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Sample records for king county nearshore

  1. King County Nearshore Habitat Mapping Data Report: Picnic Point to Shilshole Bay Marina

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Farley, Paul J.; Borde, Amy B.; Southard, John A.; Thom, Ronald M.

    2000-12-31

    The objective of this study is to provide accurate, georeferenced maps of benthic habitats to assist in the siting of a new wastewater treatment plant outfall and the assessment of habitats of endangered, threatened, and economically important species. The mapping was conducted in the fall of 1999 using two complementary techniques: side-scan sonar and underwater videography. Products derived from these techniques include geographic information system (GIS) compatible polygon data of substrate type and vegetation cover, including eelgrass and kelp. Additional GIS overlays include underwater video track line data of total macroalgae, selected macroalgal species, fish, and macroinvertebrates. The combined tools of geo-referenced side-scan sonar and underwater video is a powerful technique for assessing and mapping of nearshore habitat in Puget Sound. Side-scan sonar offers the ability to map eelgrass with high spatial accuracy and resolution, and provides information on patch size, shape, and coverage. It also provides information on substrate change and location of specific targets (e.g., piers, docks, pilings, large boulders, debris piles). The addition of underwater video is a complementary tool providing both groundtruthing for the sonar and additional information on macro fauna and flora. As a groundtruthing technique, the video was able to confirm differences between substrate types, as well as detect subtle spatial changes in substrate. It also verified information related to eelgrass, including the density classification categories and the type of substrate associated with eelgrass, which could not be determined easily with side- scan sonar. Video is also a powerful tool for mapping the location of macroalgae, (including kelp and Ulva), fish and macroinvertebrates. The ability to geo-locate these resources in their functional habitat provides an added layer of information and analytical potential.

  2. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David;

    2011-01-01

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.

  3. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    ScienceCinema

    Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David;

    2013-05-29

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.

  4. 78 FR 59414 - Environmental Impact Statement; King County, Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; King County, Washington AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed project to (1) manage congestion...

  5. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  6. Kings County Court Probation: A Laboratory for Offender Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alexander B.; Bassin, Alexander

    1992-01-01

    Describes variety of programs developed in the probation department of the Kings County Court in Brooklyn, New York, between the years of 1940 and 1965. Program descriptions are organized chronologically, from the times frames of 1940-49 (innovations in probation practice), 1950-59 (development of group therapy programs), and 1960-65

  7. Third Annual Report: 2006 Pre-Construction Eelgrass Monitoring and Propagation for King County Outfall Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Southard, Susan S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Anderson, Michael G.; Vavrinec, John

    2007-02-01

    King County proposes to build a new sewer outfall discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. Construction is scheduled for 2008. The Point Wells site was selected to minimize effects on the nearshore marine environment, but unavoidable impacts to eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds are anticipated during construction. To mitigate for these impacts and prepare for post-construction restoration, King County began implementation of a multi-year eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions. Major program elements are a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditions and degree of fluctuation over 5 years prior to construction, b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagating and stockpiling of local plantstock, and post-construction planting, and c) post-construction monitoring. The program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2006). This report describes calendar year 2006 pre-construction activities conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of King County. Activities included continued propagation of eelgrass shoots and monitoring of the experimental harvest plots in the marine outfall corridor area to evaluate recovery rates relative to harvest rates. Approximately 1500 additional shoots were harvested from the marine outfall corridor in August 2006 to supplement the plants in the propagation tank at the PNNL Marine Sciences Laboratory in Sequim, Washington, bringing the total number of shoots to 4732. Eelgrass densities were monitored in the five experimental harvest plots established in the marine outfall corridor. Changes in eelgrass density were evaluated in year-to-year comparisons with initial harvest rates. Net eelgrass density decreased from 2004 post-harvest to 2006 in all plots, despite density increases observed in 2005 in some plots and at some harvest rates. Eelgrass densities within individual subplots were highly variable from year to year, and the change in density in any interannual period did not correlate to the initial 2004 harvest rate. Continued monitoring should help project managers determine an optimum harvest rate that supports rapid recovery of donor eelgrass beds.

  8. Fourth Annual Report: 2007 Pre-Construction Eelgrass Monitoring and Propagation for King County Outfall Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Southard, Susan S.; Vavrinec, John

    2007-10-04

    King County proposes to build a new sewer outfall discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. Construction is scheduled for 2008. The Point Wells site was selected to minimize effects on the nearshore marine environment, but unavoidable impacts to eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds are anticipated during construction. To mitigate these impacts and prepare for post-construction restoration, King County began implementing a multiyear eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions. Major program elements related to eelgrass are (a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditions and degree of fluctuation over 5 years prior to construction, (b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagating, and stockpiling of local plants for post-construction planting, and (c) post-construction planting and subsequent monitoring. The program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2006). This report describes calendar year 2007 pre-construction activities conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for King County. Activities included continued propagation of eelgrass shoots at the PNNL Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) in Sequim, Washington, and monitoring of the experimental harvest plots in the marine outfall corridor area to evaluate recovery rates relative to harvest rates. In addition, 490 eelgrass shoots were also harvested from the Marine Outfall Corridor in July 2007 to supplement the plants in the propagation tank at the MSL, bringing the total number of shoots to 1464. Eelgrass densities were monitored in four of five experimental harvest plots established in the Marine Outfall Corridor. Changes in eelgrass density were evaluated in year-to-year comparisons with initial harvest rates. A net increase in eelgrass density from 2004 post-harvest to 2007 was observed in all plots, despite density decreases observed in 2006 in all plots and at most harvest rates. Eelgrass densities within individual subplots were highly variable from year to year, and the change in density in any interannual period was not related to initial 2004 harvest rate. Harvest rates of neighboring subplots did not appear to affect subplot eelgrass density (Woodruff et al. 2007). Three years post-harvest, eelgrass shoot densities were not significantly different from pre-harvest shoot densities at any harvest level. Additional plans are being discussed with King County to harvest all eelgrass from the construction corridor and hold in the propagation tanks at the MSL for post-construction planting. Under this plan, plants that would have been lost to construction will be held offsite until construction is completed. This strategy reduces and possibly eliminates the need to harvest eelgrass from donor beds located south of the construction area, allowing them to remain undisturbed. However, if eelgrass is harvested from donor beds, the monitoring of eelgrass growth at different harvest rates should help determine an optimum harvest rate that supports rapid recovery of donor eelgrass beds.

  9. Interim Evaluation Results from New Flyer/Allison Hybrid Buses at King County Metro: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eberts, E.; Eudy, L.

    2005-05-01

    This paper prepared for the 2005 American Public Transportation Association Bus & Paratransit Conference discusses NREL/DOE evaluation of hybrid electric articulated transit buses operated by King County Metro.

  10. Radiological Risk Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-05

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document develops plausible and/or likely scenarios, including the identification of likely radioactive materials and quantities of those radioactive materials to be involved. These include 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra, plutonium, and 241Am. Two broad categories of scenarios are considered. The first category includes events that may be suspected from the outset, such as an explosion of a "dirty bomb" in downtown Seattle. The explosion would most likely be heard, but the type of explosion (e.g., sewer methane gas or RDD) may not be immediately known. Emergency first responders must be able to quickly detect the radioisotopes previously listed, assess the situation, and deploy a response to contain and mitigate (if possible) detrimental effects resulting from the incident. In such scenarios, advance notice of about an hour or two might be available before any contaminated wastewater reaches a treatment plant. The second category includes events that could go initially undetected by emergency personnel. Examples of such a scenario would be the inadvertent or surreptitious introduction of radioactive material into the sewer system. Intact rogue radioactive sources from industrial radiography devices, well-logging apparatus, or moisture density gages may get into wastewater and be carried to a treatment plant. Other scenarios might include a terrorist deliberately putting a dispersible radioactive material into wastewater. Alternatively, a botched terrorism preparation of an RDD may result in radioactive material entering wastewater without anyone's knowledge. Drinking water supplies may also be contaminated, with the result that some or most of the radioactivity ends up in wastewater.

  11. Characterization of "Hydrocarbon" Dry Cleaning in King County, Washington.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Stephen G; Taylor, Jessie; Van Hooser, Linda M

    2015-09-01

    In King County, Washington, the most frequently used alternative solvent to perchloroethylene is a hydrotreated petroleum hydrocarbon. The objectives of the authors' study were to 1) determine the frequency of use of process chemicals used in "hydrocarbon" dry cleaning and gather other operational information; 2) chemically characterize the process chemicals; 3) characterize the still bottoms and separator water wastes according to dangerous waste and wastewater discharge regulations; 4) identify linkages between work practices, process chemicals, and the chemical composition of the waste streams; and 5) evaluate the aquatic toxicity of the hydrocarbon solvent and detergent. Many hydrocarbon dry cleaners are using process chemicals that contain hazardous substances, including trichloroethylene. One sample of separator water contained 13,000 µg/L trichloroethylene. This sample was determined to be federal hazardous waste, state-only dangerous waste (i.e., according to Washington state-specific regulations), and failed wastewater discharge thresholds. All still bottoms were determined to be state-only dangerous wastes. Efforts should be directed towards replacing hazardous spot cleaning chemicals with safer alternatives and ensuring that wastes are disposed of appropriately. PMID:26502560

  12. Flood profiles along the Cedar River, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hettick, O.C.

    1979-01-01

    Flood profiles on the Cedar River, King County, Wash., were developed from 21.1 to 33.65 miles upstream from the mouth for the flood of December 3-4, 1975, and for a 100-year flood. Estimated water-surface elevations during a 100-year flood indicate virtually all the flow would be contained in the river channel. Since 1914, Cedar River flows have been affected by impoundment and release of storage from Chester Morse Lake at river mile 35.6, and since 1901 by diversion for water supply at river mile 21.6. Flood-frequency analysis, based on 62 years of regulated flows (period 1915-76), indicate the 100-year flood would have a discharge of 8,600 cubic feet per second at river mile 23.4 and 6,870 cubic feet per second at river mile 33.2. The highest flood since regulation began occurred December 3 and 4, 1975, and was 7,930 cubic feet per second at river mile 23.4 and 6,860 cubic feet per second at river mile 33.2. Recurrence interval of this flood is about 70 years at river mile 23.4 and about 100 years at mile 33.2 under present conditions of storage and regulation.

  13. Characterization of the marine fish assemblage associated with the nearshore hardbottom of Broward County, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Robert M.; Jordan, Lance K. B.; Spieler, Richard E.

    2004-07-01

    Some shallow (<7 m, water depth) nearshore hardbottom areas of southeast Florida have been reported to function as important juvenile fish habitat. Much of this area has been impacted by one or more local beach renourishments (sand fill to offset erosion). We characterized the nearshore fish communities and compared the fish assemblages adjacent to renourished beach to those adjacent to never-renourished beach along a 30-km stretch of coastline, primarily in Broward County, using three visual census methods. Two hundred transect-counts, 100 point-counts and 98 rover-diver counts were completed during June-August 2001. In transect- and point-counts, abundance of all fish species and their sizes were recorded; the rover-diver counts consisted of a simple species list. In total, 164 species and over 72,000 fish were recorded. The highest number of species (145) was recorded with the rover-diver counts. The transects-counts had 118 species and 109 species were recorded on the point-counts. With either all the sites adjacent to renourished beach pooled and compared to the pooled never-renourished sites or individual comparisons amongst renourished and neighboring never-renourished sites, no consistent differences were noted in fish abundance or species richness (ANOVA) or among fish assemblage structure (MDS plot of Bray-Curtis dissimilarity indices). However, although the data show no obvious distinct difference between the renourished and never-renourished sites, due to several important confounding factors (e.g., census methodology, longshore movement of sand fill) and the absence of baseline data prior to any renourishment, it would be premature to translate these results into management strategies. The assemblage structure, in terms of percentage of juvenile fish (<5 cm) as well as percent contributions by family, was similar for the point-counts and transect-counts. However, in mean density per m 2 of substrate, greater abundance and greater species richness values were recorded with the transect-counts than with the point-counts. Newly settled and early juveniles were the dominant component (>84%) of the inshore fish community, consisting primarily (>90%) of grunts (Haemulidae). After the grunts, the wrasses (Labridae) at about 5%, and damselfish (Pomacentridae) at roughly 2% were the predominant families. It is clear from this study and others that the nearshore hardbottom of Broward County is an important juvenile fish habitat, especially for grunts. However, the nearshore hardbottom does not appear to be obligate habitat for these fishes as fishes associated with this area are, apparently, not unique to the nearshore hardbottom either in species or ontogenic stage.

  14. Fifth Annual Report: 2008 Pre-Construction Eelgrass Monitoring and Propagation for King County Outfall Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Judd, Chaeli; Thom, Ronald M.; Sather, Nichole K.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    This is the fifth and final report in a series documenting progress of the pre-construction eelgrass restoration and mitigation activities for the proposed King County Brightwater marine outfall, discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. King County began implementing a multiyear eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions, after construction of the outfall. Major eelgrass mitigation program elements include: a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditions and degree of fluctuation over a 5 year period prior to construction, b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagation and stockpiling of local plants for post-construction planting, and c) post-construction planting and subsequent monitoring, occurring in 2009 and beyond. The overall program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2008).

  15. Radiological Instrumentation Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.; McConn, Ronald J.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.

    2005-05-19

    The King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into its combined sanitary and storm sewer system. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material. Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. Volume 2 of PNNL-15163 assesses the radiological instrumentation needs for detection of radiological or nuclear terrorism, in support of decisions to treat contaminated wastewater or to bypass the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP), and in support of radiation protection of the workforce, the public, and the infrastructure of the WPTP. Fixed radiation detection instrumentation should be deployed in a defense-in-depth system that provides 1) early warning of significant radioactive material on the way to the WPTP, including identification of the radionuclide(s) and estimates of the soluble concentrations, with a floating detector located in the wet well at the Interbay Pump Station and telemetered via the internet to all authorized locations; 2) monitoring at strategic locations within the plant, including 2a) the pipe beyond the hydraulic ram in the bar screen room; 2b) above the collection funnels in the fine grit facility; 2c) in the sampling tank in the raw sewage pump room; and 2d) downstream of the concentration facilities that produce 6% blended and concentrated biosolids. Engineering challenges exist for these applications. It is necessary to deploy both ultra-sensitive detectors to provide early warning and identification and detectors capable of functioning in high-dose rate environments that are likely under some scenarios, capable of functioning from 10 microrems per hour (background) up to 1000 rems per hour. Software supporting fixed spectroscopic detectors is needed to provide prompt, reliable, and simple interpretations of spectroscopic outputs that are of use to operators and decision-makers. Software to provide scientists and homeland security personnel with sufficient technical detail for identification, quantification, waste management decisions, and for the inevitable forensic and attribution needs must be developed. Computational modeling using MCNP software has demonstrated that useful detection capabilities can be deployed. In particular, any of the isotopes examined can be detected at levels between 0.01 and 0.1 μCi per gallon. General purpose instruments that can be used to determine the nature and extent of radioactive contamination and measure radiation levels for purposes of protecting personnel and members of the public should be available. One or more portable radioisotope identifiers (RIIDs) should be available to WTD personnel. Small, portable battery-powered personal radiation monitors should be widely available WTD personnel. The personal monitors can be used for personal and group radiation protection decisions, and to alert management to the need to get expert backup. All considerations of radiological instrumentation require considerations of training and periodic retraining of personnel, as well as periodic calibration and maintenance of instruments. Routine “innocent” alarms will occur due to medical radionuclides that are legally discharged into sanitary sewers on a daily basis.

  16. Geology and ground-water resources of northwestern King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liesch, Bruce A.; Price, Charles E.; Walters, Kenneth L.

    1963-01-01

    King County, in the west-central part of the State of Washington, includes about 2,135 square miles. The eastern part of the county lies in the Sierra-Cascade Mountains province and the remainder is in the Puget Trough of the Pacific Border province. The area covered by the present investigation is almost entirely within the Puget Trough and includes about 450 square miles.

  17. HUMAN INFECTION WITH NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA SPP. IN KING COUNTY, WASHINGTON, 1999-2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human infection with nontuberculous Mycobacteria spp. in King County, Washington, 1999 - 2002
    E Hilborn, T Covert, M Yakrus, G Stelma, M Schmitt
    1) US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Research Laboratory,...

  18. NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACYERIA SPP ISOLATED FROM RESIDENTS OF KING COUNTY, WASHINGTON, 1999-2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Pathogenic nontuberculous Mycobacteria spp. (NTM) are not known to be transmitted among persons, but may be acquired from exposure to contaminated media such as soil, food and water. We examined the spectrum of NTM isolated from human specimens in King County, WA.
    ...

  19. Workplace Skills Enhancement Project, Seattle-King County Private Industry Council (PIC). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snedeker, David M.

    Evaluative information is provided on 18 completed workplace literacy classes conducted in the Seattle-King County, Washington, area for 218 limited English proficient workers. The programs were operated by the Employment Opportunities Center and the Refugee Service Federation. Participants were members of the following ethnic groups: Vietnamese,…

  20. Ground-water resources of Kings and Queens counties, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Shernoff, Peter K.

    1999-01-01

    From 1981 through 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the ground-water system of western Long Island, New York, including Kings and Queens counties. This report describes the structure and operation of the western part of the Long Island ground-water system, and the hydrologic effects associated with human development from 1900 to the early 1980's. Recent (early 1980's) ground-water quantity and quality characteristics are described.

  1. Impact of Foreign-Born Persons on HIV Diagnosis Rates among Blacks in King County, Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, James B.

    2005-01-01

    To characterize HIV and AIDS cases in foreign-born persons in King County, Washington, HIV surveillance data were analyzed by place of birth, race and ethnicity, mode of transmission, and year of HIV diagnosis. The proportion of new HIV diagnoses among foreign-born Blacks increased from 3.5% during the 3-year period from 1995 to 1997 to 7.5%…

  2. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    PubMed Central

    Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne V; Rehm, Colin D; Streichert, Laura C; Drewnowski, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1%) of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p < 0.001) and high arterial road density (p < 0.001) but not with percent of residents who were nonwhite. Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas. PMID:19630979

  3. Uranium in the Copper King Mine, Black Hawk No. 1 Claim, Larimer County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granger, Harry Clifford; King, Robert Ugstad

    1951-01-01

    Radioactive rock was discovered on the dump of the Copper King mine, sec. 8, T. 10 N., R. 72 W., Larirrier County, Colo., in the summer of 1949. The mine had been prospected intermittently for copper and zinc since 1,916, but there is no record that ore was produced. The country rock is pre-Cambrian granite containing many schist inclusions and narrow pegmatite dikes. Pitchblende disseminated in chlorite and sulfides was deposited in an obscure vein system during an intermediate stage of mineralization. This stage was preceded by biotitic alteration of amphiboles and sulfide deposition. The latest stage of mineralization is represented-by the limonitic dense quartz vein followed during mining. The uranium-bearing vein is about 2-3 feet wide and the dense quartz vein is less than 6 inches wide. Both veins are bordered by 1-3 feet of biotite- and sulfide-bearing granite and arriphibole schist. The uranium content of 26 samples taken in the mine and on the dump ranges from 0.002 to 1.40 percent. These samples contained as much as 2.97 percent copper and 5.96 percent zinc. The general outlook for further prospecting near the Copper King shaft is not favorable, because much of the 'immediately surrounding area has been thoroughly investigated without finding abnormal radioactivity. The most favorable environment for concentration of uranium minerals appears to have been in or near schist inclusions in granite, and further exploration in nearby prospects may result in the discovery of other uranium-bearing deposits. In the Copper King mine, additional exploration would aid in determining the extent of the uranium-bearing material.

  4. The Impact of a Community-Based Chronic Disease Prevention Initiative: Evaluation Findings from "Steps to Health King County"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheadle, Allen; Bourcier, Emily; Krieger, James; Beery, William; Smyser, Michael; Vinh, Diana V.; Lessler, Dan; Alfonsi, Lorrie

    2011-01-01

    "Steps to Health King County" ("Steps KC"; Seattle, Washington) was one of 40 community-level initiatives funded in 2003 as part of the "Steps to a HealthierUS" initiative. "Steps KC" goals included reducing the impact of chronic diseases through a comprehensive, coordinated approach and reducing health disparities due to chronic illness. "Steps

  5. COMPILATON OF REPORT AND DATA SUPPORTING THE EPA STUDY, "ASIAN AND PACIFIC ISLANDER SEAFOOD CONSUMPTION STUDY IN KING COUNTY, WASHINGTON".

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1996 and 1999, EPA published the results of a community-centered approach for documenting the seafood consumption patterns of Asian American and Pacific Islanders (API) in the King County area of Washington state. Summary statistics were included in the project reports, but n...

  6. How to Identify Food Deserts: Measuring Physical and Economic Access to Supermarkets in King County, Washington

    PubMed Central

    Moudon, Anne V.; Ulmer, Jared; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We explored new ways to identify food deserts. Methods. We estimated physical and economic access to supermarkets for 5 low-income groups in SeattleKing County, Washington. We used geographic information system data to measure physical access: service areas around each supermarket were delineated by ability to walk, bicycle, ride transit, or drive within 10 minutes. We assessed economic access by stratifying supermarkets into low, medium, and high cost. Combining income and access criteria generated multiple ways to estimate food deserts. Results. The 5 low-income group definitions yielded total vulnerable populations ranging from 4% to 33% of the countys population. Almost all of the vulnerable populations lived within a 10-minute drive or bus ride of a low- or medium-cost supermarket. Yet at most 34% of the vulnerable populations could walk to any supermarket, and as few as 3% could walk to a low-cost supermarket. Conclusions. The criteria used to define low-income status and access to supermarkets greatly affect estimates of populations living in food deserts. Measures of access to food must include travel duration and mode and supermarket food costs. PMID:22897554

  7. Active and passive surveillance for communicable diseases in child care facilities, Seattle-King County, Washington.

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, J K; Boase, J; Stewart, L K; Alexander, E R; Solomon, S L; Cordell, R L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate models for public health surveillance of illnesses among children in out-of-home child care facilities. METHODS: Between July 1992 and March 1994, 200 Seattle-King County child care facilities participated in active or enhanced passive surveillance, or both. Reporting was based on easily recognized signs, symptoms, and sentinel events. Published criteria were used in evaluating surveillance effectiveness, and notifiable disease reporting of participating and nonparticipating facilities was compared. RESULTS: Neither surveillance model was well accepted by child care providers. Enhanced passive and active surveillance had comparable sensitivity. Reporting delays and the large amount of time needed for data entry led to problems with timeliness, especially in terms of written reporting during active surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Widespread active public health surveillance in child care facilities is not feasible for most local health departments. Improvements in public health surveillance in child care settings will depend on acceptability to providers. PMID:9431282

  8. Numerical model of the salt-wedge reach of the Duwamish River estuary, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prych, Edmund A.; Haushild, W.L.; Stoner, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical model of a salt-wedge estuary developed by Fischer (1974) has been expanded and used to calculate the distributions of salinity, temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved-oxygen concentration in the Duwamish River estuary, King County, Wash. The model was used to predict the dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Duwamish River estuary when the Renton Treatment Plant sewage-effluent discharge is increased to its proposed maximum of 223 cubic feet per second. The computed monthly average dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the estuary decreased by a maximum of 2 milligrams per liter when compared with computations for the summer of 1971, when the effluent discharge averaged 37 cubic feet per second. The increase in effluent discharge is not expected to cause large changes in phytoplankton concentrations in the estuary. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. An isonymic study of the population structure of early Kings County, NY.

    PubMed

    Christensen, A F

    2000-12-01

    Isonymy has proven a useful method for studying the genetic structure of historical populations. In the United States, the populations studied have been of predominantly British origin. Many of the early settlers in this country, however, came from different cultural backgrounds, which may have affected their settlement patterns and genetic structure. The first European settlers of Kings County, New York, were Dutch, and Dutch was still spoken there in the 19th century. In the early Colonial period, it was an isolated agricultural area, but it was increasingly drawn into the larger metropolis of New York City, a process that culminated at the end of the 19th century. This paper uses census data from 1698, 1738, 1790, and 1810 to assess synchronic and diachronic isonymy patterns within the county. These censuses subdivide the county into six towns, five founded by the Dutch (Brooklyn, Bushwick, Flatbush, Flatlands, and New Utrecht) and one by the English (Gravesend). All were founded at least a generation before 1698. Values of Iii, FST, and RST increased from 1698 to 1738, a period when Kings County received few immigrants, and decreased thereafter as the influence of the metropolis grew. Most new immigrants settled in Brooklyn, so the lowest levels of isonymy occurred there [Iii (1810) = 0.0029]. The highest levels occurred in Flatlands [Iii (1738) = 0.0838]. FST increased from 0.0050 to 0.0076, and then fell to 0.0052 and 0.0032; RST was approximately two-thirds as high, at 0.0033, 0.0053, 0.0033, and 0.0022. These values are more than twice as high as those reported from 19th-century Massachusetts or Pennsylvania, and are comparable to those found in rural European populations. The towns can be divided into two groups: Brooklyn, Bushwick, and Flatbush, with an average Iii of 0.01570, and Flatlands, Gravesend, and New Utrecht, with an average value of 0.03963. The three latter towns were geographically more distant from New York City and remained more isolated both culturally and biologically. PMID:11236858

  10. Tumbleweed Delta-Lower Tannehill Point Bars, geochemistry and dipmeter logs of Dickens and King Counties, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Usseglio, J.M. )

    1990-02-01

    The oil-prone Tannehill sandstone trend is an extensive Eastern Shelf clastic depositional system derived from an ancient uplift located several counties away to the east-northeast of Dickens and King counties. The older 100-mi-long lower Tannehill system, preceding the upper Tannehill (Frye) system, trended east-west into King and Dickens counties, where it lies in the domain of the shallow-water-shelf delta distributary, situated between the well-documented prolific point-bar (fluvial) deposits of Baylor, Knox, and eastern King counties, and the massive nonproductive slope-mouth bar (deeper water) deposits of western Kent and western Dickens counties. The individual prolific and shallow sand bodies in the shelf distributary of Dickens and King counties are shelf delta point-bars, with some reworking. Geologists for years have erroneously played the sands and interpreted dipmeter logs in this area as fluvial point-bars. Case histories illustrate the complex stratigraphic traps of varying sizes that are formed, and the problems with dipmeter interpretations. Prospecting techniques involving subsurface geology and soil-gas geochemistry have resulted in wildcat success ratios in excess of 25% and development well success in excess of 85%. Numerous fields with proven total recoverable reserves in excess of 800,000 bbl of oil have been found over the last 10 yr. The premise central to modern-day geochemical soil gas prospecting is that very small amounts (parts per million) of light hydrocarbons move upward continuously (but not always vertically) over time from subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs toward the ground surface, and such microseepage is detectable by modern instruments sensitive to parts per billion. Case histories illustrate that such unconventional techniques are very successful only in certain geologic provinces, and are to be integrated with subsurface geology and other conventional methods.

  11. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 10): Harbor Island (Lead), King County, Seattle, WA. (First remedial action), September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The decision document presents the selected final remedial action, for soil and groundwater, for the Harbor Island Site in Seattle, King County, Washington. The decision document excludes three separate operable units on Harbor Island: the Shell, Arco, and Texaco petroleum tank farms; Lockheed Shipyard; and marine sediments. The remedial action described in this Record of Decision represents a final remedy for treatment of Harbor Island soil and groundwater, except for those areas identified above as separate operable units.

  12. Increased mortality associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1980-2010.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Fenske, Richard A; Hom, Elizabeth K; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Yost, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Extreme heat has been associated with increased mortality, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the Pacific Northwest region in their analyses. This study quantified the historical (May to September, 1980-2010) heat-mortality relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the relationship between heat and all-cause mortality on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis, using a piece-wise linear model fit, was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on mortality, adjusted for temporal trends. For all ages, all causes, we found a 10 % (1.10 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.06, 1.14)) increase in the risk of death on a heat day versus non-heat day. When considering the intensity effect of heat on all-cause mortality, we found a 1.69 % (95 % CI, 0.69, 2.70) increase in the risk of death per unit of humidex above 36.0 °C. Mortality stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results using both types of analyses for: all-cause, non-traumatic, circulatory, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and diabetes causes of death. All-cause mortality was statistically significantly modified by the type of synoptic weather type. These results demonstrate that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased mortality on heat days, and that risk increases with heat's intensity. While age was the only individual-level characteristic found to modify mortality risks, statistically significant increases in diabetes-related mortality for the 45-64 age group suggests that underlying health status may contribute to these risks. PMID:25956805

  13. Increased mortality associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1980–2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Fenske, Richard A.; Hom, Elizabeth K.; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Yost, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme heat has been associated with increased mortality, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the Pacific Northwest region in their analyses. This study quantified the historical (May to September, 1980-2010) heat-mortality relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the relationship between heat and all-cause mortality on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis, using a piece-wise linear model fit, was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on mortality, adjusted for temporal trends. For all ages, all causes, we found a 10 % (1.10 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.06, 1.14)) increase in the risk of death on a heat day versus non-heat day. When considering the intensity effect of heat on all-cause mortality, we found a 1.69 % (95 % CI, 0.69, 2.70) increase in the risk of death per unit of humidex above 36.0 °C. Mortality stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results using both types of analyses for: all-cause, non-traumatic, circulatory, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and diabetes causes of death. All-cause mortality was statistically significantly modified by the type of synoptic weather type. These results demonstrate that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased mortality on heat days, and that risk increases with heat's intensity. While age was the only individual-level characteristic found to modify mortality risks, statistically significant increases in diabetes-related mortality for the 45-64 age group suggests that underlying health status may contribute to these risks.

  14. Increased mortality associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1980-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Fenske, Richard A.; Hom, Elizabeth K.; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Yost, Michael G.

    2015-05-01

    Extreme heat has been associated with increased mortality, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the Pacific Northwest region in their analyses. This study quantified the historical (May to September, 1980-2010) heat-mortality relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the relationship between heat and all-cause mortality on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis, using a piece-wise linear model fit, was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on mortality, adjusted for temporal trends. For all ages, all causes, we found a 10 % (1.10 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.06, 1.14)) increase in the risk of death on a heat day versus non-heat day. When considering the intensity effect of heat on all-cause mortality, we found a 1.69 % (95 % CI, 0.69, 2.70) increase in the risk of death per unit of humidex above 36.0 C. Mortality stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results using both types of analyses for: all-cause, non-traumatic, circulatory, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and diabetes causes of death. All-cause mortality was statistically significantly modified by the type of synoptic weather type. These results demonstrate that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased mortality on heat days, and that risk increases with heat's intensity. While age was the only individual-level characteristic found to modify mortality risks, statistically significant increases in diabetes-related mortality for the 45-64 age group suggests that underlying health status may contribute to these risks.

  15. A health and environmental profile of the dry cleaning industry in King County, Washington.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Stephen G; Johanson, Chantrelle A

    2013-06-01

    Workers in the dry cleaning industry are exposed to a variety of harmful solvents, and poor work practices can result in extensive environmental contamination. Of particular concern is perchloroethylene (PERC), which is the most commonly used cleaning solvent. This chlorinated hydrocarbon is a pervasive environmental contaminant and a probable human carcinogen. PERC is also a neurotoxin and is toxic to the liver and kidneys. The study described here was comprised of key informant interviews, site visits, and a countywide business survey. The 64% response rate to the survey suggests that the results are likely representative of King County's dry cleaning industry. Dry cleaning was determined to be dominated by small, Korean-owned, family-run businesses. Although the use of PERC as the primary dry cleaning agent has decreased in recent years, this solvent is still used by the majority of businesses. This industry would benefit from regulatory intervention in concert with an educational campaign and enhanced technical and financial assistance. For any intervention to be effective, however, it must account for the unique financial and demographic characteristics of this industry. PMID:23858662

  16. Combined geological and surface geochemical methods discover King Sand production, Concho County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.K; Burson, K.R.; Saunders, D.F. ); Brown, J.J. )

    1991-03-01

    From December, 1987 to September, 1990, 16 prospects within the current confines of the Lower King (Upper Pennsylvanian Cisco age) Sand Play in Concho County, Texas, were tested by several operators on locations found by various combinations of subsurface geology, reconnaissance surface radiometrics, and soil gas hydrocarbon leads A 37.5% exploratory success rate has resulted in six new field discoveries or extensions with a total exploration and development cost of less than $0.50 per barrel of proven oil reserves. The average recoverable reserves per new field discovery are estimated to be 2.6 Mbbl of oil, and the average recoverable reserves per well are estimated to be 285,000 bbl at a depth of 2200 ft. Five of the six new field discoveries were based primarily on surface geochemical data. The sixth discovery, a southeast extension to the Lonesome Dove II field, was found on the basis of subsurface geology. The Agaritta field is one of the two largest of the new field discoveries with estimated proven (producing and undeveloped) recoverable reserves of 6 Mbbl of oil as of September, 1990. Its discovery was based on a combination of (1) detailed interstitial soil gas hydrocarbon data, (2) soil magnetic susceptibility measurements, and (3) surface potassium and uranium concentrations measured by gamma-ray spectrometry applied over two leads based on reconnaissance radiometrics. What initially appeared to be two separate prospects spaced over 7000 ft apart has since developed into one large field.

  17. Descriptive epidemiology of unintentional residential fire injuries in King County, WA, 1984 and 1985.

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, J E; Koepsell, T D; Rivara, F P; Van Belle, G

    1992-01-01

    Although most studies have concentrated on fatal residential fire injuries, which are a leading cause of fatal injuries in the United States, few investigators have examined in detail nonfatal injuries as a consequence of residential fires. This population-based study used the Washington State Fire Incident Reporting System to assess the incidence and descriptive epidemiology of fatal and nonfatal burns or respiratory tract damage resulting from unintentional residential fires. For the 2-year period 1984-85 in King County, WA, the mortality rate due to injury in a residential fire was 0.7 per 100,000 per year, and the incidence of nonfatal injuries was 5.6 per 100,000 per year. Of 17 fatalities, 59 percent of the deaths occurred at the scene of the fire. Of 128 persons with nonfatal injuries, 19 percent were hospitalized; although the 55 percent seen as outpatients and the 26 percent treated by the fire department or paramedics at the fire scene usually had minor injuries, they would not have been captured if only traditional data sources had been employed. Those injured averaged 2.8 days of restricted activity, but the range was from less than 1 day to 1 year. Injuries were more common in the households with a low socioeconomic status and among nonwhites, especially American Indians. Variation in incidence by age, sex, and source of ignition for deaths and nonfatal injuries suggests appropriate targets for future fire injury prevention programs. PMID:1641436

  18. Evaluation program effectiveness of household hazardous waste collection: The Seattle-King County experience

    SciTech Connect

    Seeberger, Donald A.

    1991-10-01

    The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the normal'' municipal waste streams. The Plan sets ambitious goals for diverting thousands of tons of hazardous wastes from being thrown, poured or dumped in the municipal waste stream. During the first five years, over $30 millon will be spent for a variety of HHW and SQG programs. The Plan incorporates a wide range of elements, including education, collection, and compliance components. Many of the hazardous waste education and collection programs have been developed in response to the Plan, so their effectiveness is still undetermined. A key component of the Plan is program evaluation. This report provides descriptions of two evaluation methods used to establish baselines for assessing the effectiveness of the Hazardous Waste Management Plan's programs. Focusing on the Plan's household hazardous waste programs, the findings of the baseline evaluations are discussed and conclusions are made. A general population survey, conducted through telephone interviews, was designed to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of area residents. Characterization of the solid waste stream was used to identify the hazardous constituents contributed to municipal solid waste by households. Monitoring changes in the amount of hazardous materials present in the waste stream was used to indicate whether or not Program strategies are influencing disposal behaviors. Comparing the data gathered by these two evaluation methods provided a unique opportunity to cross-check the findings and validate that change, if any, has occurred. From the comparisons, the report draws a number of conclusions.

  19. Evaluation program effectiveness of household hazardous waste collection: The Seattle-King County experience

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the ``normal`` municipal waste streams. The Plan sets ambitious goals for diverting thousands of tons of hazardous wastes from being thrown, poured or dumped in the municipal waste stream. During the first five years, over $30 millon will be spent for a variety of HHW and SQG programs. The Plan incorporates a wide range of elements, including education, collection, and compliance components. Many of the hazardous waste education and collection programs have been developed in response to the Plan, so their effectiveness is still undetermined. A key component of the Plan is program evaluation. This report provides descriptions of two evaluation methods used to establish baselines for assessing the effectiveness of the Hazardous Waste Management Plan`s programs. Focusing on the Plan`s household hazardous waste programs, the findings of the baseline evaluations are discussed and conclusions are made. A general population survey, conducted through telephone interviews, was designed to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of area residents. Characterization of the solid waste stream was used to identify the hazardous constituents contributed to municipal solid waste by households. Monitoring changes in the amount of hazardous materials present in the waste stream was used to indicate whether or not Program strategies are influencing disposal behaviors. Comparing the data gathered by these two evaluation methods provided a unique opportunity to cross-check the findings and validate that change, if any, has occurred. From the comparisons, the report draws a number of conclusions.

  20. Tidal-flow, circulation, and flushing characteristics of Kings Bay, Citrus County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammett, K.M.; Goodwin, C.R.; Sanders, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Kings Bay is an estuary on the gulf coast of peninsular Florida with a surface area of less than one square mile. It is a unique estuarine system with no significant inflowing rivers or streams. As much as 99 percent of the freshwater entering the bay originates from multiple spring vents at the bottom of the estuary. The circulation and flushing characteristics of Kings Bay were evaluated by applying SIMSYS2D, a two-dimensional numerical model. Field data were used to calibrate and verify the model. Lagrangian particle simulations were used to determine the circulation characteristics for three hydrologic conditions: low inflow, typical inflow, and low inflow with reduced friction from aquatic vegetation. Spring discharge transported the particles from Kings Bay through Crystal River and out of the model domain. Tidal effects added an oscillatory component to the particle paths. The mean particle residence time was 59 hours for low inflow with reduced friction; therefore, particle residence time is affected more by spring discharge than by bottom friction. Circulation patterns were virtually identical for the three simulated hydroloigc conditions. Simulated particles introduced in the southern part of Kings Bay traveled along the eastern side of Buzzard Island before entering Crystal River and existing the model domain. The flushing characteristics of Kings Bay for the three hydrodynamic conditions were determined by simulating the injection of conservative dye constituents. The average concentration of dye initially injected in Kings Bay decreased asymptotically because of spring discharge, and the tide caused some oscillation in the average dye concentration. Ninety-five percent of the injected dye exited Kings Bay and Crystal River with 94 hours for low inflow, 71 hours for typical inflow, and 94 hours for low inflow with reduced bottom friction. Simulation results indicate that all of the open waters of Kings Bay are flushed by the spring discharge. Reduced bottom friction has little effect on flushing.

