the current confines of the Lower King (Upper Pennsylvanian Cisco age) Sand Play in Concho County, Texas, were tested by several operators on locations found by various combinations of subsurface geology, reconnaissance surface radiometrics, and soil gas hydrocarbon leads A 37.5% exploratory success rate has resulted in six new field discoveries or extensions with a total exploration and development cost of less than $0.50 per barrel of proven oil reserves. The average recoverable reserves per new field discovery are estimated to be 2.6 Mbbl of oil, and the average recoverable reserves per well are estimated to be 285,000 bbl at a depth of 2200 ft. Five of the six new field discoveries were based primarily on surface geochemical data. The sixth discovery, a southeast extension to the Lonesome Dove II field, was found on the basis of subsurface geology. The Agaritta field is one of the two largest of the new field discoveries with estimated proven (producing and undeveloped) recoverable reserves of 6 Mbbl of oil as of September, 1990. Its discovery was based on a combination of (1) detailed interstitial soil gas hydrocarbon data, (2) soil magnetic susceptibility measurements, and (3) surface potassium and uranium concentrations measured by gamma-ray spectrometry applied over two leads based on reconnaissance radiometrics. What initially appeared to be two separate prospects spaced over 7000 ft apart has since developed into one large field.

  11. Evaluation program effectiveness of household hazardous waste collection: The Seattle-King County experience

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the ``normal`` municipal waste streams. The Plan sets ambitious goals for diverting thousands of tons of hazardous wastes from being thrown, poured or dumped in the municipal waste stream. During the first five years, over $30 millon will be spent for a variety of HHW and SQG programs. The Plan incorporates a wide range of elements, including education, collection, and compliance components. Many of the hazardous waste education and collection programs have been developed in response to the Plan, so their effectiveness is still undetermined. A key component of the Plan is program evaluation. This report provides descriptions of two evaluation methods used to establish baselines for assessing the effectiveness of the Hazardous Waste Management Plan`s programs. Focusing on the Plan`s household hazardous waste programs, the findings of the baseline evaluations are discussed and conclusions are made. A general population survey, conducted through telephone interviews, was designed to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of area residents. Characterization of the solid waste stream was used to identify the hazardous constituents contributed to municipal solid waste by households. Monitoring changes in the amount of hazardous materials present in the waste stream was used to indicate whether or not Program strategies are influencing disposal behaviors. Comparing the data gathered by these two evaluation methods provided a unique opportunity to cross-check the findings and validate that change, if any, has occurred. From the comparisons, the report draws a number of conclusions.

  12. Evaluation program effectiveness of household hazardous waste collection: The Seattle-King County experience

    SciTech Connect

    Seeberger, Donald A.

    1991-10-01

    The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the normal'' municipal waste streams. The Plan sets ambitious goals for diverting thousands of tons of hazardous wastes from being thrown, poured or dumped in the municipal waste stream. During the first five years, over $30 millon will be spent for a variety of HHW and SQG programs. The Plan incorporates a wide range of elements, including education, collection, and compliance components. Many of the hazardous waste education and collection programs have been developed in response to the Plan, so their effectiveness is still undetermined. A key component of the Plan is program evaluation. This report provides descriptions of two evaluation methods used to establish baselines for assessing the effectiveness of the Hazardous Waste Management Plan's programs. Focusing on the Plan's household hazardous waste programs, the findings of the baseline evaluations are discussed and conclusions are made. A general population survey, conducted through telephone interviews, was designed to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of area residents. Characterization of the solid waste stream was used to identify the hazardous constituents contributed to municipal solid waste by households. Monitoring changes in the amount of hazardous materials present in the waste stream was used to indicate whether or not Program strategies are influencing disposal behaviors. Comparing the data gathered by these two evaluation methods provided a unique opportunity to cross-check the findings and validate that change, if any, has occurred. From the comparisons, the report draws a number of conclusions.

  13. Tidal-flow, circulation, and flushing characteristics of Kings Bay, Citrus County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammett, K.M.; Goodwin, C.R.; Sanders, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Kings Bay is an estuary on the gulf coast of peninsular Florida with a surface area of less than one square mile. It is a unique estuarine system with no significant inflowing rivers or streams. As much as 99 percent of the freshwater entering the bay originates from multiple spring vents at the bottom of the estuary. The circulation and flushing characteristics of Kings Bay were evaluated by applying SIMSYS2D, a two-dimensional numerical model. Field data were used to calibrate and verify the model. Lagrangian particle simulations were used to determine the circulation characteristics for three hydrologic conditions: low inflow, typical inflow, and low inflow with reduced friction from aquatic vegetation. Spring discharge transported the particles from Kings Bay through Crystal River and out of the model domain. Tidal effects added an oscillatory component to the particle paths. The mean particle residence time was 59 hours for low inflow with reduced friction; therefore, particle residence time is affected more by spring discharge than by bottom friction. Circulation patterns were virtually identical for the three simulated hydroloigc conditions. Simulated particles introduced in the southern part of Kings Bay traveled along the eastern side of Buzzard Island before entering Crystal River and existing the model domain. The flushing characteristics of Kings Bay for the three hydrodynamic conditions were determined by simulating the injection of conservative dye constituents. The average concentration of dye initially injected in Kings Bay decreased asymptotically because of spring discharge, and the tide caused some oscillation in the average dye concentration. Ninety-five percent of the injected dye exited Kings Bay and Crystal River with 94 hours for low inflow, 71 hours for typical inflow, and 94 hours for low inflow with reduced bottom friction. Simulation results indicate that all of the open waters of Kings Bay are flushed by the spring discharge. Reduced bottom friction has little effect on flushing.

  14. SOCIOLOGY THESES Fall 2012-Spring 2015 Aalders, Melody The Tides That Bind: An Ethnographic Study Of Black Rock, Kings County, Nova Scotia

    E-print Network

    Shutler, Dave

    Study Of Black Rock, Kings County, Nova Scotia Amirault, Jenna ­ Occupy: Towards a Consequential Politics Belben, Laura ­ Rethinking Drug Treatment Procedures in Nova Scotia: The Re-Humanizing of Drug Dependent Persons Duffett, Emily ­ Employment for People with Disabilities in Nova Scotia: From

  15. Public health assessment for Pacific Sound Resources, Seattle, King County, Washington, Region 10. Cerclis No. WAD009248287. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-23

    Pacific Sound Resources (PSR) was a wood preserving facility located in King County, Washington, on the southern shore of Elliott Bay near the city of Seattle. Wood preserving activities have occurred on the PSR property since 1909 and have resulted in releases of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pentachlorophenol (PCP), and metal solutions into on-site surface soil, subsurface soil, groundwater, and Elliott Bay sediments. The PSR site is presently considered an indeterminate public health hazard because existing environmental data is not sufficient to document human exposure. There is potential for human exposure to have occurred in the past, to be presently occurring, or to occur in the future, to contaminant levels which may be expected to result in adverse health effects. Contaminants of concern at the PSR site include: arsenic, PAHs, lead, mercury, and pentachlorophenol.

  16. Heluma and King Mountain fields, back-thrusted structures, Upton County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Turmelle, J.M. )

    1992-04-01

    Heluma field was discovered and initially developed in 1956 as a four-well Ellenburger pool with some marginal Devonian reserves up-hole. For fifteen years it was reasonable to map the field as a tilted fault block at the Ellenburger level. In 1971, a field extension well proved that the supposed bounding high-angle normal fault was instead a low-angle backthrust, which overrides and does not cut the Ellenburger. The Devonian came in 500 ft structurally high to the older wells and has since produced nearly 4 million bbl of oil. Eighteen additional Ellenburger locations were also drilled beneath the backthrust. The present spacing shows that some structurally low Ellenburger tops were due to drilling into Ordovician sinkholes. King Mountain field is a long narrow anticline that has produced 5.5 million bbl of oil from the Ellenburger. This field was more completely developed than Heluma during the late 1950s and the same style of backthrust so prolific at Heluma is also present here, yet with a lesser throw. During the 1950s, all faults easily may have been interpreted as very high-angle normal faults. Similarly, one can easily conclude they are flower structures created by wrench tectonics. These oil fields lie in an ancillary direction to the Big Lake fault. The key to the backthrusts, however, is the compression of the intervening asymmetric synclines. The thick section of Devonian limestone and chert could not be tightly folded so it rode up the flank of the syncline until the limb was higher than the adjacent anticline.

  17. Field, petrologic and detrital zircon study of the Kings sequence and Calaveras complex, Southern Lake Kaweah Roof Pendant, Tulare County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchen, Christopher T.

    U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains separated from elastic sedimentary rocks is combined with field, petrographic and geochemical data to reconstruct the geologic history of Mesozoic rocks exposed at the southern end of the Lake Kaweah metamorphic pendant, western Sierra Nevada. Identification of rocks exposed at Limekiln Hill, Kern County, CA, as belonging to the Calaveras complex and Kings sequence was confirmed. Detrital zircon populations from two Calaveras complex samples provide Permo-Triassic maximum depositional ages (MDA) and reveal a Laurentian provenance indicating that continental accretion of the northwest-trending Kings-Kaweah ophiolite belt was in process prior to the Jurassic Period. Rock types including radiolarian metachert, metachert-argillite, and calc-silicate rocks with marble lenses are interpreted as formed in a hemipelagic environment of siliceous radiolarian deposition, punctuated by extended episodes of lime-mud gravity flows mixing with siliceous ooze forming cafe-silicate protoliths and limestone olistoliths forming marble lenses. Two samples of the overlying Kings sequence turbidites yield detrital zircons with an MDA of 181.4 +/-3.0 Ma and an interpreted provenance similar to other Jurassic metasediments found in the Yokohl Valley, Sequoia and Boyden Cave roof pendants. Age peaks indicative of Jurassic erg heritage are also present. In contrast, detrital zircon samples from the Sequoia and Slate Mountain roof pendants bear age-probability distributions interpreted as characteristic of the Snow Lake block, a tectonic sliver offset from the Paleozoic miogeocline.

  18. Geologic map of southwestern Sequoia National Park and vicinity, Tulare County, California, including the Mineral King metamorphic pendant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisson, T. W.; Moore, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    From the late 1940s to the early 1990s, scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapped the geology of most of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, and published the results as a series of 15-minute (1:62,500 scale) Geologic Quadrangles. The southwest corner of Sequoia National Park, encompassing the Mineral King and eastern edge of the Kaweah 15-minute topographic quadrangles, however, remained unfinished. At the request of the National Park Service's Geologic Resources Division (NPS-GRD), the USGS has mapped the geology of that area using 7.5-minute (1:24,000 scale) topographic bases and high-resolution ortho-imagery. With partial support from NPS-GRD, the major plutons in the map area were dated by the U-Pb zircon method with the Stanford-USGS SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe. Highlights include: (1) Identification of the Early Cretaceous volcano-plutonic suite of Mineral King (informally named), consisting of three deformed granodiorite plutons and the major metarhyolite tuffs of the Mineral King metamorphic pendant. Members of the suite erupted or intruded at 130-140 Ma (pluton ages: this study; rhyolite ages: lower-intercept concordia from zircon results of Busby-Spera, 1983, Princeton Ph.D. thesis, and from Klemetti et al., 2011, AGU abstract) during the pause of igneous activity between emplacement of the Jurassic and Cretaceous Sierran batholiths. (2) Some of the deformation of the Mineral King metamorphic pendant is demonstrably Cretaceous, with evidence including map-scale folding of Early Cretaceous metarhyolite tuff, and an isoclinally folded aplite dike dated at 98 Ma, concurrent with the large 98-Ma granodiorite of Castle Creek that intruded the Mineral King pendant on the west. (3) A 21-km-long magmatic synform within the 99-100 Ma granite of Coyote Pass that is defined both by inward-dipping mafic inclusions (enclaves) and by sporadic, cm-thick, sharply defined mineral layering. The west margin of the granite of Coyote Pass overlies parts of the adjacent Mineral King pendant, and the pluton probably had an upward-flaring shape, with synformal layering and foliation resulting from compaction and mineral deposition (or flow sorting) at the floor of an elongate, melt-rich magma lens. The NPS-GRD has digitized the published USGS geologic quadrangles for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, and a goal is to jointly release a geologic map of the combined Parks region.

  19. Nearshore sticky waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan M.; Venkataramani, Shankar C.; Dawson, Clint

    2014-08-01

    Wind- and current-driven flotsam, oil spills, pollutants, and nutrients, approaching the nearshore will frequently appear to slow down/park just beyond the break zone, where waves break. Moreover, the portion of these tracers that beach will do so only after a long time. Explaining why these tracers park and at what rate they reach the shore has important implications on a variety of different nearshore environmental issues, including the determination of what subscale processes are essential in computer models for the simulation of pollutant transport in the nearshore. Using a simple model we provide an explanation for the underlying mechanism responsible for the parking of tracers, not subject to inertial effects, the role played by the bottom topography, and the non-uniform dispersion which leads, in some circumstances, to the eventual landing of all or a portion of the tracers. We refer to the parking phenomenon in this environment as nearshore sticky waters.

  20. An unusual Middle Permian flora from the Blaine Formation (Pease River Group: Leonardian-Guadalupian Series) of King County, West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiMichele, W.A.; Hook, R.W.; Nelson, W.J.; Chaney, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    A new Middle Permian plant assemblage from South Ash Pasture in King County, Texas, may be the youngest and is certainly the most unusual flora known from the Permian of either West Texas or adjoining north-central Texas. Found serendipitously in the evaporite-rich upper Blaine Formation (Pease River Group, Guadalupian Series), the flora is of very low diversity despite intensive collecting efforts, and the affinities of nearly all taxa are enigmatic. The most common elements are parallel-veined leaves that resemble cordaites but that could be isolated pinnules of a pinnate leaf. Gigantopterid foliage is present but not assignable to any known taxon. A single foliar conifer specimen is too incomplete for assignment. Numerous reproductive organs, however, and an abundance of axes may represent conifers. Conchostracans, palaeoniscoid fish scales, and small heteropolar coprolites also occur in the deposit, which originated as a small, claystone-dominated channel fill in a coastal plain setting.

  1. Nearshore Sticky Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan; Vankataramani, Shankar; Dawson, Clint

    2015-04-01

    Wind- and current-driven flotsam, oil spills, pollutants, and nutrients, approaching the nearshore will frequently appear to park just beyond the break zone, where waves break. Moreover, the portion of these tracers that beach will do so only after a long time. In this environment we refer to the parking phenomenon as nearshore sticky waters, for which we offer a model when buoyant tracers are not subject to inertial effects. The solution to an asymptotic approximation to the model yields an explanation for the phenomenon and the conditions whereby it is expected to occur.

  2. Lake Michigan: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey in the nearshore of Lake Michigan at a 20 meter contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The nearly 1200 km survey was conducted Sep 8-15, 2010. We also conducted six cross-contour tows. Along the survey tracks we sampled fixed stat...

  3. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  4. Simulating nearshore processes

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    Computer procedures are presented that simulate sediment transport in coastal environments. More specifically, these procedures simulate erosion, transport, and deposition by waves. A principal objective is to show how nearshore processes can be described mathematically and translated into computer procedures for simulating the formation of sedimentary deposits. The computer procedures, incorporated into a FORTRAN 77 program called [open quotes]WAVE,[close quotes] are in many ways unique because they provide a three-dimensional simulation model that involves multiple grain types, records ages and compositions of sediments, operates at a variety of scales, and simulates the passing of a few seconds or a few thousand years. WAVE simulates wave refraction, oscillatory wave motion, longshore currents, rip currents, and nearshore sediment transport, and is dynamic in that the effects of wave energy on an evolving coastline are simulated through time. WAVE employs equations based on the principles of fluid dynamics to describe hydrodynamic characteristics of shoaling wave and to calculate wave-induced currents within a grid network. The equations assume that mass and momentum are conserved as waves shoal towards shore. A finite-difference scheme provides solutions for wave equations at each cell in the grid. Once characteristics of shoaling waves are represented, sediment transport is initiated using empirical relationships that are effective in predicting rates of littoral transport. WAVE is tested with data from modern beaches, where experiments span hundreds or thousands of meters, and involve days, weeks, or a few years. WAVE is also used to simulate larger areas where experiments span tens or hundreds of kilometers and involve hundreds to thousands of years. Results of experiments are displayed with contour maps and three-dimensional color displays that can be compared with actual nearshore environments.

  5. The Seattle-King County healthy homes project: implementation of a comprehensive approach to improving indoor environmental quality for low-income children with asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, James K; Takaro, Tim K; Allen, Carol; Song, Lin; Weaver, Marcia; Chai, Sanders; Dickey, Phillip

    2002-01-01

    Pediatric asthma is a growing public health issue, disproportionately affecting low-income people and people of color. Exposure to indoor asthma triggers plays an important role in the development and exacerbation of asthma. We describe the implementation of the Seattle-King County Healthy Homes Project, a randomized, controlled trial of an outreach/education intervention to improve asthma-related health status by reducing exposure to allergens and irritants in the home. We randomly assigned 274 low-income children with asthma ages 4-12 to either a high- or a low-intensity group. In the high-intensity group, community health workers called Community Home Environmental Specialists (CHES) conducted initial home environmental assessments, provided individualized action plans, and made additional visits over a 12-month period to provide education and social support, encouragement of participant actions, provision of materials to reduce exposures (including bedding encasements), assistance with roach and rodent eradication, and advocacy for improved housing conditions. Members of the low-intensity group received the initial assessment, home action plan, limited education during the assessment visit, and bedding encasements. We describe the recruitment and training of CHES and challenges they faced and explain the assessment and exposure reduction protocols addressing dust mites, mold, tobacco smoke, pets, cockroaches, rodents, dust, moisture, and toxic or hazardous chemicals. We also discuss the gap between the practices recommended in the literature and what is feasible in the home. We accomplished home interventions and participants found the project very useful. The project was limited in resolving structural housing quality issues that contributed to exposure to indoor triggers. PMID:11929743

  6. Water-quality and sediment-chemistry data of drain water and evaporation ponds from Tulare Lake Drainage District, Kings County, California March 1985 to March 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujii, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Trace element and major ion concentrations were measured in water samples collected monthly between March 1985 and March 1986 at the MD-1 pumping station at the Tulare Lake Drainage District evaporation ponds, Kings County, California. Samples were analyzed for selected pesticides several times during the year. Salinity, as measured by specific conductance, ranged from 11,500 to 37,600 microsiemens/centimeter; total recoverable boron ranged from 4,000 to 16,000 micrg/L; and total recoverable molybdenum ranged from 630 to 2,600 microg/L. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium were 97 and 2 microg/L. Atrazine, prometone, propazine, and simazine were the only pesticides detected in water samples collected at the MD-1 pumping station. Major ions, trace elements, and selected pesticides also were analyzed in water and bottom-sediment samples from five of the southern evaporation ponds at Tulare Lake Drainage District. Water enters the ponds from the MD-1 pumping station at pond 1 and flows through the system terminating at pond 10. The water samples increased in specific conductance (21,700 to 90,200 microsiemens/centimeter) and concentrations of total arsenic (110 to 420 microg/L), total recoverable boron (12,000 to 80,000 microg/L) and total recoverable molybdenum (1,200 to 5,500 microg/L) going from pond 1 to pond 10, respectively. Pesticides were not detected in water from any of the ponds sampled. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium in the bottom sediments were 4.0 and 0.9 microg/g, respectively. The only pesticides detected in bottom sediment samples from the evaporation ponds were DDD and DDE, with maximum concentration of 0.8 microg/kilogram. (Author 's abstract)

  7. A New Method for Estimating the Number of Undiagnosed HIV Infected Based on HIV Testing History, with an Application to Men Who Have Sex with Men in Seattle/King County, WA

    PubMed Central

    Fellows, Ian E.; Morris, Martina; Birnbaum, Jeanette K.; Dombrowski, Julia C.; Buskin, Susan; Bennett, Amy; Golden, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a new approach for estimating the undiagnosed fraction of HIV cases, the first step in the HIV Care Cascade. The goal is to address a critical blindspot in HIV prevention and treatment planning, with an approach that simplifies data requirements and can be implemented with open-source software. The primary data required is HIV testing history information on newly diagnosed cases. Two methods are presented and compared. The first is a general methodology based on simplified back-calculation that can be used to assess changes in the undiagnosed fraction over time. The second makes an assumption of constant incidence, allowing the estimate to be expressed as a simple closed formula calculation. We demonstrate the methods with an application to HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men (MSM) from Seattle/King County. The estimates suggest that 6% of HIV-infected MSM in King County are undiagnosed, about one-third of the comparable national estimate. A sensitivity analysis on the key distributional assumption gives an upper bound of 11%. The undiagnosed fraction varies by race/ethnicity, with estimates of 4.9% among white, 8.6% of African American, and 9.3% of Hispanic HIV-infected MSM being undiagnosed. PMID:26196132

  8. Approval of the Lemoore Center of the West Hills Community College District. A Report to the Governor and Legislature in Response to a Request from the Board of Governors to Recognize the Center as the Official Community College Center for the Lemoore/Hanford Area of Kings County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    The Lemoore Center of the West Hills Community College District serves the Lemoore/Hanford area of Kings and Fresno Counties--an area lying within both the West Hills and the College of the Sequoias Community College Districts. Jurisdictional problems between the districts prompted the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges to…

  9. California coast nearshore processes study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M. (principal investigator); Steller, D. D.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Remote sensor aircraft flights took place simultaneously with ERTS-1 overpasses at the San Francisco, Monterey Bay, and Santa Barbara test cells. The cameras and scanners used were configured for detecting suspended sediment and for maximum water penetration. The Ektachrome/Wratten 12 photographs which were intentionally overexposed 1-1/2 stops were found to show the most extensive sediment transport detail. Minus blue/K 2 photographs illustrate nearshore underwater bottom detail including the head of the Mugu submarine canyon. The EMSIDE 9 channel scanner was employed to classify and differentiate suspended sediment, oil, kelp, and other materials found in the nearshore area. Processing of bulk ERTS-1 computer compatible tapes was utilized to enhance and analyze nearshore sediments. This technique was most successful in enhancing subtle nearshore features found to be faint or invisible on prints made from the supplied negatives. In addition to this continuing computer process, an effort was initiated to interface density values from the bulk tapes into contouring and mapping software.

  10. Average daily withdrawals of water for public supply from Kings, Queens, and Nassau Counties in Long Island, New York, from 1904 through 1953

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lusczynski, N.J.; Spiegel, S.J.

    1954-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Water Power and Control Commission, the Nassau County Department of Public Works, the Suffolk County Board of Supervisors, and the Suffolk County Water Authority has been conducting continuing investigations since 1932 on the ground-water resources in Long Island, N. Y. One of the several phases of these studies is the collection and tabulation of data on the withdrawals by pumpage for public supply.

  11. Jennifer Shin-Yi Chung, "Are Cities in Los Angeles County Planning for Sustainable Development? An Evaluation of City Comprehensive Plans." Advisor: Professor David King.

    E-print Network

    Jennifer Shin-Yi Chung, "Are Cities in Los Angeles County Planning for Sustainable Development is to determine whether and to what degree cities in Los Angeles plan for sustainable development. City plan and sustainability plans were gathered from cities in Los Angeles County and evaluated using content analysis

  12. 3. Photocopy of drawing (from Moses King, Philadelphia and Notable ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of drawing (from Moses King, Philadelphia and Notable Philadelphians, 1902) MAIN BUILDING WITH ADDITION - New York Mutual Life Insurance Company Building, 1001-1005 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 46. C. 1854 BUILDING ATTIC ROOF SPACE, VIEW OF KING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. C. 1854 BUILDING ATTIC ROOF SPACE, VIEW OF KING POST TRUSS ALONG LENGTH OF THE BUILDING. RAILS ON FLOOR FOR MOVEMENT OF GOODS STORED IN ROOF SPACE. - Continental Gin Company, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  14. 3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT ROOM (WHERE MARTIN LUTHER KING MADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT ROOM (WHERE MARTIN LUTHER KING MADE PLANS FOR HIS MOVEMENT) - Penn School Historic District, Arnett House, SC Route 37, 1 mile South of Frogmore, St. Helena Island, Frogmore, Beaufort County, SC

  15. 75 FR 18235 - Paiute Cutthroat Trout Restoration Project, Alpine County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ...to the species historical range within the Silver King Creek watershed, Alpine County, California...1973 on July 16, 1975 (Service 1975). Silver King Creek, from Llewellyn Falls downstream to Silver King Canyon, and its associated...

  16. California coast nearshore processes study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (principal investigators)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This report contains the techniques used for enhancing and analyzing nearshore processes from ERTS-1 and aircraft data. Four California nearshore sites are used as test cells including the San Francisco area, Monterey Bay, Santa Barbara Channel, and Los Angeles area. Techniques used for analyzing the test cells included direct photographic processing, computer compatible tape gain change enhancement, discrete point density analysis and plotting, and densitometer enhancement. Using these methods, it is possible to measure the seaward extent of the suspended sediment transport and to differentiate sediment levels within the individual sediment lobes. The movement of riverine discharged suspensates and coastal sediments by currents was an intricate part of the sediment transport analysis. The larger estuaries in the test cell areas were also studied for flushing characteristics.

  17. The Rich King and Poor Young Man

    E-print Network

    Rdo rje don 'grub

    2011-01-01

    ‘The Rich King and Poor Young Man’ was told by Rgyal mtshan in A mdo Tibetan. Rta rgyugs, a subdivision of Rka phug Administrative Village, is a farming village located in Khams ra Town, Gcan tsa County Town, Rma lho Tibetan Autonomous...

  18. LAKE MICHIGAN'S TRIBUTARY AND NEARSHORE FISH HABITATS

    E-print Network

    of Natural Resources and Environment, Institute for Fisheries Research, 218 Museum Annex Bldg., 1109 N in tributary, coastal wetland, and nearshore habitats. The Joint Plan called for the development of FCOs tributaries to the nearshore zone serves as important spawning and nursery habitat for one or more life stages

  19. Remote sensing of the nearshore.

    PubMed

    Holman, Rob; Haller, Merrick C

    2013-01-01

    The shallow waters of the nearshore ocean are popular, dynamic, and often hostile. Prediction in this domain is usually limited less by our understanding of the physics or by the power of our models than by the availability of input data, such as bathymetry and wave conditions. It is a challenge for traditional in situ instruments to provide these inputs with the appropriate temporal or spatial density or at reasonable logistical or financial costs. Remote sensing provides an attractive alternative. We discuss the range of different sensors that are available and the differing physical manifestations of their interactions with the ocean surface. We then present existing algorithms by which the most important geophysical variables can be estimated from remote sensing measurements. Future directions and opportunities will depend on expected developments in sensors and platforms and on improving processing algorithms, including data assimilation formalisms. PMID:22809186

  20. The King and I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Mary Grace

    2009-01-01

    This year marks the 40th anniversary of the first Coretta Scott King Book Award, which encourages "the artistic expression of the black experience via literature and the graphic arts." The award, which began honoring illustrators in 1974, added the John Steptoe Award for New Talent in 1995. No doubt, past King award winners like Sharon Flake,…

  1. Review of Nearshore Morphologic Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plant, N. G.; Dalyander, S.; Long, J.

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of the world's erodible coastlines will determine the balance between the benefits and costs associated with human and ecological utilization of shores, beaches, dunes, barrier islands, wetlands, and estuaries. So, we would like to predict coastal evolution to guide management and planning of human and ecological response to coastal changes. After decades of research investment in data collection, theoretical and statistical analysis, and model development we have a number of empirical, statistical, and deterministic models that can predict the evolution of the shoreline, beaches, dunes, and wetlands over time scales of hours to decades, and even predict the evolution of geologic strata over the course of millennia. Comparisons of predictions to data have demonstrated that these models can have meaningful predictive skill. But these comparisons also highlight the deficiencies in fundamental understanding, formulations, or data that are responsible for prediction errors and uncertainty. Here, we review a subset of predictive models of the nearshore to illustrate tradeoffs in complexity, predictive skill, and sensitivity to input data and parameterization errors. We identify where future improvement in prediction skill will result from improved theoretical understanding, and data collection, and model-data assimilation.

  2. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Hay, A. E.; Holland, K. T.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Lippmann, T. C.; Miller, J. K.; Stockdon, H. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Boehm, A. B.; Clark, D.; Cowen, E.; Dalyander, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hapke, C. J.; MacMahan, J.; McNamara, D.; Mulligan, R. P.; Palmsten, M. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Sherwood, C. R.; Hsu, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over 70 members of the nearshore coastal processes research community convened in April 2014 to discuss a vision for the future of nearshore science while celebrating the memories and contributions of our recently departed colleague, Abby Sallenger. The participants reviewed community accomplishments over the past four decades. Federal agencies, including FEMA, NOAA, NPS, USGS, USACE, and NRL discussed the most pressing societal needs within the coastal zone. The group engaged in a retrospective of the last four decades of progress, assessed the current status and limitations of nearshore processes research, and developed a vision for the future that focuses on societally relevant problems. The top research topics identified included: Long-term Coastal Impacts: Meaningfully improve our understanding and prediction of the long-term coastal effects of sea level rise and changes in storminess patterns and associated efforts to protect coastal infrastructure. Extreme Events: Coastal flooding, overland flow, and concurrent morphological evolution during extreme events including the subsequent process of coastal recovery. Human and Ecosystem Health: Linkages between physical coastal processes (transport and mixing) and land-based pollution (pathogens, nutrients, toxic contaminants). Critical for addressing these research questions is enabling infrastructure, such as new observational tools and data sets, models, and nearshore-community communication and collaboration. Idea and concepts developed during the meeting (to be published in Shore and Beach) will be presented to foster collaboration and advocacy amongst the wider nearshore community. Meeting materials are available at: https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/nearshorefuture/.

  3. 40. GARRET TRUSS DETAIL. The south queen post (called 'king ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. GARRET TRUSS DETAIL. The south queen post (called 'king post' in the 1755 account for scantling for the Greater Meeting House) of the third truss from the east end. Note the numerals for assembling the truss members and the plaster marks from the 1755 Monthly Meeting Room. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Lake Michigan Green Bay: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey in the nearshore of Lake Michigan’s Green Bay at a 15 meter contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The 365 km survey was conducted Aug 18-21, 2010. We also conducted four cross-contour tows. Along the survey tracks we sampled fixe...

  5. Monitoring landscape influence on nearshore condition

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major source of stress to the Great Lakes comes from tributary and landscape run-off. The large number of watersheds and the disparate landuse within them create variability in the tributary input along the extent of the nearshore. Identifying the local or regional response t...

  6. MFR PAPER 1002 An artificial reef nearshore

    E-print Network

    MFR PAPER 1002 An artificial reef nearshore brings extra dollars to a South Carolina town. Effects of an Artificial Habitat on the Marine Sport Fishery and Economy of Murrells Inlet, South Carolina CHESTER C. The artificial reeJ was responsihle Jor an illcrease oj / 6 percent ill the number oj pril'1IIe hoot allglers

  7. AirMSPI King's County Hanford, CA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-04-29

    ... The DOLP expresses the fraction of the reflected light that is polarized relative to the overall intensity.  In this image, ... to provide insights into the composition of clouds and air pollution particles, as well as information about land and water surfaces.  ...

  8. The “King's Man”

    PubMed Central

    Markesteyn, Peter H.

    1987-01-01

    The modern coroner is the heir of a long and honoured tradition with its roots in Anglo-Saxon England. The primary duty of the ancient “crowner” or “King's man” was to support the interests of the King of England by investigating violent deaths. The modern counterpart of this royal officer has a much broader range of duties in the interests of justice and the state. Not only do today's coroners act as “ombudsmen for the dead”, but they also are becoming increasingly involved in medico-legal investigations of service to the living. PMID:21263903

  9. Dr. King's Dream. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This lesson plan teaches students about the life and work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Students listen to a brief biography, view photographs of the March on Washington, hear a portion of King's "I Have a Dream" speech, and discuss what King's words mean to them. Finally, they will create picture books about their own dreams of freedom for Americans…

  10. One Little King

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William; Schrock, John Richard

    2006-12-27

    parents, and one little king" family. Americans might well equate this only child set up with "spoiled brat" and, yes, there's a certain level of indulgence that single Chinese children are enjoying these days, but today's child will be tomorrow's adult...

  11. THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH, King's Buildings House,

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH, King's Buildings House, King's Buildings, A GUIDE TO ACCESS AND FACILITIES, Address King's Buildings House, University Of Edinburgh. King's Buildings, Edinburgh, E,H,9, 3,J,F,, United Kingdom, Telephone. 0,1,3,1, 6,5,0, 5,7,7,2, Map Link. http://www.ed.ac.uk/maps/buildings/kings-buildings-house

  12. Lake Michigan: Nearshore variability and a nearshore-offshore distinction in water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey of the Lake Michigan nearshore using towed electronic instrumentation and fixed station sampling (1049 km at the approximate 20-m depth contour and grab samples at 15 sites). The principal variability in the alongshore reach was generally re...

  13. An evaluation of effects of groundwater exchange on nearshore habitats and water quality of western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Neff, Brian P.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Lundstrom, Scott C.

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the high potentiometric surface of groundwater in the Silurian/Devonian carbonate aquifer in Monroe County, MI resulted in discharge of highly mineralized, SO4-rich groundwater to the Lake Erie shoreline near both Erie State Game Area (ESGA) and Pointe Mouillee State Game Area (PMSGA). Recently, regional groundwater levels near PMSGA have been drawn down as much as 45 m below lake level in apparent response to quarry dewatering. From August to November of 2003, we conducted preliminary studies of groundwater flow dynamics and chemistry, shallow lake water chemistry, and fish and invertebrate communities at both sites. Consistent with regional observations, groundwater flow direction in the nearshore at ESGA was upward, or toward Lake Erie, and shallow nearshore groundwater chemistry was influenced by regional groundwater chemistry. In contrast, at PMSGA, the groundwater flow potential was downward and lake water, influenced by quarry discharge seeping downward into nearshore sediments, produced a different lake and shallow groundwater chemistry than at ESGA. Although the invertebrate and young fish community was similar at the two sites, taxonomic groups tolerant of degraded water quality were more prevalent at PMSGA. Sensitive taxa were more prevalent at ESGA. We propose a conceptual model, based on well-described models of groundwater/seawater interaction along coastal margins, to describe the interconnection among geologic, hydrologic, chemical, and biological processes in the different nearshore habitats of Lake Erie, and we identify processes that warrant further detailed study in the Great Lakes.

  14. Atmospheric-hydrodynamic coupling in the nearshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Sánchez, M.; Bramato, S.; Quevedo, E.; Mans, C.; Losada, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Natural beach shorelines commonly present morphological rhythmic or non-rhythmic features of varying geometrical characteristics. Traditionally, their formation is believed to be due to wave-induced processes, a line thoroughly investigated during the last few decades. However, these natural beach formations are frequently bounded by coastal cliffs (or capes) and are affected by intense winds, a fact not previously considered. This paper presents the results of a field survey, demonstrating the existence of atmospheric-hydrodynamic coupling in the nearshore region outside of the breaking zone at Carchuna beach (Motril, Spain), where the atmospheric conditions are influenced by a lateral geographic obstacle (Cape Sacratif).

  15. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Conditions and Variability in Water Quality Parameters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in recent years has increased regarding conditions in the nearshore of the Great Lakes. We conducted a high-resolution survey of the Lake Ontario nearshore along the 20 m contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The 720 km survey was conducted September 6-10, 20...

  16. King Tide floods in Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.-C.; Ho, C.-R.; Cheng, Y.-H.

    2013-05-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of sea level rise present regional floods in some certain areas. The low-lying island countries are obviously the spots affected severely. Tuvalu, an atoll island country located in the south-west Pacific Ocean, is suffering the devastating effects of losing life, property, and intending migration caused by floods. They blame the regional flooding to King Tide, a term used but not clearly identified by Pacific islanders. In this study, we clarify what King Tide is first. By the tide gauge and topography data, we estimated the reasonable value of 3.2 m as the threshold of King Tide. This definition also fits to the statement by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of King Tide occurring once or twice a year. In addition, We cross validate the 19 yr data of tide gauge and satellite altimeter (1993-2012), the correlation coefficient indicates King Tide phenomenon is considerable connected to warm water mass. The 28 King Tide events revealed the fact that flooding can be referenced against spring tide levels, so can it be turned up by warm water mass. The warm water mass pushes up sea level; once spring tide, storm surge, or other climate variability overlaps it, the rising sea level might overflow and so has been called "King Tide" for the floods in Tuvalu. This study provides more understanding of the signals of King Tide and an island country case study of regional sea level rise.

  17. 11. VIEW FROM JUST AFT OF THE KING POST IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW FROM JUST AFT OF THE KING POST IN THE FOC'S'LE OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART. FIRE EXTINGUISHER IS MOUNTED ON STUB OF FOREMAST. OBJECT AT LOWER LEFT IS A FOLDING MESS TABLE. LADDER LEADS TO DECK. CABINET AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED SINK FOR CLEAN-UP AND COOKING. A SMALL CHINA SINK AT RIGHT CENTER SERVED FOR PERSONAL CLEAN-UP AND SHAVING. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  18. Biogeography of Nearshore Subtidal Invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biogeography of nearshore benthic invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine was studied to compare recent data with historical biogeographic studies, define physical-chemical factors affecting species distributions, and provide information needed to calibrate benthic indices of envi...

  19. Modeling of nearshore hydrodynamics for sediment transport calculations

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    This thesis analyzes and improves Tajima's (2004) nearshore hydrodynamic model. Tajima's simple model accurately predicts long-shore sediment transport along long, straight beaches, while cross-shore transport predictions ...

  20. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Hydrogeology and geochemistry of near-shore submarine

    E-print Network

    UNCORRECTEDPROOF Hydrogeology and geochemistry of near-shore submarine groundwater discharge rates based on tidal signal and hydraulic gradient analysis indicate a fresh submarine groundwater discharge in this high rainfall region. Ó 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Keywords: submarine groundwater

  1. Recognition of beach and nearshore depositional features of Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerhin, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Beach and nearshore depositional features are being mapped with the objectives of determining a quick-look analysis of littoral drift and sedimentation patterns in areas of little or no data. Evaluation of beach and nearshore features aid in the selection of small boat harbors, shoreline protective structures, and general coastal zone development. Through ERTS-1 aircraft support imagery, beach depositional features mapped are cuspate forelands, welded beach ridges, and recurved spits. The nearshore depositional features exhibit a bar and trough topography with three distinct types of sedimentary structures; longshore, transverse, and reticulated bars. Synoptic coverage of beach and nearshore depositional features by ERTS-1 data help in determining the general sedimentation patterns, growth of the beach features and stability of the bar and trough topography.

  2. LIMNOLOGY OF MICHIGAN'S NEARSHORE WATERS OF LAKES SUPERIOR AND HURON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limnological assessments, including water and sediment chemistry, bacterial densities, zoo- and phyto-plankton and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure, and fish contaminants, were performed at 24 locations in Michigan's nearshore waters of Lakes Superior and Huron in 19...

  3. DEEPWATER AND NEARSHORE FOOD WEB CHARACTERIZATIONS IN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the difficulty associated with sampling deep aquatic systems, food web relationships among deepwater fauna are often poorly known. We are characterizing nearshore versus offshore habitats in the Great Lakes and investigating food web linkages among profundal, pelagic, and ...

  4. Lion King Surveys Homeland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows one octant of a larger panoramic image which has not yet been fully processed. The full panorama, dubbed 'Lion King' was obtained on sols 58 and 60 of the mission as the rover was perched at the lip of Eagle Crater, majestically looking down into its former home. It is the largest panorama yet obtained by either rover. The octant, which faces directly into the crater, shows features as small as a few millimeters across in the field near the rover arm, to features a few meters across or larger on the horizon.

    The full panoramic image was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. This enhanced color composite was assembled from the infrared (750 nanometer), green (530 nanometer), and violet (430 nanometer) filters. Additional lower elevation tiers were added relative to other panoramas to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic.

  5. Impacts of Cyclone Yasi on nearshore, terrigenous sediment-dominated reefs of the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, C. T.; Smithers, S. G.; Kench, P. S.; Pears, B.

    2014-10-01

    Tropical Cyclone (TC) Yasi (Category 5) was a large (~ 700 km across) cyclone that crossed Australia's Queensland coast on the 3rd of February 2011. TC Yasi was one of the region's most powerful recorded cyclones, with winds gusting to 290 km/h and wave heights exceeding 7 m. Here we describe the impacts of TC Yasi on a number of nearshore, turbid-zone coral reefs, that include several in the immediate vicinity of the cyclone's landfall path (King Reef, Lugger Shoal and Dunk Island), as well as a more distally located reef (Paluma Shoals) ~ 150 km to the south in Halifax Bay. These reefs were the focus of recent (between 2006 and 2009) pre-Yasi studies into their geomorphology, sedimentology and community structure, and here we discuss data from a recent (August 2011) post-Yasi re-assessment. This provided a unique opportunity to identify and describe the impacts of an intense tropical cyclone on nearshore reefs, which are often assumed to be vulnerable to physical disturbance and reworking due to their poorly lithified framework. Observed impacts of TC Yasi were site specific and spatially highly heterogeneous, but appear to have been strongly influenced by the contemporary evolutionary stage and ecological make-up of the individual reefs, with site setting (i.e. exposure to prevailing wave action) apparently more important than proximity to the landfall path. The most significant ecological impacts occurred at King Reef (probably a result of freshwater bleaching) and at Paluma Shoals, where widespread physical destruction of branched Acropora occurred. New coral recruits are, however, common at all sites and colony re-growth clearly evident at King Reef. Only localised geomorphic change was evident, mainly in the form of coral fracturing, rubble deposition, and sediment movement, but again these impacts were highly site specific. The dominant impact at Paluma Shoals was localised storm ridge/shingle sheet deposition, at Lugger Shoal major offshore fine sediment flushing, and at Dunk Island major onshore coarse sand deposition. There was little geomorphic change evident at King Reef. Thus whilst small-scale and taxa specific impacts from Cyclone Yasi are clearly evident, geomorphological changes appear minor and ecological impacts highly variable between sites, and there is no observed evidence for major reef structural change. The study suggests that the vulnerability of reefs to major physical disturbance events can be extremely site specific and determined by interacting factors of location relative to storm path and pre-event geomorphology and ecology.

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Commencement Bay Nearshore/Tideflats, WA. (Second remedial action), September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-30

    The Commencement Bay Nearshore/Tideflats site is in Tacoma, Pierce County, Washington at the southern end of the main basin of Puget Sound. Site contamination is the result of a long history of industrial activity in the area. More than 281 active industrial facilities are in the area and approximately 34 of those are NPDES permitted dischargers. Releases of hazardous substances to the marine environment have resulted in contamination of bottom sediment in the waterways of the Tideflats Industrial Area, and along the shoreline in the Nearshore Area. The Record of Decision represents two of six operable units for the site and will address source control and marine sediment contamination in the Nearshore/Tideflats environment. Eight problem areas are being addressed independently by this remedy. The remaining operable units will address remedial response to releases of hazardous substances associated with the Tacoma tar pits and the ASARCO Tacoma smelter. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the sediment are organics including PCBs and PAHs; and metals including arsenic, mercury, lead, and zinc.

  7. The Hare and the King’s Daughter

    E-print Network

    Merolla, Daniela

    stream_source_info VA_05_Karamojong_Hare_tale.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1298 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name VA_05_Karamojong_Hare_tale.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 last updated... . Included in: Verba Africana No. 5 Length of track About 10 min Related tracks (include description/relationship if appropriate) Title of track The Hare and the King’s Daughter Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry...

  8. Nearshore Operational Model for Rip Current Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sembiring, L. E.; Van Dongeren, A. R.; Van Ormondt, M.; Winter, G.; Roelvink, J.

    2012-12-01

    A coastal operational model system can serve as a tool in order to monitor and predict coastal hazards, and to acquire up-to-date information on coastal state indicators. The objective of this research is to develop a nearshore operational model system for the Dutch coast focusing on swimmer safety. For that purpose, an operational model system has been built which can predict conditions up to 48 hours ahead. The model system consists of three different nested model domain covering The North Sea, The Dutch coastline, and one local model which is the area of interest. Three different process-based models are used to simulate physical processes within the system: SWAN to simulate wave propagation, Delft3D-Flow for hydraulics flow simulation, and XBeach for the nearshore models. The SWAN model is forced by wind fields from operational HiRLAM, as well as two dimensional wave spectral data from WaveWatch 3 Global as the ocean boundaries. The Delft3D Flow model is forced by assigning the boundaries with tidal constants for several important astronomical components as well as HiRLAM wind fields. For the local XBeach model, up-to-date bathymetry will be obtained by assimilating model computation and Argus video data observation. A hindcast is carried out on the Continental Shelf Model, covering the North Sea and nearby Atlantic Ocean, for the year 2009. Model skills are represented by several statistical measures such as rms error and bias. In general the results show that the model system exhibits a good agreement with field data. For SWAN results, integral significant wave heights are predicted well by the model for all wave buoys considered, with rms errors ranging from 0.16 m for the month of May with observed mean significant wave height of 1.08 m, up to rms error of 0.39 m for the month of November, with observed mean significant wave height of 1.91 m. However, it is found that the wave model slightly underestimates the observation for the period of June, especially waves with peak period greater than 7 seconds and propagate relatively from the North. Further investigations will focus on these findings in order to improve model skill during swimming season. The flow model results are analyzed for the dominant tidal constituents. The results show that for tidal amplitude, differences between observation and modeled are in range of 2 cm to maximum 14 cm. For the tidal phase, all stations considered along the Dutch coastline give differences less than 10 degrees between observations and predictions. A local XBeach model for the Egmond aan Zee resort is constructed in order to predict rip currents events. This model is applied during the August 2011 period, where the bathymetry produced by model-data assimilation is compared against surveyed bathymetry. In general, this method is able to produce bathymetry converging towards the observations. An offshore bar exists in the field data can be reproduced by this method. Moreover, it shows a potential ability of depicting rip channels features near the shoreline. Rip currents flow fields simulated over measured and modeled bathymetries are compared in order to assess the performance of the proposed forecast system in terms of offshore rip current strength, location and duration, which are all important information for local life guards. Keywords: operational model, SWAN, Delft3D, bathymetry, Argus, rip currents, XBeach

  9. King's Son and Minister's Son

    E-print Network

    Rdo rje don 'grub

    2011-01-01

    stream_source_info King's Son and Minister's Son.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 8705 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name King's Son and Minister's Son.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 (Video... ’s Son, and Uncle Dunba Frightens Thieves. 'phags mo tshe ring (b. 1929) told 2 stories: Ghost Queen and Parent-Eater. Don drug (b. 1966) told 2 stories: Flower ‘u dum ba ri; Plant-calf, Egg-head and Horse-neck. Jo skyabs (b. 1952) told 2 stories...

  10. J. King 2014 James King, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Roy Chowdhury, Rinku

    emissions, Salton Sea California, USA.' Soil Science Society of America Journal, doi:10.2136/sssaj2011., V. Etyemezian, M. Sweeney, B. Buck, and G. Nikolich. 2011. `Dust emission variability at the Salton Sea, California, USA.' Aeolian Research, doi:10.1016/j.aeolia.2011.03.005 12. Buck, B.J., J. King

  11. King cobra genome supporting information SUPPORTING INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Castoe, Todd A.