  1. Changes in Awareness and Use of Calorie Information After Mandatory Menu Labeling in Restaurants in King County, Washington

    PubMed Central

    Smyser, Michael; Chan, Nadine; Ta, Myduc; Saelens, Brian E.; Krieger, James

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined population-level impact on customer awareness and use and explored potential disparities in outcomes regarding the King County, Washington, regulation requiring chain restaurants to provide calorie information. Methods. We analyzed 2008 to 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 3132 English-speaking King County residents aged 18 years and older who reported eating at a regulated chain. We used regression models to assess changes in calorie information awareness and use from prepolicy to postpolicy implementation by customer demographics, health status, and restaurant type. Results. Calorie information awareness and use increased significantly from 2008 to 2010. Unadjusted analyses indicated that the proportion who saw and used calorie information tripled, from 8.1% to 24.8%. Fully adjusted analyses confirmed significant increases. After policy implementation, White, higher income, and obese respondents had greater odds of seeing calorie information. Women, higher income groups, and those eating at a fast-food versus a sit-down chain restaurant were more likely to use this information. Conclusions. Significant increases in calorie information awareness and use following regulation support the population-wide value of this policy. However, improvements varied across race, income, and gender. PMID:25602868

  2. Estimated agricultural ground-water pumpage in parts of Fresno, Kings, and Madera Counties, San Joaquin Valley, California, 1974-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitten, Hugh T.

    1978-01-01

    Agricultural ground-water pumpage data are presented for 1974-77 for the area on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley in parts of Fresno, Kings, and Madera Counties, Calif., which has approximately the boundaries of the Westlands Water District. The method of estimating pumpage was based on electric-power consumption at the agricultual wells. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Records of wells, water levels, and quality of ground water in the Sammamish Lake area, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liesch, Bruce A.

    1955-01-01

    This report, one of a series on the ground-water resources of the State of Washington, contains well records and other data collected during the course of an investigation in the Sammamish Lake area immediately east of Seattle, King County, Washington. Most of these investigations are conducted in cooperation with the State of Washington, Department of Conservation and Development, Division of Water Resources. However, a few investigations, including the one in the Sammamish Lake area, have been made entirely with Federal funds. A similar investigation is now being made in the area to the west, including the city of Seattle and metropolitan areas to the north and south. It is planned that results of teh two investigations will be combined into a single comprehencive report. In order that the data collected can be made available sooner, this report as been prepared with only a brief explanatory and descriptive text.

  4. Public health assessment for Pacific Sound Resources, Seattle, King County, Washington, Region 10. Cerclis No. WAD009248287. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-23

    Pacific Sound Resources (PSR) was a wood preserving facility located in King County, Washington, on the southern shore of Elliott Bay near the city of Seattle. Wood preserving activities have occurred on the PSR property since 1909 and have resulted in releases of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pentachlorophenol (PCP), and metal solutions into on-site surface soil, subsurface soil, groundwater, and Elliott Bay sediments. The PSR site is presently considered an indeterminate public health hazard because existing environmental data is not sufficient to document human exposure. There is potential for human exposure to have occurred in the past, to be presently occurring, or to occur in the future, to contaminant levels which may be expected to result in adverse health effects. Contaminants of concern at the PSR site include: arsenic, PAHs, lead, mercury, and pentachlorophenol.

  5. Factors Associated With the Adoption of a Patient Education Intervention Among First Responders, King County, Washington, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, Benjamin; Fahrenbruch, Carol; Phelan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated facilitators and barriers to adoption of an at-scene patient education program by firefighter emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in King County, Washington. Methods We consulted providers of emergency medical services (EMS) to develop a patient education pamphlet in the form of a tear-off sheet that could be attached to the EMT medical incident report. The pamphlet included resources for at-scene patient education on high blood pressure, blood glucose, falls, and social services. The program was launched in 29 fire departments in King County, Washington, on January 1, 2010, and a formal evaluation was conducted in late 2011. We developed a survey based on diffusion theory to assess 1) awareness of the pamphlet, 2) evaluation of the pamphlet attributes, 3) encouragement by peers and superiors for handing out the pamphlet, 4) perceived behavioral norms, and 5) demographic variables associated with self-reported adoption of the at-scene patient education program. The survey was completed by 822 (40.1%) of 2,047 firefighter emergency medical technicians. We conducted bivariate and multivariable analyses to assess associations between independent variables and self-reported adoption of the program. Results Adoption of the at-scene patient education intervention was significantly associated with positive evaluation of the pamphlet, encouragement from peers and superiors, and perceived behavioral norms. EMS providers reported they were most likely to hand out the pamphlet to patients in private residences who were treated and left at the scene. Conclusion Attributes of chronic disease prevention programs and encouragement from peers and supervisors are necessary in diffusion of patient education interventions in the prehospital care setting. PMID:24480631

  6. The University of Washington's Community-Oriented Public Health Practice program and Public Health-Seattle & King County partnership.

    PubMed

    House, Peter J; Hartfield, Karen; Nicola, Bud; Bogan, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The Community-Oriented Public Health Practice (COPHP) program, a 2-year in-residence MPH degree program in the University of Washington School of Public Health, has partnered with Public Health-Seattle & King County (PHSKC) since 2002 to create a mutually beneficial set of programs to improve teaching and address community-based public health problems in a practice setting. The COPHP program uses a problem-based learning approach that puts students in small groups to work on public health problems. Both University of Washington-based and PHSKC-based faculty facilitate the classroom work. In the first year for students, COPHP, in concert with PHSKC, places students in practicum assignments at PHSKC; in the second year, students undertake a master's project (capstone) in a community or public health agency. The capstone project entails taking on a problem in a community-based agency to improve either the health of a population or the capacity of the agency to improve population health. Both the practicum and the capstone projects emphasize applying classroom learning in actual public health practice work for community-based organizations. This partnership brings PHSKC and COPHP together in every aspect of teaching. In essence, PHSKC acts as the "academic health department" for COPHP. There are detailed agreements and contracts that guide all aspects of the partnership. Both the practicum and capstone projects require written contracts. The arrangements for getting non-University of Washington faculty paid for teaching and advising also include formal contracts. PMID:24667188

  7. Heluma and King Mountain fields, back-thrusted structures, Upton County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Turmelle, J.M. )

    1992-04-01

    Heluma field was discovered and initially developed in 1956 as a four-well Ellenburger pool with some marginal Devonian reserves up-hole. For fifteen years it was reasonable to map the field as a tilted fault block at the Ellenburger level. In 1971, a field extension well proved that the supposed bounding high-angle normal fault was instead a low-angle backthrust, which overrides and does not cut the Ellenburger. The Devonian came in 500 ft structurally high to the older wells and has since produced nearly 4 million bbl of oil. Eighteen additional Ellenburger locations were also drilled beneath the backthrust. The present spacing shows that some structurally low Ellenburger tops were due to drilling into Ordovician sinkholes. King Mountain field is a long narrow anticline that has produced 5.5 million bbl of oil from the Ellenburger. This field was more completely developed than Heluma during the late 1950s and the same style of backthrust so prolific at Heluma is also present here, yet with a lesser throw. During the 1950s, all faults easily may have been interpreted as very high-angle normal faults. Similarly, one can easily conclude they are flower structures created by wrench tectonics. These oil fields lie in an ancillary direction to the Big Lake fault. The key to the backthrusts, however, is the compression of the intervening asymmetric synclines. The thick section of Devonian limestone and chert could not be tightly folded so it rode up the flank of the syncline until the limb was higher than the adjacent anticline.

  8. Field, petrologic and detrital zircon study of the Kings sequence and Calaveras complex, Southern Lake Kaweah Roof Pendant, Tulare County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchen, Christopher T.

    U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains separated from elastic sedimentary rocks is combined with field, petrographic and geochemical data to reconstruct the geologic history of Mesozoic rocks exposed at the southern end of the Lake Kaweah metamorphic pendant, western Sierra Nevada. Identification of rocks exposed at Limekiln Hill, Kern County, CA, as belonging to the Calaveras complex and Kings sequence was confirmed. Detrital zircon populations from two Calaveras complex samples provide Permo-Triassic maximum depositional ages (MDA) and reveal a Laurentian provenance indicating that continental accretion of the northwest-trending Kings-Kaweah ophiolite belt was in process prior to the Jurassic Period. Rock types including radiolarian metachert, metachert-argillite, and calc-silicate rocks with marble lenses are interpreted as formed in a hemipelagic environment of siliceous radiolarian deposition, punctuated by extended episodes of lime-mud gravity flows mixing with siliceous ooze forming cafe-silicate protoliths and limestone olistoliths forming marble lenses. Two samples of the overlying Kings sequence turbidites yield detrital zircons with an MDA of 181.4 +/-3.0 Ma and an interpreted provenance similar to other Jurassic metasediments found in the Yokohl Valley, Sequoia and Boyden Cave roof pendants. Age peaks indicative of Jurassic erg heritage are also present. In contrast, detrital zircon samples from the Sequoia and Slate Mountain roof pendants bear age-probability distributions interpreted as characteristic of the Snow Lake block, a tectonic sliver offset from the Paleozoic miogeocline.

  9. Lidar-revised geologic map of the Olalla 7.5' quadrangle, King, Kitsap, and Pierce Counties, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, Rowland W.; Haugerud, Ralph A.; Booth, Derek B.; Troost, Kathy Goetz

    2013-01-01

    The Olalla 7.5' quadrangle, which lies almost in the center of the Puget Lowland, displays the broad range of geologic environments typical of the region. The upland plain is fluted by the passage of the great continental ice sheet that last covered the area about 17,000 (14,000 radiocarbon) years ago. The plain is cut by channel deposits, both late glacial and postglacial in age, and it is cleaved even more deeply by one of the major arms of Puget Sound, Colvos Passage, which here separates the west coast of Vashon Island from the Kitsap Peninsula. Beneath the deposits of the last ice sheet is a complex sequence of older Quaternary-age sediments that extends about 400 m below the modern ground surface. These older sediments are best exposed along the shorelines and beach cliffs of Puget Sound, where wave action and landslides maintain relatively fresh exposures. The older sediments typically are compact, having been loaded by ice during one or more episodes of glaciation subsequent to their deposition. Locally these sediments are also cemented by iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides, a consequence of many tens or hundreds of thousands of years of weathering and groundwater movement. Our map is an interpretation of a 6-ft resolution lidar-derived digital elevation model combined with the geology depicted on the "Geologic map of the Olalla 7.5' quadrangle, King, Kitsap, and Pierce Counties, Washington," by Booth and Troost (2005), which was described, interpreted, and located on the 1953 1:24,000-scale topographic map of the Olalla 7.5-minute quadrangle. The original topographic base map, derived from 1951 aerial photographs, has 20-ft contours, nominal horizontal resolution of circa 40 ft (12 m), and nominal mean vertical accuracy of circa 13 ft (4 m). This new DEM has a horizontal resolution of 6 ft (2 m) and mean vertical accuracy circa 1 ft (0.3 m). The greater resolution and accuracy of the lidar DEM facilitated a much-improved interpretation of many aspects of the surficial geology, especially the distribution and relative age of landforms and the materials inferred to comprise them.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of the FEMA HAZUS-MH MR4 Earthquake Model using seismic events affecting King County Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neighbors, C.; Noriega, G. R.; Caras, Y.; Cochran, E. S.

    2010-12-01

    HAZUS-MH MR4 (HAZards U. S. Multi-Hazard Maintenance Release 4) is a risk-estimation software developed by FEMA to calculate potential losses due to natural disasters. Federal, state, regional, and local government use the HAZUS-MH Earthquake Model for earthquake risk mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery planning (FEMA, 2003). In this study, we examine several parameters used by the HAZUS-MH Earthquake Model methodology to understand how modifying the user-defined settings affect ground motion analysis, seismic risk assessment and earthquake loss estimates. This analysis focuses on both shallow crustal and deep intraslab events in the American Pacific Northwest. Specifically, the historic 1949 Mw 6.8 Olympia, 1965 Mw 6.6 Seattle-Tacoma and 2001 Mw 6.8 Nisqually normal fault intraslab events and scenario large-magnitude Seattle reverse fault crustal events are modeled. Inputs analyzed include variations of deterministic event scenarios combined with hazard maps and USGS ShakeMaps. This approach utilizes the capacity of the HAZUS-MH Earthquake Model to define landslide- and liquefaction- susceptibility hazards with local groundwater level and slope stability information. Where Shakemap inputs are not used, events are run in combination with NEHRP soil classifications to determine site amplification effects. The earthquake component of HAZUS-MH applies a series of empirical ground motion attenuation relationships developed from source parameters of both regional and global historical earthquakes to estimate strong ground motion. Ground motion and resulting ground failure due to earthquakes are then used to calculate, direct physical damage for general building stock, essential facilities, and lifelines, including transportation systems and utility systems. Earthquake losses are expressed in structural, economic and social terms. Where available, comparisons between recorded earthquake losses and HAZUS-MH earthquake losses are used to determine how region coordinators can most effectively utilize their resources for earthquake risk mitigation. This study is being conducted in collaboration with King County, WA officials to determine the best model inputs necessary to generate robust HAZUS-MH models for the Pacific Northwest.

  11. Making Kings.

    PubMed

    Ayoup, Colleen; Podmore, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Due to a general lack of representation of female masculinities within the North American media, most urban drag king cultures have evolved in isolation from each other. As a result, drag kings tend to develop locally specific codes of dress, performance styles and forms of masculinity. This chapter describes the case of a group of Montreal drag king performers, The Mambo Drag Kings (MDKs). It is based on interviews that were conducted for Colleen Ayoup's film Kings (2001), a short documentary that explores kinging by examining the development of this specific group of performers. We present excerpts from our discussions regarding the relationships between everyday gender identities, lesbian sexuality, and performing as a king in a society that is fundamentally based on an asymmetrical sex-gender system. While the chapter does highlight these theoretical concerns, the focus is on how the participants of the group interpret and experience kinging and its impact on their own gendered and sexual identities. PMID:12769273

  12. Estuarine water-quality and sediment data, and surface-water and ground-water-quality data, Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Camden County, Georgia, January 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeth, David C.; Holloway, Owen G.

    2000-01-01

    In January 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey collected estuarine-water, estuarine-sediment, surface-water, and ground-water quality samples in the vicinity of Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Camden County, Georgia. Data from these samples are used by the U.S. Navy to monitor the impact of submarine base activities on local water resources. Estuarine water and sediment data were collected from five sites on the Crooked River, Kings Bay, and Cumberland Sound. Surface-water data were collected from seven streams that discharge from Naval Submarine Base, Kings Bay. Ground-water data were collected from six ground-water monitoring wells completed in the water-table zone of the surficial aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, total and dissolved trace metals, total and dissolved organic carbon, oil and grease, total organic halogens, biological and chemical oxygen demand, and total and fecal coliform. Trace metals in ground and surface waters did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Drinking Water Standards; and trace metals in surface water also did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Surface Water Standards. These trace metals included arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, tin, and zinc. Barium was detected in relatively high concentrations in ground water (concentrations ranged from 18 to 264 micrograms per liter). Two estuarine water samples exceeded the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division standards for copper (concentrations of 6.2 and 3.0 micrograms per liter).

  13. Geologic map of southwestern Sequoia National Park and vicinity, Tulare County, California, including the Mineral King metamorphic pendant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisson, T. W.; Moore, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    From the late 1940s to the early 1990s, scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapped the geology of most of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, and published the results as a series of 15-minute (1:62,500 scale) Geologic Quadrangles. The southwest corner of Sequoia National Park, encompassing the Mineral King and eastern edge of the Kaweah 15-minute topographic quadrangles, however, remained unfinished. At the request of the National Park Service's Geologic Resources Division (NPS-GRD), the USGS has mapped the geology of that area using 7.5-minute (1:24,000 scale) topographic bases and high-resolution ortho-imagery. With partial support from NPS-GRD, the major plutons in the map area were dated by the U-Pb zircon method with the Stanford-USGS SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe. Highlights include: (1) Identification of the Early Cretaceous volcano-plutonic suite of Mineral King (informally named), consisting of three deformed granodiorite plutons and the major metarhyolite tuffs of the Mineral King metamorphic pendant. Members of the suite erupted or intruded at 130-140 Ma (pluton ages: this study; rhyolite ages: lower-intercept concordia from zircon results of Busby-Spera, 1983, Princeton Ph.D. thesis, and from Klemetti et al., 2011, AGU abstract) during the pause of igneous activity between emplacement of the Jurassic and Cretaceous Sierran batholiths. (2) Some of the deformation of the Mineral King metamorphic pendant is demonstrably Cretaceous, with evidence including map-scale folding of Early Cretaceous metarhyolite tuff, and an isoclinally folded aplite dike dated at 98 Ma, concurrent with the large 98-Ma granodiorite of Castle Creek that intruded the Mineral King pendant on the west. (3) A 21-km-long magmatic synform within the 99-100 Ma granite of Coyote Pass that is defined both by inward-dipping mafic inclusions (enclaves) and by sporadic, cm-thick, sharply defined mineral layering. The west margin of the granite of Coyote Pass overlies parts of the adjacent Mineral King pendant, and the pluton probably had an upward-flaring shape, with synformal layering and foliation resulting from compaction and mineral deposition (or flow sorting) at the floor of an elongate, melt-rich magma lens. The NPS-GRD has digitized the published USGS geologic quadrangles for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, and a goal is to jointly release a geologic map of the combined Parks region.

  14. An unusual Middle Permian flora from the Blaine Formation (Pease River Group: Leonardian-Guadalupian Series) of King County, West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiMichele, W.A.; Hook, R.W.; Nelson, W.J.; Chaney, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    A new Middle Permian plant assemblage from South Ash Pasture in King County, Texas, may be the youngest and is certainly the most unusual flora known from the Permian of either West Texas or adjoining north-central Texas. Found serendipitously in the evaporite-rich upper Blaine Formation (Pease River Group, Guadalupian Series), the flora is of very low diversity despite intensive collecting efforts, and the affinities of nearly all taxa are enigmatic. The most common elements are parallel-veined leaves that resemble cordaites but that could be isolated pinnules of a pinnate leaf. Gigantopterid foliage is present but not assignable to any known taxon. A single foliar conifer specimen is too incomplete for assignment. Numerous reproductive organs, however, and an abundance of axes may represent conifers. Conchostracans, palaeoniscoid fish scales, and small heteropolar coprolites also occur in the deposit, which originated as a small, claystone-dominated channel fill in a coastal plain setting.

  15. Support Services for Exceptional Students: Fresno, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Mono, San Luis Obispo, and Tulare Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Angelica; And Others

    Intended for use by vocational administrators responsible for mainstreaming handicapped students into vocational education classes, the resource guide lists and describes governmental and private agencies that provide vocational programs and support services for the handicapped on a local and statewide basis in the California counties of Fresno,…

  16. Nearshore sticky waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan M.; Venkataramani, Shankar C.; Dawson, Clint

    2014-08-01

    Wind- and current-driven flotsam, oil spills, pollutants, and nutrients, approaching the nearshore will frequently appear to slow down/park just beyond the break zone, where waves break. Moreover, the portion of these tracers that beach will do so only after a long time. Explaining why these tracers park and at what rate they reach the shore has important implications on a variety of different nearshore environmental issues, including the determination of what subscale processes are essential in computer models for the simulation of pollutant transport in the nearshore. Using a simple model we provide an explanation for the underlying mechanism responsible for the parking of tracers, not subject to inertial effects, the role played by the bottom topography, and the non-uniform dispersion which leads, in some circumstances, to the eventual landing of all or a portion of the tracers. We refer to the parking phenomenon in this environment as nearshore sticky waters.

  17. Biostratigraphy of the San Joaquin Formation in borrow-source area B-17, Kettleman Hills landfill, North Dome, Kettleman Hills, Kings County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Fisk, Lanny H.; Maloney, David F.; Haasl, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The stratigraphic occurrences and interpreted biostratigraphy of invertebrate fossil taxa in the upper San Joaquin Formation and lower-most Tulare Formation encountered at the Chemical Waste Management Kettleman Hills waste disposal facility on the North Dome of the Kettleman Hills, Kings County, California are documented. Significant new findings include (1) a detailed biostratigraphy of the upper San Joaquin Formation; (2) the first fossil occurrence of Modiolus neglectus; (3) distinguishing Ostrea sequens from Myrakeena veatchii (Ostrea vespertina of authors) in the Central Valley of California; (4) differentiating two taxa previously attributed to Pteropurpura festivus; (5) finding a stratigraphic succession between Caesia coalingensis (lower in the section) and Catilon iniquus (higher in the section); and (6) recognizing Pliocene-age fossils from around Santa Barbara. In addition, the presence of the bivalves Anodonta and Gonidea in the San Joaquin Formation, both restricted to fresh water and common in the Tulare Formation, confirm periods of fresh water or very close fresh-water environments during deposition of the San Joaquin Formation.

  18. Data and statistical summaries of background concentrations of metals in soils and streambed sediments in part of Big Soos Creek drainage basin, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prych, E.A.; Kresch, D.L.; Ebbert, J.C.; Turney, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-nine soil samples from 14 holes at 9 sites in part of the Big Soos Creek drainage basin in southwest King County, Washington, were collected and analyzed to obtain data on the magnitude and variability of background concentrations of metals in soils. Seven streambed-sediment samples and three streamwater samples from three sites also were collected and analyzed. These data are needed by regulating government agencies to determine if soils at sites of suspected contamination have elevated concentrations of metals, and to evaluate the effectiveness of remediation at sites with known contamination. Concentrations of 43 metals were determined by a total method, and concentrations of 17 metals were determined by a total-recoverable method and two different leaching methods. Metals analyzed for by all methods included most of those on the U.S. Environmental Protection agency list of priority pollutants, plus alluminum, iron, and manganese. Ranges of concentrations of metals determined by the total method are within ranges found by others for the conterminous United States. Concentrations of mercury, manganese, phosphorus, lead, selenium, antimony, and zinc as determined by the total method, and of some of these plus other metals as determined by the other methods were larger in shallow soil (less than 12 inches deep) than in deep soil (greater than 12 inches). Concentrations of metals in streambed sediments were more typical of shallow than deep soils.

  19. Superfund record of decision amendment (EPA region 10): Harbor Island (lead), Seattle, King County, WA, January 25, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This decision document modifies the remedial action for treating petroleum contaminated soil at the Soil and Groundwater Operable Unit of the Harbor Island Site (Site) in Seattle, Washington. The ROD for this operable unit, signed on September 30, 1993, required thermal desorption treatment for hot-spot soil with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations exceeding 10,000 mg/kg. The purpose of this Record of Decision amendment is to allow TPH hot-spot soil, which can be classified as non-dangerous waste, to be disposed at the Roosevelt Regional Landfill in Klickitat County, Washington, or an equivalent landfill. After excavation, soil will be analyzed to determine if it is non-dangerous or dangerous waste. Soil which is determined to be non-dangerous according to these analyses will be disposed at an offsite landfill. Soil which is dangerous waste will be treated by thermal desorption as specified in the original remedy.

  20. Nearshore Sticky Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan; Vankataramani, Shankar; Dawson, Clint

    2015-04-01

    Wind- and current-driven flotsam, oil spills, pollutants, and nutrients, approaching the nearshore will frequently appear to park just beyond the break zone, where waves break. Moreover, the portion of these tracers that beach will do so only after a long time. In this environment we refer to the parking phenomenon as nearshore sticky waters, for which we offer a model when buoyant tracers are not subject to inertial effects. The solution to an asymptotic approximation to the model yields an explanation for the phenomenon and the conditions whereby it is expected to occur.

  1. Water-quality and sediment-chemistry data of drain water and evaporation ponds from Tulare Lake Drainage District, Kings County, California March 1985 to March 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujii, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Trace element and major ion concentrations were measured in water samples collected monthly between March 1985 and March 1986 at the MD-1 pumping station at the Tulare Lake Drainage District evaporation ponds, Kings County, California. Samples were analyzed for selected pesticides several times during the year. Salinity, as measured by specific conductance, ranged from 11,500 to 37,600 microsiemens/centimeter; total recoverable boron ranged from 4,000 to 16,000 micrg/L; and total recoverable molybdenum ranged from 630 to 2,600 microg/L. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium were 97 and 2 microg/L. Atrazine, prometone, propazine, and simazine were the only pesticides detected in water samples collected at the MD-1 pumping station. Major ions, trace elements, and selected pesticides also were analyzed in water and bottom-sediment samples from five of the southern evaporation ponds at Tulare Lake Drainage District. Water enters the ponds from the MD-1 pumping station at pond 1 and flows through the system terminating at pond 10. The water samples increased in specific conductance (21,700 to 90,200 microsiemens/centimeter) and concentrations of total arsenic (110 to 420 microg/L), total recoverable boron (12,000 to 80,000 microg/L) and total recoverable molybdenum (1,200 to 5,500 microg/L) going from pond 1 to pond 10, respectively. Pesticides were not detected in water from any of the ponds sampled. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium in the bottom sediments were 4.0 and 0.9 microg/g, respectively. The only pesticides detected in bottom sediment samples from the evaporation ponds were DDD and DDE, with maximum concentration of 0.8 microg/kilogram. (Author 's abstract)

  2. The Seattle-King County healthy homes project: implementation of a comprehensive approach to improving indoor environmental quality for low-income children with asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, James K; Takaro, Tim K; Allen, Carol; Song, Lin; Weaver, Marcia; Chai, Sanders; Dickey, Phillip

    2002-01-01

    Pediatric asthma is a growing public health issue, disproportionately affecting low-income people and people of color. Exposure to indoor asthma triggers plays an important role in the development and exacerbation of asthma. We describe the implementation of the Seattle-King County Healthy Homes Project, a randomized, controlled trial of an outreach/education intervention to improve asthma-related health status by reducing exposure to allergens and irritants in the home. We randomly assigned 274 low-income children with asthma ages 4-12 to either a high- or a low-intensity group. In the high-intensity group, community health workers called Community Home Environmental Specialists (CHES) conducted initial home environmental assessments, provided individualized action plans, and made additional visits over a 12-month period to provide education and social support, encouragement of participant actions, provision of materials to reduce exposures (including bedding encasements), assistance with roach and rodent eradication, and advocacy for improved housing conditions. Members of the low-intensity group received the initial assessment, home action plan, limited education during the assessment visit, and bedding encasements. We describe the recruitment and training of CHES and challenges they faced and explain the assessment and exposure reduction protocols addressing dust mites, mold, tobacco smoke, pets, cockroaches, rodents, dust, moisture, and toxic or hazardous chemicals. We also discuss the gap between the practices recommended in the literature and what is feasible in the home. We accomplished home interventions and participants found the project very useful. The project was limited in resolving structural housing quality issues that contributed to exposure to indoor triggers. PMID:11929743

  3. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  4. Nearshore waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, B.H.; Capuzzo, J.M.; Burt, W.V.; Duedall, I.W.; Park, P.K.; Kester, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the marine disposal of wastes. Topics considered include the impact of waste disposal in nearshore environments, bioavailability and the effects of heavy metals in marine deposits, bioaccumulation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons dams, hydrocarbons in Southern California municipal wastes and their input to coastal waters, geochemical processes, and physical processes.

  5. Lake Michigan: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey in the nearshore of Lake Michigan at a 20 meter contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The nearly 1200 km survey was conducted Sep 8-15, 2010. We also conducted six cross-contour tows. Along the survey tracks we sampled fixed stat...

  6. A New Method for Estimating the Number of Undiagnosed HIV Infected Based on HIV Testing History, with an Application to Men Who Have Sex with Men in Seattle/King County, WA.

    PubMed

    Fellows, Ian E; Morris, Martina; Birnbaum, Jeanette K; Dombrowski, Julia C; Buskin, Susan; Bennett, Amy; Golden, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    We develop a new approach for estimating the undiagnosed fraction of HIV cases, the first step in the HIV Care Cascade. The goal is to address a critical blindspot in HIV prevention and treatment planning, with an approach that simplifies data requirements and can be implemented with open-source software. The primary data required is HIV testing history information on newly diagnosed cases. Two methods are presented and compared. The first is a general methodology based on simplified back-calculation that can be used to assess changes in the undiagnosed fraction over time. The second makes an assumption of constant incidence, allowing the estimate to be expressed as a simple closed formula calculation. We demonstrate the methods with an application to HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men (MSM) from Seattle/King County. The estimates suggest that 6% of HIV-infected MSM in King County are undiagnosed, about one-third of the comparable national estimate. A sensitivity analysis on the key distributional assumption gives an upper bound of 11%. The undiagnosed fraction varies by race/ethnicity, with estimates of 4.9% among white, 8.6% of African American, and 9.3% of Hispanic HIV-infected MSM being undiagnosed. PMID:26196132

  7. A New Method for Estimating the Number of Undiagnosed HIV Infected Based on HIV Testing History, with an Application to Men Who Have Sex with Men in Seattle/King County, WA

    PubMed Central

    Fellows, Ian E.; Morris, Martina; Birnbaum, Jeanette K.; Dombrowski, Julia C.; Buskin, Susan; Bennett, Amy; Golden, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a new approach for estimating the undiagnosed fraction of HIV cases, the first step in the HIV Care Cascade. The goal is to address a critical blindspot in HIV prevention and treatment planning, with an approach that simplifies data requirements and can be implemented with open-source software. The primary data required is HIV testing history information on newly diagnosed cases. Two methods are presented and compared. The first is a general methodology based on simplified back-calculation that can be used to assess changes in the undiagnosed fraction over time. The second makes an assumption of constant incidence, allowing the estimate to be expressed as a simple closed formula calculation. We demonstrate the methods with an application to HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men (MSM) from Seattle/King County. The estimates suggest that 6% of HIV-infected MSM in King County are undiagnosed, about one-third of the comparable national estimate. A sensitivity analysis on the key distributional assumption gives an upper bound of 11%. The undiagnosed fraction varies by race/ethnicity, with estimates of 4.9% among white, 8.6% of African American, and 9.3% of Hispanic HIV-infected MSM being undiagnosed. PMID:26196132

  8. Map showing mineral-resource potential of the King Range and Chemise Mountain Instant Study Areas, Humboldt and Mendocino counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Sorg, D.H.; Ohlin, H.N.; Beutner, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    Minor manganese resources occur adjacent to the southeast corner of the King Range Instant Study Area near Queen Peak. The manganese forms small stratabound deposits associated with radiolarian chert and pillow basalt. The known deposits are too small and the manganese too low in concentration for further economic exploitation. Similar manganese mineralization may be within the belt of melange in the southeast corner of the King Range area and within the Chemise Mountain Instant Study Area, but economic deposits are unlikely. Although there has been historical base- and precious-metal exploration activity north of the King Range in the Mattole River drainage, our geologic and geochemical field data indicate almost no gold potential and low potentials for lead, zinc, copper, and silver. During this investigation, one high-grade vein and several minor veins containing lead, zinc, copper, and silver were discovered at Point Delgada immediately south of the King Range Instant Study Area. The vein mineralization is Miocene and cuts Cretaceous basalt flows, dikes, flow breccia, and younger overlying sedimentary rocks of the King Range. The vein mineralization at Point Delgada could be remobilized from more extensive unexposed stratabound base-metal mineralization at depth. Traces of lead and zinc detected within the King Range Instant Study Area may have similar stratabound or vein origins, but no resource potential is indicated. Minor copper mineralization with associated lead, zinc, and manganese anomalies within the Chemise Mountain Instant Study Area is of low economic potential because of the shearing, isolation, and lenticularity of the basaltic and cherty rocks within the melange mineralization.

  9. Approval of the Lemoore Center of the West Hills Community College District. A Report to the Governor and Legislature in Response to a Request from the Board of Governors to Recognize the Center as the Official Community College Center for the Lemoore/Hanford Area of Kings County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    The Lemoore Center of the West Hills Community College District serves the Lemoore/Hanford area of Kings and Fresno Counties--an area lying within both the West Hills and the College of the Sequoias Community College Districts. Jurisdictional problems between the districts prompted the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges to

  10. Average daily withdrawals of water for public supply from Kings, Queens, and Nassau Counties in Long Island, New York, from 1904 through 1953

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lusczynski, N.J.; Spiegel, S.J.

    1954-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Water Power and Control Commission, the Nassau County Department of Public Works, the Suffolk County Board of Supervisors, and the Suffolk County Water Authority has been conducting continuing investigations since 1932 on the ground-water resources in Long Island, N. Y. One of the several phases of these studies is the collection and tabulation of data on the withdrawals by pumpage for public supply.

  11. King Eider Tagging

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Graduate students hold a female king eider captured in June 2008 in northern Alaska. Researchers band the birds with a numbered metal band that allows individual identification. Female king eiders return to the same nesting area every year....

  12. 3. Photocopy of drawing (from Moses King, Philadelphia and Notable ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of drawing (from Moses King, Philadelphia and Notable Philadelphians, 1902) MAIN BUILDING WITH ADDITION - New York Mutual Life Insurance Company Building, 1001-1005 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT ROOM (WHERE MARTIN LUTHER KING MADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT ROOM (WHERE MARTIN LUTHER KING MADE PLANS FOR HIS MOVEMENT) - Penn School Historic District, Arnett House, SC Route 37, 1 mile South of Frogmore, St. Helena Island, Frogmore, Beaufort County, SC

  14. California coast nearshore processes study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M. (principal investigator); Steller, D. D.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Remote sensor aircraft flights took place simultaneously with ERTS-1 overpasses at the San Francisco, Monterey Bay, and Santa Barbara test cells. The cameras and scanners used were configured for detecting suspended sediment and for maximum water penetration. The Ektachrome/Wratten 12 photographs which were intentionally overexposed 1-1/2 stops were found to show the most extensive sediment transport detail. Minus blue/K 2 photographs illustrate nearshore underwater bottom detail including the head of the Mugu submarine canyon. The EMSIDE 9 channel scanner was employed to classify and differentiate suspended sediment, oil, kelp, and other materials found in the nearshore area. Processing of bulk ERTS-1 computer compatible tapes was utilized to enhance and analyze nearshore sediments. This technique was most successful in enhancing subtle nearshore features found to be faint or invisible on prints made from the supplied negatives. In addition to this continuing computer process, an effort was initiated to interface density values from the bulk tapes into contouring and mapping software.

  15. The King and I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Mary Grace

    2009-01-01

    This year marks the 40th anniversary of the first Coretta Scott King Book Award, which encourages "the artistic expression of the black experience via literature and the graphic arts." The award, which began honoring illustrators in 1974, added the John Steptoe Award for New Talent in 1995. No doubt, past King award winners like Sharon Flake,

  16. The King and I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Mary Grace

    2009-01-01

    This year marks the 40th anniversary of the first Coretta Scott King Book Award, which encourages "the artistic expression of the black experience via literature and the graphic arts." The award, which began honoring illustrators in 1974, added the John Steptoe Award for New Talent in 1995. No doubt, past King award winners like Sharon Flake,…

  17. The King's anaesthetic.

    PubMed

    Conacher, I D

    2015-08-01

    King George VI underwent an operation for pneumonectomy in September 1951. Part of the operation anaesthetic record has survived. With conjecture, on a typical scenario of a 55-year-old male undergoing pulmonary resection for carcinoma in the early 1950s and other facts in the public domain, the King's anaesthetic has been reconstructed to give an approximation of the events that in the last few months of his life caused his speech to change from that achieved by his personal voice coach and recently portrayed on celluloid in the film 'The King's Speech'. The popularity and success of the film 'The King's Speech' brought to mind that King George VI died of bronchogenic carcinoma, a result, not recognised at the time, of the cigarette smoking habit that is a prominent feature of the story in celluloid. PMID:24585602

  18. Public health assessment for Wyckoff Company/Eagle Harbor, Eagle Harbor Operable Units, Bainbridge Island, King County, Washington, Region 10. Cerclis No. WAD009248295. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    The Wyckoff/Eagle Harbor site is a National Priorities List (NPL) site located on the east side of Bainbridge Island, Kitsap County, Washington. The harbor has become contaminated with heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the many years of ship repair and painting as well as from the application of creosote, pentachlorophenol, and other wood preservatives to pilings. The Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) states that the major human health concern is consumption of clam meat contaminated with PAHs. The public health assessment has determined that exposure to contaminants found in Eagle Harbor sediments, shellfish, fish, and crab is a health hazard for those people who ignore warnings.

  19. California coast nearshore processes study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (principal investigators)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This report contains the techniques used for enhancing and analyzing nearshore processes from ERTS-1 and aircraft data. Four California nearshore sites are used as test cells including the San Francisco area, Monterey Bay, Santa Barbara Channel, and Los Angeles area. Techniques used for analyzing the test cells included direct photographic processing, computer compatible tape gain change enhancement, discrete point density analysis and plotting, and densitometer enhancement. Using these methods, it is possible to measure the seaward extent of the suspended sediment transport and to differentiate sediment levels within the individual sediment lobes. The movement of riverine discharged suspensates and coastal sediments by currents was an intricate part of the sediment transport analysis. The larger estuaries in the test cell areas were also studied for flushing characteristics.

  20. Thirty Years of Nearshore Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, T. P.

    2006-12-01

    An assessment of Ed Thornton's contributions to nearshore wave, current and morphology research on the eve of his retirement reveals his ability to identify important unresolved processes, and to participate in multidisciplinary research programs that address those issues. While doing this, he has consistently helped foster the new generations of field scientists both by supervising strong masters and PhD students from around the world, and through working with successful postdoctoral students, many of whom will present talks in this session. This presentation will summarize the major field programs that he has very actively participated in starting from my first field work with him as a colleague/helper in the NSTS Blacks Beach and Santa Barbara experiments. In reviewing these experiments it is interesting to see the evolution of our understanding of the surf zone from simplified 2D wave breaking processes to the 3D wave/current/sediment transport problems seen in morphologically controlled rip currents, both through our ability to measure these processes, but also in the sophistication of numerical models of the nearshore. This review also shows how the consistent and well directed basic research funding from the Coastal Geosciences program at ONR has greatly benefited the Navy and the community at large. I know the nearshore community looks forward to continued associations with him during his very active retirement.

  1. Dr. King's Dream. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This lesson plan teaches students about the life and work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Students listen to a brief biography, view photographs of the March on Washington, hear a portion of King's "I Have a Dream" speech, and discuss what King's words mean to them. Finally, they will create picture books about their own dreams of freedom for Americans…

  2. AirMSPI King's County Hanford, CA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-04-29

    ... grounds for algae that make the surface green.  The water surface reflects highly polarized light at this particular viewing angle ... to provide insights into the composition of clouds and air pollution particles, as well as information about land and water surfaces.  ...

  3. Perspective view of Post and King Saloon, 129 North E ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of Post and King Saloon, 129 North E Street (corner of E and North 2nd Streets), view looking southwest - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  4. Review of Nearshore Morphologic Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plant, N. G.; Dalyander, S.; Long, J.

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of the world's erodible coastlines will determine the balance between the benefits and costs associated with human and ecological utilization of shores, beaches, dunes, barrier islands, wetlands, and estuaries. So, we would like to predict coastal evolution to guide management and planning of human and ecological response to coastal changes. After decades of research investment in data collection, theoretical and statistical analysis, and model development we have a number of empirical, statistical, and deterministic models that can predict the evolution of the shoreline, beaches, dunes, and wetlands over time scales of hours to decades, and even predict the evolution of geologic strata over the course of millennia. Comparisons of predictions to data have demonstrated that these models can have meaningful predictive skill. But these comparisons also highlight the deficiencies in fundamental understanding, formulations, or data that are responsible for prediction errors and uncertainty. Here, we review a subset of predictive models of the nearshore to illustrate tradeoffs in complexity, predictive skill, and sensitivity to input data and parameterization errors. We identify where future improvement in prediction skill will result from improved theoretical understanding, and data collection, and model-data assimilation.

  5. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Hay, A. E.; Holland, K. T.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Lippmann, T. C.; Miller, J. K.; Stockdon, H. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Boehm, A. B.; Clark, D.; Cowen, E.; Dalyander, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hapke, C. J.; MacMahan, J.; McNamara, D.; Mulligan, R. P.; Palmsten, M. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Sherwood, C. R.; Hsu, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over 70 members of the nearshore coastal processes research community convened in April 2014 to discuss a vision for the future of nearshore science while celebrating the memories and contributions of our recently departed colleague, Abby Sallenger. The participants reviewed community accomplishments over the past four decades. Federal agencies, including FEMA, NOAA, NPS, USGS, USACE, and NRL discussed the most pressing societal needs within the coastal zone. The group engaged in a retrospective of the last four decades of progress, assessed the current status and limitations of nearshore processes research, and developed a vision for the future that focuses on societally relevant problems. The top research topics identified included: Long-term Coastal Impacts: Meaningfully improve our understanding and prediction of the long-term coastal effects of sea level rise and changes in storminess patterns and associated efforts to protect coastal infrastructure. Extreme Events: Coastal flooding, overland flow, and concurrent morphological evolution during extreme events including the subsequent process of coastal recovery. Human and Ecosystem Health: Linkages between physical coastal processes (transport and mixing) and land-based pollution (pathogens, nutrients, toxic contaminants). Critical for addressing these research questions is enabling infrastructure, such as new observational tools and data sets, models, and nearshore-community communication and collaboration. Idea and concepts developed during the meeting (to be published in Shore and Beach) will be presented to foster collaboration and advocacy amongst the wider nearshore community. Meeting materials are available at: https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/nearshorefuture/.

  6. King Tide floods in Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.-C.; Ho, C.-R.; Cheng, Y.-H.

    2013-05-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of sea level rise present regional floods in some certain areas. The low-lying island countries are obviously the spots affected severely. Tuvalu, an atoll island country located in the south-west Pacific Ocean, is suffering the devastating effects of losing life, property, and intending migration caused by floods. They blame the regional flooding to King Tide, a term used but not clearly identified by Pacific islanders. In this study, we clarify what King Tide is first. By the tide gauge and topography data, we estimated the reasonable value of 3.2 m as the threshold of King Tide. This definition also fits to the statement by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of King Tide occurring once or twice a year. In addition, We cross validate the 19 yr data of tide gauge and satellite altimeter (1993-2012), the correlation coefficient indicates King Tide phenomenon is considerable connected to warm water mass. The 28 King Tide events revealed the fact that flooding can be referenced against spring tide levels, so can it be turned up by warm water mass. The warm water mass pushes up sea level; once spring tide, storm surge, or other climate variability overlaps it, the rising sea level might overflow and so has been called "King Tide" for the floods in Tuvalu. This study provides more understanding of the signals of King Tide and an island country case study of regional sea level rise.

  7. Monitoring landscape influence on nearshore condition

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major source of stress to the Great Lakes comes from tributary and landscape run-off. The large number of watersheds and the disparate landuse within them create variability in the tributary input along the extent of the nearshore. Identifying the local or regional response t...

  8. Lake Michigan Green Bay: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey in the nearshore of Lake Michigan’s Green Bay at a 15 meter contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The 365 km survey was conducted Aug 18-21, 2010. We also conducted four cross-contour tows. Along the survey tracks we sampled fixe...

  9. Lake Michigan Green Bay: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey in the nearshore of Lake Michigans Green Bay at a 15 meter contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The 365 km survey was conducted Aug 18-21, 2010. We also conducted four cross-contour tows. Along the survey tracks we sampled fixe...

  10. Kinging in Hungarian lesbian culture.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Andrea P

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the position of the drag king in Hungarian lesbian culture. It focuses on Bandage, Socks and Facial Hair (2006), a documentary about a drag king workshop. The film documents the historical moment when the Hungarian workshop participants encounter the drag king as a lesbian tool for parodying and repoliticizing mainstream masculinity. I examine the ways in which the participants interpret their performances of masculinity and the film negotiates heteronormativity. I argue that the political merits of the film can be spelled out by reading the participants' (trans)gender politics from the perspective of the cultural specificities of post-socialist Hungary. PMID:21774598

  11. 11. VIEW FROM JUST AFT OF THE KING POST IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW FROM JUST AFT OF THE KING POST IN THE FOC'S'LE OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART. FIRE EXTINGUISHER IS MOUNTED ON STUB OF FOREMAST. OBJECT AT LOWER LEFT IS A FOLDING MESS TABLE. LADDER LEADS TO DECK. CABINET AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED SINK FOR CLEAN-UP AND COOKING. A SMALL CHINA SINK AT RIGHT CENTER SERVED FOR PERSONAL CLEAN-UP AND SHAVING. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  12. Conversation with M King Hubbert

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The video presents Dr M King Hubbert, scholar and federal authority on fuel and energy, explaining the limits of the fossil fuel supply and the impact of coming energy problems on health care institutions.

  13. Lion King Surveys Homeland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows one octant of a larger panoramic image which has not yet been fully processed. The full panorama, dubbed 'Lion King' was obtained on sols 58 and 60 of the mission as the rover was perched at the lip of Eagle Crater, majestically looking down into its former home. It is the largest panorama yet obtained by either rover. The octant, which faces directly into the crater, shows features as small as a few millimeters across in the field near the rover arm, to features a few meters across or larger on the horizon.

    The full panoramic image was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. This enhanced color composite was assembled from the infrared (750 nanometer), green (530 nanometer), and violet (430 nanometer) filters. Additional lower elevation tiers were added relative to other panoramas to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic.

  14. Nearshore phytoplankton of Hammond Bay, Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Charles L.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1983-01-01

    To predict the effects of increased nutrient loading on nearshore phytoplankton populations in northern Lake Huron, we collected phytoplankton from a small, nearshore water intake at Hammond Bay four times per week from August 1973 to July 1975. Phytoplankton density, taxonomic composition, and biomass in the nearshore waters followed predictable, seasonal fluctuations during each of two 12-month periods. The density of total phytoplankton was high (450600 cells/mL) in June and low (60 to 210 cells/mL) from January to April each year. The mean annual composition of the phytoplankton assemblage by number for the study period was 33% cryptomonads, 24% diatoms, 16% chrysophytes, 16% blue-green algae, and 10% green algae. Phytoplankton biomass was low through each year (range, 0.09 to 0.66 g/m3), resembling values previously reported from Lake Superior. Pennate diatoms contributed 60 to 80% of the total biomass from December to April and in July. Phytoflagellates consisting of chrysophytes and cryptomonads accounted for 35% of the biomass throughout the 2-year study.

  15. Congratulations to Carey King

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Charles A. S.

    2012-03-01

    I first came across Carey King when, out of the blue, he invited me to a special session of the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (the largest and most prestigious US scientific meeting) where he was developing a special session on energy return on investment (EROI). At that meeting and since, I have found Carey to be a refreshing new colleague, extremely intelligent, very knowledgeable about many diverse aspects of energy and other things, able to take criticism and to dish it out, and very ambitious, which is mostly a good thing. He is becoming a leader in thinking about EROI and its implications, and I am delighted to see him honored by Environmental Research Letters. This is important because in the US, there is little insight about energy or, especially, its potential physical limitations except when gas prices increase. There is also little awareness of the very strong historical connection in both the US and the world between increased affluence and increased use of energy, especially petroleum. It is not understood by all that many of the economic problems we have now (such as the budgetary problems faced by most of our State governments, pension plans and universities) have substantial origin in the fact that oil and other energy production no longer increase reliably year after year, as they once did (Murphy and Hall 2011). Many economists have argued in the past that energy is not important because it constituted only 5 per cent or so of GDP, or because they believe that market forces and innovations will substitute for any shortage (e.g. Barnett and Morse 1963, Passell et al 1972, Solow 1974, Denison 1989). One problem with that view is that if you remove that five per cent the economy comes to a dead stop, as Cuba found out in 1989 when Russia removed its oil subsidy. Additionally if that five per cent goes up to 10 or 15 per cent, as it did in the early 1980s, and again in 2008, recession steps in (Murphy and Hall 2011). In fact, the US economy and our energy use increased almost lockstep from 1900 until 1984 (Cleveland et al 1984). The economy has grown more rapidly than energy use since 1984. Most economists think that this is due to our cleverness at increasing efficiency, but Robert Kaufmann (2004) and others find that instead most of the increase has been due to, essentially, the outsourcing of our heavy industry (think steel imported from Korea or Brazil, petroleum refined in Trinidad etc). An additional issue is that there is considerable evidence (e.g. Shadow Government Statistics) that the official US government inflation corrections have been deliberately underestimated since about 1985. If this is true then GDP growth has been exaggerated and there has been little or no increase in efficiency. Thus our gain in actual national energy efficiency is probably much less than most economists believe, and may be close to zero. Obviously some few of us think a great deal about energy, and for those who are willing to undertake some personal research (for example on the ASPO (aspo-usa.com) or The Oil Drum (www.theoildrum.com) websites), there is much to be concerned about. First on the list of concerns is 'peak oil'; the concept that there comes a time over the life cycle of the extraction of a non-renewable resource when there will be maximum production. This concept, derived by geologist M K Hubbert in the 1950s, assumes that this peak will occur when roughly 50 per cent of the resource has been exploited. Hubbert famously predicted in 1955 that this would occur for the United States in 1970. Initially he was derided by most in the oil industry, but in fact peak oil for the US did occur in 1970, just as he had predicted. Oil production has declined essentially every year since then. 'Peak oil' has now occurred for something like three quarters of all oil producing nations, although not yet for most of the largest producers. Second on my list of energy concerns is declining EROI. EROI is a term I had developed in the early 1980s based on the net energy concepts of Howard Odum (Odum 1973, Hall 1972). It is simply the ratio of the energy returned from an energy extraction process divided by the energy to get that energy. The concept had a certain amount of traction in the 1980s (Hall and Cleveland 1981, Cleveland et al 1984) but as gasoline prices fell and memories of the 'energy crises' of the 1970s faded, interest in energy matters also declined. A few of us 'energy nuts' kept plugging away at trying to get better numbers (Hall and Klitgaard 2011). In contrast to most people and certainly most economists, Carey King is someone who has thought about energy, peak oil and EROI a lot, and in very sophisticated ways. Early in his career Carey deduced that EROI appeared to be having a new day because of, for example, questions about the EROI of corn-based ethanol for transportation fuels and because of the declining productivity and profitability of many Texas and other oil fields. For many, including Carey and myself, it made no sense to trade one Joule of fossil energy to run tractors, make fertilizers, distill mash and so on to generate about one Joule of corn-based ethanol, which the US is doing on a vast, federally-subsidized scale. Carey has had some quite original ideas about coming up with a shortcut to deriving a proxy measurement for EROI, which is quite difficult to calculate, and about the importance of EROI for financial issues. For example Carey has found that the inflation-adjusted prices of oil and coal are basically predicable over the last century from the EROI at that time (King 2010). He has also worked with others at attempting to get at a more comprehensive EROI that would include the energy cost of supporting all of the money spent developing the resource, including the energy associated with giving meaning to laborers' pay checks and the energy associated with financial services. We do not yet understand the importance of these more comprehensive EROIs but we do understand that our usual methods of including only energy used directly (e.g. to run a pump) or indirectly (e.g. to manufacture the steel forms used) greatly underestimates the total amount of energy needed to produce energy. In conclusion, Carey King appears to be one of the real rising energy stars as energy becomes again much more important. He is very bright, original and is a very hard worker. I look forward to much exciting, innovative and important work from his endeavors. References Barnett H and Morse C 1963 Scarcity and Growth: The Economics of Natural Resource Availability (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press) Cleveland C J, Costanza R, Hall C A S and Kaufmann R 1984 Energy and the United States economy: a biophysical perspective Science 225 890-7 Denison E F 1989 Estimates of Productivity Change by Industry, an Evaluation and an Alternative (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution) Hall C A S 1972 Migration and metabolism in a temperate stream ecosystem Ecology 53 585-604 Hall C A S and Cleveland C J 1981 Petroleum drilling and production in the United States: yield per effort and net energy analysis Science 211 576-9 Hall C A S and Klitgaard K 2011 Energy and the Wealth of Nations: Understanding the Biophysical Economy (New York: Springer) Kaufmann R 2004 The mechanisms for autonomous energy efficiency increases: a cointegration analysis of the US Energy/GDP Ratio The Energy Journal 25 63-86 King C W 2010 Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures Environ. Res. Lett. 5 044006 Murphy D J and Hall C A S 2011 Energy return on investment, peak oil, and the end of economic growth in 'Ecological Economics Reviews' ed Robert Costanza, Karin Limburg and Ida Kubiszewski Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1219 52-72 Solow R M 1974 The economics of resources or the resources of economics American Economic Review 66 1-14 Odum H T 1973 Environment, Power and Society (New York: Wiley Interscience) Passell P, Roberts M and Ross L 1972 Review of 'Limits to Growth' New York Times Book Review 2 April 1972

  16. Detailed Characterization of Nearshore Processes During NCEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, K.; Kaihatu, J. M.; Plant, N.

    2004-12-01

    Recent technology advances have allowed the coupling of remote sensing methods with advanced wave and circulation models to yield detailed characterizations of nearshore processes. This methodology was demonstrated as part of the Nearshore Canyon EXperiment (NCEX) in La Jolla, CA during Fall 2003. An array of high-resolution, color digital cameras was installed to monitor an alongshore distance of nearly 2 km out to depths of 25 m. This digital imagery was analyzed over the three-month period through an automated process to produce hourly estimates of wave period, wave direction, breaker height, shoreline position, sandbar location, and bathymetry at numerous locations during daylight hours. Interesting wave propagation patterns in the vicinity of the canyons were observed. In addition, directional wave spectra and swash / surf flow velocities were estimated using more computationally intensive methods. These measurements were used to provide forcing and boundary conditions for the Delft3D wave and circulation model, giving additional estimates of nearshore processes such as dissipation and rip currents. An optimal approach for coupling these remotely sensed observations to the numerical model was selected to yield accurate, but also timely characterizations. This involved assimilation of directional spectral estimates near the offshore boundary to mimic forcing conditions achieved under traditional approaches involving nested domains. Measurements of breaker heights and flow speeds were also used to adaptively tune model parameters to provide enhanced accuracy. Comparisons of model predictions and video observations show significant correlation. As compared to nesting within larger-scale and coarser resolution models, the advantages of providing boundary conditions data using remote sensing is much improved resolution and fidelity. For example, rip current development was both modeled and observed. These results indicate that this approach to data-model coupling is tenable and may be useful in near-real-time characterizations required by many applied scenarios.

  17. Lake Michigan: Nearshore variability and a nearshore-offshore distinction in water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey of the Lake Michigan nearshore using towed electronic instrumentation and fixed station sampling (1049 km at the approximate 20-m depth contour and grab samples at 15 sites). The principal variability in the alongshore reach was generally re...

  18. Books about Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woll, Christina B.

    1990-01-01

    Briefly reviews three recent biographies of Martin Luther King, Jr. that also deal with the civil rights movement. Summarizes contents and identifies reading ability levels appropriate for elementary and junior high students. Recommends six additional King biographies for children. Also endorses two filmstrips on King and the movement. Gives full

  19. Books about Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woll, Christina B.

    1990-01-01

    Briefly reviews three recent biographies of Martin Luther King, Jr. that also deal with the civil rights movement. Summarizes contents and identifies reading ability levels appropriate for elementary and junior high students. Recommends six additional King biographies for children. Also endorses two filmstrips on King and the movement. Gives full…

  20. Martin Luther King, Jr. Teacher's Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford.

    This Connecticut teachers' manual on Martin Luther King, Jr. includes: (1) teacher background information; (2) five excerpts from King's speeches; (3) four themes for lesson plans; and (4) sample lesson plans. The teacher's background information provides biographical sketches of King and his precursors. The five speeches reproduced here are "I've…

  1. Views of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alan H.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses views of Martin Luther King, Jr., including concepts of human rights, related counseling approaches, and ethics. Claims King's views provide helpful insights for counselors and clients. Concludes King invited individuals to view challenging life situations as moral opportunities. (Author/ABL)

  2. Atmospheric-hydrodynamic coupling in the nearshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Snchez, M.; Bramato, S.; Quevedo, E.; Mans, C.; Losada, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Natural beach shorelines commonly present morphological rhythmic or non-rhythmic features of varying geometrical characteristics. Traditionally, their formation is believed to be due to wave-induced processes, a line thoroughly investigated during the last few decades. However, these natural beach formations are frequently bounded by coastal cliffs (or capes) and are affected by intense winds, a fact not previously considered. This paper presents the results of a field survey, demonstrating the existence of atmospheric-hydrodynamic coupling in the nearshore region outside of the breaking zone at Carchuna beach (Motril, Spain), where the atmospheric conditions are influenced by a lateral geographic obstacle (Cape Sacratif).

  3. Community structure in nearshore Permian environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaesler, R.L.; Denver, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    The lower part of the Americus Limestone in the Midcontinent was deposited near shore. Environments ranged from tidal flats to open-marine settings and included lagoons and carbonate shoals. Tabular cryptalgal structures that show subtle morphological variations with environment are the dominant sedimentary feature of the rocks. The fossilized part of benthic marine communities associated with the cyanobacteria comprised attached foraminifera, Spirorbis worms, several species of immature gastropods too small to identify, rare clams of the genus Orthomyalina, and abundant ostracodes. A low-diversity, characteristically near-shore ostracode fauna was extracted from the cryptalgal limestone by crushing the rock and then following standard micropaleontological procedures. The most abundant species are Paraparchites humerosus, Sansabella bolliabormis, Bairdia beedei, and Cavellina nebrascensis, all of which are typical throughout the Midcontinent of rocks deposited in near-shore environments. The distribution and diversity of the ostracode fauna support paleoenvironmental interpretations based on carbonate petrology and the morphology and microstratigraphy of the cryptalgal structures. In general, rocks deposited on the tidal flat have lowest species diversity, whereas the faunas from rocks of the open-marine environment are more diverse. Distributions of ostracodes and morphology of cryptalgal structures were both sufficiently controlled by environment of deposition to permit discrimination of paleoenvironments in cores from the subsurface.

  4. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Conditions and Variability in Water Quality Parameters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in recent years has increased regarding conditions in the nearshore of the Great Lakes. We conducted a high-resolution survey of the Lake Ontario nearshore along the 20 m contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The 720 km survey was conducted September 6-10, 20...

  5. An evaluation of effects of groundwater exchange on nearshore habitats and water quality of western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Neff, Brian P.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Lundstrom, Scott C.

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the high potentiometric surface of groundwater in the Silurian/Devonian carbonate aquifer in Monroe County, MI resulted in discharge of highly mineralized, SO4-rich groundwater to the Lake Erie shoreline near both Erie State Game Area (ESGA) and Pointe Mouillee State Game Area (PMSGA). Recently, regional groundwater levels near PMSGA have been drawn down as much as 45 m below lake level in apparent response to quarry dewatering. From August to November of 2003, we conducted preliminary studies of groundwater flow dynamics and chemistry, shallow lake water chemistry, and fish and invertebrate communities at both sites. Consistent with regional observations, groundwater flow direction in the nearshore at ESGA was upward, or toward Lake Erie, and shallow nearshore groundwater chemistry was influenced by regional groundwater chemistry. In contrast, at PMSGA, the groundwater flow potential was downward and lake water, influenced by quarry discharge seeping downward into nearshore sediments, produced a different lake and shallow groundwater chemistry than at ESGA. Although the invertebrate and young fish community was similar at the two sites, taxonomic groups tolerant of degraded water quality were more prevalent at PMSGA. Sensitive taxa were more prevalent at ESGA. We propose a conceptual model, based on well-described models of groundwater/seawater interaction along coastal margins, to describe the interconnection among geologic, hydrologic, chemical, and biological processes in the different nearshore habitats of Lake Erie, and we identify processes that warrant further detailed study in the Great Lakes.

  6. Geological development of the Lonesome Dove II King Sand field

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, D.H.; Watters, G. )

    1992-04-01

    In March of 1989, Marshall and Winston, Inc., drilled Petro-West Corporation's Brady Creek prospect, 5 mi southwest of Eden, Concho County, Texas, along the southern part of the eastern shelf of the Permian basin. The prospect was drilled on the basis of a subsurface, geological anomaly mapped on the lower King Sandstone. The anomaly was confirmed and enhanced by soil gas geochemistry. The McMurtrey No.1 well encountered 38 ft of sandstone, and has an estimated potential of 79 BOPD (pumping). The lower King Sandstone at Lonesome Dove II field is part of a larger northeast-southwest-trending Cisco depositional system. Data from subsequent drilling at Lonesome Dove II (including two conventional cores, samples, sidewall cores, dipmeters, and electric logs) indicates that the lower King Sandstone may have been deposited during a regressive cycles of fluvial-deltaic sedimentation. Characteristics of both fluvial point bar and distributary channel facies have been noted and the development of a distributary model of deposition led to the extension of the field beyond the limits of the original subsurface and geochemical picture. The presence of two or more separate channels or channel systems is indicated by isopach maps and by significant oil gravity, field pressure, and grain size differences. These channel systems may have been deposited on a relatively flat-lying deltaic plain as indicated by cross sections showing only slight channel downcutting.

  7. Nourishment of a Barred Nearshore: Jerba, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boczar-Karakiewicz, B.; Romanczyk, W.; Long, B.; Bona, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    A project to reconstruct 9~km of sandy beaches located in the north-eastern part of Jerba Island (Tunisia) is presented. The beaches face the Mediterranean Sea, and multiple offshore sand bars are a common feature in this area. The visible and underwater parts of the beaches have been eroded by sand losses, shoreline retreats, recurrent flooding, steepened nearshore profiles and continuosly decreased volume of offshore sand bars. Erosion and degradation of the coastal dunes have resulted from recreational developments in the area. Earlier `hard' protection measures implemented, such as seawalls, ripraps, etc., failed. Our project proposes a `soft' protection method that involves supplying the lacking sediment to 'strategic' places in the nearshore zones for the restoration of their wave-dominated dynamic equilibrium. Our recommendations for the project are based on historical data, observations, field measurements and numerical simulations, using a mathematical model of wave-seabed interactions (Boczar-Karakiewicz et al. 1987), with initial data provided by field measurements of waves, currents and morphology. The model predicts the formation of longshore bars and their site-specific dynamics in response to sequences of storm events in the local wave climate, while reproducing the observed quasi-periodicity of beach erosion and recovery. The conclusions of the project recommend the nourishment of two offshore bars and reconstruction of the beaches to a width of some 70 m (their pre-erosion state). The increased volume of the nourished bars will assure protection and stable conditions for the reconstructed beaches and prevent flooding. Boczar-Karakiewicz B., Bona J.L. and Cohen D.L., 1987. Interaction of shallow-water waves and bottom topography. In: Dynamical problems in continuum physics, mathematics and its application, J.L. Bona, C. Dafermos, J. Erickson & D. Kinderlehrer, editors, Springer-Verlag, New York, IMA Series in Mathematics and its Applications, 4, 131-176.

  8. Interpreting and analyzing King Tide in Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.-C.; Ho, C.-R.; Cheng, Y.-H.

    2014-02-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of sea-level rise has the potential to cause regional flooding in certain areas, and low-lying island countries are severely at risk. Tuvalu, an atoll country located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, has been inundated by this regional flooding for decades. Tuvaluans call this regional flooding phenomenon King Tide, a term not clearly defined, blaming it for loss of life and property in announcing their intention to migrate. In this study, we clarified and interpreted King Tide, and analyzed the factors of King Tide in Tuvalu. Using tide gauge and topographical data, we estimated that 3.2 m could be considered the threshold of King Tide, which implied half of the island of Tuvalu was flooded with seawater. This threshold is consistent with the finding of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration that King Tide events occur once or twice a year. We surveyed 28 King Tide events to analyze the factors of regional flooding. Tide gauge and satellite altimeter data from 1993 to 2012 were cross-validated and indicated that the King Tide phenomenon is significantly related to the warm-water effect. Warm water contributed to the King Tide phenomenon by an average of 5.1% and a maximum of 7.8%. The height of King Tide is affected by the combined factors of spring tide, storm surge, climate variability, and, significantly, by the warm-water effect.

  9. The Words of Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Today's Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Excerpts from speeches by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., are reprinted. Topics discussed include discrimination, the South, education, nonviolent resistance, poverty, economic opportunity, and world peace. (LH)

  10. The True Lion King of Africa: The Epic History of Sundiata, King of Old Mali.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterno, Domenica R.

    David Wisniewski's 1992 picture book version of the African epic of "Sundiata, Lion King of Mali" and the actual historical account of the 13th century Lion King, Sundiata, are both badly served by Disney's "The Lion King." Disney has been praised for using African animals as story characters; for using the African landscape as a story setting;

  11. Biogeography of Nearshore Subtidal Invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biogeography of nearshore benthic invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine was studied to compare recent data with historical biogeographic studies, define physical-chemical factors affecting species distributions, and provide information needed to calibrate benthic indices of envi...

  12. DEEPWATER AND NEARSHORE FOOD WEB CHARACTERIZATIONS IN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the difficulty associated with sampling deep aquatic systems, food web relationships among deepwater fauna are often poorly known. We are characterizing nearshore versus offshore habitats in the Great Lakes and investigating food web linkages among profundal, pelagic, and ...

  13. LIMNOLOGY OF MICHIGAN'S NEARSHORE WATERS OF LAKES SUPERIOR AND HURON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limnological assessments, including water and sediment chemistry, bacterial densities, zoo- and phyto-plankton and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure, and fish contaminants, were performed at 24 locations in Michigan's nearshore waters of Lakes Superior and Huron in 19...

  14. A spatial framework for representing nearshore ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregr, Edward J.; Lessard, Joanne; Harper, John

    2013-08-01

    The shallow, coastal regions of the world's oceans are highly productive ecosystems providing important habitat for commercial, forage, endangered, and iconic species. Given the diversity of ecosystem services produced or supported by this ecosystem, a better understanding of its structure and function is central to developing an ecosystem-based approach to management. However this region - termed the ‘white strip' by marine geologists because of the general lack of high-resolution bathymetric data - is dynamic, highly variable, and difficult to access making data collection challenging and expensive. Since substrate is a key indicator of habitat in this important ecosystem, our objective was to create a continuous substrate map from the best available bottom type data. Such data are critical to assessments of species distributions and anthropogenic risk. Using the Strait of Georgia in coastal British Columbia, Canada, as a case study, we demonstrate how such a map can be created from a diversity of sources. Our approach is simple, quantitative, and transparent making it amenable to iterative improvement as data quality and availability improve. We evaluated the ecological performance of our bottom patches using observed shellfish distributions. We found that observations of geoduck clam, an infaunal species, and red urchins, a species preferentially associated with hard bottom, were strongly and significantly associated with our soft and hard patches respectively. Our description of bottom patches also corresponded well with a more traditional, morphological classification of a portion of the study area. To provide subsequent analyses (such as habitat models) with some confidence in the defined bottom type values, we developed a corresponding confidence surface based on the agreement of, and distance between observations. Our continuous map of nearshore bottom patches thus provides a spatial framework to which other types of data, both abiotic (e.g., energy) and biotic, can be attached. As more data are associated with the bottom patches, we anticipate they will become increasingly useful for representing and developing species-habitat relationships, ultimately leading to a comprehensive representation of the nearshore ecosystem.

  15. Impacts of Cyclone Yasi on nearshore, terrigenous sediment-dominated reefs of the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, C. T.; Smithers, S. G.; Kench, P. S.; Pears, B.

    2014-10-01

    Tropical Cyclone (TC) Yasi (Category 5) was a large (~ 700 km across) cyclone that crossed Australia's Queensland coast on the 3rd of February 2011. TC Yasi was one of the region's most powerful recorded cyclones, with winds gusting to 290 km/h and wave heights exceeding 7 m. Here we describe the impacts of TC Yasi on a number of nearshore, turbid-zone coral reefs, that include several in the immediate vicinity of the cyclone's landfall path (King Reef, Lugger Shoal and Dunk Island), as well as a more distally located reef (Paluma Shoals) ~ 150 km to the south in Halifax Bay. These reefs were the focus of recent (between 2006 and 2009) pre-Yasi studies into their geomorphology, sedimentology and community structure, and here we discuss data from a recent (August 2011) post-Yasi re-assessment. This provided a unique opportunity to identify and describe the impacts of an intense tropical cyclone on nearshore reefs, which are often assumed to be vulnerable to physical disturbance and reworking due to their poorly lithified framework. Observed impacts of TC Yasi were site specific and spatially highly heterogeneous, but appear to have been strongly influenced by the contemporary evolutionary stage and ecological make-up of the individual reefs, with site setting (i.e. exposure to prevailing wave action) apparently more important than proximity to the landfall path. The most significant ecological impacts occurred at King Reef (probably a result of freshwater bleaching) and at Paluma Shoals, where widespread physical destruction of branched Acropora occurred. New coral recruits are, however, common at all sites and colony re-growth clearly evident at King Reef. Only localised geomorphic change was evident, mainly in the form of coral fracturing, rubble deposition, and sediment movement, but again these impacts were highly site specific. The dominant impact at Paluma Shoals was localised storm ridge/shingle sheet deposition, at Lugger Shoal major offshore fine sediment flushing, and at Dunk Island major onshore coarse sand deposition. There was little geomorphic change evident at King Reef. Thus whilst small-scale and taxa specific impacts from Cyclone Yasi are clearly evident, geomorphological changes appear minor and ecological impacts highly variable between sites, and there is no observed evidence for major reef structural change. The study suggests that the vulnerability of reefs to major physical disturbance events can be extremely site specific and determined by interacting factors of location relative to storm path and pre-event geomorphology and ecology.

  16. Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama (QTVR)

    This approximate true-color panorama, dubbed 'Lion King,' shows 'Eagle Crater' and the surrounding plains of Meridiani Planum. It was obtained by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sols 58 and 60 using infrared (750-nanometer), green (530-nanometer) and blue (430-nanometer) filters.

    This is the largest panorama obtained yet by either rover. It was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. Additional lower elevation tiers were added to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic.

    This panorama depicts a story of exploration including the rover's lander, a thorough examination of the outcrop, a study of the soils at the near-side of the lander, a successful exit from Eagle Crater and finally the rover's next desination, the large crater dubbed 'Endurance'.

  17. King in a maverick style.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, K

    1999-10-01

    This article features Maurice King, who is advocating a one-child world. King was born in 1927 in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and studied at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and St. Thomas Hospital, London. He first worked as a pathologist, moving to Africa in 1956. He was always willing to fight injustice, objecting to not being allowed to train black Africans. He authored ¿Medical Care in Developing Countries,¿ considered the ¿Bible¿ of the primary health care movement. By 1985, he was teaching public health medicine at Leeds University, having spent most of his time in Africa working on various projects for the WHO, and was focusing on primary health care. His other great cause then was nuclear disarmament. His lecture to the Royal Society of Medicine on health of Africa in 1988 ignited his interest in demography. He had then championed ideas, which initially provoked outrage, such as the case with ¿entrapment,¿ the hardinian taboo, and now his concept of the lockstep. He had claimed that the US State Department, together with UN, the World Bank and the Roman Catholic Church, is actively preventing population issues being discussed fully. He may appear on the surface as obsessed with imposing a one-child world and paranoid about the role of the US; but a closer analysis reveals a deep affection for Africa and a missionary zeal to surmount the problems of overpopulation. PMID:10514154

  18. 75 FR 34307 - King Kamehameha Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8534 of June 10, 2010 King Kamehameha Day, 2010 By the President of the... King Kamehameha Day, we celebrate the history and heritage of the Aloha State, which has...

  19. Nearshore Operational Model for Rip Current Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sembiring, L. E.; Van Dongeren, A. R.; Van Ormondt, M.; Winter, G.; Roelvink, J.

    2012-12-01

    A coastal operational model system can serve as a tool in order to monitor and predict coastal hazards, and to acquire up-to-date information on coastal state indicators. The objective of this research is to develop a nearshore operational model system for the Dutch coast focusing on swimmer safety. For that purpose, an operational model system has been built which can predict conditions up to 48 hours ahead. The model system consists of three different nested model domain covering The North Sea, The Dutch coastline, and one local model which is the area of interest. Three different process-based models are used to simulate physical processes within the system: SWAN to simulate wave propagation, Delft3D-Flow for hydraulics flow simulation, and XBeach for the nearshore models. The SWAN model is forced by wind fields from operational HiRLAM, as well as two dimensional wave spectral data from WaveWatch 3 Global as the ocean boundaries. The Delft3D Flow model is forced by assigning the boundaries with tidal constants for several important astronomical components as well as HiRLAM wind fields. For the local XBeach model, up-to-date bathymetry will be obtained by assimilating model computation and Argus video data observation. A hindcast is carried out on the Continental Shelf Model, covering the North Sea and nearby Atlantic Ocean, for the year 2009. Model skills are represented by several statistical measures such as rms error and bias. In general the results show that the model system exhibits a good agreement with field data. For SWAN results, integral significant wave heights are predicted well by the model for all wave buoys considered, with rms errors ranging from 0.16 m for the month of May with observed mean significant wave height of 1.08 m, up to rms error of 0.39 m for the month of November, with observed mean significant wave height of 1.91 m. However, it is found that the wave model slightly underestimates the observation for the period of June, especially waves with peak period greater than 7 seconds and propagate relatively from the North. Further investigations will focus on these findings in order to improve model skill during swimming season. The flow model results are analyzed for the dominant tidal constituents. The results show that for tidal amplitude, differences between observation and modeled are in range of 2 cm to maximum 14 cm. For the tidal phase, all stations considered along the Dutch coastline give differences less than 10 degrees between observations and predictions. A local XBeach model for the Egmond aan Zee resort is constructed in order to predict rip currents events. This model is applied during the August 2011 period, where the bathymetry produced by model-data assimilation is compared against surveyed bathymetry. In general, this method is able to produce bathymetry converging towards the observations. An offshore bar exists in the field data can be reproduced by this method. Moreover, it shows a potential ability of depicting rip channels features near the shoreline. Rip currents flow fields simulated over measured and modeled bathymetries are compared in order to assess the performance of the proposed forecast system in terms of offshore rip current strength, location and duration, which are all important information for local life guards. Keywords: operational model, SWAN, Delft3D, bathymetry, Argus, rip currents, XBeach

  20. 3D modelling of nearshore coastal morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtyar, R.; Dastgheib, A.; Roelvink, D.; Barry, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Coastal 3D nearshore processes were considered with an emphasis on the effects of oceanic forcing and beach characteristics on sediment transport in both cross- and alongshore directions, as well as on foreshore bathymetry changes. In our numerical experiments, we combined the FLOW module of the Delft3D model with the WAVE solver of Xbeach models. LES and k-? turbulence closures were used to resolve the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow and the beach morphology. The sediment transport module simulates both bedload and suspended load transport of non-cohesive sediments. A series of numerical experiments was performed for a range of control parameters. For each case, the general morphological response was determined in the shore-normal and shore-parallel directions. The simulations confirmed that the sole wave forcing is sufficient to drive a sediment circulation pattern that results in bar and berm formation. The wave characteristics have a considerable effect on the cumulative erosion/deposition, cross-shore distribution of longshore sediment transport, and the sediment transport rate across and along the beach face. For the same oceanic forcing, beach morphology exhibits different erosive characteristics depending on grain size. Fine beach sands were transported offshore, whereas coarse sands moved onshore-wards. Sediment movement increases with wave height, which was shown to be the most dominant factor controlling the beach face shape. In the surf zone, the sediment transport rate increases towards the shore until the wave collapses whereas in the swash zone it decreases. The present model is able to reproduce complicated flow and sediment transport processes and estimation of beach face dynamics.

  1. 77 FR 29617 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Tarmac King Road...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Tarmac King Road Limestone Mine Proposed in Levy County, FL AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is...

  2. 78 FR 50051 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Tarmac King Road...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Tarmac King Road Limestone Mine Proposed in Levy County, Florida AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is...

  3. 76 FR 73761 - Notice To Rescind the Notice of Intent To Develop the Environmental Impact Statement: Kings...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... BQE referred to as the Gowanus Expressway, extends from Sixth Avenue to the Brooklyn Battery Tunnel... rehabilitation or reconstruction of the Gowanus Expressway (BQE I-278) in Kings County, New York, from Sixth... operation of the Gowanus Expressway the structural deficiencies will be addressed in the intermediate...