    King cobra genome supporting information 1 SUPPORTING INFORMATION 1. SI MATERIALS AND METHODS 1.1 King cobra tissue acquisitions and processing All animal procedures complied with local king cobra that originated from Bali, Indonesia. Blood was obtained by caudal puncture and frozen

  12. Views of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alan H.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses views of Martin Luther King, Jr., including concepts of human rights, related counseling approaches, and ethics. Claims King's views provide helpful insights for counselors and clients. Concludes King invited individuals to view challenging life situations as moral opportunities. (Author/ABL)

  13. Martin Luther King, Jr. Teacher's Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford.

    This Connecticut teachers' manual on Martin Luther King, Jr. includes: (1) teacher background information; (2) five excerpts from King's speeches; (3) four themes for lesson plans; and (4) sample lesson plans. The teacher's background information provides biographical sketches of King and his precursors. The five speeches reproduced here are "I've…

  14. Books about Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woll, Christina B.

    1990-01-01

    Briefly reviews three recent biographies of Martin Luther King, Jr. that also deal with the civil rights movement. Summarizes contents and identifies reading ability levels appropriate for elementary and junior high students. Recommends six additional King biographies for children. Also endorses two filmstrips on King and the movement. Gives full…

  15. Evidence for distinct stocks of king mackerel,

    E-print Network

    Evidence for distinct stocks of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in the Gulf of Mexico Allyn G.-Evidence support- ing a two stock hypothesis for king mackerel, Scomberornorus cavalla, in the Gulf of Mexico Nacional de la Pesca Mexico City. Mexico The king mackerel, Scomber- omorus cavalla, is a widely distrib

  16. California nearshore processes - ERTS 1. [coastal currents and sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steller, D. D.; Pirie, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    The detectability of many nearshore processes from ERTS is made possible due to the suspended sediment present in the coastal waters. From viewing and analyzing the California coastal imagery collected during the last year and a half, the overall current patterns and their changes have become evident. It is now possible to map monthly and seasonal changes that occur throughout the year. The original objectives of detecting currents, sediment transport, estuaries and river discharge have now been expanded to include the use of ERTS information in operational problems of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This incorporates the detected nearshore features into planning and organizing shore protection facilities.

  17. Watershed Influences on Nearshore Waters Across the Entire US Great Lakes Coastal Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have combined three elements of observation to enable a comprehensive characterization of the Great Lakes nearshore that links nearshore conditions with their adjacent coastal watersheds. The three elements are: 1) a shore-parallel, high-resolution survey of the nearshore usin...

  18. Congratulations to Carey King

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Charles A. S.

    2012-03-01

    I first came across Carey King when, out of the blue, he invited me to a special session of the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (the largest and most prestigious US scientific meeting) where he was developing a special session on energy return on investment (EROI). At that meeting and since, I have found Carey to be a refreshing new colleague, extremely intelligent, very knowledgeable about many diverse aspects of energy and other things, able to take criticism and to dish it out, and very ambitious, which is mostly a good thing. He is becoming a leader in thinking about EROI and its implications, and I am delighted to see him honored by Environmental Research Letters. This is important because in the US, there is little insight about energy or, especially, its potential physical limitations except when gas prices increase. There is also little awareness of the very strong historical connection in both the US and the world between increased affluence and increased use of energy, especially petroleum. It is not understood by all that many of the economic problems we have now (such as the budgetary problems faced by most of our State governments, pension plans and universities) have substantial origin in the fact that oil and other energy production no longer increase reliably year after year, as they once did (Murphy and Hall 2011). Many economists have argued in the past that energy is not important because it constituted only 5 per cent or so of GDP, or because they believe that market forces and innovations will substitute for any shortage (e.g. Barnett and Morse 1963, Passell et al 1972, Solow 1974, Denison 1989). One problem with that view is that if you remove that five per cent the economy comes to a dead stop, as Cuba found out in 1989 when Russia removed its oil subsidy. Additionally if that five per cent goes up to 10 or 15 per cent, as it did in the early 1980s, and again in 2008, recession steps in (Murphy and Hall 2011). In fact, the US economy and our energy use increased almost lockstep from 1900 until 1984 (Cleveland et al 1984). The economy has grown more rapidly than energy use since 1984. Most economists think that this is due to our cleverness at increasing efficiency, but Robert Kaufmann (2004) and others find that instead most of the increase has been due to, essentially, the outsourcing of our heavy industry (think steel imported from Korea or Brazil, petroleum refined in Trinidad etc). An additional issue is that there is considerable evidence (e.g. Shadow Government Statistics) that the official US government inflation corrections have been deliberately underestimated since about 1985. If this is true then GDP growth has been exaggerated and there has been little or no increase in efficiency. Thus our gain in actual national energy efficiency is probably much less than most economists believe, and may be close to zero. Obviously some few of us think a great deal about energy, and for those who are willing to undertake some personal research (for example on the ASPO (aspo-usa.com) or The Oil Drum (www.theoildrum.com) websites), there is much to be concerned about. First on the list of concerns is 'peak oil'; the concept that there comes a time over the life cycle of the extraction of a non-renewable resource when there will be maximum production. This concept, derived by geologist M K Hubbert in the 1950s, assumes that this peak will occur when roughly 50 per cent of the resource has been exploited. Hubbert famously predicted in 1955 that this would occur for the United States in 1970. Initially he was derided by most in the oil industry, but in fact peak oil for the US did occur in 1970, just as he had predicted. Oil production has declined essentially every year since then. 'Peak oil' has now occurred for something like three quarters of all oil producing nations, although not yet for most of the largest producers. Second on my list of energy concerns is declining EROI. EROI is a term I had developed in the early 1980s based on the net energy concepts of

  19. Geological development of the Lonesome Dove II King Sand field

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, D.H.; Watters, G. )

    1992-04-01

    In March of 1989, Marshall and Winston, Inc., drilled Petro-West Corporation's Brady Creek prospect, 5 mi southwest of Eden, Concho County, Texas, along the southern part of the eastern shelf of the Permian basin. The prospect was drilled on the basis of a subsurface, geological anomaly mapped on the lower King Sandstone. The anomaly was confirmed and enhanced by soil gas geochemistry. The McMurtrey No.1 well encountered 38 ft of sandstone, and has an estimated potential of 79 BOPD (pumping). The lower King Sandstone at Lonesome Dove II field is part of a larger northeast-southwest-trending Cisco depositional system. Data from subsequent drilling at Lonesome Dove II (including two conventional cores, samples, sidewall cores, dipmeters, and electric logs) indicates that the lower King Sandstone may have been deposited during a regressive cycles of fluvial-deltaic sedimentation. Characteristics of both fluvial point bar and distributary channel facies have been noted and the development of a distributary model of deposition led to the extension of the field beyond the limits of the original subsurface and geochemical picture. The presence of two or more separate channels or channel systems is indicated by isopach maps and by significant oil gravity, field pressure, and grain size differences. These channel systems may have been deposited on a relatively flat-lying deltaic plain as indicated by cross sections showing only slight channel downcutting.

  20. Ecology of Lake Superior: Linking Landscape to Nearshore Condition

    EPA Science Inventory

    High spatial variation is well known to exist in water quality parameters of the Great Lakes nearshore, however strong patterns for extended reaches are also observed and found to be robust across a seasonal time frame. Less is known about robustness of inter-annual variation wi...

  1. Nutrients and the Great Lakes Nearshore, Circa 2002-2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearshore nutrient impressions were largely limited to observations of local spatial trends from a few site-specific studies and some temporal trends at a set of Canadian water intake locations (later summarized in Nicholls et al. 1999). Lacking a systematic information base fo...

  2. Nearshore internal bores and turbulent mixing in southern Monterey Bay

    E-print Network

    Fringer, Oliver B.

    008115. 1. Introduction [2] Energetic nonlinear internal waves are ubiquitous fea- tures in the nearshore to about 2 km offshore, where internal waves often appear bore-like rather than wave-like [e.g., Pineda and Monismith, 2011; Wong et al., 2012]. Numerical studies of internal wave shoaling [e.g., Venayagamoorthy

  3. SOME EFFECTS OF PETROLEUM ON NEARSHORE ALASKAN MARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this project was to better understand the effects of chronic, low-level oil pollution on nearshore Alaskan marine organisms. The bivalve mollusc Macoma balthica accumulated hydrocarbons during 180 days of continuous exposure to Prudhoe Bay crude oil in fl...

  4. Wave Reflection from Nearshore Depressions David R. Michalsen1

    E-print Network

    Haller, Merrick

    of existing and proposed borrow pits and a submarine canyon are gathered and analyzed for whether wave such as dredged borrow pits and nearshore canyons. First, the model is tested for numerical limitations depressions or obstacles, and can be natural or manmade. Examples of depressions/ obstacles include submarine

  5. Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton community compositions within near-shore coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana were characterized by relative abundance, biovolume, and taxonomic identification to genus and species when possible. The range of total nitrogen was 0.5 to 1.3 mg L-1 and total phos...

  6. Monitoring in the nearshore: A process for making reasoned decisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Dean, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past several years, a conceptual framework for the GEM nearshore monitoring program has been developed through a series of workshops. However, details of the proposed monitoring program, e.g. what to sample, where to sample, when to sample and at how many sites, have yet to be determined. In FY 03 we were funded under Project 03687 to outline a process whereby specific alternatives to monitoring are developed and presented to the EVOS Trustee Council for consideration. As part of this process, two key elements are required before reasoned decisions can be made. These are: 1) a comprehensive historical perspective of locations and types of past studies conducted in the nearshore marine communities within Gulf of Alaska, and 2) estimates of costs for each element of a proposed monitoring program. We have developed a GIS database that details available information from past studies of selected nearshore habitats and species in the Gulf of Alaska and provide a visual means of selecting sites based (in part) on the locations for which historical data of interest are available. We also provide cost estimates for specific monitoring plan alternatives and outline several alternative plans that can be accomplished within reasonable budgetary constraints. The products that we will provide are: 1) A GIS database and maps showing the location and types of information available from the nearshore in the Gulf of Alaska; 2) A list of several specific monitoring alternatives that can be conducted within reasonable budgetary constraints; and 3) Cost estimates for proposed tasks to be conducted as part of the nearshore program. Because data compilation and management will not be completed until late in FY03 we are requesting support for close-out of this project in FY 04.

  7. California coast nearshore processes study. [nearshore currents, sediment transport, estuaries, and river discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (principal investigators)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Large scale sediment plumes from intermittent streams and rivers form detectable seasonal patterns on ERTS-1 imagery. The ocean current systems, as plotted from three California coast ERTS mosaics, were identified. Offshore patterns of sediment in areas such as the Santa Barbara Channel are traceable. These patterns extend offshore to heretofore unanticipated ranges as shown on the ERTS-1 imagery. Flying spot scanner enhancements of NASA tapes resulted in details of subtle and often invisible (to the eye) nearshore features. The suspended sediments off San Francisco and in Monterey Bay are emphasized in detail. These are areas of extremely changeable offshore sediment transport patterns. Computer generated contouring of radiance levels resulted in maps that can be used in determining surface and nearsurface suspended sediment distribution. Tentative calibrations of ERTS-1 spectral brightness against sediment load have been made using shipboard measurements. Information from the combined enhancement and interpretation techniques is applicable to operational coastal engineering programs.

  8. Good King Whence His Loss Traditional: Good King WenceslasJane Johnson

    E-print Network

    Nightingale, Peter

    Good King Whence His Loss Traditional: Good King WenceslasJane Johnson Sir John Steiner el. ming- feed kid Change stop- na, it ma, loss, stand works, hear 2 on er, ny O- Bring Hith- Fun- Good more Chi

  9. Rev. Bernice A. King Minister, Lawyer, Author, Civil Rights Activist, Daughter of Coretta Scott King and Dr. Martin Luther

    E-print Network

    King and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Lectured at Siena on January 24, 2002 "The Power of a Vision, the youngest daughter of Coretta Scott King and the late Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., is internationallyRev. Bernice A. King Minister, Lawyer, Author, Civil Rights Activist, Daughter of Coretta Scott

  10. The Words of Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Today's Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Excerpts from speeches by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., are reprinted. Topics discussed include discrimination, the South, education, nonviolent resistance, poverty, economic opportunity, and world peace. (LH)

  11. Interpreting and analyzing King Tide in Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.-C.; Ho, C.-R.; Cheng, Y.-H.

    2014-02-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of sea-level rise has the potential to cause regional flooding in certain areas, and low-lying island countries are severely at risk. Tuvalu, an atoll country located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, has been inundated by this regional flooding for decades. Tuvaluans call this regional flooding phenomenon King Tide, a term not clearly defined, blaming it for loss of life and property in announcing their intention to migrate. In this study, we clarified and interpreted King Tide, and analyzed the factors of King Tide in Tuvalu. Using tide gauge and topographical data, we estimated that 3.2 m could be considered the threshold of King Tide, which implied half of the island of Tuvalu was flooded with seawater. This threshold is consistent with the finding of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration that King Tide events occur once or twice a year. We surveyed 28 King Tide events to analyze the factors of regional flooding. Tide gauge and satellite altimeter data from 1993 to 2012 were cross-validated and indicated that the King Tide phenomenon is significantly related to the warm-water effect. Warm water contributed to the King Tide phenomenon by an average of 5.1% and a maximum of 7.8%. The height of King Tide is affected by the combined factors of spring tide, storm surge, climate variability, and, significantly, by the warm-water effect.

  12. The True Lion King of Africa: The Epic History of Sundiata, King of Old Mali.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterno, Domenica R.

    David Wisniewski's 1992 picture book version of the African epic of "Sundiata, Lion King of Mali" and the actual historical account of the 13th century Lion King, Sundiata, are both badly served by Disney's "The Lion King." Disney has been praised for using African animals as story characters; for using the African landscape as a story setting;…

  13. 78 FR 78507 - California High-Speed Rail Authority-Construction Exemption-In Fresno, Kings, Tulare, and Kern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Surface Transportation Board California High-Speed Rail Authority--Construction Exemption--In Fresno, Kings, Tulare, and Kern Counties, CA By petition filed on September 26, 2013, California High-Speed Rail...-speed passenger rail line between Fresno and Bakersfield, Cal. (the Line).\\1\\ \\1\\ By decision...

  14. 76 FR 73761 - Notice to Rescind the Notice of Intent to Develop the Environmental Impact Statement: Kings...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...This segment of the BQE extends from Atlantic Avenue to Sands Street and encompasses 21 structures including a unique 0...Brooklyn Queens Expressway in Kings County, New York, from Sands Street on the east to Atlantic Avenue on the west. The...

  15. Dynamic ice-wallow relief of northern Alaska's nearshore.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimnitz, E.; Kempema, E.

    1982-01-01

    Contour maps with 0.5m depth interval were prepared for a small area seaward of Reindeer Island, a barrier island in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska, by repeated surveys with very accurate navigation and very close trackline spacing. The maps reveal numerous closed depressions and mounds, presumably related to grounded ice floes common in the area year round. These bedforms represent erosion and deposition caused by: a) intensified flow around stationary ice floes serving as obstacles and b) pulsating currents generated by vertical oscillations or rocking motions of grounded floes in a seaway. Because sediment transport occurs around the ice, not where it directly touches the sea floor, the depressions are much larger than the base of the acting floes. Ice-wallow bedforms, are characteristic of arctic nearshore regions with non-cohesive sediments. The bedforms studied here are highly active and must be considered in planning nearshore construction activities. -from Authors

  16. Commencement Bay Nearshore/Tideflats Remedial Investigation. summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    The report summarizes work complete under the U.S. EPA/WDOE Cooperative Agreement for the Commencement Bay Nearshore/Tideflats Remedial Investigation of the Waterways/Shoreline area. The Commencement Bay Superfund Investigation includes various integrated program management and technical components. These include assessments of chemical contamination, biological effects, toxicity, and public health concerns; identification of sources; and identification of potential remedial actions and technologies.

  17. 75 FR 34307 - King Kamehameha Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8534 of June 10, 2010 King Kamehameha Day, 2010 By the President of the... King Kamehameha Day, we celebrate the history and heritage of the Aloha State, which has...

  18. Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama (QTVR)

    This approximate true-color panorama, dubbed 'Lion King,' shows 'Eagle Crater' and the surrounding plains of Meridiani Planum. It was obtained by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sols 58 and 60 using infrared (750-nanometer), green (530-nanometer) and blue (430-nanometer) filters.

    This is the largest panorama obtained yet by either rover. It was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. Additional lower elevation tiers were added to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic.

    This panorama depicts a story of exploration including the rover's lander, a thorough examination of the outcrop, a study of the soils at the near-side of the lander, a successful exit from Eagle Crater and finally the rover's next desination, the large crater dubbed 'Endurance'.

  19. Factors influencing Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) distribution in nearshore waters and implications for management 

    E-print Network

    Metz, Tasha Lynn

    2004-11-15

    deterred from utilizing areas frequented by bull sharks. Overall, nesting dynamics and prey availability were conceptual model components appearing to have the greatest influence on nearshore ridley occurrence....

  20. Growth and Mortality of King Mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla

    E-print Network

    Growth and Mortality of King Mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla Tagged in the Southeastern United and Atlantic king mackerel groups. Table 1 Number of king mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla tag releases off Total 6416 2594 2674 809 Methods King mackerel captured by hook- and-line were marked with internal

  1. Tenth Center Director David A. King

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Mr. David A. King has been named the tenth Director of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Appointed to take Director's office June 15, 2003, King has been serving as Deputy Director of MSFC since November 2002. With 20 years experience in spacecraft and high-technology systems, Mr. King began his NASA career at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, Florida in 1983 as a main propulsion system engineer. He later served as flow director for the Space Shuttle Discovery and then as the acting deputy director of the installation Operations Directorate. He was appointed deputy director of Shuttle Processing in 1996, Launch Director in 1997, and director of Shuttle Processing in 1999.

  2. Towards an Operational Nearshore Wave Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeramony, J.; Orzech, M.; Ngodock, H. E.; Flampouris, S.

    2012-12-01

    For Navy operations, the model used for wave predictions in the nearshore is SWAN, which solves the spectral action balance equation to estimate the wave state. Boundary conditions for local (nearshore) model domains are generally obtained from regional model simulations that use either SWAN or WAVEWATCH III, which in turn gets boundary conditions from global simulations with WAVEWATCH III forced by the meteorological models. Inaccuracies in meteorological forcing and the coarse grid resolutions for the global model can lead to significant errors in SWAN's spectral estimates, particularly in shallow water. To improve the model's performance, especially for the small nearshore domains, we have developed a 4DVAR data assimilation system based on a tangent linear code and the corresponding adjoint from the numerical SWAN model. The system utilizes point measurements of 2D wave spectra, such as from a wave buoy, to improve the solution in the whole domain. Given a set of observations measured at different times and locations in the model domain, the assimilation system minimizes a cost function (representing overall error between the model and observations) and generates corrected boundary and initial conditions that optimize the fit of SWAN's output to the measurements. In addition to time dependence, the system accounts for nonlinear triad and quadruplet interactions, depth-limited breaking, wind forcing, bottom friction, and whitecapping as well as the influence of currents on waves. This presentation will review the current status of the system using simulations with data from Duck, North Carolina and the 2012 RIMPAC exercises held by the Commander, US Pacific Fleet in and around the Hawaiian Islands. Examples shown will include analysis of effects of using different background fields, and of assimilating different instruments simultaneously. Adjoint-generated sensitivity maps, which can be generated using the adjoint, will be used to demonstrate the optimal locations for deployment of instruments under varying wave conditions.

  3. Adjoint-Based Sensitivity Maps for the Nearshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzech, Mark; Veeramony, Jay; Ngodock, Hans

    2013-04-01

    The wave model SWAN (Booij et al., 1999) solves the spectral action balance equation to produce nearshore wave forecasts and climatologies. It is widely used by the coastal modeling community and is part of a variety of coupled ocean-wave-atmosphere model systems. A variational data assimilation system (Orzech et al., 2013) has recently been developed for SWAN and is presently being transitioned to operational use by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office. This system is built around a numerical adjoint to the fully nonlinear, nonstationary SWAN code. When provided with measured or artificial "observed" spectral wave data at a location of interest on a given nearshore bathymetry, the adjoint can compute the degree to which spectral energy levels at other locations are correlated with - or "sensitive" to - variations in the observed spectrum. Adjoint output may be used to construct a sensitivity map for the entire domain, tracking correlations of spectral energy throughout the grid. When access is denied to the actual locations of interest, sensitivity maps can be used to determine optimal alternate locations for data collection by identifying regions of greatest sensitivity in the mapped domain. The present study investigates the properties of adjoint-generated sensitivity maps for nearshore wave spectra. The adjoint and forward SWAN models are first used in an idealized test case at Duck, NC, USA, to demonstrate the system's effectiveness at optimizing forecasts of shallow water wave spectra for an inaccessible surf-zone location. Then a series of simulations is conducted for a variety of different initializing conditions, to examine the effects of seasonal changes in wave climate, errors in bathymetry, and variations in size and shape of the inaccessible region of interest. Model skill is quantified using two methods: (1) a more traditional correlation of observed and modeled spectral statistics such as significant wave height, and (2) a recently developed RMS spectral skill score summed over all frequency-directional bins. The relative advantages and disadvantages of these two methods are considered. References: Booij, N., R.C. Ris, and L.H. Holthuijsen, 1999: A third-generation wave model for coastal regions: 1. Model description and validation. J. Geophys. Res. 104 (C4), 7649-7666. Orzech, M.D., J. Veeramony, and H.E. Ngodock, 2013: A variational assimilation system for nearshore wave modeling. J. Atm. & Oc. Tech., in press.

  4. NEARSHORE FISH AND MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES ALONG THE STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA INCLUDING FOOD HABITS OF THE COMMON NEARSHORE FISH: FINAL REPORT OF THREE YEARS' SAMPLING, 1976-1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    A seasonal survey of nearshore fishes was made in the Strait of Juan de Fuca from May 1976 to June 1979. A beach seine was used for sampling nearshore demersal fishes and a townet for nearshore pelagic fishes; intertidal fishes were sampled with the use of anesthetic and a hand n...

  5. THE KING SALMON OF COOK INLET, ALASKA

    E-print Network

    for food for their fami- lies and work dogs. Runs of king salmon in the Cook Inlet area underwent a severe for other markets--fresh, frozen, mild-cured, pickled, or smoked. Pro- duction for these markets has

  6. *Denotes gluten free menu items. Other items may be made gluten free by modification. Ask your server for details. We will gladly provide separate checks for parties of 7 or less. We add a 17% gratuity to parties of 8 or more. The King County Health Depar

    E-print Network

    Burdzy, Krzysztof "Chris"

    , lemon-thyme beurre blanc, balsamic syrup ~ 14 Alder Grilled Salmon Skewers Peach-currant chutney, warm of dressing ~ 6 Baby Greens Salad with Laura Chenel's Chevre Raspberry-thyme vinaigrette, toasted hazelnuts imparts a subtle, yet distinct smoky flavor. Also available simply grilled. Chinook "King" Salmon* Lemon-thyme

  7. The effect of bathymetric filtering on nearshore process model results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, N.G.; Edwards, K.L.; Kaihatu, J.M.; Veeramony, J.; Hsu, L.; Holland, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    Nearshore wave and flow model results are shown to exhibit a strong sensitivity to the resolution of the input bathymetry. In this analysis, bathymetric resolution was varied by applying smoothing filters to high-resolution survey data to produce a number of bathymetric grid surfaces. We demonstrate that the sensitivity of model-predicted wave height and flow to variations in bathymetric resolution had different characteristics. Wave height predictions were most sensitive to resolution of cross-shore variability associated with the structure of nearshore sandbars. Flow predictions were most sensitive to the resolution of intermediate scale alongshore variability associated with the prominent sandbar rhythmicity. Flow sensitivity increased in cases where a sandbar was closer to shore and shallower. Perhaps the most surprising implication of these results is that the interpolation and smoothing of bathymetric data could be optimized differently for the wave and flow models. We show that errors between observed and modeled flow and wave heights are well predicted by comparing model simulation results using progressively filtered bathymetry to results from the highest resolution simulation. The damage done by over smoothing or inadequate sampling can therefore be estimated using model simulations. We conclude that the ability to quantify prediction errors will be useful for supporting future data assimilation efforts that require this information.

  8. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Nearshore Hydrodynamics Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.; Voulgaris, G.; Demir, H.; Work, P. A.; Hanes, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (SCCES) a nearshore field experiment was carried out for five days in December 2003 just north of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, providing measurements of the waves, currents and morphological evolution. This experiment occurred concurrently with an extensive field campaign several kilometers offshore which included measurements of the waves and currents on and near a significant sand shoal. The purpose of the nearshore experiment was to aid in the identification of the effect of the offshore shoal on the nearshore processes. The resulting dataset will be used for verification of numerical models being used to investigate the hydrodynamics of the region. The experiment was carried out from December 10 to December 15 and consisted of measurements of the waves and currents, extensive surveys of the bathymetry every day, grab samples of the sediments, and video imagery. The hydrodynamics were measured using two Sontek Triton downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters and two Nortek AquaDopp profilers arranged in a cross-shore line from inside the swash to several surf zone widths past the breakers. The bathymetric surveying was accomplished using both a differential GPS system and a total station. Surveying was performed each day in order to capture the morphological changes. On the last day, seven sediment samples were taken along a single cross-section to determine the sediment characteristics across the beach. Additionally, a video camera was located on a balcony of the top floor of a nearby hotel providing an excellent field of view of the entire experimental area. Digital video was captured directly onto a computer during all daylight hours and many control points were surveyed in each day to facilitate rectification of the imagery. A variety of conditions were encountered during the experiment, including two storm fronts which passed through, generating wind speeds up to 15 m/s. The first storm generated waves from the south driving a longshore current towards the north. After several relatively calm days with nearly normal incident waves the second front passed through the area with strong wind and waves approaching the shore with a large angle of incidence from the north. This drove an extremely strong longshore current in excess of 1.4 m/s and caused significant morphological changes.

  9. Nearshore bars and the break-point hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Howd, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The set of hypotheses calling for bar formation at the break point was tested with field data. During two different experiments, waves were measured across the surf zone coincident with the development of a nearshore bar. We use a criterion, based on the wave height to depth ratio, to determine the offshore limit of the inner surf zone. During the first experiment, the bar became better developed and migrated offshore while remaining well within the inner surf zone. During the second experiment, the surf zone was narrower and we cannot rule out the possibility of break point processes contributing to bar development. We conclude that bars are not necessarily coupled with the break point and can become better developed and migrate offshore while being in the inner surf zone landward from initial wave breaking in the outer surf zone. ?? 1989.

  10. Evolution of basic equations for nearshore wave field

    PubMed Central

    ISOBE, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a systematic, overall view of theories for periodic waves of permanent form, such as Stokes and cnoidal waves, is described first with their validity ranges. To deal with random waves, a method for estimating directional spectra is given. Then, various wave equations are introduced according to the assumptions included in their derivations. The mild-slope equation is derived for combined refraction and diffraction of linear periodic waves. Various parabolic approximations and time-dependent forms are proposed to include randomness and nonlinearity of waves as well as to simplify numerical calculation. Boussinesq equations are the equations developed for calculating nonlinear wave transformations in shallow water. Nonlinear mild-slope equations are derived as a set of wave equations to predict transformation of nonlinear random waves in the nearshore region. Finally, wave equations are classified systematically for a clear theoretical understanding and appropriate selection for specific applications. PMID:23318680

  11. Nearshore substrate and morphology offshore of the Elwha River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Cochrane, G.R.; Sagy, Y.; Gelfenbaum, G.

    2008-01-01

    The planned removal of two dams on the Elwha River, Washington, will likely increase river sediment flux to the coast, which may alter coastal habitats through sedimentation and turbidity. It is therefore important to characterize the current habitat conditions near the river mouth, so that future changes can be identified. Here we provide combined sonar and video mapping results of approximately 20 km2 of seafloor offshore of the Elwha River collected with the purpose to characterize nearshore substrate type and distribution prior to dam removal. These combined data suggest that the nearshore of the western delta and Freshwater Bay are dominated by coarse sediment (sand, gravel, cobble, and boulders) and bedrock outcrops; no fine-grained sediment (mud or silt) was identified within the survey limits. The substrate is generally coarser in Freshwater Bay and on the western flank of the delta, where boulders and bedrock outcrops occur, than directly offshore and east of the river mouth. High variation in substrate was observed within much of the study area, however, and distinct boulder fields, gravel beds and sand waves were observed with spatial scales of 10-100 m. Gravel beds and sand waves suggest that sediment transport is active in the study area, presumably in response to tidal currents and waves. Both historic (1912) and recent (1989-2004) distributions of Bull Kelp (Nereocystis sp.) beds were preferentially located along the boulder and bedrock substrates of Freshwater Bay. Although kelp has also been mapped in areas dominated by gravel and sand substrate, it typically has smaller canopy areas and lower temporal persistence in these regions.

  12. Nearshore Sand Bars and Self-organization Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falqués, A.

    Sand bars are elongated shoals that have been recognized as a major source of vari- ability in the topography of the surf zone and the configuration of the shoreline at sandy coasts. They can exhibit many different morphologies. The most common are the shore parallel bars that may be either alongshore uniform or with some kind of lon- gitudinal structure (e.g.,rhythmicity). Nearshore bars may also be oriented obliquely or even perpendicular to the coast. A number of different physical mechanisms have been proposed to explain their origin and subsequent dynamics. The growth and fur- ther evolution of bars is certainly caused by convergences and divergences of the hori- zontal sediment flux that can be driven in turn by a) certain patterns in the external hy- drodynamic forcing (low frequency waves, tides, inhomogeneities due to the offshore sea bed topography or to regional trends in the coastline orientation, ...) or b) self- organization processes of the coupling between the nearshore hydrodynamics and the evolving topography. The latter arise basicly from feedback processes between flow and morphology. Given a certain topography, the incident waves, wind and tides drive a flow. This moves in turn the sediment, producing changes in the topography from where a new flow pattern is created. In this way, flow and morphology evolve together and many complex patterns can emerge without any inhomogeneity in the external forcing. Since a few years ago, the role of coastal self-organization processes is being extensively investigated. It seems that the initial formation of shore-parallel bars and of oblique bars can be explained by mechanisms based on this idea. Self-organization has also been shown to be a potential cause of the growth to finite amplitude of trans- verse bars and crescentic patterns. The process whereby a linear longshore bar devel- ops rip channels and becomes alongshore rhythmic can also be understood in terms of feedback mechanisms.

  13. Uncertainty Analysis and Parameter Estimation For Nearshore Hydrodynamic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardani, S.; Kaihatu, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Numerical models represent deterministic approaches used for the relevant physical processes in the nearshore. Complexity of the physics of the model and uncertainty involved in the model inputs compel us to apply a stochastic approach to analyze the robustness of the model. The Bayesian inverse problem is one powerful way to estimate the important input model parameters (determined by apriori sensitivity analysis) and can be used for uncertainty analysis of the outputs. Bayesian techniques can be used to find the range of most probable parameters based on the probability of the observed data and the residual errors. In this study, the effect of input data involving lateral (Neumann) boundary conditions, bathymetry and off-shore wave conditions on nearshore numerical models are considered. Monte Carlo simulation is applied to a deterministic numerical model (the Delft3D modeling suite for coupled waves and flow) for the resulting uncertainty analysis of the outputs (wave height, flow velocity, mean sea level and etc.). Uncertainty analysis of outputs is performed by random sampling from the input probability distribution functions and running the model as required until convergence to the consistent results is achieved. The case study used in this analysis is the Duck94 experiment, which was conducted at the U.S. Army Field Research Facility at Duck, North Carolina, USA in the fall of 1994. The joint probability of model parameters relevant for the Duck94 experiments will be found using the Bayesian approach. We will further show that, by using Bayesian techniques to estimate the optimized model parameters as inputs and applying them for uncertainty analysis, we can obtain more consistent results than using the prior information for input data which means that the variation of the uncertain parameter will be decreased and the probability of the observed data will improve as well. Keywords: Monte Carlo Simulation, Delft3D, uncertainty analysis, Bayesian techniques, MCMC

  14. EDITORIAL: King of the elements? King of the elements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Throughout the history of science, carbon-based research has played a defining role in the development of a range of fundamental and technological fields. It was used in Avagadro's definition of the mole in the early 18th century, it provides the 'backbone' of molecules in organic compounds, and in the environmental debate currently raging in the press and international government discussions, the 'carbon footprint' has become the metric of our species' impact on our planet. Also in nanotechnology, with the discovery of various wonder materials, carbon is once again asserting its claim as king of the elements. Until the 1980s the only known forms of carbon were diamond, graphite and amorphous carbon, as in soot or charcoal. In 1985 Robert Curl, Harold Kroto and Richard Smalley reported the existence of fullerenes, spherical structures comprising hexagonal carbon rings [1], work for which they won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1996 [2]. The discovery of fullerenes was followed in 1991 by Sumio Ijima with the discovery of rolled graphite sheets, the carbon nanotube [3]. The discovery of these novel carbon nanostructures inspired researchers in a range of fields, largely as a result of the extraordinary capacity for investigations of these structures to reveal ever more intriguing properties. One of the fascinating properties attributed to carbon nanotubes is their phenomenal strength, with a Young's modulus of single walled carbon nanotubes approaching a terapascal [4]. Ingenious methods of harnessing this strength have since been developed, including bucky paper, a term used to refer to a mat of randomly self-entangled carbon nanotubes. Steven Crannford and Markus Buehler have recently reported a novel computational technique for probing the mechanical properties of these structures and show that the Young's modulus of bucky paper can be tuned by manipulation of the carbon nanotube type and density [5]. The electrical properties of carbon nanotubes, which depend on the chirality or wrapping angle of the graphite sheet with respect to the tube axis [6], have captured the imagination of researchers working in nanoelectronics. Carbon nanotubes also revealed interesting thermal properties that could lend them to the next generation of nanoscale devices. In 2000, researchers at the California Institute of Technology published the results of molecular dynamics simulations of thermal conductivity in carbon nanotubes [7]. The thermal properties predicted from this work added further promise to the potential of carbon nanotubes in micro- and nanoelectromechanical devices. More recently, researchers from the University of Columbia have studied how to exploit the thermal properties of carbon nanotubes in nanofluids. They report enhancement of heat transfer properties of carbon-nanotube-based nanofluids using a plasma treatment to aid stable dispersion of the nanotubes in water [8]. Eric Pop in Illinois has reported on the role of electrical and thermal contact resistance in Joule breakdown of single-walled carbon nanotubes, including analysis of several published data sets [9]. The work finds universal scaling rules, whereby the breakdown scales linearly with length for carbon nanotubes above a certain length, below which the breakdown is entirely limited by contact resistance. In 2004 another form of carbon came to the fore when researchers at the University of Manchester and the Institute of Microelectronics Technology isolated a single plane of graphite, that is, graphene, using a kind of scotch tape [10]. As with other forms of carbon, investigation of graphene has also revealed fascinating properties that lend the material to a number of applications, such as sensing. The electronic properties of graphene are highly sensitive to the adsorption of molecules such as CO, NO, NO2 and NH3, and a collaboration of researchers from Lanzhou University in China and the University of Sheffield in the UK have further reported on how this sensitivity can be enhanced by two orders of magnitude when the graphene is doped with an impurity s

  15. Moderate-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Data for the Nearshore North Pacific

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal sea surface temperature (SST) is an important environmental characteristic defining habitat suitability for nearshore marine and estuarine organisms. The purpose of this publication is to provide access to an easy-to-use coastal SST dataset for ecologists, biogeographers...

  16. Spatial Patterns of Subtidal Benthic Invertebrates and Environmental Factors in the Nearshore Gulf of Maine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial patterns of subtidal benthic invertebrates and physical-chemical variables in the nearshore Gulf of Maine (Acadian Biogeographic Province) were studied to provide information needed to calibrate benthic indices of environmental condition, determine physical-chemical f...

  17. Assessing the Impact of Groundwater Pollution from Marine Caves on Nearshore Seagrass Beds in Bermuda 

    E-print Network

    Cate, Jenipher R.

    2010-01-14

    changing environment suitable for a mixture of seagrass species. Higher dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations were associated with locations lacking seagrass. This study found 1) cave springs connected groundwater and nearshore seagrass ecosystems...

  18. 1. Department, Course Number, Title ORE 664, Nearshore Processes and Sediment Transport

    E-print Network

    of the course is to provide engineers working in the coastal environment with the understanding of wave the dynamics of the nearshore environment in detail, including consideration of wave boundary layer processes

  19. THE SIZE AT SEXUAL MATURITY OF BLUE KING CRAB, PARAUTHODES

    E-print Network

    NOTES THE SIZE AT SEXUAL MATURITY OF BLUE KING CRAB, PARAUTHODES PLATYPUS, IN ALASKAI The blue king of a male 3 yr after reaching sexual maturity in an attempt to assure that each male will have at least one 1981). For blue king crab, however, the size at maturity is not well known, and in some areas

  20. The Newest Monument: The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Studies and the Young Learner, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features the newest monument, the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. The memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. will be an engaging landscape experience to convey four fundamental and recurring themes throughout Dr. King's life--democracy, justice, hope, and love. Natural…

  1. KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS DEANSHIP OF GRADUATE STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS DEANSHIP OF GRADUATE STUDIES Online Academic Services Coordinators. #12;King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Deanship of Graduate Studies i | P a g e .................................................................................................................... 19 #12;King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Deanship of Graduate Studies 1 | P a g e Graduate

  2. KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS DEANSHIP OF GRADUATE STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS DEANSHIP OF GRADUATE STUDIES Online Academic Services the Online Academic Services related to Theses/Dissertations. #12;King Fahd University of Petroleum................................................................... 7 #12;King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Deanship of Graduate Studies 1 | P a g e Graduate

  3. KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS DEANSHIP OF GRADUATE STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS DEANSHIP OF GRADUATE STUDIES Online Academic Services Services for Graduate Students. #12;King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Deanship of Graduate ................................................................................................... 7 #12;King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Deanship of Graduate Studies 1 | P a g e Academic

  4. AGE, GROWTH, AND MORTALITY OF KING MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, FROM

    E-print Network

    AGE, GROWTH, AND MORTALITY OF KING MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, FROM THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED. growth, and mortality of king mackerel. Scombernmorllscamlla, from the southeastern United States were from 0.32 to 0.42, The length-weight relations of king mackerel were for males: W = 0,8064 X 10""/}9m

  5. Introduction King penguins perform extended foraging dive bouts, with

    E-print Network

    Fahlman, Andreas

    3344 Introduction King penguins perform extended foraging dive bouts, with long (5·min) and deep aerobically (Froget et al., 2004). In the king penguin, a surface interval exceeding 15·min has been is why do king penguins stop foraging, sometimes for hours, during a period when food may be readily

  6. SHAKESPEARE--KING OF INFINITE SPACE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCURDY, HAROLD

    CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS LOOK FOR SUBSTANTIAL CONNECTIONS BETWEEN A WRITER'S LITERARY WORK AND THE EXTERNALS OF HIS LIFE, A PRACTICE THAT ENGLISH SCHOLARS ESCHEW. HOWEVER, A USEFUL KIND OF AUTOBIOGRAPHY MAY BE FOUND IN THE WORKINGS OF SHAKESPEARE'S IMAGINATION THROUGHOUT MOST OF HIS PLAYS. SHAKESPEARE, IN HAMLET'S WORDS, CAN BE CONCEIVED AS "A KING…

  7. "King Corn": Teaching the Food Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "King Corn" is in so many ways the story of how government food policy has entirely remade the food landscape in the United States over the last 40 years. From the massive expansion of the number of acres of corn grown across the country, to the ever-increasing ways that corn is incorporated into the food production process, to the industrial…

  8. King's Careers & Employability School of Bioscience Education

    E-print Network

    Applebaum, David

    on offer to you from King's Careers & Employability Contents Lab-based careers The pharmaceutical industry of the British Pharmaceutical Industry - careers.abpi.org.uk The Bioindustry Association - www at some occupational profiles by using the `bioscience' and `prospects profile' tags on CareersTagged Top

  9. [Biologically Active Peptides of King Crab Hepatopancreas].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, V V; Berezin, B B; Il'ina, A P; Yamskova, V P; Yamskov, I A

    2015-01-01

    Substances of a peptide nature isolated from the hepatopancreas of the king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus exhibited physicochemical properties and membranotropic and specific activities similar to those of membranotropic homeostatic tissue-specific bioregulators previously found in different mammalian and plant tissues. Their biological effect on vertebrate tissues was demonstrated on a model of roller organotypic cultivation of Pleurodeles waltl newt liver tissue. PMID:26353409

  10. (12) United States Patent King et al.

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    (12) United States Patent King et al. USOO8914373B2 US 8,914,373 B2 Dec. 16, 2014 (10) Patent N0.: (45) Date of Patent: (54) (75) (73) (*) (21) (22) (65) (60) (51) (52) (58) PARTICIPANT GROUPING) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term ofthis patent is extended or adjusted under 35 U.S.C. 154(b

  11. The King under the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirza, Ather

    2015-01-01

    In February 2013, the University of Leicester staged what The Guardian described as "The most extraordinary press conference ever held at any UK university." This was part of a media and communications campaign that brought worldwide attention to the discovery of King Richard III by the University's archaeologists. How do you manage a…

  12. King's College London War Studies Online

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    can see what I'm describing on the screen. You should be able to see now the King's ELearning page that, feel free to put them forward. So I'll start off then by talking about the KEATS ELearning system

  13. Tribute to Julie Taymor's Lion King Costumes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mary C.; Beaty, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Julie Taymor's costumes and masks for the stage version of "The Lion King" were stunning in the way they combined the dual images of human and animal forms. Taymor visually incorporated the human form of a dancer into the simplified form of the animal character so both are equally visible. This visible duality of human form and animal…

  14. A comparative analysis of operational codes for King Hussein I and King Abdullah II 

    E-print Network

    Sparling, Dwain Leland

    2013-02-22

    -1 JORDAN IN TRANSITION: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONAL CODES FOR KING HUSSEIN I AND KING ABDULLAH II A Senior Honors Thesis DWAIN LELAND SPARLING Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs k Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University... Senior Honors Thesis by DWAIN LELAND SPARLING Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs &. Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment for the designation of UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOW Approved as to style...

  15. Nearshore dynamics of artificial sand and oil agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Dalyander, P Soupy; Plant, Nathaniel G; Long, Joseph W; McLaughlin, Molly

    2015-07-15

    Weathered oil can mix with sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs) that can cause beach re-oiling for years after a spill. Few studies have focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. In this study, artificial SOAs (aSOAs) were created and deployed in the nearshore, and shear stress-based mobility formulations were assessed to predict SOA response. Prediction sensitivity to uncertainty in hydrodynamic conditions and shear stress parameterizations were explored. Critical stress estimates accounting for large particle exposure in a mixed bed gave the best predictions of mobility under shoaling and breaking waves. In the surf zone, the 10-cm aSOA was immobile and began to bury in the seafloor while smaller size classes dispersed alongshore. aSOAs up to 5 cm in diameter were frequently mobilized in the swash zone. The uncertainty in predicting aSOA dynamics reflects a broader uncertainty in applying mobility and transport formulations to cm-sized particles. PMID:25956438

  16. Nearshore dynamics of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.; McLaughlin, Molly R.

    2015-01-01

    Weathered oil can mix with sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs) that can cause beach re-oiling for years after a spill. Few studies have focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. In this study, artificial SOAs (aSOAs) were created and deployed in the nearshore, and shear stress-based mobility formulations were assessed to predict SOA response. Prediction sensitivity to uncertainty in hydrodynamic conditions and shear stress parameterizations were explored. Critical stress estimates accounting for large particle exposure in a mixed bed gave the best predictions of mobility under shoaling and breaking waves. In the surf zone, the 10-cm aSOA was immobile and began to bury in the seafloor while smaller size classes dispersed alongshore. aSOAs up to 5 cm in diameter were frequently mobilized in the swash zone. The uncertainty in predicting aSOA dynamics reflects a broader uncertainty in applying mobility and transport formulations to cm-sized particles.

  17. Onshore Transport of Large Nearshore Boulders during Super Typhoon Haiyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, A. B.; Mori, N.; Zhang, Y.; Tajima, Y.; Pecor, W.; Yasuda, T.; Chen, S. E.; Nakamura, S.; Cruz, E.

    2014-12-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan made a Philippines landfall in November, 2013 as one of the strongest storms in history. The coast of Eastern Samar Province has deep water very close to shore and experienced extreme wave conditions, with hindcast Hs>18m near landfall. These waves generated large shoreline runup, and caused severe damage to coastal communities even though hindcast storm surge was <1m at these locations. One consequence of the storm was the transport of very large (up to 5m length) boulders shoreward to elevations near 10m, where they were stranded as waves and surge diminished. This presentation describes a field survey of a boulder field on Calicoan Island, combined with Boussinesq simulation of the nearshore storm hydrodynamics and boulder transport modeling using a modified version of the Imamura et al. methodology. Results show highly intermittent shoreward boulder transport driven by infragravity runup, with both inertial and drag forces significant. Boulder transport distance was found to be sensitive to wave properties, enough so that it may in some instances be possible to estimate hydrodynamic properties of historical storms. The coastal boulder transport literature often features uncertainty about whether boulder fields with unknown origin were generated by storms or by tsunamis, and has suggested that coastal storms can not transport boulders very far inland. However, the present work demonstrates that the potential to transport large boulders far onshore to high inland elevations does not lie exclusively with tsunamis, but can also be achieved by strong tropical cyclones.

  18. Thermography of the New River Inlet plume and nearshore currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chickadel, C.; Jessup, A.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the DARLA and RIVET experiments, thermal imaging systems mounted on a tower and in an airplane captured water flow in the New River Inlet, NC, USA. Kilometer-scale, airborne thermal imagery of the inlet details the ebb flow of the estuarine plume water mixing with ocean water. Multiple fronts, corresponding to the preferred channels through the ebb tidal delta, are imaged in the aerial data. A series of internal fronts suggest discreet sources of the tidal plume that vary with time. Focused thermal measurements made from a tower on the south side of the inlet viewed an area within a radius of a few hundred meters. Sub-meter resolution video from the tower revealed fine-scale flow features and the interaction of tidal exchange and wave-forced surfzone currents. Using the tower and airborne thermal image data we plan to provide geophysical information to compare with numerical models and in situ measurements made by other investigators. From the overflights, we will map the spatial and temporal extent of the estuarine plume to correlate with tidal phase and local wind conditions. From the tower data, we will investigate the structure of the nearshore flow using a thermal particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique, which is based on tracking motion of the surface temperature patterns. Long term variability of the mean and turbulent two-dimensional PIV currents will be correlated to local wave, tidal, and wind forcing parameters.

  19. Selective thoracic surgery in the Lenke type 1A: King III and King IV type curves

    PubMed Central

    Parisini, P.; Lolli, F.; Bakaloudis, G.

    2009-01-01

    Pedicle screw fixation enables enhanced three-dimensional correction of spinal deformities and effectively shortens the distal fusion level. However, the choice of distal fusion level is still controversial in single thoracic idiopathic scoliosis with the lumbar compensatory curve not crossing the middle line (Lenke type 1 with modifier A or King type III and IV curves).The authors retrospectively analyzed 31 patients treated by segmental pedicular instrumentation alone, affected by a single thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with a compensatory lumbar curve not crossing the midline (Lenke 1A), with an average age of 16.3 years (range 10–22 years). The patients with regard to the King classification were also assessed. A statistical analysis was performed to determine whether the two groups (King III, King IV) presented differences concerning the level of the stable vertebra (SV), end vertebra (EV), and neutral vertebra (NV) and were also analyzed the results at follow-up regarding the relationships between the SV, EV, and lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV). The statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the two curve types. In the King III type curve the SV, EV, and NV appeared to be more proximal than those of the King IV type curve and the segments between the SV, EV, and NV appeared to be reduced in King III curves compared with King IV curves. At a follow-up of 3.2 years (range 2.2–5) the thoracic curve showed a correction of 58.4% (from 62.3° to 26.6°) and compensatory lumbar curve an average spontaneous correction of 52.4% (from 38.1° to 18.1°).The position of the LIV was shorter than the position of the SV in 30 patients (97%) with an average “salvage” of 2.1 (from 1 to 4) distal fusion levels. Four cases (13%), all affected by a King IV type curve, presented at follow-up an unsatisfactory results due to an “adding on” phenomenon. The statistical analysis confirmed that this phenomenon was correlated with The King IV curve (P = 0.043; Chi-square test) and that the only predictive parameter for its onset was the LIV–SV difference (odds ratio = 0.093; with a confidence interval of 0.008–1): every time that in King IV curve type the LIV was three or more levels shorter than the stable vertebra at follow-up the “adding on” phenomenon was present. The authors conclude that Lenke’s type 1 with modifier A includes two kinds of curves, King III and King IV and that the Lenke’s type 2 curves and King V with the lumbar curve not crossing the middle line have a similar behavior. Therefore, it is of authors’ opinion that “the adding on phenomenon” could be prevented by more rigidly defining K. IV versus K. III curves. In Lenke’s 1/2 A-K. IV/V type with the rotation of the first vertebra just below the thoracic lower EV in the same direction as the thoracic curve, and when SV and EV show more than two levels of difference, it is necessary to extend the lower fusion down to L2 or L3 (not more than two levels shorter than the SV). Whereas in Lenke’s 1/2 A-K. III/V with the rotation of the first proximal vertebra of lumbar curve in the opposite direction to the thoracic apex and when SV and EV show not more than two level gap differences, the position of the lowest instrumented vertebra can be two or three levels shorter than the stable vertebra with satisfactory postoperative spinal balance. Therefore, the stable vertebra and the rotation of lumbar curve are considered to be a reliable guide for selecting the lower level of fusion. PMID:19399532

  20. Nearshore energy subsidies support Lake Michigan fishes and invertebrates following major changes in food web structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turschak, Benjamin A; Bunnell, David; Czesny, Sergiusz J.; Höök, Tomas O.; Janssen, John; Warner, David M.; Bootsma, Harvey A

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic food webs that incorporate multiple energy channels (e.g. nearshore benthic or pelagic) with varying productivity and turnover rates convey stability to biological communities by providing multiple independent energy sources. Within the Lake Michigan food web, invasive dreissenid mussels have caused rapid changes to food web structure and potentially altered the channels through which consumers acquire energy. We used stable C and N isotopes to determine how Lake Michigan food web structure has changed in the past decade, coincident with the expansion of dreissenid mussels, decreased pelagic phytoplankton production and increased nearshore benthic algal production. Fish and invertebrate samples collected from sites around Lake Michigan were analyzed to determine taxa-specific 13C:12C (delta 13C) and 15N:14N (delta 15N) ratios. Sampling took place during two distinct periods, 2002-2003 and 2010-2012, that spanned the period of dreissenid expansion, and included nearshore, pelagic and profundal fish and invertebrate taxa. Magnitude and direction of the ?13C shift indicated significantly greater reliance upon nearshore benthic energy sources among nearly all fish taxa as well as profundal invertebrates. Although the mechanisms underlying this ?13C shift likely varied among species, possible causes include the transport of benthic algal production to offshore waters and an increased reliance on nearshore prey items. Delta 15N shifts were more variable and of smaller magnitude across taxa although declines in delta 15N among some pelagic fishes may indicate a shift to alternative prey resources. Lake Michigan fishes and invertebrates appear to have responded to dreissenid induced changes in nutrient and energy pathways by switching from pelagic to alternative nearshore energy subsidies. Although large shifts in energy allocation (i.e. pelagic to nearshore benthic) resulting from invasive species appear to have affected total production at upper trophic levels, changes in trophic structure and utilization of novel energy pathways may help to stabilize food webs following species invasions.

  1. Water Quality and Plankton in the United States Nearshore Waters of Lake Huron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurista, Peder M.; Kelly, John R.; Miller, Samuel E.; Van Alstine, Jon D.

    2012-10-01

    Our goal in the development of a nearshore monitoring method has been to evaluate and refine an in situ mapping approach to assess the nearshore waters across the Great Lakes. The report here for Lake Huron is part of a broader effort being conducted across all five Great Lakes. We conducted an intensive survey for the United States nearshore of Lake Huron along a continuous shoreline transect (523 km) from Port Huron, Michigan, to Detour Passage. A depth contour of 20 m was towed with a conductivity-temperature depth profiler, fluorometer, transmissometer, and laser optical plankton counter. Multiple cross-contour tows (10-30 m) on the cruise dates were used to characterize the variability across a broader range of the nearshore. The cross-contour tows were comparable with the alongshore contour indicating that the 20-m contour does a good job of representing the nearshore region (10-30 m). Strong correlations were observed between water quality and spatially associated watershed land use. A repeat tow separated by several weeks investigated temporal variability in spatial patterns within a summer season. Strong correlations were observed across each variable for the temporal repeat across broad- and fine-scale spatial dimensions. The survey results for Lake Huron nearshore are briefly compared with a similar nearshore survey in Lake Superior. The biomass concentrations of lower food web components of Lake Huron were notably approximately 54-59 % of those in Lake Superior. The towed instrumentation survey supported the recent view of a change in Lake Huron to an ultra-oligotrophic state, which has been uncharacteristic in recent history.

  2. Nearshore energy subsidies support Lake Michigan fishes and invertebrates following major changes in food web structure.

    PubMed

    Turschak, Benjamin A; Bunnell, David; Czesny, Sergiusz; Höök, Tomas O; Janssen, John; Warner, David; Bootsma, Harvey A

    2014-05-01

    Aquatic food webs that incorporate multiple energy channels (e.g., nearshore benthic and pelagic) with varying productivity and turnover rates convey stability to biological communities by providing independent energy sources. Within the Lake Michigan food web, invasive dreissenid mussels have caused rapid changes to food web structure and potentially altered the channels through which consumers acquire energy. We used stable C and N isotopes to determine how Lake Michigan food web structure has changed in the past decade, coincident with the expansion of dreissenid mussels, decreased pelagic phytoplankton production, and increased nearshore benthic algal production. Fish and invertebrate samples collected from sites around Lake Michigan were analyzed to determine taxa-specific 13C:12C (delta13C) and 15N:14N (delta15N) ratios. Sampling took place during two distinct periods, 2002-2003 and 2010-2012, that spanned the period of dreissenid expansion, and included nearshore, pelagic and profundal fish and invertebrate taxa. The magnitude and direction of the delta13C shift indicated significantly greater reliance upon nearshore benthic energy sources among nearly all fish taxa as well as profundal invertebrates following dreissenid expansion. Although the mechanisms underlying this delta13C shift likely varied among species, possible causes include the transport of benthic algal production to offshore waters and increased feeding on nearshore prey items by pelagic and profundal species. delta15N shifts were more variable and of smaller magnitude across taxa, although declines in delta15N among some pelagic fishes suggest a shift to alternative prey resources. Lake Michigan fishes and invertebrates appear to have responded to dreissenid-induced changes in nutrient and energy pathways by switching from pelagic to alternative nearshore energy subsidies. Although large shifts in energy allocation (i.e., pelagic to nearshore benthic) resulting from invasive species appear to affect total production at upper trophic levels, changes in trophic structure and utilization of novel energy pathways may help to stabilize food webs following species invasions. PMID:25000756

  3. The Kings Cross fire: psychological reactions.

    PubMed

    Turner, S W; Thompson, J; Rosser, R M

    1995-07-01

    The psychological reactions of 50 survivors of the King's Cross fire, which hit London's underground railway system on the 18th day of November 1987, are described. Results are presented for the Impact of Event scale, the General Health Questionnaire (28-item version), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and a King's Cross Event Schedule. These are investigated in relation to (a) validity measures, (b) relationships between exposure and personality, and (c) spontaneous de-briefing. Two thirds of the sample had significant levels of psychological distress (meeting the "caseness" criterion on the GHQ). Both personality (neuroticism and L-scale) and degree of trauma exposure were related to subsequent reaction. Spontaneous debriefing was associated with subjective benefit. Transportation disasters present particular problems in relation to research and service delivery. PMID:7582607

  4. A High Resolution Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound to Support Nearshore Restoration Feasibility Analysis and Design

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Estuarine and coastal hydrodynamic processes are sometimes neglected in the design and planning of nearshore restoration actions. Despite best intentions, efforts to restore nearshore habitats can result in poor outcomes if circulation and transport which also affect freshwater-saltwater interactions are not properly addressed. Limitations due to current land use can lead to selection of sub-optimal restoration alternatives that may result in undesirable consequences, such as flooding, deterioration of water quality, and erosion, requiring immediate remedies and costly repairs. Uncertainty with achieving restoration goals, such as recovery of tidal exchange, supply of sediment and nutrients, and establishment of fish migration pathways, may be minimized by using numerical models designed for application to the nearshore environment. A high resolution circulation and transport model of the Puget Sound, in the state of Washington, was developed to assist with nearshore habitat restoration design and analysis, and to answer the question “can we achieve beneficial restoration outcomes at small local scale, as well as at a large estuary-wide scale?” The Puget Sound model is based on an unstructured grid framework to define the complex Puget Sound shoreline using a finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM). The capability of the model for simulating the important nearshore processes, such as circulation in complex multiple tidal channels, wetting and drying of tide flats, and water quality and sediment transport as part of restoration feasibility, are illustrated through examples of restoration projects in Puget Sound.

  5. cBathy: A robust algorithm for estimating nearshore bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Rob; Plant, Nathaniel; Holland, Todd

    2013-05-01

    A three-part algorithm is described and tested to provide robust bathymetry maps based solely on long time series observations of surface wave motions. The first phase consists of frequency-dependent characterization of the wave field in which dominant frequencies are estimated by Fourier transform while corresponding wave numbers are derived from spatial gradients in cross-spectral phase over analysis tiles that can be small, allowing high-spatial resolution. Coherent spatial structures at each frequency are extracted by frequency-dependent empirical orthogonal function (EOF). In phase two, depths are found that best fit weighted sets of frequency-wave number pairs. These are subsequently smoothed in time in phase 3 using a Kalman filter that fills gaps in coverage and objectively averages new estimates of variable quality with prior estimates. Objective confidence intervals are returned. Tests at Duck, NC, using 16 surveys collected over 2 years showed a bias and root-mean-square (RMS) error of 0.19 and 0.51 m, respectively but were largest near the offshore limits of analysis (roughly 500 m from the camera) and near the steep shoreline where analysis tiles mix information from waves, swash and static dry sand. Performance was excellent for small waves but degraded somewhat with increasing wave height. Sand bars and their small-scale alongshore variability were well resolved. A single ground truth survey from a dissipative, low-sloping beach (Agate Beach, OR) showed similar errors over a region that extended several kilometers from the camera and reached depths of 14 m. Vector wave number estimates can also be incorporated into data assimilation models of nearshore dynamics.

  6. cBathy: A robust algorithm for estimating nearshore bathymetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holman, Rob; Holland, K. Todd

    2013-01-01

    A three-part algorithm is described and tested to provide robust bathymetry maps based solely on long time series observations of surface wave motions. The first phase consists of frequency-dependent characterization of the wave field in which dominant frequencies are estimated by Fourier transform while corresponding wave numbers are derived from spatial gradients in cross-spectral phase over analysis tiles that can be small, allowing high-spatial resolution. Coherent spatial structures at each frequency are extracted by frequency-dependent empirical orthogonal function (EOF). In phase two, depths are found that best fit weighted sets of frequency-wave number pairs. These are subsequently smoothed in time in phase 3 using a Kalman filter that fills gaps in coverage and objectively averages new estimates of variable quality with prior estimates. Objective confidence intervals are returned. Tests at Duck, NC, using 16 surveys collected over 2 years showed a bias and root-mean-square (RMS) error of 0.19 and 0.51 m, respectively but were largest near the offshore limits of analysis (roughly 500?m from the camera) and near the steep shoreline where analysis tiles mix information from waves, swash and static dry sand. Performance was excellent for small waves but degraded somewhat with increasing wave height. Sand bars and their small-scale alongshore variability were well resolved. A single ground truth survey from a dissipative, low-sloping beach (Agate Beach, OR) showed similar errors over a region that extended several kilometers from the camera and reached depths of 14 m. Vector wave number estimates can also be incorporated into data assimilation models of nearshore dynamics.

  7. Feeding performance of king Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amber R; Huber, Daniel R; Lajeunesse, Marc J; Motta, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    Feeding performance is an organism's ability to capture and handle prey. Although bite force is a commonly used metric of feeding performance, other factors such as bite pressure and strike speed are also likely to affect prey capture. Therefore, this study investigated static bite force, dynamic speeds, and predator and prey forces resulting from ram strikes, as well as bite pressure of the king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in order to examine their relative contributions to overall feeding performance. Theoretical posterior bite force ranged from 14.0-318.7?N. Ram speed, recorded with a rod and reel incorporated with a line counter and video camera, ranged from 3.3-15.8B?L/s. Impact forces on the prey ranged from 0.1-1.9?N. Bite pressure, estimated using theoretical bite forces at three gape angles and tooth cross-sectional areas, ranged from 1.7-56.9?MPa. Mass-specific bite force for king mackerel is relatively low in comparison with other bony fishes and sharks, with relatively little impact force applied to the prey during the strike. This suggests that king mackerel rely on high velocity chases and high bite pressure generated via sharp, laterally compressed teeth to maximize feeding performance. PMID:25845956

  8. (King, Pilot Mountain) Take U.S. 52 S toward Winston-Salem.

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Paul R.

    Luther King Jr. Drive. ·Turn left onto Martin Luther King Jr. Drive. ·Turn left onto Patterson Ave. ·The. ·Take exit 110B for Martin Luther King Jr. Drive. ·Turn left onto Martin Luther King Jr. Drive. ·TurnFrom North (King, Pilot Mountain) ·Take U.S. 52 S toward Winston-Salem. ·Take exit 110B for Martin

  9. Breakpoint-forced and bound long waves in the nearshore: A model comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    List, Jeffrey H.

    1993-01-01

    A finite-difference model is used to compare long wave amplitudes arising from two-group forced generation mechanisms in the nearshore: long waves generated at a time-varying breakpoint and the shallow-water extension of the bound long wave. Plane beach results demonstrate that the strong frequency selection in the outgoing wave predicted by the breakpoint-forcing mechanism may not be observable in field data due to this wave's relatively small size and its predicted phase relation with the bound wave. Over a bar/trough nearshore, it is shown that a strong frequency selection in shoreline amplitudes is not a unique result of the time-varying breakpoint model, but a general result of the interaction between topography and any broad-banded forcing of nearshore long waves.

  10. Detecting Land-based Signals in the Near-shore Zone of Lake Erie During Summer 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted two styles of nearshore surveys in Lake Erie during August to mid-September 2009. The first used a spatially-balanced probability survey (SBS) design to establish discrete stations within a GIS-defined target populationthe nearshore zone extending approximately 5 km...

  11. Sources of Nutrients and Fecal Indicator Bacteria to Nearshore Waters on the North Shore of Kaua`i

    E-print Network

    Paytan, Adina

    indicator bacteria (FIB, i.e., enterococci and Escherichia coli) in nearshore waters and spurred concernSources of Nutrients and Fecal Indicator Bacteria to Nearshore Waters on the North Shore of Kaua groundwater discharge (SGD) . Coastal water quality. Nutrients . Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) . Radium

  12. An Integrated Set of Observations to Link Conditions of Great Lakes Nearshore Waters to their Coastal Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    We combine three elements for a comprehensive characterization that links nearshore conditions with coastal watershed disturbance metrics. The three elements are: 1) a shore-parallel, high-resolution nearshore survey using continuous in situ towed sensors; 2) a spatially-balanc...

  13. Influence of Cladophora-Quagga Mussel Assemblages on Nearshore Methylmercury Production in Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Lepak, Ryan F; Krabbenhoft, David P; Ogorek, Jacob M; Tate, Michael T; Bootsma, Harvey A; Hurley, James P

    2015-07-01

    Recent spread of invasive mussels in Lake Michigan has altered primary productivity in the nearshore zone, resulting in proliferation of filamentous benthic green algae (Cladophora glomerata). In areas of dense Cladophora and quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) assemblages, as well as in regions where sloughed Cladophora accumulates, methylmercury (MeHg) production is enhanced. A shoreline transect from a river mouth through waters overlying Cladophora/quagga-rich zones showed that aqueous MeHg concentrations increased, despite river dilution. Cladophora, as primary producers, ranged from 0.6 to 7.5 ng g(-1) MeHg [4-47% of total mercury (Hg) as MeHg], and were higher than MeHg concentrations in offshore-collected seston. Concentrations of MeHg in decaying Cladophora accumulated onshore ranged from 2.6 to 18.0 ng g(-1) MeHg (18-41% as MeHg) and from 0.1 to 3.0 ng g(-1) MeHg (2-21% as MeHg) in deposits of recently sloughed and accumulated Cladophora in a nearshore topographical depression. Relative to offshore open waters, interstitial waters within decaying Cladophora from onshore and nearshore deposits were elevated in MeHg concentration, 1000- and 10-fold, respectively. Percent Hg as MeHg was also elevated (65-75% and 9-19%, respectively for onshore interstitial water and nearshore interstitial water, compared to 0.2-3.3% as MeHg for open water). Quagga mussels collected within growing Cladophora beds in the nearshore zone were significantly higher in MeHg than offshore counterparts. Our combined results suggest that recent changes in nearshore primary production contributes to MeHg production and bioaccumulation in Lake Michigan. PMID:26007285

  14. Land-use planning for nearshore ecosystem services—the Puget Sound Ecosystem Portfolio Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrd, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    The 2,500 miles of shoreline and nearshore areas of Puget Sound, Washington, provide multiple benefits to people—"ecosystem services"—including important fishing, shellfishing, and recreation industries. To help resource managers plan for expected growth in coming decades, the U.S. Geological Survey Western Geographic Science Center has developed the Puget Sound Ecosystem Portfolio Model (PSEPM). Scenarios of urban growth and shoreline modifications serve as model inputs to develop alternative futures of important nearshore features such as water quality and beach habitats. Model results will support regional long-term planning decisions for the Puget Sound region.

  15. Nearshore Sediment Budget: Correlating Volume to Shoreline Change, Outer Banks, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miselis, J. L.; McNinch, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    Though the importance of understanding the exchange of sediment between the shoreline and the nearshore has long been recognized, data capable of addressing the three-dimensional character of the system are lacking. The response of traditional cross-shore profiles to forcing is not representative of the entire beach because of alongshore variability of the beach and nearshore sandbar. Measuring changes in shoreline position along the coast permits analysis of alongshore shoreline variability, but does not account for the actual volume of sediment lost from and restored to the beach. Temporally and spatially variable erosional hotspots identified by List and Farris (1999) along the Outer Banks, North Carolina further confound the study of coastal sediment exchange in the region of interest. A geophysical survey (from Duck to Oregon Inlet) was carried out in order to understand the role of geological characteristics in the transport of sediment between the shoreline and nearshore. Contrary to the assumptions of many shoreline and shoreface change models, the modern sand layer observed over the 40-km study area is not infinitely thick and is highly variable. Modern sediment thicknesses were calculated to a continuous seismic reflection surface that spanned the survey area, the average being 0.42m ± 0.19m. Higher standard deviations (variability) in sediment thickness seem to be loosely related to the presence of shore-oblique sandbars as described by McNinch (in press). Nearshore sediment volume was calculated and relationships to nearshore morphology were explored. Though shore-oblique bars may not represent a large percentage of the total sand regionally (7.9%), locally their influence is much greater. Of the three areas in which bars were identified, the volume of sediment contained within the bars represented 44% of the total volume in the largest bar field, and 14% and 11%, respectively, in more minor bar fields. Nearshore sediment volumes correlated well (correlation coefficient ˜0.60) with long-term shoreline change data (50 year data set, NC Division of Coastal Management) suggesting that long-term trends in shoreline change may be related to the total amount of available sediment in the nearshore. Correlation analyses with short-term shoreline change data will also be explored. These preliminary data suggest that volume calculations considering the total amount of nearshore sediment above a continuous, non-sandy seismic reflection surface may be useful in the prediction of long-term shoreline change trends. The utility of this approach in predicting changes over shorter temporal and spatial scales is the subject of current research.

  16. Hydrothermal influence on nearshore sediments of Kos Island, Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megalovasilis, Pavlos; Godelitsas, Athanasios

    2015-04-01

    The Kos-Nisyros volcanic centre is a long-active, Plio-Pleistocene magmatic system in the subduction zone along the easternmost edge of the active Hellenic volcanic arc in the Aegean Sea. Although today there are signs of relative quiescence in volcanic activity, active onshore fumaroles and shallow-sea hydrothermal vents persist on, amongst others, the island of Kos. The present study explores the large-scale imprint of hydrothermally sourced heavy metals and nutrients on the island's coastal marine environment, based on geochemical data collected in September 2007 from hydrothermal waters and surficial nearshore sediments (<10 m water depth) at several vents in the Bros Thermi and Kephalos Bay hydrothermal fields. There were strong spatiotemporal fluctuations in gas and water flow rates at the vent sites—for example, the gas/water flux ratio varied by as much as two orders of magnitude (0.03-1.30) at Kephalos Bay vents over a 2-day measurement period on 15-16 September 2007. Confirming earlier work, hydrothermal waters had higher levels of F, Ca and Sr, and lower levels of Na, Mg and SO4 compared with ambient seawater. Moreover, there was novel evidence of strong, widespread Zn and also Mn enhancement. Cluster and factor analyses of surficial sediment data from the Bros Thermi vents (fine (mud) fractions, <63 ?m, 6N HCl dissolution) revealed distinct groups of elements such as Cu+Pb+Zn and Mn+Mg. Spatial distribution maps showed similarities in the dispersion of Cu and Pb, and of Ca and Ba. The distribution of HCl-soluble material is the inverse mirror image of the distribution of the residual (silicate and Al-silicate) phase. These findings considerably expand on existing knowledge that the coastal zone of Kos is severely influenced by ongoing submarine hydrothermal activity, and confirm that shallow-water sediment Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb levels are substantially higher than those of other islands along the Hellenic volcanic arc, and even exceed those of some deep-water hydrothermal vents in other world regions. Evidently, there may be significant metallic sulphide deposits of hydrothermal origin at depth beneath Kos.

  17. 50 CFR 622.371 - Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. 622.371 Section 622.371...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. (a) No applications for additional...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel will be accepted....

  18. 50 CFR 622.371 - Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. 622.371 Section 622.371...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. (a) No applications for additional...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel will be accepted....

  19. King's Residences Accommodation Policy 2015/16 Introduction

    E-print Network

    Applebaum, David

    participate fully and enjoy a fulfilling university experience, in line with the Disability Discrimination Act and procedures for the allocation of student accommodation for those studying at King's College London (KCL a course offer for entry to King's College London in 2015/16 Student: a registered of KCL following a full

  20. 10. VIEW OF BRUSH ALONG KINGS CANYON ROAD WHICH WILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF BRUSH ALONG KINGS CANYON ROAD WHICH WILL BE REMOVED FOR 10 FEET ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE ROADWAY FOR A DISTANCE OF 50 FEET. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 1.45, FACING NORTH 100 EAST (10ø). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  1. An Overview of KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    An Overview of KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS KFUPM An Overview of KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS KFUPM #12;Topics Background and Campus Graduate Studies Research ... Then and Now College of Petroleum and Minerals, 1963 KFUPM now... · A college · 2-year technical college · 76

  2. Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent

    1995-01-01

    Presents a five-lesson, high school instructional unit on the ideas and activities of Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. Includes student objectives, step-by-step instructional procedures, and discussion questions. Provides quotations by Thoreau and King. (CFR)

  3. Author! Author! The Gallant Children's Author: Dick King-Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of Dick King-Smith. Born on March 27, 1922 and raised in Gloucestershire, England, he grew up with animals of all kinds. King-Smith was a farmer for twenty years and then became a school teacher. He was also a soldier during wartime, a traveling salesman, shoe factory worker, and television presenter. He…

  4. King Fahd University of Petroleum & Dhahran -Saudi Arabia

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Dhahran - Saudi Arabia Faculty Promotion Regulations in recognition of their academic accomplishments and achievements. King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals effectively in addition to his other responsibilities. The following criteria are to be used in the evaluation

  5. AUGMENTED REALITY VISUALIZATION TOOL FOR KINGS STORMWATER BRIDGE

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Mike

    AUGMENTED REALITY VISUALIZATION TOOL FOR KINGS STORMWATER BRIDGE Matthew Clothier Mike Bailey Stormwater Bridge structure. Unfortunately, since AR is still in its infancy, much of the research devoted Monitoring of Structures, Applications 1. Introduction: Kings Stormwater Bridge Over the past few years, our

  6. Evaluating a Lake Tahoe nearshore assessment strategy: A circumnavigation survey, August 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    We had the opportunity to apply a high-resolution nearshore sampling strategy, developed in the US/Canadian Laurentian Great Lakes, to Lake Tahoe. The strategy uses towed in situ sensors (physico-chemistry and biology) oscillated from near surface to near bottom while a vessel i...

  7. FINDING AND READING ECOLOGICAL SIGNALS IN THE NEARSHORE OF THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adjunct UMD faculty make annual presentations on research interest to IBS graduate students and faculty. Talks engage students in research and application to environmental problems. This presentation discusses the ecology of the nearshore areas of the Great Lakes, and ways to fi...

  8. Water Quality and Plankton in the United States Nearshore Waters of Lake Huron

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted an intensive survey for the US nearshore of Lake Huron along a continuous segment (523 km) from Port Huron Michigan to Detour Passage. A depth contour of 20 m was towed with a CTD, fluorometer, transmissometer, and laser optical plankton counter (LOPC). The continu...

  9. Application of remote sensing to study nearshore circulation. [and the continental shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, J.; Lobecker, R.; Stauble, D.; Welch, C.; Haas, L.; Fang, C. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research to use remote sensing techniques for studying the continental shelf is reported. The studies reported include: (1) nearshore circulation in the vincinity of a natural tidal inlet; (2) identification of indicators of biological activity; (3) remote navigation system for tracking free drifting buoys; (4) experimental design of an estuaring tidal circulation; and (5) Skylab support work.

  10. Monitoring Bacterial Water Quality for Application to Watershed and Nearshore Fate and Transport Model Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, L. M.; Ritzenthaler, A.; Kramer, E.; Anderson, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing interest in linking watershed processes with nearshore processes in order to predict the fate and transport of pollutants, including bacteria, for application to management of recreational waters. However, traditional nearshore bacterial water quality monitoring programs are not sufficiently informative for understanding the spatio-temporal variability of water quality at scales that are relevant to process modeling. During the summer and fall of 2012, 2013, and 2014, we conducted increasingly intensive monitoring specifically designed to aid in the development of a linked watershed-hydrodynamics modeling framework for simulating the impacts of Michigan's Clinton River on the nearshore bacterial water quality of Lake St. Clair. Monitoring incorporated multiple sampling "events," including routine weekly sampling at 19 points along 19 km of shoreline, periodic transects perpendicular to the shoreline, periodic offshore sampling corresponding to the shoreline sampling points, repeated shoreline sampling over several 3-day periods, weekly river grab samples, hourly sampling of the river at baseline conditions, and hourly sampling of the river during high flow events. These sampling events allow exploration of the spatiotemporal variability of nearshore water quality resulting from local physiographic factors as well as the temporal variability of water quality in the river outlets. We present results describing the spatiotemporal variability as it relates to the watershed and hydrodynamics processes represented in a linked modeling framework which is under development.

  11. Lake Superior: Nearshore Variability and a Landscape Driver Concept (journal article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatial variation is well known to exist in water quality parameters of the Great Lakes nearshore, however strong patterns for extended reaches also have been observed and found to be robust across seasonal time frames. Less is known about robustness of inter-annual variation wi...

  12. Research papers Natural intrusions of hypoxic, low pH water into nearshore marine

    E-print Network

    Denny, Mark

    Research papers Natural intrusions of hypoxic, low pH water into nearshore marine environments water. During these episodes, oxygen can drop to physiologically stressful levels, and pH can reach Accepted 21 June 2012 Available online 29 June 2012 Keywords: Hypoxia Oxygen pH Internal tides Coastal

  13. Analysis of near-shore sea surface temperatures in the Northern Pacific

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies report a warming trend in Pacific Ocean temperatures over the last 50 years. However, much less is known about temperature change in the near-coastal environment, which is particularly sensitive to climatic change. In near-shore regions in situ sea surface temper...

  14. Provenance of Corexit-related chemical constituents found in nearshore and inland Gulf Coast waters

    E-print Network

    Clement, Prabhakar

    state as a result of exposure to chemical dispersants, and natural weathering and transformationProvenance of Corexit-related chemical constituents found in nearshore and inland Gulf Coast waters by federal and state gov- ernments, local communities also conducted studies to determine if chemical

  15. VARIABILITY, PATTERN, AND SENSITIVITY OF ECOLOGICAL INDICAORS FOR NEARSHORE REGIONS OF THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Associated with the Great Lakes Environmental Indicators (GLEI) project of the EaGLe program, we are evaluating a suite of indicators of ecological condition for the nearshore region of U.S. shorelines of the Great Lakes. The evaluation includes sampling conducted at limited fix...

  16. Beach Wizard: Nearshore bathymetry estimation through assimilation of model computations and remote observations

    E-print Network

    Haller, Merrick

    Beach Wizard: Nearshore bathymetry estimation through assimilation of model computations and remote Data assimilation Coastal monitoring Remote sensing Delft3D Morphodynamic models Beach Wizard Argus Video Marine radar Bathymetry A data­model assimilation method (called "Beach Wizard") is presented

  17. 75 FR 18235 - Paiute Cutthroat Trout Restoration Project, Alpine County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ..., on June 2, 2006 (71 FR 32125) and a notice of availability of the Draft EIS/EIR for the proposed project on March 20, 2009 (74 FR 11965). The Draft EIS/EIR analyzed the potential environmental impacts... Silver King Creek watershed, Alpine County, California. To accomplish this, the agencies must...

  18. Final Independent External Peer Review Report Puget Sound Nearshore Ecosystem Restoration

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Report/Environmental Impact Statement (DFR/EIS) Prepared by Battelle 505 King Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43201 waters in estuarine deltas, and tidal waters from the head of tide to a depth of approximately 10 meters

  19. Oil & War: Revisiting M. King Hubbert's predictions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur, A. M.

    2003-12-01

    Oil is, unlike almost any other natural resource on earth, not only finite but also irreversibly consumed. At the same time worldwide data shows that at least at present and for the foreseeable future oil consumption rate is directly proportional to the national standard of living. In 1956 and again in 1962, M. King Hubbert predicted, using a simple model based on the logistic equation, that oil production in the lower 48 United States will follow a bell shaped curve with a production peak around the year 1971 and a production level of ~ 3 billion barrels per year, followed by a rapid decline. While his model approach was ridiculed at the time production data to date reveals a remarkable agreement with this prediction: US oil production did peak in 1971 at a level of 3.2.10 barrels a day and has been declining ever since. M. King Hubbert similarly estimated also the future of oil production worldwide - predicting peak production sometime between 1995-2010 (now!) at a level of 25 to 35 billion barrels per year. Current worldwide production is ~ 27 billion barrels per year. Thus because about half of the oil in earth has already been discovered, the world is destined to face more and bigger conflicts over the control of global supplies. Although many economists and political scientists tend to dismiss the significance of Hubbert's thinking about the finiteness of recoverable oil as well as the consequent implications, it appears that without careful management these conflicts could turn into wars much bigger than in Kuwait in 1991 or in Iraq in 2003. It is therefore imperative for us as earth scientist to try to educate the public and our leaders about the basic geological reality of finite fossil energy resources, and the serious consequences of this fact.

  20. Co-curricular prospectus 2014-15 TheKing'sExperience Student

    E-print Network

    Applebaum, David

    Internships 18 King's Undergraduate Research Fellowships 20 Modern Language Courses 22 Study Abroad 24 Summer of being a King's student. If you are an undergraduate, then when you graduate from King's you will receive. The King's Undergraduate Research Fellowships, by contrast, (page 20) is one of our newest initiatives

  1. Backwash process of marine macroplastics from a beach by nearshore currents around a submerged breakwater.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kato, Shigeru

    2015-12-30

    A key factor for determining the residence time of macroplastics on a beach is the process by which the plastics are backwashed offshore (backwash process). Here, we deduced the backwash process of plastic fishing floats on Wadahama Beach based on the analysis of two-year mark-recapture experiments as well as nearshore current structures revealed by sequential images taken by za webcam installed at the edge of a cliff behind the beach. The analysis results revealed the occurrence of a combination of offshore currents and convergence of alongshore currents in the surf zone in storm events around a submerged breakwater off the northern part of the beach, where 48% of the backwashed floats were last found. We conclude that the majority of the floats on the beach were transported alongshore and tended to concentrate in the convergence zone, from where they were backwashed offshore by the nearshore currents generated in the events. PMID:26561445

  2. Provenance of Corexit-related chemical constituents found in nearshore and inland Gulf Coast waters.

    PubMed

    Hayworth, Joel S; Clement, T Prabakhar

    2012-10-01

    The dispersants Corexit 9527 and Corexit 9500 were extensively used during the response to the Deepwater Horizon accident in 2010. In addition to the monitoring programs established by federal and state governments, local communities also conducted studies to determine if chemical constituents from these dispersants impacted nearshore and inland waters. One community (the City of Orange Beach, Alabama) collected water samples between September, 2010 and January, 2011, and found the dispersant-related chemicals propylene glycol, 2-butoxyethanol, and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate at nearshore and inland water sampling sites. In this paper, we examine their dataset in an attempt to discern the origin of these chemicals. Our assessment indicates that these compounds are unlikely to be present as a result of the use of Corexit dispersants; rather, they are likely related to point and non-point source stormwater discharge. PMID:22959174

  3. Techniques developed for geologic analysis of hyperspectral data applied to near-shore hyperspectral ocean data

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, F.A.; Richardson, L.L.; Ambrosia, V.G.

    1997-06-01

    Imaging spectrometers or {open_quotes}Hyperspectral Sensors{close_quotes} simultaneously collect spectral data as both images and as individual spectra. A broad range of techniques have been examined, refined, and put into operational practice for analysis of geologic problems. This paper describes a successful geologic case history using an end-to-end approach on Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, including data calibration to reflectance, use of a linear transformation to minimize noise and determine data dimensionality, location of the most spectrally pure pixels, extraction of end member spectra, and spatial mapping of specific end members. Several supporting case studies using AVIRIS data of near-shore marine environments demonstrate the viability of these methods for studying the coastal zone. The methods described provide a starting point for image segmentation, material identification, and mapping of marine processes in the near-shore environment.

  4. King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Department of Mathematical Sciences

    E-print Network

    Khan, Abdul Rahim

    King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Department of Mathematical Sciences Final Report Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals for providing excellent research facilities during this work of Petroleum & Minerals Department of Mathematical Sciences Final Report · Research Project Number: FT/2002

  5. 76 FR 3819 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...foundation that supports economic security for all and extends the founding promise of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness to every American. Dr. King devoted his life to serving others, reminding us that ``human progress is neither...

  6. Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project data report for nearshore observations at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; Voulgaris, George; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, Robert; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Haas, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    An oceanographic field study conducted in February 2010 investigated processes that control nearshore flow and sediment transport dynamics at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation setup, and locations of the sensor deployments. The data collected, and supporting meteorological and streamflow observations, are presented as time-series plots for data visualization. Additionally, the data are available as part of this report.

  7. Nearshore Satellite Data as Relative Indicators of Intertidal Organism Physiological Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzelle, A.; Helmuth, B.; Lakshmi, V.

    2011-12-01

    The physiological performance of intertidal and shallow subtidal invertebrates and algae is significantly affected by water temperature, and so the ability to measure and model onshore water temperatures is critical for ecological and biogeographic studies. Because of the localized influences of processes such as upwelling, mixing, and surface heating from solar radiation, nearshore water temperatures can differ from those measured directly offshore by buoys and satellites. It remains an open question what the magnitude of the differences in these temperatures are, and whether "large pixel" measurements can serve as an effective proxy for onshore processes, particularly when extrapolating from laboratory physiological studies to field conditions. We compared 9 years of nearshore (~10km) MODIS (Terra and Aqua overpasses) SST data against in situ measurements of water temperature conducted at two intertidal sites in central Oregon- Boiler Bay and Strawberry Hill. We collapsed data into increasingly longer temporal averages to address the correlation and absolute differences between onshore and nearshore temperatures over daily, weekly and monthly timescales. Results indicate that nearshore SST is a reasonable proxy for onshore water temperature, and that the strength of the correlation increases with decreasing temporal resolution. Correlations between differences in maxima are highest, followed by average and minima, and were lower at a site with regular upwelling. While average differences ranged from ~0.199-1.353°C, absolute differences across time scales were ~0.446-6.906°C, and were highest for cold temperatures. The results suggest that, at least at these two sites, SST can be used as a relative proxy for general trends only, especially over longer time scales.

  8. Changes in the nearshore and offshore zooplankton communities in Lake Ontario: 1981-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johannsson, Ora E.; Mills, Edward L.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    We examined trends and factors influencing changes in nearshore and offshore zooplankton abundance and composition in Lake Ontario between 1981 and 1988. In the nearshore (southshore and eastern basin), zooplankton abundance decreased and shifts occurred in the relative abundances of Bosmina longirostris and Daphnia retrocurva (eastern basin) and Daphnia retrocurva and Daphnia galeata mendotae (southshore). These changes could have resulted from increased vertebrate predation or reduced food resources which intensified the effects of predation. In the offshore, the first appearance (FA) of the larger, less common cladoceran species occurred earlier in the season as of 1985. FA was correlated with cumulative epilimnetic temperature (CET) and the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) a?Y165 mm caught in U.S. waters in the spring. In 1987, when CET was high and CPUE of alewife a?Y165 mm was low, large populations of these cladocerans developed in June and July. Bythotrephes cederstroemi, a recent invader in the Great Lakes, was abundant only in 1987 when the CPUE of alewife was lowest. Changes in zooplankton abundance, development, and composition along the nearshore-offshore gradient reflected effects of temperature, habitat, and planktivory on the community.

  9. Terrestrial and marine trophic pathways support young-of-year growth in a nearshore Arctic fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cohn, Brian R.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    River discharge supplies nearshore communities with a terrestrial carbon source that is often reflected in invertebrate and fish consumers. Recent studies in the Beaufort Sea have documented widespread terrestrial carbon use among invertebrates, but only limited use among nearshore fish consumers. Here, we examine the carbon source and diet of rapidly growing young-of-year Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) using stable isotope values (?13C and ?15N) from muscle and diet analysis (stomach contents) during a critical and previously unsampled life stage. Stable isotope values (?15N and ?13C) may differentiate between terrestrial and marine sources and integrate over longer time frames (weeks). Diet analysis provides species-specific information, but only from recent foraging (days). Average ?13C for all individuals was ?25.7 ‰, with the smallest individuals possessing significantly depleted ?13C values indicative of a stronger reliance of terrestrial carbon sources as compared to larger individuals. Average ?15N for all individuals was 10.4 ‰, with little variation among individuals. As fish length increased, the proportion of offshore Calanus prey and neritic Mysis prey increased. Rapid young-of-year growth in Arctic cisco appears to use terrestrial carbon sources obtained by consuming a mixture of neritic and offshore zooplankton. Shifts in the magnitude or phenology of river discharge and the delivery of terrestrial carbon may alter the ecology of nearshore fish consumers.

  10. The Contribution of Nearshore Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) to Food Security and Livelihoods in Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Joelle A.; Beare, Doug; Schwarz, Anne-Maree; Albert, Simon; Warren, Regon; Teri, James; Siota, Faye; Andrew, Neil L.

    2014-01-01

    Fish aggregating devices, or FADs, are used widely in developing countries to concentrate pelagic fish, making them easier to catch. Nearshore FADs anchored close to the coast allow access for rural communities, but despite their popularity among policy makers, there is a dearth of empirical analysis of their contributions to the supply of fish and to fisheries management. In this paper we demonstrate that nearshore FADs increased the supply of fish to four communities in Solomon Islands. Estimated total annual fish catch ranged from 4300 to 12 000 kg across the study villages, with nearshore FADs contributing up to 45% of the catch. While it is clear that FADs increased the supply of fish, FAD catch rates were not consistently higher than other fishing grounds. Villages with limited access to diverse or productive fishing grounds seemingly utilized FADs to better effect. Villagers believed FADs increased household income and nutrition, as well as providing a source of fish for community events. FADs were also perceived to increase intra-household conflict and reduce fishers' participation in community activities. FADs need to be placed within a broader rural development context and treated as another component in the diversified livelihoods of rural people; as with other livelihood options they bring trade-offs and risks. PMID:25513808

  11. Drag king magic: performing/becoming the other.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    This chapter seeks to theorize drag king practice through the lenses of alterity, liminality, and performance theory, while attempting to complicate and reinvigorate discussions of identity raised by drag. I examine the ways in which drag king performance plumbs the concept of "the Other," and forces confrontation with a complex field of desire. Contemporary "queergirl" existence negotiates a range of desirable and desiring Others, from the polarities (i.e., butch-femme) unique to queer structures of desire, to the desire of those on the cultural margins for the power of those at the center, and vice versa. I employ anthropological theories of performance, mimesis, and liminality to establish a framework through which drag kings may be viewed as crucibles of this desire and agents of this power exchange. By performing maleness, drag kings expand and redraw the definitional boundaries of the male, interfere with the cultural power of mainstream maleness, and simultaneously transfer some of this power to themselves as queer women. At the same time, drag king existence forces a renegotiation of queergirl desire to encompass a range of masculinities. By performing/becoming the Other, drag kings engage in a practice of magic which transforms both margin and center. PMID:12769281

  12. Pattern and persistence of a nearshore planktonic ecosystem off Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Arthur M.; Jahn, Andrew E.

    1987-01-01

    Three related data sets from a baseline environmental survey on the continental shelf at San Onofre, California, consisting of: (1) zooplankton pumped from discrete depths on transects between the 8- and 30-m contours, sampled from 1976 to 1980; (2) zooplankton from oblique net hauls on a transect from 8 to 100 m sampled at 2-week intervals for 1 y, 1978-1979; and (3) vertical profiles of temperature, nutrients and plant pigments corresponding closely in time and space to the oblique net hauls, are used to describe cross-shelf zooplankton abundance patterns, community composition, and seasonal and shorter-term variations in cross-shelf zonation and their relation to variations in physical and chemical measures. Of 15 taxa tested for multiyear average patterns, three—the copepods Acartia clausi and Oithona oculata, and barnacle larvae—had centers of abundance shoreward of the 30-m contour and near the bottom. No differences were detected in the cross-shelf pattern between San Onofre and a transect 12 km southeast. Throughout the year, nearshore and offshore assemblages were distinguishable, the change occurring at about the 30-m contour. The offshore one, represented by the copepods Calanus pacificus, Eucalanus californicus and Rhincalanus nasutus, occupied water having less chlorophyll and less near-surface nutrient, i.e. of more oceanic character. In spring and summer, most nearshore taxa shifted slightly seaward, leaving a third assemblage, characterized by a very high abundance of Acartia spp. copepodids and maximum abundances of A. clausi and O. oculata near the beach. Three upwelling episodes resulted in marked increases in chlorophyll and nutrients, but not in cross-shelf gradients of these properties, as were noted at most other times. Maximum disturbance of cross-shelf zooplankton zonation was observed during a wintertime intrusion of offshore surface water, but the zonation was never obliterated. Nearshore zooplankton patterns appear to be protected from dislocation by the shallow shelf and sustained by phytoplankton distributed in a manner peculiar to the nearshore zone. Typically, shallow nearshore waters were richer in chlorophyll and nutrients than offshore waters of the same depth. The cross-shelf chlorophyll and nutrient profiles, in turn, appear to result from increased eddy diffusion and nutrient recycling in shallow waters, perhaps augmented by longshore transport from quasi-permanent, local upwelling nodes.

  13. C. Judson King of UC Berkeley

    SciTech Connect

    Prausnitz, John

    2005-06-01

    In the middle of the UC Berkeley campus, next to the Main Library, South Hall is the last surviving building from the original campus, founded about 135 years ago. A tiny tree-shaded appendix to this venerated classical building houses Berkeley's Center for Studies in Higher Education, directed by C. Judson King, former Provost and Senior Vice President--Academic Affairs of the ten-campus University of California and long-time Professor of Chemical Engineering at Berkeley. Jud came to Berkeley in 1963 as assistant professor of chemical engineering, following receipt of a doctor's degree from MIT and a subsequent short appointment as director of the MIT chemical engineering practice school station at what was then Esso (now Exxon) in New Jersey. His undergraduate degree is from Yale. Starting with his MIT doctoral dissertation on gas absorption, Jud has devoted much of his professional career to separation processes. His teaching and research activities have been primarily concerned with separation of mixtures with emphasis on liquid-liquid extraction and drying. As a consultant to Procter and Gamble, he contributed to the technology of making instant coffee. His life-long activities in hiking and camping stimulated Jud's interest in the manufacture of freeze-dried foods (e.g. turkey meat) to minimize the weight of his hiking back-pack. Jud is internationally known not only for his many research publications but even more, for his acclaimed textbook ''Separation Processses'' (McGraw-Hill, second edition 1980) that is used in standard chemical engineering courses in the US and abroad.