  4. Tenth Center Director David A. King

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Mr. David A. King has been named the tenth Director of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Appointed to take Director's office June 15, 2003, King has been serving as Deputy Director of MSFC since November 2002. With 20 years experience in spacecraft and high-technology systems, Mr. King began his NASA career at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, Florida in 1983 as a main propulsion system engineer. He later served as flow director for the Space Shuttle Discovery and then as the acting deputy director of the installation Operations Directorate. He was appointed deputy director of Shuttle Processing in 1996, Launch Director in 1997, and director of Shuttle Processing in 1999.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Epidemic Among Immigrant Populations: King County, Washington, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Kwan-Gett, Tao; Hampson, Neil B.; Baer, Atar; Shusterman, Dennis; Shandro, Jamie R.; Duchin, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated an outbreak of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning after a power outage to determine its extent, identify risk factors, and develop prevention measures. Methods. We reviewed medical records and medical examiner reports of patients with CO poisoning or related symptoms during December 15 to 24, 2006. We grouped patients into households exposed concurrently to a single source of CO. Results. Among 259 patients with CO poisoning, 204 cases were laboratory confirmed, 37 were probable, 10 were suspected, and 8 were fatal. Of 86 households studied, 58% (n = 50) were immigrant households from Africa (n = 21), Asia (n = 15), Latin America (n = 10), and the Middle East (n = 4); 34% (n = 29) were US-born households. One percent of households was European (n = 1), and the origin for 7% (n = 6) was unknown. Charcoal was the most common fuel source used among immigrant households (82%), whereas liquid fuel was predominant among US-born households (34%). Conclusions. Educational campaigns to prevent CO poisoning should consider immigrants cultural practices and languages and specifically warn against burning charcoal indoors and incorrect ventilation of gasoline- or propane-powered electric generators. PMID:19608962

  6. Large diurnal temperature fluctuations in the nearshore water column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, David M.; Largier, John L.; Navarrete, Sergio; Guiñez, Ricardo; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2003-06-01

    Large daily temperature fluctuations in the nearshore water column have been observed at several sites along the coast of central and northern Chile, particularly during summertime. These fluctuations are often on the order of the seasonal fluctuation in sea-surface temperature for the area and are capable, in certain locations, of penetrating deep (10-15 m) into the water column during the course of a single day. We explain this phenomenon by a combination of solar heating of the sea surface and wind-driven transport and accumulation of these warm, surface waters near shore. Measurements of surface heat flux agree roughly with observed daytime changes in the heat content of the nearshore water column. The strength of these diurnal fluctuations is shown to vary with the strength of coastal upwelling in the area. The potential consequences of this process for nearshore larval transport are unknown, but we briefly speculate about its importance.

  7. California nearshore processes - ERTS 1. [coastal currents and sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steller, D. D.; Pirie, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    The detectability of many nearshore processes from ERTS is made possible due to the suspended sediment present in the coastal waters. From viewing and analyzing the California coastal imagery collected during the last year and a half, the overall current patterns and their changes have become evident. It is now possible to map monthly and seasonal changes that occur throughout the year. The original objectives of detecting currents, sediment transport, estuaries and river discharge have now been expanded to include the use of ERTS information in operational problems of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This incorporates the detected nearshore features into planning and organizing shore protection facilities.

  8. Multiple Sand Bar Formation in the Nearshore Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Absalonsen, L.; Dean, R.

    2011-12-01

    Sand bars are prominent features on many beaches, and can represent a major source of morphologic change in the cross-shore profile. The breaking waves are concentrated at the bar crests, resulting in reduced energy in the landward zone. Bars respond to different wave energy conditions, slowly moving shoreward with low waves and rapidly moving offshore with higher waves. However the formation and evolution of bars on multiple barred beaches is poorly understood. The presentation will describe preliminary efforts to predict the location of sand bars in the cross-shore profile, to quantify the number of sand bars under different hydrodynamic conditions and to illustrate the capability to predict profile evolution. A wave height transformation model (Dally model), a sediment transport model and conservation model are applied. The two-dimensional wave height model establishes wave height across the nearshore zone due to wave shoaling and breaking, including wave setup and bottom stress. This model utilizes two threshold values to predict the breaking position and after breaking, in the deeper water of the bar trough, the position where the waves stabilize and start to shoal again (stability criterion). Both criteria depend on the local water depth. At present, the sediment transport model consists of three components. First, the moment of momentum due to breaking waves is transferred to the bottom as a seaward shear stress concentrated somewhat landward of the bar crest. Secondly, the onshore shear stress is due to the nonlinearity of the breaking waves. Finally, the onshore transport is magnified by the proximity of turbulence to the bottom in shallow water. This model is of the "open loop" type, thus there is no guarantee of convergence to a stable profile. The capability of the model to predict bar locations on an actual profile is illustrated as follows. A profile consisting of three bars is selected from Volusia County along the northeast Florida Atlantic coastline. In the first step, the inshore and middle bars were smoothed leaving only the outer bar. The model was applied with an offshore wave height of 1.5 m which shoaled to 2.1 m where it broke on the outer bar. It was determined that the breaking on the outer bar and reformation and breaking landward of the outer bar could predict the approximate location of the middle bar. The process is repeated, now inserting the actual middle bar to verify that the model can predict the approximate correct location of the inner bar. The results obtained from this simulation and other profiles with two and three bars from Volusia County, showed similar results and are promising for the application of this model to calculate the number of inner bars. A second illustration of the model is a comparison with data of profile evolution from large wave tank experiments. Comparison of predicted profiles by the model with the measured profiles will be presented for various times during the profile evolution.

  9. Watershed Influences on Nearshore Waters Across the Entire US Great Lakes Coastal Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have combined three elements of observation to enable a comprehensive characterization of the Great Lakes nearshore that links nearshore conditions with their adjacent coastal watersheds. The three elements are: 1) a shore-parallel, high-resolution survey of the nearshore usin...

  10. ENHANCED HYDRODYNAMICAL-NUMERICAL MODEL FOR NEAR-SHORE PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An optimized version of a multilayer Hansen type Hydrodynamical-Numerical (HN) model is presented and discussed here as the basis for the following experimental extensions and enhancements developed to more appropriately handle near-shore processes: Non-linear term extension to f...

  11. Ecology of Lake Superior: Linking Landscape to Nearshore Condition

    EPA Science Inventory

    High spatial variation is well known to exist in water quality parameters of the Great Lakes nearshore, however strong patterns for extended reaches are also observed and found to be robust across a seasonal time frame. Less is known about robustness of inter-annual variation wi...

  12. Nutrients and the Great Lakes Nearshore, Circa 2002-2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearshore nutrient impressions were largely limited to observations of local spatial trends from a few site-specific studies and some temporal trends at a set of Canadian water intake locations (later summarized in Nicholls et al. 1999). Lacking a systematic information base fo...

  13. SOME EFFECTS OF PETROLEUM ON NEARSHORE ALASKAN MARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this project was to better understand the effects of chronic, low-level oil pollution on nearshore Alaskan marine organisms. The bivalve mollusc Macoma balthica accumulated hydrocarbons during 180 days of continuous exposure to Prudhoe Bay crude oil in fl...

  14. Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton community compositions within near-shore coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana were characterized by relative abundance, biovolume, and taxonomic identification to genus and species when possible. The range of total nitrogen was 0.5 to 1.3 mg L-1 and total phos...

  15. Mythopoeic Quest for the Racial Bridge: The Radiance of the King and Henderson the Rain King.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogun, F. Odun

    1985-01-01

    Compares the treatment of race in two novels set in Africa with white protagonists, "The Radiance of the King" by Camara Laye and "Henderson the Rain King" by Saul Bellow. Argues that both novels, proceeding differently, create literary myths of racial harmony to replace undesirable, fallacious racist myths. (KH)

  16. Monitoring in the nearshore: A process for making reasoned decisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Dean, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past several years, a conceptual framework for the GEM nearshore monitoring program has been developed through a series of workshops. However, details of the proposed monitoring program, e.g. what to sample, where to sample, when to sample and at how many sites, have yet to be determined. In FY 03 we were funded under Project 03687 to outline a process whereby specific alternatives to monitoring are developed and presented to the EVOS Trustee Council for consideration. As part of this process, two key elements are required before reasoned decisions can be made. These are: 1) a comprehensive historical perspective of locations and types of past studies conducted in the nearshore marine communities within Gulf of Alaska, and 2) estimates of costs for each element of a proposed monitoring program. We have developed a GIS database that details available information from past studies of selected nearshore habitats and species in the Gulf of Alaska and provide a visual means of selecting sites based (in part) on the locations for which historical data of interest are available. We also provide cost estimates for specific monitoring plan alternatives and outline several alternative plans that can be accomplished within reasonable budgetary constraints. The products that we will provide are: 1) A GIS database and maps showing the location and types of information available from the nearshore in the Gulf of Alaska; 2) A list of several specific monitoring alternatives that can be conducted within reasonable budgetary constraints; and 3) Cost estimates for proposed tasks to be conducted as part of the nearshore program. Because data compilation and management will not be completed until late in FY03 we are requesting support for close-out of this project in FY 04.

  17. California coast nearshore processes study. [nearshore currents, sediment transport, estuaries, and river discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Large scale sediment plumes from intermittent streams and rivers form detectable seasonal patterns on ERTS-1 imagery. The ocean current systems, as plotted from three California coast ERTS mosaics, were identified. Offshore patterns of sediment in areas such as the Santa Barbara Channel are traceable. These patterns extend offshore to heretofore unanticipated ranges as shown on the ERTS-1 imagery. Flying spot scanner enhancements of NASA tapes resulted in details of subtle and often invisible (to the eye) nearshore features. The suspended sediments off San Francisco and in Monterey Bay are emphasized in detail. These are areas of extremely changeable offshore sediment transport patterns. Computer generated contouring of radiance levels resulted in maps that can be used in determining surface and nearsurface suspended sediment distribution. Tentative calibrations of ERTS-1 spectral brightness against sediment load have been made using shipboard measurements. Information from the combined enhancement and interpretation techniques is applicable to operational coastal engineering programs.

  18. Dynamic ice-wallow relief of northern Alaska's nearshore.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimnitz, E.; Kempema, E.

    1982-01-01

    Contour maps with 0.5m depth interval were prepared for a small area seaward of Reindeer Island, a barrier island in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska, by repeated surveys with very accurate navigation and very close trackline spacing. The maps reveal numerous closed depressions and mounds, presumably related to grounded ice floes common in the area year round. These bedforms represent erosion and deposition caused by: a) intensified flow around stationary ice floes serving as obstacles and b) pulsating currents generated by vertical oscillations or rocking motions of grounded floes in a seaway. Because sediment transport occurs around the ice, not where it directly touches the sea floor, the depressions are much larger than the base of the acting floes. Ice-wallow bedforms, are characteristic of arctic nearshore regions with non-cohesive sediments. The bedforms studied here are highly active and must be considered in planning nearshore construction activities. -from Authors

  19. The Newest Monument: The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Studies and the Young Learner, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features the newest monument, the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. The memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. will be an engaging landscape experience to convey four fundamental and recurring themes throughout Dr. King's life--democracy, justice, hope, and love. Natural

  20. The Newest Monument: The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Studies and the Young Learner, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features the newest monument, the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. The memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. will be an engaging landscape experience to convey four fundamental and recurring themes throughout Dr. King's life--democracy, justice, hope, and love. Natural…

  1. Simulation of laboratory rip current experiments using nearshore POM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newberger, P. A.; Allen, J. S.

    2002-12-01

    A hydrostatic primitive equation model, the Princeton Ocean Model (POM), has been adapted for studies of three-dimensional wave-averaged circulation in the nearshore surf zone. The model is applied here to studies of the generation and instablilities of rip currents forced by waves normal to a beach with an alongshore bar interrupted by rip channels. The rip-current system modeled is that generated in the Directional Wave Basin located in the Ocean Engineering Laboratory at the University of Delaware. POM has been modified for application to nearshore flows by incorporating forcing from gradients in the radiation stress tensor and by including the effects of wave-induced mass flux through appropriate boundary conditions on the vertical velocity at the surface. The wave-driver REF/DIF (Kirby and Dalrymple, 1983) has been embedded as a subroutine of nearshore POM so that modification of the forcing by wave-current interaction can be included. The model results are compared with laboratory measurements of currents and surface elevation (Haller and Dalrymple, 1999; Haas and Svendsen, 2002). Instantaneous and time-mean momentum balances of both the three-dimensional and depth-averaged flows are calculated. Emphasis is placed on the variations of the currents with depth. The sensitivity of the rip current system to changes in the strength of the forcing and to details of the topography is examined.

  2. Practical use of video imagery in nearshore oceanographic field studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, K.T.; Holman, R.A.; Lippmann, T.C.; Stanley, J.; Plant, N.

    1997-01-01

    An approach was developed for using video imagery to quantify, in terms of both spatial and temporal dimensions, a number of naturally occurring (nearshore) physical processes. The complete method is presented, including the derivation of the geometrical relationships relating image and ground coordinates, principles to be considered when working with video imagery and the two-step strategy for calibration of the camera model. The techniques are founded on the principles of photogrammetry, account for difficulties inherent in the use of video signals, and have been adapted to allow for flexibility of use in field studies. Examples from field experiments indicate that this approach is both accurate and applicable under the conditions typically experienced when sampling in coastal regions. Several applications of the camera model are discussed, including the measurement of nearshore fluid processes, sand bar length scales, foreshore topography, and drifter motions. Although we have applied this method to the measurement of nearshore processes and morphologic features, these same techniques are transferable to studies in other geophysical settings.

  3. The Legend of King Arthur. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on characters in the Arthurian legend, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that many writers have told the tale of King Arthur and the people around him, including Guinevere, Lancelot, Merlin, and Mordred. The main activity of the lesson involves students writing a dramatic monologue supposedly composed

  4. The King under the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirza, Ather

    2015-01-01

    In February 2013, the University of Leicester staged what The Guardian described as "The most extraordinary press conference ever held at any UK university." This was part of a media and communications campaign that brought worldwide attention to the discovery of King Richard III by the University's archaeologists. How do you manage a…

  5. Fulfillment Hermeneutics in the Books of Kings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Philip K.

    2012-01-01

    The concern for the realization of a prophetic announcement in the books of Kings is evident from the frequent fulfillment claims. Fulfillment details are often included in the formulaic notice to highlight its miraculous nature. However, as one correlates the prediction with the fulfillment details, there are noticeable discrepancies. This study…

  6. [Biologically Active Peptides of King Crab Hepatopancreas].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, V V; Berezin, B B; Il'ina, A P; Yamskova, V P; Yamskov, I A

    2015-01-01

    Substances of a peptide nature isolated from the hepatopancreas of the king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus exhibited physicochemical properties and membranotropic and specific activities similar to those of membranotropic homeostatic tissue-specific bioregulators previously found in different mammalian and plant tissues. Their biological effect on vertebrate tissues was demonstrated on a model of roller organotypic cultivation of Pleurodeles waltl newt liver tissue. PMID:26353409

  7. "King Corn": Teaching the Food Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "King Corn" is in so many ways the story of how government food policy has entirely remade the food landscape in the United States over the last 40 years. From the massive expansion of the number of acres of corn grown across the country, to the ever-increasing ways that corn is incorporated into the food production process, to the industrial

  8. The King under the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirza, Ather

    2015-01-01

    In February 2013, the University of Leicester staged what The Guardian described as "The most extraordinary press conference ever held at any UK university." This was part of a media and communications campaign that brought worldwide attention to the discovery of King Richard III by the University's archaeologists. How do you manage a

  9. Fulfillment Hermeneutics in the Books of Kings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Philip K.

    2012-01-01

    The concern for the realization of a prophetic announcement in the books of Kings is evident from the frequent fulfillment claims. Fulfillment details are often included in the formulaic notice to highlight its miraculous nature. However, as one correlates the prediction with the fulfillment details, there are noticeable discrepancies. This study

  10. "King Corn": Teaching the Food Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "King Corn" is in so many ways the story of how government food policy has entirely remade the food landscape in the United States over the last 40 years. From the massive expansion of the number of acres of corn grown across the country, to the ever-increasing ways that corn is incorporated into the food production process, to the industrial…

  11. SHAKESPEARE--KING OF INFINITE SPACE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCURDY, HAROLD

    CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS LOOK FOR SUBSTANTIAL CONNECTIONS BETWEEN A WRITER'S LITERARY WORK AND THE EXTERNALS OF HIS LIFE, A PRACTICE THAT ENGLISH SCHOLARS ESCHEW. HOWEVER, A USEFUL KIND OF AUTOBIOGRAPHY MAY BE FOUND IN THE WORKINGS OF SHAKESPEARE'S IMAGINATION THROUGHOUT MOST OF HIS PLAYS. SHAKESPEARE, IN HAMLET'S WORDS, CAN BE CONCEIVED AS "A KING

  12. Tribute to Julie Taymor's Lion King Costumes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mary C.; Beaty, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Julie Taymor's costumes and masks for the stage version of "The Lion King" were stunning in the way they combined the dual images of human and animal forms. Taymor visually incorporated the human form of a dancer into the simplified form of the animal character so both are equally visible. This visible duality of human form and animal

  13. Tribute to Julie Taymor's Lion King Costumes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mary C.; Beaty, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Julie Taymor's costumes and masks for the stage version of "The Lion King" were stunning in the way they combined the dual images of human and animal forms. Taymor visually incorporated the human form of a dancer into the simplified form of the animal character so both are equally visible. This visible duality of human form and animal…

  14. EDITORIAL: King of the elements? King of the elements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Throughout the history of science, carbon-based research has played a defining role in the development of a range of fundamental and technological fields. It was used in Avagadro's definition of the mole in the early 18th century, it provides the 'backbone' of molecules in organic compounds, and in the environmental debate currently raging in the press and international government discussions, the 'carbon footprint' has become the metric of our species' impact on our planet. Also in nanotechnology, with the discovery of various wonder materials, carbon is once again asserting its claim as king of the elements. Until the 1980s the only known forms of carbon were diamond, graphite and amorphous carbon, as in soot or charcoal. In 1985 Robert Curl, Harold Kroto and Richard Smalley reported the existence of fullerenes, spherical structures comprising hexagonal carbon rings [1], work for which they won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1996 [2]. The discovery of fullerenes was followed in 1991 by Sumio Ijima with the discovery of rolled graphite sheets, the carbon nanotube [3]. The discovery of these novel carbon nanostructures inspired researchers in a range of fields, largely as a result of the extraordinary capacity for investigations of these structures to reveal ever more intriguing properties. One of the fascinating properties attributed to carbon nanotubes is their phenomenal strength, with a Young's modulus of single walled carbon nanotubes approaching a terapascal [4]. Ingenious methods of harnessing this strength have since been developed, including bucky paper, a term used to refer to a mat of randomly self-entangled carbon nanotubes. Steven Crannford and Markus Buehler have recently reported a novel computational technique for probing the mechanical properties of these structures and show that the Young's modulus of bucky paper can be tuned by manipulation of the carbon nanotube type and density [5]. The electrical properties of carbon nanotubes, which depend on the chirality or wrapping angle of the graphite sheet with respect to the tube axis [6], have captured the imagination of researchers working in nanoelectronics. Carbon nanotubes also revealed interesting thermal properties that could lend them to the next generation of nanoscale devices. In 2000, researchers at the California Institute of Technology published the results of molecular dynamics simulations of thermal conductivity in carbon nanotubes [7]. The thermal properties predicted from this work added further promise to the potential of carbon nanotubes in micro- and nanoelectromechanical devices. More recently, researchers from the University of Columbia have studied how to exploit the thermal properties of carbon nanotubes in nanofluids. They report enhancement of heat transfer properties of carbon-nanotube-based nanofluids using a plasma treatment to aid stable dispersion of the nanotubes in water [8]. Eric Pop in Illinois has reported on the role of electrical and thermal contact resistance in Joule breakdown of single-walled carbon nanotubes, including analysis of several published data sets [9]. The work finds universal scaling rules, whereby the breakdown scales linearly with length for carbon nanotubes above a certain length, below which the breakdown is entirely limited by contact resistance. In 2004 another form of carbon came to the fore when researchers at the University of Manchester and the Institute of Microelectronics Technology isolated a single plane of graphite, that is, graphene, using a kind of scotch tape [10]. As with other forms of carbon, investigation of graphene has also revealed fascinating properties that lend the material to a number of applications, such as sensing. The electronic properties of graphene are highly sensitive to the adsorption of molecules such as CO, NO, NO2 and NH3, and a collaboration of researchers from Lanzhou University in China and the University of Sheffield in the UK have further reported on how this sensitivity can be enhanced by two orders of magnitude when the graphene is doped with an impurity such as boron [11]. Work on graphene has also prompted the possibility of a new field of application in electron-spin-based quantum computing. In this issue, Patrik Recher and Björn Trauzettel in Germany present an overview on the latest research on quantum dots of graphene, graphene nanoribbons and discs in single- and bilayer graphene with a view to their possible application as qubits in computing [12]. Nanodiamonds with nitrogen vacancies have been shown to behave as quantum-dot-like fluorescent nanostructures that are not susceptible to bleaching. Once certain nanotoxicological concerns have been settled, such nanodiamonds may one day be useful for imaging, and means of industrial scale fabrication have already been reported [13]. Other possible medical applications of carbon nanostructures include the use of carbon nanofibres for improved neural and orthopaedic implants [14]. Electronics, sensing, medicine, quantum computing; the utility of carbon in nanotechnology is apparently unlimited. Of course there is as much work in inorganic research advancing as rapidly and in fields just as diverse. Actual commercialisation of devices based on these carbon wonder materials is still pending, but the extraordinary properties of carbon-based materials holds an unavoidable fascination that is likely to endure and inspire further research and discoveries for some time to come. References [1] Kroto H W, Heath J R, O'Brien S C, Curl R F and Smalley R E 1985 Nature 318 162-3 [2] The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996 Nobelprize.org http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1996 [3] Ijima S 1991 Nature 354 56-38 [4] Treacy M M J, Ebbesen T W and Gibson J M 1996 Nature 381 370-80 [5] Cranford S W and Buehler M J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 265706 [6] Wilder J W G, Venema L C, Rinzler A G, Smalley R E and Dekker C 1997 Nature 391 59-62 [7] Che J, Çagin T and Goddard III W A 2000 Nanotechnology 11 65-9 [8] Kim Y J, Ma H and Yu Q 2010 Nanotechnology 21 295703 [9] Pop E 2008 Nanotechnology 19 295202 [10] Novoselov K S, Geim A K, Morozov S V, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos S V, Grigorieva I V and Firsov A A 2004 Science 306 666-9 [11] Zhang Y-H, Chen Y-B, Zhou K-G, Liu C-H, Zeng J, Zhang H-L and Peng Y 2009 Nanotechnology 20 185504 [12] Recher P and Trauzettel B 2010 Nanotechnology 21 302001 [13] Boudou J-P, Curmi P A, Jelezko F, Wrachtrup J, Aubert P, Sennour M, Balasubramanian G, Reuter R, Thorel A and Gaffet E 2009 Nanotechnology 20 235602 [14] Webster T J, Wald M C, McKenzie J L, Price R L and Ejiofor J U 2004 Nanotechnology 15 48-54

  15. Impact of Synoptic Meteorological Variations on Nearshore Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, N.; Voulgaris, G.; Warner, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    Passage of low pressure atmospheric frontal systems over the Southeast US introduces synoptic variation in meteorological parameters. Nearshore wave climate in this region is influenced by locally generated winds, showing a strong response to moving frontal systems. Accurate prediction of surf-zone response to wave forcing and wind forcing in general and atmospheric fronts in particular is important in quantifying sediment mobility and changes in beach morphodynamics. Energetic wave conditions can be attributed to three atmospheric front systems: 1) Cold Fronts, 2) Warm Fronts, and 3) Tropical Storms. Low pressure systems associated with cold fronts moving from west to east-northeast, change the wind direction from northeast to southwest. Conversely, warm fronts are accompanied by an opposite change in wind direction. Tropical storms moving nearshore rotate the wind direction slowly from southwest to southeast. Long term (2004- 2007) nearshore wind, wave and current information is analyzed from a station located at mean water depth of 5 meters on the coast of SC (Springmaid Pier) to examine the relationship between meteorological forcing and nearshore hydrodynamic conditions. Atmospheric pressure, temperature and wind velocity from the same station were used to identify, 24 cold fronts, 18 warm fronts and 14 tropical storms on average for each year from 2004-2007. In this contribution, a 2-D wave propagation model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), coupled with the coastal-circulation model Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS v 3.0) is being used to predict longshore current and sediment transport in the surf zone in response to different types of fronts. The performance of the wave propagation model is evaluated with in-situ measurements collected as a part of South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (SCCES) along the coast. Synthetic atmospheric fronts and tropical storms, developed from the climatic analysis, are used as input to the coupled models. The results are used to examine the overall impact of the different type of atmospheric fronts and tropical storms over a year in terms of net alongshelf sediment transport in surf zone.

  16. The Kings Cross fire: psychological reactions.

    PubMed

    Turner, S W; Thompson, J; Rosser, R M

    1995-07-01

    The psychological reactions of 50 survivors of the King's Cross fire, which hit London's underground railway system on the 18th day of November 1987, are described. Results are presented for the Impact of Event scale, the General Health Questionnaire (28-item version), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and a King's Cross Event Schedule. These are investigated in relation to (a) validity measures, (b) relationships between exposure and personality, and (c) spontaneous de-briefing. Two thirds of the sample had significant levels of psychological distress (meeting the "caseness" criterion on the GHQ). Both personality (neuroticism and L-scale) and degree of trauma exposure were related to subsequent reaction. Spontaneous debriefing was associated with subjective benefit. Transportation disasters present particular problems in relation to research and service delivery. PMID:7582607

  17. Towards an Operational Nearshore Wave Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeramony, J.; Orzech, M.; Ngodock, H. E.; Flampouris, S.

    2012-12-01

    For Navy operations, the model used for wave predictions in the nearshore is SWAN, which solves the spectral action balance equation to estimate the wave state. Boundary conditions for local (nearshore) model domains are generally obtained from regional model simulations that use either SWAN or WAVEWATCH III, which in turn gets boundary conditions from global simulations with WAVEWATCH III forced by the meteorological models. Inaccuracies in meteorological forcing and the coarse grid resolutions for the global model can lead to significant errors in SWAN's spectral estimates, particularly in shallow water. To improve the model's performance, especially for the small nearshore domains, we have developed a 4DVAR data assimilation system based on a tangent linear code and the corresponding adjoint from the numerical SWAN model. The system utilizes point measurements of 2D wave spectra, such as from a wave buoy, to improve the solution in the whole domain. Given a set of observations measured at different times and locations in the model domain, the assimilation system minimizes a cost function (representing overall error between the model and observations) and generates corrected boundary and initial conditions that optimize the fit of SWAN's output to the measurements. In addition to time dependence, the system accounts for nonlinear triad and quadruplet interactions, depth-limited breaking, wind forcing, bottom friction, and whitecapping as well as the influence of currents on waves. This presentation will review the current status of the system using simulations with data from Duck, North Carolina and the 2012 RIMPAC exercises held by the Commander, US Pacific Fleet in and around the Hawaiian Islands. Examples shown will include analysis of effects of using different background fields, and of assimilating different instruments simultaneously. Adjoint-generated sensitivity maps, which can be generated using the adjoint, will be used to demonstrate the optimal locations for deployment of instruments under varying wave conditions.

  18. Adjoint-Based Sensitivity Maps for the Nearshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzech, Mark; Veeramony, Jay; Ngodock, Hans

    2013-04-01

    The wave model SWAN (Booij et al., 1999) solves the spectral action balance equation to produce nearshore wave forecasts and climatologies. It is widely used by the coastal modeling community and is part of a variety of coupled ocean-wave-atmosphere model systems. A variational data assimilation system (Orzech et al., 2013) has recently been developed for SWAN and is presently being transitioned to operational use by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office. This system is built around a numerical adjoint to the fully nonlinear, nonstationary SWAN code. When provided with measured or artificial "observed" spectral wave data at a location of interest on a given nearshore bathymetry, the adjoint can compute the degree to which spectral energy levels at other locations are correlated with - or "sensitive" to - variations in the observed spectrum. Adjoint output may be used to construct a sensitivity map for the entire domain, tracking correlations of spectral energy throughout the grid. When access is denied to the actual locations of interest, sensitivity maps can be used to determine optimal alternate locations for data collection by identifying regions of greatest sensitivity in the mapped domain. The present study investigates the properties of adjoint-generated sensitivity maps for nearshore wave spectra. The adjoint and forward SWAN models are first used in an idealized test case at Duck, NC, USA, to demonstrate the system's effectiveness at optimizing forecasts of shallow water wave spectra for an inaccessible surf-zone location. Then a series of simulations is conducted for a variety of different initializing conditions, to examine the effects of seasonal changes in wave climate, errors in bathymetry, and variations in size and shape of the inaccessible region of interest. Model skill is quantified using two methods: (1) a more traditional correlation of observed and modeled spectral statistics such as significant wave height, and (2) a recently developed RMS spectral skill score summed over all frequency-directional bins. The relative advantages and disadvantages of these two methods are considered. References: Booij, N., R.C. Ris, and L.H. Holthuijsen, 1999: A third-generation wave model for coastal regions: 1. Model description and validation. J. Geophys. Res. 104 (C4), 7649-7666. Orzech, M.D., J. Veeramony, and H.E. Ngodock, 2013: A variational assimilation system for nearshore wave modeling. J. Atm. & Oc. Tech., in press.

  19. Nearshore Circulation and Storm Surge Along the Mackenzie Delta Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrie, W.; Mulligan, R. P.; Solomon, S. M.; Hoque, A.; Zhang, L.

    2008-12-01

    The Mackenzie Delta is a 150 km long section of coastline characterized by muddy sediments where the Mackenzie River outflow, dispersed over 20 distributary channels, discharges into the southern Beaufort Sea. The marine environment in this region is an important and integral part of the lives of Canadian Northerners. The area is also undergoing hydrocarbon exploration with potential development within the next decade. Changes to Arctic climate, such as increasing ice-free western Arctic Ocean and intensifying storm activity, may endanger the coastal settlements and marine environment in the Mackenzie Delta region. The low gradient of the delta and the adjacent inner shelf makes it very susceptible to flooding during storms. Field observations in the nearshore zone collected in August of 2007 and 2008 indicate strong gradients in temperature and salinity in shallow water of 2-6 m. The fluctuations are associated with the movements of warm and fresh river plumes and wind-driven upwelling of cold and saline water below the thermocline. The observations are in agreement with 3D model simulations of the nearshore delta region using Delft3D, which includes wind, tidal, storm surge, buoyancy and river forcing. The results validate the model and indicate that it can be used to hindcast the nearshore oceanographic conditions during severe Arctic storms. As a case study we present preliminary model results for an Arctic storm from late 1999 that caused extensive vegetation die-off in the outer delta. This cyclone was a mesoscale Arctic storm that developed over the NE Pacific and western Bering Sea, intensified explosively in the Gulf of Alaska and developed into a meteorological bomb. The storm made landfall at Cape Newenham, Alaska, crossed the Rocky Mountains to the Yukon and Northwest Territories and re-intensified over a zone of high sea surface temperature gradients in the southern Beaufort Sea. Using the Canadian Mesoscale Compressible Community (MC2) atmospheric model, simulations of the storm pattern, track and intensity are in very good agreement with the NCEP re-analysis. This is model coupled to the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and Hibler Ice Model, which are used to provide basin-scale driver fields and define the boundary conditions of the nearshore Delft3D model for the Mackenzie Delta region. Coastal damage was predominately caused by storm surge, and the high salinity flood waters that flowed over the surface of the outer delta.

  20. Feeding performance of king Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amber R; Huber, Daniel R; Lajeunesse, Marc J; Motta, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    Feeding performance is an organism's ability to capture and handle prey. Although bite force is a commonly used metric of feeding performance, other factors such as bite pressure and strike speed are also likely to affect prey capture. Therefore, this study investigated static bite force, dynamic speeds, and predator and prey forces resulting from ram strikes, as well as bite pressure of the king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in order to examine their relative contributions to overall feeding performance. Theoretical posterior bite force ranged from 14.0-318.7?N. Ram speed, recorded with a rod and reel incorporated with a line counter and video camera, ranged from 3.3-15.8B?L/s. Impact forces on the prey ranged from 0.1-1.9?N. Bite pressure, estimated using theoretical bite forces at three gape angles and tooth cross-sectional areas, ranged from 1.7-56.9?MPa. Mass-specific bite force for king mackerel is relatively low in comparison with other bony fishes and sharks, with relatively little impact force applied to the prey during the strike. This suggests that king mackerel rely on high velocity chases and high bite pressure generated via sharp, laterally compressed teeth to maximize feeding performance. PMID:25845956

  1. Stick balancing, falls and Dragon-Kings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, J. L.; Milton, J. G.

    2012-05-01

    The extent to which the occurrence of falls, the dominant feature of human attempts to balance a stick at their fingertip, can be predicted is examined in the context of the "Dragon-King" hypothesis. For skilled stick balancers, fluctuations in the controlled variable, namely the vertical displacement angle θ, exhibit power law behaviors. When stick balancing is made less stable by either decreasing the length of the stick or by requiring the subject to balance the stick on the surface of a table tennis racket, systematic departures from the power law behaviors are observed in the range of large θ. This observation raises the possibility that the presence of departures from the power law in the large length scale region, possibly Dragon-Kings, may identify situations in which the occurrence of a fall is more imminent. However, whether or not Dragon-Kings are observed, there is a Weibull-type survival function for stick falling. The possibility that increased risk of falling can, at least to some extent, be predicted from fluctuations in the controlled variable before the event occurs has important implications for the development of preventative strategies for the management of phenomena ranging from earthquakes to epileptic seizures to falls in the elderly.

  2. The effect of bathymetric filtering on nearshore process model results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, N.G.; Edwards, K.L.; Kaihatu, J.M.; Veeramony, J.; Hsu, L.; Holland, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    Nearshore wave and flow model results are shown to exhibit a strong sensitivity to the resolution of the input bathymetry. In this analysis, bathymetric resolution was varied by applying smoothing filters to high-resolution survey data to produce a number of bathymetric grid surfaces. We demonstrate that the sensitivity of model-predicted wave height and flow to variations in bathymetric resolution had different characteristics. Wave height predictions were most sensitive to resolution of cross-shore variability associated with the structure of nearshore sandbars. Flow predictions were most sensitive to the resolution of intermediate scale alongshore variability associated with the prominent sandbar rhythmicity. Flow sensitivity increased in cases where a sandbar was closer to shore and shallower. Perhaps the most surprising implication of these results is that the interpolation and smoothing of bathymetric data could be optimized differently for the wave and flow models. We show that errors between observed and modeled flow and wave heights are well predicted by comparing model simulation results using progressively filtered bathymetry to results from the highest resolution simulation. The damage done by over smoothing or inadequate sampling can therefore be estimated using model simulations. We conclude that the ability to quantify prediction errors will be useful for supporting future data assimilation efforts that require this information.

  3. Video-based Nearshore Depth Inversion using WDM Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampson, R. W.; Kirby, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    A new remote sensing method for estimating nearshore water depths from video imagery has been developed and applied as part of an ongoing field study at Bethany Beach, Delaware. The new method applies Donelan et al's Wavelet Direction Method (WDM) to compact arrays of pixel intensity time series extracted from video images. The WDM generates a non-stationary time series of the wavenumber and wave direction at different frequencies that can be used to create frequency-wavenumber and directional spectrums. The water depth is estimated at the center of each compact array by fitting the linear dispersion relation to the frequency-wavenumber spectrum. Directional spectral results show good correlation to directional spectral results obtained from a slope array located just offshore of Bethany Beach. Additionally, depth estimations from the WDM are compared to depth measurements taken with a kayak survey system at Bethany Beach. Continuous measurements of the bathymetry at Bethany Beach are needed for inputs to fluid dynamics and sediment transport models to study the morphodynamics in the nearshore zone and can be used to monitor the success of the recent beach replenishment project along the Delaware coast.

  4. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at King Salmon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is conducting preliminary environmental assessments at most of its present or former facilities in Alaska. Information about environmental conditions at King Salmon, Alaska are presented in this report. This report gives an overview of the geology, hydro- logy, and climate of the King Salmon area and describes general geohydrologic conditions. A thick alluvial aquifer underlies King Salmon and both ground water and surface water are plentiful in the area.

  5. Spatial and temporal distributions of suspended sediment in the Nanhui nearshore from TM/ETM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Runyuan; Zhou, Yunxuan; Li, Xing; Shen, Fang

    2009-06-01

    Remote sensing has widely been used to study suspended sediment distributions due to its synoptic and repetitive coverage. Using previous in situ data and Landsat imagery, we estimate suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) in order to understand the transport and distribution of suspended sediments in the Nanhui nearshore area, China. During an ebb tide period, the area with the maximum turbidity was observed along the southern Nanhui nearshore area and the maximum SSC value was 1.916g/l. During a flood tide period, the area with the maximum turbidity moved northwards and the maximum SSC value was 1.400 g/l. The northern Nanhui nearshore area suffered from the strong current discharge from the South Passage, its eastern area was affected by wind waves, and its southern area was influenced by the tidal currents from the Hangzhou Bay. These processes were responsible for the southern Nanhui nearshore area extending southeastwards and sediments in the northern Nanhui nearshore area.

  6. Goldie Brangman Remembers the Operation to Save Dr King.

    PubMed

    Koch, Evan; Brangman, Goldie

    2015-12-01

    In September 1958 the Rev Dr Martin Luther King Jr was stabbed and nearly assassinated. Surgeons at Harlem Hospital in New York City removed a 17.8-cm (7-in)-long letter opener from Dr King's chest. Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist Goldie Brangman remembers this event because she participated in Dr King's anesthetic. This article correlates Brangman's memories with published accounts of the event. It also places the event within the context of the modern civil rights movement that Dr King led. PMID:26742331

  7. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red King Crab

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jewett, Stephen C.; Onuf, Christopher P.

    1988-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for evaluating habitat of different life stages of red king crab (Paralithodes camtschatica). A model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimum habitat) in Alaskan coastal waters, especially in the Gulf of Alaska and the southeastern Bering Sea. HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  8. The Vetlesen prize to M. King Hubbert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raleigh, C. B.

    The Vetlesen Prize is awarded for outstanding achievement in the sciences, resulting in a clearer understanding of the earth, its history, or its relation to the universe. The award is given by Columbia University, and the prize is given by the G. Unger Vetlesen Foundation, which was endowed from the estate of the late G. Unger Vetlesen, former president of the Norwegian-American Line Agency, Inc. The prize consists of a medal and $50,000.The award was given in December 1981 to M. King Hubbert for his outstanding contributions to earth science by applying principles of physics in solving problems of great geological significance.

  9. Nearshore bars and the break-point hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Howd, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The set of hypotheses calling for bar formation at the break point was tested with field data. During two different experiments, waves were measured across the surf zone coincident with the development of a nearshore bar. We use a criterion, based on the wave height to depth ratio, to determine the offshore limit of the inner surf zone. During the first experiment, the bar became better developed and migrated offshore while remaining well within the inner surf zone. During the second experiment, the surf zone was narrower and we cannot rule out the possibility of break point processes contributing to bar development. We conclude that bars are not necessarily coupled with the break point and can become better developed and migrate offshore while being in the inner surf zone landward from initial wave breaking in the outer surf zone. ?? 1989.