  14. Correction to Kreuzbauer, King, and Basu (2015).

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    Reports an error in "The Mind in the Object-Psychological Valuation of Materialized Human Expression" by Robert Kreuzbauer, Dan King and Shankha Basu (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Advanced Online Publication, Jun 15, 2015, np). In the article the labels on the X-axis of Figure 1 "Remove Variance" and "Preserve Variance" should be switched. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-26264-001.) Symbolic material objects such as art or certain artifacts (e.g., fine pottery, jewelry) share one common element: The combination of generating an expression, and the materialization of this expression in the object. This explains why people place a much greater value on handmade over machine-made objects, and originals over duplicates. We show that this mechanism occurs when a material object's symbolic property is salient and when the creator (artist or craftsman) is perceived to have agency control over the 1-to-1 materialized expression in the object. Coactivation of these 2 factors causes the object to be perceived as having high value because it is seen as the embodied representation of the creator's unique personal expression. In 6 experiments, subjects rated objects in various object categories, which varied on the type of object property (symbolic, functional, aesthetic), the production procedure (handmade, machine-made, analog, digital) and the origin of the symbolic information (person or software). The studies showed that the proposed mechanism applies to symbolic, but not to functional or aesthetic material objects. Furthermore, they show that this specific form of symbolic object valuation could not be explained by various other related psychological theories (e.g., uniqueness, scarcity, physical touching, creative performance). Our research provides a universal framework that identifies a core mechanism for explaining judgments of value for one of our most uniquely human symbolic object categories. PMID:26214166

  15. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Commencement Bay-Nearshore/Tideflats (Operable Unit 7), Tacoma, WA. (Third remedial action), December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The 10-12 square mile Commencement Bay-Nearshore/Tideflats site encompasses shallow water, shoreline, waterways, and adjacent land in Tacoma, Pierce County, Washington at the southern end of the main basin of Puget Sound. The site has been divided into eight different operable units (OUs). Part of the site is on the 67-acre Asarco Tacoma Smelter area, an inactive copper smelter facility adjacent to Puget Sound, which is the focus of the remedial action. A 1987 ROD addressed OU3-Tacoma Tarpits, a historical coal gasification site. A 1989 ROD addressed OU1-CB/NT sediments and OU5-CB/NT sources, both associated with marine sediments. The ROD provides an interim remedy for OU7, the Asarco Demolition, and addresses further clearing of the site to prevent the threat of an uncontrolled collapse of the stack and to minimize contaminant migration to offsite surface water. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the debris, sludge, and surface water are metals including arsenic, chromium, and lead; and other inorganics including asbestos. The selected interim remedial action for the site is included.

  16. 50 CFR 622.372 - Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern Florida west...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern...372 Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern...for applications for renewals of king mackerel gillnet permits, no applications...

  17. 50 CFR 622.372 - Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern Florida west...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern...372 Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern...for applications for renewals of king mackerel gillnet permits, no applications...

  18. Characterizing Nearshore Sediment Transport in the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell Using Repeated Shallow Bathymetric Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, D. J.; Barnard, P. L.

    2008-12-01

    The Santa Barbara Littoral Cell (SBLC) extends 150 km from Point Conception to the Point Mugu Submarine Canyon. Alongshore sediment transport rates in the SBLC can be very high but vary by at least three-fold throughout this complex region. Natural factors contributing to transport variability include wave sheltering and focusing by the Channel Islands, proximity to river inputs, and framework geological controls on coastal orientation. Sediment in the SBLC generally moves from west to east due to the predominant northwest swell, but localized transport gradients can have significant impacts on beach accretion and erosion. Coastal development in the area, particularly the construction of jetties, breakwaters, groins and seawalls, has modified nearshore sediment transport in the SBLC, but the degree to which development-related changes in sediment transport are impacting coastal resources remains unclear. This study uses three years of nearshore bathymetry data (collected biennially from October 2005 to October 2008) to examine nearshore sediment transport along the 90 km of SBLC coastline between Goleta and the Point Mugu Submarine Canyon. Data for each survey were collected along up to 248 cross- and along-shore survey lines using the third-generation USGS Coastal Profiling System (personal watercraft equipped with hydrographic surveying equipment), which allowed for collection of high-quality bathymetric data in water depths as shallow as 1 meter. Spatial and temporal changes in bathymetry are used to characterize alongshore variations in sediment transport, seasonal bar migration, and statistical depth-of- closure in support of a publicly-funded regional sediment transport study.

  19. Nearshore larval retention in a region of strong upwelling and recruitment limitation.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Fisher, Jennifer L; Miller, Seth H; McAfee, Skyli T; Largier, John L

    2009-12-01

    The ability of miniscule larvae to control their fate and replenish populations in dynamic marine environments has been a long-running topic of debate of central importance for managing resources and understanding the ecology and evolution of life in the sea. Larvae are considered to be highly susceptible to offshore transport in productive upwelling regions, thereby increasing dispersal, limiting onshore recruitment, and reducing the intensity of community interactions. We show that 45 species of nearshore crustaceans were not transported far offshore in a recruitment-limited region characterized by strong upwelling. To the contrary, 92% of these larvae remained within 6 km from shore in high densities throughout development along two transects sampled four times during the peak upwelling season. Larvae of most species remained nearshore by remaining below a shallow Ekman layer of seaward-flowing surface waters throughout development. Larvae of other species migrated farther offshore by occurring closer to the surface early in development. Postlarvae evidently returned to nearshore adult habitats either by descending to shoreward-flowing upwelled waters or rising to the sea surface where they can be transported shoreward by wind relaxation events or internal waves. Thus wind-driven offshore transport should not limit recruitment, even in strong upwelling regions, and larvae are more likely to recruit closer to natal populations than is widely believed. This study poses a new challenge to determine the true cause and extent of recruitment limitation for a more diverse array of species along upwelling coasts, and thus to further advance our understanding of the connectivity, dynamics, and structure of coastal populations. PMID:20120816

  20. Atmospheric NO2 dynamics and impact on ocean color retrievals in urban nearshore regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzortziou, Maria; Herman, Jay R.; Ahmad, Ziauddin; Loughner, Christopher P.; Abuhassan, Nader; Cede, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    Urban nearshore regions are characterized by strong variability in atmospheric composition, associated with anthropogenic emissions and meteorological processes that influence the circulation and accumulation of atmospheric pollutants at the land-water interface. If not adequately corrected in satellite retrievals of ocean color, this atmospheric variability can impose a false impression of diurnal and seasonal changes in nearshore water quality and biogeochemical processes. Consideration of these errors is important for measurements from polar orbiting ocean color sensors but becomes critical for geostationary satellite missions having the capability for higher frequency and higher spatial resolution observations of coastal ocean dynamics. We examined variability in atmospheric NO2 over urban nearshore environments in the Eastern US, Europe, and Korea, using a new network of ground-based Pandora spectrometers and Aura-OMI satellite observations. Our measurements in the US and in Europe revealed clear diurnal and day-of-the-week patterns in total column NO2 (TCNO2), temporal changes as large as 0.8 DU within 4 h, and spatial variability as large as 0.7 DU within an area often covered by just a single OMI pixel. TCNO2 gradients were considerably stronger over the coastal cities of Korea. With a coarse resolution and an overpass at around 13:30 local time, OMI cannot detect this strong variability in NO2, missing pollution peaks from industrial and rush hour activities. Observations were combined with air quality model simulations and radiative transfer calculations to estimate the impact of atmospheric NO2 variability on satellite retrievals of coastal ocean remote sensing reflectance and biogeochemical variables (i.e., chlorophyll and CDOM).

  1. Observation of wave celerity evolution in the nearshore using digital video imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, J.; Fritz, H. M.; Haas, K. A.; Work, P. A.; Barnes, C. F.; Cho, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Celerity of incident waves in the nearshore is observed from oblique video imagery collected at Myrtle Beach, S.C.. The video camera covers the field view of length scales O(100) m. Celerity of waves propagating in shallow water including the surf zone is estimated by applying advanced image processing and analysis methods to the individual video images sampled at 3 Hz. Original image sequences are processed through video image frame differencing, directional low-pass image filtering to reduce the noise arising from foam in the surf zone. The breaking wave celerity is computed along a cross-shore transect from the wave crest tracks extracted by a Radon transform-based line detection method. The observed celerity from the nearshore video imagery is larger than the linear wave celerity computed from the measured water depths over the entire surf zone. Compared to the nonlinear shallow water wave equation (NSWE)-based celerity computed using the measured depths and wave heights, in general, the video-based celerity shows good agreements over the surf zone except the regions across the incipient wave breaking locations. In the regions across the breaker points, the observed wave celerity is even larger than the NSWE-based celerity due to the transition of wave crest shapes. The observed celerity using the video imagery can be used to monitor the nearshore geometry through depth inversion based on the nonlinear wave celerity theories. For this purpose, the exceeding celerity across the breaker points needs to be corrected accordingly compared to a nonlinear wave celerity theory applied.

  2. Wave-induced mass transport affects daily Escherichia coli fluctuations in nearshore water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ge, Zhongfu; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Phanikumar, Mantha S.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of diel variability of fecal indicator bacteria concentration in nearshore waters is of particular importance for development of water sampling standards and protection of public health. Significant nighttime increase in Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration in beach water, previously observed at marine sites, has also been identified in summer 2000 from fixed locations in waist- and knee-deep waters at Chicago 63rd Street Beach, an embayed, tideless, freshwater beach with low currents at night (approximately 0.015 m s–1). A theoretical model using wave-induced mass transport velocity for advection was developed to assess the contribution of surface waves to the observed nighttime E. coli replenishment in the nearshore water. Using average wave conditions for the summer season of year 2000, the model predicted an amount of E. coli transported from water of intermediate depth, where sediment resuspension occurred intermittently, that would be sufficient to have elevated E. coli concentration in the surf and swash zones as observed. The nighttime replenishment of E. coli in the surf and swash zones revealed here is an important phase in the cycle of diel variations of E. coli concentration in nearshore water. According to previous findings in Ge et al. (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010, 44, 6731–6737), enhanced current circulation in the embayment during the day tends to displace and deposit material offshore, which partially sets up the system by the early evening for a new period of nighttime onshore movement. This wave-induced mass transport effect, although facilitating a significant base supply of material shoreward, can be perturbed or significantly influenced by high currents (orders of magnitude larger than a typical wave-induced mass transport velocity), current-induced turbulence, and tidal forcing.

  3. Modeling near-shore subsea permafrost degradation in the Laptev Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneier, F.; Langer, M.; Overduin, P. P.

    2012-12-01

    Most subsea permafrost in the Arctic Ocean shelf regions is relict terrestrial permafrost that was inundated by sea water by rising sea levels after the last glacial period. Permafrost usually degrades offshore under the influence of sea-bottom temperatures, salt infiltration and a wide range of near-shore coastal processes. Subsea permafrost instability has important potential implications due to the release of methane to the atmosphere and by increasing coastal erosion rates. Our objectives are to employ meso-scale numerical calculations (from meter to kilometer, 1000s of years) in connection with borehole data from the Laptev Sea to model the transition of permafrost from onshore to offshore conditions. The goal is to identify key processes driving permafrost degradation in the near-shore zone of the shelf. The heat transfer equation is solved numerically taking into account freeze-thaw processes in a three-phase heat capacity / conductivity model. Sediment composition and initial temperature profiles are derived from field and laboratory analysis of the borehole data. Our approach neglects some processes such as solute diffusion, but includes the effect of pore water salinity on phase state and thermal properties. Measured temperature profiles are compared to the modeled subsea soil temperature evolution over the course of the 2500 year transgression of the farthest offshore borehole in the transect. The degradation of the ice-bearing permafrost table or thaw depth is of special interest due to its direct relation to sediment stability and as the most readily discernible feature in the field observations. Temperature profiles generally agree well with model calculations reproducing the almost isothermal permafrost profiles currently observed, but show more variation potentially partially caused by drilling disturbances. The thaw depth is mainly driven by salt contamination and infiltration into deeper pore water with time. Complicating near-shore processes discussed include the occurrence of bottom-fast sea ice and marine sedimentation rates.

  4. Large-Scale Spatial Distribution Patterns of Echinoderms in Nearshore Rocky Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Iken, Katrin; Konar, Brenda; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Knowlton, Ann; Pohle, Gerhard; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Wong, Melisa; Trott, Thomas; Mieszkowska, Nova; Riosmena-Rodriguez, Rafael; Airoldi, Laura; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Ortiz-Touzet, Manuel; Silva, Angelica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined echinoderm assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats for large-scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends and large regional hotspots. Echinoderms were sampled from 76 globally-distributed sites within 12 ecoregions, following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org). Sample-based species richness was overall low (<1–5 species per site), with a total of 32 asteroid, 18 echinoid, 21 ophiuroid, and 15 holothuroid species. Abundance and species richness in intertidal assemblages sampled with visual methods (organisms >2 cm in 1 m2 quadrats) was highest in the Caribbean ecoregions and echinoids dominated these assemblages with an average of 5 ind m?2. In contrast, intertidal echinoderm assemblages collected from clearings of 0.0625 m2 quadrats had the highest abundance and richness in the Northeast Pacific ecoregions where asteroids and holothurians dominated with an average of 14 ind 0.0625 m?2. Distinct latitudinal trends existed for abundance and richness in intertidal assemblages with declines from peaks at high northern latitudes. No latitudinal trends were found for subtidal echinoderm assemblages with either sampling technique. Latitudinal gradients appear to be superseded by regional diversity hotspots. In these hotspots echinoderm assemblages may be driven by local and regional processes, such as overall productivity and evolutionary history. We also tested a set of 14 environmental variables (six natural and eight anthropogenic) as potential drivers of echinoderm assemblages by ecoregions. The natural variables of salinity, sea-surface temperature, chlorophyll a, and primary productivity were strongly correlated with echinoderm assemblages; the anthropogenic variables of inorganic pollution and nutrient contamination also contributed to correlations. Our results indicate that nearshore echinoderm assemblages appear to be shaped by a network of environmental and ecological processes, and by the differing responses of various echinoderm taxa, making generalizations about the patterns of nearshore rocky habitat echinoderm assemblages difficult. PMID:21079760

  5. Seabird use of discards from a nearshore shrimp fishery in the South Atlantic Bight, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Wickliffe, L.C.; Sachs, E.B.

    2011-01-01

    Shrimp trawling is common throughout the southeastern and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the USA and is the primary contributor to fisheries discards in these regions. Tens of thousands of nearshore seabirds nest near shrimp trawling grounds in the USA, but to date, there has been no assessment of the relationship between seabirds and shrimp trawlers. We examined the taxonomic composition of bycatch, rate at which seabirds scavenged bycatch, and energy density of discarded bycatch in a nearshore commercial shrimp fishery. Bycatch was primarily comprised of demersal fish that are not typically accessible to the plunge-diving and surface-feeding seabirds that occur in the area. Hence, seabird diets in the region appear to be broadened taxonomically by the availability of discards. Results from discard experiments indicated that 70% of the nearly 5,500 items discarded by hand were scavenged by seabirds and that the fate of a discarded item was most strongly predicted by its taxonomic order. Laughing gulls scavenged the greatest proportion of discards, although brown pelicans were the only species to scavenge more discards than predicted based upon their abundance. Because this is the first such study in the region, it is difficult to ascertain the extent or intensity of the impact that discards have on nearshore seabirds. Nonetheless, our results suggest that it will be difficult for managers to clearly understand fluctuations in local seabird population dynamics without first understanding the extent to which these species rely upon discards. This may be especially problematic in situations where seabird populations are recovering following natural or anthropogenic stressors. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Wave-induced mass transport affects daily Escherichia coli fluctuations in nearshore water.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhongfu; Whitman, Richard L; Nevers, Meredith B; Phanikumar, Mantha S

    2012-02-21

    Characterization of diel variability of fecal indicator bacteria concentration in nearshore waters is of particular importance for development of water sampling standards and protection of public health. Significant nighttime increase in Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration in beach water, previously observed at marine sites, has also been identified in summer 2000 from fixed locations in waist- and knee-deep waters at Chicago 63rd Street Beach, an embayed, tideless, freshwater beach with low currents at night (approximately 0.015 m s(-1)). A theoretical model using wave-induced mass transport velocity for advection was developed to assess the contribution of surface waves to the observed nighttime E. coli replenishment in the nearshore water. Using average wave conditions for the summer season of year 2000, the model predicted an amount of E. coli transported from water of intermediate depth, where sediment resuspension occurred intermittently, that would be sufficient to have elevated E. coli concentration in the surf and swash zones as observed. The nighttime replenishment of E. coli in the surf and swash zones revealed here is an important phase in the cycle of diel variations of E. coli concentration in nearshore water. According to previous findings in Ge et al. (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010, 44, 6731-6737), enhanced current circulation in the embayment during the day tends to displace and deposit material offshore, which partially sets up the system by the early evening for a new period of nighttime onshore movement. This wave-induced mass transport effect, although facilitating a significant base supply of material shoreward, can be perturbed or significantly influenced by high currents (orders of magnitude larger than a typical wave-induced mass transport velocity), current-induced turbulence, and tidal forcing. PMID:22257076

  7. Latitudinal Discontinuity in Thermal Conditions along the Nearshore of Central-Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Fabian J.; Largier, John L.; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A.; Navarrete, Sergio A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30–32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4–10 years at 15 sites between 28–35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30–31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30–31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species-specific effects, and add strength to the suggestion of an oceanography-driven, major spatial transition in coastal communities at 30–31°S. PMID:25334020

  8. Uranium in the Near-shore Aquatic Food Chain: Studies on Periphyton and Asian Clams

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Miley, Terri B.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Brandt, Charles A.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-12-31

    The benthic aquatic organisms in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River are the first biological receptors that can be exposed to groundwater contaminants coming from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The primary contaminant of concern in the former nuclear fuels processing area at the Site, known as the 300 Area, is uranium. Currently, there are no national clean up criteria for uranium and ecological receptors. This report summarizes efforts to characterize biological uptake of uranium in the food chain of the benthic aquatic organisms and provide information to be used in future assessments of uranium and the ecosystem.

  9. Ecological monitoring for assessing the state of the nearshore and open waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neilson, Melanie A.; Painter, D. Scott; Warren, Glenn; Hites, Ronald A.; Basu, Ilora; Weseloh, D.V. Chip; Whittle, D. Michael; Christie, Gavin; Barbiero, Richard; Tuchman, Marc; Johannsson, Ora E.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Fleischer, Guy; Bronte, Charles; Smith, Stephen B.; Baumann, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement stipulates that the Governments of Canada and the United States are responsible for restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem. Due to varying mandates and areas of expertise, monitoring to assess progress towards this objective is conducted by a multitude of Canadian and U.S. federal and provincial/state agencies, in cooperation with academia and regional authorities. This paper highlights selected long-term monitoring programs and discusses a number of documented ecological changes that indicate the present state of the open and nearshore waters of the Great Lakes.

  10. Inbreeding, eugenics, and Helen Dean King (1869-1955).

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey

    2007-01-01

    Helen Dean King's scientific work focused on inbreeding using experimental data collected from standardized laboratory rats to elucidate problems in human heredity. The meticulous care with which she carried on her inbreeding experiments assured that her results were dependable and her theoretical explanations credible. By using her nearly homozygous rats as desired commodities, she also was granted access to venues and people otherwise unavailable to her as a woman. King's scientific career was made possible through her life experiences. She earned a doctorate from Bryn Mawr College under Thomas Hunt Morgan and spent a productive career at the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology in Philadelphia where she had access to the experimental subjects which made her career possible. In this paper I examine King's work on inbreeding, her participation in the debates over eugenics, her position at the Wistar Institute, her status as a woman working with mostly male scientists, and her involvement with popular science. PMID:18348398

  11. Naval submarine base Kings Bay and Bangor soil evaluations.

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Joseph; Patteson, Raymond; Wesenberg, Donald L.; Attaway, Stephen W.

    2004-08-01

    This report provides soil evaluation and characterization testing for the submarine bases at Kings Bay, Georgia, and Bangor, Washington, using triaxial testing at high confining pressures with different moisture contents. In general, the samples from the Bangor and Kings Bay sites appeared to be stronger than a previously used reference soil. Assuming the samples of the material were representative of the material found at the sites, they should be adequate for use in the planned construction. Since soils can vary greatly over even a small site, a soil specification for the construction contractor would be needed to insure that soil variations found at the site would meet or exceed the requirements. A suggested specification for the Bangor and Kings Bay soils was presented based on information gathered from references plus data obtained from this study, which could be used as a basis for design by the construction contractor.

  12. DRAFT LANDSAT DATA MOSAIC: MONTGOMERY COUNTY, TEXAS; HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS; FORT BEND COUNTY, TEXAS; BRAZORIA COUNTY, TEXAS; GALVESTON COUNTY, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a draft Landsat Data Mosaic, which contains remote sensing information for Montgomery County, Texas Harris County, Texas Fort Bend County, Texas Brazoria County, Texas Galveston County, and Texas Imagery dates on the following dates: October 6, 1999 and September 29, 200...

  13. Survey of radiological contaminants in the near-shore environment at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Van Verst, S.P.; Albin, C.L.; Patton, G.W.; Blanton, M.L.; Poston, T.M.; Cooper, A.T.; Antonio, E.J.

    1998-09-01

    Past operations at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor resulted in the release of radiological contaminants to the soil column, local groundwater, and ultimately to the near-shore environment of the Columbia River. In September 1997, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) and the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) initiated a special study of the near-shore vicinity at the Hanford Site`s retired 100-N Area reactor. Environmental samples were collected and analyzed for radiological contaminants ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, and gamma/ emitters), with both the WDOH and SESP analyzing a portion of the samples. Samples of river water, sediment, riverbank springs, periphyton, milfoil, flying insects, clam shells, and reed canary grass were collected. External exposure rates were also measured for the near-shore environment in the vicinity of the 100-N Area. In addition, samples were collected at background locations above Vernita Bridge.

  14. Data summary for the near-shore sediment characterization task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, D.A.; Hargrove, W.W.; Campbell, K.R.; Wood, M.A.; Rash, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents the results of the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). The goals of the task were to (1) determine the extent to which near-shore surface sediments are contaminated by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and (2) provide data for the Watts Bar Reservoir Interagency Permitting Group (WBRIPG) to evaluate the human health risks from exposure to sediments during and following dredging operations. The data collected for this task are also to be used in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RLTS) for the CR-ERP operable units (Lower Watts Bar and Clinch River) to characterize the human health risk associated with exposure to near-shore sediments throughout the Watts Bar Reservoir.

  15. 33 CFR 165.730 - King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area. 165.730 Section...Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard...165.730 King's Bay, Georgia—Regulated navigation area. Vessels...

  16. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project: Progress

    E-print Network

    Proceedings of a Symposium on the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project: Progress and Current Status January 26, 1998 Clovis, California Technical Editor: Jared Verner Contents Preface .......................................................................................................................... iii The Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project: Inception, Objectives, and Progress

  17. Interannual Changes in Seasonal Ground Freezing and Near-surface Heat Flow Beneath Bottom-fast Ice in the Near-shore Zone, Mackenzie Delta, NWT, Canada

    E-print Network

    Moorman, Brian

    in the Near-shore Zone, Mackenzie Delta, NWT, Canada Christopher W. Stevens ,1* Brian J. Moorman 2 and Steve M­06 and 2006­07 within the near-shore zone of the Mackenzie Delta, Canada. Winter variability in ground thermal. KEY WORDS: seasonal ground freezing; permafrost; bottom-fast ice; Mackenzie Delta INTRODUCTION Arctic

  18. Dragon-Kings, Black-Swans and Prediction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, D.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme fluctuations or events are often associated with power law statistics. Indeed, it is a popular belief that "wild randomness'' is deeply associated with distributions with power law tails characterized by small exponents. In other words, power law tails are often seen as the epitome of extreme events (the "Black Swan'' story). Here, we document in very different systems that there is life beyond power law tails: power laws can be superseded by "dragon-kings'', monster events that occur beyond (or changing) the power law tail. Dragon-kings reveal hidden mechanisms that are only transiently active and that amplify the normal fluctuations (often described by the power laws of the normal regime). The goal of this lecture is to catalyze the interest of the community of geophysicists across all fields of geosciences so that the "invisible gorilla" fallacy may be avoided. Our own research illustrates that new statistics or representation of data are often necessary to identify dragon-kings, with strategies guided by the underlying mechanisms. Paradoxically, the monsters may be ignored or hidden by the use of inappropriate analysis or statistical tools that amount to cut a mamooth in small pieces, so as to lead to the incorrect belief that only mice exist. In order to stimulate further research, we will document and discuss the dragon-king phenomenon on the statistics of financial losses, economic geography, hydrodynamic turbulence, mechanical ruptures, avalanches in complex heterogeneous media, earthquakes, and epileptic seizures. The special status of dragon-kings open a new research program on their predictability, based on the fact that they belong to a different class of their own and express specific mechanisms amplifying the normal dynamics via positive feedbacks. We will present evidence of these claims for the predictions of material rupture, financial crashes and epileptic seizures. As a bonus, a few remarks will be offered at the end on how the dragon-king phenomenon allows us to understand the present World financial crisis as underpinned in two decades of successive financial and economic bubbles, inflating the mother of all bubbles with new monster dragon-kings at the horizon. The consequences in terms of a new "normal" are eye-opening. Ref: D. Sornette, Dragon-Kings, Black Swans and the Prediction of Crises, International Journal of Terraspace Science and Engineering 1(3), 1-17 (2009) (http://arXiv.org/abs/0907.4290) and (http://ssrn.com/abstract=1470006)

  19. Air-sea CO2 fluxes in the near-shore and intertidal zones influenced by the California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Janet J.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Smith, Stephen V.; Lara-Lara, Ruben; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Martín Hernández-Ayón, J.; Castro, Angel; Escoto-Rodriguez, Martin; Martínez-Osuna, Juan

    2013-10-01

    The study of air-sea CO2 fluxes (FCO2) in the coastal region is needed to better understand the processes that influence the direction and magnitude of FCO2 and to constrain the global carbon budget. We implemented a 1 year (January through December 2009) paired study to measure FCO2 in the intertidal zone (the coastline to 1.6 km offshore) and the near-shore (˜3 km offshore) off the north-western coast of Baja California (Mexico); a region influenced by year-round upwelling. FCO2 was determined in the intertidal zone via eddy covariance; while in the near-shore using mooring buoy sensors then calculated with the bulk method. The near-shore region was a weak annual net source of CO2 to the atmosphere (0.043 mol CO2 m-2 y-1); where 91% of the outgassed FCO2 was contributed during the upwelling season. Sea surface temperature (SST) and ?pCO2 (from upwelling) showed the strongest relationship with FCO2 in the near-shore, suggesting the importance of meso-scale processes (upwelling). FCO2 in the intertidal zone were up to four orders of magnitude higher than FCO2 in the near-shore. Wind speed showed the strongest relationship with FCO2 in the intertidal zone, suggesting the relevance of micro-scale processes. Results show that there are substantial spatial and temporal differences in FCO2 between the near-shore and intertidal zone; likely a result of heterogeneity. We suggest that detailed spatial and temporal measurements are needed across the coastal oceans and continental margins to better understand the mechanisms which control FCO2, as well as reduce uncertainties and constrain regional and global ocean carbon balances.

  20. Reading Stephen King: Issues of Censorship, Student Choice, and Popular Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Brenda Miller, Ed.; Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.; Chandler, Kelly, Ed.

    This collection of essays grew out of the "Reading Stephen King Conference" held at the University of Maine in 1996. Stephen King's books have become a lightning rod for the tensions around issues of including "mass market" popular literature in middle and high school English classes and of who chooses what students read. King's fiction is among…

  1. Copyright: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa

    E-print Network

    El-Alfy, El-Sayed

    © Copyright: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa A Neural Network-BASED EDUCATION; pp: 505-510; Vol: ## King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals http://www.kfupm.edu.sa Summary: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa 3. BISHOP C, 1995, NEURAL

  2. Copyright: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa

    E-print Network

    El-Alfy, El-Sayed

    © Copyright: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa Applications, COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS; pp: 2010-2020; Vol: 30 King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals http Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. References: #12;© Copyright: King Fahd University of Petroleum

  3. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING 1 LineKing: Coffee Shop Wait-Time Monitoring

    E-print Network

    Ferhatosmanoglu, Hakan

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING 1 LineKing: Coffee Shop Wait-Time Monitoring Using and forecasting coffee shop line wait times. LineKing consists of a smartphone component that provides automatic-time estimation. LineKing is used on a daily basis by hundreds of users to monitor the wait- times of a coffee

  4. Love, Justice, and Natural Law: On Martin Luther King, Jr. and Human Rights

    E-print Network

    Doyle, Robert

    1 Love, Justice, and Natural Law: On Martin Luther King, Jr. and Human Rights Vincent W. Lloyd that this is where King contributes to discussions of human rights, through his rhetoric of natural law which, in its human rights "theory") can be renewed. King's rhetoric of natural law is particularly potent, and has

  5. 76 FR 23335 - Wilderness Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... National Park Service Wilderness Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoia and Kings Canyon... Intent to Prepare Environmental Impact Statement for Wilderness Stewardship Plan, Sequoia and Kings... Act of 1969 (PL91-190) Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI) are initiating the...

  6. Environment, Politics and Development Working Paper Series Department of Geography, King's College London

    E-print Network

    Applebaum, David

    Environment, Politics and Development Working Paper Series Department of Geography, King's College of Geography, King's College London ©2010 by the Author(s) This paper is posted at King's College London-able and trade-able C02 emissions--was successfully buried under the faux-populist tide of the Tea Party. Cap

  7. EFFICIENCY TOOLS IN THE SPEECHES OF MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. M. Cassandra Foster Smith

    E-print Network

    EFFICIENCY TOOLS IN THE SPEECHES OF MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. M. Cassandra Foster Smith Computer of speeches of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. Specif- ically, the analysis has investigated, Helloway 3, and Ohmann~ Martin Luther King, Jr. is considered by many to have been an effective speaker

  8. Let Freedom Ring: The Life & Legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This lesson plan teaches students about the life and work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Students listen to a brief biography, view photographs of the March on Washington, and read a portion of King's "I Have a Dream" speech. After studying Dr. King's use of imagery and allusion, students create original poetic phrases about freedom and illustrate…

  9. Henry David Thoreau, Martin Luther King Jr., and the American Tradition of Protest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. fundamentally altered the tradition of protest and reform. Compares and contrasts the role of each man in U.S. social and constitutional history. Concludes that while Thoreau lacked the broad influence of King, his writings influenced both King and Mohandas Gandhi. (CFR)

  10. 36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. 7...OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.8 Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. ...apply to the privately owned lands within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks....

  11. 36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. 7...OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.8 Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. ...apply to the privately owned lands within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks....

  12. 36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. 7...OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.8 Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. ...apply to the privately owned lands within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks....

  13. 36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. 7...OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.8 Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. ...apply to the privately owned lands within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks....

  14. SIZE, SEX RATIO, AND RECRUITMENT IN VARIOUS FISHERIES OF KING MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS CA VALLA, IN

    E-print Network

    SIZE, SEX RATIO, AND RECRUITMENT IN VARIOUS FISHERIES OF KING MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS CA VALLA. MANOOCH III' ABSTRACT Data from over 54,000 king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, were analyzed selective for particular sizes of king mackerel. Size composition in each area varied considerably among

  15. The king mackerel (Scomberomorus ca-valla),a westernAtlantic member of the

    E-print Network

    684 The king mackerel (Scomberomorus ca- valla),a westernAtlantic member of the family ScombridaeVries and Grimes, 1997). King mackerel sup- port valuable commercial and recre- ational fisheries by quota was implemented in the 1985­86 fishing year. The current management regime for king mackerel

  16. AbstractA total of 1006 king mack erel (Scomberomorus cavalla) repre

    E-print Network

    satellites revealed two weakly divergent "genetic" subpopulations or stocks of king mackerel in Florida boundaries used currently for stock assessment and allocation of the king mackerel resource, were nonsig with either geographic or spatial-temporal boundaries. King mackerel sampled from the Florida Keys could

  17. Copyright: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa

    E-print Network

    El-Alfy, El-Sayed

    © Copyright: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa On Optimal SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS, VOLS 1 AND 2; pp: 819-824; Vol: ## King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa 15. YU F, 2004, EFFICIENT MULTI

  18. Ugiuvangmiut Quliapyuit = King Island Tales. Eskimo History and Legends from Bering Strait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lawrence D., Ed.

    The collection of native tales from King Island, Alaska, contains tales told originally in Inupiaq Eskimo by seven native elders. Introductory sections provide background information on the storytellers, King Island Village and its people, traditional life there, and the language of the King Islanders. The 25 tales are divided into groups: "The…

  19. Trophic connections in Lake Superior Part II: the nearshore fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, A.E.; Hrabik, T.R.; Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    We use detailed diet analyses of the predominant planktivorous, benthivorous and piscivorous fish species from Lake Superior to create a nearshore (bathymetric depths Mysis diluviana and Diporeia spp). Although the piscivorous fishes like lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) fed to a lesser extent on Diporeia and Mysis, they were still strongly connected to these macroinvertebrates, which were consumed by their primary prey species (sculpin spp., rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, and coregonines). The addition of Bythotrephes to summer/fall cisco and lake whitefish diets, and the decrease in rainbow smelt in lean lake trout diets (replaced by coregonines) were the largest observed differences relative to historic Lake Superior diet studies. Although the offshore food web of Lake Superior was simpler than nearshore in terms of number of fish species present, the two areas had remarkably similar food web structures, and both fish communities were primarily supported by Mysis and Diporeia. We conclude that declines in Mysis or Diporeia populations would have a significant impact on energy flow in Lake Superior. The food web information we generated can be used to better identify management strategies for Lake Superior.

  20. A system for measuring bottom profile, waves and currents in the high-energy nearshore environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Howard, P.C.; Fletcher, C. H., III; Howd, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    A new data-acquisition system capable of measuring waves, currents and the nearshore profile in breaking waves as high as 5 m has been developed and successfully field-tested. Components of the mechanical system are a sled carrying a vertical mast, a double-drum winch placed landward of the beach, and a line that runs from one drum of the winch around three blocks, which are the corners of a right triangle, to the other drum of the winch. The sled is attached to the shore-normal side of the triangular line arrangement and is pulled offshore by one drum of the winch and onshore by the other. The profile is measured as the sled is towed along the shore-normal transect using an infrared rangefinder mounted landward of the winch and optical prisms mounted on top of the sled's mast. A pressure sensor and two-axis electromagnetic current meter are mounted on the frame of the sled. These data are encoded on the sled and telemetered to a receiving/recording station onshore. Preliminary results suggest that near-bottom offshore-flowing currents during periods of high-energy swell are important in forcing changes to the configuration of the nearshore profile. ?? 1983.

  1. Monitoring and modeling nearshore dredge disposal for indirect beach nourishment, Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hanes, Daniel M.; Lescinski, Jamie; Elias, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    Nearshore dredge disposal was performed during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, a high energy tidal and wave environment. This trial run was an attempt to provide a buffer to a reach of coastline where wave attack during the winter months has had a severe impact on existing sewage infrastructure. Although the subsequent beach response was inconclusive, after one year the peak of the disposal mound had migrated ~100 m toward the shore, providing evidence that annual dredge disposal at this site could be beneficial over the long-term by at the very least providing: 1) additional wave dissipation during storms 2) compatible sediment to feed nearshore bars, 3) sediment cover on an exposed sewage outfall pipe, and 4) a viable alternative to the shoaling offshore disposal site. Numerical modeling suggests that despite the strong tidal currents in the region, wave forcing is the dominant factor moving the sediment slowly toward shore, and placing sediment at just slightly shallower depths (e.g. 9 m) in the future would have a more immediate impact.

  2. High-resolution topographic, bathymetric, and oceanographic data for the Pleasure Point Area, Santa Cruz County, California: 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Collins, Brian D.; Finlayson, David P.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hatcher, Gerry A.; Kayen, Robert E.; Ruggiero, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The County of Santa Cruz Department of Public Works and the County of Santa Cruz Redevelopment Agency requested the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team (WCMG) to provide baseline geologic and oceanographic information on the coast and inner shelf at Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, California. The rationale for this proposed work is a need to better understand the environmental consequences of a proposed bluff stabilization project on the beach, the nearshore and the surf at Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, California. To meet these information needs, the USGS-WCMG Team collected baseline scientific information on the morphology and waves at Pleasure Point. This study provided high-resolution topography of the coastal bluffs and bathymetry of the inner shelf off East Cliff Drive between 32nd Avenue and 41st Avenue. The spatial and temporal variation in waves and their breaking patterns at the study site were documented. Although this project did not actively investigate the impacts of the proposed bluff stabilization project, these data provide the baseline information required for future studies directed toward predicting the impacts of stabilization on the sea cliffs, beach and nearshore sediment profiles, natural rock reef structures, and offshore habitats and resources. They also provide a basis for calculating potential changes to wave transformations into the shore at Pleasure Point.

  3. Influence of the sea-ice edge on the Arctic nearshore environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, K. R.; Overeem, I.; Anderson, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Coasts form the dynamic interface of the terrestrial and oceanic systems. In the Arctic, and in much of the world, the coast is a zone of relatively high population, infrastructure, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. A significant difference between Arctic and temperate coasts is the presence of sea ice. Sea ice influences Arctic coasts in two main ways: (1) the length of the sea ice-free season controls the length of time over which nearshore water can interact with the land, and (2) the sea ice edge controls the fetch over which storm winds can blow over open water, resulting in changes in nearshore water level and wave field. The resulting nearshore hydrodynamic environment impacts all aspects of the coastal system. Here, we use satellite records of sea ice along with a simple model for wind-driven storm surge and waves to document how changes in the length and character of the sea ice-free season have impacted the nearshore hydrodynamic environment. For our sea ice analysis we primarily use the Bootstrap Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS. We make whole-Arctic maps of sea ice change in the coastal zone. In addition to evaluating changes in length of the sea ice-free season at the coast, we look at changes segmented by azimuth. This allows us to consider changes in the sea ice in the context of the wind field. For our storm surge and wave field analysis we focus on the Beaufort Sea region. This region has experienced some of the greatest changes in both sea ice cover and coastal erosion rates in the Arctic and is anticipated to experience significant change in the future. In addition, the NOAA ESRL GMD has observed the wind field at Barrow since extends to 1977. In our past work on the rapid and accelerating coastal erosion, we have shown that one may model storm surge with a 2D numerical bathystrophic model, and that waves are well represented by the Shore Protection Manual methods for shallow-water fetch-limited waves. We use these models to explore the effect of increasing fetch on water level set up and wave generation. As increasing the fetch is one of the main effects of the changing sea ice cover, this allows us to connect changes in the sea ice cover to changes in the nearshore hydrodynamic environment. The long wind record allows for us to investigate changes in extreme wind and associated storm events. Preliminary analysis of Barrow and Drew Point indicate that at Drew Point the sea ice-free season has expanded by ˜17 days/decade while at Barrow it has expanded by ˜22 days/decade. We find the increase in the number of days when the sea ice edge is far away from the coast makes up a large proportion of the total increase in the duration of the sea ice-free season. For these days the sea ice edge does not provide a limit on the fetch over which water level set up and waves are generated.

  4. Appendix A - County Codes

    Cancer.gov

    January 1998 SEER Program Code Manual, 3 rd Edition A-1 APPENDIX A COUNTY CODES APPENDIX A COUNTY CODES A-2 SEER Program Code Manual, 3rd Edition January 1998 The following are the valid county codes for coding county of residence at diagnosis: Reference:

  5. 76 FR 3819 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Half a century ago, America was moved by... recognizing one of America's greatest visionary leaders, and we celebrate the life and legacy of Dr. King. Dr... OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by...

  6. STOMACH CONTENTS OF THE BERING SEA KING CRAB

    E-print Network

    I STOMACH CONTENTS OF THE BERING SEA KING CRAB SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT-FISHERIES Na 291 UNITED A. Seaton, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Suoraela, Commissioner STOMACH CONTENTS. Fish and Wildlife Service Seattle, Washington ABSTRACT This preliminary study of the stomach contents

  7. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE SIR DAVID KING

    E-print Network

    AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE SIR DAVID KING CHIEF SCIENTIFIC ADVISER TO THE UK GOVERNMENT GLOBAL WARMING: THE IMPERATIVES FOR ACTION FROM THE SCIENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE PLENARY ADDRESS TO THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE February 13, 2004 Seattle, Washington

  8. Skull Size and Intelligence, and King Robert Bruce's IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Ferguson, Karen J.; Bastin, Mark E.; Barrow, Geoffrey W. S.; Reid, Louise M.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; MacLullich, Alasdair M. J.

    2007-01-01

    An estimate of someone's IQ is a potentially informative personal datum. This study examines the association between external skull measurements and IQ scores, and uses the resulting regression equation to provide an estimate of the IQ of King Robert I of Scotland (Robert Bruce, 1274-1329). Participants were 48 relatively healthy Caucasian men…

  9. King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Electical Engineering Department

    E-print Network

    Iqbal, Sheikh Sharif

    loss characteristics of microstrip low pass filter Microwave ferrite circulators, phase shifters Ch 10King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Electical Engineering Department EE 407-Microwave OR by appointment TOPICS We ek DATE LAB Experiments Ch 1: Introduction to Microwave Engg; Review of Maxwell

  10. KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

    E-print Network

    Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

    KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS Dhahran, Saudi Arabia Basic Properties of Reservoir Rocks By Dr. Sidqi A. Abu-Khamsin Professor, Department of Petroleum Engineering © Copyright by Dr. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 The nature of petroleum 1 1.2 The petroleum reservoir 1 1.3 Significance of rock properties

  11. Parasite local adaptation: Red Queen versus Suicide King

    E-print Network

    Storfer, Andrew

    and higher mutation rates. This greater evolutionary potential of parasites led to the general predictionParasite local adaptation: Red Queen versus Suicide King Mark F. Dybdahl and Andrew Storfer School of Biological Sciences, PO Box 644236, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4236, USA Parasites

  12. How to Comment like a King--or Queen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Vicki

    2007-01-01

    Blogging, if you truly inhale its essence, will give you a calling, renewal, and purpose as you have never seen before. Here, the author shows how to blog like a king or a queen. These techniques include: (1) Write a meaningful comment; (2) If you have written about it, hyperlink to your post; (3) If you have a blog, share some information about…

  13. AMFR/King City Radar Intercomparison Timothy J. Lang

    E-print Network

    Rutledge, Steven

    (ZHH) and differential reflectivity (ZDR) of all respective gates for each radar. We did is the left major column, and ZDR the right major column on each page. We show results for various height the low-altitude discrepancies just get worse between King and AMFR. AMFR Ku ZDR values tend to run ~1 d

  14. Martin Luther King Jr.: The Crozer Seminary Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Clayborne

    1997-01-01

    As an undergraduate at Morehouse College, Martin Luther King Jr. was not a strong student, although he excelled in oratory, but in his years at Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania he applied himself to become a straight-A student. The development of his theological perspective is described. (SLD)

  15. A Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Curriculum: Playing the Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Sydney Gurewitz

    1988-01-01

    Discusses curriculum for young children centered around the beliefs and teachings of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. His works are interpreted in a human rights context in which children find their voice in the peaceable resolution of everyday conflicts. Describes the Child of the Day program. (Author/RWB)

  16. UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND FRANCIS KING CAREY SCHOOL OF LAW

    E-print Network

    Weber, David J.

    and clinic, they bring the law to life. Meet Your Mentor. Student/Faculty Ratio 12:1 #12;5 Paula Monopoli "IsUNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND FRANCIS KING CAREY SCHOOL OF LAW Start here. THE JD PROGRAM #12;#12;Great lawyers are smart.They have mastered the law, but they understand people too. They are ambitious.They like

  17. King mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla) are large coastal pelagic

    E-print Network

    Massachu- setts to Brazil in the western Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea (Mc of Mexico (GOM) and in the Atlantic Ocean (Atlantic) off the southeastern United States. King mackerel) and Atlantic Ocean (Atlantic). Separate migra- tory groups, or stocks, migrate from eastern GOM

  18. 77 FR 2905 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ...Federal Holiday, we celebrate the man who fought for the America he knew was possible. Dr. King's faith in a God who loves all His children and a Nation grounded in the promise of equality would not let him rest until victory was won. As we...

  19. Parts of Antarctica's King George Island are littered with trash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2013-02-01

    A report released 7 February by ecologists from Germany's Friedrich Schiller University Jena reveals that parts of King George Island, a logistical hub for international research in Antarctica, are home to open pits of trash, decaying field huts, and other forms of pollution.

  20. 78 FR 5247 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-01636 Filed 1-23... equality. They braved billy clubs and bomb threats, dogs and fire hoses. For their courage and sacrifice... the full equality and opportunity guaranteed by our founding documents. Today, Dr. King's...

  1. LEGENDS OF KING ARTHUR. LITERATURE CURRICULUM III, STUDENT VERSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    A STUDENT VERSION OF A CURRICULUM GUIDE ON THE "LEGENDS OF KING ARTHUR" WAS DEVELOPED. SELECTED LEGENDS ARE REPRODUCED ALONG WITH AN INTRODUCTION, STUDY QUESTIONS, AND A PASSAGE FROM MALORY'S "LE MORTE D'ARTHUR" IN THE ORIGINAL LANGUAGE OF THE FIRST EDITION (1485). THE TEACHER VERSION IS ED 010 814. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 010 129 THROUGH ED 010…

  2. LEGENDS OF KING ARTHUR. LITERATURE CURRICULUM III, TEACHER VERSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    A TEACHER VERSION OF A CURRICULUM GUIDE ON THE "LEGENDS OF KING ARTHUR" WAS DEVELOPED. AN ENLARGED AND MORE DETAILED INTRODUCTION THAN THAT PROVIDED FOR THE STUDENT VERSION WAS PRESENTED. STUDY QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS, WRITING ASSIGNMENTS, AND SUGGESTED READINGS WERE ALSO PROVIDED. THE STUDENT VERSION IS ED 010 813. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 010 129…

  3. Effects of OsteoKing on osteoporotic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    DAI, LIFEN; WU, HAIYING; YU, SHAN; ZHAO, HONGBIN; XUE, LANJIE; XU, MING; SHEN, ZHIQIANG; HU, MIN

    2015-01-01

    Heng-Gu-Gu-Shang-Yu-He-Ji, also known as OsteoKing, is used as a herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of bone disease, including femoral head necrosis and osteoarthritis. However, whether OsteoKing has anti-osteoporotic properties has remained to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was therefore to investigate the effects of OsteoKing on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rabbits. Female New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into an ovariectomized (OVX) group and a sham-surgery group. The rabbits in the OVX group were subjected to an ovariectomy, while the rabbits in the sham group were subjected to the removal of an area of fat near the two ovaries. Bone mineral density, mechanical properties, serum biochemical parameters and micro-architecture were examined at 150 days post-OVX to characterize the experimental animal model. Once the osteoporotic rabbit model had been established, the rabbits in the OVX group were divided into the following groups: Model group, nilestriol group and 300 and 600 mg/kg OsteoKing groups, containing 16 rabbits in each group. OsteoKing and nilestriol were administered orally. The bone mineral density, mechanical properties, serum biochemical parameters, histology and micro-architecture were examined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric analysis, mechanical assessments, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, histopathological evaluation and micro-computerized tomography examination following 60 days and 120 days of treatment, respectively. Treatment with OsteoKing led to an elevation in the bone mineral density of the vertebra and serum phosphorus levels, reduced serum concentrations of osteocalcin, procollagen type I N-terminal peptide, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen, improved mechanical properties (maximum load, stiffness and energy absorption capacity), and micro-architecture of the lumbar vertebra in the OVX osteoporotic rabbit model following treatment for 120 days. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that OsteoKing is effective in the prevention of estrogen deficiency-associated bone loss and may be a promising drug for the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:25815520

  4. Purchasing in Texas Counties

    E-print Network

    Hervey, E. J.; Bradshaw, H. C.