  10. Evolution of basic equations for nearshore wave field

    PubMed Central

    ISOBE, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a systematic, overall view of theories for periodic waves of permanent form, such as Stokes and cnoidal waves, is described first with their validity ranges. To deal with random waves, a method for estimating directional spectra is given. Then, various wave equations are introduced according to the assumptions included in their derivations. The mild-slope equation is derived for combined refraction and diffraction of linear periodic waves. Various parabolic approximations and time-dependent forms are proposed to include randomness and nonlinearity of waves as well as to simplify numerical calculation. Boussinesq equations are the equations developed for calculating nonlinear wave transformations in shallow water. Nonlinear mild-slope equations are derived as a set of wave equations to predict transformation of nonlinear random waves in the nearshore region. Finally, wave equations are classified systematically for a clear theoretical understanding and appropriate selection for specific applications. PMID:23318680

  11. Uncertainty Analysis and Parameter Estimation For Nearshore Hydrodynamic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardani, S.; Kaihatu, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Numerical models represent deterministic approaches used for the relevant physical processes in the nearshore. Complexity of the physics of the model and uncertainty involved in the model inputs compel us to apply a stochastic approach to analyze the robustness of the model. The Bayesian inverse problem is one powerful way to estimate the important input model parameters (determined by apriori sensitivity analysis) and can be used for uncertainty analysis of the outputs. Bayesian techniques can be used to find the range of most probable parameters based on the probability of the observed data and the residual errors. In this study, the effect of input data involving lateral (Neumann) boundary conditions, bathymetry and off-shore wave conditions on nearshore numerical models are considered. Monte Carlo simulation is applied to a deterministic numerical model (the Delft3D modeling suite for coupled waves and flow) for the resulting uncertainty analysis of the outputs (wave height, flow velocity, mean sea level and etc.). Uncertainty analysis of outputs is performed by random sampling from the input probability distribution functions and running the model as required until convergence to the consistent results is achieved. The case study used in this analysis is the Duck94 experiment, which was conducted at the U.S. Army Field Research Facility at Duck, North Carolina, USA in the fall of 1994. The joint probability of model parameters relevant for the Duck94 experiments will be found using the Bayesian approach. We will further show that, by using Bayesian techniques to estimate the optimized model parameters as inputs and applying them for uncertainty analysis, we can obtain more consistent results than using the prior information for input data which means that the variation of the uncertain parameter will be decreased and the probability of the observed data will improve as well. Keywords: Monte Carlo Simulation, Delft3D, uncertainty analysis, Bayesian techniques, MCMC

  12. Nearshore substrate and morphology offshore of the Elwha River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Cochrane, G.R.; Sagy, Y.; Gelfenbaum, G.

    2008-01-01

    The planned removal of two dams on the Elwha River, Washington, will likely increase river sediment flux to the coast, which may alter coastal habitats through sedimentation and turbidity. It is therefore important to characterize the current habitat conditions near the river mouth, so that future changes can be identified. Here we provide combined sonar and video mapping results of approximately 20 km2 of seafloor offshore of the Elwha River collected with the purpose to characterize nearshore substrate type and distribution prior to dam removal. These combined data suggest that the nearshore of the western delta and Freshwater Bay are dominated by coarse sediment (sand, gravel, cobble, and boulders) and bedrock outcrops; no fine-grained sediment (mud or silt) was identified within the survey limits. The substrate is generally coarser in Freshwater Bay and on the western flank of the delta, where boulders and bedrock outcrops occur, than directly offshore and east of the river mouth. High variation in substrate was observed within much of the study area, however, and distinct boulder fields, gravel beds and sand waves were observed with spatial scales of 10-100 m. Gravel beds and sand waves suggest that sediment transport is active in the study area, presumably in response to tidal currents and waves. Both historic (1912) and recent (1989-2004) distributions of Bull Kelp (Nereocystis sp.) beds were preferentially located along the boulder and bedrock substrates of Freshwater Bay. Although kelp has also been mapped in areas dominated by gravel and sand substrate, it typically has smaller canopy areas and lower temporal persistence in these regions.

  13. Nearshore Sand Bars and Self-organization Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falqus, A.

    Sand bars are elongated shoals that have been recognized as a major source of vari- ability in the topography of the surf zone and the configuration of the shoreline at sandy coasts. They can exhibit many different morphologies. The most common are the shore parallel bars that may be either alongshore uniform or with some kind of lon- gitudinal structure (e.g.,rhythmicity). Nearshore bars may also be oriented obliquely or even perpendicular to the coast. A number of different physical mechanisms have been proposed to explain their origin and subsequent dynamics. The growth and fur- ther evolution of bars is certainly caused by convergences and divergences of the hori- zontal sediment flux that can be driven in turn by a) certain patterns in the external hy- drodynamic forcing (low frequency waves, tides, inhomogeneities due to the offshore sea bed topography or to regional trends in the coastline orientation, ...) or b) self- organization processes of the coupling between the nearshore hydrodynamics and the evolving topography. The latter arise basicly from feedback processes between flow and morphology. Given a certain topography, the incident waves, wind and tides drive a flow. This moves in turn the sediment, producing changes in the topography from where a new flow pattern is created. In this way, flow and morphology evolve together and many complex patterns can emerge without any inhomogeneity in the external forcing. Since a few years ago, the role of coastal self-organization processes is being extensively investigated. It seems that the initial formation of shore-parallel bars and of oblique bars can be explained by mechanisms based on this idea. Self-organization has also been shown to be a potential cause of the growth to finite amplitude of trans- verse bars and crescentic patterns. The process whereby a linear longshore bar devel- ops rip channels and becomes alongshore rhythmic can also be understood in terms of feedback mechanisms.

  14. A Moored Airborne Video System with Nearshore Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G.; Lippmann, T.

    2004-12-01

    Over the past two decades researchers have developed video-based remote sensing techniques to measure relevant nearshore variables. Measurements made include spatial patterns in sand bar morphology, run-up oscillations, wave breaking distributions, phase speed and wave angle, and most recently, surface currents within the surf zone and swash. In general, vertical (i.e., downward oriented) photography or videography is preferred to high-oblique land-based systems. However, although aircraft-mounted video systems have been under development for several years, the relatively high cost and short dwell time has limited its widespread application. Thus, most video measurements for research applications are obtained through methods whereby arrays of video cameras are fixed on land and oriented obliquely to the surf zone region of interest. The typically high-oblique imagery is limited in spatial ground coverage by rapidly degrading resolution in the far field, as well as lay-over problems associated with a fluctuating sea surface and high incidence look-angle. In order to alleviate these problems, researchers have attempted mounting video (or photographic) sensors on tethered balloons where long time series can be obtained over large regions of the surf zone without limiting resolution in the far field. In our research we have developed a technique for mounting a video system onboard a tethered helikite, a combination kite and helium-filled blimp (Allsopp Helikites, Ltd.). The video system consists of a downward-looking video camera in a custom weather-proof housing mounted on the keel of the helikite. Also included are a differential GPS receiver, tilt and heading sensor for accurate geometrical transformation, micro-processor, onboard power supply, and wireless data link. In this presentation, we will discuss the system in more detail, the image resolution and accuracies, and the expected applications to nearshore processes research. This work is sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  15. Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Dream of Peaceful Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Della

    This biography for younger readers depicts the life of Martin Luther King, Jr., the Nobel Peace Prize winner who dedicated himself to the struggle for equal rights for African Americans while embracing the principle of nonviolent resistance. The book presents an overview of the civil rights movement and chronicles King's role as national leader

  16. The Coretta Scott King Awards Book, 1970-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Henrietta M., Ed.

    For 30 years, the Coretta Scott King Awards have honored notable African American authors and illustrators. This volume provides up-to-date information about the Coretta Scott King award books. Celebrating 30 years of African American contributions to children's literature, it serves as a selection tool and teaching resource, in both schools and

  17. Author! Author! The Gallant Children's Author: Dick King-Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of Dick King-Smith. Born on March 27, 1922 and raised in Gloucestershire, England, he grew up with animals of all kinds. King-Smith was a farmer for twenty years and then became a school teacher. He was also a soldier during wartime, a traveling salesman, shoe factory worker, and television presenter. He…

  18. Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Dream of Peaceful Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Della

    This biography for younger readers depicts the life of Martin Luther King, Jr., the Nobel Peace Prize winner who dedicated himself to the struggle for equal rights for African Americans while embracing the principle of nonviolent resistance. The book presents an overview of the civil rights movement and chronicles King's role as national leader…

  19. Author! Author! The Gallant Children's Author: Dick King-Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of Dick King-Smith. Born on March 27, 1922 and raised in Gloucestershire, England, he grew up with animals of all kinds. King-Smith was a farmer for twenty years and then became a school teacher. He was also a soldier during wartime, a traveling salesman, shoe factory worker, and television presenter. He

  20. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Washington State Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, WA. Div. of Instructional Programs and Services.

    The Washington State Resource Guide on Martin Luther King, Jr., supplies a wide variety of materials for use with all grade levels in classroom and assembly presentations in public schools. The goal is for every child enrolled in Washington State schools to learn about Dr. King during the days of January 15 to January 17. Resolutions supporting an…

  1. Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent

    1995-01-01

    Presents a five-lesson, high school instructional unit on the ideas and activities of Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. Includes student objectives, step-by-step instructional procedures, and discussion questions. Provides quotations by Thoreau and King. (CFR)

  2. 78 FR 5247 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-01636 Filed 1-23... jobs and freedom, the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his ``I Have a Dream'' speech... brought us closer than ever to achieving Dr. King's dream, but our work is not yet done. Too many...

  3. Application of autonomous robotized systems for the collection of nearshore topographic changing and hydrodynamic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakov, Vladimir; Makarov, Vladimir; Zezyulin, Denis; Kurkin, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2015-04-01

    Hazardous phenomena in the coastal zone lead to the topographic changing which are difficulty inspected by traditional methods. It is why those autonomous robots are used for collection of nearshore topographic and hydrodynamic measurements. The robot RTS-Hanna is well-known (Wubbold, F., Hentschel, M., Vousdoukas, M., and Wagner, B. Application of an autonomous robot for the collection of nearshore topographic and hydrodynamic measurements. Coastal Engineering Proceedings, 2012, vol. 33, Paper 53). We describe here several constructions of mobile systems developed in Laboratory "Transported Machines and Transported Complexes", Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University. They can be used in the field surveys and monitoring of wave regimes nearshore.

  4. 76 FR 70719 - Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County; Notice of Intent To File License Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... Licensing Process. b. Project No.: 13948-001. c. Date Filed: September 9, 2011. d. Submitted By: Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County (Snohomish PUD). e. Name of Project: Calligan Creek Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Calligan Creek, in King County, Washington. No federal lands are...

  5. 76 FR 70719 - Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County; Notice of Intent To File License Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... Licensing Process. b. Project No.: 13994-001. c. Date Filed: September 9, 2011. d. Submitted by: Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County (Snohomish PUD). e. Name of Project: Hancock Creek Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Hancock Creek, in King County, Washington. No federal lands are...

  6. 40 CFR 52.226 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, San Joaquin Valley and Mountain Counties...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Particulate matter, San Joaquin Valley and Mountain Counties Intrastate Regions. 52.226 Section 52.226... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.226 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter... Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter: (1) Kings County APCD. (i) Rule 405, Process...

  7. From the microworld to King Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvivier, Damien; Wautelet, Michel

    2006-09-01

    The microworld inspires and fascinates many people. The behaviour of small animals in that miniature world differs from that of 'large' ones in the macroworld. For some people, the capacities of small animals are nearly miraculous. If we could imitate these small beings, our capabilities would increase many times over. Unfortunately, this is not reality. The behaviour of small animals is not miraculous. It is the aim of this paper to show why this is the case by taking into account so-called scaling laws, which allow us to deal with some science-fiction stories. These same scaling laws are used to study the morphology of the giant fictional animal King Kong.

  8. Ambiguity and the image of the king.

    PubMed

    Mack, R T

    1994-01-01

    The following essay explores problems posed by a recently-published fresco (dated to the first century AD) that depicts Alexander the Great standing opposite an unknown female figure. The fresco is unusual in its use of conventional or codified figure types, in particular a widely-found statue type known as the "Alexander with the Lance," and for its placement of Alexander in anecdotal relation with a woman. While discussions of the picture thus far have tried to identify the scene depicted (by reference to histories of Alexander's life), the following analysis takes the difficulty of doing so itself as a motivated aspect of the image. I argue that the fresco's mode of representation is to bring together figure types whose conventional fields of meaning are in conflict with one another, and then to highlight this conflict in order to comment upon the fields (or figure types) themselves. In this case, the fresco's ambiguity in signification (the undecidability of its reference) enables a highly strategic critique of the "Alexander with the Lance" because the latter, as a prototypical "image of the king," depends upon the necessary and transparent extension of its signs. By virtue of the anecdotal relation between "Alexander" and the depicted female figure (an Aphrodite type) the fresco's critique reveals the close association between the claims for representation made by the image of the king and the patriarchal structures of power they seek to instantiate. The fresco thus offers remarkably direct data for understanding the intersection of representation and gender in the early Roman empire. I suggest in conclusion that because the image seems also to posit a specifically gendered (male) gaze, its critique is extended to the spectator and thereby provides data for understanding the intersection of the practice of representation (here, viewing) and gender. PMID:7798598

  9. Spatial Patterns of Subtidal Benthic Invertebrates and Environmental Factors in the Nearshore Gulf of Maine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial patterns of subtidal benthic invertebrates and physical-chemical variables in the nearshore Gulf of Maine (Acadian Biogeographic Province) were studied to provide information needed to calibrate benthic indices of environmental condition, determine physical-chemical f...

  10. Moderate-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Data for the Nearshore North Pacific

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal sea surface temperature (SST) is an important environmental characteristic defining habitat suitability for nearshore marine and estuarine organisms. The purpose of this publication is to provide access to an easy-to-use coastal SST dataset for ecologists, biogeographers...

  11. Bedforms, Substrates, and Beach Change: Investigating Nearshore Response to Storm Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miselis, J. L.; McNinch, J.

    2006-12-01

    The presence of shore-oblique sand bars and shore-oblique troughs floored by exposures of underlying strata in the nearshore have been related to shoreline behavior at decadal and inter-annual time scales. While this work has established the link between nearshore morphology and beach behavior, the first-order physical processes that facilitate this relationship are poorly understood. In order to better understand the response of bedforms, substrates, and beach change to storm forcing, geophysical data (swath bathymetry and backscatter, chirp high-resolution seismic reflection) were collected in the nearshore at four ~1 km2 sites, two with shore-oblique bars and two without. The surveys were conducted in June 2002, March 2003, May 2003, October 2003, and June 2004; the March survey occurred post-nor'easter while the October survey captured the nearshore response to Hurricane Isabel. In addition, beach topography was mapped as close to the timing of the nearshore surveys as possible. The morphologically-dependent sediment response to storm and fair-weather conditions was observed using bathymetric change maps, geologically-defined nearshore and beach sediment volumes, longshore and cross-shore bathymetric cross-sections, and the area of the exposures of underlying strata. The standard deviation in sediment volume of the nearshore and beach is approximately two times higher at sites with shore-oblique sand bar morphology compared to sites with only shore-parallel sand bars. This could explain the elevated variability in inter-annual shoreline position or "shoreline mobility" previously observed in those regions. Volume changes on the beach do not account for the volumetric changes in the nearshore and therefore nearshore changes are presumed to be the result of longshore transport. We hypothesize that nearshore input may be controlled by gradients in longshore transport during forcing events and that the shore- oblique bars trap sediment. Decreases in the area of the exposures of underlying strata occur with increases in the volume of the nearshore, but the exposures are not covered by storm-related pulses of sediment. Bathymetric changes suggest that immediately after storms, shore-oblique bars encroach on the troughs via lateral expansion rather than completely infilling them. When fair-weather conditions persist, the shore-oblique bars are more organized, thereby exposing more of the underlying strata. Volumetric changes of the shore- oblique bars along with changes in the areal exent of gravel exposures help to determine if the bars are sinks for sediment transported alongshore. Such sediment trapping may help explain the erosive character of the shoreline in regions where shore-oblique bars/troughs are present.

  12. Model parameterization and experimental design issues in nearshore bathymetry inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, C.; Rama Rao, V. N.; Kaihatu, J. M.

    2004-08-01

    We present a general method for approaching inverse problems for bathymetric determination under shoaling waves. We run the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) model for various bathymetric representations while collecting data in the form of free-surface imagery and time series. The sensitivity matrix provides information on the range of influence of data on the parameter space. By minimizing the parameter variances, three metrics based on the sensitivity matrix are derived that can be systematically used to make choices of experiment design and model parameterization. This analysis provides insights that are useful, irrespective of the minimization scheme chosen for inversion. We identify the characteristics of the data (time series versus snapshots, early time measurements versus long-duration measurements, nearshore measurements versus offshore measurements), and model (bathymetry parameterizations) for inversion to be possible. We show that Bruun/Dean and Exponential bathymetric parameterizations are preferred over polynomial parameterizations. The former can be used for inversion with both time series and snapshot data, while the latter is preferably used only with snapshot data. Also, guidelines for time separation between snapshots and spatial separation between time series measurements are derived.

  13. Nearshore dynamics of artificial sand and oil agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Dalyander, P Soupy; Plant, Nathaniel G; Long, Joseph W; McLaughlin, Molly

    2015-07-15

    Weathered oil can mix with sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs) that can cause beach re-oiling for years after a spill. Few studies have focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. In this study, artificial SOAs (aSOAs) were created and deployed in the nearshore, and shear stress-based mobility formulations were assessed to predict SOA response. Prediction sensitivity to uncertainty in hydrodynamic conditions and shear stress parameterizations were explored. Critical stress estimates accounting for large particle exposure in a mixed bed gave the best predictions of mobility under shoaling and breaking waves. In the surf zone, the 10-cm aSOA was immobile and began to bury in the seafloor while smaller size classes dispersed alongshore. aSOAs up to 5 cm in diameter were frequently mobilized in the swash zone. The uncertainty in predicting aSOA dynamics reflects a broader uncertainty in applying mobility and transport formulations to cm-sized particles. PMID:25956438

  14. A synthesis of variability in nearshore Alaskan marine populations.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Ginny L

    2009-08-01

    One of the primary goals of any monitoring program is to detect anthropogenic changes; however natural variability can be so high that it prevents detection of human-induced effects. This project synthesized existing data to identify patterns of temporal variation within nearshore marine habitats in the Gulf of Alaska and was motivated by the need for monitoring in this environment vulnerable to oil spills, such as the Exxon Valdez. I collected 786 time series that were greater than 2 years in length from unimpacted (control) sites for 226 species. Temporal variability (CV) varied widely from 1% to 447%, averaged 89%, and was not significantly different among marine populations of birds, mammals, fish, algae and invertebrates. Temporal variability of invertebrates and algae were not significantly different when abundance was measured as biomass, percent cover or density. Both invertebrates and algae showed higher variability in low intertidal habitat compared to high intertidal habitat. For invertebrates, populations on bedrock substrates had greater temporal variability than those on cobble or soft sediment substrates, while there was not a significant difference for algae on either cobble or bedrock substrates. Many of these results are surprising, given differences in movement patterns, survey methods, life histories, and so forth. These results suggest that no single group, measure or habitat will be better or worse for monitoring and detecting change. Understanding variability is a difficult task, but until we tackle it, we will likely not understand or have predictive capabilities in ecological populations and communities. PMID:18633719

  15. Nearshore dynamics of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.; McLaughlin, Molly R.

    2015-01-01

    Weathered oil can mix with sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs) that can cause beach re-oiling for years after a spill. Few studies have focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. In this study, artificial SOAs (aSOAs) were created and deployed in the nearshore, and shear stress-based mobility formulations were assessed to predict SOA response. Prediction sensitivity to uncertainty in hydrodynamic conditions and shear stress parameterizations were explored. Critical stress estimates accounting for large particle exposure in a mixed bed gave the best predictions of mobility under shoaling and breaking waves. In the surf zone, the 10-cm aSOA was immobile and began to bury in the seafloor while smaller size classes dispersed alongshore. aSOAs up to 5 cm in diameter were frequently mobilized in the swash zone. The uncertainty in predicting aSOA dynamics reflects a broader uncertainty in applying mobility and transport formulations to cm-sized particles.

  16. Optical signature utilization of remote sensing of nearshore waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bagheri, S.; Dios, R.A.; Pan, Zhengxiang

    1997-08-01

    Existing satellite sensors lack the spectral capabilities to discriminate phytoplankton pigments in water bodies. New satellite sensors (EOS planned for 1998 and SeaWIFS forthcoming) with narrow bandwidths can provide detailed spectral resolution necessary to distinguish optical properties of nearshore waters provided calibrated seatruth data are available. This will facilitate utility of spaceborne water color sensors for discrimination of bloom forming phytoplankton species and support oceanographic/coastal zone remote sensing missions of NASA, Navy and other agencies. The objective of the research was to develop a library of absorption spectra for the most common phytoplankton found locally within the Hudson/Raritan Estuary. Both culture grown and field samples of phytoplankton were concentrated and analyzed using standard techniques. Chlorophyll-a and phaeopigment concentrations were determined based on spectrometric analysis, producing characteristic absorption spectra. To further refine and discriminate pigment compositions which affect remote color sensing recorded by sensors, spectral derivative and polynomial regression analysis were applied to the absorption spectra. Using these models, it was possible to identify optimum wavelengths characterizing pigment compositions of phytoplankton species in the estuary. Future work will integrate the spectral library into GenIsis--hyperspectral image processing to establish correlation with remotely sensed data.

  17. A wave-resolving model for nearshore suspended sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Gangfeng; Chou, Yi-Ju; Shi, Fengyan

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a wave-resolving sediment transport model, which is capable of simulating sediment suspension in the field-scale surf zone. The surf zone hydrodynamics is modeled by the non-hydrostatic model NHWAVE (Ma et al., 2012). The turbulent flow and suspended sediment are simulated in a coupled manner. Three effects of suspended sediment on turbulent flow field are considered: (1) baroclinic forcing effect; (2) turbulence damping effect and (3) bottom boundary layer effect. Through the validation with the laboratory measurements of suspended sediment under nonbreaking skewed waves and surfzone breaking waves, we demonstrate that the model can reasonably predict wave-averaged sediment profiles. The model is then utilized to simulate a rip current field experiment (RCEX) and nearshore suspended sediment transport. The offshore sediment transport by rip currents is captured by the model. The effects of suspended sediment on self-suspension are also investigated. The turbulence damping and bottom boundary layer effects are significant on sediment suspension. The suspended sediment creates a stably stratified water column, damping fluid turbulence and reducing turbulent diffusivity. The suspension of sediment also produces a stably stratified bottom boundary layer. Thus, the drag coefficient and bottom shear stress are reduced, causing less sediment pickup from the bottom. The cross-shore suspended sediment flux is analyzed as well. The mean Eulerian suspended sediment flux is shoreward outside the surf zone, while it is seaward in the surf zone.

  18. Distribution of actinomycetes in near-shore tropical marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P R; Dwight, R; Fenical, W

    1991-04-01

    Actinomycetes were isolated from near-shore marine sediments collected at 15 island locations throughout the Bahamas. A total of 289 actinomycete colonies were observed, and all but 6 could be assigned to the suprageneric groups actinoplanetes and streptomycetes. A bimodal distribution in the actinomycete population in relation to depth was recorded, with the maximum numbers occurring in the shallow and deep sampling sites. This distribution can be accounted for by a rapid decrease in streptomycetes and an increase in actinoplanetes with increasing depth and does not conform to the theory that actinomycetes isolated from marine sources are of terrestrial origin. Sixty-three of the isolated actinomycetes were tested for the effects of seawater on growth. Streptomycete growth in nonsaline media was reduced by 39% compared with that in seawater. The actinoplanetes had a near obligate requirement of seawater for growth, and this is presented as evidence that actinomycetes can be physiologically active in the marine environment. Problems encountered with the enumeration of actinomycetes in marine sediments are also discussed. PMID:2059035

  19. Distribution of actinomycetes in near-shore tropical marine sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, P R; Dwight, R; Fenical, W

    1991-01-01

    Actinomycetes were isolated from near-shore marine sediments collected at 15 island locations throughout the Bahamas. A total of 289 actinomycete colonies were observed, and all but 6 could be assigned to the suprageneric groups actinoplanetes and streptomycetes. A bimodal distribution in the actinomycete population in relation to depth was recorded, with the maximum numbers occurring in the shallow and deep sampling sites. This distribution can be accounted for by a rapid decrease in streptomycetes and an increase in actinoplanetes with increasing depth and does not conform to the theory that actinomycetes isolated from marine sources are of terrestrial origin. Sixty-three of the isolated actinomycetes were tested for the effects of seawater on growth. Streptomycete growth in nonsaline media was reduced by 39% compared with that in seawater. The actinoplanetes had a near obligate requirement of seawater for growth, and this is presented as evidence that actinomycetes can be physiologically active in the marine environment. Problems encountered with the enumeration of actinomycetes in marine sediments are also discussed. PMID:2059035

  20. Thermography of the New River Inlet plume and nearshore currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chickadel, C.; Jessup, A.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the DARLA and RIVET experiments, thermal imaging systems mounted on a tower and in an airplane captured water flow in the New River Inlet, NC, USA. Kilometer-scale, airborne thermal imagery of the inlet details the ebb flow of the estuarine plume water mixing with ocean water. Multiple fronts, corresponding to the preferred channels through the ebb tidal delta, are imaged in the aerial data. A series of internal fronts suggest discreet sources of the tidal plume that vary with time. Focused thermal measurements made from a tower on the south side of the inlet viewed an area within a radius of a few hundred meters. Sub-meter resolution video from the tower revealed fine-scale flow features and the interaction of tidal exchange and wave-forced surfzone currents. Using the tower and airborne thermal image data we plan to provide geophysical information to compare with numerical models and in situ measurements made by other investigators. From the overflights, we will map the spatial and temporal extent of the estuarine plume to correlate with tidal phase and local wind conditions. From the tower data, we will investigate the structure of the nearshore flow using a thermal particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique, which is based on tracking motion of the surface temperature patterns. Long term variability of the mean and turbulent two-dimensional PIV currents will be correlated to local wave, tidal, and wind forcing parameters.

  1. Making Sense of the Senseless: The Murder of Lawrence King

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Beth

    2008-01-01

    On Feb. 12, 2008, 15-year-old Lawrence King was shot twice in the head in front of other students, in Oxnard, California. When Larry King was murdered allegedly due to a classmate's prejudice, some pundits asked if adults were to blame for encouraging him to come out. One can't be sure what adults did or didn't do in this case, but the question…

  2. Drag king magic: performing/becoming the other.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    This chapter seeks to theorize drag king practice through the lenses of alterity, liminality, and performance theory, while attempting to complicate and reinvigorate discussions of identity raised by drag. I examine the ways in which drag king performance plumbs the concept of "the Other," and forces confrontation with a complex field of desire. Contemporary "queergirl" existence negotiates a range of desirable and desiring Others, from the polarities (i.e., butch-femme) unique to queer structures of desire, to the desire of those on the cultural margins for the power of those at the center, and vice versa. I employ anthropological theories of performance, mimesis, and liminality to establish a framework through which drag kings may be viewed as crucibles of this desire and agents of this power exchange. By performing maleness, drag kings expand and redraw the definitional boundaries of the male, interfere with the cultural power of mainstream maleness, and simultaneously transfer some of this power to themselves as queer women. At the same time, drag king existence forces a renegotiation of queergirl desire to encompass a range of masculinities. By performing/becoming the Other, drag kings engage in a practice of magic which transforms both margin and center. PMID:12769281

  3. Nearshore energy subsidies support Lake Michigan fishes and invertebrates following major changes in food web structure.

    PubMed

    Turschak, Benjamin A; Bunnell, David; Czesny, Sergiusz; Hk, Tomas O; Janssen, John; Warner, David; Bootsma, Harvey A

    2014-05-01

    Aquatic food webs that incorporate multiple energy channels (e.g., nearshore benthic and pelagic) with varying productivity and turnover rates convey stability to biological communities by providing independent energy sources. Within the Lake Michigan food web, invasive dreissenid mussels have caused rapid changes to food web structure and potentially altered the channels through which consumers acquire energy. We used stable C and N isotopes to determine how Lake Michigan food web structure has changed in the past decade, coincident with the expansion of dreissenid mussels, decreased pelagic phytoplankton production, and increased nearshore benthic algal production. Fish and invertebrate samples collected from sites around Lake Michigan were analyzed to determine taxa-specific 13C:12C (delta13C) and 15N:14N (delta15N) ratios. Sampling took place during two distinct periods, 2002-2003 and 2010-2012, that spanned the period of dreissenid expansion, and included nearshore, pelagic and profundal fish and invertebrate taxa. The magnitude and direction of the delta13C shift indicated significantly greater reliance upon nearshore benthic energy sources among nearly all fish taxa as well as profundal invertebrates following dreissenid expansion. Although the mechanisms underlying this delta13C shift likely varied among species, possible causes include the transport of benthic algal production to offshore waters and increased feeding on nearshore prey items by pelagic and profundal species. delta15N shifts were more variable and of smaller magnitude across taxa, although declines in delta15N among some pelagic fishes suggest a shift to alternative prey resources. Lake Michigan fishes and invertebrates appear to have responded to dreissenid-induced changes in nutrient and energy pathways by switching from pelagic to alternative nearshore energy subsidies. Although large shifts in energy allocation (i.e., pelagic to nearshore benthic) resulting from invasive species appear to affect total production at upper trophic levels, changes in trophic structure and utilization of novel energy pathways may help to stabilize food webs following species invasions. PMID:25000756

  4. Nearshore versus offshore copper loading in Lake Superior sediments: Implications for transport and cycling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolak, J.J.; Long, D.T.; Kerfoot, W.C.; Beals, T.M.; Eisenreich, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the fate and transport of metals in Lake Superior is necessary in order to predict the ability of Lake Superior to recover from anthropogenic perturbations (copper mining). Sediment cores were collected from nearshore and offshore sites in Lake Superior and used to evaluate spatial and temporal variations in copper loading associated with mining-related activities. Although both settings have been strongly affected by anthropogenic releases of copper, copper concentrations in nearshore cores are significantly greater than those found in offshore cores, implying that nearshore copper loading is dominated by simple deposition and burial of sediment generated from mining activities. Temporal variations in copper profiles in sediments from nearshore environments closely mimic copper production rates. Conversely, copper loading histories derived from offshore sediments are not well correlated to production rates. The offshore sediment cores, when compared with analogous cores from Lakes Ontario and Michigan, show that the average, lake-wide intensity of copper loading in Lake Superior is comparable to the other two lakes, despite the fact that Lake Superior has received the largest total burden of anthropogenic copper. Cu/Zn ratios, used to evaluate the amount of copper loading derived from mining discharges, vary strongly in nearshore environments in response to loading. Cu/Zn ratios in offshore sediments are much less variable, implying that copper loading may be regulated by additional mechanisms (solution chemistry and/or biologic uptake). Study of trace metal partitioning within Lake Superior sediments indicates that the organic fraction of the sediment contains the majority of the copper. Copper concentrations in offshore sediments are significantly correlated to organic carbon content of the sediment whereas copper concentrations in nearshore sediments are not. These findings support the model that transport and deposition of particles released from mining discharges dominate copper loading in nearshore sediments, whereas biologic uptake and settling of particulate organic matter may regulate copper loading in offshore sediments.

  5. Water Quality and Plankton in the United States Nearshore Waters of Lake Huron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurista, Peder M.; Kelly, John R.; Miller, Samuel E.; Van Alstine, Jon D.

    2012-10-01

    Our goal in the development of a nearshore monitoring method has been to evaluate and refine an in situ mapping approach to assess the nearshore waters across the Great Lakes. The report here for Lake Huron is part of a broader effort being conducted across all five Great Lakes. We conducted an intensive survey for the United States nearshore of Lake Huron along a continuous shoreline transect (523 km) from Port Huron, Michigan, to Detour Passage. A depth contour of 20 m was towed with a conductivity-temperature depth profiler, fluorometer, transmissometer, and laser optical plankton counter. Multiple cross-contour tows (10-30 m) on the cruise dates were used to characterize the variability across a broader range of the nearshore. The cross-contour tows were comparable with the alongshore contour indicating that the 20-m contour does a good job of representing the nearshore region (10-30 m). Strong correlations were observed between water quality and spatially associated watershed land use. A repeat tow separated by several weeks investigated temporal variability in spatial patterns within a summer season. Strong correlations were observed across each variable for the temporal repeat across broad- and fine-scale spatial dimensions. The survey results for Lake Huron nearshore are briefly compared with a similar nearshore survey in Lake Superior. The biomass concentrations of lower food web components of Lake Huron were notably approximately 54-59 % of those in Lake Superior. The towed instrumentation survey supported the recent view of a change in Lake Huron to an ultra-oligotrophic state, which has been uncharacteristic in recent history.

  6. Nearshore energy subsidies support Lake Michigan fishes and invertebrates following major changes in food web structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turschak, Benjamin A; Bunnell, David B.; Czesny, Sergiusz J.; Höök, Tomas O.; Janssen, John; Warner, David M.; Bootsma, Harvey A

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic food webs that incorporate multiple energy channels (e.g. nearshore benthic or pelagic) with varying productivity and turnover rates convey stability to biological communities by providing multiple independent energy sources. Within the Lake Michigan food web, invasive dreissenid mussels have caused rapid changes to food web structure and potentially altered the channels through which consumers acquire energy. We used stable C and N isotopes to determine how Lake Michigan food web structure has changed in the past decade, coincident with the expansion of dreissenid mussels, decreased pelagic phytoplankton production and increased nearshore benthic algal production. Fish and invertebrate samples collected from sites around Lake Michigan were analyzed to determine taxa-specific 13C:12C (delta 13C) and 15N:14N (delta 15N) ratios. Sampling took place during two distinct periods, 2002-2003 and 2010-2012, that spanned the period of dreissenid expansion, and included nearshore, pelagic and profundal fish and invertebrate taxa. Magnitude and direction of the 13C shift indicated significantly greater reliance upon nearshore benthic energy sources among nearly all fish taxa as well as profundal invertebrates. Although the mechanisms underlying this 13C shift likely varied among species, possible causes include the transport of benthic algal production to offshore waters and an increased reliance on nearshore prey items. Delta 15N shifts were more variable and of smaller magnitude across taxa although declines in delta 15N among some pelagic fishes may indicate a shift to alternative prey resources. Lake Michigan fishes and invertebrates appear to have responded to dreissenid induced changes in nutrient and energy pathways by switching from pelagic to alternative nearshore energy subsidies. Although large shifts in energy allocation (i.e. pelagic to nearshore benthic) resulting from invasive species appear to have affected total production at upper trophic levels, changes in trophic structure and utilization of novel energy pathways may help to stabilize food webs following species invasions.

  7. cBathy: A robust algorithm for estimating nearshore bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Rob; Plant, Nathaniel; Holland, Todd

    2013-05-01

    A three-part algorithm is described and tested to provide robust bathymetry maps based solely on long time series observations of surface wave motions. The first phase consists of frequency-dependent characterization of the wave field in which dominant frequencies are estimated by Fourier transform while corresponding wave numbers are derived from spatial gradients in cross-spectral phase over analysis tiles that can be small, allowing high-spatial resolution. Coherent spatial structures at each frequency are extracted by frequency-dependent empirical orthogonal function (EOF). In phase two, depths are found that best fit weighted sets of frequency-wave number pairs. These are subsequently smoothed in time in phase 3 using a Kalman filter that fills gaps in coverage and objectively averages new estimates of variable quality with prior estimates. Objective confidence intervals are returned. Tests at Duck, NC, using 16 surveys collected over 2 years showed a bias and root-mean-square (RMS) error of 0.19 and 0.51 m, respectively but were largest near the offshore limits of analysis (roughly 500 m from the camera) and near the steep shoreline where analysis tiles mix information from waves, swash and static dry sand. Performance was excellent for small waves but degraded somewhat with increasing wave height. Sand bars and their small-scale alongshore variability were well resolved. A single ground truth survey from a dissipative, low-sloping beach (Agate Beach, OR) showed similar errors over a region that extended several kilometers from the camera and reached depths of 14 m. Vector wave number estimates can also be incorporated into data assimilation models of nearshore dynamics.

  8. cBathy: A robust algorithm for estimating nearshore bathymetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holman, Rob; Holland, K. Todd

    2013-01-01

    A three-part algorithm is described and tested to provide robust bathymetry maps based solely on long time series observations of surface wave motions. The first phase consists of frequency-dependent characterization of the wave field in which dominant frequencies are estimated by Fourier transform while corresponding wave numbers are derived from spatial gradients in cross-spectral phase over analysis tiles that can be small, allowing high-spatial resolution. Coherent spatial structures at each frequency are extracted by frequency-dependent empirical orthogonal function (EOF). In phase two, depths are found that best fit weighted sets of frequency-wave number pairs. These are subsequently smoothed in time in phase 3 using a Kalman filter that fills gaps in coverage and objectively averages new estimates of variable quality with prior estimates. Objective confidence intervals are returned. Tests at Duck, NC, using 16 surveys collected over 2 years showed a bias and root-mean-square (RMS) error of 0.19 and 0.51 m, respectively but were largest near the offshore limits of analysis (roughly 500 m from the camera) and near the steep shoreline where analysis tiles mix information from waves, swash and static dry sand. Performance was excellent for small waves but degraded somewhat with increasing wave height. Sand bars and their small-scale alongshore variability were well resolved. A single ground truth survey from a dissipative, low-sloping beach (Agate Beach, OR) showed similar errors over a region that extended several kilometers from the camera and reached depths of 14 m. Vector wave number estimates can also be incorporated into data assimilation models of nearshore dynamics.

  9. Impact of Shoreline Stabilization Structures on Chesapeake Bay Nearshore Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palinkas, C. M.; Sanford, L. P.; Koch, E.; Stevenson, J. C.; Ortt, R.; Lorie, S.; Booth, D.

    2014-12-01

    Currently 69% of Maryland's shoreline is eroding and 12% is hardened with increasing rates of hardening occurring as development progresses. Shoreline erosion rates are likely to increase, and community needs for shoreline protection are likely to become more important as rates of sea-level rise increase with climate change, constituting a serious coastal hazard. However, the effects of different shoreline stabilization structures on erosion and nearshore water quality and habitat are complex. A variety of stabilization techniques are used in the Maryland Chesapeake Bay, and while the qualitative effects of the different techniques are generally known, there is little quantitative, long-term information available. This study has developed a comprehensive data set comparing long-term impacts of different shoreline stabilization techniques on both the physical environment and habitat. These data include shoreline and bathymetric surveys for comparison to pre-installation information, comparison of pre- and post-construction submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) coverage, field surveys of SAV and marshes, and collection of cores to determine changes in sediment characteristics and accumulation rates. We have also assembled available estimates of wave and tides near each site to construct wave-sea level climatologies for use in a semi-empirical model of erosion potential. Statistical tests are used to explore relationships among variables. Preliminary results suggest that sediment characteristics depend on the source of material - shoreline type and estuarine salinity zone (proxy for fine sediment availability) - whereas sedimentation rate depends on structure geometry and the pre-construction sedimentation, which generally reflects physical processes controlling sediment transport. Also, sediment type, rather than structure type, seems to influence SAV (plants need sand).

  10. Nearshore wave-induced cyclical flexing of sea cliffs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, P.N.; Storlazzi, C.D.; Anderson, R. Scott

    2005-01-01

    [1] Evolution of a tectonically active coast is driven by geomorphically destructive energy supplied by ocean waves. Wave energy is episodic and concentrated; sea cliffs are battered by the geomorphic wrecking ball every 4-25 s. We measure the response of sea cliffs to wave assault by sensing the ground motion using near-coastal seismometers. Sea cliffs respond to waves in two distinct styles. High-frequency motion (20 Hz) reflects the natural frequency of the sea cliff as it rings in response to direct wave impact. Low-frequency motion in the 0.1-0.05 Hz (10-20 s) band consistently agrees with the dominant nearshore wave period. Integrating microseismic velocities suggests 50 ??m and 10 ??m displacements in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Displacement ellipsoids exhibit simultaneous downward and seaward sea cliff motion with each wave. Video footage corroborates the downward sea cliff flex in response to the imposed water load on the wave cut platform. Gradients in displacement amplitudes documented using multiple seismometers suggest longitudinal and shear strain of the flexing sea cliff on the order of 0.5-4 ?? strains during each wave loading cycle. As this sea cliff flexure occurs approximately 3 million times annually, it has the potential to fatigue the rock through cyclical loading. Local sea cliff retreat rates of 10 cm/yr imply that a given parcel of rock is flexed through roughly 109 cycles of increasing amplitude before exposure to direct wave attack at the cliff face. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. A High Resolution Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound to Support Nearshore Restoration Feasibility Analysis and Design

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Estuarine and coastal hydrodynamic processes are sometimes neglected in the design and planning of nearshore restoration actions. Despite best intentions, efforts to restore nearshore habitats can result in poor outcomes if circulation and transport which also affect freshwater-saltwater interactions are not properly addressed. Limitations due to current land use can lead to selection of sub-optimal restoration alternatives that may result in undesirable consequences, such as flooding, deterioration of water quality, and erosion, requiring immediate remedies and costly repairs. Uncertainty with achieving restoration goals, such as recovery of tidal exchange, supply of sediment and nutrients, and establishment of fish migration pathways, may be minimized by using numerical models designed for application to the nearshore environment. A high resolution circulation and transport model of the Puget Sound, in the state of Washington, was developed to assist with nearshore habitat restoration design and analysis, and to answer the question “can we achieve beneficial restoration outcomes at small local scale, as well as at a large estuary-wide scale?” The Puget Sound model is based on an unstructured grid framework to define the complex Puget Sound shoreline using a finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM). The capability of the model for simulating the important nearshore processes, such as circulation in complex multiple tidal channels, wetting and drying of tide flats, and water quality and sediment transport as part of restoration feasibility, are illustrated through examples of restoration projects in Puget Sound.

  12. C. Judson King of UC Berkeley

    SciTech Connect

    Prausnitz, John

    2005-06-01

    In the middle of the UC Berkeley campus, next to the Main Library, South Hall is the last surviving building from the original campus, founded about 135 years ago. A tiny tree-shaded appendix to this venerated classical building houses Berkeley's Center for Studies in Higher Education, directed by C. Judson King, former Provost and Senior Vice President--Academic Affairs of the ten-campus University of California and long-time Professor of Chemical Engineering at Berkeley. Jud came to Berkeley in 1963 as assistant professor of chemical engineering, following receipt of a doctor's degree from MIT and a subsequent short appointment as director of the MIT chemical engineering practice school station at what was then Esso (now Exxon) in New Jersey. His undergraduate degree is from Yale. Starting with his MIT doctoral dissertation on gas absorption, Jud has devoted much of his professional career to separation processes. His teaching and research activities have been primarily concerned with separation of mixtures with emphasis on liquid-liquid extraction and drying. As a consultant to Procter and Gamble, he contributed to the technology of making instant coffee. His life-long activities in hiking and camping stimulated Jud's interest in the manufacture of freeze-dried foods (e.g. turkey meat) to minimize the weight of his hiking back-pack. Jud is internationally known not only for his many research publications but even more, for his acclaimed textbook ''Separation Processses'' (McGraw-Hill, second edition 1980) that is used in standard chemical engineering courses in the US and abroad.

  13. Correction to Kreuzbauer, King, and Basu (2015).

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    Reports an error in "The Mind in the Object-Psychological Valuation of Materialized Human Expression" by Robert Kreuzbauer, Dan King and Shankha Basu (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Advanced Online Publication, Jun 15, 2015, np). In the article the labels on the X-axis of Figure 1 "Remove Variance" and "Preserve Variance" should be switched. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-26264-001.) Symbolic material objects such as art or certain artifacts (e.g., fine pottery, jewelry) share one common element: The combination of generating an expression, and the materialization of this expression in the object. This explains why people place a much greater value on handmade over machine-made objects, and originals over duplicates. We show that this mechanism occurs when a material object's symbolic property is salient and when the creator (artist or craftsman) is perceived to have agency control over the 1-to-1 materialized expression in the object. Coactivation of these 2 factors causes the object to be perceived as having high value because it is seen as the embodied representation of the creator's unique personal expression. In 6 experiments, subjects rated objects in various object categories, which varied on the type of object property (symbolic, functional, aesthetic), the production procedure (handmade, machine-made, analog, digital) and the origin of the symbolic information (person or software). The studies showed that the proposed mechanism applies to symbolic, but not to functional or aesthetic material objects. Furthermore, they show that this specific form of symbolic object valuation could not be explained by various other related psychological theories (e.g., uniqueness, scarcity, physical touching, creative performance). Our research provides a universal framework that identifies a core mechanism for explaining judgments of value for one of our most uniquely human symbolic object categories. PMID:26214166

  14. Estimation of Nearshore Waves from Buoy Directional Spectra using SWAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D. T.; Masarik, M.; Almeida, T. G.

    2012-12-01

    An inverse modeling study has been conducted for North Carolina's Onslow Bay with a goal of using wave directional spectra from nearshore buoys to estimate offshore boundary conditions for SWAN model computations. The computational domain extended 300 km alongshore, encompassing the bay and adjacent capes, and roughly 120 km offshore, to just beyond the shelf break; the time period examined was the month of May 2012. The spatial grid spacing was 500m, while 48 directions (7.5 degree resolution) and 50 frequencies were used. Wave directional spectra were obtained hourly from waverider buoys moored in 12-16m of water, accessed via the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC buoys 41109 and 41110). Using a strong constraint variational approach, a spatially uniform incident spectrum was estimated for a given observation time, assuming stationary conditions. The estimation algorithm used an analytical adjoint solved in discrete form using a modified version of the SWAN code. Wave directional spectrum data were used directly in the form of the five directional Fourier series coefficients for each frequency component, as computed by NDBC. Results to be presented are based on estimates using 12 directional spectrum observations per day on 2 days per week during May 2012 (96 total cases). During that time, the significant wave height varied from 0.5-2m, the dominant wave period varied from 5-12s and the wave direction varied +/-40 degrees from cross-shore, representing a broad range of conditions. At the locations of the observations used in the algorithm, the computed wave spectra had RMS errors of 0.10m, 1.1s, and 16 degrees for wave height, period, and direction, respectively. Comparison to independent data from an NDBC discus buoy (41036) moored in 30m of water yields RMS errors of 0.23m, 1.3 s, and 26 degrees, respectively. Comparison of our estimated offshore boundary spectra to those from the US Navy Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) global operational Wavewatch 3 shows RMS differences in wave height and direction comparable to the observed errors in our estimates; however, the FNMOC wave periods were biased 2.2 seconds low for the time period examined.

  15. Hydrothermal influence on nearshore sediments of Kos Island, Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megalovasilis, Pavlos; Godelitsas, Athanasios

    2015-04-01

    The Kos-Nisyros volcanic centre is a long-active, Plio-Pleistocene magmatic system in the subduction zone along the easternmost edge of the active Hellenic volcanic arc in the Aegean Sea. Although today there are signs of relative quiescence in volcanic activity, active onshore fumaroles and shallow-sea hydrothermal vents persist on, amongst others, the island of Kos. The present study explores the large-scale imprint of hydrothermally sourced heavy metals and nutrients on the island's coastal marine environment, based on geochemical data collected in September 2007 from hydrothermal waters and surficial nearshore sediments (<10 m water depth) at several vents in the Bros Thermi and Kephalos Bay hydrothermal fields. There were strong spatiotemporal fluctuations in gas and water flow rates at the vent sitesfor example, the gas/water flux ratio varied by as much as two orders of magnitude (0.03-1.30) at Kephalos Bay vents over a 2-day measurement period on 15-16 September 2007. Confirming earlier work, hydrothermal waters had higher levels of F, Ca and Sr, and lower levels of Na, Mg and SO4 compared with ambient seawater. Moreover, there was novel evidence of strong, widespread Zn and also Mn enhancement. Cluster and factor analyses of surficial sediment data from the Bros Thermi vents (fine (mud) fractions, <63 ?m, 6N HCl dissolution) revealed distinct groups of elements such as Cu+Pb+Zn and Mn+Mg. Spatial distribution maps showed similarities in the dispersion of Cu and Pb, and of Ca and Ba. The distribution of HCl-soluble material is the inverse mirror image of the distribution of the residual (silicate and Al-silicate) phase. These findings considerably expand on existing knowledge that the coastal zone of Kos is severely influenced by ongoing submarine hydrothermal activity, and confirm that shallow-water sediment Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb levels are substantially higher than those of other islands along the Hellenic volcanic arc, and even exceed those of some deep-water hydrothermal vents in other world regions. Evidently, there may be significant metallic sulphide deposits of hydrothermal origin at depth beneath Kos.

  16. Breakpoint-forced and bound long waves in the nearshore: A model comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    List, Jeffrey H.

    1993-01-01

    A finite-difference model is used to compare long wave amplitudes arising from two-group forced generation mechanisms in the nearshore: long waves generated at a time-varying breakpoint and the shallow-water extension of the bound long wave. Plane beach results demonstrate that the strong frequency selection in the outgoing wave predicted by the breakpoint-forcing mechanism may not be observable in field data due to this wave's relatively small size and its predicted phase relation with the bound wave. Over a bar/trough nearshore, it is shown that a strong frequency selection in shoreline amplitudes is not a unique result of the time-varying breakpoint model, but a general result of the interaction between topography and any broad-banded forcing of nearshore long waves.

  17. Influence of Cladophora-Quagga Mussel Assemblages on Nearshore Methylmercury Production in Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Lepak, Ryan F; Krabbenhoft, David P; Ogorek, Jacob M; Tate, Michael T; Bootsma, Harvey A; Hurley, James P

    2015-07-01

    Recent spread of invasive mussels in Lake Michigan has altered primary productivity in the nearshore zone, resulting in proliferation of filamentous benthic green algae (Cladophora glomerata). In areas of dense Cladophora and quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) assemblages, as well as in regions where sloughed Cladophora accumulates, methylmercury (MeHg) production is enhanced. A shoreline transect from a river mouth through waters overlying Cladophora/quagga-rich zones showed that aqueous MeHg concentrations increased, despite river dilution. Cladophora, as primary producers, ranged from 0.6 to 7.5 ng g(-1) MeHg [4-47% of total mercury (Hg) as MeHg], and were higher than MeHg concentrations in offshore-collected seston. Concentrations of MeHg in decaying Cladophora accumulated onshore ranged from 2.6 to 18.0 ng g(-1) MeHg (18-41% as MeHg) and from 0.1 to 3.0 ng g(-1) MeHg (2-21% as MeHg) in deposits of recently sloughed and accumulated Cladophora in a nearshore topographical depression. Relative to offshore open waters, interstitial waters within decaying Cladophora from onshore and nearshore deposits were elevated in MeHg concentration, 1000- and 10-fold, respectively. Percent Hg as MeHg was also elevated (65-75% and 9-19%, respectively for onshore interstitial water and nearshore interstitial water, compared to 0.2-3.3% as MeHg for open water). Quagga mussels collected within growing Cladophora beds in the nearshore zone were significantly higher in MeHg than offshore counterparts. Our combined results suggest that recent changes in nearshore primary production contributes to MeHg production and bioaccumulation in Lake Michigan. PMID:26007285

  18. Nearshore Sediment Budget: Correlating Volume to Shoreline Change, Outer Banks, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miselis, J. L.; McNinch, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    Though the importance of understanding the exchange of sediment between the shoreline and the nearshore has long been recognized, data capable of addressing the three-dimensional character of the system are lacking. The response of traditional cross-shore profiles to forcing is not representative of the entire beach because of alongshore variability of the beach and nearshore sandbar. Measuring changes in shoreline position along the coast permits analysis of alongshore shoreline variability, but does not account for the actual volume of sediment lost from and restored to the beach. Temporally and spatially variable erosional hotspots identified by List and Farris (1999) along the Outer Banks, North Carolina further confound the study of coastal sediment exchange in the region of interest. A geophysical survey (from Duck to Oregon Inlet) was carried out in order to understand the role of geological characteristics in the transport of sediment between the shoreline and nearshore. Contrary to the assumptions of many shoreline and shoreface change models, the modern sand layer observed over the 40-km study area is not infinitely thick and is highly variable. Modern sediment thicknesses were calculated to a continuous seismic reflection surface that spanned the survey area, the average being 0.42m 0.19m. Higher standard deviations (variability) in sediment thickness seem to be loosely related to the presence of shore-oblique sandbars as described by McNinch (in press). Nearshore sediment volume was calculated and relationships to nearshore morphology were explored. Though shore-oblique bars may not represent a large percentage of the total sand regionally (7.9%), locally their influence is much greater. Of the three areas in which bars were identified, the volume of sediment contained within the bars represented 44% of the total volume in the largest bar field, and 14% and 11%, respectively, in more minor bar fields. Nearshore sediment volumes correlated well (correlation coefficient 0.60) with long-term shoreline change data (50 year data set, NC Division of Coastal Management) suggesting that long-term trends in shoreline change may be related to the total amount of available sediment in the nearshore. Correlation analyses with short-term shoreline change data will also be explored. These preliminary data suggest that volume calculations considering the total amount of nearshore sediment above a continuous, non-sandy seismic reflection surface may be useful in the prediction of long-term shoreline change trends. The utility of this approach in predicting changes over shorter temporal and spatial scales is the subject of current research.

  19. Land-use planning for nearshore ecosystem services—the Puget Sound Ecosystem Portfolio Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrd, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    The 2,500 miles of shoreline and nearshore areas of Puget Sound, Washington, provide multiple benefits to people—"ecosystem services"—including important fishing, shellfishing, and recreation industries. To help resource managers plan for expected growth in coming decades, the U.S. Geological Survey Western Geographic Science Center has developed the Puget Sound Ecosystem Portfolio Model (PSEPM). Scenarios of urban growth and shoreline modifications serve as model inputs to develop alternative futures of important nearshore features such as water quality and beach habitats. Model results will support regional long-term planning decisions for the Puget Sound region.

  20. An Integrated Set of Observations to Link Conditions of Great Lakes Nearshore Waters to their Coastal Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    We combine three elements for a comprehensive characterization that links nearshore conditions with coastal watershed disturbance metrics. The three elements are: 1) a shore-parallel, high-resolution nearshore survey using continuous in situ towed sensors; 2) a spatially-balanc...

  1. Detecting Land-based Signals in the Near-shore Zone of Lake Erie During Summer 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted two styles of nearshore surveys in Lake Erie during August to mid-September 2009. The first used a spatially-balanced probability survey (SBS) design to establish discrete stations within a GIS-defined target populationthe nearshore zone extending approximately 5 km...

  2. Naval submarine base Kings Bay and Bangor soil evaluations.

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Joseph; Patteson, Raymond; Wesenberg, Donald L.; Attaway, Stephen W.

    2004-08-01

    This report provides soil evaluation and characterization testing for the submarine bases at Kings Bay, Georgia, and Bangor, Washington, using triaxial testing at high confining pressures with different moisture contents. In general, the samples from the Bangor and Kings Bay sites appeared to be stronger than a previously used reference soil. Assuming the samples of the material were representative of the material found at the sites, they should be adequate for use in the planned construction. Since soils can vary greatly over even a small site, a soil specification for the construction contractor would be needed to insure that soil variations found at the site would meet or exceed the requirements. A suggested specification for the Bangor and Kings Bay soils was presented based on information gathered from references plus data obtained from this study, which could be used as a basis for design by the construction contractor.

  3. An Uncommon Complication with a Supraglottic Airway: The King LT.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sara; Cherian, Verghese T; Greco, Katherine; Mets, Elbert; Budde, Arne

    2016-02-15

    General anesthesia was administered in an 18-year-old man for removal of hardware from his right knee using a King Laryngeal Tube supraglottic airway. An hour after extubation, he reported inability to swallow with no respiratory distress. Examination showed an edematous uvula, which took 3 days to subside with anti-inflammatory medication. During the positioning of the King Laryngeal Tube, it was pulled back to ensure adequate ventilation. The inflated cuff could have dragged the uvula and folded it on itself, leading to venous congestion and edema. PMID:26579612

  4. The Archaeology of Smuggling and the Falmouth King's Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Sam

    2009-06-01

    This article demonstrates the potential of an historical archaeology of smuggling and the value of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of smuggling and its prevention. By exploring the previously unstudied history of the Kings Pipe in Falmouth, a large chimney used for the destruction of tobacco, a rare survivor of many that once existed in Englands port cities, it demonstrates that archaeology could transform our understanding of smuggling and its prevention, and more broadly the history of crime and punishment in eighteenth century England.

  5. King's theory of goal attainment: exploring functional status.

    PubMed

    Caceres, Billy A

    2015-04-01

    Imogene King's Theory of Goal Attainment provides a schema for nurses interested in functional status. However, the lack of a uniform definition for functional status has hindered development of a concise understanding of this phenomenon. Functional status is particularly important to nurses who are concerned with the safety and wellbeing of clients. With healthcare's increased focus on client-family-centered care it is important to develop innovative approaches for evaluating functional status that incorporate the client-family perspective. King's focus on mutual decision-making is an underutilized resource that can provide great insight into the study and understanding of functional status. PMID:25805388

  6. Dragon-Kings, Black-Swans and Prediction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, D.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme fluctuations or events are often associated with power law statistics. Indeed, it is a popular belief that "wild randomness'' is deeply associated with distributions with power law tails characterized by small exponents. In other words, power law tails are often seen as the epitome of extreme events (the "Black Swan'' story). Here, we document in very different systems that there is life beyond power law tails: power laws can be superseded by "dragon-kings'', monster events that occur beyond (or changing) the power law tail. Dragon-kings reveal hidden mechanisms that are only transiently active and that amplify the normal fluctuations (often described by the power laws of the normal regime). The goal of this lecture is to catalyze the interest of the community of geophysicists across all fields of geosciences so that the "invisible gorilla" fallacy may be avoided. Our own research illustrates that new statistics or representation of data are often necessary to identify dragon-kings, with strategies guided by the underlying mechanisms. Paradoxically, the monsters may be ignored or hidden by the use of inappropriate analysis or statistical tools that amount to cut a mamooth in small pieces, so as to lead to the incorrect belief that only mice exist. In order to stimulate further research, we will document and discuss the dragon-king phenomenon on the statistics of financial losses, economic geography, hydrodynamic turbulence, mechanical ruptures, avalanches in complex heterogeneous media, earthquakes, and epileptic seizures. The special status of dragon-kings open a new research program on their predictability, based on the fact that they belong to a different class of their own and express specific mechanisms amplifying the normal dynamics via positive feedbacks. We will present evidence of these claims for the predictions of material rupture, financial crashes and epileptic seizures. As a bonus, a few remarks will be offered at the end on how the dragon-king phenomenon allows us to understand the present World financial crisis as underpinned in two decades of successive financial and economic bubbles, inflating the mother of all bubbles with new monster dragon-kings at the horizon. The consequences in terms of a new "normal" are eye-opening. Ref: D. Sornette, Dragon-Kings, Black Swans and the Prediction of Crises, International Journal of Terraspace Science and Engineering 1(3), 1-17 (2009) (http://arXiv.org/abs/0907.4290) and (http://ssrn.com/abstract=1470006)

  7. 3 CFR 8773 - Proclamation 8773 of January 13, 2012. Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Lincoln Memorial, the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. inspired a movement that would push our country... fiercest resistance, we are the benefactors of an extraordinary legacy of progress. Today, Dr. King...

  8. 76 FR 38452 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: King Amenemhet II

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``King Amenemhet II'' SUMMARY: Notice..., I hereby determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``King Amenemhet II,''...

  9. Analysis of near-shore sea surface temperatures in the Northern Pacific

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies report a warming trend in Pacific Ocean temperatures over the last 50 years. However, much less is known about temperature change in the near-coastal environment, which is particularly sensitive to climatic change. In near-shore regions in situ sea surface temper...

  10. FINDING AND READING ECOLOGICAL SIGNALS IN THE NEARSHORE OF THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adjunct UMD faculty make annual presentations on research interest to IBS graduate students and faculty. Talks engage students in research and application to environmental problems. This presentation discusses the ecology of the nearshore areas of the Great Lakes, and ways to fi...

  11. Application of remote sensing to study nearshore circulation. [and the continental shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, J.; Lobecker, R.; Stauble, D.; Welch, C.; Haas, L.; Fang, C. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research to use remote sensing techniques for studying the continental shelf is reported. The studies reported include: (1) nearshore circulation in the vincinity of a natural tidal inlet; (2) identification of indicators of biological activity; (3) remote navigation system for tracking free drifting buoys; (4) experimental design of an estuaring tidal circulation; and (5) Skylab support work.

  12. VARIABILITY, PATTERN, AND SENSITIVITY OF ECOLOGICAL INDICAORS FOR NEARSHORE REGIONS OF THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Associated with the Great Lakes Environmental Indicators (GLEI) project of the EaGLe program, we are evaluating a suite of indicators of ecological condition for the nearshore region of U.S. shorelines of the Great Lakes. The evaluation includes sampling conducted at limited fix...

  13. Monitoring Bacterial Water Quality for Application to Watershed and Nearshore Fate and Transport Model Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, L. M.; Ritzenthaler, A.; Kramer, E.; Anderson, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing interest in linking watershed processes with nearshore processes in order to predict the fate and transport of pollutants, including bacteria, for application to management of recreational waters. However, traditional nearshore bacterial water quality monitoring programs are not sufficiently informative for understanding the spatio-temporal variability of water quality at scales that are relevant to process modeling. During the summer and fall of 2012, 2013, and 2014, we conducted increasingly intensive monitoring specifically designed to aid in the development of a linked watershed-hydrodynamics modeling framework for simulating the impacts of Michigan's Clinton River on the nearshore bacterial water quality of Lake St. Clair. Monitoring incorporated multiple sampling "events," including routine weekly sampling at 19 points along 19 km of shoreline, periodic transects perpendicular to the shoreline, periodic offshore sampling corresponding to the shoreline sampling points, repeated shoreline sampling over several 3-day periods, weekly river grab samples, hourly sampling of the river at baseline conditions, and hourly sampling of the river during high flow events. These sampling events allow exploration of the spatiotemporal variability of nearshore water quality resulting from local physiographic factors as well as the temporal variability of water quality in the river outlets. We present results describing the spatiotemporal variability as it relates to the watershed and hydrodynamics processes represented in a linked modeling framework which is under development.

  14. Interaction of nearshore, beach and dune systems: implications for barrier island morphology (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, C.; Weymer, B. A.; Trimble, S. M.; Barrineau, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    Improvements and advances in technology permit the measurement of sediment transport and fluid dynamics at increasingly smaller temporal and spatial scales. While these studies provide greater insight about small-scale processes, it remains unclear how to transfer this improved understanding of these processes to the convergences and divergences of transport that are ultimately responsible for the evolution of nearshore, beach and dune environments. A series of field experiments are used to examine how small-scale processes and the exchange of sediment amongst the nearshore, beach and dune is dependent on the antecedent morphology. Specifically, the transport of sediment from beach to dune is shown to depend on the synchronization of sediment supply and transport potential that vary as the beach and backshore evolve. The evolution of the beach and backshore in turn depends on the transformation of the incident wave field over the nearshore profile, which is dependent on the bathymetry of the inner-shelf. In this respect, the interaction of nearshore, beach and dune systems is self-reinforcing and evidence is presented to show this interaction is responsible for the alongshore variation in barrier island morphology. It is argued that the dependency of process on morphology creates new opportunities for research in which changes in process vary with changes morphology in both space and time.

  15. NEARSHORE-OFFSHORE PATTERNS IN FOOD WEB CHARACTERISTICS IN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are exploring the use of food web properties to characterize nearshore and offshore habitats in the Great lakes. We analyzed the stable isotope signatures of benthos (predominantly Diporeia hoyi) and plankton from Lake Superior habitats ranging from 20m to 300m depth...

  16. Evaluating a Lake Tahoe nearshore assessment strategy: A circumnavigation survey, August 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    We had the opportunity to apply a high-resolution nearshore sampling strategy, developed in the US/Canadian Laurentian Great Lakes, to Lake Tahoe. The strategy uses towed in situ sensors (physico-chemistry and biology) oscillated from near surface to near bottom while a vessel i...

  17. Nearshore marine benthic invertebrates moving north along the U.S. Atlantic coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous species have shifted their ranges north in response to global warming. We examined 21 years (1990-2010) of marine benthic invertebrate data from the National Coastal Assessment’s monitoring of nearshore waters along the US Atlantic coast. Data came from three bioge...

  18. Lake Superior: Nearshore Variability and a Landscape Driver Concept (journal article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatial variation is well known to exist in water quality parameters of the Great Lakes nearshore, however strong patterns for extended reaches also have been observed and found to be robust across seasonal time frames. Less is known about robustness of inter-annual variation wi...

  19. Water Quality and Plankton in the United States Nearshore Waters of Lake Huron

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted an intensive survey for the US nearshore of Lake Huron along a continuous segment (523 km) from Port Huron Michigan to Detour Passage. A depth contour of 20 m was towed with a CTD, fluorometer, transmissometer, and laser optical plankton counter (LOPC). The continu...

  20. A simple approximation for wave refraction - Application to the assessment of the nearshore wave directionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lpez-Ruiz, Alejandro; Solari, Sebastin; Ortega-Snchez, Miguel; Losada, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    This work presents a simple and relatively quick methodology to obtain the nearshore wave angle. The method is especially valuable for curvilinear coasts where Snell's law may provide excessively inaccurate results. We defined a correction factor, K, that depends on the geometry of the coast and on the wave climate. The values of this coefficient were obtained minimizing the differences with a sophisticated numerical model. The limitations and performance of the methodology are further discussed. The procedure was applied to a beach in Southern Spain to analyze the influence of shoreline geometry on nearshore wave directionality. Offshore and nearshore distributions of wave period and directions were analyzed, and the results showed that the geometry of the coast played a crucial role in the directionality of the nearshore waves, which also plays an important role in hydrodynamics. The methodology presented here is able to analyze and quantify the importance of this directionality without a noticeable computational cost, even when a long time series of wave data are considered. Hence, this methodology constitutes a useful and efficient tool for practical applications in Coastal and Ocean Engineering, such as sedimentary, wave energy, and wave climate studies.

  1. Reading Stephen King: Issues of Censorship, Student Choice, and Popular Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Brenda Miller, Ed.; Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.; Chandler, Kelly, Ed.

    This collection of essays grew out of the "Reading Stephen King Conference" held at the University of Maine in 1996. Stephen King's books have become a lightning rod for the tensions around issues of including "mass market" popular literature in middle and high school English classes and of who chooses what students read. King's fiction is among…

  2. Ugiuvangmiut Quliapyuit = King Island Tales. Eskimo History and Legends from Bering Strait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lawrence D., Ed.

    The collection of native tales from King Island, Alaska, contains tales told originally in Inupiaq Eskimo by seven native elders. Introductory sections provide background information on the storytellers, King Island Village and its people, traditional life there, and the language of the King Islanders. The 25 tales are divided into groups: "The

  3. 78 FR 38313 - Kings River Conservation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kings River Conservation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On June 3, 2013, the Kings River... study the feasibility of the Gould Weir Hydroelectric Project, to be located on the Kings River,...

  4. Ugiuvangmiut Quliapyuit = King Island Tales. Eskimo History and Legends from Bering Strait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lawrence D., Ed.

    The collection of native tales from King Island, Alaska, contains tales told originally in Inupiaq Eskimo by seven native elders. Introductory sections provide background information on the storytellers, King Island Village and its people, traditional life there, and the language of the King Islanders. The 25 tales are divided into groups: "The…

  5. 78 FR 39599 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco... Marina to the launch site off of Kings Beach, CA in approximate position 39 13'55'' N, 120 01'42'' W...

  6. Let Freedom Ring: The Life & Legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This lesson plan teaches students about the life and work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Students listen to a brief biography, view photographs of the March on Washington, and read a portion of King's "I Have a Dream" speech. After studying Dr. King's use of imagery and allusion, students create original poetic phrases about freedom and illustrate…

  7. Henry David Thoreau, Martin Luther King Jr., and the American Tradition of Protest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. fundamentally altered the tradition of protest and reform. Compares and contrasts the role of each man in U.S. social and constitutional history. Concludes that while Thoreau lacked the broad influence of King, his writings influenced both King and Mohandas Gandhi. (CFR)

  8. NEA President Don Morrison Interviews Mrs. Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Don

    1972-01-01

    Civil rights leader's widow suggests activities conducive to peaceful social change, including Foundation-released film. Describes King Atlanta Center's plans for teacher-training in nonviolent means to attack poverty, fortify women's rights, improve race relations and black representation, end segregation outside South. (PD)

  9. King College Library: Online Databases vs. Hard Copy Subscriptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Mark Y.

    1983-01-01

    Relates experiences of library director at King College--a small, four-year, undergraduate, private college faced with difficult budgetary decisions. Periodical collection, budgetary problems, cost effective online searches, acceptance of services by library patrons, and problems and solutions connected with implementation of online services are

  10. Search for variables in the open cluster King 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, E.; Netopil, M.; Rode-Paunzen, M.; Bozic, H.

    2015-06-01

    We present the time series analysis of CCD photometry from the 1 m telescope at the Hvar Observatory (Croatia) for 54 stars in the area of the young open clusters King 12. We found no new variable but list upper detection limits.

  11. Skull Size and Intelligence, and King Robert Bruce's IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Ferguson, Karen J.; Bastin, Mark E.; Barrow, Geoffrey W. S.; Reid, Louise M.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; MacLullich, Alasdair M. J.

    2007-01-01

    An estimate of someone's IQ is a potentially informative personal datum. This study examines the association between external skull measurements and IQ scores, and uses the resulting regression equation to provide an estimate of the IQ of King Robert I of Scotland (Robert Bruce, 1274-1329). Participants were 48 relatively healthy Caucasian men

  12. Unilateral congenital elbow luxation in a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A 7-week-old, intact female, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel was evaluated for nonweight bearing lameness of the right forelimb. Type III unilateral congenital elbow luxation was diagnosed radiographically. After surgical reduction, temporary placement of a transarticular pin, and external splinting of the joint, full weight bearing was achieved. Radial head subluxation persisted. PMID:15600161

  13. Making Sense of the Senseless: The Murder of Lawrence King

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Beth

    2009-01-01

    When Larry King was murdered, allegedly due to a classmate's prejudice, some pundits asked if adults were to blame for encouraging him to come out. They can't be sure what adults did or didn't do, but the question remains: Should adults encourage LGBT [lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered] youth to come out? No. They shouldn't push a young…

  14. Teaching about Martin Luther King, Jr.: To What End?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banfield, Beryle

    1985-01-01

    Argues that the celebration of Martin Luther King's birthday provides an opportunity to reaffirm his principles of social justice and positive social change. Outlines a teaching-learning unit (G4-12) based on his writings and speeches. Describes materials needed; teacher preparation; objectives; concepts to be explored; skills to be developed and

  15. Population dynamics of king eiders breeding in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, Rebecca L.; Powell, Abby N.

    2012-01-01

    The North American population of king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) has declined by more than 50% since the late 1970s for unknown reasons. King eiders spend most of their lives in remote areas, forcing managers to make regulatory and conservation decisions based on very little information. We incorporated available published estimates of vital rates with new estimates to build a female, stage-based matrix population model for king eiders and examine the processes underlying population dynamics of king eiders breeding at 2 sites, Teshekpuk and Kuparuk, on the coastal plain of northern Alaska and wintering around the Bering Sea (2001–2010). We predicted a decreasing population (λ = 0.981, 95% CI: 0.978–0.985), and that population growth was most sensitive to changes in adult female survival (sensitivity = 0.92). Low duckling survival may be a bottleneck to productivity (variation in ducking survival accounted for 66% of retrospective variation in λ). Adult survival was high (0.94) and invariant (σ = 0.0002, 95% CI: 0.0000–0.0007); however, catastrophic events could have a major impact and we need to consider how to mitigate and manage threats to adult survival. A hypothetical oil spill affecting breeding females in a primary spring staging area resulted in a severe population decline; although, transient population dynamics were relatively stable. However, if no catastrophic events occur, the more variable reproductive parameters (duckling and nest survival) may be more responsive to management actions.

  16. 76 FR 3819 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 13 / Thursday, January 20, 2011 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8624 of January 14, 2011 Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A...

  17. Skull Size and Intelligence, and King Robert Bruce's IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Ferguson, Karen J.; Bastin, Mark E.; Barrow, Geoffrey W. S.; Reid, Louise M.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; MacLullich, Alasdair M. J.

    2007-01-01

    An estimate of someone's IQ is a potentially informative personal datum. This study examines the association between external skull measurements and IQ scores, and uses the resulting regression equation to provide an estimate of the IQ of King Robert I of Scotland (Robert Bruce, 1274-1329). Participants were 48 relatively healthy Caucasian men…

  18. LEGENDS OF KING ARTHUR. LITERATURE CURRICULUM III, STUDENT VERSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    A STUDENT VERSION OF A CURRICULUM GUIDE ON THE "LEGENDS OF KING ARTHUR" WAS DEVELOPED. SELECTED LEGENDS ARE REPRODUCED ALONG WITH AN INTRODUCTION, STUDY QUESTIONS, AND A PASSAGE FROM MALORY'S "LE MORTE D'ARTHUR" IN THE ORIGINAL LANGUAGE OF THE FIRST EDITION (1485). THE TEACHER VERSION IS ED 010 814. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 010 129 THROUGH ED 010

  19. LEGENDS OF KING ARTHUR. LITERATURE CURRICULUM III, TEACHER VERSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    A TEACHER VERSION OF A CURRICULUM GUIDE ON THE "LEGENDS OF KING ARTHUR" WAS DEVELOPED. AN ENLARGED AND MORE DETAILED INTRODUCTION THAN THAT PROVIDED FOR THE STUDENT VERSION WAS PRESENTED. STUDY QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS, WRITING ASSIGNMENTS, AND SUGGESTED READINGS WERE ALSO PROVIDED. THE STUDENT VERSION IS ED 010 813. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 010 129

  20. A Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Curriculum: Playing the Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Sydney Gurewitz

    1988-01-01

    Discusses curriculum for young children centered around the beliefs and teachings of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. His works are interpreted in a human rights context in which children find their voice in the peaceable resolution of everyday conflicts. Describes the Child of the Day program. (Author/RWB)

  1. Martin Luther King Jr.: The Crozer Seminary Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Clayborne

    1997-01-01

    As an undergraduate at Morehouse College, Martin Luther King Jr. was not a strong student, although he excelled in oratory, but in his years at Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania he applied himself to become a straight-A student. The development of his theological perspective is described. (SLD)

  2. Parts of Antarctica's King George Island are littered with trash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2013-02-01

    A report released 7 February by ecologists from Germany's Friedrich Schiller University Jena reveals that parts of King George Island, a logistical hub for international research in Antarctica, are home to open pits of trash, decaying field huts, and other forms of pollution.

  3. Effects of OsteoKing on osteoporotic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    DAI, LIFEN; WU, HAIYING; YU, SHAN; ZHAO, HONGBIN; XUE, LANJIE; XU, MING; SHEN, ZHIQIANG; HU, MIN

    2015-01-01

    Heng-Gu-Gu-Shang-Yu-He-Ji, also known as OsteoKing, is used as a herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of bone disease, including femoral head necrosis and osteoarthritis. However, whether OsteoKing has anti-osteoporotic properties has remained to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was therefore to investigate the effects of OsteoKing on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rabbits. Female New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into an ovariectomized (OVX) group and a sham-surgery group. The rabbits in the OVX group were subjected to an ovariectomy, while the rabbits in the sham group were subjected to the removal of an area of fat near the two ovaries. Bone mineral density, mechanical properties, serum biochemical parameters and micro-architecture were examined at 150 days post-OVX to characterize the experimental animal model. Once the osteoporotic rabbit model had been established, the rabbits in the OVX group were divided into the following groups: Model group, nilestriol group and 300 and 600 mg/kg OsteoKing groups, containing 16 rabbits in each group. OsteoKing and nilestriol were administered orally. The bone mineral density, mechanical properties, serum biochemical parameters, histology and micro-architecture were examined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric analysis, mechanical assessments, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, histopathological evaluation and micro-computerized tomography examination following 60 days and 120 days of treatment, respectively. Treatment with OsteoKing led to an elevation in the bone mineral density of the vertebra and serum phosphorus levels, reduced serum concentrations of osteocalcin, procollagen type I N-terminal peptide, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen, improved mechanical properties (maximum load, stiffness and energy absorption capacity), and micro-architecture of the lumbar vertebra in the OVX osteoporotic rabbit model following treatment for 120 days. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that OsteoKing is effective in the prevention of estrogen deficiency-associated bone loss and may be a promising drug for the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:25815520

  4. Fat King Penguins Are Less Steady on Their Feet

    PubMed Central

    Willener, Astrid S. T.; Handrich, Yves; Halsey, Lewis G.; Strike, Siobhán

    2016-01-01

    Returning to the shore after a feeding sojourn at sea, king penguins often undertake a relatively long terrestrial journey to the breeding colony carrying a heavy, mostly frontal, accumulation of fat along with food in the stomach for chick-provisioning. There they must survive a fasting period of up to a month in duration, during which their complete reliance on endogenous energy stores results in a dramatic loss in body mass. Our aim was to determine if the king penguin’s walking gait changes with variations in body mass. We investigated this by walking king penguins on a treadmill while instrumented with an acceleration data logger. The stride frequency, dynamic body acceleration (DBA) and posture of fat (pre-fasting; 13.2 kg) and slim (post fasting; 11 kg) king penguins were assessed while they walked at the same speed (1.4km/h) on a treadmill. Paired statistical tests indicated no evidence for a difference in dynamic body acceleration or stride frequency between the two body masses however there was substantially less variability in both leaning angle and the leaning amplitude of the body when the birds were slimmer. Furthermore, there was some evidence that the slimmer birds exhibited a decrease in waddling amplitude. We suggest the increase in variability of both leaning angle and amplitude, as well as a possibly greater variability in the waddling amplitude, is likely to result from the frontal fat accumulation when the birds are heavier, which may move the centre of mass anteriorly, resulting in a less stable upright posture. This study is the first to use accelerometry to better understand the gait of a species within a specific ecological context: the considerable body mass change exhibited by king penguins. PMID:26886216

  5. Tracking Changes in Coastal and Nearshore Morphology in the Southern Beaufort Sea Using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, S. M.; Fraser, P.; Whalen, D.