    1944-01-01

    were carefully studied. Following this detailed examination in four counties, purchasing pro- cedures were studied in considerably less detail in the following counties: Wharton, Waller, Liberty, Milam, Anderson, Harrison, Kaufman, Dallas, Tarrant... (After the program) 7,667 If the program had included a larger portion of the county road system, the saving would undoubtedly have been larger.' Harrison County In Harrison County in 1941, second grade (regular) gasoline was pur- chased in lots...

  5. Geology and stratigraphy of King crater, lunar farside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David J.; Dunkin, Sarah K.

    2003-06-01

    Clementine and photographic data sets have been used to investigate the crustal stratigraphy and geology of King crater on the lunar farside (120°E, 5.5°N). Pre-existing topographic regimes or stress fields dominate many structures in the crater, which has excavated materials from depths of up to 14 km. The upper crust in the area is noritic anorthosite, grading to a more anorthositic signature with depth. A possible batholithic intrusion is also present in a 15-km-wide band, extending from the southern crater floor to at least 50 km north of King, and from near-surface levels down to at least the excavation depth of the crater. It is generally feldspathic, but is cut by mafic dykes now visible in the north wall. King also shows evidence for the presence of a cryptomare, exposed in regions of the peaks and in dark halo craters within the ejecta blanket. Localized olivine-bearing mineralogies are observed on the central peaks, suggesting isolated pockets of troctolitic mineralogies to have been present at 8- to 14-km depths. Copious volumes of crystalline melt produced from the impact event cover King's floor to a maximum thickness of 30-60 m, and have pooled in a number of natural depressions outside of the main crater. The main pool in the pre-existing A1-Tusi crater has a minimum depth of 150 m. Domes on the crater floor are verified as nonvolcanic in origin, and did not act as a source for any of the lava-like materials in King.

  6. Modeling ground thermal conditions and the limit of permafrost within the nearshore zone of the Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    E-print Network

    Moorman, Brian

    the duration of time ice is bottomfast and the thermal insulation of the overlying snowpack [Stevens et alModeling ground thermal conditions and the limit of permafrost within the nearshore zone examines the interrelated effects of snow and ice on ground thermal conditions beneath regions of shallow

  7. Physiography, surficial sediments and Quaternary stratigraphy of the inner continental shelf and nearshore region of the Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, J.T.; Belknap, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    The western margin of the Gulf of Maine is a bedrock-framed, glaciated continental shelf that has only recently been geologically mapped. The bathymetry is divisible into four physiographic areas: nearshore basins, shelf valleys, rocky zones, and outer basins. The nearshore basins are largely floored by mud except near rock outcrops where shelly gravel occurs. Shelf valleys extend seaward from nearshore basins and estuaries and generally possess less sediment than nearshore basins. Abundant exposures of Pleistocene sediment with rippled substrates suggest that contemporary reworking is occurring. Rocky zones are the most abundant physiographic area and include both exposed bedrock and glacial gravel outcrops. Shell material produced by organisms living on or near rocks is common both in the rocky zones and in abutting environments. The outer basin begins at a depth of about 60 m and extends beyond the 100 m isobath. This area is occasionally bordered on its landward side by the late Quaternary lowstand shoreline. Below this shoreline thicker deposits of sediment exist, while all environments landward were reworked by a regression and transgression of the sea. ?? 1991.

  8. Pressure-gradient-driven nearshore circulation on a beach influenced by a large inlet-tidal shoal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shi, F.; Hanes, D.M.; Kirby, J.T.; Erikson, L.; Barnard, P.; Eshleman, J.

    2011-01-01

    The nearshore circulation induced by a focused pattern of surface gravity waves is studied at a beach adjacent to a major inlet with a large ebb tidal shoal. Using a coupled wave and wave-averaged nearshore circulation model, it is found that the nearshore circulation is significantly affected by the heterogeneous wave patterns caused by wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal. The model is used to predict waves and currents during field experiments conducted near the mouth of San Francisco Bay and nearby Ocean Beach. The field measurements indicate strong spatial variations in current magnitude and direction and in wave height and direction along Ocean Beach and across the ebb tidal shoal. Numerical simulations suggest that wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal causes wave focusing toward a narrow region at Ocean Beach. Due to the resulting spatial variation in nearshore wave height, wave-induced setup exhibits a strong alongshore nonuniformity, resulting in a dramatic change in the pressure field compared to a simulation with only tidal forcing. The analysis of momentum balances inside the surf zone shows that, under wave conditions with intensive wave focusing, the alongshore pressure gradient associated with alongshore nonuniform wave setup can be a dominant force driving circulation, inducing heterogeneous alongshore currents. Pressure-gradient- forced alongshore currents can exhibit flow reversals and flow convergence or divergence, in contrast to the uniform alongshore currents typically caused by tides or homogeneous waves.

  9. Development of an Integrated Assessment of Great Lakes Using Towed in situ Sensor Technologies: Linking Nearshore Conditions with Adjacent Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal and nearshore regions of the US/Canadian Great Lakes have not been included in monitoring efforts in any regular, consistent, or comprehensive fashion. To address this need, we have been developing a survey strategy using towed in situ sensors to provide spatially-compreh...

  10. LECTURA Y DISCUSIN DE UN ARTCULO CIENTFICO "Killer Whale Predation on Sea Otters Linking Oceanic and Nearshore Ecosystems"

    E-print Network

    Seoane, Javier

    LECTURA Y DISCUSIÓN DE UN ARTÍCULO CIENTÍFICO "Killer Whale Predation on Sea Otters Linking Oceanic que aquí se presenta? #12;Killer Whale Predation on Sea Otters Linking Oceanic and Nearshore overhunting, sea otter populations are in abrupt decline over large areas of western Alaska. Increased killer

  11. Influence of coastal upwelling and El Nin~oSouthern Oscillation on nearshore water along Baja California and Chile

    E-print Network

    van Geen, Alexander

    California and Chile: Shore-based monitoring during 1997­­2000 Renee K. Takesue,1,2 Alexander van Geen,1 Jose and El Nin~o­Southern Oscillation (ENSO) off Baja California and Chile, nearshore salinity, cadmium (Cd forcing were observed at the southern tip of Baja California (23.3°N) and off central-southern Chile (36

  12. Human Progress Never Rolls in on Wheels of Inevitability: Biographies of Martin Luther King, Jr., in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemek, Francis E.

    1990-01-01

    Presents resources for teaching about Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Outlines criteria for selecting biographies for children and young adults. Identifies problems in certain biographies of King, and recommends high quality biographies of King. Discusses exercises for integrating themes from King's life into the classroom. (RW)

  13. A hybrid level set/volume-of-fluid approach for simulation of nearshore hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtyar, R.; Kees, C. E.; Miller, C. T.; Farthing, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    Wave breaking can play an important role in hydrodynamics near the coast and subsequently can be a factor in beach morphodynamics. However, an accurate understanding of the wave breaking and mixing of water and air at the free surface has yet to be achieved. Numerical models, based on single phase flow, have been used to study the nearshore hydrodynamics, but air-water two-phase flow is not well understood, and so there is a need for additional investigation into the details of this type of flow. The main objective of this study was to de¬velop further understanding of surf-swash zone hydrodynamics under a variety of wave forcing conditions. The main tool used was a com-prehensive two-phase numerical model - combining two-dimensional wave solver with the state-of-the-art 'Eulerian' technique for free surface modeling- of nearshore hydrodynamics. Surf-swash zone hydrodynamics were modeled using the Navier-Stokes equations, combined with turbulence closure model and a hybrid level set/volume-of-fluid approach. The hybrid level set/volume-of-fluid approach combines the accuracy and conceptual simplicity of front-tracking using level set methods with the conservation properties of volume-of fluid methods. The solver was discretized using a finite element method. The model's grid convergence and refinement were investigated in order to obtain high accuracy at an acceptable computational cost while retain robustness. The numerical set-up was tested against the well-known experimental data, with good agreement found. The numerical results showed that the maximum turbulent kinetic energy, turbulence dissipation rate, and velocity components are located near the free surface in the wave breaking area. The model is appropriate for the simulation of air-water mixing flow, undertow distribution, and turbulence characteristics in the nearshore zone. Generally, the analysis shows that, with reasonable hypotheses, it is possible to simulate the surf-swash zone hydrodynamics under wave breaking, consistent with existing understanding of this area.

  14. Southwest Washington littoral drift restoration—Beach and nearshore morphological monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Ruggiero, Peter; Kaminsky, George M.

    2012-01-01

    A morphological monitoring program has documented the placement and initial dispersal of beach nourishment material (280,000 m3) placed between the Mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) North Jetty and North Head, at the southern end of the Long Beach Peninsula in southwestern Washington State. A total of 21 topographic surveys and 8 nearshore bathymetric surveys were performed between July 11, 2010, and November 4, 2011. During placement, southerly alongshore transport resulted in movement of nourishment material to the south towards the MCR North Jetty. Moderate wave conditions (significant wave height around 4 m) following the completion of the nourishment resulted in cross-shore sediment transport, with most of the nourishment material transported into the nearshore bars. The nourishment acted as a buffer to the more severe erosion, including dune overtopping and retreat, that was observed at the northern end of the study area throughout the winter. One year after placement of the nourishment, onshore transport and beach recovery were most pronounced within the permit area and to the south toward the MCR North Jetty. This suggests that there is some long-term benefit of the nourishment for reducing erosion rates locally, although the enhanced recovery also could be due to natural gradients in alongshore transport causing net movement of the sediment from north to south. Measurements made during the morphological monitoring program documented the seasonal movement and decay of nearshore sand bars. Low-energy conditions in late summer resulted in onshore bar migration early in the monitoring program. Moderate wave conditions in the autumn resulted in offshore movement of the middle bar and continued onshore migration of the outer bar. High-energy wave conditions early in the winter resulted in strong cross-shore transport and creation of a 3-bar system along portions of the coast. More southerly wave events occurred later in the winter and early spring and coincided with the complete loss of the outer bar and net loss of sediment from the study area. These data suggest that bar decay may be an important mechanism for exporting sediment from Benson Beach north to the Long Beach Peninsula. The measurements presented in this report represent one component of a broader monitoring program designed to track the movement of nourishment material on the beach and shoreface at this location, including continuous video monitoring (Argus), in situu measurements of hydrodynamics, and a physical tracer experiment. Field data from the monitoring program will be used to test numerical models of hydrodynamics and sediment transport and to improve the capability of numerical models to support regional sediment management.

  15. Historical Changes to Lake Washington and Route of the Lake Washington Ship Canal, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chrzastowski, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    Historical shoreline changes to hydrologic characteristics were studied for Lake Washington and the route of Lake Washington Ship Canal. The study is based on comparison of maps made during the period 1875-1907 and modern topographic maps, supplemented with historical documents that describe the once-natural setting of the lakes and streams in the Lake Washington drainage basin. The observed shoreline changes range from minor to substantial. The water-surface area has been historically reduced by about 6 square kilometers, and total shoreline has been reduced by 20 kilometers. Approximately 4 square kilometers of the historical wetland area has been eliminated, or about 93 percent of the natural wetland extent. The changes have resulted from construction of the Lake Washington Ship Canal and accompanying water-level adjustments, shoreline modification from urban growth of the area, and limited natural processes. The map comparison documents (1) extent of shoreline changes (2) historical loss of wetlands area, (3) loss of small streams that historically entered the lakes and bays, and (4) historical vegetation and land-use patterns around the lakeshore and canal route. The identification of historical shorelines, wetlands, and small streams that have no expression on today 's landscape is information of value to land-use planning and local engineering activities. (USGS)

  16. Evaluation of seepage from Chester Morse Lake and Masonry Pool, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hidaka, F.T.; Garrett, Arthur Angus

    1967-01-01

    Hydrologic data collected in the Cedar and Snoqualmie River basins on the west slope of the Cascade Range have been analyzed to determine the amount of water lost by seepage from Chester Morse Lake and Masonry Pool and the. consequent gain by seepage to the Cedar and South Fork Snoqualmie Rivers. For water years 1957-64, average losses were about 220 cfs (cubic feet per second) while average gains were about 180 cfs in the Cedar River and 50 cfs in the South Fork Snoqualmie River. Streamflow and precipitation data for water years 1908-26 and 1930-F2 indicate that a change in runoff regimen occurred in Cedar and South Fork Snoqualmie Rivers after the Boxley Creek washout in December 1918. For water years 1919-26 and 1930-32, the flow of Cedar River near Landsburg averaged about 80 cfs less than it would have if the washout had not occurred. In contrast, the flow of South Fork Snoqualmie River at North Bend averaged about 60 cfs more than it would have.

  17. King County Metro Transit: Allison Hybrid Electric Transit Bus Laboratory Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R. R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-09-01

    Paper summarizes chassis dynamometer testing of two 60-foot articulated transit buses, one conventional and one hybrid, at NREL's ReFUEL Laboratory. It includes experimental setup, test procedures, and results from vehicle testing performed at the NREL ReFUEL laboratory.

  18. Geologic Map of the Poverty Bay 7.5' quadrangle, King and Pierce counties, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, Derek B.; Waldron, H.H.; Troost, K.G.

    2004-01-01

    The Poverty Bay quadrangle lies near the center of the region?s intensively developing urban core. Less than 20 km north lies the city of Seattle; downtown Tacoma lies just southwest of the quadrangle. The map area expresses much of the tremendous range of Quaternary environments and deposits found throughout the central Puget Lowland. Much of the ground surface is mantled by a rolling surface of glacial till deposited during the last occupation of the Puget Lowland by a great continental ice sheet about 14,000 years ago. A complex sequence of older unconsolidated sediments extends far below sea level across most of the quadrangle, with no bedrock exposures at all.

  19. Determination of mass balance and entrainment in the stratified Duwamish River Estuary, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoner, J.D.

    1972-01-01

    During a study of the effects of waste-water input on the stratified Duwamish River estuary, intensive water-velocity and salinity measurements were made in both the lower salt wedge and the upper fresher water layer for tidal-cycle periods. The net movement of water and salt mass past a cross section during a tidal cycle was determined from integration of the measured rates of movement of water and salt past the section. The net volume of water that moved downstream past the section during the cycle agreed with the volume of fresh-water inflow at the head of the estuary within (1) 3.8 and 7.2 percent, respectively, for two studies made during periods of maximum and minimum tidal-prism thickness and identical inflow rates .of 312 cfs (cubic feet per second), and (2) 15 percent for one study made during a period of average tidal-prism thickness and an inflow rate of 1,280 cfs. For the three studies, the difference between salt mass transported upstream and downstream during the cycles ranged from 0.8 to 19 percent of the respective mean salt-mass transport. Water was entrained from the .salt-water wedge into the overlying layer of mixed fresh and salt water at tidal-cycle-average rates of 30 and 69 cfs per million square feet of interface for the inflow rates of 312 cfs, and 99 cfs per million square feet of interface for an inflow rate of 1,280 cfs. At a constant inflow rate, the rate of entrainment of salt-wedge water in the Duwamish River estuary more than doubled for a doubling of tidal-prism thickness. It also doubled for a quadrupling of inflow rate at about constant tidal-prism thickness.

  20. Geology and metallization of the White River Area, King and Pierce Counties, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    McCulla, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Bedrock of the White River area is dominated by Miocene age volcanics of andesite to rhyolite composition, which may be in part coeval with plutonic phases of the nearby 26 - 14 m.y. Tatoosh batholith. These volcanic rocks host two spatially distinct and gold-bearing epithermal deposits of the acid-sulfate type that are structurally, temporally, and genetically related to the formation and resurgent magmatic activity at the margin of an early Miocene caldera (22.6 - 19.1 m.y.). The age of hydrothermal activity is 20.4 +/- 0.1 m.y. based on UAr/TZAr analysis of hypogene alunite from the mineralized zone. Hydrothermal alteration and metallization of both deposits is chemically and mineralogically similar and consists of a central core of pervasive silicification that grades outward into zones of advanced argillic, argillic, and propylitic alteration. The largest of the two target areas is defined by a silica capping. Sulfur isotope analyses of cogenetic alunite-pyrite-enargite demonstrate a (34)S of +28.8 per thousand for the alunite-pyrite mineral pair. This large fractionation corroborates other field and mineralogic evidence for the hypogene origin of the alunite, and provides a geologically reasonable isotopic temperature estimate of 190 C for this epithermal deposit. Fold was introduced in at least 3 distinct episodes of structural-hydrothermal activity. The highest concentration of gold is within a zone measuring 1600 by 300-600 feet, and is localized in parts of the similar capping that contain outcrops of matrix-supported explosion breccias and veins having anomalous concentrations of up to 480 ppb Au, 13.7 ppm Ag, 1900 ppm As, 213 ppm Sb, 7.5 ppm Hg, and 10 ppm Mo.

  1. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the Duwamish River Estuary, King County, Washington, 1963-67

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santos, John F.; Stoner, J.D.

    1972-01-01

    This report describes the significant results to 1967 of a comprehensive study that began in 1963 to evaluate what changes take place in an estuary as the loads .of raw and partially treated industrial and municipal wastes are replaced by effluent from a secondary treatment plant. The study area is the Duwamish River estuary, about 18.3 river kilometers long. At mean sea level the estuary has a water-surface area of about 1 square mile and a mean width of 440 feet. At the lowest and highest recorded tides, the volume of the estuary is about 205 and 592 million cubic feet, respectively. The estuary is well stratified (salt-wedge type) at fresh-water inflows greater than 1,000 cfs (cubic feet per second), but when inflow rates are less than 1,000 cfs the lower 5.6 kilometers of the estuary grades into the partly mixed type. The crosschannel salinity distribution is uniform for a given location and depth. Salinity migration is controlled by tides and fresh-water inflow. At fresh-water inflow rates greater than 1,000 cfs, water in the upper 8.4 kilometers of the estuary is always fresh regardless of tide. At inflow rates less than 600 cfs and tide heights greater than 10 feet; some salinity has been detected 16.1 kilometers above the mouth of the estuary. Studies using a fluorescent dye show that virtually no downward mixing into the salt wedge occurs; soluble pollutants introduced at the upper end of the estuary stay in the surface layer (5-15 ft thick). On the basis of dye studies when fresh-water inflow is less than 400 cfs, it is estimated that less than 10 percent of a pollutant will remain in the estuary a minimum of 7 days. Longitudinal dispersion coefficients for the surface layer have been determined to be on the order of 100-400 square feet per second. Four water-quality stations automatically monitor DO (dissolved oxygen), water temperature, pH, and specific conductance; at one station solar radiation also is measured. DO concentration in the surface layer decreases almost linearly in a downstream direction. Minimum DO concentration in the surface layer is usually greater than 4 rag/1 (milligrams per liter). The smallest DO values are consistently recorded in the bottom layer at the station 7.7 kilometers above the mouth; monthly means of less than 3 mg/1 of DO have occurred at this point. Manual sampling shows that the DO sag in the bottom layer oscillates between 7.7 and 10.4 kilometers above the mouth of the estuary. Multiple-regression analysis shows that the surface DO content can be estimated from the fresh-water inflow and water temperature. Tidal exchange and fresh-water inflow indirectly control the bottom DO content. Information available from previous studies failed to indicate a progressive decrease in DO content during the period 1949-56, but data from the present study suggest a slight general decrease in the annual minimum DO concentrations in both the upper and lower layers. Average nitrate concentration in fresh water at station 16.2 has increased progressively since 1964, by amounts greater than those which can be attributed to the Renton Treatment Plant, 4.3 kilometers upstream from station 16.2. The BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) in both surface and bottom layers is generally less than 4 rag/1 of oxygen, but values greater than 6 rag/1 have been measured during a period of phytoplankton bloom. Phytoplankton blooms can occur during periods of minimum tidal exchange and fresh-water inflows of less than 300 cfs if solar radiation and water temperature are optimum. Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) do not control the occurrence of a bloom, because sufficient quantities of these nutrients are always present. Nutrients in the treated effluent may increase the biomass of the bloom. Trace-element studies have not defined any role that these elements may play in algal growth. The inflowing fresh water contains principally calcium and bicarbonate and has a dissolved-solids content ra

  2. Modeling the impacts of wildfire on runoff and pollutant transport from coastal watersheds to the nearshore environment.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Katherine D; Kolden, Crystal A

    2015-03-15

    Wildfire is a common disturbance that can significantly alter vegetation in watersheds and affect the rate of sediment and nutrient transport to adjacent nearshore oceanic environments. Changes in runoff resulting from heterogeneous wildfire effects are not well-understood due to both limitations in the field measurement of runoff and temporally-limited spatial data available to parameterize runoff models. We apply replicable, scalable methods for modeling wildfire impacts on sediment and nonpoint source pollutant export into the nearshore environment, and assess relationships between wildfire severity and runoff. Nonpoint source pollutants were modeled using a GIS-based empirical deterministic model parameterized with multi-year land cover data to quantify fire-induced increases in transport to the nearshore environment. Results indicate post-fire concentration increases in phosphorus by 161 percent, sediments by 350 percent and total suspended solids (TSS) by 53 percent above pre-fire years. Higher wildfire severity was associated with the greater increase in exports of pollutants and sediment to the nearshore environment, primarily resulting from the conversion of forest and shrubland to grassland. This suggests that increasing wildfire severity with climate change will increase potential negative impacts to adjacent marine ecosystems. The approach used is replicable and can be utilized to assess the effects of other types of land cover change at landscape scales. It also provides a planning and prioritization framework for management activities associated with wildfire, including suppression, thinning, and post-fire rehabilitation, allowing for quantification of potential negative impacts to the nearshore environment in coastal basins. PMID:25549866

  3. Geology of Vanport limestone (Pennsylvanian) in Elk County, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, T.J.

    1987-09-01

    The northernmost exposures of the Vanport limestone appear in Elk and southern McKean Counties, Pennsylvania. The Vanport limestone is structurally preserved in N45/sup 0/-50/sup 0/E trending synclinal folds. Surface exposures are almost all incomplete due to erosion. Drill-hole data assisted in defining areas of nondeposition within Elk County, variations in thickness, and erosional loss by channeling. The Vanport limestone thins to the southeast within Elk County and probably changes from limestone to a shaly limestone (transition zone) and then to shale. Analysis of 70 limestone samples indicated an average insoluble-residue content of 11.4%. The insoluble residue, mainly clay, increases toward the southeast, the direction of paleoshoreline and source of terrigenous sediments. A lack of quartz grains suggests a lack of detrital input from the source area. A study of the vertical variation of the total insoluble-residue content displayed an increase at the bottoms and tops of the stratigraphic section, mirroring the transgressive-regressive phases of the Vanport sea. The majority of allochems were skeletal material in a micritic matrix. Most abundant were mollusks, followed by forams, brachiopods, echinoderms, ostracods, and bryozoans. Composita brachiopods and pseudopunctate and/or punctate brachiopods inhabited offshore stillstand and nearshore transgressive-regressive environments, respectively. Other fossil assemblages displayed spatial and temporal variation. A darker matrix color occurred in stratigraphic sections closer to the paleoshoreline, due to higher clay and organic content. More offshore stratigraphic sections of the limestone were noticeably lighter in color.

  4. Radar signal return from near-shore surface and shallow subsurface features, Darien Province, Panama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, B. C.; Dellwig, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    The AN/APQ-97 radar imagery over eastern Panama is analyzed. The imagery was directed toward extraction of geologic and engineering data and the establishment of operational parameters. Subsequent investigations emphasized landform identification and vegetation distribution. The parameters affecting the observed return signal strength from such features are considered. Near-shore ocean phenomena were analyzed. Tidal zone features such as mud flats and reefs were identified in the near range, but were not detectable in the far range. Surface roughness dictated the nature of reflected energy (specular or diffuse). In surf zones, changes in wave train orientation relative to look direction, the slope of the surface, and the physical character of the wave must be considered. It is concluded that the establishment of the areal extent of the tidal flats, distributary channels, and reefs is practical only in the near to intermediate range under minimal low tide conditions.

  5. Sea-Floor Mapping and Benthic Habitat GIS for the Elwha River Delta Nearshore, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Sagy, Yael; Finlayson, David; Harney, Jodi

    2008-01-01

    From March 1531, 2005, more than 252 km (19.5 km2) of seafloor offshore of the Elwha River Delta in the central Strait of Juan de Fuca was mapped by the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program. The purpose of this nearshore mapping was to (1) obtain high resolution bathymetry and acoustic reflectance properties of the seabed, (2) examine and record geologic characteristics of the seafloor, and (3) construct maps of sea-floor geomorphology and habitat. Substrate distribution was characterized with video-supervised statistical classification of the sonar data. Substrate of the survey was dominated by mixed sand-gravel and sand. Numerous boulder reefs were observed west of the river mouth within Freshwater Bay, whereas the sea-floor immediately adjacent to the river mouth was dominated by sand.

  6. LANDSAT survey of near-shore ice conditions along the Arctic coast of Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringer, W. J. (principal investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. On the basis of analysis of late winter 1973, 1974, and 1975 LANDSAT imagery of the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska, the following conclusions regarding near-shore ice conditions were made: (1) by March, the seaward limit of contiguous ice is often beyond the 10 fathom contour. (2) During March, shearing can and does take place along a line roughly coincident with the 10 fathom contour. (3) Ice motions during these shearing events are not extremely great, generally on the order of 10 km. (4) Many large ice features have already been formed by late February. (5) Based on look-ahead at later LANDSAT imagery, it seems apparent that Beaufort Seas shore-fast ice was already formed by late February and may well be safe for exploratory activities from this data forward until the melt season.

  7. Extraordinarily high coral cover on a nearshore, high-latitude reef in south-west Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, D. P.; Frisch, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Photographic line transects were used to quantify the benthic community at Hall Bank, a small, nearshore, high-latitude reef in south-west Australia. On one of the seven transects, the coral cover was 72.5% (mean = 52.6 ± 0.45%), which is the highest ever recorded coral cover at or beyond 32°S. There were no macro-algae, possibly due to the high density of herbivorous sea-urchins (mean = 5.0 ± 0.8 m-2). Fourteen species of scleractinian corals dominated the benthos, seven of which were from the family Faviidae. Given that Hall Bank is at the limit of environmental tolerance for reef formation, it represents a valuable research opportunity for understanding the factors that build and maintain coral reef biodiversity and resilience.

  8. The Performance of Nearshore Dredge Disposal at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (USACE). The USACE designated a temporary nearshore dredge disposal site for the annual disposal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand about 750 m offshore and slightly south of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. The site has now been used three times for a total sediment disposal of about 690,000 m3 (about 900,000 yds3). The disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion, as well as prevent further scour on an exposed outfall pipe. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring and modeling the bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region since inception in May 2005. This paper reports on the first 2.5 years of this monitoring program effort (May 2005 to December 2007) and assesses the short-term coastal response. Here are the key findings of this report: *Approximately half of the sediment that has been placed in the nearshore dredge-disposal site during the 2.5 years of this study remains within the dredge focus area. *In the winter of 2006-7, large waves transported the dredge-mound material onshore. *High rates of seasonal cross-shore sediment transport mask any potential profile change in the Coastal Profiling System data due to dredge placement. *Pockets of accretion have been recorded by topographic surveying adjacent to the dredge site, but it is unclear if the accretion is linked to the nourishment. *Cross-shore profile modeling suggests that dredge material must be placed in water depths no greater than 5 m to drive a positive shoreline response. *Area modeling demonstrates that the new dredge site increases wave dissipation and modifies local sediment-transport patterns, although the effect on the nearshore morphology is largely negligible. *Any increase in beach width or wave energy-dissipation related to the nourishment is likely to be realized only in the vicinity directly onshore of the nourishment site, which is several hundred meters south of the area of critical erosion. *Larger waves from the northwest and smaller waves from the west or southwest contribute most to the sediment transport from the dredge mound onshore.

  9. Effects of nearshore recharge on groundwater interactions with a lake in mantled karst terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The recharge and discharge of groundwater were investigated for a lake basin in the mantled karst terrain of central Florida to determine the relative importance of transient groundwater inflow to the lake water budget. Variably saturated groundwater flow modeling simulated water table responses observed beneath two hillsides radiating outward from the groundwater flow-through lake. Modeling results indicated that transient water table mounding and groundwater flow reversals in the nearshore region following large daily rainfall events generated most of the net groundwater inflow to the lake. Simulated daily groundwater inflow was greatest following water table mounding near the lake, not following subsequent peaks in the water level of upper basin wells. Transient mounding generated net groundwater inflow to the lake, that is, groundwater inflow in excess of the outflow occurring through the deeper lake bottom. The timing of the modeled net groundwater inflow agreed with an independent lake water budget; however, the quantity was considerably less than the budge-derived value.

  10. LANDSAT survey of near-shore ice conditions along the Arctic coast of Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringer, W. J. (principal investigator); Barrett, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Winter and spring near-shore ice conditions were analyzed for the Beaufort Sea 1973-77, and the Chukchi Sea 1973-76. LANDSAT imagery was utilized to map major ice features related to regional ice morphology. Significant features from individual LANDSAT image maps were combined to yield regional maps of major ice ridge systems for each year of study and maps of flaw lead systems for representative seasons during each year. These regional maps were, in turn, used to prepare seasonal ice morphology maps. These maps showed, in terms of a zonal analysis, regions of statistically uniform ice behavior. The behavioral characteristics of each zone were described in terms of coastal processes and bathymetric configuration.

  11. Southwest Washington Littoral Drift Restoration Project: Beach and Nearshore Morphological Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Stevens, A. W.; Ruggiero, P.; Kaminsky, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    Shoreline change along the southwest Washington and northwest Oregon coast responds to both natural and anthropogenic drivers at a range of temporal and spatial scales. Within the last century, human interventions, primarily the construction of large jetties at the entrance to the Columbia River, have been the dominant driver of nearshore morphology and shoreline change in this area. These jetties caused the inlet to narrow and deepen, the ebb-tidal delta to migrate offshore into deeper water, and adjacent shorelines to first accrete then erode over distances of tens of kilometers and time scales of decades. Shoreline change modeling suggests that reduced local sediment supply owing to these morphological changes is causing a deficit of sand feeding the shoreline, especially in the region of Benson Beach, just north of the mouth of the Columbia River. One of the goals of the Southwest Washington Littoral Drift Restoration (SW LDR) project is to assess the long-term viability of placing dredged material from the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) directly on Benson Beach to supplement the littoral sediment budget. The SW LDR will be one of the largest beach nourishment projects in the Pacific Northwest, with approximately 200,000 - 400,000 m3 of dredged material being placed on Benson Beach during the summer of 2010. Extensive monitoring and modeling efforts are underway to evaluate the effectiveness of the project and to develop morphodynamic modeling tools to inform future Regional Sediment Management decisions. Overall project components include Argus beach monitoring, measurements of nearshore waves and currents, deployment of a sand tracer, morphodynamic modeling, and a morphological monitoring program. The primary purpose of the morphological monitoring program, and the focus for this presentation, is to track the response of beach and nearshore areas during and after the sand placement. Bathymetric data, collected using Personal Watercraft (PWCs) equipped with Real-time Kinematic (RTK) GPS and single-beam sonar systems, are merged with topographic measurements made with RTK GPS mounted on backpacks and on an all-terrain vehicle. A baseline survey was performed on July 11-12, 2010 to characterize beach and nearshore morphology prior to sand placement that began on July 31, 2010. The baseline survey reveals a large outer sand bar (~ 2 m amplitude) at -5 m depth, numerous shallow sand bars and swash bars, and a broad low-sloping dissipative beach. Two subsequent surveys, collected August 10th and 25th have begun to detect both background change (onshore migration of the outer bar) and movement of the placed sand. The majority of observed changes occur on the beach and in shallow areas (> -5 m), with no significant changes offshore of the outer bar. Initial analysis suggests southerly longshore transport of the nourishment sand driven by waves predominantly from the NW during the first phase of the monitoring. Additional surveys in the fall will continue to monitor the fate of the nourishment and help to assess whether anticipated changes in wave direction and magnitude force sediment offshore and northward as expected.

  12. The nearshore benthic community of Kasatochi Island, one year after the 2008 volcanic eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jewett, S.C.; Bodkin, J.L.; Chenelot, H.; Esslinger, G.G.; Hoberg, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    A description is presented of the nearshore benthic community of Kasatochi Island 1012 months after a catastrophic volcanic eruption in 2008. The eruption extended the coastline of the island approximately 400 m offshore, mainly along the south, southeast, and southwest shores, to roughly the 20 m isobath. Existing canopy kelp of Eualaria (Alaria) fistulosa, as well as limited understory algal species and associated fauna (e.g., urchin barrens) on the hard substratum were apparently buried following the eruption. Samples and observations revealed the substrate around the island in 2009 was comprised almost entirely of medium and coarse sands with a depauperate benthic community, dominated by opportunistic pontogeneiid amphipods. Comparisons of habitat and biological communities with other nearby Aleutian Islands, as well as with the Icelandic volcanic island of Surtsey, confirm dramatic reductions in flora and fauna consistent with an early stage of recovery from a large-scale disturbance event. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  13. Ecoregional analysis of nearshore sea-surface temperature in the North Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, M.C.; Brown, C.A.; Reusser, D.A.; Lee, H., II

    2012-01-01

    The quantification and description of sea surface temperature (SST) is critically important because it can influence the distribution, migration, and invasion of marine species; furthermore, SSTs are expected to be affected by climate change. To better understand present temperature regimes, we assembled a 29-year nearshore time series of mean monthly SSTs along the North Pacific coastline using remotely-sensed satellite data collected with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument. We then used the dataset to describe nearshore (&20 km offshore) SST patterns of 16 North Pacific ecoregions delineated by the Marine Ecoregions of the World (MEOW) hierarchical schema. Annual mean temperature varied from 3.8??C along the Kamchatka ecoregion to 24.8??C in the Cortezian ecoregion. There are smaller annual ranges and less variability in SST in the Northeast Pacific relative to the Northwest Pacific. Within the 16 ecoregions, 31-94% of the variance in SST is explained by the annual cycle, with the annual cycle explaining the least variation in the Northern California ecoregion and the most variation in the Yellow Sea ecoregion. Clustering on mean monthly SSTs of each ecoregion showed a clear break between the ecoregions within the Warm and Cold Temperate provinces of the MEOW schema, though several of the ecoregions contained within the provinces did not show a significant difference in mean seasonal temperature patterns. Comparison of these temperature patterns shared some similarities and differences with previous biogeographic classifications and the Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). Finally, we provide a web link to the processed data for use by other researchers.

  14. Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, K.A.; Warner, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical modeling of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation models, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated models. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation model that is quasi-3D to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH model. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully 3D ocean circulation model which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the models with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the models are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-3D model is faster, however the applicability of the fully 3D model allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Ecoregional Analysis of Nearshore Sea-Surface Temperature in the North Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Meredith C.; Brown, Cheryl A.; Reusser, Deborah A.; Lee, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The quantification and description of sea surface temperature (SST) is critically important because it can influence the distribution, migration, and invasion of marine species; furthermore, SSTs are expected to be affected by climate change. To better understand present temperature regimes, we assembled a 29-year nearshore time series of mean monthly SSTs along the North Pacific coastline using remotely-sensed satellite data collected with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument. We then used the dataset to describe nearshore (<20 km offshore) SST patterns of 16 North Pacific ecoregions delineated by the Marine Ecoregions of the World (MEOW) hierarchical schema. Annual mean temperature varied from 3.8°C along the Kamchatka ecoregion to 24.8°C in the Cortezian ecoregion. There are smaller annual ranges and less variability in SST in the Northeast Pacific relative to the Northwest Pacific. Within the 16 ecoregions, 31–94% of the variance in SST is explained by the annual cycle, with the annual cycle explaining the least variation in the Northern California ecoregion and the most variation in the Yellow Sea ecoregion. Clustering on mean monthly SSTs of each ecoregion showed a clear break between the ecoregions within the Warm and Cold Temperate provinces of the MEOW schema, though several of the ecoregions contained within the provinces did not show a significant difference in mean seasonal temperature patterns. Comparison of these temperature patterns shared some similarities and differences with previous biogeographic classifications and the Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). Finally, we provide a web link to the processed data for use by other researchers. PMID:22253893

  16. Coral bleaching: one disturbance too many for near-shore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. A.; Dolman, A. M.

    2010-09-01

    The dynamic nature of coral communities can make it difficult to judge whether a reef system is resilient to the current disturbance regime. To address this question of resilience for near-shore coral communities of the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) a data set consisting of 350 annual observations of benthic community change was compiled from existing monitoring data. These data spanned the period 1985-2007 and were derived from coral reefs within 20 km of the coast. During years without major disturbance events, cover increase of the Acroporidae was much faster than it was for other coral families; a median of 11% per annum compared to medians of less than 4% for other coral families. Conversely, Acroporidae were more severely affected by cyclones and bleaching events than most other families. A simulation model parameterised with these observations indicated that while recovery rates of hard corals were sufficient to compensate for impacts associated with cyclones and crown-of-thorns starfish, the advent of mass bleaching has lead to a significant change in the composition of the community and a rapid decline in hard coral cover. Furthermore, if bleaching events continue to occur with the same frequency and severity as in the recent past, the model predicts that the cover of Acroporidae will continue to decline. Although significant cover of live coral remains on near-shore reefs, and recovery is observed during inter-disturbance periods, it appears that this system will not be resilient to the recent disturbance regime over the long term. Conservation strategies for coral reefs should focus on both mitigating local factors that act synergistically to increase the susceptibility of Acroporidae to climate change while promoting initiatives that maximise the recovery potential from inevitable disturbances.

  17. Geologic map of southwestern Sequoia National Park, Tulare County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, Thomas W.; Moore, James G.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the geology of 675 km2 (260 mi2) on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, California, mainly in Sequoia National Park and Sequoia National Forest. It was produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the request of the National Park Service to complete the geologic map coverage of Kings Canyon and Sequoia National Parks. The area includes the Mineral King 15’ topographic quadrangle (sheet 1) and strips along the east and northeast edges of the Kaweah 15’ topographic quadrangle (sheet 2), both in Tulare County. Mapping was performed mainly on the 1:24,000-scale Mineral King, Silver City, Quinn Peak, Moses Mountain, Case Mountain, and Dennison Peak 7.5’ topographic quadrangle bases. Rocks within the study area are chiefly Cretaceous granites and granodiorites of the Sierra Nevada batholith that intruded coherent masses of Mesozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. Quaternary till and talus are the principal surficial deposits, with the exception of a large bouldery alluvial apron near the southwest corner of the map area. The study area includes the headwaters of the Kaweah River (East and South Forks), Tule River (North Fork and North Fork of the Middle Fork), and the Little Kern River. Relief is considerable, with elevations spanning from 1,500 feet along the Middle Fork Kaweah River to 12,432 feet at the summit of Florence Peak along the crest of the Great Western Divide.

  18. 2014 County Commissioner Satisfaction Survey

    E-print Network

    2014 County Commissioner Satisfaction Survey: CSU Extension Services in Colorado Survey Results Summary Report April 2015 #12;Colorado State University Extension 2014 County Commissioner Survey Results Introduction: 2014 County Commissioner Survey The seventh annual County Commissioner Satisfaction Survey

  19. KINGS RIVER, RANCHERIA, AGNEW, AND OAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Longwell, Warren D.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the Kings River, Rancheria, Agnew, and Oat Mountain Roadless Areas, California were found to have several areas with probable mineral-resource potential for tungsten in tactite, and one area with probable mineral-resource potential for lode gold in quartz veins. The extreme relief and inaccessibility in most of the roadless areas make exploration and mining very difficult. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of energy resources.

  20. Ultraviolet reflecting photonic microstructures in the King Penguin beak.

    PubMed

    Dresp, Birgitta; Jouventin, Pierre; Langley, Keith

    2005-09-22

    King and emperor penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus and Aptenodytes forsteri) are the only species of marine birds so far known to reflect ultraviolet (UV) light from their beaks. Unlike humans, most birds perceive UV light and several species communicate using the near UV spectrum. Indeed, UV reflectance in addition to the colour of songbird feathers has been recognized as an important signal when choosing a mate. The king penguin is endowed with several highly coloured ornaments, notably its beak horn and breast and auricular plumage, but only its beak reflects UV, a property considered to influence its sexual attraction. Because no avian UV-reflecting pigments have yet been identified, the origin of such reflections is probably structural. In an attempt to identify the structures that give rise to UV reflectance, we combined reflectance spectrophotometry and morphological analysis by both light and electron microscopy, after experimental removal of surface layers of the beak horn. Here, we characterize for the first time a multilayer reflector photonic microstructure that produces the UV reflections in the king penguin beak. PMID:17148195

  1. Strategies for nest-site selection by king eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, R.L.; Powell, A.N.; Suydam, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Nest site selection is a critical component of reproduction and has presumably evolved in relation to predation, local resources, and microclimate. We investigated nest-site choice by king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) on the coastal plain of northern Alaska, USA, 2003-2005. We hypothesized that nest-site selection is driven by predator avoidance and that a variety of strategies including concealment, seclusion, and conspecific or inter-specific nest defense might lead to improved nesting success. We systematically searched wetland basins for king eider nests and measured habitat and social variables at nests (n = 212) and random locations (n = 493). King eiders made use of both secluded and concealed breeding strategies; logistic regression models revealed that females selected nests close to water, on islands, and in areas with high willow (Salix spp.) cover but did not select sites near conspecific or glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) nests. The most effective nest-placement strategy may vary depending on density and types of nest predators; seclusion is likely a mammalian-predator avoidance tactic whereas concealment may provide protection from avian predators. We recommend that managers in northern Alaska attempt to maintain wetland basins with islands and complex shorelines to provide potential nest sites in the vicinity of water. ?? The Wildlife Society.

  2. Balance : Lancaster County's tragedy

    E-print Network

    Gingrich, Valerie (Valerie J.)

    2007-01-01

    Lancaster County, Pennsylvania residents are proud of their agricultural heritage. They do not want to see their farmland disappear. But the County continues to be developed into residential subdivisions. This thesis ...

  3. Dona Ana County Experimental

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Reservoir Luna County Sierra County Otero County Lincoln National Forest 25 10 10 54 70 54 54 54 82 70 NM 1: Revisions to the National Landscape Conservation System included in Public Law 111-11 are not yet San Andres National Wildlife Refuge White Sands National Monument Caballo Reservoir Elephant Butte

  4. Dept of Mathematics and Statistics King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

    E-print Network

    Omar, Mohammad H.

    Seminar Dept of Mathematics and Statistics King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Presenter median, and deriving confidence intervals for sample percentile. In addition, the bootstrap procedure has

  5. Dept of Mathematics and Statistics King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

    E-print Network

    Omar, Mohammad H.

    Seminar Dept of Mathematics and Statistics King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Presenter percentile. In addition, the bootstrap procedure has increased its popularity with increasing advancement

  6. Does transported seagrass provide an important trophic link in unvegetated, nearshore areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyndes, Glenn A.; Lavery, Paul S.

    2005-06-01

    The contribution of detritus from seagrass and other primary producers to faunal production in unvegetated nearshore areas was examined primarily using stable isotopes. Fish, macroinvertebrates, meiofauna and primary producers (seagrasses, macroalgae, seston and benthic microalgae) were sampled from sites in south-western Australia. All samples were analysed for ? 13C and ? 15N values and fish gut contents were determined. ? 13C values for seagrasses in the region were high compared to other macrophytes, ranging from 49.9 to -8.2‰ compared to -19.8 to -12.6‰ for macroalgae. The ? 15N values ranged between 4.0 and 7.7‰ for the red, brown and green algae, and between 3.2 and 5.9‰ for seagrasses. Seston and benthic microalgae samples had a mean ? 13C value of -12.8 and -14.0‰, respectively, and their ? 15N values were comparable to the macroalgae. All invertebrate fauna had mean ? 13C values considerably lower than seagrasses. However, individual samples harpacticoid copepods and polychaetes had a value as high as -11.7‰. ? 15N values for consumers were higher than those of the primary producers, except for copepods and amphipods. The ? 13C values for fish had a relatively small range, between -16.6 and -13.1‰, and the ? 15N values of fish were elevated compared to the invertebrates and primary producers, ranging mostly between 10.0 and 12.6‰. Mixing model analysis based on ? 13C values indicated that seagrass ranked low as a likely carbon source for all invertebrates other than harpacticoid copepods at a single site and some samples of polychaetes. The ? 13C values for fish were similar to those of a combination of harpacticoid and calanoid copepods, amphipods and polychaetes. The consumption of harpacticoid copepods by some fish species indicates that Amphibolis and Posidonia species in south-western Australia can contribute to the food web of unvegetated nearshore areas as detritus, but brown algae is likely to make a greater contribution. At least for the time of year that was sampled, the flow of detrital seagrass material into the foodweb may be mediated by specific detrivores, in this case harpactacoid copepods, rather than by all detritivores.

  7. Composition and Dynamics of the Black Sea Benthopelagic Plankton and Its Contribution to the Near-Shore Plankton Communities

    PubMed Central

    Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Anokhina, Ludmila L.

    2014-01-01

    At a shallow (7 m) near-shore sampling site in the Black Sea we analyzed composition, abundance, and biomass of benthopelagic organisms and the contribution these animals make to the total plankton. The site was monitored across several years (1996–2001; 2006–2007) whilst for 1999–2000 the seasonal variations were analysed. A total of 321 samples from Golubaja Bay near Novorossiysk (44°34?31.04? N, 37°58?45.11? E) in 1996–2007 were taken with a Judey net. The benthopelagic fauna was represented by 69 taxa, a diversity comparable to similar shelf areas. The benthopelagic component played an important role in near-shore plankton communities in the Black Sea accounting for 50% of the total zooplankton biomass at night during all seasons. Abundance and biomass of the benthopelagic animals showed seasonal fluctuations, the highest biomass being recorded during winter (>75% of the total zooplankton biomass) and early spring due to large amphipods, whilst the highest abundances occur during late summer because of numerous young stages of various taxa. Amphipods, mysids, and decapods are the main contributors to the plankton biomass and abundances. Both night and daytime samples are strongly recommended for the adequate description of the near-shore plankton communities. PMID:24945680

  8. A description of the nearshore fish communities in the Huron-Erie Corridor using multiple gear types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francis, James T.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Thomas, Mike V.; Manny, Bruce A.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide a critical habitat for many fish species throughout their life cycles. Once home to one of the largest wetland complexes in the Great Lakes, coastal wetlands in the Huron–Erie Corridor (HEC) have decreased dramatically since the early 1900s. We characterized the nearshore fish communities at three different wetland complexes in the HEC using electrofishing, seines, and fyke nets. Species richness was highest in the Detroit River (63), followed by the St. Clair Delta (56), and Western Lake Erie (47). The nearshore fish communities in the Detroit River and St. Clair Delta consisted primarily of shiners, bluntnose minnow, centrarchids, and brook silverside, while the Western Lake Erie sites consisted of high proportions of non-native taxa including common carp, gizzard shad, goldfish, and white perch. Species richness estimates using individual-based rarefaction curves were higher when using electrofishing data compared to fyke nets or seine hauls at each wetland. Twelve fish species were captured exclusively during electrofishing assessments, while one species was captured exclusively in fyke nets, and none exclusively during seine hauls. Western Lake Erie wetlands were more indicative of degraded systems with lower species richness, lower proportion of turbidity intolerant species, and increased abundance of non-native taxa. This work highlights the importance of coastal wetlands in the HEC by capturing 69 different fish species utilizing these wetlands to fulfill life history requirements and provides insight when selecting gears to sample nearshore littoral areas.