    2007-12-01

    Nearshore morphology in the Mackenzie Delta region of the Beaufort Sea is poorly known because much of the region is very shallow (< 2 m) and the water is highly turbid. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been used to map nearshore morphology of lakes in Alaska by taking advantage of the ability of radar waves to penetrate freshwater ice. This technique has been extended to the Mackenzie Delta nearshore region where winter ice forms from river water that is sufficiently fresh so as to be transparent at SAR frequencies. SAR allows the delineation of sea ice that freezes to the seabed (bottom-fast ice or BFI). A time series of imagery throughout a winter depicts the progressive growth of areas where BFI occurs and if sea ice thickness is known at the time of imaging, the delineation of BFI zones represents a proxy for bathymetry. Progressive development of BFI was mapped through the winters of 2003-07 and isolated images from other years are available. The nearshore morphology of the region as revealed by BFI mapping is characterized by extensive nearshore shoals that form at the mouths of active distributaries and are separated by wide, slightly deeper embayments. Narrow channels can be seen to transect the shoals both aligned with and orthogonal to the river outflow. Detailed images from thick ice years depict channels fanning out to feed distributary mouth bars. Comparison of images acquired over more than 10 years suggest that shoal migration can exceed 100 m per year and channel incision of the shoals to depths of >5 m has occurred. The BFI imagery suggests that there is sufficient room beneath the sea ice cover to permit river discharge to reach the shelf without requiring extensive networks of sub- ice channels. The distribution of bottomfast ice also constrains discharge during winter and spring. High inflows occurring during winter surges may lift the ice canopy or over flow onto the surface of the ice disrupting transportation networks. Negative surges in winter can seal off channels. Rising spring discharge is routed over the surface of the nearshore ice when the capacity of the constrained sub-ice drainage network is exceeded causing extensive flooding of the ice surface and strudel drainage to occur.

  6. Correlation of Sub-Aerial Beach Change with Numerical Model Derived Nearshore Wave Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Erikson, L.; Barnard, P. L.; Eshleman, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Wave-induced sediment transport on and off of beaches is difficult to understand and predict without thorough knowledge of the nearshore wave conditions. Wave data is commonly provided by a buoy located offshore in deep water that measures waves prior to shoaling and refraction. Irregular bathymetry causes dissimilar refraction and shoaling and can lead to variable wave conditions in the nearshore environment. To account for wave propagation over varying bathymetry, numerical wave models are good tools for estimating the nearshore wave climate from offshore wave data. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA is an energetic, intermediately sloping beach that was the subject of frequent sub-aerial topographic surveys in 2005 and 2006, with some surveys being as close as two days apart. Sediment volume change derived from these surveys was correlated to nearshore wave heights estimated from offshore buoy measurements and the application of the numerical wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). The SWAN model was used to create a "look-up" table of nearshore wave heights from over 4500 combinations of offshore wave heights, periods, and directions. The model was run using a nested grid scheme using three separate spatial resolutions, with the finest being closest to shore. Correlations between the sub-aerial beach volume data at five morphologically different reaches of Ocean Beach and the SWAN derived wave heights from just outside of the surf zone (in 5, 7.5, or 10 m of water depending on wave height) are generally low, with R2 values less than 0.5, with the highest being 0.61. Although the coefficients of determination are low in most instances the significance exceeds 90%. The reason for the low coefficients of determination is not known but is currently being investigated; some possible reasons are improper characterization of the lengthy time series of wave data between surveys (up to 28 days), or the ignored effect of strong along-shore directed tidal currents (O(~1m/s)) on breaking waves in the surf zone.

  7. Human Progress Never Rolls in on Wheels of Inevitability: Biographies of Martin Luther King, Jr., in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemek, Francis E.

    1990-01-01

    Presents resources for teaching about Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Outlines criteria for selecting biographies for children and young adults. Identifies problems in certain biographies of King, and recommends high quality biographies of King. Discusses exercises for integrating themes from King's life into the classroom. (RW)

  8. Diel variation in near-shore great lakes fish assemblages and implications for assessment sampling and coastal management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, J.E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    I compared fish assemblages captured in three different microhabitats (shoreline, pelagic near-shore, and benthic near-shore) during day and night fishing in different protection (inside bay or tributary vs. outside in Lake Ontario proper) and turbidity regimes of four near-shore areas of Lake Ontario. The effects of diel movement and availability to gear were clearly evident. Fish assemblages were consistently and significantly more diverse at night than during the day, with nighttime assemblages often being supersets of daytime assemblages. Evidence for a turbidity effect was much weaker than the effects of nocturnal movements and changes in availability to the gear associated with darkness. Nighttime sampling is more likely to capture the full array of species in near-shore areas of the Great Lakes than daytime sampling.

  9. Backwash process of marine macroplastics from a beach by nearshore currents around a submerged breakwater.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kato, Shigeru

    2015-12-30

    A key factor for determining the residence time of macroplastics on a beach is the process by which the plastics are backwashed offshore (backwash process). Here, we deduced the backwash process of plastic fishing floats on Wadahama Beach based on the analysis of two-year mark-recapture experiments as well as nearshore current structures revealed by sequential images taken by za webcam installed at the edge of a cliff behind the beach. The analysis results revealed the occurrence of a combination of offshore currents and convergence of alongshore currents in the surf zone in storm events around a submerged breakwater off the northern part of the beach, where 48% of the backwashed floats were last found. We conclude that the majority of the floats on the beach were transported alongshore and tended to concentrate in the convergence zone, from where they were backwashed offshore by the nearshore currents generated in the events. PMID:26561445

  10. Sandy beaches contamination by arsenic, a result of nearshore sediment diagenesis and transport (Brazilian coastline)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirlean, N.; Garcia, F.; Baisch, P.; Quintana, G. C.; Agnes, F.

    2013-12-01

    We studied the distribution of As, Fe, Ca and Al in beach sands and near-shore surface sediments along the Brazilian coast from the equatorial zone to Rio de Janeiro state. High concentrations of As (up to 120 mg kg-1) exceeding the environmentally acceptable thresholds were found in the beach sands and near-shore surface sediment in several segments of the studied coast. That increased from north to south. The significant positive correlation (R2 = 0.58) between As and calcium carbonate in the beach sands corroborated the hypothesis that calcareous bioclasts participate in metalloid retention and its accumulation in beach sediments. Most likely, enrichment of As occurs in the oxic horizon of sediments caused by the diagenetic redistribution of various elements. Enrichment of As in beach sands occurs in the coast of Bahia and Espirito Santo states. That is facilitated by clastic material of calcareous algae.

  11. Techniques developed for geologic analysis of hyperspectral data applied to near-shore hyperspectral ocean data

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, F.A.; Richardson, L.L.; Ambrosia, V.G.

    1997-06-01

    Imaging spectrometers or {open_quotes}Hyperspectral Sensors{close_quotes} simultaneously collect spectral data as both images and as individual spectra. A broad range of techniques have been examined, refined, and put into operational practice for analysis of geologic problems. This paper describes a successful geologic case history using an end-to-end approach on Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, including data calibration to reflectance, use of a linear transformation to minimize noise and determine data dimensionality, location of the most spectrally pure pixels, extraction of end member spectra, and spatial mapping of specific end members. Several supporting case studies using AVIRIS data of near-shore marine environments demonstrate the viability of these methods for studying the coastal zone. The methods described provide a starting point for image segmentation, material identification, and mapping of marine processes in the near-shore environment.

  12. King and Neuman: in search of the nursing paradigm.

    PubMed

    Burney, M A

    1992-05-01

    There is a wellspring of support within the nursing profession for the development of a true nursing paradigm, based on a unified theory to support practice, to advance the professional status of nursing in a changing health care environment. In this, the preparadigm stage of nursing, there are at least 125 theories, many of them viable. Prominent among them are those of King and Neuman. The King theory is rooted in the effectiveness of human interaction between nurse and patient to set and achieve health goals. The Neuman theory is a stress-oriented system espousing the development of patient defences and resistance. The similarities outnumber the differences between the two. Both seek a conceptual foundation upon which the profession may be structured to achieve its highest ideals. PMID:1602076

  13. Behavioral changes following participation in a home health promotional program in King County, Washington.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, R; Koenig, J Q; Simcox, N; van Belle, G; Fenske, R; Gilbert, S G

    1997-01-01

    This study examined behavioral changes in households after participation in a home environmental assessment. Home assessment visits by a trained coach, which involved a walk-through in the home with the home residents, were conducted in 36 homes. The walk-through included a list of recommended behavioral changes that the residents could make to reduce their exposures to home pollutants in areas such as dust control, moisture problems, indoor air, hazardous household products, and hobbies. Recruited households were surveyed 3 months after the home assessment to evaluate their implementation of the recommendations. Following the home visits, 31 of 36 households reported making at least one behavioral change, and 41% of the recommendations made by the volunteer coaches were implemented. In conclusion, this study found that the majority of the households who participated in the home assessment reported implementing at least one recommendation. This home health promotional method was effective in influencing behavioral changes. PMID:9349831

  14. Geologic map of the Vashon 7.5' quadrangle and selected areas, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, Derek B.; Troost, Kathy Goetz; Tabor, Rowland W.

    2015-01-01

    This map, the Vashon quadrangle and selected adjacent areas, encompasses most of Vashon Island, Maury Island, and Three Tree Point in the south-central Puget Sound. One small area in the Vashon quadrangle on the east side of Puget Sound is excluded from this map but included on the adjacent Seattle quadrangle (Booth and others, 2005). The map displays a wide variety of surficial geologic deposits, which reflect many geologic environments and processes. Multiple ice-sheet glaciations and intervening nonglacial intervals have constructed a complexly layered sequence of deposits that underlie both islands to a depth of more than 300 m below sea level. These deposits not only record glacial and nonglacial history but also control the flow and availability of ground water, determine the susceptibility of the slopes to landslides, and provide economic reserves of sand and gravel. The islands are surrounded by channels of Puget Sound, some as deep as the islands are high (>600 ft (~200 m)). The shorelines provide many kilometers of well-exposed coastal outcrops that reveal abundant lithologic and stratigraphic details not ordinarily displayed in the heavily vegetated Puget Lowland.

  15. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the Duwamish River Estuary, King County, Washington, 1963-67

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santos, John F.; Stoner, J.D.

    1972-01-01

    This report describes the significant results to 1967 of a comprehensive study that began in 1963 to evaluate what changes take place in an estuary as the loads .of raw and partially treated industrial and municipal wastes are replaced by effluent from a secondary treatment plant. The study area is the Duwamish River estuary, about 18.3 river kilometers long. At mean sea level the estuary has a water-surface area of about 1 square mile and a mean width of 440 feet. At the lowest and highest recorded tides, the volume of the estuary is about 205 and 592 million cubic feet, respectively. The estuary is well stratified (salt-wedge type) at fresh-water inflows greater than 1,000 cfs (cubic feet per second), but when inflow rates are less than 1,000 cfs the lower 5.6 kilometers of the estuary grades into the partly mixed type. The crosschannel salinity distribution is uniform for a given location and depth. Salinity migration is controlled by tides and fresh-water inflow. At fresh-water inflow rates greater than 1,000 cfs, water in the upper 8.4 kilometers of the estuary is always fresh regardless of tide. At inflow rates less than 600 cfs and tide heights greater than 10 feet; some salinity has been detected 16.1 kilometers above the mouth of the estuary. Studies using a fluorescent dye show that virtually no downward mixing into the salt wedge occurs; soluble pollutants introduced at the upper end of the estuary stay in the surface layer (5-15 ft thick). On the basis of dye studies when fresh-water inflow is less than 400 cfs, it is estimated that less than 10 percent of a pollutant will remain in the estuary a minimum of 7 days. Longitudinal dispersion coefficients for the surface layer have been determined to be on the order of 100-400 square feet per second. Four water-quality stations automatically monitor DO (dissolved oxygen), water temperature, pH, and specific conductance; at one station solar radiation also is measured. DO concentration in the surface layer decreases almost linearly in a downstream direction. Minimum DO concentration in the surface layer is usually greater than 4 rag/1 (milligrams per liter). The smallest DO values are consistently recorded in the bottom layer at the station 7.7 kilometers above the mouth; monthly means of less than 3 mg/1 of DO have occurred at this point. Manual sampling shows that the DO sag in the bottom layer oscillates between 7.7 and 10.4 kilometers above the mouth of the estuary. Multiple-regression analysis shows that the surface DO content can be estimated from the fresh-water inflow and water temperature. Tidal exchange and fresh-water inflow indirectly control the bottom DO content. Information available from previous studies failed to indicate a progressive decrease in DO content during the period 1949-56, but data from the present study suggest a slight general decrease in the annual minimum DO concentrations in both the upper and lower layers. Average nitrate concentration in fresh water at station 16.2 has increased progressively since 1964, by amounts greater than those which can be attributed to the Renton Treatment Plant, 4.3 kilometers upstream from station 16.2. The BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) in both surface and bottom layers is generally less than 4 rag/1 of oxygen, but values greater than 6 rag/1 have been measured during a period of phytoplankton bloom. Phytoplankton blooms can occur during periods of minimum tidal exchange and fresh-water inflows of less than 300 cfs if solar radiation and water temperature are optimum. Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) do not control the occurrence of a bloom, because sufficient quantities of these nutrients are always present. Nutrients in the treated effluent may increase the biomass of the bloom. Trace-element studies have not defined any role that these elements may play in algal growth. The inflowing fresh water contains principally calcium and bicarbonate and has a dissolved-solids content ra

  16. King County Metro Transit: Allison Hybrid Electric Transit Bus Laboratory Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R. R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-09-01

    Paper summarizes chassis dynamometer testing of two 60-foot articulated transit buses, one conventional and one hybrid, at NREL's ReFUEL Laboratory. It includes experimental setup, test procedures, and results from vehicle testing performed at the NREL ReFUEL laboratory.

  17. Determination of mass balance and entrainment in the stratified Duwamish River Estuary, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoner, J.D.

    1972-01-01

    During a study of the effects of waste-water input on the stratified Duwamish River estuary, intensive water-velocity and salinity measurements were made in both the lower salt wedge and the upper fresher water layer for tidal-cycle periods. The net movement of water and salt mass past a cross section during a tidal cycle was determined from integration of the measured rates of movement of water and salt past the section. The net volume of water that moved downstream past the section during the cycle agreed with the volume of fresh-water inflow at the head of the estuary within (1) 3.8 and 7.2 percent, respectively, for two studies made during periods of maximum and minimum tidal-prism thickness and identical inflow rates .of 312 cfs (cubic feet per second), and (2) 15 percent for one study made during a period of average tidal-prism thickness and an inflow rate of 1,280 cfs. For the three studies, the difference between salt mass transported upstream and downstream during the cycles ranged from 0.8 to 19 percent of the respective mean salt-mass transport. Water was entrained from the .salt-water wedge into the overlying layer of mixed fresh and salt water at tidal-cycle-average rates of 30 and 69 cfs per million square feet of interface for the inflow rates of 312 cfs, and 99 cfs per million square feet of interface for an inflow rate of 1,280 cfs. At a constant inflow rate, the rate of entrainment of salt-wedge water in the Duwamish River estuary more than doubled for a doubling of tidal-prism thickness. It also doubled for a quadrupling of inflow rate at about constant tidal-prism thickness.

  18. Geology and metallization of the White River Area, King and Pierce Counties, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    McCulla, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Bedrock of the White River area is dominated by Miocene age volcanics of andesite to rhyolite composition, which may be in part coeval with plutonic phases of the nearby 26 - 14 m.y. Tatoosh batholith. These volcanic rocks host two spatially distinct and gold-bearing epithermal deposits of the acid-sulfate type that are structurally, temporally, and genetically related to the formation and resurgent magmatic activity at the margin of an early Miocene caldera (22.6 - 19.1 m.y.). The age of hydrothermal activity is 20.4 +/- 0.1 m.y. based on UAr/TZAr analysis of hypogene alunite from the mineralized zone. Hydrothermal alteration and metallization of both deposits is chemically and mineralogically similar and consists of a central core of pervasive silicification that grades outward into zones of advanced argillic, argillic, and propylitic alteration. The largest of the two target areas is defined by a silica capping. Sulfur isotope analyses of cogenetic alunite-pyrite-enargite demonstrate a (34)S of +28.8 per thousand for the alunite-pyrite mineral pair. This large fractionation corroborates other field and mineralogic evidence for the hypogene origin of the alunite, and provides a geologically reasonable isotopic temperature estimate of 190 C for this epithermal deposit. Fold was introduced in at least 3 distinct episodes of structural-hydrothermal activity. The highest concentration of gold is within a zone measuring 1600 by 300-600 feet, and is localized in parts of the similar capping that contain outcrops of matrix-supported explosion breccias and veins having anomalous concentrations of up to 480 ppb Au, 13.7 ppm Ag, 1900 ppm As, 213 ppm Sb, 7.5 ppm Hg, and 10 ppm Mo.

  19. Geologic Map of the Poverty Bay 7.5' quadrangle, King and Pierce counties, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, Derek B.; Waldron, H.H.; Troost, K.G.

    2004-01-01

    The Poverty Bay quadrangle lies near the center of the region?s intensively developing urban core. Less than 20 km north lies the city of Seattle; downtown Tacoma lies just southwest of the quadrangle. The map area expresses much of the tremendous range of Quaternary environments and deposits found throughout the central Puget Lowland. Much of the ground surface is mantled by a rolling surface of glacial till deposited during the last occupation of the Puget Lowland by a great continental ice sheet about 14,000 years ago. A complex sequence of older unconsolidated sediments extends far below sea level across most of the quadrangle, with no bedrock exposures at all.

  20. Evaluation of seepage from Chester Morse Lake and Masonry Pool, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hidaka, F.T.; Garrett, Arthur Angus

    1967-01-01

    Hydrologic data collected in the Cedar and Snoqualmie River basins on the west slope of the Cascade Range have been analyzed to determine the amount of water lost by seepage from Chester Morse Lake and Masonry Pool and the. consequent gain by seepage to the Cedar and South Fork Snoqualmie Rivers. For water years 1957-64, average losses were about 220 cfs (cubic feet per second) while average gains were about 180 cfs in the Cedar River and 50 cfs in the South Fork Snoqualmie River. Streamflow and precipitation data for water years 1908-26 and 1930-F2 indicate that a change in runoff regimen occurred in Cedar and South Fork Snoqualmie Rivers after the Boxley Creek washout in December 1918. For water years 1919-26 and 1930-32, the flow of Cedar River near Landsburg averaged about 80 cfs less than it would have if the washout had not occurred. In contrast, the flow of South Fork Snoqualmie River at North Bend averaged about 60 cfs more than it would have.

  1. Historical changes to Lake Washington and route of the Lake Washington Ship Canal, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chrzastowski, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    Lake Washington, in the midst of the greater Seattle metropolitan area of the Puget Sound region (fig. 1), is an exceptional commercial, recreational, and esthetic resource for the region . In the past 130 years, Lake Washington has been changed from a " wild " lake in a wilderness setting to a regulated lake surrounded by a growing metropolis--a transformation that provides an unusual opportunity to study changes to a lake's shoreline and hydrologic characteristics -resulting from urbanization.

  2. Historical Changes to Lake Washington and Route of the Lake Washington Ship Canal, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chrzastowski, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    Historical shoreline changes to hydrologic characteristics were studied for Lake Washington and the route of Lake Washington Ship Canal. The study is based on comparison of maps made during the period 1875-1907 and modern topographic maps, supplemented with historical documents that describe the once-natural setting of the lakes and streams in the Lake Washington drainage basin. The observed shoreline changes range from minor to substantial. The water-surface area has been historically reduced by about 6 square kilometers, and total shoreline has been reduced by 20 kilometers. Approximately 4 square kilometers of the historical wetland area has been eliminated, or about 93 percent of the natural wetland extent. The changes have resulted from construction of the Lake Washington Ship Canal and accompanying water-level adjustments, shoreline modification from urban growth of the area, and limited natural processes. The map comparison documents (1) extent of shoreline changes (2) historical loss of wetlands area, (3) loss of small streams that historically entered the lakes and bays, and (4) historical vegetation and land-use patterns around the lakeshore and canal route. The identification of historical shorelines, wetlands, and small streams that have no expression on today 's landscape is information of value to land-use planning and local engineering activities. (USGS)

  3. Differences in physiological response to increased seawater temperature in nearshore and offshore corals in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Faxneld, Suzanne; Jrgensen, Tove Lund; Nguyen, Ngai D; Nystrm, Magnus; Tedengren, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Effects of elevated seawater temperature show high spatial heterogeneity and variation within and among coral species. The objective of this study was to investigate how two coral species, Porites lutea and Galaxea fascicularis, from two high latitude reefs differently exposed to chronic disturbance, respond to elevated seawater temperatures. Corals were collected from reefs nearshore (i.e. subjected to high sediment load, higher chlorophyll ? concentrations, turbidity etc.) and offshore (i.e. less exposed). The corals were exposed in the lab to gradually increasing temperatures (25.5-33.5C) for 72h after which they were allowed to recover to ambient temperature (25.5C) for 24h. Production and respiration were measured after 24, 48, 72 and 96h. The results show that P. lutea from nearshore reefs suffered an initial decrease in gross primary production/respiration (GP/R) ratio after 24h, after only a moderate temperature increase (+2C, from 25.5 to 27.5C), while there was no difference in GP/R ratio between heat-exposed and controls the other days, indicating that the chronic disturbance in the nearshore reef had no effect on their thermotolerance. Furthermore, P. lutea from the offshore reef showed a decrease in GP/R ratio both after 24h and 72h (33.5C) of exposure. In comparison, G. fascicularis showed a decrease in GP/R ratio after 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure for the nearshore corals. Also, after 72h these corals had withdrawn their polyps. There were no differences between heat-treated and controls for the offshore G. fascicularis. This implies that the chronically disturbed G. fascicularis had lower thermotolerance when exposed to a temperature increase. This study, hence, shows that the response of corals to elevated seawater temperature varies with species and environmental background history. PMID:21324522

  4. Killer whale predation on sea otters linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems

    PubMed

    Estes; Tinker; Williams; Doak

    1998-10-16

    After nearly a century of recovery from overhunting, sea otter populations are in abrupt decline over large areas of western Alaska. Increased killer whale predation is the likely cause of these declines. Elevated sea urchin density and the consequent deforestation of kelp beds in the nearshore community demonstrate that the otter's keystone role has been reduced or eliminated. This chain of interactions was probably initiated by anthropogenic changes in the offshore oceanic ecosystem. PMID:9774274

  5. Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project data report for nearshore observations at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; Voulgaris, George; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, Robert; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Haas, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    An oceanographic field study conducted in February 2010 investigated processes that control nearshore flow and sediment transport dynamics at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation setup, and locations of the sensor deployments. The data collected, and supporting meteorological and streamflow observations, are presented as time-series plots for data visualization. Additionally, the data are available as part of this report.

  6. Nearshore Satellite Data as Relative Indicators of Intertidal Organism Physiological Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzelle, A.; Helmuth, B.; Lakshmi, V.

    2011-12-01

    The physiological performance of intertidal and shallow subtidal invertebrates and algae is significantly affected by water temperature, and so the ability to measure and model onshore water temperatures is critical for ecological and biogeographic studies. Because of the localized influences of processes such as upwelling, mixing, and surface heating from solar radiation, nearshore water temperatures can differ from those measured directly offshore by buoys and satellites. It remains an open question what the magnitude of the differences in these temperatures are, and whether "large pixel" measurements can serve as an effective proxy for onshore processes, particularly when extrapolating from laboratory physiological studies to field conditions. We compared 9 years of nearshore (~10km) MODIS (Terra and Aqua overpasses) SST data against in situ measurements of water temperature conducted at two intertidal sites in central Oregon- Boiler Bay and Strawberry Hill. We collapsed data into increasingly longer temporal averages to address the correlation and absolute differences between onshore and nearshore temperatures over daily, weekly and monthly timescales. Results indicate that nearshore SST is a reasonable proxy for onshore water temperature, and that the strength of the correlation increases with decreasing temporal resolution. Correlations between differences in maxima are highest, followed by average and minima, and were lower at a site with regular upwelling. While average differences ranged from ~0.199-1.353°C, absolute differences across time scales were ~0.446-6.906°C, and were highest for cold temperatures. The results suggest that, at least at these two sites, SST can be used as a relative proxy for general trends only, especially over longer time scales.

  7. Morphology of the caudal fossa in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels.

    PubMed

    Cerda-Gonzalez, Sofia; Olby, Natasha J; McCullough, Susan; Pease, Anthony P; Broadstone, Richard; Osborne, Jason A

    2009-01-01

    Chiari malformations and syringohydromyelia are an important disease complex in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. Although abnormalities in caudal fossa morphology are considered major contributors to the development of this disease, limited information exists on the range of morphologies in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and on the relationship of these to clinically evident disease. Sixty-four Cavalier King Charles Spaniels were studied. Each underwent a neurologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and brain. T2-weighted sagittal images were used to determine both the morphologic characteristics and volume of the caudal fossa in each dog. This volume was also analyzed as a percentage of total cranial cavity volume. Each attribute was correlated with neurological grade and presence of syringohydromyelia. Fifteen dogs had neurologic signs, and 59 had morphologic abnormalities of the craniocervical junction. While 27 dogs had syringohydromyelia, 13 of these were clinically normal. Cerebellar herniation and occipital dysplasia were common findings but were not associated with syringohydromyelia. Dorsal compressive lesions were noted at the first and second cervical vertebral junction. Factors associated with the presence of neurologic signs included syringohydromyelia and the ratio of caudal fossa/total cranial cavity volume; dogs with signs had significantly larger syringohydromyelia than asymptomatic dogs. Caudal fossa size was not associated with syringohydromyelia. A positive association was identified between foramen magnum size and length of cerebellar herniation. The prevalence of craniocervical junction abnormalities is high in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. While several factors are associated with neurologic signs, occipital hypoplasia appears to be the most important factor. PMID:19241752

  8. KINGS RIVER, RANCHERIA, AGNEW, AND OAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Longwell, Warren D.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the Kings River, Rancheria, Agnew, and Oat Mountain Roadless Areas, California were found to have several areas with probable mineral-resource potential for tungsten in tactite, and one area with probable mineral-resource potential for lode gold in quartz veins. The extreme relief and inaccessibility in most of the roadless areas make exploration and mining very difficult. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of energy resources.

  9. The contribution of nearshore fish aggregating devices (FADs) to food security and livelihoods in Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Albert, Joelle A; Beare, Doug; Schwarz, Anne-Maree; Albert, Simon; Warren, Regon; Teri, James; Siota, Faye; Andrew, Neil L

    2014-01-01

    Fish aggregating devices, or FADs, are used widely in developing countries to concentrate pelagic fish, making them easier to catch. Nearshore FADs anchored close to the coast allow access for rural communities, but despite their popularity among policy makers, there is a dearth of empirical analysis of their contributions to the supply of fish and to fisheries management. In this paper we demonstrate that nearshore FADs increased the supply of fish to four communities in Solomon Islands. Estimated total annual fish catch ranged from 4300 to 12,000 kg across the study villages, with nearshore FADs contributing up to 45% of the catch. While it is clear that FADs increased the supply of fish, FAD catch rates were not consistently higher than other fishing grounds. Villages with limited access to diverse or productive fishing grounds seemingly utilized FADs to better effect. Villagers believed FADs increased household income and nutrition, as well as providing a source of fish for community events. FADs were also perceived to increase intra-household conflict and reduce fishers' participation in community activities. FADs need to be placed within a broader rural development context and treated as another component in the diversified livelihoods of rural people; as with other livelihood options they bring trade-offs and risks. PMID:25513808

  10. Detailed Morphology and Sediment Transport Processes in the Nearshore of the Fraser River Delta, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, P. R.; Meule, S.; Carle, L.; Davidson, S. H.; Barrie, J. V.

    2002-12-01

    Permanent river training structures have stabilized the mouth of the Fraser River and largely isolated the Roberts Bank sector of the Fraser River delta from sandy sediment supply. In a study to determine the susceptibility to erosion of the delta nearshore and associated infrastucture, the entire delta front has been mapped using multibeam sonar. High-resolution morphological maps of the nearshore reveal a range of bedforms, dominated by the strong tidal currents that sweep the delta front. Certain sectors of the nearshore are, however, dominated by erosional features including outcropping beds. Numerical modeling, using the SEDTRANS96 program, indicates that wave motions influence sediment transport in water depths less than 15 m during the moderate fetch-limited winter storms typical of the region. Wave, current profile, suspended sediment and seabed imagery data were collected at a site in 10 m water depth as a calibration for further sediment transport modeling. Preliminary results indicate bedload and suspended sediment transport occurred in response to both tidal currents and combined wave- and current conditions.

  11. Changes in the nearshore and offshore zooplankton communities in Lake Ontario: 1981-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johannsson, Ora E.; Mills, Edward L.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    We examined trends and factors influencing changes in nearshore and offshore zooplankton abundance and composition in Lake Ontario between 1981 and 1988. In the nearshore (southshore and eastern basin), zooplankton abundance decreased and shifts occurred in the relative abundances of Bosmina longirostris and Daphnia retrocurva (eastern basin) and Daphnia retrocurva and Daphnia galeata mendotae (southshore). These changes could have resulted from increased vertebrate predation or reduced food resources which intensified the effects of predation. In the offshore, the first appearance (FA) of the larger, less common cladoceran species occurred earlier in the season as of 1985. FA was correlated with cumulative epilimnetic temperature (CET) and the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) a?Y165 mm caught in U.S. waters in the spring. In 1987, when CET was high and CPUE of alewife a?Y165 mm was low, large populations of these cladocerans developed in June and July. Bythotrephes cederstroemi, a recent invader in the Great Lakes, was abundant only in 1987 when the CPUE of alewife was lowest. Changes in zooplankton abundance, development, and composition along the nearshore-offshore gradient reflected effects of temperature, habitat, and planktivory on the community.

  12. The Contribution of Nearshore Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) to Food Security and Livelihoods in Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Joelle A.; Beare, Doug; Schwarz, Anne-Maree; Albert, Simon; Warren, Regon; Teri, James; Siota, Faye; Andrew, Neil L.

    2014-01-01

    Fish aggregating devices, or FADs, are used widely in developing countries to concentrate pelagic fish, making them easier to catch. Nearshore FADs anchored close to the coast allow access for rural communities, but despite their popularity among policy makers, there is a dearth of empirical analysis of their contributions to the supply of fish and to fisheries management. In this paper we demonstrate that nearshore FADs increased the supply of fish to four communities in Solomon Islands. Estimated total annual fish catch ranged from 4300 to 12 000 kg across the study villages, with nearshore FADs contributing up to 45% of the catch. While it is clear that FADs increased the supply of fish, FAD catch rates were not consistently higher than other fishing grounds. Villages with limited access to diverse or productive fishing grounds seemingly utilized FADs to better effect. Villagers believed FADs increased household income and nutrition, as well as providing a source of fish for community events. FADs were also perceived to increase intra-household conflict and reduce fishers' participation in community activities. FADs need to be placed within a broader rural development context and treated as another component in the diversified livelihoods of rural people; as with other livelihood options they bring trade-offs and risks. PMID:25513808

  13. Terrestrial and marine trophic pathways support young-of-year growth in a nearshore Arctic fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cohn, Brian R.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    River discharge supplies nearshore communities with a terrestrial carbon source that is often reflected in invertebrate and fish consumers. Recent studies in the Beaufort Sea have documented widespread terrestrial carbon use among invertebrates, but only limited use among nearshore fish consumers. Here, we examine the carbon source and diet of rapidly growing young-of-year Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) using stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) from muscle and diet analysis (stomach contents) during a critical and previously unsampled life stage. Stable isotope values (δ15N and δ13C) may differentiate between terrestrial and marine sources and integrate over longer time frames (weeks). Diet analysis provides species-specific information, but only from recent foraging (days). Average δ13C for all individuals was −25.7 ‰, with the smallest individuals possessing significantly depleted δ13C values indicative of a stronger reliance of terrestrial carbon sources as compared to larger individuals. Average δ15N for all individuals was 10.4 ‰, with little variation among individuals. As fish length increased, the proportion of offshore Calanus prey and neritic Mysis prey increased. Rapid young-of-year growth in Arctic cisco appears to use terrestrial carbon sources obtained by consuming a mixture of neritic and offshore zooplankton. Shifts in the magnitude or phenology of river discharge and the delivery of terrestrial carbon may alter the ecology of nearshore fish consumers.

  14. Strategies for nest-site selection by king eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, R.L.; Powell, A.N.; Suydam, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Nest site selection is a critical component of reproduction and has presumably evolved in relation to predation, local resources, and microclimate. We investigated nest-site choice by king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) on the coastal plain of northern Alaska, USA, 2003-2005. We hypothesized that nest-site selection is driven by predator avoidance and that a variety of strategies including concealment, seclusion, and conspecific or inter-specific nest defense might lead to improved nesting success. We systematically searched wetland basins for king eider nests and measured habitat and social variables at nests (n = 212) and random locations (n = 493). King eiders made use of both secluded and concealed breeding strategies; logistic regression models revealed that females selected nests close to water, on islands, and in areas with high willow (Salix spp.) cover but did not select sites near conspecific or glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) nests. The most effective nest-placement strategy may vary depending on density and types of nest predators; seclusion is likely a mammalian-predator avoidance tactic whereas concealment may provide protection from avian predators. We recommend that managers in northern Alaska attempt to maintain wetland basins with islands and complex shorelines to provide potential nest sites in the vicinity of water. ?? The Wildlife Society.

  15. STS-57 Earth observation of King Sound in northwest Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Earth observation taken aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, is of King Sound in northwest Australia. Roebuck Bay with the city of Broom on its northern shore is south of King Sound. Sediment in the sound is deposited by the Fitzroy River, which is the major body draining the Kimberley Plateau about 200 miles to the west. The extent of the tidal flats around the Sound is indicated by the large white areas covered with a salty residue. According to NASA scientists studying the STS-57 Earth photos, northwest wind gusts are ruffling areas of the water's surface at the mouth of King Sound and in neighboring Collier Bay. Therefore the water is less reflective and dark. The higher reflectance on the brightest areas is caused by biological oils floating on the surface and reducing the capillary wave action. The scientists point out that the oils take the forms of the currents and eddies in the picture. These eddies indicate that the water offshore is moving at a different speed

  16. Ultraviolet reflecting photonic microstructures in the King Penguin beak.

    PubMed

    Dresp, Birgitta; Jouventin, Pierre; Langley, Keith

    2005-09-22

    King and emperor penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus and Aptenodytes forsteri) are the only species of marine birds so far known to reflect ultraviolet (UV) light from their beaks. Unlike humans, most birds perceive UV light and several species communicate using the near UV spectrum. Indeed, UV reflectance in addition to the colour of songbird feathers has been recognized as an important signal when choosing a mate. The king penguin is endowed with several highly coloured ornaments, notably its beak horn and breast and auricular plumage, but only its beak reflects UV, a property considered to influence its sexual attraction. Because no avian UV-reflecting pigments have yet been identified, the origin of such reflections is probably structural. In an attempt to identify the structures that give rise to UV reflectance, we combined reflectance spectrophotometry and morphological analysis by both light and electron microscopy, after experimental removal of surface layers of the beak horn. Here, we characterize for the first time a multilayer reflector photonic microstructure that produces the UV reflections in the king penguin beak. PMID:17148195

  17. Pattern and persistence of a nearshore planktonic ecosystem off Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Arthur M.; Jahn, Andrew E.

    1987-01-01

    Three related data sets from a baseline environmental survey on the continental shelf at San Onofre, California, consisting of: (1) zooplankton pumped from discrete depths on transects between the 8- and 30-m contours, sampled from 1976 to 1980; (2) zooplankton from oblique net hauls on a transect from 8 to 100 m sampled at 2-week intervals for 1 y, 1978-1979; and (3) vertical profiles of temperature, nutrients and plant pigments corresponding closely in time and space to the oblique net hauls, are used to describe cross-shelf zooplankton abundance patterns, community composition, and seasonal and shorter-term variations in cross-shelf zonation and their relation to variations in physical and chemical measures. Of 15 taxa tested for multiyear average patterns, threethe copepods Acartia clausi and Oithona oculata, and barnacle larvaehad centers of abundance shoreward of the 30-m contour and near the bottom. No differences were detected in the cross-shelf pattern between San Onofre and a transect 12 km southeast. Throughout the year, nearshore and offshore assemblages were distinguishable, the change occurring at about the 30-m contour. The offshore one, represented by the copepods Calanus pacificus, Eucalanus californicus and Rhincalanus nasutus, occupied water having less chlorophyll and less near-surface nutrient, i.e. of more oceanic character. In spring and summer, most nearshore taxa shifted slightly seaward, leaving a third assemblage, characterized by a very high abundance of Acartia spp. copepodids and maximum abundances of A. clausi and O. oculata near the beach. Three upwelling episodes resulted in marked increases in chlorophyll and nutrients, but not in cross-shelf gradients of these properties, as were noted at most other times. Maximum disturbance of cross-shelf zooplankton zonation was observed during a wintertime intrusion of offshore surface water, but the zonation was never obliterated. Nearshore zooplankton patterns appear to be protected from dislocation by the shallow shelf and sustained by phytoplankton distributed in a manner peculiar to the nearshore zone. Typically, shallow nearshore waters were richer in chlorophyll and nutrients than offshore waters of the same depth. The cross-shelf chlorophyll and nutrient profiles, in turn, appear to result from increased eddy diffusion and nutrient recycling in shallow waters, perhaps augmented by longshore transport from quasi-permanent, local upwelling nodes.