  9. Composition and dynamics of the Black Sea benthopelagic plankton and its contribution to the near-shore plankton communities.

    PubMed

    Vereshchaka, Alexander L; Anokhina, Ludmila L

    2014-01-01

    At a shallow (7 m) near-shore sampling site in the Black Sea we analyzed composition, abundance, and biomass of benthopelagic organisms and the contribution these animals make to the total plankton. The site was monitored across several years (1996-2001; 2006-2007) whilst for 1999-2000 the seasonal variations were analysed. A total of 321 samples from Golubaja Bay near Novorossiysk (44°34'31.04? N, 37°58'45.11? E) in 1996-2007 were taken with a Judey net. The benthopelagic fauna was represented by 69 taxa, a diversity comparable to similar shelf areas. The benthopelagic component played an important role in near-shore plankton communities in the Black Sea accounting for 50% of the total zooplankton biomass at night during all seasons. Abundance and biomass of the benthopelagic animals showed seasonal fluctuations, the highest biomass being recorded during winter (>75% of the total zooplankton biomass) and early spring due to large amphipods, whilst the highest abundances occur during late summer because of numerous young stages of various taxa. Amphipods, mysids, and decapods are the main contributors to the plankton biomass and abundances. Both night and daytime samples are strongly recommended for the adequate description of the near-shore plankton communities. PMID:24945680

  10. Paleomagnetism of King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotznick, S. P.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Raub, T. D.; Swanson-Hysell, N.; Edgar, L.

    2011-12-01

    During December of 2009 when the US R/V Lawrence M. Gould was iced out of the Antarctic Peninsula, we collected core and block samples from 17 different flows and dikes at three sampling areas on Weaver Peninsula and Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Two of the three sampling areas on Weaver Peninsula and Fildes Peninsula were near dikes with Ar-Ar ages of 54.6 ± 3.8 Ma and 57.4 ± 2.1 Ma respectively, close in age to the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) (Kraus 2005, Kraus et al. 2007). After removal of significant magnetically soft components by low-temperature cycling and weak AF demagnetization, the basaltic flows from the Weaver Peninsula preserve a dual-polarity characteristic remanence isolated by higher-field AF demagnetization with an in-situ magnetization of D = 166.3, I= 65.4 (n/N = 24/30, ?95 = 6.31). This direction, prior to correction for bedding tilt, is indistinct from a plausible Cenozoic reversed polarity magnetization for the site, while correcting for bedding tilt results in anomalously shallow inclinations. This result implies a post-tilting thermochemical remagnetization origin for the characteristic remanence. Analyses of the baked contact, dikes, and conglomerate tests help constrain the age of this event in context of subsequent Cenozoic magmatism on King George Island. Rock magnetic and Kappabridge experiments show that the magnetic mineralogy of the samples is often dominated by magnetite, with titanomagnetite and hematite present in some flows. The results of this multi-site study of Weaver and Fildes Peninsulas add to a growing paleomagnetic database for volcanic rocks from King George Island (Valencio et al. 1979, Kraus et al. 2010, Watts et al. 1984, Nawrocki et al. 2010) and contribute to a better understanding of the complex tectonic and magmatic activity of the South Shetland Islands.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Variability in the Nearshore Distributions of Postlarval Farfantepenaeus aztecus along Galveston Island, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benfield, M. C.; Downer, R. G.

    2001-04-01

    The nearshore distributions of postlarval brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus (Ives, 1891) were investigated at four approximately equidistant sites along a section of Galveston Island, Texas. Simultaneous, replicate plankton samples were collected along with environmental measurements at each site during three consecutive days each week for a period of four weeks during April 1992. The data were modelled using analysis of variance and stepwise regression to evaluate the spatial, temporal and environmental factors contributing to changes in density. Postlarval densities differed significantly among the four weeks during the study, however, day was not a significant model effect. Changes in weekly distributions appeared correlated to the presence of winds favourable for onshore transport of water. The distributions of postlarvae were highly variable along the Island with significantly greater densities at sites located on sections of open beach and significantly lower densities in the vicinity of shoreline stabilization structures (groins and jetties). Turbidity, water and air temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen were all significantly related to postlarval density as were several interactions among environmental factors and turbidity and site. The variability observed in the study was used to estimate levels of sampling intensity required to achieve different levels of precision. Based on the high spatial and temporal variability in postlarval densities observed in this study, and our sampling effort calculations, we suggest that some of the difficulty in predicting landings of adult shrimp based on postlarval abundances may be due to insufficient sampling effort to accurately assess postlarval densities.

  12. Trophic dynamics in marine nearshore systems of the Alaskan high arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Dunton, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation describes two ecological studies in the arctic Alaskan nearshore zone: the productivity and growth strategies of arctic kelp and the use of natural carbon isotope abundances to examine food web structure and energy flow in the marine ecosystem. Linear growth of the kelp, Laminaria solidungula is greatest in winter and early spring when nutrients are available for new tissue growth. Since over 90% of this growth occurs in complete darkness beneath a turbid ice canopy, the plant draws on stored food reserves and is in a carbon deficit during the ice covered period. Annual productivity of L. solidungula under these conditions is about 6 g C m/sup -2/ compared to about 10 g c m/sup -2/ if light penetrates the ice canopy. Carbon isotope abundances were used to assess food web structure and energy flow in the Boulder Patch, an isolated kelp bed community, and in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea fauna. Isotopic analyses of the resident fauna of the Boulder Patch revealed that kelp carbon contributes significantly to the diet of many benthic animals, including suspension feeders. Across the shelf of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, a distinct gradient in the isotopic composition of marine zooplankton and benthic fauna was related to the intrusion of the Bering Sea water and upwelling in the eastern Beaufort Sea near Barter Island. The /sup 13/C depletion in fauna of the eastern Beaufort Sea is presumed due to the cycling of /sup 13/C depleted inorganic carbon into the euphotic zone.

  13. Establishment of two invasive crustaceans (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) on the nearshore sands of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horvath, Thomas G.; Whitman, Richard L.; Last, Laurel L.

    2001-01-01

    Benthic copepods (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) in the nearshore sediments of southern Lake Michigan appear to be dominated by two new invasive species. We report the first occurrence in North America of Schizopera borutzkyi Montschenko, a native to the Danube River delta, and Heteropsyllus nr. nunni, likely a new species that is morphologically similar to the marine species Heteropsyllus nunni and represents the first occurrence of this genus in freshwater. Schizopera borutzkyi is a euryhaline species occurring in shallow sands in its native habitat and in deeper sands (6-15 m) in southern Lake Michigan. Based on the absence of these species from previous studies, we suggest that they are recent introductions. Heteropsyllus nr. nunni dominated (55-100%) the harpacticoid abundance to depths of 9 m, but S. borutzkyi comprised 75% of the harpacticoid abundance at 15 m. Native harpacticoids were always greatly outnumbered by invasive harpacticoids in our samples, which suggests that the natives are being replaced rapidly or that the invasive species are finding unused resources. The ecological implications of these introductions are not known, but these invasions may represent continued 'invasional meltdown' in Lake Michigan.

  14. Mechanisms of nearshore retention and offshore export of mussel larvae over the Agulhas Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidberg, Nicolás; Porri, Francesca; Von der Meden, Charles E. O.; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Goschen, Wayne; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2015-04-01

    Ecological connectivity is critical for population dynamics but in many benthic species it is complicated by a planktonic larval phase, whose dispersal remains poorly understood. Using a plankton pump, we examine the distribution of intertidal mussel larvae along three axes: alongshore, cross-shelf and by depth during a large scale (600 km) cruise over the Agulhas Bank off southern Africa in August/September 2010. As a general pattern, higher veliger abundances were found close to the coast. Our analyses of the nearshore flow, estimated from ADCP data and the vertical distribution of larvae, show that onshore larval retention may be mediated by active vertical swimming through the water column guided by light and wind-induced turbulence. A massive offshore export of larvae off St Francis Bay was, however, observed during an Agulhas Current meander which influenced inner shelf waters. We hypothesize that, by increasing and homogenizing flow, the Agulhas Current may erase the effects of larval vertical positioning on onshore retention and transport larvae offshore. Our study highlights the need to integrate the effects of complex, region-specific physical dynamics with the swimming behaviour of larvae in order to explain their spatial distribution, population connectivity and the consequences for population dynamics.

  15. The presence and near-shore transport of human fecal pollution in Lake Michigan beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molloy, S.L.; Liu, L.B.; Phanikumar, M.S.; Jenkins, T.M.; Wong, M.V.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a source of water for municipal, agricultural and industrial use, and support significant recreation, commercial and sport fishing industries. Every year millions of people visit the 500 plus recreational beaches in the Great Lakes. An increasing public health risk has been suggested with increased evidence of fecal contamination at the shoreline. To investigate the transport and fate of fecal pollution at Great Lakes beaches and the health risk associated with swimming at these beaches, the near-shore waters of Mt Baldy Beach, Lake Michigan and Trail Creek, a tributary discharging into the lake were examined for fecal pollution indicators. A model of surf zone hydrodynamics coupled with a transport model with first-order inactivation of pollutant was used to understand the relative importance of different processes operating in the surf zone (e.g. physical versus biological processes). The Enterococcus human fecal pollution marker, which targets a putative virulence factor, the enterococcal surface protein (esp) in Enterococcus faecium, was detected in 2/28 samples (7%) from the tributaries draining into Lake Michigan and in 6/30 samples (20%) from Lake Michigan beaches. Preliminary analysis suggests that the majority of fecal indicator bactateria variation and water quality changes at the beaches can be explained by inputs from the influential stream and hydrometeorological conditions. Using modeling methods to predict impaired water quality may help reduce potential health threats to recreational visitors.

  16. Nearshore transects of surface wind and wind stress in the Atlantic eastern boundary upwelling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlundt, Michael; Dengler, Marcus; Brandt, Peter; Bumke, Karl

    2015-04-01

    The two large eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUSs) in the Atlantic (Canary upwelling system and Benguela upwelling system) are both strikingly affected by the equatorward trades. The equatorward alongshore component of the wind stress leads to a coastal Ekman divergence, while a nearshore cyclonic wind stress curl results in Ekman suction. Therefore both processes are related to the upwelling and impact its intensity. Several satellite radiometer and scatterometer products have been used for years to estimate the horizontal structures of wind speed, wind stress and wind stress curl in the EBUSs in order to relate them to upwelling intensity and ocean-atmosphere energy fluxes. But an investigation of well known features of the EBUSs, as strong wind gradients at sea surface temperature fronts or the drop off zone in wind speed near the coast, based on satellite observations is difficult, because satellite retrievals give actually no reliable estimates within 25 km from the shore due to land contamination. Here we show a comparison of shipboard observations of wind speed, direction, and subsequently estimated stress and stress curl along transects close to the coast with available satellite observations for the period from 2000 until 2014. The data are from German and international research vessels which are frequently present in the near coastal region. Estimates of turbulent heat fluxes between the ocean and the atmosphere, strongly affected by the wind speed, are also given and compared with commonly used satellite products.

  17. Assessment of microbial populations within Chicago area nearshore waters and interfaces with river systems

    PubMed Central

    Sible, Emily; Cooper, Alexandria; Malki, Kema; Bruder, Katherine; Hatzopoulos, Thomas; Watkins, Siobhan C.; Putonti, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The Chicago area locks separate and control water flow between the freshwaters of Lake Michigan and the network of Illinois waterways. Under extreme storm conditions, however, the locks are opened and storm waters, untreated waste, and runoff are released directly into the lake. These combined sewer overflow (CSO) events introduce microbes, viruses, and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous into nearshore waters which likely affect the native species. We collected surface water samples from four Chicago area beaches – Gillson Park, Montrose Beach, 57th Street Beach, and Calumet Beach – every two weeks from May 13 through August 5, 2014. Sampling was conducted with four biological replicates for each sampling date and location, resulting in 112 samples. Each community was surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V4 16S rRNA gene. Technical replicates were also sequenced and are included in this dataset. Taxa were identified using Mothur. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI?s SRA database (part of BioProject PRJNA245802). PMID:26566540

  18. Morphological response of a double nearshore bar system under oblique waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiebot, J.; Robin, N.; Garnier, R.; Certain, R.; Idier, D.; Calvete, D.; Falques, A.; Levoy, F.

    2009-04-01

    The Sète beach (Mediterranean Sea - France) is characterized by two nearshore bars which are generally considered to run parallel to the shore. However in-situ wave/current/bathymetry measurements have shown the possible reorganization of this double bar system during storms associated with oblique waves. Two situations are studied. During the field campaign in 1999, the bar system was submitted to moderately oblique stormy waves. At the end of the campaign, the inner bar was divided in segments which were oriented parallel to the wave crests and to the current. During the field campaign in 1994, the stormy waves were strongly oblique. The response of the bar system led to the appearance of rhythmic features along both bars. The nonlinear surf zone model MORFO55 is used to understand the mechanisms which govern the bar reorganization under energetic wave conditions. This model is based on a wave and depth averaged shallow water equations solver with wave driver, sediment transport and bed updating (Garnier et al. 2006, J. Fluid Mech.). Modeling shows that the main characteristics of the bar response can be simulated from self-organization processes. The wave incidence has a tremendous influence on the bar response. Particularly, in agreement with the observations, the outer bar is stable for moderate obliquity while it is unstable for strongly oblique waves.

  19. Population structure of Cladophora-borne Escherichia coli in nearshore water of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byappanahalli, M.N.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Ferguson, J.; Ishii, S.; Sadowsky, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that the macrophytic green alga Cladophora harbors high densities (up to 106 colony-forming units/g dry weight) of the fecal indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli and enterococci, in shoreline waters of Lake Michigan. However, the population structure and genetic relatedness of Cladophora-borne indicator bacteria remain poorly understood. In this study, 835 E. coli isolates were collected from Cladophora tufts (mats) growing on rocks from a breakwater located within the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in northwest Indiana. The horizontal fluorophore enhanced rep-PCR (HFERP) DNA fingerprinting technique was used to determine the genetic relatedness of the isolates to each other and to those in a library of E. coli DNA fingerprints. While the E. coli isolates from Cladophora showed a high degree of genetic relatedness (???92% similarity), in most cases, however, the isolates were genetically distinct. The Shannon diversity index for the population was very high (5.39). Both spatial and temporal influences contributed to the genetic diversity. There was a strong association of isolate genotypes by location (79% and 80% for lake- and ditch-side samplings, respectively), and isolates collected from 2002 were distinctly different from those obtained in 2003. Cladophora-borne E. coli isolates represented a unique group, which was distinct from other E. coli isolates in the DNA fingerprint library tested. Taken together, these results indicate that E. coli strains associated with Cladophora may be a recurring source of indicator bacteria to the nearshore beach. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mapping of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Using Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in Nearshore Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Mark E.; Miller, Lee M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Ewert, Daniel W.

    2007-10-02

    The use of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) equipped with sidescan sonar was investigated for determining the boundaries of nearshore submerged aquatic vegetation beds, specifically eelgrass (Zostera marina). Shifts in eelgrass bed morphology, size, and distribution are used as indicators in monitoring programs to measure the impacts of coastal development and environmental stressors on eelgrass and to establish the efficacy of restoration programs. However, many monitoring programs necessarily extend over multiple-year time periods. Therefore, techniques that are easily reproducible, accurate, and cost-effective can demonstrate distinct advantages over some of the more traditional and labor-intensive methods, such as diver assessments and transects of shoot counts. Remote monitoring of eelgrass beds using satellite and aerial imagery has been demonstrated with moderate success, but requires groundtruthing, which can be costly and which frequently cannot delineate the deeper boundaries of eelgrass beds. One possible means for low-cost mapping is the use of AUVs equipped with acoustic imaging hardware. AUVs provide an ideal platform, because they can be deployed by small teams (two people), they are highly maneuverable, they can cover large areas over a relatively short time period (3knot operational speed), and they are equipped with multiple oceanographic instruments for correlated data collection. This paper describes the use of sidescan-equipped AUV technology deployed over multiple time periods at the same location where imagery of eelgrass beds was obtained and analyzed for comparative purposes.

  1. Assessment of microbial populations within Chicago area nearshore waters and interfaces with river systems.

    PubMed

    Sible, Emily; Cooper, Alexandria; Malki, Kema; Bruder, Katherine; Hatzopoulos, Thomas; Watkins, Siobhan C; Putonti, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    The Chicago area locks separate and control water flow between the freshwaters of Lake Michigan and the network of Illinois waterways. Under extreme storm conditions, however, the locks are opened and storm waters, untreated waste, and runoff are released directly into the lake. These combined sewer overflow (CSO) events introduce microbes, viruses, and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous into nearshore waters which likely affect the native species. We collected surface water samples from four Chicago area beaches - Gillson Park, Montrose Beach, 57th Street Beach, and Calumet Beach - every two weeks from May 13 through August 5, 2014. Sampling was conducted with four biological replicates for each sampling date and location, resulting in 112 samples. Each community was surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V4 16S rRNA gene. Technical replicates were also sequenced and are included in this dataset. Taxa were identified using Mothur. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI?s SRA database (part of BioProject PRJNA245802). PMID:26566540

  2. Tidal area dispersant project: Fate of dispersed and undispersed oil in two nearshore test spills

    SciTech Connect

    Page, D.S.; Foster, J.C.; Gerber, R.P.; Gilfillan, E.S.; Hanson, S.A.; Hotham, J.R.; Vallas, D.

    1982-10-01

    In 1981, an oil spill field experiment was done in Maine to assess the effects to the benthos of dispersant used in nearshore oil spills. Three test plots, each 60 by 100 m, were set up, each with an upper and a lower intertidal sampling area. There were also five subtidal sampling stations in water depths from 5 to 20 m. One plot was exposed to 945 L (250 gal) of Murban crude oil released on an ebbing tide withincontainment booms and cleaned up by conventional mechanical methods 24 h later. A second plot was exposed to 945 L of Murban crude oil premixed with 94 L (25 gal)of a widely available self-mix nonionic dispersant. The dispersant-treated oil was discharged over a 2-h period around high water slack tide. Dispersed oil in water reaching the bottom had lost most of the hydrocarbons more volatile than n-C/sub 17/ compared with dispersed oil in water sampled at the same time near the surface. Petroleum retention by intertidal sediments and bivalves measured one week postspill was less in areas exposed to dispersed oil than in areas exposed to untreated oil.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Potential Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacteria in Lake Ontario Embayments and Nearshore Waters?

    PubMed Central

    Hotto, A. M.; Satchwell, M. F.; Boyer, G. L.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution and genotypic variation of potential microcystin (MC) producers along the southern and eastern shores of Lake Ontario in 2001 and 2003 were examined using a suite of PCR primers. Cyanobacterial, Microcystis sp., and Microcystis-specific toxin primer sets identified shoreline distribution of cyanobacterial DNA (in 97% of the stations) and MC synthetase genes (in 50% of the stations). Sequence analysis of a partial mcyA amplicon targeting Microcystis, Anabaena, and Planktothrix species indicated that the Microcystis sp. genotype was the dominant MC genotype present and revealed a novel Microcystis-like sequence containing a 6-bp insert. Analysis of the same samples with genus-specific mcyE primers confirmed that the Microcystis sp. genotype was the dominant potential MC producer. Genotype compositions within embayments were relatively homogenous compared to those for shoreline and tributary samples. MC concentrations along the shoreline exhibited both temporal and spatial differences as evidenced by the protein phosphatase inhibition assay, at times exceeding the World Health Organization guideline value for drinking water of 1.0 ?g MC-LReq liter?1. MC genotypes are widespread along the New York State shoreline of Lake Ontario, appear to originate nearshore, and can be carried through the lake via wind and surface water current patterns. PMID:17526791

  4. An efficient mode-splitting method for a curvilinear nearshore circulation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shi, Fengyan; Kirby, James T.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    A mode-splitting method is applied to the quasi-3D nearshore circulation equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The gravity wave mode and the vorticity wave mode of the equations are derived using the two-step projection method. Using an implicit algorithm for the gravity mode and an explicit algorithm for the vorticity mode, we combine the two modes to derive a mixed difference–differential equation with respect to surface elevation. McKee et al.'s [McKee, S., Wall, D.P., and Wilson, S.K., 1996. An alternating direction implicit scheme for parabolic equations with mixed derivative and convective terms. J. Comput. Phys., 126, 64–76.] ADI scheme is then used to solve the parabolic-type equation in dealing with the mixed derivative and convective terms from the curvilinear coordinate transformation. Good convergence rates are found in two typical cases which represent respectively the motions dominated by the gravity mode and the vorticity mode. Time step limitations imposed by the vorticity convective Courant number in vorticity-mode-dominant cases are discussed. Model efficiency and accuracy are verified in model application to tidal current simulations in San Francisco Bight.

  5. Sources of fecal indicator bacteria to groundwater, Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean, Malibu, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Burton, Carmen A.; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie; Holden, Patricia A.; Dubinsky, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) used to treat residential and commercial sewage near Malibu, California have been implicated as a possible source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean. For this to occur, treated wastewater must first move through groundwater before discharging to the Lagoon or ocean. In July 2009 and April 2010, ?18O and ?D data showed that some samples from water-table wells contained as much as 70% wastewater; at that time FIB concentrations in those samples were generally less than the detection limit of 1 Most Probable Number (MPN) per 100 milliliters (mL). In contrast, Malibu Lagoon had total coliform, Escherichia coli, and enterococci concentrations as high as 650,000, 130,000, and 5,500 MPN per 100 mL, respectively, and as many as 12% of samples from nearby ocean beaches exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency single sample enterococci standard for marine recreational water of 104 MPN per 100 mL. Human-associated Bacteroidales, an indicator of human-fecal contamination, were not detected in water from wells, Malibu Lagoon, or the near-shore ocean. Similarly, microarray (PhyloChip) data show Bacteroidales and Fimicutes Operational Taxanomic Units (OTUs) present in OWTS were largely absent in groundwater; in contrast, 50% of Bacteroidales and Fimicutes OTUs present in the near-shore ocean were also present in gull feces. Terminal-Restriction Length Fragment Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) data showed that microbial communities in groundwater were different and less abundant than communities in OWTS, Malibu Lagoon, or the near-shore ocean. However, organic compounds indicative of wastewater (such as fecal sterols, bisphenol-A and cosmetics) were present in groundwater having a high percentage of wastewater and were present in groundwater discharging to the ocean. FIB in the near-shore ocean varied with tides, ocean swells, and waves. Movement of water from Malibu Lagoon through the sand berm at the mouth of the Lagoon contributed FIB to the adjacent beach at low tide. Similar increases in FIB concentrations did not occur at beaches adjacent to unsewered residential development, although wastewater indicator compounds and radon-222 (indicative of groundwater discharge) were present. High FIB concentrations at high tide were not related to groundwater discharge, but may be related to FIB associated with debris accumulated along the high-tide line.

  6. Dermatophilus chelonae in a king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah).

    PubMed

    Wellehan, James F X; Turenne, Christine; Heard, Darryl J; Detrisac, Carol J; O'Kelley, Jeffrey J

    2004-12-01

    A mass was removed from the left flank of a 10-yr-old male king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and histologic examination revealed granulomatous dermatitis with intralesional gram-positive cocci and filamentous bacteria. Fourteen months later, a histologically similar subcutaneous mass was removed from a different site. One year later, a large subcutaneous mass at the first surgical site was removed, and histopathologic examination revealed multiloculated granulomas with intralesional gram-positive cocci. An organism was cultured and identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing as Dermatophilus chelonae. After a course of antibiotic therapy, no further lesions were seen for 5 mo. PMID:15732601

  7. Primary secretory otitis media in Cavalier King Charles spaniels.

    PubMed

    Cole, Lynette K

    2012-11-01

    Primary secretory otitis media (PSOM) is a disease that has been described in the Cavalier King Charles spaniel (CKCS). A large, bulging pars flaccida identified on otoscopic examination confirms the diagnosis. However, in many CKCS with PSOM the pars flaccida is flat, and radiographic imaging is needed to confirm the diagnosis. Current treatment for PSOM includes performing a myringotomy into the caudal-ventral quadrant of the pars tensa with subsequent flushing of the mucus out of the bulla using a video otoscope. Repeat myringotomies and flushing of the middle ear are necessary to keep the middle ear free of mucus. PMID:23122173

  8. 'Ingenious Dr. King': the life and works of Dr William King (1663-1712), with particular reference to the tradition of Menippean satire 

    E-print Network

    Engel, David G.

    1989-01-01

    The thesis represents the most extensive study yet made of the life and works of one of the most neglected authors of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. In its introduction it provides a review of King's ...

  9. OCCURRENCE OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR KING, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, AND SPANISH,

    E-print Network

    OCCURRENCE OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR KING, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, AND SPANISH, S. MACULATUS. MACKERELS IN COMMERCIAL-lYPE SHRIMP TRAWLS ALONG THE ATLANTIC COAST OF THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES1 King mackerel (September- October 1986). Tongue nets, also known as bib, falcon, cobra, or mongoose trawl nets, have become

  10. RHIZOCEPHALAN INFECfION IN BLUE KING CRABS, PARALITHODES PLATYPUS, FROM

    E-print Network

    RHIZOCEPHALAN INFECfION IN BLUE KING CRABS, PARALITHODES PLATYPUS, FROM OLGA BA~ KODIAK ISLAND crabs, Paralithodes platypus. in Olga B~ Kodiak Island, was sampled quarterly during 1980.lithodR.s camtschatica, and biennially in blue king crabs, P. platypus. Because embryos of both species hatch within

  11. The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system

    E-print Network

    Yandell, Mark

    The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system Freek. To examine venom evolution, we sequenced and interrogated the genome of a venomous snake, the king cobra Ecology and Evolution Group, School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor LL57 2UW, United

  12. 76 FR 2438 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Kings, Queens, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... display of the exhibit objects at The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, from on or about February 27... Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Kings, Queens, and Courtiers: Art in Early... exhibition ``Kings, Queens, and Courtiers: Art in Early Renaissance France'' imported from abroad...

  13. 76 FR 38452 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “King Amenemhet II”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``King Amenemhet II'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... hereby determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``King Amenemhet II,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, is of cultural significance. The object...

  14. VIDEO SUMMARIZATION BY SPATIAL-TEMPORAL GRAPH OPTIMIZATION Shi Lu, Michael R. Lyu, Irwin King

    E-print Network

    Lyu, Michael R.

    VIDEO SUMMARIZATION BY SPATIAL-TEMPORAL GRAPH OPTIMIZATION Shi Lu, Michael R. Lyu, Irwin King SAR {slu, lyu, king}@cse.cuhk.edu.hk ABSTRACT In this paper we present a novel approach for video sum-temporal content cov- erage and visual coherence of the video summary. The ap- proach has three stages. First

  15. On a Derivative-Free Variant of King's Family with Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, M.; Karimi Vanani, S.; Khaksar Haghani, F.; Arab, M.; Shateyi, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to construct a method with memory according to King's family of methods without memory for nonlinear equations. It is proved that the proposed method possesses higher R-order of convergence using the same number of functional evaluations as King's family. Numerical experiments are given to illustrate the performance of the constructed scheme. PMID:25884033

  16. 3 CFR 8927 - Proclamation 8927 of January 18, 2013. Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech, challenging America to take up the worthy task...progress has brought us closer than ever to achieving Dr. King's dream, but our work is not yet done. Too many young...

  17. Microhabitat selection, demography, and correlates of home range size for the King Rail (Rallus elegans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pickens, Bradley A.; King, Sammy L.

    2013-01-01

    Animal movements and habitat selection within the home range, or microhabitat selection, can provide insights into habitat requirements, such as foraging and area requirements. The King Rail (Rallus elegans) is a wetland bird of high conservation concern in the United States, but little is known about its movements, habitats, or demography. King Rails (n = 34) were captured during the 2010–2011 breeding seasons in the coastal marshes of southwest Louisiana and southeast Texas. Radio telemetry and direct habitat surveys of King Rail locations were conducted to estimate home ranges and microhabitat selection. Within home ranges, King Rails selected for greater plant species richness and comparatively greater coverage of Phragmites australis, Typha spp., and Schoenoplectus robustus. King Rails were found closer to open water compared to random locations placed 50 m from King Rail locations. Home ranges (n = 22) varied from 0.8–32.8 ha and differed greatly among sites. Home range size did not vary by year or sex; however, increased open water, with a maximum of 29% observed in the study, was correlated with smaller home ranges. Breeding season cumulative survivorship was 89% ± 22% in 2010 and 61% ± 43% in 2011, which coincided with a drought. With an equal search effort, King Rail chicks and juveniles observed in May-June decreased from 110 in 2010 to only 16 in the drier year of 2011. The findings show King Rail used marsh with ? 29% open water and had smaller home ranges when open water was more abundant.

  18. The King James Bible and the Politics of Religious Education: Secular State and Sacred Scripture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an outline historical-educational analysis of the King James Bible from its 1611 publication through to its four-hundredth anniversary commemoration in 2011. With particular focus on England, the article traces the educational impact of the King James Bible and charts, in the country of its origin, its progressive decline in…

  19. 36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sequoia and Kings Canyon... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.8 Sequoia and Kings Canyon... construction or alterations. The provisions of this paragraph apply to the privately owned lands within...

  20. 36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sequoia and Kings Canyon... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.8 Sequoia and Kings Canyon... construction or alterations. The provisions of this paragraph apply to the privately owned lands within...

  1. 36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sequoia and Kings Canyon... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.8 Sequoia and Kings Canyon... construction or alterations. The provisions of this paragraph apply to the privately owned lands within...

  2. 36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sequoia and Kings Canyon... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.8 Sequoia and Kings Canyon... construction or alterations. The provisions of this paragraph apply to the privately owned lands within...

  3. 36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sequoia and Kings Canyon... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.8 Sequoia and Kings Canyon... construction or alterations. The provisions of this paragraph apply to the privately owned lands within...

  4. KiNG (Kinemage, Next Generation): A versatile interactive molecular and

    E-print Network

    Richardson, David

    Mol, and JMol,1­5 KiNG allows for real-time, interactive 3D rotation, translation, cropping, and zooming, which 27560. Grant sponsor: NIH; Grant numbers: GM-073919, GM-073930 (funding for KiNG); Grant sponsor: Howard

  5. PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY PERFORMANCE MODEL D. L. King, W. E. Boyson, J. A. Kratochvil

    E-print Network

    PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY PERFORMANCE MODEL D. L. King, W. E. Boyson, J. A. Kratochvil Sandia National Photovoltaic Array Performance Model David L. King, William E. Boyson, Jay A. Kratochvil Photovoltaic System R This document summarizes the equations and applications associated with the photovoltaic array performance model

  6. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library Exhibit Policy, Process and Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Su, Xiao

    of cooperative efforts between a major city library system and a major university library - a collaborationDr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library Exhibit Policy, Process and Guidelines Page 1 of 10 10/31/2014 King Library hosts a variety of exhibits on the 2nd floor, Jennifer and Phillip Di Napoli Gallery

  7. 77 FR 34798 - Safety Zone; USMMA Fireworks, Long Island Sound, Kings Point, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; USMMA Fireworks, Long Island Sound, Kings Point, NY...the vicinity of Kings Point, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone...vessels from the hazards associated with fireworks displays. This rule is intended to...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  13. Movements of King Mackerel, Scomberomoru5 cavalla, Tagged in Southeast Louisiana, 1983-85

    E-print Network

    Movements of King Mackerel, Scomberomoru5 cavalla, Tagged in Southeast Louisiana, 1983-85 WILLIAM A. FABLE, Jr., LEE TRENT, GILBERT W. BANE, and STEVEN W. ELLSWORTH Introduction The king mackere of previous mark- William A. Fable. Jr.. and Lee Trem are with the NMFS Southeast Fisheries Center's Panama

  14. 50 CFR 622.378 - Seasonal closures of the Gulf group king mackerel gillnet fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...from July 1 until 6 a.m. on the day after the Martin Luther King Jr. Federal holiday. The gillnet fishery also is...holidays, except for the first weekend following the Martin Luther King Jr. holiday which will remain open to the...

  15. Martin Luther King, Jr. Borrows a Revolution: Argument, Audience, and Implications of a Secondhand Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Keith D.

    1986-01-01

    Examines features of and sources for the discourse of Martin Luther King, Jr., as they relate to the language and assumptions favored by his listeners and readers in an effort to understand how speakers and writers can successfully argue from premises that audiences accept. Indicates how an understanding of King can help in composition…

  16. Connect the Book. Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    In honor of Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, this month's featured book is "Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." The book was written by Doreen Rappaport and illustrated by Bryan Collier (Jump at the Sun, 2001. 40p. ISBN 0786807148). This pictorial biography of the world-renowned civil rights leader has one of the most striking…

  17. Children's Books on Martin Luther King, Jr. Offer a One-Dimensional View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banfield, Beryle

    1985-01-01

    Reviews children's books, teacher references, mini-plays, and curriculum resources that relate to the life of Martin Luther King, Jr. Reports that most of these sources ignore growth and changes within King's life and thought, the role models who shaped his philosophy, or his participation in issues such as the Vietnam War and poverty. (KH)

  18. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Power of Nonviolence. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This lesson plan introduces students in grades 6-8 to Martin Luther King Jr.'s philosophy of nonviolence and the teachings of Mohandas K. Gandhi that influenced King's views. After considering the political impact of this philosophy, students explore its relevance to personal life. In these 6 lessons students will: (1) examine the philosophy of…

  19. 50 CFR 622.378 - Seasonal closures of the Gulf group king mackerel gillnet fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...from July 1 until 6 a.m. on the day after the Martin Luther King Jr. Federal holiday. The gillnet fishery also is...holidays, except for the first weekend following the Martin Luther King Jr. holiday which will remain open to the...

  20. 3 CFR 8773 - Proclamation 8773 of January 13, 2012. Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Federal Holiday, we celebrate the man who fought for the America he knew was possible. Dr. King’s faith in a God who loves all His children and a Nation grounded in the promise of equality would not let him rest until victory was won. As we work to...

  1. Mathematics 327 Group Theory Spring 2014 MWF 10:00 10:50 am King 239

    E-print Network

    Wilmer, Elizabeth

    Mathematics 327 Group Theory Spring 2014 MWF 10:00 ­ 10:50 am King 239 Instructor: Susan Jane Colley King 222 775-8388 (office) or -8380 (messages) 775-3680 (home--please call before 10:00 pm) E-mail: sjcolley@math.oberlin.edu Susan.Colley@oberlin.edu Web page: www

  2. Return of the King: Western White Pine Conservation and Restoration in a Changing Climate

    E-print Network

    1 Return of the King: Western White Pine Conservation and Restoration in a Changing Climate To look, the forests of the Interior Northwest were dominated by western white pine (Pinus monticola)­"King Pine by Susan McDougall, USDA-NRCS Plants Database. SUMMARY Western white pine (Pinus monticola) is a species

  3. Difficulties in Academic Writing: From the Perspective of King Saud University Postgraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Fadda, Hind

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what difficulties King Saud University students encounter when learning to write academic English and to differentiate between students' learning needs and objectives. The sample consisted of 50 postgraduate students enrolled in King Saud University during the academic year 2009-2010. Analysis of the data…

  4. Sent to Govindjee by a distinguished member of the photosynthesis community. KING OF THE CHLOROPLAST

    E-print Network

    Govindjee "Gov"

    and discovered ATP. Chorus: Danny, Danny Arnon, King of the Chloroplast. II He saw some green things that seemed OF THE CHLOROPLAST As presented by the Photosynthetic Four, at the final party of the Second Gatlinburg Conference, Called up the Times and filled it full of guff. Chorus: Danny, Danny Arnon, King of the Chloroplast III

  5. Abundance of King Mackerel, Scomberomorus caval/a, in the Southeastern United States Based on

    E-print Network

    Abundance of King Mackerel, Scomberomorus caval/a, in the Southeastern United States Based. BRUSHER Introduction The king mackerel fisheries of the southeastern United States are presently being Councils (1983, 1985). Basic to the for mulation and use of the mackerel FMP are various commercial

  6. King Mackerel, Scomberomorus caval/a, Mark-Recapture Studies Off Florida's East Coast

    E-print Network

    King Mackerel, Scomberomorus caval/a, Mark-Recapture Studies Off Florida's East Coast H. CHARLES SCHAEFER and WILLIAM A. FABLE, JR. Introduction King mackerel, Scomberomorus cav alla, is a coastal mackerel had exceeded H. Charles Schaefer is with the Statistics Office, Coastal Resources Division

  7. REPRODUCTIVE BIOWGY OF KING MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, FROM THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    E-print Network

    REPRODUCTIVE BIOWGY OF KING MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, FROM THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES biology ofking mackerel, Scomberomon18 cawJla, was studied from specimens collected off Texas, Louisiana examined from 1,163 females and 595 males obtained in 1977-78. Spawning was prolonged. Most'king mackerel

  8. Copyright: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa

    E-print Network

    El-Alfy, El-Sayed

    © Copyright: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa A Learning-Dong Yao Heffes, H.;Dept. of Comput. Sci., King Fahd Univ. of Pet. & Miner., Dhahran; Wireless & Minerals http://www.kfupm.edu.sa Summary An efficient channel allocation policy that prioritizes handoffs

  9. Effects of ghost fishing on the population of red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) in

    E-print Network

    101 Effects of ghost fishing on the population of red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA. Abstract--Ghost fishing, the capture and killing of marine organisms. In this study, we quantify the rate of ghost fishing on the population of red king crab (Paralithodes

  10. 78 FR 39599 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco... and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. During...

  11. 77 FR 38005 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Kings Beach Independence Day Fireworks display from 7 a.m. until 10 p.m. on July 3... associated with the fireworks display. During the enforcement period, unauthorized persons or vessels...

  12. This is an electronic version of an article published in Journal of Insect Behavior: King, B.H., and R.B. King. 1995. Sibmating and its fitness consequences in the parasitoid wasp Spalangia

    E-print Network

    King, Bethia H.

    .H., and R.B. King. 1995. Sibmating and its fitness consequences in the parasitoid wasp Spalangia cameroni in the Parasitoid Wasp Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) B. H. King1 and R. B. King1 Department in the Parasitoid Wasp Spalangia cameroni Key Words: mating, inbreeding, Spalangia cameroni, parasitoid wasp

  13. BOREAS AFM-2 Wyoming King Air 1994 Aircraft Sounding Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Robert D.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS AFM-2 team used the University of Wyoming King Air aircraft during IFCs 1, 2, and 3 in 1994 to collected pass-by-pass fluxes (and many other statistics) for the large number of level (constant altitude), straight-line passes used in a variety of flight patterns over the SSA and NSA and areas along the transect between these study areas. The data described here form a second set, namely soundings that were incorporated into nearly every research flight by the King Air in 1994. These soundings generally went from near the surface to above the inversion layer. Most were flown immediately after takeoff or immediately after finishing the last flux pattern of that particular day's flights. The parameters that were measured include wind direction, wind speed, west wind component (u), south wind component (v), static pressure, air dry bulb temperature, potential temperature, dewpoint, temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and CO2 concentration. Data on the aircraft's location, attitude, and altitude during data collection are also provided. These data are stored in tabular ASCH files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  14. Mutualism and evolutionary multiplayer games: revisiting the Red King

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Chaitanya S.; Traulsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Coevolution of two species is typically thought to favour the evolution of faster evolutionary rates helping a species keep ahead in the Red Queen race, where ‘it takes all the running you can do to stay where you are’. In contrast, if species are in a mutualistic relationship, it was proposed that the Red King effect may act, where it can be beneficial to evolve slower than the mutualistic species. The Red King hypothesis proposes that the species which evolves slower can gain a larger share of the benefits. However, the interactions between the two species may involve multiple individuals. To analyse such a situation, we resort to evolutionary multiplayer games. Even in situations where evolving slower is beneficial in a two-player setting, faster evolution may be favoured in a multiplayer setting. The underlying features of multiplayer games can be crucial for the distribution of benefits. They also suggest a link between the evolution of the rate of evolution and group size. PMID:22977149

  15. King penguins can detect two odours associated with conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Gregory B; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies on olfaction in penguins have focused on their use of odours while foraging. It has been proposed for some seabirds that an olfactory landscape shaped by odours coming from feeding areas exists. Islands and colonies, however, may also contribute to the olfactory landscape and may act as an orienting map. To test sensitivities to a colony scent we studied whether King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) could detect the smell of sand, feathers or feces by holding presentations beneath their beaks while they naturally slept on the beach. Penguins had a significantly greater response to the feathers and feces presentations than to sand. Although only a first step in exploring a broader role of olfaction in this species, our results raise the possibility of olfaction being used by King penguins in three potential ways: (1) locating the colony from the water or the shore, (2) finding the rendezvous zone within the colony where a chick or partner may be found, or (3) recognizing individuals by scent, as in Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus demersus). PMID:26385329

  16. Antihemorrhagin in the blood serum of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah): purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Chanhome, Lawan; Khow, Orawan; Omori-Satoh, Tamotsu; Sitprija, Visith

    2003-06-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) serum was found to possess antihemorrhagic activity against king cobra hemorrhagin. The activity was stronger than that in commercial king cobra antivenom. An antihemorrhagin has been purified by ion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography and gel filtration with a 22-fold purification and an overall yield of 12% of the total antihemorrhagic activity contained in crude serum. The purified antihemorrhagin was homogeneous in disc-PAGE and SDS-PAGE. Its apparent molecular weight determined by SDS-PAGE was 120 kDa. The antihemorrhagin was also active against other hemorrhagic snake venoms obtained in Thailand and Japan such as Calloselasma rhodostoma, Trimeresurus albolabris, Trimeresurus macrops and Trimeresurus flavoviridis (Japanese Habu). It inhibited the proteolytic activity of king cobra venom. It is an acid- and thermolabile protein and does not form precipitin lines against king cobra venom. PMID:12875876

  17. 50 CFR 622.372 - Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern Florida west...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources (Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic) § 622.372 Limited access system for king mackerel... renewals of king mackerel gillnet permits, no applications for king mackerel gillnet permits will...

  18. 50 CFR 622.372 - Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern Florida west...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources (Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic) § 622.372 Limited access system for king mackerel... renewals of king mackerel gillnet permits, no applications for king mackerel gillnet permits will...

  19. 6 DECEMBER 2013 VOL 342 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org1164 Exenatide is a case in point, King says: "Who

    E-print Network

    Castoe, Todd A.

    6 DECEMBER 2013 VOL 342 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org1164 NEWSFOCUS Exenatide is a case in point, King enough to resist degradation by the enzymes in gastrointestinal juices, King says. A toxin derived from orally. NUS's Manjunatha, meanwhile, has discovered an analgesic peptide developed from king cobra venom

  20. AGE AND GROWTH OF KING MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, FROM THE ATLANTIC COAST OF THE UNITED STATES1

    E-print Network

    AGE AND GROWTH OF KING MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, FROM THE ATLANTIC COAST OF THE UNITED larval (2-7 nun SL) and 69 young-of-the-year (79-320 mm FL) king mackerel. were ex- amined. All fish were examined was age 21. The daily nature of rings on lapilli of age 0 king mackerel was not validated

  1. 76 FR 5326 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ...and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal Migratory Pelagic Fishery Off...future access to the king and Spanish mackerel components of the coastal migratory pelagics...September 17, 2010, for king and Spanish mackerel. The Council requested a new...

  2. Nearshore Processes, Currents and Directional Wave Spectra Monitoring Using Coherent and Non-coherent Imaging Radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trizna, D.; Hathaway, K.

    2007-05-01

    Two new radar systems have been developed for real-time measurement of near-shore processes, and results are presented for measurements of ocean wave spectra, near-shore sand bar structure, and ocean currents. The first is a non-coherent radar based on a modified version of the Sitex radar family, with a data acquisition system designed around an ISR digital receiver card. The card operates in a PC computer with inputs from a Sitex radar modified for extraction of analogue signals for digitization. Using a 9' antenna and 25 kW transmit power system, data were collected during 2007 at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility (FRF), Duck, NC during winter and spring of 2007. The directional wave spectrum measurements made are based on using a sequence of 64 to 640 antenna rotations to form a snapshot series of radar images of propagating waves. A square window is extracted from each image, typically 64 x 64 pixels at 3-m resolution. Then ten sets of 64 windows are submitted to a three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform process to generate radar image spectra in the frequency-wavenumber space. The relation between the radar image spectral intensity and wave spectral intensity derived from the FRF pressure gauge array was used for a test set of data, in order to establish a modulation transfer function (MTF) for each frequency component. For 640 rotations, 10 of such spectra are averaged for improved statistics. The wave spectrum so generated was compared for extended data sets beyond those used to establish the MTF, and those results are presented here. Some differences between the radar and pressure sensor data that are observed are found to be due to the influence of the wind field, as the radar echo image weakens for light winds. A model is developed to account for such an effect to improve the radar estimate of the directional wave spectrum. The radar ocean wave imagery is severely influenced only by extremely heavy rain-fall rates, so that acceptable quality were assured for most weather conditions on a diurnal basis using a modest tower height. A new coherent microwave radar has recently been developed by ISR and preliminary testing was conducted in the spring of 2007. The radar is based on the Quadrapus four-channel transceiver card, mixed up to microwave frequencies for pulse transmission and back down to base-band for reception. We use frequency-modulated pulse compression methods to obtain 3-m spatial resolution. A standard marine radar pedestal is used to house the microwave components, and rotating radar PPI images similar to marine radar images are obtained. Many of the methods used for the marine radar system have been transferred to the coherent imaging radar. New processing methods applied to the coherent data allow summing of radial velocity images to map mean currents in the near shore zone, such as rip currents. A pair of such radars operating with a few hundred meter separation can be used to map vector currents continuously in the near shore zone and in harbors on a timely basis. Results of preliminary testing of the system will be presented.

  3. Estimation of wave phase speed and nearshore bathymetry from video imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockdon, H.F.; Holman, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    A new remote sensing technique based on video image processing has been developed for the estimation of nearshore bathymetry. The shoreward propagation of waves is measured using pixel intensity time series collected at a cross-shore array of locations using remotely operated video cameras. The incident band is identified, and the cross-spectral matrix is calculated for this band. The cross-shore component of wavenumber is found as the gradient in phase of the first complex empirical orthogonal function of this matrix. Water depth is then inferred from linear wave theory's dispersion relationship. Full bathymetry maps may be measured by collecting data in a large array composed of both cross-shore and longshore lines. Data are collected hourly throughout the day, and a stable, daily estimate of bathymetry is calculated from the median of the hourly estimates. The technique was tested using 30 days of hourly data collected at the SandyDuck experiment in Duck, North Carolina, in October 1997. Errors calculated as the difference between estimated depth and ground truth data show a mean bias of -35 cm (rms error = 91 cm). Expressed as a fraction of the true water depth, the mean percent error was 13% (rms error = 34%). Excluding the region of known wave nonlinearities over the bar crest, the accuracy of the technique improved, and the mean (rms) error was -20 cm (75 cm). Additionally, under low-amplitude swells (wave height H ???1 m), the performance of the technique across the entire profile improved to 6% (29%) of the true water depth with a mean (rms) error of -12 cm (71 cm). Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Linear Scour Depressions or Bedforms? Using Interferometric Sonar to Investigate Nearshore Sediment Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, M.; Giese, G. S.; Dingman, S. L.; Gontz, A. M.; Adams, M. B.; Norton, A. R.; Brown, T. L.

    2011-12-01

    A series of ambiguous features on the seafloor off the coast of Provincetown, Massachusetts USA has been identified in two bathymetric lidar surveys (2007, 2010) conducted by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Similar features in the area have been described as linear scour depressions by other investigators, but at deeper water depths. These features exhibit some of the characteristics of bedforms, they have migrated tens of meters and maintained similar 3 dimensional morphologies. However, what would be described as the slipface more closely resembles the updrift face of a linear scour depression. The features are in relatively shallow water (9 - 15 m), are 150 - 200 m long, have spacings of 100 - 150 m and are 5-6 m in height. Further investigations are being undertaken to better understand these features and nearshore sediment transport in the area. The features appear along a high energy, accreting coast with both strong wave-driven sediment flux and tidal currents. Mapping of the study area with an interferometric sonar system, which collects coincident swath bathymetry and acoustic backscatter imagery, is ongoing. Interferometric sonar increases bathymetric swath width to depth ratios, in comparison to multibeam systems, and expedites data collection by reducing costs, vessel-time and hazards associated with navigating shallow waters. In addition, sediment grab samples and a series of seismic reflection profiles will also be collected in the area to ground-truth acoustic imagery and provide a subsurface framework for the features, respectively. These datasets will allow investigators to better document bottom conditions, estimate flow velocities needed to create these features and improve our understanding of sediment transport processes and pathways in the area.

  5. Infrared measurements of surface renewal and subsurface vortices in nearshore breaking waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yasunori; Mori, Nobuhito

    2008-07-01

    When ocean waves reach a surf zone, jets projecting from the breakers splash sequentially, producing horizontal roller vortices beneath the jets and longitudinal counterrotating vortices behind the rollers; these vortices organize into three-dimensional structures that evolve into a turbulent bore with wave propagation. This disrupts any uniform temperature distributions on the surface, creating heterogeneous patterns of surface temperatures. In this study, we extracted surface temperature distributions from infrared measurements in small- and large-scale wave flumes, then used those data to study the renewed surfaces created by subsurface vortices beneath spilling and plunging breakers. In our large-scale experiments, temporal and spatial scales of surface renewal and surface recovery were consistent with earlier work; however, in our small-scale experiments, the spatial scales showed significant deviations from earlier in situ observations. These inconsistencies may be attributed to scale effects for subsurface vortices, and we show that the Froude number (Fr) can be used to characterize the initial formation of longitudinal counterrotating vortices. Further, for turbulent flows fully developed by wave breaking in a bore region, the frequency of surface renewal correlates exponentially with Reynolds number (Re). The computed vorticity on the breaking wave surface exhibits local patterns which correlate strongly with the gravity induced counterrotating vortices, which in turn renew the rear-facing surface of the breaking waves. In contrast the turbulent bore which precedes the wave crest rapidly disturbs and renews the surface in front of the crest. These two different mechanisms for surface renewal, during the nearshore breaking process, lead to modulations in the surface temperature distribution and changes in thermal diffusivity during the propagation of the breaking wave.

  6. Dynamics of a nearshore bar system in the northern Adriatic: A video-based morphological classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaroli, Clara; Ciavola, Paolo

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to define a simplified morphodynamic classification suitable for low energy beaches exposed to microtidal conditions. The study site is located in the northern Adriatic (in Italy), it is an almost 2 km-long rectilinear beach bordered at the northern edge by coastal structures and at the southern end by a small river inlet. The mechanisms related to the evolution of the submerged part of the beach were derived from video-monitoring using Argus technology. The morphodynamic evolution of the system was studied using an automatic procedure on images for the characterisation of nearshore bars that showed good correspondence with hand-based (visual) interpretation. To apply this automatic procedure, the bar's plan crest shape was mapped using cross-shore pixel luminosity transects traced on time-averaged video images. A careful sensitivity analysis was undertaken to determine the best spacing between transects for the correct tracing of the shape of the bar crest. The error associated to a transect spacing every 25 m resulted in being comparable with the pixel resolution in the area and with the error found comparing the video interpretation with bathymetric surveys. From the study of a four and a half year dataset (February 2003-May 2007), the submerged beach was found to be characterised by the presence of a single bar in the area next to coastal protection structures. However, moving southwards of these, inner and outer bars were present. The morphodynamics of the outer bar and its plan shape modifications were dominated by rhythmic forms. Occasionally, after high energy events, the bar became rectilinear but during the following lower energy periods rhythmicity was re-established, supporting the hypothesis of self-organization mechanisms. The cross-shore position of the bar's crests only showed limited cross-shore mobility through time.

  7. Coral Colonisation of an Artificial Reef in a Turbid Nearshore Environment, Dampier Harbour, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Blakeway, David; Byers, Michael; Stoddart, James; Rossendell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32°C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements). Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 ± 17 SE to 909 ± 85 SE per m2 over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 ± 1.0 SE per m2 at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 ± 2.1 SE per m2 at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportions—Pseudosiderastreatayami, Mycediumelephantotus and Leptastreapurpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 ± 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations. PMID:24040405

  8. Tectonic controls on nearshore sediment accumulation and submarine canyon morphology offshore La Jolla, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Le, Dantec N.; Hogarth, L.J.; Driscoll, N.W.; Babcock, J.M.; Barnhardt, W.A.; Schwab, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    CHIRP seismic and swath bathymetry data acquired offshore La Jolla, California provide an unprecedented three-dimensional view of the La Jolla and Scripps submarine canyons. Shore-parallel patterns of tectonic deformation appear to control nearshore sediment thickness and distribution around the canyons. These shore-parallel patterns allow the impact of local tectonic deformation to be separated from the influence of eustatic sea-level fluctuations. Based on stratal geometry and acoustic character, we identify a prominent angular unconformity inferred to be the transgressive surface and three sedimentary sequences: an acoustically laminated estuarine unit deposited during early transgression, an infilling or "healing-phase" unit formed during the transgression, and an upper transparent unit. Beneath the transgressive surface, steeply dipping reflectors with several dip reversals record faulting and folding along the La Jolla margin. Scripps Canyon is located at the crest of an antiform, where the rocks are fractured and more susceptible to erosion. La Jolla Canyon is located along the northern strand of the Rose Canyon Fault Zone, which separates Cretaceous lithified rocks to the south from poorly cemented Eocene sands and gravels to the north. Isopach and structure contour maps of the three sedimentary units reveal how their thicknesses and spatial distributions relate to regional tectonic deformation. For example, the estuarine unit is predominantly deposited along the edges of the canyons in paleotopographic lows that may have been inlets along barrier beaches during the Holocene sea-level rise. The distribution of the infilling unit is controlled by pre-existing relief that records tectonic deformation and erosional processes. The thickness and distribution of the upper transparent unit are controlled by long-wavelength, tectonically induced relief on the transgressive surface and hydrodynamics. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Exploring the nearshore marine wind profile from field measurements and numerical hindcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Jesus, F.; Menendez, M.; Guanche, R.; Losada, I.

    2012-12-01

    Wind power is the predominant offshore renewable energy resource. In the last years, offshore wind farms have become a technically feasible source of electrical power. The economic feasibility of offshore wind farms depends on the quality of the offshore wind conditions compared to that of onshore sites. Installation and maintenance costs must be balanced with more hours and a higher quality of the available resources. European offshore wind development has revealed that the optimum offshore sites are those in which the distance from the coast is limited with high available resource. Due to the growth in the height of the turbines and the complexity of the coast, with interactions between inland wind/coastal orography and ocean winds, there is a need for field measurements and validation of numerical models to understand the marine wind profile near the coast. Moreover, recent studies have pointed out that the logarithmic law describing the vertical wind profile presents limitations. The aim of this work is to characterize the nearshore vertical wind profile in the medium atmosphere boundary layer. Instrumental observations analyzed in this work come from the Idermar project (www.Idermar.es). Three floating masts deployed at different locations on the Cantabrian coast provide wind measurements from a height of 20 to 90 meters. Wind speed and direction are measured as well as several meteorological variables at different heights of the profile. The shortest wind time series has over one year of data. A 20 year high-resolution atmospheric hindcast, using the WRF-ARW model and focusing on hourly offshore wind fields, is also analyzed. Two datasets have been evaluated: a European reanalysis with a ~15 Km spatial resolution, and a hybrid downscaling of wind fields with a spatial resolution of one nautical mile over the northern coast of Spain.. These numerical hindcasts have been validated based on field measurement data. Several parameterizations of the vertical wind profile are evaluated and, based on this work, a particular parameterization of the wind profile is proposed.

  10. Methane concentrations and oxidation in nearshore waters of the Lena River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joye, S. B.; Samarkin, V.; Shakhova, N. E.; Semiletov, I. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic is warming dramatically, with potentially catastrophic impacts on climate change through rapid mobilization of labile carbon reservoirs sequestered presently in permafrost. Increasingly, Arctic feedbacks are recognized as key contributors to climate change, including cycles associated with the powerful greenhouse gas methane, whose atmospheric concentration has more than doubled since the pre-industrial epoch. Sustained methane release to the atmosphere from thawing Arctic permafrost and delivery to the coastal ocean through groundwater or riverine discharge or expulsion from the seabed is a positive and likely highly significant feedback to climate warming. Microbially-mediated methane oxidation provides a key sink and effective biofilter that can limit methane fluxes from coastal environments to the atmosphere. We examined methane dynamics on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf by determining concentrations and oxidation rates at a series of stations near the Lena River Delta and moving offshore. Methane concentrations and oxidation rates were highly elevated in and near the river mouth compared to offshore waters, except when the offshore waters were impacted by seabed methane seepage. The regulation of methane oxidation in Arctic waters appears two-fold: first, rates are strongly related to methane availability and second, in the presence of methane, nutrient availability strongly regulates methane consumption. Along the Lena river delta, elevated concentrations of both nutrients and methane create ideal conditions to support high rates of pelagic methanotrophy. Offshore, where nutrient concentrations are lower and more limiting, methane oxidation rates are considerably lower. These data suggest that, at present, nearshore waters are fairly efficient methane sinks while in offshore waters, pelagic methanotrophy is inefficient, allowing methane to escape to the atmosphere.

  11. San Diego County Reservation

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Corps Base Yuma Marine CorpsAir Station Yuma Proving Ground Havasu National Wildlife Refuge Imperial National Wildlife Refuge Kofa National Wildlife Refuge Cibola National Wildlife Refuge Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge Yuma County Imperial County Mohave

  12. 76 FR 12306 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County, Kern County, and Ventura...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ...County, and Ventura County; Air Pollution Control Districts AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District...

  13. 76 FR 12280 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, for Imperial County, Kern County, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ...County, and Ventura County; Air Pollution Control Districts AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District...

  14. Nearshore benthic habitat GIS for the Channel Islands National Sanctuary and southern California State Fisheries Reserves. Volume 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Nasby, Nicole M.; Reid, Jane A.; Waltenberger, Ben; Lee, Kristen M.

    2003-01-01

    The nearshore benthic habitat of the Santa Barbara coast and Channel Islands supports diverse marine life that is commercially, recreationally, and intrinsically valuable. Some of these resources are known to be endangered including a variety of rockfish and the white abalone. Agencies of the state of California and the United States have been mandated to preserve and enhance these resources. Data from sidescan sonar, bathymetry, video and dive observations, and physical samples are consolidated in a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS provides researchers and policymakers a view of the relationship among data sets to assist scienctific research and to help with economic and social policy-making decisions regarding this protected environment.

  15. Investigation of Coastal Hydrogeology Utilizing Geophysical and Geochemical Tools along the Broward County Coast, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reich, Christopher D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Greenwood, W. Jason; Wiese, Dana S.

    2008-01-01

    Geophysical (CHIRP, boomer, and continuous direct-current resistivity) and geochemical tracer studies (continuous and time-series 222Radon) were conducted along the Broward County coast from Port Everglades to Hillsboro Inlet, Florida. Simultaneous seismic, direct-current resistivity, and radon surveys in the coastal waters provided information to characterize the geologic framework and identify potential groundwater-discharge sites. Time-series radon at the Nova Southeastern University National Coral Reef Institute (NSU/NCRI) seawall indicated a very strong tidally modulated discharge of ground water with 222Rn activities ranging from 4 to 10 disintegrations per minute per liter depending on tidal stage. CHIRP seismic data provided very detailed bottom profiles (i.e., bathymetry); however, acoustic penetration was poor and resulted in no observed subsurface geologic structure. Boomer data, on the other hand, showed features that are indicative of karst, antecedent topography (buried reefs), and sand-filled troughs. Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) data showed slight variability in the subsurface along the coast. Subtle changes in subsurface resistivity between nearshore (higher values) and offshore (lower values) profiles may indicate either a freshening of subsurface water nearshore or a change in sediment porosity or lithology. Further lithologic and hydrologic controls from sediment or rock cores or well data are needed to constrain the variability in CRP data.

  16. Movements of foraging king penguins through marine mesoscale eddies

    PubMed Central

    Cotté, Cédric; Park, Young-Hyang; Guinet, Christophe; Bost, Charles-André

    2007-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that marine predators associate with mesoscale eddies, how these marine features influence foraging movements is still unclear. This study investigates the relationship of at-sea movements of king penguins to mesoscale eddies using oceanographic remote sensing and movement data from 43 individual trips over 4 years. Simultaneous satellite measurements provided information on gradients of sea surface temperature and currents associated with eddies determined from altimetry. Penguins tended to swim rapidly with currents as they travelled towards foraging zones. Swimming speed indicative of foraging occurred within mesoscale fronts and strong currents associated with eddies at the Polar Front. These results demonstrate the importance of mesoscale eddies in directing foraging efforts to allow predators to rapidly get to rich areas where high concentrations of prey are likely to be encountered. When returning to the colony to relieve the incubating partner or to feed the chick, the birds followed a direct and rapid path, seemingly ignoring currents. PMID:17669726

  17. [Oceanography and King Dom Carlos I's collection of iconography].

    PubMed

    Jardim, Maria Estela; Peres, Isabel Marília; Ré, Pedro Barcia; Costa, Fernanda Madalena

    2014-01-01

    After the Challenger expedition (1872-1878), other nations started to show interest in oceanographic research and organizing their own expeditions. As of 1885, Prince Albert I of Monaco conducted oceanographic campaigns with the collaboration of some of the best marine biologists and physical oceanographers of the day, inventing new techniques and instruments for the oceanographic work. Prince Albert's scientific activity certainly helped kindle the interest of his friend, Dom Carlos I, king of Portugal, in the study of the oceans and marine life. Both shared the need to use photography to document their studies. This article analyzes the role of scientific photography in oceanography, especially in the expeditions organized by the Portuguese monarch. PMID:25338032

  18. Statement from Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Committee "...But conscience asks the question -is it right? And there comes a time when one must take a

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    Statement from Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Committee "...But conscience asks the question popular; but one must take it because it is right." Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Dr. King was criticized their untimely deaths of these two young men. As members of the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Committee

  19. Super Models, Old King Coal II, & Civil Disobedience For fellow technocrats: "Climate simulations for 1880-2003 with GISS modelE", to appear soon

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    Super Models, Old King Coal II, & Civil Disobedience Model: For fellow technocrats: "Climate" was a guise, using prurient interest to gain attention. Sorry! "Old King Coal II" and "Civil Disobedience" are accurate headings. Old King Coal II: Thanks for comments/suggestions re my "Old King Coal" e-mail. Main

  20. Synchronization and an application of a novel fractional order King Cobra chaotic system.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, P; Balasubramaniam, P; Ratnavelu, K

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we design a new three dimensional King Cobra face shaped fractional order chaotic system. The multi-scale synchronization scheme of two fractional order chaotic systems is described. The necessary conditions for the multi-scale synchronization of two identical fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems are derived through feedback control. A new cryptosystem is proposed for an image encryption and decryption by using synchronized fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems with the supports of multiple cryptographic assumptions. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is analyzed by the well known algebraic attacks. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results. PMID:25273185

  1. Brood rearing ecology of king eiders on the north slope of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Laura M.; Powell, Abby N.

    2009-01-01

    We examined King Eider (Somateria spectabilis) brood survival in the Kuparak oil field in northern Alaska in 2002 and 2003 by monitoring hens with broods using radiotelemetry. We observed complete brood loss in eight of 10 broods. Broods survived less than 2 weeks on average, and most mortality occurred within 10 days of hatch. Distance hens traveled overland did not affect brood survival. Apparent King Eider brood survival in our study area was lower than reported for eider species in other areas. We recommend future studies examine if higher densities of predators in oil fields reduces King Eider duckling survival.

  2. Synchronization and an application of a novel fractional order King Cobra chaotic system

    SciTech Connect

    Muthukumar, P. Balasubramaniam, P.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we design a new three dimensional King Cobra face shaped fractional order chaotic system. The multi-scale synchronization scheme of two fractional order chaotic systems is described. The necessary conditions for the multi-scale synchronization of two identical fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems are derived through feedback control. A new cryptosystem is proposed for an image encryption and decryption by using synchronized fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems with the supports of multiple cryptographic assumptions. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is analyzed by the well known algebraic attacks. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results.

  3. Nearshore Coastal Dynamics on a Sea-Breeze Dominated Micro-Tidal Beach (NCSAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Ruiz de Alegría-Arzaburu, A.; Figlus, J.; Mendoza, T.; Pintado-Patino, J. C.; Pieterse, A.; Chardon-Maldonado, P.; DiCosmo, N. R.; Wellman, N.; Garcia-Nava, H.; Palemón-Arcos, L.; Roberts, T.; López-González, J.; Bravo, M.; Ojeda, E.; Medellín, G.; Appendini, C. M.; Figueroa, B.; González-Leija, M.; Enriquez, C.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Salles, P.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive field experiment devoted to the study of coastal processes on a micro-tidal beach was conducted from March 30th to April 12th 2014 in Sisal, Yucatán México. Wave conditions in the study area are controlled by local (i.e., sea-breezes) and meso-scale (i.e., Nortes) meteorological events. Simultaneous measurements of waves, tides, winds, currents, sediment transport, runup, and beach morphology were obtained in this experiment. Very dense nearshore instrumentation arrays allow us the study of the cross-/along- shore variability of surf/swash zone dynamics during different forcing conditions. Strong sea-breeze wind events produced a diurnal cycle with a maximum wind speed of 14 m/s. The persistent sea-breeze system forces small-amplitude (Hs<1 m) short-period (Tp<4 s) NE waves approaching with a high incidence wave angle. These wave conditions drive westward alongshore currents of up to 0.6 m/s in the inner surf zone and hence produce an active sediment transport in the swash zone. On the other hand, the more energetic (Hs>1 m) Norte event, lasting 48 hours, reached the coast on April 8th generating a long-period swell (Tp>10 s) arriving from the NNW. This event induced an eastward net sediment transport across a wide surf zone. However, long-term observations of sand impoundment at a groin located near the study area suggests that the net sediment transport in the northern Yucatan peninsula is controlled by sea-breeze events and hence swash zone dynamics play an important role in the net sediment budget of this region. A comparative study of surf and swash zone dynamics during both sea-breeze and Norte events will be presented. The Institute of Engineering of UNAM, throughout an International Collaborative Project with the University of Delaware, and CONACYT (CB-167692) provided financial support. The first author acknowledges ONR Global for providing financial support throughout the Visiting Scientist Program.

  4. Activities and preliminary results of nearshore benthic habitat mapping in southern California, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2000-01-01

    The nearshore benthic habitat of the Santa Barbara coast and Channel Islands supports a diversity of marine life that are commercially, recreationally, and intrinsically valuable. Some of these resources are known to be endangered including a variety of rockfish and the White Abalone. State and National agencies have been mandated to preserve and enhance these resources and require detailed habitat characterization in order to do so. This project will characterize and map the benthic habitat in areas that have been selected because they have been set aside as National Sanctuaries or State Preserves, or are areas of ongoing or planned fish population studies. Various management strategies are being developed to protect marine resources in the Santa Barbara Channel Islands Region. One approach under investigation is to implement no-take marine reserves (Agardy, T., 1997; Bohnsack, 1998; Roberts, 1997). One small reserve presently exists on Anacapa Island and there is a growing momentum to add additional reserves to form a reserve network (Lafferty et al., 2000). Reserves may provide relatively pristine marine communities in a wild state for study and appreciation. In addition, they may buffer some species from over-fishing. A key feature of marine reserve design is to protect a representation of the existing habitats in a region (Roberts, 1997). Unfortunately, the distribution of habitats is not well known in this area since the underwater equivalent of soils and vegetation maps that are widely available for terrestrial systems do not yet exist. Managers need habitat maps to help determine the most appropriate boundaries for reserves in a network in order to meet various criteria and goals (such as habitat representation, reserve size, habitat heterogeneity, reserve spacing, inclusion of sensitive habitats, etc.). Another use for habitat mapping is to better understand the distribution of those habitats that are particularly important to fished species or sensitive species. Combining habitat mapping with ongoing studies of egg and larval fish counts by the National Marine Fisheries Service (Russell Vetter), rockfish population studies by the California Department of Fish and Game (Dave VenTresca), and white abalone (Kevin Lafferty and others, USGS) will extend the ability to predict the distribution of these species and identify areas with appropriate habitat that might be suitable for restoration. Additional uses for habitat mapping include managing visitor use, kelp distribution, and archeological resources.

  5. ECORS Truc Vert'08: a Multi-Institutional International Nearshore Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senechal, N.; Ardhuin, F.

    2008-12-01

    A large multi-institutional international field experiment (ECORS Truc Vert'08) was conducted Feb-April 2008 on the southern part of the French Atlantic coastline. More than 120 scientists, students and technicians participated to this effort coming from 3 continents and 6 countries : Australia (University of New South Wales), France (SHOM, University Bordeaux I, University Pau et Pays de l'Adour, University Sud-Toulon Var, University Joseph Fourier, University Perpignan, BRGM, University Lyon 1), Great Britain (Plymouth University), New Zealand (NIWA), The Netherlands (Delft University of Technology, University of Utrecht) and USA (Naval Postgraduate School, University of Miami, Franklin and Marshall College). Truc Vert beach is a high-energy, dynamic, macrotidal, double-barred beach representative of most of the beaches on this 250 km long coastline. The inner bar can go through all the states within the intermediate classification and usually exhibits a transverse bar and rip morphology (380 m alongshore wavelength). The outer bar is changeable from linear to crescentic (720 m alongshore wavelength). The goals were to measure the hydrodynamic processes, sedimentary processes and morphologic responses on a macrotidal beach during energetic wave conditions and covering a large spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. This dataset will facilitate the validation of surf zone wave, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic models, it will lend insight into the morphodynamic evolution of three dimensional beaches and it will fill the gaps in previous nearshore data sets. A wide range of unique instrumentation was used including continuously sampled 2Hz high-resolution surfzone video cameras, daily topographic surveys, bathymetric surveys from the French naval vessels and personal watercrafts, high frequency velocity and pressure sensors, acoustic Doppler current profilers, sediment transport devices, sand porosity and grain size devices, and position-tracking drifters. Measurements were taken during various wave conditions including short-period sea waves (Hs=1m, Tp=7s) and energetic long-period swell waves (Hs=8.2m, Tp=18s). In particular, 4 consecutive storms with significant wave height greater than 5 m including a 10-year storm were measured. Tidal ranges varied between 1.8m (neap tide) and 5m (spring tide). Observations include several cycles of crescentic bar development and destruction, cross-shore and alongshore migration of the bar, diurnal berm destruction and development. For instance, the outer bar migrated 350 m alongshore during the experiment. The large storms generated intensive alongshore currents (averaged velocity greater than 1.5m/s) and transport, resulting in rapid migration of the inner bar and the reshaping of the outer crescentic bar into a linear bar.

  6. Enigmatic hydrothermal fluid-flow pathways in sandstone associated with a near-shore basaltic lava

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, K. E.; Carr, P.; Jones, B.

    2010-12-01

    Tubular and curviplanar structures outlined by the occurrence of chlorite, hematite, quartz, and albite are developed in the Late Permian Kiama Sandstone in New South Wales, Australia. These structures are interpreted as fluid-flow pathways resulting from ejection of heated pore fluids as a thick basaltic lava (the Bumbo Flow) was emplaced rapidly on top of near-shore, unconsolidated, wet, sandy sediments. Evidence of fluid-flow pathways is observed in the upper 10 m of the Kiama Sandstone. Elongate flow structures, exposed in plan and cross-section, are horizontal to subhorizontal, and parallel to each other and the direction of the basalt flow. Tube-like structures tend to be between 5 cm and 30 cm in diameter and are exposed laterally for a few tens of meters, although the full extent cannot be determined. Fluid-flow pathways are marked by intense mineralization, and include enclosed tubes as well as unenclosed sheets, which may be flat or locally highly-curved. Cross-cutting relationships reveal several generations of the tube-like features and imply the presence of hydrothermal fluids inside the tubes (Figure 1). However, while significant alteration is apparent in the tube rims, little or no alteration is visible inside tubes at the macro scale. Fluid-flow features appear grouped in distinct horizons composed of relatively clean sand, and are underlain by layers with a higher silt component and exhibiting extensive bioturbation. These features imply that bedding-controlled sediment porosity and permeability played a large role in determining the location of fluid-flow output. These enigmatic structures in the Kiama Sandstone are developed in an area where the sandstone-basalt contact ramps up approximately 7 m relative to the surrounding area, apparently defining the margin of a Late Permian offshore bar. Lava ponded against this sandbar before flowing over it, sealing off potential fluid escape pathways from behind and on top of the sand. The hot lava heated the pore water and induced horizontal hydrothermal fluid-flow in the direction of lava flow, producing the mineral assemblage defining the fluid-flow pathways. We have not yet found reports in the literature of fluid-flow structures comparable to those seen in the Kiama Sandstone.

  7. Investigating Terrain Effects on Nearshore Cloud Evolution in Deepwave through Time-Lapse Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, T. C.; Billings, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Stereo images of cloud patterns and nearshore waves upstream of the Southern Alps during the DEEPWAVE field campaign are presented through photogrammetric analysis. The photos highlighted in this case were taken in the afternoon of Friday, 13 June 2014. These photos were chosen because they may allow for focused analysis of terrain effects on cloud evolution. Stratocumulus and other cumuliform, as well as cirrus clouds were captured as the sun set over the Tasman Sea, one of the South Pacific Ocean's marginal seas. Breaks in the thin band of stratocumulus along the shoreline, as well as the total time for cloud layer dissipation are also of interest. A possible barrier jet causing the southward motion of the stratocumulus layer is also investigated. Views look northwest from Serpentine Road in Kumara Junction, South Island, New Zealand. An Integrated Sounding System (ISS) located at the Hokitika Airport was the primary source of vertical profiles. The upper air sounding closest to the shoot time and location, plotted from Hokitika's 11:05 UTC upsonde data, shows 10 mph NE winds near the surface. Images were taken on days with research flights over New Zealand from 2 June to 23 June 2014 to match DEEPWAVE objectives. On the night of 13 June 2014, NSF/NCAR's HIAPER GV research aircraft completed a flight from Christchurch over the South Island. This flight became known as Intensive Observing Period 3 (IOP 3) Sensitivity Flight. Methods applied in the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) by Grubiši? and Grubiši? (2007) were closely followed while capturing stereo photographic images. Two identical cameras were positioned with a separation baseline near 270 meters. Each camera was tilted upward approximately seven degrees and carefully positioned to capture parallel fields of view of the site. Developing clouds were captured using synchronized camera timers on a five second interval. Ultimately, cloud locations and measurements can be determined using the recorded GPS locations of the cameras. The Camera Calibration Toolbox available for MATLAB was used in order to perform these elaborate triangulation calculations.

  8. Deep Genetic Divergence between Disjunct Refugia in the Arctic-Alpine King’s Crown, Rhodiola integrifolia (Crassulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    DeChaine, Eric G.; Forester, Brenna R.; Schaefer, Hanno; Davis, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the strength of climatic variability at high latitudes and upper elevations, we still do not fully understand how plants in North America that are distributed between Arctic and alpine areas responded to the environmental changes of the Quaternary. To address this question, we set out to resolve the evolutionary history of the King’s Crown, Rhodiola integrifolia using multi-locus population genetic and phylogenetic analyses in combination with ecological niche modeling. Our population genetic analyses of multiple anonymous nuclear loci revealed two major clades within R. integrifolia that diverged from each other ~ 700 kya: one occurring in Beringia to the north (including members of subspecies leedyi and part of subspecies integrifolia), and the other restricted to the Southern Rocky Mountain refugium in the south (including individuals of subspecies neomexicana and part of subspecies integrifolia). Ecological niche models corroborate our hypothesized locations of refugial areas inferred from our phylogeographic analyses and revealed some environmental differences between the regions inhabited by its two subclades. Our study underscores the role of geographic isolation in promoting genetic divergence and the evolution of endemic subspecies in R. integrifolia. Furthermore, our phylogenetic analyses of the plastid spacer region trnL-F demonstrate that among the native North American species, R. integrifolia and R. rhodantha are more closely related to one another than either is to R. rosea. An understanding of these historic processes lies at the heart of making informed management decisions regarding this and other Arctic-alpine species of concern in this increasingly threatened biome. PMID:24282505

  9. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains associated with threatened sea ducks and near-shore marine habitats of southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, Jason L.

    2011-01-01

    In Alaska, sea ducks winter in coastal habitats at remote, non-industrialized areas, as well as in proximity to human communities and industrial activity. We evaluated prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in faecal samples of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri; n = 122) and harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus; n = 21) at an industrialized site and Steller's eiders (n = 48) at a reference site, and compared these strains with those isolated from water samples from near-shore habitats of ducks. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 16% and 67% in Steller's eiders and harlequin ducks, respectively, at the industrialized study site, and 2% in Steller's eiders at the reference site. Based on O and H antigen subtyping and genetic characterization by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found evidence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains associated with both species and detected E. coli strains carrying virulence genes associated with mammals in harlequin ducks. Steller's eiders that carried APEC had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations, providing further evidence of pathogenicity. The genetic profile of two E. coli strains from water matched an isolate from a Steller's eider providing evidence of transmission between near-shore habitats and birds.

  10. Radon spectroscopy of packet delay Andre Broido, Ryan King, Evi Nemeth, kc claffy

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    Radon spectroscopy of packet delay Andre Broido, Ryan King, Evi Nemeth, kc claffy CAIDA, SDSC techniques, specifically the Radon transform previously applied in geophysics [6] and computer tomography [7

  11. Radon spectroscopy of packet delay Andre Broido, Ryan King, Evi Nemeth, kc cla#y

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    Radon spectroscopy of packet delay Andre Broido, Ryan King, Evi Nemeth, kc cla#y CAIDA, SDSC techniques, specifically the Radon transform previously applied in geophysics [6] and computer tomography [7

  12. FREEDOM AND CONSTRUCTION: NEW CONCEPTS OF FORM IN THE IMPROVISATIONS AND COMPOSITIONS OF KING CRIMSON

    E-print Network

    Bohling, Christopher

    2012-12-31

    This thesis constructs a coherent system of analysis for the improvised and non-improvised music of the progressive rock band King Crimson, with the intention that the methodologies presented here for discussing collective ...

  13. THE CHAPEL OF ST HUGH AND ST CHAD IN THE KING'S HALL AND COLLEGE OF

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    THE CHAPEL OF ST HUGH AND ST CHAD IN THE KING'S HALL AND COLLEGE OF BRASENOSE MUSIC LIST, TRINITY: 115, 244, 376 3rd Week - Sunday 11th May, 6pm Introit: Bogoroditse Devo - Rachmaninov Ebdon responses

  14. THE CHAPEL OF ST HUGH AND ST CHAD IN THE KING'S HALL AND COLLEGE OF BRASENOSE

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    THE CHAPEL OF ST HUGH AND ST CHAD IN THE KING'S HALL AND COLLEGE OF BRASENOSE MUSIC LIST, HILARY Brewer in D, Christus factus est - Bruckner Hymns: 125 111 376 Chaplain: Rev. Dr. Dominic Keech Director

  15. Strategic use of ICT in the Saudi system of higher education: King Saud University 

    E-print Network

    Alkhatnai, Mubarak Hadi Marie

    2013-11-29

    This study investigates ICT in Saudi HE as represented by the researcher’s own institution: King Saud University (KSU). Using a naturalistic approach in pursuing the inquiry and making use of mixed methods, the research ...

  16. 3 CFR 8624 - Proclamation 8624 of January 14, 2011. Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...foundation that supports economic security for all and extends the founding promise of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness to every American. Dr. King devoted his life to serving others, reminding us that “human progress is neither...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009 [64 FR 61998, Nov. 15,...

  18. June 2009 CS Student Guide Page 1 of 19 King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals

    E-print Network

    El-Alfy, El-Sayed

    June 2009 CS Student Guide Page 1 of 19 King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals College of computing on individuals, organizations, and society; h) An ability to recognize the need for and to engage

  19. South Florida Sun-Sentinel.com Boca Raton residents commemorate King's legacy in Pearl

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    By Rebekah Monson, Sun Sentinel 6:37 PM EST, January 17, 2011 BOCA RATON Strains of "Lift Every Voice and Sing" rang through Pearl City, where early Monday the community celebrated Martin Luther King Jr

  20. "BECAUSE SOME STORIES DO LIVE FOREVER": STEPHEN KING'S THE DARK TOWER SERIES AS MODERN ROMANCE

    E-print Network

    McMurray, Rachel Elizabeth

    2012-05-31

    Stephen King's Dark Tower series is a seven-volume work that contains elements from myths, fairy tales, American westerns, legends, popular culture, Gothic literature, and medieval romance. Few scholars have engaged with ...

  1. The Household and Court of King James VI of Scotland, 1567-1603 

    E-print Network

    Juhala, Amy L

    2000-01-01

    This thesis examines the household and court of King James VI from the household establishment of his infancy until his departure for London in 1603 and the resulting end of a court culture in Scotland. It depends substantially on manuscript...

  2. 36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. 7.8 Section 7.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.8 Sequoia...

  3. King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals College of Computer Science and Engineering

    E-print Network

    Bouhraoua, Abdelhafid

    King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals College of Computer Science and Engineering COMPUTER Programs C. Performing additions Q.9 What are the two units that the CPU is made of ? A. Data Unit (or

  4. A review of "King James I and the Religious Culture of England." by James Doelman 

    E-print Network

    Boyd Berry

    2002-01-01

    ?exploratory,? given the extraordinary richness of the sources and their only recent accessibility? (2). James Doelman. King James I and the Religious Culture of England. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2000. viii + 194 pp. $75. Review by BOYD BERRY, VIRGINIA... COMMONWEALTH UNIVERSITY. James Doelman sets out to examine ?the interaction of James? ideas of religious life with that of his subjects? (sic, 4) or King James I and the Religious Culture of England: ?While James is the starting point for this study...

  5. Student Competition: Demographic trends around Martin Luther King Jr. Streets in United States Cities

    E-print Network

    Butler, RaeLynn

    2007-11-14

    Demographic Trends around Martin Luther King Jr. Streets in United States Cities RaeLynn Butler Haskell Indian Nations University 2007 GIS Day November 14, 2007 Introduction • Does the name of a public street provide more than just a name? • Could a... toponym actually influence socio- economic trends within a place? The objective of this research is to observe patterns in demographics collected from U.S. Census Bureau Blocks adjacent to Martin Luther King Jr. Streets (Boulevards, Lanes, Avenues...

  6. A preliminary appraisal of sediment sources and transport in Kings Bay and vicinity, Georgia and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McConnell, J.B.; Radtke, D.B.; Hale, T.W.; Buell, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    Water-quality, bottom-material, suspended-sediment, and current-velocity data were collected during November 1981 in Kings Bay and vicinity to provide information on the sources and transport of estuarine sediments. Kings Bay and Cumberland Sound , the site of the Poseidon Submarine Base in southeast Georgia, are experiencing high rates of sediment deposition and accumulation, which are causing serious navigational and operational problems. Velocity, bathymetry, turbidity, and bottom-material data suggest that the area in the vicinity of lower Kings Bay is accumulating deposits of suspended sediment transported from Cumberland Sound on the floodtide and from upper Kings Bay and the tidal marsh drained by Marianna Creek on the ebbtide. Suspended-sediment discharges computed for consecutive 13-hour ebbtides and floodtides showed that a net quantity of suspended sediment was transported seaward from upper Kings Bay and Marianna Creek. A net landward transport of suspended sediment computed at the St. Marys Entrance indicated areas seaward of St. Marys Entrance may be supplying sediment to the shoaling areas of the estuary, including lower Kings Bay. (USGS)

  7. Use of the Beaufort Sea by king eiders breeding on the North Slope of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Laura M.; Powell, A.N.; Taylor, E.J.; Rexstad, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    We estimated areas used by king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, how distributions of used areas varied, and characteristics that explained variation in the number of days spent at sea, to provide regulatory agencies with baseline data needed to minimize impacts of potential offshore oil development. We implanted sixty king eiders with satellite transmitters at nesting areas on the North Slope of Alaska, USA, in 2002-2004. More than 80% of marked eiders spent >2 weeks staging offshore prior to beginning a postbreeding molt migration. During postbreeding staging and migration, male king eiders had much broader distributions in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea than female eiders, which were concentrated in Harrison and Smith Bays. Distribution did not vary by sex during spring migration in the year after marking. Shorter residence times of eiders and deeper water at locations used during spring migration suggest the Alaskan Beaufort Sea might not be as critical a staging area for king eiders during prebreeding as it is postbreeding. Residence time in the Beaufort Sea varied by sex, with female king eiders spending more days at sea than males in spring and during postbreeding. We conclude the Alaskan Beaufort Sea is an important staging area for king eiders during postbreeding, and eider distribution should be considered by managers when mitigating for future offshore development. We recommend future studies examine the importance of spring staging areas outside the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

  8. The first US National Coastal Condition Assessment survey in the Great Lakes: Development of the GIS frame and exploration of spatial variation in nearshore water quality results

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive approach to assess conditions in the Great Lakes nearshore zone has been lacking for decades. We had the opportunity to conduct a pilot survey in Lake Erie (45 sites) in summer 2009 and to develop a full survey across the 5 lakes (~400 sites) as part of the US N...

  9. FINDING THE SCALES OF ECOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO LANDSCAPE CHARACTER AND TRIBUTARY INPUTS TO OPEN NEARSHORE WATERS, A GREAT LAKES COAST-WIDE EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2002 we sampled over 40 stretches of open coastline across the US portion of the Great Lakes with an equal effort planned for 2003. Sites were selected to represent an intended gradient of landscape disturbance in watersheds hydrologically-connected to nearshore waters. Half t...

  10. Development of a Hydrodynamic and Transport model of Bellingham Bay in Support of Nearshore Habitat Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang

    2010-04-22

    In this study, a hydrodynamic model based on the unstructured-grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) was developed for Bellingham Bay, Washington. The model simulates water surface elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity in a three-dimensional domain that covers the entire Bellingham Bay and adjacent water bodies, including Lummi Bay, Samish Bay, Padilla Bay, and Rosario Strait. The model was developed using Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s high-resolution Puget Sound and Northwest Straits circulation and transport model. A sub-model grid for Bellingham Bay and adjacent coastal waters was extracted from the Puget Sound model and refined in Bellingham Bay using bathymetric light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and river channel cross-section data. The model uses tides, river inflows, and meteorological inputs to predict water surface elevations, currents, salinity, and temperature. A tidal open boundary condition was specified using standard National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) predictions. Temperature and salinity open boundary conditions were specified based on observed data. Meteorological forcing (wind, solar radiation, and net surface heat flux) was obtained from NOAA real observations and National Center for Environmental Prediction North American Regional Analysis outputs. The model was run in parallel with 48 cores using a time step of 2.5 seconds. It took 18 hours of cpu time to complete 26 days of simulation. The model was calibrated with oceanographic field data for the period of 6/1/2009 to 6/26/2009. These data were collected specifically for the purpose of model development and calibration. They include time series of water-surface elevation, currents, temperature, and salinity as well as temperature and salinity profiles during instrument deployment and retrieval. Comparisons between model predictions and field observations show an overall reasonable agreement in both temporal and spatial scales. Comparisons of root mean square error values for surface elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity time series are 0.11 m, 0.10 m/s, 1.28oC, and 1.91 ppt, respectively. The model was able to reproduce the salinity and temperature stratifications inside Bellingham Bay. Wetting and drying processes in tidal flats in Bellingham Bay, Samish Bay, and Padilla Bay were also successfully simulated. Both model results and observed data indicated that water surface elevations inside Bellingham Bay are highly correlated to tides. Circulation inside the bay is weak and complex and is affected by various forcing mechanisms, including tides, winds, freshwater inflows, and other local forcing factors. The Bellingham Bay model solution was successfully linked to the NOAA oil spill trajectory simulation model “General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME).” Overall, the Bellingham Bay model has been calibrated reasonably well and can be used to provide detailed hydrodynamic information in the bay and adjacent water bodies. While there is room for further improvement with more available data, the calibrated hydrodynamic model provides useful hydrodynamic information in Bellingham Bay and can be used to support sediment transport and water quality modeling as well as assist in the design of nearshore restoration scenarios.

  11. Landing Marine-derived Renewable Energy: Optimising Power Cable Routing in the Nearshore Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Rosalind, ,, Dr.; Keane, Tom; Mullins, Brian; Phipps, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that a vast unexploited source of energy can be derived from the marine environment. Recent evolution of the energy market and looming EU renewable energy uptake targets for 2020 have driven a huge explosion of interest in exploiting this resource, triggering both governments and industry to move forward in undertaking feasibility assessments and demonstration projects for wave, tidal and offshore wind farms across coastlines. The locations which naturally lend themselves to high yield energy capture, are by definition, exposed and may be remote, located far from the end user of the electricity generated. A fundamental constraint to successfully exploiting these resources will be whether electricity generated in high energy, variable and constantly evolving environments can be brought safely and reliably to shore without the need for constant monitoring and maintenance of the subsea cables and landfall sites. In the case of riverine cable crossings superficial sediments would typically be used to trench and bury the cable. High energy coastal environments may be stripped of soft sediments. Any superficial sediments present at the site may be highly mobile and subject to re-suspension throughout the tidal cycle or under stormy conditions. EirGrid Plc. and Mott MacDonald Ireland Ltd. have been investigating the potential for routing a cable across the exposed Shannon estuary in Ireland. Information regarding the geological ground model, meteo-oceanographic and archaeological conditions of the proposed site was limited, necessitating a clear investigation strategy. The investigation included gathering site information on currents, bathymetry and geology through desk studies, hydrographic and geophysical surveys, an intrusive ground investigation and coastal erosion assessments at the landfall sites. The study identified a number of difficulties for trenching and protecting a cable through an exposed environment such as the Shannon estuary. Such difficulties include limited availability of superficial sediments for cable trenching and protection; where sediments were present there were indications that the sediments were either mobile sands, or difficult to trench glacial tills. Areas of the estuary feature steep side slopes and rocky outcrops, which also provide a challenge for cable installation and long-term protection. Difficult ground conditions were set against an aggressive meteo-oceanographic environment, tidal currents reached 5-7 knots on the ebb tide with reverse eddies around the landfalls coupled with an active wave climate. These conditions pose implications on the working time, installation vessels and methodology. The estuary is also a designated Special Area of Conservation for the protection of bottlenose dolphins, therefore, the cable installation methodology needed to consider ecological sensitivities. Additionally, an area near to the southern landfall has historically been an area of strategic significance and has a number of fortifications adding archaeological constraints for the cable route. The increasing need and importance of investigation and planning for submarine cable routes will be discussed alongside potential methods for installation in the aggressive nearshore environment, this paper will summarise findings and observations of working in a high energy environment, will consider options for installation and protection of cables, will discuss the key lessons learned and look at potential implications for offshore electricity generation.

  12. Distribution and thickness of sedimentary facies in the coastal dune, beach and nearshore sedimentary system at Maspalomas, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontán Bouzas, Angela; Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Montoya Montes, Isabel; Barranco Ojeda, Andrés; Albarracín, Silvia; Rey Díaz de Rada, Jorge; Rey Salgado, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Numerous studies have shown that most beaches and coastal dune systems of the world are currently eroding but very few have investigated the combined sediment budgets of subaerial and nearshore submarine systems. In the case of the dune field of the Maspalomas Natural Special Reserve (in the south of Gran Canaria), the adjacent Maspalomas and El Inglés beaches and the adjacent submarine platform, the sediment budgets have been severely affected by erosion over the past few decades. The objectives of this study were to investigate the availability of sand within the modern sedimentary system, including the coastal dunes, the beaches and the submerged shelf, but also to assess local sediment sinks. An isopach map generated on the basis of topo-bathymetric data and seismic-reflection profiles revealed that sediment thickness varies from 0-22 m in the study area. Expanses of relatively low sediment thickness were identified in the south-western sector of the coastal dune field along Maspalomas beach, and in the nearshore region to the south of this beach. These localized sediment-deficit areas earmark Maspalomas beach as the most vulnerable shore strip threatened by erosion. The shallow seismic data also revealed that the submarine platform south of Maspalomas represents a marine terrace cut into an ancient alluvial fan, thus documenting an influence of the geomorphological heritage on the present-day morphodynamics. A side-scan sonar mosaic of this nearshore platform enabled the delimitation of areas covered by rock, boulders and gravel, vegetated sand patches and a mobile sand facies, the latter including ripple and megaripple fields. The megaripple field in a valley close to the talus of the marine terrace has been identified as a major sediment sink of the Maspalomas sedimentary system. It is fed by south-westerly storm-wave events. The sediment deficit in the coastal dune field and along Maspalomas beach can therefore only be explained by a currently faster loss of sediment to an offshore sink than can be compensated by the supply of sand from outside the system.

  13. The nearshore zone during coastal upwelling: Daily variability and coupling between primary and secondary production off central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, William T.; Arcos, Dagoberto F.; McManus, George B.; Dam, Hans; Bellantoni, Diane; Johnson, Thomas; Tiselius, Peter

    The nearshore region of central Chile is important for spawning of sardine ( Sardinops sagax) anchovy ( Engraulis ringens) and jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyii) and the importance of fisheries for these species has led to an interest in factors controlling the area's productivity. We studied daily variations in productivity at a nearshore station (25m depth) off Dichato, Chile (36°30?S) during January 1986 to understand how wind-driven variability in the hydrography is translated into pulses of primary and secondary production of the plankton. During the study period, we observed three complete cycles of upwelling favourable/unfavourable winds. Water column destratification, as indicated by the surface-to-bottom gradient of sigma-t, lagged the wind by about one day. During active upwelling, cold water (<11.5°C) of high nitrate and low oxygen concentration (20-25?M and 1-2ml 1 -1 respectively) was found near the surface. During subsequent relaxation of upwelling, the water column became stratified as temperature, oxygen and chlorophyll increased. The size and taxonomic composition of the phytoplankton varied from one event to the next. Over the course of the study, from 15-100% of the chlorophyll could pass a 20?m mesh screen. Chain-forming diatoms, microflagellates, and the autotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum dominated the first, second and third events, respectively. In rank order of abundance, Paracalanus parvus, Centropages brachiatus, Oithona spp., Acartia tonsa, Oncaea spp., Calanoides patagoniensis and Calanus chilensis dominated the copepod community. Changes in abundance of most species did not closely follow the upwelling cycle. Possibly, vertical movements or other behavioural responses caused zooplankton distributions to be uncorrelated with movements of the surface Ekman layer. Fecundity of several of the important copepod species was measured using the egg ratio and bottle incubation techniques. Compared to values reported in the literature, egg production was usually suboptimal, despite high nutritional quality of the phytoplankton, as indicated by protein/carbohydrate ratios. Food availability, due to either small phytoplankton size or spatial and temporal uncoupling of phyto- and zooplankton populations, was probably most important in limiting copepod production. Event-scale advection, both zonal and alongshore, can be important in uncoupling primary and secondary production and probably determines the degree to which upwelling-generated pulses of phytoplankton production are utilized by herbivorous plankton in the nearshore zone.

  14. The nearshore western Beaufort Sea ecosystem: Circulation and importance of terrestrial carbon in arctic coastal food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunton, Kenneth H.; Weingartner, Thomas; Carmack, Eddy C.

    2006-10-01

    The nearshore shelf of the Beaufort Sea is defined by extreme physical and biological gradients that have a distinctive influence on its productivity and trophic structure. Massive freshwater discharge from the Mackenzie River, along with numerous smaller rivers and streams elsewhere along the coast, produce an environment that is decidedly estuarine in character, especially in late spring and summer. Consequently, the Beaufort coast provides a critical habitat for several species of amphidromous fishes, some of which are essential to the subsistence lifestyle of arctic native populations. Because of its low in situ productivity, allochthonous inputs of organic carbon, identifiable on the basis of isotopic composition, are important to the functioning of this arctic estuarine system. Coastal erosion and river discharge are largely responsible for introducing high concentrations of suspended sediment from upland regions into the nearshore zone. The depletion in the 13C content of invertebrate and vertebrate consumers, which drops about 4-5‰ eastward along the eastern Alaskan Beaufort Sea coast, may reflect the assimilation of this terrestrial organic matter into local food webs. In addition, the large range in 13C values of fauna collected in the eastern Beaufort (nearly 8‰) compared to the same species in the northeastern Chukchi (3‰), indicate a lower efficiency of carbon transfer between trophic levels in the eastern Beaufort. The wider spread in stable isotope values in the eastern Beaufort may also reflect a decoupling between benthic and pelagic components. Isotopic tracer studies of amphidromous fishes in the Simpson Island barrier island lagoon revealed that terrestrial (peat) carbon may contribute as much as 30-50% of their total dietary requirements. On the eastern Alaska Beaufort Sea coast, the ?13C values of arctic cod collected in semi-enclosed lagoons were more depleted, by 3-4‰, compared to fish collected in the coastal Beaufort Sea. Calculations from isotopic mixing equations indicate cod from lagoons may derive 70% of their carbon from terrestrial sources. The ?15N values of lagoon fish were also 4‰ lower than coastal specimens, reflective of the lower ?15N values of terrestrially derived nitrogen (0-1.5‰ compared to 5-7‰ for phytoplankton). The role of terrestrial carbon in arctic estuarine food webs is especially important in view of the current warming trend in the arctic environment and the role of advective processes that transport carbon along the nearshore shelf. Biogeochemical studies of the arctic coastal estuarine environment may provide more insights into the function of these biologically complex ecosystems.

  15. Identification of the remains of King Richard III

    PubMed Central

    King, Turi E.; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G.; Balding, David; Delser, Pierpaolo Maisano; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard’s appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming. PMID:25463651

  16. Color ornaments and territory position in king penguins.

    PubMed

    Keddar, Ismaël; Jouventin, Pierre; Dobson, F Stephen

    2015-10-01

    King penguins exhibit mutual color ornamentation of feathers and beak color. They breed in dense colonies and produce a single chick every 2 years. Thus, males and females must choose partners carefully to be reproductively successful, and auricular patches of males and UV coloration of beak spots have been shown to influence mate choice. Position in the breeding colony is also important to reproductive success, with pairs on the edge of the colony less successful than those in the center. We studied the mutual ornaments, individual condition, and position of pairs in their breeding colony. Males were significantly larger than females in size, body mass, and auricular patch size. Within pairs, auricular patch size of males and females were significantly correlated, and male auricular patch size and body mass were significantly associated, suggesting a link between this ornament and male body condition. Moving from the edge to the center of the colony, pairs had larger yellow-orange auricular patches, indicating a link between this ornament and settlement in higher quality territories in the center of the colony. Pairs were also less brightly brown colored on the breast and less saturated in UV color of the beak spot. Since we observed pairs that were settling for egg laying, location in the colony may have reflected aspects of pair condition, rather than later jockeying for positioning using ornaments as signals of behavioral dominance. PMID:26168874

  17. Identification of the remains of King Richard III.

    PubMed

    King, Turi E; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G; Balding, David; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard's appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming. PMID:25463651

  18. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    PubMed

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age. PMID:25052413

  19. Sources of land-derived runoff to a coral reef-fringed embayment identified using geochemical tracers in nearshore sediment traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takesue, Renee K.; Bothner, Michael H.; Reynolds, Richard L.

    2009-11-01

    Geochemical tracers, including Ba, Co, Th, 7Be, 137Cs and 210Pb, and magnetic properties were used to characterize terrestrial runoff collected in nearshore time-series sediment traps in Hanalei Bay, Kauai, during flood and dry conditions in summer 2006, and to fingerprint possible runoff sources in the lower watershed. In combination, the tracers indicate that runoff during a flood in August could have come from cultivated taro fields bordering the lower reach of the river. Land-based runoff associated with summer floods may have a greater impact on coral reef communities in Hanalei Bay than in winter because sediment persists for several months. During dry periods, sediment carried by the Hanalei River appears to have been mobilized primarily by undercutting of low 7Be, low 137Cs riverbanks composed of soil weathered from tholeiitic basalt with low Ba and Co concentrations. Following a moderate rainfall event in September, high 7Be sediment carried by the Hanalei River was probably mobilized by overland flow in the upper watershed. Ba-desorption in low-salinity coastal water limited its use to a qualitative runoff tracer in nearshore sediment. 210Pb had limited usefulness as a terrestrial tracer in the nearshore due to a large dissolved oceanic source and scavenging onto resuspended bottom sediment. 210Pb-scavenging does, however, illustrate the role resuspension could play in the accumulation of particle-reactive contaminants in nearshore sediment. Co and 137Cs were not affected by desorption or geochemical scavenging and showed the greatest potential as quantitative sediment provenance indicators in material collected in nearshore sediment traps.

  20. Sea state observation in island-sheltered nearshore zone based on in situ intermediate-water wave measurements and NCEP/CFSR wind data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dora, G. Udhaba; Kumar, V. Sanil

    2015-05-01

    In this study, wind-seas, swells, and the coastal wind pattern are examined to interpret the temporal diversity of the sea state in the island-sheltered nearshore zone off Karwar on the west coast of India. The sea state is analyzed based on the sea swell energy ratio (SSER) criteria and inverse wave age (IWA) criteria. The SSER is estimated following a one dimensional spectral split of in situ intermediate-water waves measured by deploying a directional waverider buoy. The IWA is estimated based on the measured waves and the National Centres for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) wind data followed by validation with the autonomous weather station (AWS) wind data. Additionally, wave transformation in and around offshore islands is examined using the wind wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). The NCEP/CFSR wind data exhibited sea breezes as well as land breezes, and also revealed good correlation to the AWS wind data during sea breeze events. Observation revealed that the SSER criteria is more practical than the IWA criteria for interpreting the sea state in the nearshore zone, where the diversity of the sea states depend significantly on the variation of coexisting wind-seas and swell proportions. The SWAN model revealed that wave propagation and transformation in the island-sheltered nearshore zone is influenced considerably by the direction of the offshore waves to the associated island(s), where the simulated wave characteristics in the SWAN model are found more reliable based on the parametric boundary condition. Further, the study revealed that modeling is a necessary task apart from a single point observation to understand surface wave propagation and transformation in an island-sheltered nearshore zone.

  1. Economic and systems assessment of the concept of nearshore kelp farming for methane production. Final report Jun 82-May 83

    SciTech Connect

    Brehany, J.J.

    1983-04-01

    This is the final report of a study undertaken to quantify the cost of production of pipeline quality methane from the anaerobic digestion of California giant brown kelp, macrocystis. Utilizing state-of-the-art knowledge and techniques, kelp would be grown in nearshore farms in 20- to 80-ft-deep ocean waters off the coast of Southern California. It would be harvested, shredded, and pumped as slurry to a central anaerobic biodigestion plant. The kelp would be digested and the resulting gas refined to essentially pure methane. The residue would be a liquid effluent, which would be returned to sea as a nutrient for the kelp farm. Detailed capital and operating costs are estimated for several sizes of farm and plant and an economic model is developed that is capable of interacting between various system components so it can be used to test the effect of changes or improvements in individual subsystems on the levelized product cost of the total system.

  2. Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Near-shore Wave Fields: Model Generation Validation and Evaluation - Kaneohe Bay HI.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Chang, Grace; Jones, Craig

    2014-09-01

    The numerical model, SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) , was used to simulate wave conditions in Kaneohe Bay, HI in order to determine the effects of wave energy converter ( WEC ) devices on the propagation of waves into shore. A nested SWAN model was validated then used to evaluate a range of initial wave conditions: significant wave heights (H s ) , peak periods (T p ) , and mean wave directions ( MWD) . Differences between wave height s in the presence and absence of WEC device s were assessed at locations in shore of the WEC array. The maximum decrease in wave height due to the WEC s was predicted to be approximately 6% at 5 m and 10 m water depths. Th is occurred for model initiation parameters of H s = 3 m (for 5 m water depth) or 4 m (10 m water depth) , T p = 10 s, and MWD = 330deg . Subsequently, bottom orbital velocities were found to decrease by about 6%.

  3. A new species of Near-shore Marine Goby (Pisces: Gobiidae: Nesogobius) from Kangaroo Island, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Michael P; Hoese, Douglass F; Bertozzi, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Nesogobius is one of two goby genera with all species wholly restricted to temperate Australian waters. Described here is a new member of the genus discovered during near-shore marine and estuarine fish sampling along the central southern Australian coastline. The tiger sandgoby Nesogobius tigrinus sp. nov. is distinguished from other congeners by a combination of colouration including four prominent vertical black bars on males; morphological characters involving body scales (large), head scales (naked), body depth (slender) and gill opening (wide); meristic counts including a lack of second dorsal and anal fin spines; and mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence. The species appears to be a narrow range endemic, restricted to specific sub-tidal habitat in the unique sheltered embayments of northeast Kangaroo Island. This study forms part of ongoing investigations to more fully describe the biodiversity and conservation requirements of the regional ichthyofauna. PMID:26701487

  4. Intertidal and nearshore Nereididae (Annelida) of the Falkland Islands, southwestern Atlantic, including a new species of Gymnonereis

    PubMed Central

    Darbyshire, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The intertidal and nearshore Nereididae of the Falkland Islands are detailed and a new species of Gymnonereis described. The new species, Gymnonereis tenera sp. n., is the first record of the genus for the Falkland Islands. It is, so far, only known from a few intertidal locations in fine and muddy sands. Main distinguishing characters are: jaw teeth absent (in adults), 3 papillae in Area V–VI, falcigers absent, second ventral cirrus present throughout. Nereis atlantica McIntosh, 1885, known only from the description of a single specimen and one doubtful record from the Falkland Islands, is reviewed and transferred to Perinereis on the basis of the presence of shield-shaped bars in Area VI of the proboscis and the absence of notopodial falcigers. A key to all seven species discussed is provided. PMID:25147465

  5. Intertidal and nearshore Nereididae (Annelida) of the Falkland Islands, southwestern Atlantic, including a new species of Gymnonereis.

    PubMed

    Darbyshire, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The intertidal and nearshore Nereididae of the Falkland Islands are detailed and a new species of Gymnonereis described. The new species, Gymnonereis tenera sp. n., is the first record of the genus for the Falkland Islands. It is, so far, only known from a few intertidal locations in fine and muddy sands. Main distinguishing characters are: jaw teeth absent (in adults), 3 papillae in Area V-VI, falcigers absent, second ventral cirrus present throughout. Nereis atlantica McIntosh, 1885, known only from the description of a single specimen and one doubtful record from the Falkland Islands, is reviewed and transferred to Perinereis on the basis of the presence of shield-shaped bars in Area VI of the proboscis and the absence of notopodial falcigers. A key to all seven species discussed is provided. PMID:25147465

  6. Mathematics 232 Linear Algebra Spring 2015 Section 1 MWF 9:00 9:50 am King 239

    E-print Network

    Wilmer, Elizabeth

    :00 ­ 10:50 am King 239 Instructor: Susan Jane Colley King 222 775-8388 (office) or -8380 (messages) 775Mathematics 232 Linear Algebra Spring 2015 Section 1 MWF 9:00 ­ 9:50 am King 239 Section 2 MWF 10-3680 (home--please call before 10:00 pm) E-mail: sjcolley@math.oberlin.edu Susan.Colley@oberlin.edu Web page

  7. Middle Jurassic incised valley fill (eolian/estuarine) and nearshore marine petroleum reservoirs, Powder River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Fox, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    Paleovalleys incised into the Triassic Spearfish Formation (Chugwater equivalent) are filled with a vertical sequence of eolian, estuarine, and marine sandstones of the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian age) Canyon Springs Sandstone Member of the Sundance Formation. An outcrop exemplifying this is located at Red Canyon in the southern Black Hills, Fall River County, South Dakota. These paleovalleys locally have more than 300 ft of relief and are as much as several miles wide. Because they slope in a westerly direction, and Jurassic seas transgressed into the area from the west there was greater marine-influence and more stratigraphic complexity in the subsurface, to the west, as compared to the Black Hills outcrops. In the subsurface two distinctive reservoir sandstone beds within the Canyon Springs Sandstone Member fill the paleovalleys. These are the eolian lower Canyon Springs unit (LCS) and the estuarine upper Canyon Springs unit (UCS), separated by the marine {open_quotes}Limestone Marker{close_quotes} and estuarine {open_quotes}Brown Shale{close_quotes}. The LCS and UCS contain significant proven hydrocarbon reservoirs in Wyoming (about 500 MMBO in-place in 9 fields, 188 MMBO produced through 1993) and are prospective in western South Dakota, western Nebraska and northern Colorado. Also prospective is the Callovian-age Hulett Sandstone Member which consists of multiple prograding shoreface to foreshore parasequences, as interpreted from the Red Canyon locality. Petrographic, outcrop and subsurface studies demonstrate the viability of both the Canyon Springs Sandstone and Hulett Sandstone members as superior hydrocarbon reservoirs in both stratigraphic and structural traps. Examples of fields with hydrocarbon production from the Canyon Springs in paleovalleys include Lance Creek field (56 MMBO produced) and the more recently discovered Red Bird field (300 MBO produced), both in Niobrara County, Wyoming.

  8. Cross-shelf transport into nearshore waters due to shoaling internal tides in San Pedro Bay, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.; Jones, B.; Hamilton, P.; Xu, Jie; Robertson, G.; Rosenfeld, L.; Largier, J.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2001, a coastal ocean measurement program in the southeastern portion of San Pedro Bay, CA, was designed and carried out. One aim of the program was to determine the strength and effectiveness of local cross-shelf transport processes. A particular objective was to assess the ability of semidiurnal internal tidal currents to move suspended material a net distance across the shelf. Hence, a dense array of moorings was deployed across the shelf to monitor the transport patterns associated with fluctuations in currents, temperature and salinity. An associated hydrographic program periodically monitored synoptic changes in the spatial patterns of temperature, salinity, nutrients and bacteria. This set of measurements show that a series of energetic internal tides can, but do not always, transport subthermocline water, dissolved and suspended material from the middle of the shelf into the surfzone. Effective cross-shelf transport occurs only when (1) internal tides at the shelf break are strong and (2) subtidal currents flow strongly downcoast. The subtidal downcoast flow causes isotherms to tilt upward toward the coast, which allows energetic, nonlinear internal tidal currents to carry subthermocline waters into the surfzone. During these events, which may last for several days, the transported water remains in the surfzone until the internal tidal current pulses and/or the downcoast subtidal currents disappear. This nonlinear internal tide cross-shelf transport process was capable of carrying water and the associated suspended or dissolved material from the mid-shelf into the surfzone, but there were no observation of transport from the shelf break into the surfzone. Dissolved nutrients and suspended particulates (such as phytoplankton) transported from the mid-shelf into the nearshore region by nonlinear internal tides may contribute to nearshore algal blooms, including harmful algal blooms that occur off local beaches.

  9. Vegetation Monitoring in Orange County

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    Vegetation Monitoring in Orange County Douglas Deutschman Professor of Biology Ecological Research and Restora1on in Orange County Jan 27, 2012 #12;Outline · Monitoring in an Adap1ve Management Framework · Vegeta1on Monitoring in Orange

  10. Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect

    Terrill Chang; Deanna Carveth

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to ���¢��������grow���¢������� this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  11. The Travis County, Texas, meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, T. J.; Ehlmann, A. J.; Keil, K.

    1995-05-01

    Studies of 52 specimens recovered from the find site of the original Travis County meteorite reveal the presence of two distinct meteorites. Travis County (a), which includes the original Travis County meteorite, is the more abundant meteorite and is classified as an H5(S4) shock-blackened chondrite. Travis County (b) is classified as an H4(S2) chondrite with rare chondritic clasts of H group parentage, indicating that the meteorite is a breccia.

  12. Structure-function relationship of king cobra cathelicidin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Hui; Yu, Guo-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Shen, Ji-Hong; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2010-08-01

    King cobra cathelicidin (OH-CATH) is composed of 34 amino acid residues having strong antibacterial and very weak hemolytic activities as reported by us recently. OH-CATH can be served as a valuable template to develop novel therapeutic drugs. In this study, OH-CATH and six of its analogs were synthesized to explore their structure-function relationships based on their bactericidal and hemolytic activities. Experimental results of OH-CATH(3-34) and OH-CATH(5-34) indicated that the N-terminal 4 amino acid residues of OH-CATH played an important role on its hemolytic activity but had weak effects on its bactericidal activity. Among OH-CATH and its analogs, OH-CATH(5-34) had the lowest hemolytic activity while maintained strong antimicrobial activity. To evaluate its potential usage, the biological activities of OH-CATH(5-34) were compared with those of pexiganan. The bactericidal activity of OH-CATH(5-34) against 5 different species (11 laboratory strains) was 2-4 times stronger than that of pexiganan (4-16 microg/ml vs 8-32 microg/ml). Hemolytic activity of OH-CATH(5-34) against human erythrocytes was 0.69% while that of pexiganan was 16.5% at the dosage of 200 microg/ml. OH-CATH(5-34) showed very weak cytotoxic activities against primary rabbit ventricular endothelial cells and four human cancer cell lines whereas pexiganan showed strong cytotoxic activity against these five cell lines (IC(50)=20-90 microg/ml). The intravenous LD(50) value of OH-CATH(5-34) on mice was 7-fold higher than that of pexiganan (175 mg/kg vs 25mg/kg). Taken together, our results suggested that OH-CATH(5-34) should be considered as an excellent candidate for developing therapeutic drugs. PMID:20576537

  13. International importance of the eastern Chukchi Sea as a staging area for migrating king eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, S.; Dickson, D.L.; Powell, A.N.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of habitats used by arctic birds on migration is crucial for their conservation. We explored the importance of the eastern Chukchi Sea (ECS) as a staging area for king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) migrating between breeding areas in Siberia and western North America and wintering areas in the Bering Sea. We tracked 190 king eiders with satellite transmitters between 1997 and 2007. In late summer, 74% of satellite-tracked king eiders migrating south staged in the ECS for 13 ?? 13 (SD) days between late June and early November. During spring migration, king eiders staged in the ECS between mid-April and early June for 21 ?? 10 days. All instrumented birds migrating to breeding grounds in western North America (n = 62), and 6 of 11 males migrating to breeding grounds in Siberia, used this area for at least 1 week during spring migration. The importance of this staging area renders it possible that industrial development could adversely affect king eider populations in both Siberia and North America. ?? 2009 US Government.

  14. Arctic observers: Richard King, monogenism and the historicisation of Inuit through travel narratives.

    PubMed

    Sera-Shriar, Efram

    2015-06-01

    In 1848 the ethnologist, surgeon and Arctic explorer Richard King (1810-1876) published a three-part series on Inuit in the Journal of the Ethnological Society of London. This series provided a detailed history of Inuit from the eleventh century to the early nineteenth century. It incorporated a mixture of King's personal observations from his experience travelling to the Arctic as a member of George Back's expedition (1833-1835), and the testimonies of other contemporary and historical actors who had written on the subject. The aim was to historicise Inuit through the use of travel reports and show persistent features among the race. King was a monogenist and his sensitive recasting of Inuit was influenced by his participation in a research community actively engaged in humanitarian and abolitionist causes. The physician and ethnologist Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866) argued that King's research on Inuit was one of the best ethnological approaches to emulate and that it set the standard for the nascent discipline. If we are to take seriously Hodgkin's claim, we should look at how King constructed his depiction of Inuit. There is much to be gained by investigating the practices of nineteenth-century ethnologists because it strengthens our knowledge of the discipline's past and shows how modern understandings of races were formed. PMID:25731902

  15. Humboldt County Employer Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Dave

    A project was undertaken in Humboldt County to collect information from large and small businesses in the areas of agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation, wholesale and retail, finance, services, and public information with respect to their employee requirements and needs. In all, 451 firms were surveyed to determine the size of the…

  16. [City and County Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Judith O.; And Others

    Six papers presented at the Institute were concerned with city and county records. They are: "EWEB and Its Records," which discusses the history, laws and records of the Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB);""Police Records: Eugene, Oregon," classifies police records, other than administrative, into three general categories: (1) case or…

  17. 75 FR 53735 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on East Lake Sammamish Master Plan Trail in King County, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Limitation on Claims for Judicial Review of Actions by FHWA and Other Federal Agencies. SUMMARY: This notice announces actions taken by FHWA and other Federal agencies that are final within the meaning of 23 U.S.C... agencies have taken final agency actions subject to 23 U.S.C. 139(l)(1) by issuing licenses, permits,...

  18. Lidar-revised geologic map of the Poverty Bay 7.5' quadrangle, King and Pierce Counties, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, Rowland W.; Booth, Derek B.; Troost, Kathy Goetz

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, the Puget Sound Lidar Consortium obtained a lidar-derived digital elevation model (DEM) for the Puget Sound region including all of the Poverty Bay 7.5' quadrangle. For a brief description of lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) and this data acquisition program, see Haugerud and others (2003). This new DEM has a horizontal resolution and accuracy of 6 ft (2 m) and vertical accuracy of approximately 1 ft (0.3 m). The greater resolution and accuracy of the lidar DEM have facilitated a new interpretation of the geology, especially the distribution and relative age of some surficial deposits.

  19. Hydrogeologic framework, groundwater movement, and water budget in the Puyallup River Watershed and vicinity, Pierce and King Counties, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Wendy B.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Savoca, Mark E.; Lane, Ron C.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Marshall, Cameron; Clothier, Burt G.; Knoedler, Eric N.

    2015-01-01

    The water-budget area received about 1,428,000 acre-feet or about 52 inches of precipitation per year (January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012). About 41 percent of precipitation enters the groundwater system as recharge. Seven percent of this recharge is withdrawn from wells and the remainder leaves the groundwater system as discharge to rivers, discharge to springs, or submarine discharge to Puget Sound, or exits the study area through subsurface flow in the Green River valley.

  20. Health assessment for Harbor Island Lead, Seattle, King County, Washington, Region 10. CERCLIS No. WAD980722839. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-19

    The Harbor Island Lead site is on the National Priorities List. Harbor Island is a 405-acre island that was constructed during the early 1900s in an area consisting of inter-tidal wetlands at the mouth of the Duwamish River and Elliott Bay. The extent of environmental contamination on Harbor Island has not been described. Environmental contamination in surface sediments and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in Elliott Bay fish has been provided. Sediments are contaminated with heavy metals, including antimony (91,370 ppm), arsenic (584 ppm), chromium (1,0080 ppm), lead (71,100 ppm), manganese (3,390 ppm), nickel (366 ppm), and zinc (6,010 ppm); polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (3,800 ppm), including benzo(a)pyrene (100 ppm), fluoranthene (1,300 ppm), phenanthrene (330 ppm), and pyrene (740 ppm); various pesticides (0.9 ppm total); and phenols (10 ppm), including pentachlorophenol (6 ppm). The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because it appears that the most important pathway is ingestion of contaminated fish and shellfish.

  1. Developing Local Board of Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Food Access — King County, Washington, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Donna B.; Krieger, James; MacDougall, Erin; Payne, Elizabeth; Chan, Nadine L.

    2015-01-01

    Policies that change environments are important tools for preventing chronic diseases, including obesity. Boards of health often have authority to adopt such policies, but few do so. This study assesses 1) how one local board of health developed a policy approach for healthy food access through vending machine guidelines (rather than regulations) and 2) the impact of the approach. Using a case study design guided by “three streams” policy theory and RE-AIM, we analyzed data from a focus group, interviews, and policy documents. The guidelines effectively supported institutional policy development in several settings. Recognition of the problem of chronic disease and the policy solution of vending machine guidelines created an opening for the board to influence nutrition environments. Institutions identified a need for support in adopting vending machine policies. Communities could benefit from the study board’s approach to using nonregulatory evidence-based guidelines as a policy tool. PMID:25927606

  2. 78 FR 43827 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Modoc and Siskiyou Counties, California, and in All Counties in Oregon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...Siskiyou Counties, California, and in All Counties in Oregon, Except Malheur County...Siskiyou Counties, California, and in all counties in Oregon, except Malheur County...at: http://www.regulations.gov. All comments submitted in response to this...

  3. This is an electronic version of an article published as King, B.H. and R.B. King. 1994. Sex ratio manipulation in response to host size in the parasitoid wasp Spalangia

    E-print Network

    King, Bethia H.

    ratio manipulation in response to host size in the parasitoid wasp Spalangia cameroni: is it adaptive? Behavioral Ecology 5:448-454. Sex ratio manipulation in response to host size in the parasitoid wasp, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115-2861 USA Running title: King and King _ Parasitoid wasp sex

  4. Heavy metals and POPs in red king crab from the Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Julshamn, Kaare; Valdersnes, Stig; Duinker, Arne; Nedreaas, Kjell; Sundet, Jan H; Maage, Amund

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the food safety of the red king crab from Norwegian waters and obtain information on possible geographical and gender differences. Samples of claw and leg meat of 185 red king crabs (Paralithodes camtschaticus), collected from 23 positions in the Barents Sea, were analysed for dioxins, furans, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs, non dioxin-like PCBs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated alkyl substances and elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead. The concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and metals were low compared to maximum levels laid down in European regulations. Hence, red king crab is a safe food. Significant differences in the concentrations of metals among different areas, and between male and female crabs, were found. Positive correlations were found between carapace length and mercury, methylmercury and cadmium concentrations, and between fat and arsenic and inorganic arsenic concentrations. PMID:25149005

  5. Modern sedimentation patterns in Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H. Christian; Kuhn, Gerhard; Wölfl, Anne-Cathrin; Wittenberg, Nina; Betzler, Christian

    2013-04-01

    IMCOAST among a number of other initiatives investigates the modern and the late Holocene environmental development of south King George Island with a strong emphasis on Maxwell Bay and its tributary fjord Potter Cove (maximum water depth: about 200 m). In this part of the project we aim at reconstructing the modern sediment distribution in the inner part of Potter Cove using an acoustic ground discrimination system (RoxAnn) and more than136 ground-truth samples. Over the past 20 years the air temperatures in the immediate working area increased by more than 0.6 K (Schloss et al. 2012) which is less than in other parts of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) but it is still in the range of the recovery of temperatures from the Little Ice Age maximum to the beginning of the 20th century. Potter Cove is a small fjord characterized by a series of moraine ridges produced by a tidewater glacier (Fourcade Glacier). Presumably, the farthest moraine is not much older than about 500 years (LIA maximum), hence the sediment cover is rather thin as evidenced by high resolution seismic data. Since a few years at least the better part of the tidewater glacier retreated onto the island's mainland. It is suggested that such a fundamental change in the fjord's physiography has also changed sedimentation patterns in the area. Potter Cove is characterized by silty-clayey sediments in the deeper inner parts of the cove. Sediments are coarser (fine to coarse sands and boulders) in the shallower areas; they also coarsen from the innermost basin to the mouth of the fjord. Textural structures follow the seabed morphology, i.e. small v-shaped passages through the moraine ridges. The glacier still produces large amounts of turbid melt waters that enter the cove at various places. We presume that very fine-grained sediments fall out from the meltwater plumes and are distributed by mid-depth or even bottom currents, thus suggesting an anti-estuarine circulation pattern. Older sediments that are more distal to the glacier front and sediments in shallower places (e.g. on top of the moraine ridges) become increasingly overprinted by coarser sediments from the shallow areas of the fjord. These areas are prone to wave induced winnowing effects as well as disturbances by ploughing icebergs. It can be concluded that coarsening of the fjord sediments will continue while the supply of fine-grained meltwater sediments might cease due to exhaustion of the reservoirs.

  6. A herpes-like virus in king crabs: Characterization and transmission under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Ryazanova, T V; Eliseikina, M G; Kalabekov, I M; Odintsova, N A

    2015-05-01

    A herpes-like virus was found infecting the antennal gland and bladder epithelium in the blue king crab Paralithodes platypus from the eastern area of the Sea of Okhotsk. Electron microscopic analysis of antennal gland samples from blue king crabs with histologically confirmed signs of disease revealed virus particles, which were mostly hexagonal in shape and located primarily in the nucleus; these particles were rarely observed in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Most virus particles ranged in size from 115 to 125nm. Hemocytes of the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus in cell culture could be experimentally infected with virus from thawed antennal gland samples of the blue king crabs with histologically confirmed signs of viral infection. Clear signs of infection were observed in hemocyte cultures at 3-4days post-inoculation as small foci of highly vacuolated formations. These formations included several nuclei and were surrounded by a halo of small cytoplasmic bubbles containing actin and tubulin. As demonstrated by electron microscopic studies, no virus-like particles were found in the cells 1day post-inoculation, but particles become abundant at 7days post-inoculation. We developed a consensus primer PCR method for amplification of a region of the herpesviral DNA-directed DNA polymerase. Primers were designed to target sequences encoding highly conserved amino acid motifs covering a region of approximately 800bp. Thus, macroscopic, histological and ultra-structural examinations of blue king crabs infected with a virus and the molecular identification of the pathogen revealed the presence of herpesviruses. The frequency of the herpes-like viral infection in natural populations of blue king crabs in the Sea of Okhotsk ranged from 0% to 3% in different years. PMID:25712900

  7. NOAA Form 88-129 (8/94) OMB No. 0648-0013, exp. 8/31/2004 MONTHLY DEALER REPORT OF KING AND SPANISH MACKEREL

    E-print Network

    MACKEREL LANDINGS FOR THE COASTAL MIGRATORY PELAGIC RESOURCES ___________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ KING MACKEREL SPANISH MACKEREL GEAR Round Wt. Gutted Wt. Round Wt. Gutted Wt. Hook & Line ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ Gill Net ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ No King or Spanish Mackerel were purchased

  8. THE STORAGE OF FAT IN THE MUSCULAR TISSUE OF THE KING SALMON AND ITS RESORPTION DURING THE

    E-print Network

    THE STORAGE OF FAT IN THE MUSCULAR TISSUE OF THE KING SALMON AND ITS RESORPTION DURING THE FAST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Types of salmon muscular tissue as regards the storage of fat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Normal loading of fats in the muscles of the king salmon at the time the spawning migration begins

  9. KinG: a database of protein kinases in genomes A. Krupa, K. R. Abhinandan and N. Srinivasan*

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, N.

    KinG: a database of protein kinases in genomes A. Krupa, K. R. Abhinandan and N. Srinivasan; Revised September 3, 2003; Accepted September 11, 2003 ABSTRACT The KinG database is a comprehensive genomes using sequence and pro®le search methods. The database hosted at http://hodgkin. mbu

  10. Treatment of the first known case of king cobra envenomation in the United Kingdom, complicated by severe anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Veto, T; Price, R; Silsby, J F; Carter, J A

    2007-01-01

    We report the first known case of envenomation following snake bite by a king cobra in the UK. The patient required tracheal intubation and ventilation. Treatment with king cobra antivenom resulted in anaphylaxis (bronchospasm and hypotension), requiring adrenaline infusion. The patient's trachea was extubated 11 h after administration of antivenom. PMID:17156231

  11. Multiple-mineral inclusions in diamonds from the Snap Lake/King Lake kimberlite dike, Slave craton, Canada

    E-print Network

    Multiple-mineral inclusions in diamonds from the Snap Lake/King Lake kimberlite dike, Slave craton the Snap Lake/King Lake kimberlites of the southeastern Slave craton in Canada have been analyzed for trace the ``epicenter'' of diamond ex- ploration and mining, including a series of kimberlite dikes; one such dike

  12. "A Creative Psalm of Brotherhood": The (De)Constructive Play in Martin Luther King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaipa, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Scholars have celebrated the spoken word in King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail," but they have overlooked the significance of the Letter's writing. In this essay I closely read King's act of writing the Letter, along with the figures of speech he employs in it, and I show how both--by enacting the mass media's ability to cross contexts--are…

  13. VOL. 53, NO. 1 (MARCH 2000) P. 5360 Low Abundance of King Eider Nests during Low Lemming Years

    E-print Network

    Helsinki, University of

    ARCTIC VOL. 53, NO. 1 (MARCH 2000) P. 53­60 Low Abundance of King Eider Nests during Low Lemming) show that numbers of king eider (Somateria spectabilis) nests are correlated with high densities effort during such low lemming years, thus increasing the likelihood that they will discover eider nests

  14. Use of radon-222 to evaluate the influence of groundwater discharge on fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the near-shore ocean, Malibu, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izbicki, J. A.; Burton, C.; Swarzenski, P. W.

    2011-12-01

    To protect beach-goers from waterborne disease, California requires water-quality monitoring for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at beaches having more than 50,000 visits annually. The source(s) of FIB in ocean beaches in excess of marine recreational water standards is often not known, or may be incorrectly identified. Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) used to treat residential and commercial sewage have been implicated by regulatory agencies as a possible source of FIB to recreational ocean beaches, near Malibu, California. For this to occur, treated wastewater must first move through groundwater prior to discharge at the ocean. Groundwater discharge to the ocean near Malibu Lagoon (the estuary of Malibu Creek) is complicated by seasonally changing water levels in the lagoon. The lagoon is isolated from the ocean by a sand berm that develops across the mouth of the lagoon during the dry season. Higher water levels in the lagoon during the dry season, and lower water-levels during the wet season, cause seasonal changes in the direction of groundwater flow and the magnitude of discharge from the adjacent small (3,400 hectare), alluvial aquifer. Radon-222, an indicator of groundwater discharge, was measured in Malibu Lagoon, in the near-shore ocean adjacent to the lagoon, and in the near-shore ocean adjacent to unsewered residential development to determine the timing and magnitude of groundwater discharge. During the dry season, when the berm of the lagoon was closed and the lagoon was isolated from the ocean, radon-222 concentrations in the near-shore ocean during low tide increased as water discharged from the lagoon through the berm. Enterococcus concentrations in the near-shore ocean increased to almost 600 Most Probable Number (MPN) per 100 milliliter at this time. Radon-222 concentrations also increased at low tide as groundwater discharged to the ocean from the adjacent alluvial aquifer underlying the unsewered residential development, but there was no corresponding increase in FIB concentrations. In contrast, during the wet season when the berm of the lagoon was open, radon-222 data show groundwater discharge from the alluvial aquifer was primarily into the lagoon at low tide. The water in the lagoon was subsequently discharged directly to the near-shore ocean as a result of tidally driven circulation through the open berm. Radon-222 data showed little, if any, groundwater discharge to the near-shore ocean adjacent to the unsewered residential development at this time, implying that FIB in the near-shore ocean would not be derived from OWTS in the unsewered residential areas. The absence of FIB in recreational beaches adjacent to unsewered residential development at low tide suggests that mechanisms other than groundwater discharge may be responsible for high FIB concentrations in this area. For example, microbial communities sampled in the near-shore ocean were genetically similar to those present in kelp and different from OWTS samples-suggesting that high FIB concentrations, especially at high tide, may result from wave action on the beach releasing FIB entrained in kelp that was derived from birds and other non-human sources.

  15. A review of "Foxe's Book of Martyrs and Early Modern Print Culture" by John N. King 

    E-print Network

    Blevins, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    stream_source_info John King.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9904 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name John King.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 REVIEWS 169 Chapter 4... female identity is constituted? (183). As with the discussions in earlier chapters, numerous plays are surveyed. Here, analyses of Elizabeth Polwhele?s The Frolicks, Susannah Centlivre?s The Basset-Table, and Aphra Behn?s The Rover and Sir Patient...

  16. Accumulation and bioconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a nearshore estuarine environment near a Pensacola (Florida) creosote contamination site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, J.F.; Dresler, P.V.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term accumulation of creosote wastes at a wood-preserving facility near Pensacola, Florida, has produced high levels of organic contamination of groundwaters near Pensacola Bay. Impacts of this contamination on the nearshore environment of the bay were examined by analysis of water, sediment and tissues of two mollusc species. One of the species (Thais haemastoma) was native to the study area. Individuals of the other test species (Crassostrea virginica) were placed in cages at the test sites for a 6-week period. Contamination at the nearshore estuarine sites was assessed by comparison to a control site in an uncontaminated area of the bay, as well as a small stream which forms a direct surface-water link between the creosote storage ponds and the bay. The study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the primary components of creosote. Very little PAH in water or in the surface layer of estuarine sediments was detected, despite heavy pollution of the stream sediments. This is attributed to various degradation processes which attack the PAH compounds once they discharge into the estuary, and to the likelihood of intermittent and localised release of contaminants to the estuary. Examination of sediment cores and mollusc tissues, which provide a record integrated over time and space, revealed some accumulation of a few PAH, notably fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene and phenanthrene. In the sediments, the highest concentrations of these compounds appeared below the surface, within a depth range of 8-13 cm. Bioaccumulation of fluoranthene, pyrene and phenanthrene in both mollusc species was up to ten times greater at test sites than at the control site. This contrasts with naphthalene, the bioaccumulation of which was no greater at test sites than at the control site. These differences in bioaccumulation factors relate to structural chemistry of the compounds which control their solubility, bioavailability, susceptibility to degradation and capacity for depuration by the organism.Long-term accumulation of creosote wastes at a wood-preserving facility near Pensacola, Florida, has produced high levels of organic contamination of groundwaters near Pensacola Bay. Impacts of this contamination on the nearshore environment of the bay were examined by analysis of water, sediment and tissues of two mollusc species. Very little PAH in water or in the surface layer of estuarine sediments was detected, despite heavy pollution of the stream sediments. This is attributed to various degradation processes which attack the PAH compounds once they discharge into the estuary, and to the likelihood of intermittent and localized release of contaminants to the estuary. There was some accumulation of a few PAH, notably fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene and phenanthrene. In the sediments, the highest concentrations of these compounds appeared below the surface, within a depth range of 8-13 cm. Bioaccumulation of fluoranthene, pyrene and phenanthrene in both mollusc species was up to ten times greater at test sites than at the control site. Differences in bioaccumulation factors relate to structural chemistry of the compounds which control their solubility, bioavailability, susceptibility to degradation and capacity for depuration by the organism.

  17. 75 FR 49016 - County of Greenville, S.C.-Acquisition Exemption-Greenville County Economic Development Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ...Exemption--Greenville County Economic Development Corporation The County of...acquire from Greenville County Economic Development Corporation (GCEDC) approximately...See Greenville County Economic Development...

  18. High temporal and spatial variability of dissolved oxygen and pH in a nearshore California kelp forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieder, C. A.; Nam, S. H.; Martz, T. R.; Levin, L. A.

    2012-03-01

    Predicting consequences of ocean deoxygenation and ocean acidification for nearshore marine ecosystems requires baseline dissolved oxygen (DO) and carbonate chemistry data that are both high-frequency and high-quality. Such data allow accurate assessment of environmental variability and present-day organism exposure regimes. In this study, scales of DO and pH variability were characterized over one year in a nearshore, kelp forest ecosystem in the Southern California Bight. DO and pH were strongly, positively correlated revealing that organisms on this upwelling shelf are not only exposed to low pH but also low DO. The dominant temporal scale of DO and pH variability occurred on semidiurnal, diurnal and event (days-weeks) time scales. Daily ranges in DO and pH at 7 m water depth (13 mab) could be as large as 220 ?mol kg-1 and 0.36 units, respectively. This range is much greater than the expected decreases in pH in the open ocean by the year 2100. Sources of pH and DO variation include photosynthesis within the kelp forest ecosystem, which can elevate DO and pH by up to 60 ?mol kg-1 and 0.1 units over one week following the intrusion of high-density, nutrient-rich water. Accordingly, highly productive macrophyte-based ecosystems could serve as deoxygenation and acidification refugia by acting to elevate DO and pH relative to surrounding waters. DO and pH exhibited greater spatial variation over a 10 m increase in water depth (from 7 to 17 m) than along a 5-km stretch of shelf in a cross-shore or alongshore direction. Over a three-month time period mean DO and pH at 17-m water depth were 168 ?mol kg-1 and 7.87, respectively. These values represent a 35% decrease in mean DO and 37% increase in [H+] relative to surface waters. High-frequency variation was also reduced at depth. The mean daily range in DO and pH was 39% and 37% less, respectively, at 17-m water depth relative to the surface. As a consequence, the exposure history of an organism is largely a function of its depth of occurrence within the kelp forest. These findings raise the possibility that the benthic communities along eastern boundary current systems are currently acclimatized and adapted to natural, variable, and low DO and pH. Future exposure of coastal California populations to low DO and pH may increase as upwelling intensifies and hypoxic boundaries shoal, compressing habitats and challenging the physiological capacity of intolerant species.

  19. Advances in Shallow-Water, High-Resolution Seafloor Mapping: Integrating an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) Into Nearshore Geophysical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, J. F.; O'Brien, T. F.; Bergeron, E.; Twichell, D.; Worley, C. R.; Danforth, W. W.; Andrews, B. A.; Irwin, B.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been heavily involved in geological mapping of the seafloor since the 1970s. Early mapping efforts such as GLORIA provided broad-scale imagery of deep waters (depths > 400 meters) within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). In the early 1990's, the USGS research emphasis shifted from deep- to shallow-water environments (inner continental shelf, nearshore, estuaries) to address pertinent coastal issues such as erosion, sediment availability, sediment transport, vulnerability of coastal areas to natural and anthropogenic hazards, and resource management. Geologic framework mapping in these shallow- water environments has provided valuable data used to 1) define modern sediment distribution and thickness, 2) determine underlying stratigraphic and structural controls on shoreline behavior, and 3) enable onshore-to- offshore geologic mapping within the coastal zone when coupled with subaerial techniques such as GPR and topographic LIDAR. Research in nearshore areas presents technological challenges due to the dynamics of the environment, high volume of data collected, and the geophysical limitations of operating in very shallow water. In 2004, the USGS, in collaboration with NOAA's Coastal Services Center, began a multi-year seafloor mapping effort to better define oyster habitats within Apalachicola Bay, Florida, a shallow water estuary along the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bay poses a technological challenge due to its shallow depths (< 4-m) and high turbidity that prohibits the use of bathymetric LIDAR. To address this extreme shallow water setting, the USGS incorporated an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) into seafloor mapping operations, in June 2006. The ASV is configured with a chirp sub-bottom profiler (4 24 kHz), dual-frequency chirp sidescan-sonar (100/500 kHz), single-beam echosounder (235 kHz), and forward-looking digital camera, and will be used to delineate the distribution and thickness of surficial sediment, presence of oyster beds, and sea bed morphology in water depths less than 5-m. The ASV is a catamaran-based platform, 10 feet in length, 4 feet in width, and approximately 260 lbs in weight. The vehicle is operated remotely through a wireless modem network enabling real-time monitoring of data acquisition. The ASV is navigated using RTK, and heave, pitch and roll are recorded with onboard motion sensors. Additional sensors, such as ADCPs, can also be housed within the vehicle. The ASV is able to operate in previously inaccessible areas, and will not only augment existing shallow-water research capabilities, but will also improve our understanding of the geologic controls to modern beach behavior and coastal evolution.

  20. Dramatic beach and nearshore morphological changes due to extreme flooding at a wave-dominated river mouth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, P.L.; Warrick, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Record flooding on the Santa Clara River of California (USA) during January 2005 injected ? 5 million m3 of littoral-grade sediment into the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell, approximately an order of magnitude more than both the average annual river loads and the average annual alongshore littoral transport in this portion of the cell. This event appears to be the largest sediment transport event on record for a Southern California river. Over 170 m of local shoreline (mean high water (MHW)) progradation was observed as a result of the flood, followed by 3 years of rapid local shoreline recession. During this post-flood stage, linear regression-determined shoreline change rates are up to ?45 m a? 1 on the subaerial beach (MHW) and ? 114 m a? 1 on the submarine delta (6 m isobath). Starting approximately 1 km downdrift of the river mouth, shoreline progradation persisted throughout the 3-year post-flood monitoring period, with rates up to + 19 m a? 1. Post-flood bathymetric surveys show nearshore (0 to 12 m depth) erosion on the delta exceeding 400 m3/m a? 1, more than an order of magnitude higher than mean seasonal cross-shore sediment transport rates in the region. Changes were not constant with depth, however; sediment accumulation and subsequent erosion on the delta were greatest at ? 5 to ? 8 m, and accretion in downdrift areas was greatest above –2 m. Thus, this research shows that the topographic bulge (or “wave”) of sediment exhibited both advective and diffusive changes with time, although there were significant variations in the rates of change with depth. The advection and diffusion of the shoreline position was adequately reproduced with a simple “one line” model, although these modeling techniques miss the important cross-shore variations observed in this area. This study illustrates the importance of understanding low-frequency, high volume coastal discharge events for understanding short- and long-term sediment supply, littoral transport, and beach and nearshore evolution in coastal systems adjacent to river mouths.