  18. DRAFT LANDSAT DATA MOSAIC: MONTGOMERY COUNTY, TEXAS; HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS; FORT BEND COUNTY, TEXAS; BRAZORIA COUNTY, TEXAS; GALVESTON COUNTY, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a draft Landsat Data Mosaic, which contains remote sensing information for Montgomery County, Texas Harris County, Texas Fort Bend County, Texas Brazoria County, Texas Galveston County, and Texas Imagery dates on the following dates: October 6, 1999 and September 29, 200...

  19. 76 FR 2438 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: Kings, Queens, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Early Renaissance France'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to... the exhibition ``Kings, Queens, and Courtiers: Art in Early Renaissance France'' imported from...

  20. King penguin population threatened by Southern Ocean warming

    PubMed Central

    Le Bohec, Cline; Durant, Jol M.; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Stenseth, Nils C.; Park, Young-Hyang; Pradel, Roger; Grmillet, David; Gendner, Jean-Paul; Le Maho, Yvon

    2008-01-01

    Seabirds are sensitive indicators of changes in marine ecosystems and might integrate and/or amplify the effects of climate forcing on lower levels in food chains. Current knowledge on the impact of climate changes on penguins is primarily based on Antarctic birds identified by using flipper bands. Although flipper bands have helped to answer many questions about penguin biology, they were shown in some penguin species to have a detrimental effect. Here, we present for a Subantarctic species, king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), reliable results on the effect of climate on survival and breeding based on unbanded birds but instead marked by subcutaneous electronic tags. We show that warm events negatively affect both breeding success and adult survival of this seabird. However, the observed effect is complex because it affects penguins at several spatio/temporal levels. Breeding reveals an immediate response to forcing during warm phases of El Nio Southern Oscillation affecting food availability close to the colony. Conversely, adult survival decreases with a remote sea-surface temperature forcing (i.e., a 2-year lag warming taking place at the northern boundary of pack ice, their winter foraging place). We suggest that this time lag may be explained by the delay between the recruitment and abundance of their prey, adjusted to the particular 1-year breeding cycle of the king penguin. The derived population dynamic model suggests a 9% decline in adult survival for a 0.26C warming. Our findings suggest that king penguin populations are at heavy extinction risk under the current global warming predictions. PMID:18268328

  1. King penguin population threatened by Southern Ocean warming.

    PubMed

    Le Bohec, Cline; Durant, Jol M; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Stenseth, Nils C; Park, Young-Hyang; Pradel, Roger; Grmillet, David; Gendner, Jean-Paul; Le Maho, Yvon

    2008-02-19

    Seabirds are sensitive indicators of changes in marine ecosystems and might integrate and/or amplify the effects of climate forcing on lower levels in food chains. Current knowledge on the impact of climate changes on penguins is primarily based on Antarctic birds identified by using flipper bands. Although flipper bands have helped to answer many questions about penguin biology, they were shown in some penguin species to have a detrimental effect. Here, we present for a Subantarctic species, king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), reliable results on the effect of climate on survival and breeding based on unbanded birds but instead marked by subcutaneous electronic tags. We show that warm events negatively affect both breeding success and adult survival of this seabird. However, the observed effect is complex because it affects penguins at several spatio/temporal levels. Breeding reveals an immediate response to forcing during warm phases of El Nio Southern Oscillation affecting food availability close to the colony. Conversely, adult survival decreases with a remote sea-surface temperature forcing (i.e., a 2-year lag warming taking place at the northern boundary of pack ice, their winter foraging place). We suggest that this time lag may be explained by the delay between the recruitment and abundance of their prey, adjusted to the particular 1-year breeding cycle of the king penguin. The derived population dynamic model suggests a 9% decline in adult survival for a 0.26 degrees C warming. Our findings suggest that king penguin populations are at heavy extinction risk under the current global warming predictions. PMID:18268328

  2. Outliers and Extremes: Dragon-Kings or Dragon-Fools?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D. J.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysics seems full of monsters like Victor Hugo's Court of Miracles and monstrous extremes have been statistically considered as outliers with respect to more normal events. However, a characteristic magnitude separating abnormal events from normal ones would be at odd with the generic scaling behaviour of nonlinear systems, contrary to "fat tailed" probability distributions and self-organized criticality. More precisely, it can be shown [1] how the apparent monsters could be mere manifestations of a singular measure mishandled as a regular measure. Monstrous fluctuations are the rule, not outliers and they are more frequent than usually thought up to the point that (theoretical) statistical moments can easily be infinite. The empirical estimates of the latter are erratic and diverge with sample size. The corresponding physics is that intense small scale events cannot be smoothed out by upscaling. However, based on a few examples, it has also been argued [2] that one should consider "genuine" outliers of fat tailed distributions so monstrous that they can be called "dragon-kings". We critically analyse these arguments, e.g. finite sample size and statistical estimates of the largest events, multifractal phase transition vs. more classical phase transition. We emphasize the fact that dragon-kings are not needed in order that the largest events become predictable. This is rather reminiscent of the Feast of Fools picturesquely described by Victor Hugo. [1] D. Schertzer, I. Tchiguirinskaia, S. Lovejoy et P. Hubert (2010): No monsters, no miracles: in nonlinear sciences hydrology is not an outlier! Hydrological Sciences Journal, 55 (6) 965 - 979. [2] D. Sornette (2009): Dragon-Kings, Black Swans and the Prediction of Crises. International Journal of Terraspace Science and Engineering 1(3), 1-17.

  3. STUDIES ON SOME PHARMACOGNOSTIC PROFILES OF SWIETENIA MACROPHYLLA. King

    PubMed Central

    Arumugasamy, K.; Latha, K.V.; kumar, N.H. Sathish

    2004-01-01

    The aerial parts and seeds of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) are used in exotic medicine systems. In the present study, a preliminary phytochemical and few pharmacological profiles were under taken. The physical constans, extractive and ash values were examined. The presence of secondary metabolites in the aerial parts and seeds showed that Swietenia macrophylla is a good source of active principles. TLC studies were done by treating dry treating dry powder of Swietenia macrophylla with various acids, iodine and ferric chloride solution and UV and Visible light. PMID:22557161

  4. Dermatophilus chelonae in a king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah).

    PubMed

    Wellehan, James F X; Turenne, Christine; Heard, Darryl J; Detrisac, Carol J; O'Kelley, Jeffrey J

    2004-12-01

    A mass was removed from the left flank of a 10-yr-old male king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and histologic examination revealed granulomatous dermatitis with intralesional gram-positive cocci and filamentous bacteria. Fourteen months later, a histologically similar subcutaneous mass was removed from a different site. One year later, a large subcutaneous mass at the first surgical site was removed, and histopathologic examination revealed multiloculated granulomas with intralesional gram-positive cocci. An organism was cultured and identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing as Dermatophilus chelonae. After a course of antibiotic therapy, no further lesions were seen for 5 mo. PMID:15732601

  5. A potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from Myristica cinnamomea King.

    PubMed

    Sivasothy, Yasodha; Loo, Kong Yong; Leong, Kok Hoong; Litaudon, Marc; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-02-01

    A dimeric acylphenol and a potent ?-glucosidase inhibitor, giganteone D (IC50 5.05?M), was isolated and characterized from the bark of Myristica cinnamomea King. The bark also yielded an acylphenol with an unprecedented skeleton for which the name cinnamomeone A (IC50 358.80?M) was proposed. Their structures were established by means of NMR and MS spectrometric analyses. The Lineweaver-Burk plot of giganteone D indicated that it was a mixed-type inhibitor. This is the first report on the ?-glucosidase inhibiting potential of acylphenols. PMID:26712615

  6. INSIGHT AGONISTES: A READING OF SOPHOCLES'S OEDIPUS THE KING.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Eugene J

    2015-07-01

    In this reading of Sophocles's Oedipus the King, the author suggests that insight can be thought of as the main protagonist of the tragedy. He personifies this depiction of insight, calling it Insight Agonistes, as if it were the sole conflicted character on the stage, albeit masquerading at times as several other characters, including gods, sphinxes, and oracles. This psychoanalytic reading of the text lends itself to an analogy between psychoanalytic process and Sophocles's tragic hero. The author views insight as always transgressing against, always at war with a conservative, societal, or intrapsychic chorus of structured elements. A clinical vignette is presented to illustrate this view of insight. PMID:26198605

  7. STUDIES ON SOME PHARMACOGNOSTIC PROFILES OF SWIETENIA MACROPHYLLA. King.

    PubMed

    Arumugasamy, K; Latha, K V; Kumar, N H Sathish

    2004-10-01

    The aerial parts and seeds of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) are used in exotic medicine systems. In the present study, a preliminary phytochemical and few pharmacological profiles were under taken. The physical constans, extractive and ash values were examined. The presence of secondary metabolites in the aerial parts and seeds showed that Swietenia macrophylla is a good source of active principles. TLC studies were done by treating dry treating dry powder of Swietenia macrophylla with various acids, iodine and ferric chloride solution and UV and Visible light. PMID:22557161

  8. Development of multi-year land cover data to assess wildfire impacts to coastal watersheds and the nearshore environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Katherine D.

    In the Mediterranean ecosystems of coastal California, wildfire is a common disturbance that can significantly alter vegetation in watersheds that transport sediment and nutrients to the adjacent nearshore oceanic environment. We assess the impact of two wildfires that burned in 2008 on land cover and to the nearshore environment along the Big Sur coast in central California. We created a multi-year land cover dataset to assess changes to coastal watersheds as a result of fire. This land cover dataset was then used to model changes in nonpoint source pollutants transported to the nearshore environment. Results indicate post-fire increases in percent export compared to pre-fire years and also link wildfire severity to the specific land cover changes that subsequently increase exports of pollutants and sediment to the nearshore environment. This approach is a replicable across watersheds and also provides a framework for including the nearshore environment as a value at risk terrestrial land management revolving around wildfire, including suppression, thinning, and other activities that change land cover at a landscape scale.

  9. Large-Scale Spatial Distribution Patterns of Echinoderms in Nearshore Rocky Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Iken, Katrin; Konar, Brenda; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Knowlton, Ann; Pohle, Gerhard; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Wong, Melisa; Trott, Thomas; Mieszkowska, Nova; Riosmena-Rodriguez, Rafael; Airoldi, Laura; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Ortiz-Touzet, Manuel; Silva, Angelica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined echinoderm assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats for large-scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends and large regional hotspots. Echinoderms were sampled from 76 globally-distributed sites within 12 ecoregions, following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org). Sample-based species richness was overall low (<1–5 species per site), with a total of 32 asteroid, 18 echinoid, 21 ophiuroid, and 15 holothuroid species. Abundance and species richness in intertidal assemblages sampled with visual methods (organisms >2 cm in 1 m2 quadrats) was highest in the Caribbean ecoregions and echinoids dominated these assemblages with an average of 5 ind m−2. In contrast, intertidal echinoderm assemblages collected from clearings of 0.0625 m2 quadrats had the highest abundance and richness in the Northeast Pacific ecoregions where asteroids and holothurians dominated with an average of 14 ind 0.0625 m−2. Distinct latitudinal trends existed for abundance and richness in intertidal assemblages with declines from peaks at high northern latitudes. No latitudinal trends were found for subtidal echinoderm assemblages with either sampling technique. Latitudinal gradients appear to be superseded by regional diversity hotspots. In these hotspots echinoderm assemblages may be driven by local and regional processes, such as overall productivity and evolutionary history. We also tested a set of 14 environmental variables (six natural and eight anthropogenic) as potential drivers of echinoderm assemblages by ecoregions. The natural variables of salinity, sea-surface temperature, chlorophyll a, and primary productivity were strongly correlated with echinoderm assemblages; the anthropogenic variables of inorganic pollution and nutrient contamination also contributed to correlations. Our results indicate that nearshore echinoderm assemblages appear to be shaped by a network of environmental and ecological processes, and by the differing responses of various echinoderm taxa, making generalizations about the patterns of nearshore rocky habitat echinoderm assemblages difficult. PMID:21079760

  10. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of echinoderms in nearshore rocky habitats.

    PubMed

    Iken, Katrin; Konar, Brenda; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Cruz-Motta, Juan Jos; Knowlton, Ann; Pohle, Gerhard; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Wong, Melisa; Trott, Thomas; Mieszkowska, Nova; Riosmena-Rodriguez, Rafael; Airoldi, Laura; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Ortiz-Touzet, Manuel; Silva, Angelica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined echinoderm assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats for large-scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends and large regional hotspots. Echinoderms were sampled from 76 globally-distributed sites within 12 ecoregions, following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org). Sample-based species richness was overall low (<1-5 species per site), with a total of 32 asteroid, 18 echinoid, 21 ophiuroid, and 15 holothuroid species. Abundance and species richness in intertidal assemblages sampled with visual methods (organisms >2 cm in 1 m(2) quadrats) was highest in the Caribbean ecoregions and echinoids dominated these assemblages with an average of 5 ind m(-2). In contrast, intertidal echinoderm assemblages collected from clearings of 0.0625 m(2) quadrats had the highest abundance and richness in the Northeast Pacific ecoregions where asteroids and holothurians dominated with an average of 14 ind 0.0625 m(-2). Distinct latitudinal trends existed for abundance and richness in intertidal assemblages with declines from peaks at high northern latitudes. No latitudinal trends were found for subtidal echinoderm assemblages with either sampling technique. Latitudinal gradients appear to be superseded by regional diversity hotspots. In these hotspots echinoderm assemblages may be driven by local and regional processes, such as overall productivity and evolutionary history. We also tested a set of 14 environmental variables (six natural and eight anthropogenic) as potential drivers of echinoderm assemblages by ecoregions. The natural variables of salinity, sea-surface temperature, chlorophyll a, and primary productivity were strongly correlated with echinoderm assemblages; the anthropogenic variables of inorganic pollution and nutrient contamination also contributed to correlations. Our results indicate that nearshore echinoderm assemblages appear to be shaped by a network of environmental and ecological processes, and by the differing responses of various echinoderm taxa, making generalizations about the patterns of nearshore rocky habitat echinoderm assemblages difficult. PMID:21079760

  11. Assessment of Ecosystem Change Using Benthic Foraminiferal Data From Three Nearshore Cores, Biscayne Bay, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. P.; Ishman, S. E.

    2005-05-01

    The benthic foraminifer record from mid-bay cores indicates a relative increase in salinity over the past 150 years has impacted the marine ecosystems of Biscayne Bay. However, the magnitude and rates at which this has occurred remains unresolved. Benthic foraminifer data from three nearshore cores in Biscayne Bay document the transition from terrestrial to marine environments. The variability and magnitude of changes between brackish and marine conditions determined from these data are important for differentiating natural (sea-level) from anthropogenic (water management) influences on the nearshore ecosystem. Three cores were collected from nearshore localities in Biscayne Bay: Chicken Key, Black Point North and Middle Key. The cores were sampled continuously every 2cm. Each sample was processed and a database compiled of foraminiferal assemblage data. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) based upon these data is used to describe changes to the coastal ecosystems. The MDS plots represent the relative differences between foraminiferal assemblages at each depth in the core and may indicate long-term ecosystem change. Middle Key and Chicken Key are essentially barren of foraminifera below 30cm, which suggests that the sediments in the lower section of each core were not deposited in a marine environment. The transition at each location begins with a brackish assemblage dominated by Ammonia and Elphidium. Each site becomes increasingly marine up to the modern samples at the top of the cores. Black Point North includes foraminifera throughout its 86.5cm depth. The site has been dominantly brackish with increases in Miliolinella, Quinqueloculina and Triloculina indicative of strong shifts toward marine conditions near the base and at the top of the core.

  12. Assessment of Ecosystem Change Using Benthic Foraminiferal Data From Three Nearshore Cores, Biscayne Bay, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. P.; Ishman, S. E.

    2005-12-01

    The benthic foraminifer record from mid-bay cores indicates a relative increase in salinity over the past 150 years has impacted the marine ecosystems of Biscayne Bay. However, the magnitude and rates at which this has occurred remains unresolved. Benthic foraminifer data from three nearshore cores in Biscayne Bay document the transition from terrestrial to marine environments. The variability and magnitude of changes between brackish and marine conditions determined from these data are important for differentiating natural (sea-level) from anthropogenic (water management) influences on the nearshore ecosystem. Three cores were collected from nearshore localities in Biscayne Bay: Chicken Key, Black Point North and Middle Key. The cores were sampled continuously every 2cm. Each sample was processed and a database compiled of foraminiferal assemblage data. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) based upon these data is used to describe changes to the coastal ecosystems. The MDS plots represent the relative differences between foraminiferal assemblages at each depth in the core and may indicate long-term ecosystem change. Middle Key and Chicken Key are essentially barren of foraminifera below 30cm, which suggests that the sediments in the lower section of each core were not deposited in a marine environment. The transition at each location begins with a brackish assemblage dominated by Ammonia and Elphidium. Each site becomes increasingly marine up to the modern samples at the top of the cores. Black Point North includes foraminifera throughout its 86.5cm depth. The site has been dominantly brackish with increases in Miliolinella, Quinqueloculina and Triloculina indicative of strong shifts toward marine conditions near the base and at the top of the core.

  13. Wave-induced mass transport affects daily Escherichia coli fluctuations in nearshore water.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhongfu; Whitman, Richard L; Nevers, Meredith B; Phanikumar, Mantha S

    2012-02-21

    Characterization of diel variability of fecal indicator bacteria concentration in nearshore waters is of particular importance for development of water sampling standards and protection of public health. Significant nighttime increase in Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration in beach water, previously observed at marine sites, has also been identified in summer 2000 from fixed locations in waist- and knee-deep waters at Chicago 63rd Street Beach, an embayed, tideless, freshwater beach with low currents at night (approximately 0.015 m s(-1)). A theoretical model using wave-induced mass transport velocity for advection was developed to assess the contribution of surface waves to the observed nighttime E. coli replenishment in the nearshore water. Using average wave conditions for the summer season of year 2000, the model predicted an amount of E. coli transported from water of intermediate depth, where sediment resuspension occurred intermittently, that would be sufficient to have elevated E. coli concentration in the surf and swash zones as observed. The nighttime replenishment of E. coli in the surf and swash zones revealed here is an important phase in the cycle of diel variations of E. coli concentration in nearshore water. According to previous findings in Ge et al. (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010, 44, 6731-6737), enhanced current circulation in the embayment during the day tends to displace and deposit material offshore, which partially sets up the system by the early evening for a new period of nighttime onshore movement. This wave-induced mass transport effect, although facilitating a significant base supply of material shoreward, can be perturbed or significantly influenced by high currents (orders of magnitude larger than a typical wave-induced mass transport velocity), current-induced turbulence, and tidal forcing. PMID:22257076

  14. Seabird use of discards from a nearshore shrimp fishery in the South Atlantic Bight, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Wickliffe, L.C.; Sachs, E.B.

    2011-01-01

    Shrimp trawling is common throughout the southeastern and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the USA and is the primary contributor to fisheries discards in these regions. Tens of thousands of nearshore seabirds nest near shrimp trawling grounds in the USA, but to date, there has been no assessment of the relationship between seabirds and shrimp trawlers. We examined the taxonomic composition of bycatch, rate at which seabirds scavenged bycatch, and energy density of discarded bycatch in a nearshore commercial shrimp fishery. Bycatch was primarily comprised of demersal fish that are not typically accessible to the plunge-diving and surface-feeding seabirds that occur in the area. Hence, seabird diets in the region appear to be broadened taxonomically by the availability of discards. Results from discard experiments indicated that 70% of the nearly 5,500 items discarded by hand were scavenged by seabirds and that the fate of a discarded item was most strongly predicted by its taxonomic order. Laughing gulls scavenged the greatest proportion of discards, although brown pelicans were the only species to scavenge more discards than predicted based upon their abundance. Because this is the first such study in the region, it is difficult to ascertain the extent or intensity of the impact that discards have on nearshore seabirds. Nonetheless, our results suggest that it will be difficult for managers to clearly understand fluctuations in local seabird population dynamics without first understanding the extent to which these species rely upon discards. This may be especially problematic in situations where seabird populations are recovering following natural or anthropogenic stressors. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Modeling near-shore subsea permafrost degradation in the Laptev Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneier, F.; Langer, M.; Overduin, P. P.

    2012-12-01

    Most subsea permafrost in the Arctic Ocean shelf regions is relict terrestrial permafrost that was inundated by sea water by rising sea levels after the last glacial period. Permafrost usually degrades offshore under the influence of sea-bottom temperatures, salt infiltration and a wide range of near-shore coastal processes. Subsea permafrost instability has important potential implications due to the release of methane to the atmosphere and by increasing coastal erosion rates. Our objectives are to employ meso-scale numerical calculations (from meter to kilometer, 1000s of years) in connection with borehole data from the Laptev Sea to model the transition of permafrost from onshore to offshore conditions. The goal is to identify key processes driving permafrost degradation in the near-shore zone of the shelf. The heat transfer equation is solved numerically taking into account freeze-thaw processes in a three-phase heat capacity / conductivity model. Sediment composition and initial temperature profiles are derived from field and laboratory analysis of the borehole data. Our approach neglects some processes such as solute diffusion, but includes the effect of pore water salinity on phase state and thermal properties. Measured temperature profiles are compared to the modeled subsea soil temperature evolution over the course of the 2500 year transgression of the farthest offshore borehole in the transect. The degradation of the ice-bearing permafrost table or thaw depth is of special interest due to its direct relation to sediment stability and as the most readily discernible feature in the field observations. Temperature profiles generally agree well with model calculations reproducing the almost isothermal permafrost profiles currently observed, but show more variation potentially partially caused by drilling disturbances. The thaw depth is mainly driven by salt contamination and infiltration into deeper pore water with time. Complicating near-shore processes discussed include the occurrence of bottom-fast sea ice and marine sedimentation rates.

  16. Wave-induced mass transport affects daily Escherichia coli fluctuations in nearshore water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ge, Zhongfu; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Phanikumar, Mantha S.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of diel variability of fecal indicator bacteria concentration in nearshore waters is of particular importance for development of water sampling standards and protection of public health. Significant nighttime increase in Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration in beach water, previously observed at marine sites, has also been identified in summer 2000 from fixed locations in waist- and knee-deep waters at Chicago 63rd Street Beach, an embayed, tideless, freshwater beach with low currents at night (approximately 0.015 m s–1). A theoretical model using wave-induced mass transport velocity for advection was developed to assess the contribution of surface waves to the observed nighttime E. coli replenishment in the nearshore water. Using average wave conditions for the summer season of year 2000, the model predicted an amount of E. coli transported from water of intermediate depth, where sediment resuspension occurred intermittently, that would be sufficient to have elevated E. coli concentration in the surf and swash zones as observed. The nighttime replenishment of E. coli in the surf and swash zones revealed here is an important phase in the cycle of diel variations of E. coli concentration in nearshore water. According to previous findings in Ge et al. (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010, 44, 6731–6737), enhanced current circulation in the embayment during the day tends to displace and deposit material offshore, which partially sets up the system by the early evening for a new period of nighttime onshore movement. This wave-induced mass transport effect, although facilitating a significant base supply of material shoreward, can be perturbed or significantly influenced by high currents (orders of magnitude larger than a typical wave-induced mass transport velocity), current-induced turbulence, and tidal forcing.

  17. Nearshore habitat and fish community associations of coaster brook trout in Isle Royale, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, O.T.; Moore, S.A.; Carlson, A.J.; Quinlan, H.R.

    2008-01-01

    We characterized the nearshore habitat and fish community composition of approximately 300 km of shoreline within and adjacent to the major embayments of Isle Royale, Lake Superior. Sampling yielded 17 species, of which 12 were widespread and represented a common element of the Lake Superior fish community, including cisco Coregonus artedi, lake whitefish C. clupeaformis, round whitefish Prosopium cylindraceum, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, lake chub Couesius plumbeus, longnose sucker Catostomus catostomus, white sucker C. commersonii, trout-perch Percopsis omiscomaycus, ninespine stickleback Pungitius pungitius, burbot Lota lota, and slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus. The presence of brook trout S. fontinalis in an embayment was associated with the common species of the Isle Royale nearshore fish community, particularly cisco, longnose sucker, and round whitefish. However, brook trout were present in only five embayments and were common only in Tobin Harbor. Most Isle Royale embayments had broadly overlapping ranges of nearshore habitats. Within embayments, fish were distributed along a habitat gradient from less-protected rocky habitat near the mouth to highly protected habitat with mixed and finer substrates at the head. Embayments with brook trout had greater mean protection from the open lake, greater variation in depth, greater mean cover, and higher mean frequencies of large substrates (cobble, boulder, and bedrock). Within those embayments, brook trout were associated with habitat patches with higher mean frequencies of small substrates (particularly sand and coarse gravel). Within Tobin Harbor, brook trout were associated with midembayment habitat and species assemblages, especially those locations with a mixture of sand, gravel, and cobble substrates, an absence of bedrock, and the presence of round whitefish, white sucker, and trout-perch. Comparison of embayments with the model, Tobin Harbor, showed that six embayments without brook trout had very similar arrays of habitat. However, four embayments with brook trout had relatively different arrays of habitat from Tobin Harbor. These results suggest that there is potential for further recovery of brook trout populations across Isle Royale nearshore habitats. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  18. Ecological monitoring for assessing the state of the nearshore and open waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neilson, Melanie A.; Painter, D. Scott; Warren, Glenn; Hites, Ronald A.; Basu, Ilora; Weseloh, D.V. Chip; Whittle, D. Michael; Christie, Gavin; Barbiero, Richard; Tuchman, Marc; Johannsson, Ora E.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Fleischer, Guy; Bronte, Charles; Smith, Stephen B.; Baumann, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement stipulates that the Governments of Canada and the United States are responsible for restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem. Due to varying mandates and areas of expertise, monitoring to assess progress towards this objective is conducted by a multitude of Canadian and U.S. federal and provincial/state agencies, in cooperation with academia and regional authorities. This paper highlights selected long-term monitoring programs and discusses a number of documented ecological changes that indicate the present state of the open and nearshore waters of the Great Lakes.

  19. Nearshore temperature findings for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona: possible implications for native fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Robert P.; Vernieu, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Since the completion of Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, in 1963, downstream water temperatures in the main channel of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons are much colder in summer. This has negatively affected humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other native fish adapted to seasonally warm water, reducing main-channel spawning activity and impeding the growth and development of larval and juvenile fish. Recently published studies by U.S. Geological Survey scientists found that under certain conditions some isolated nearshore environments in Grand Canyon allow water to become separated from the main-channel current and to warm, providing refuge areas for the development of larval and juvenile fish.

  20. Latitudinal Discontinuity in Thermal Conditions along the Nearshore of Central-Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Fabian J.; Largier, John L.; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A.; Navarrete, Sergio A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 3032S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 410 years at 15 sites between 2835S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 3031S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 3031S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species-specific effects, and add strength to the suggestion of an oceanography-driven, major spatial transition in coastal communities at 3031S. PMID:25334020

  1. Latitudinal discontinuity in thermal conditions along the nearshore of central-northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Fabian J; Largier, John L; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30-32S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4-10 years at 15 sites between 28-35S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30-31S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30-31S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species-specific effects, and add strength to the suggestion of an oceanography-driven, major spatial transition in coastal communities at 30-31S. PMID:25334020

  2. Uranium in the Near-shore Aquatic Food Chain: Studies on Periphyton and Asian Clams

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Miley, Terri B.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Brandt, Charles A.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-12-31

    The benthic aquatic organisms in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River are the first biological receptors that can be exposed to groundwater contaminants coming from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The primary contaminant of concern in the former nuclear fuels processing area at the Site, known as the 300 Area, is uranium. Currently, there are no national clean up criteria for uranium and ecological receptors. This report summarizes efforts to characterize biological uptake of uranium in the food chain of the benthic aquatic organisms and provide information to be used in future assessments of uranium and the ecosystem.

  3. Mutualism and evolutionary multiplayer games: revisiting the Red King

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Chaitanya S.; Traulsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Coevolution of two species is typically thought to favour the evolution of faster evolutionary rates helping a species keep ahead in the Red Queen race, where it takes all the running you can do to stay where you are. In contrast, if species are in a mutualistic relationship, it was proposed that the Red King effect may act, where it can be beneficial to evolve slower than the mutualistic species. The Red King hypothesis proposes that the species which evolves slower can gain a larger share of the benefits. However, the interactions between the two species may involve multiple individuals. To analyse such a situation, we resort to evolutionary multiplayer games. Even in situations where evolving slower is beneficial in a two-player setting, faster evolution may be favoured in a multiplayer setting. The underlying features of multiplayer games can be crucial for the distribution of benefits. They also suggest a link between the evolution of the rate of evolution and group size. PMID:22977149

  4. BOREAS AFM-2 Wyoming King Air 1994 Aircraft Sounding Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Robert D.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS AFM-2 team used the University of Wyoming King Air aircraft during IFCs 1, 2, and 3 in 1994 to collected pass-by-pass fluxes (and many other statistics) for the large number of level (constant altitude), straight-line passes used in a variety of flight patterns over the SSA and NSA and areas along the transect between these study areas. The data described here form a second set, namely soundings that were incorporated into nearly every research flight by the King Air in 1994. These soundings generally went from near the surface to above the inversion layer. Most were flown immediately after takeoff or immediately after finishing the last flux pattern of that particular day's flights. The parameters that were measured include wind direction, wind speed, west wind component (u), south wind component (v), static pressure, air dry bulb temperature, potential temperature, dewpoint, temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and CO2 concentration. Data on the aircraft's location, attitude, and altitude during data collection are also provided. These data are stored in tabular ASCH files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  5. King penguins can detect two odours associated with conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Gregory B; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies on olfaction in penguins have focused on their use of odours while foraging. It has been proposed for some seabirds that an olfactory landscape shaped by odours coming from feeding areas exists. Islands and colonies, however, may also contribute to the olfactory landscape and may act as an orienting map. To test sensitivities to a colony scent we studied whether King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) could detect the smell of sand, feathers or feces by holding presentations beneath their beaks while they naturally slept on the beach. Penguins had a significantly greater response to the feathers and feces presentations than to sand. Although only a first step in exploring a broader role of olfaction in this species, our results raise the possibility of olfaction being used by King penguins in three potential ways: (1) locating the colony from the water or the shore, (2) finding the rendezvous zone within the colony where a chick or partner may be found, or (3) recognizing individuals by scent, as in Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus demersus). PMID:26385329

  6. Data summary for the near-shore sediment characterization task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, D.A.; Hargrove, W.W.; Campbell, K.R.; Wood, M.A.; Rash, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents the results of the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). The goals of the task were to (1) determine the extent to which near-shore surface sediments are contaminated by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and (2) provide data for the Watts Bar Reservoir Interagency Permitting Group (WBRIPG) to evaluate the human health risks from exposure to sediments during and following dredging operations. The data collected for this task are also to be used in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RLTS) for the CR-ERP operable units (Lower Watts Bar and Clinch River) to characterize the human health risk associated with exposure to near-shore sediments throughout the Watts Bar Reservoir.

  7. Survey of radiological contaminants in the near-shore environment at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Van Verst, S.P.; Albin, C.L.; Patton, G.W.; Blanton, M.L.; Poston, T.M.; Cooper, A.T.; Antonio, E.J.

    1998-09-01

    Past operations at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor resulted in the release of radiological contaminants to the soil column, local groundwater, and ultimately to the near-shore environment of the Columbia River. In September 1997, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) and the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) initiated a special study of the near-shore vicinity at the Hanford Site`s retired 100-N Area reactor. Environmental samples were collected and analyzed for radiological contaminants ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, and gamma/ emitters), with both the WDOH and SESP analyzing a portion of the samples. Samples of river water, sediment, riverbank springs, periphyton, milfoil, flying insects, clam shells, and reed canary grass were collected. External exposure rates were also measured for the near-shore environment in the vicinity of the 100-N Area. In addition, samples were collected at background locations above Vernita Bridge.

  8. 77 FR 34798 - Safety Zone; USMMA Fireworks, Long Island Sound, Kings Point, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; USMMA Fireworks, Long Island Sound, Kings... establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity of Kings... from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during, and immediately after the fireworks event....

  9. On a Derivative-Free Variant of King's Family with Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, M.; Karimi Vanani, S.; Khaksar Haghani, F.; Arab, M.; Shateyi, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to construct a method with memory according to King's family of methods without memory for nonlinear equations. It is proved that the proposed method possesses higher R-order of convergence using the same number of functional evaluations as King's family. Numerical experiments are given to illustrate the performance of the constructed scheme. PMID:25884033

  10. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  13. In A World Set Apart: The Dalton Dynasty at King Alfred School, 1920-62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Explains that Helen Parkhurst's Dalton Laboratory Plan disappeared quickly in many British schools but remained for over 40 years in the King Alfred School in London (England). Explores the development of the Dalton Plan at King Alfred, why this educational innovation thrived at the school, and the causes for its disappearance. (CMK)

  14. Connect the Book. Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    In honor of Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, this month's featured book is "Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." The book was written by Doreen Rappaport and illustrated by Bryan Collier (Jump at the Sun, 2001. 40p. ISBN 0786807148). This pictorial biography of the world-renowned civil rights leader has one of the most striking

  15. Rufus King: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Throughout a lengthy public career, Rufus King employed his considerable diplomatic and oratorical skills to promote the twin causes of nationalism and civil liberty, fighting in the last decade of his life to extend those liberties to the nation's enslaved black minority. This booklet on King is one in a series on veterans of the Revolutionary

  16. Difficulties in Academic Writing: From the Perspective of King Saud University Postgraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Fadda, Hind

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what difficulties King Saud University students encounter when learning to write academic English and to differentiate between students' learning needs and objectives. The sample consisted of 50 postgraduate students enrolled in King Saud University during the academic year 2009-2010. Analysis of the data…

  17. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  19. Martin Luther King, Jr. Borrows a Revolution: Argument, Audience, and Implications of a Secondhand Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Keith D.

    1986-01-01

    Examines features of and sources for the discourse of Martin Luther King, Jr., as they relate to the language and assumptions favored by his listeners and readers in an effort to understand how speakers and writers can successfully argue from premises that audiences accept. Indicates how an understanding of King can help in composition

  20. 50 CFR 622.378 - Seasonal closures of the Gulf group king mackerel gillnet fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 6 a.m. on the day after the Martin Luther King Jr. Federal holiday. The gillnet fishery also is... following the Martin Luther King Jr. holiday which will remain open to the gillnet fishery provided a... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seasonal closures of the Gulf group...

  1. 50 CFR 622.378 - Seasonal closures of the Gulf group king mackerel gillnet fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 6 a.m. on the day after the Martin Luther King Jr. Federal holiday. The gillnet fishery also is... following the Martin Luther King Jr. holiday which will remain open to the gillnet fishery provided a... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seasonal closures of the Gulf group...

  2. The King James Bible and the Politics of Religious Education: Secular State and Sacred Scripture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an outline historical-educational analysis of the King James Bible from its 1611 publication through to its four-hundredth anniversary commemoration in 2011. With particular focus on England, the article traces the educational impact of the King James Bible and charts, in the country of its origin, its progressive decline in

  3. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Power of Nonviolence. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This lesson plan introduces students in grades 6-8 to Martin Luther King Jr.'s philosophy of nonviolence and the teachings of Mohandas K. Gandhi that influenced King's views. After considering the political impact of this philosophy, students explore its relevance to personal life. In these 6 lessons students will: (1) examine the philosophy of…

  4. 3 CFR 8340 - Proclamation 8340 of January 15, 2009. Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8340 of January 15, 2009. Martin Luther... Proclamation 8340 of January 15, 2009 Proc. 8340 Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2009By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On the Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday,...

  5. Connect the Book. Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    In honor of Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, this month's featured book is "Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." The book was written by Doreen Rappaport and illustrated by Bryan Collier (Jump at the Sun, 2001. 40p. ISBN 0786807148). This pictorial biography of the world-renowned civil rights leader has one of the most striking…

  6. Martin Luther King, Jr. Borrows a Revolution: Argument, Audience, and Implications of a Secondhand Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Keith D.

    1986-01-01

    Examines features of and sources for the discourse of Martin Luther King, Jr., as they relate to the language and assumptions favored by his listeners and readers in an effort to understand how speakers and writers can successfully argue from premises that audiences accept. Indicates how an understanding of King can help in composition…

  7. Children's Books on Martin Luther King, Jr. Offer a One-Dimensional View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banfield, Beryle

    1985-01-01

    Reviews children's books, teacher references, mini-plays, and curriculum resources that relate to the life of Martin Luther King, Jr. Reports that most of these sources ignore growth and changes within King's life and thought, the role models who shaped his philosophy, or his participation in issues such as the Vietnam War and poverty. (KH)

  8. 77 FR 38005 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Kings Beach Independence Day Fireworks display from 7 a.m. until 10 p.m. on July 3... associated with the fireworks display. During the enforcement period, unauthorized persons or vessels...

  9. Geologic map of southwestern Sequoia National Park, Tulare County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, Thomas W.; Moore, James G.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the geology of 675 km2 (260 mi2) on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, California, mainly in Sequoia National Park and Sequoia National Forest. It was produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the request of the National Park Service to complete the geologic map coverage of Kings Canyon and Sequoia National Parks. The area includes the Mineral King 15 topographic quadrangle (sheet 1) and strips along the east and northeast edges of the Kaweah 15 topographic quadrangle (sheet 2), both in Tulare County. Mapping was performed mainly on the 1:24,000-scale Mineral King, Silver City, Quinn Peak, Moses Mountain, Case Mountain, and Dennison Peak 7.5 topographic quadrangle bases. Rocks within the study area are chiefly Cretaceous granites and granodiorites of the Sierra Nevada batholith that intruded coherent masses of Mesozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. Quaternary till and talus are the principal surficial deposits, with the exception of a large bouldery alluvial apron near the southwest corner of the map area. The study area includes the headwaters of the Kaweah River (East and South Forks), Tule River (North Fork and North Fork of the Middle Fork), and the Little Kern River. Relief is considerable, with elevations spanning from 1,500 feet along the Middle Fork Kaweah River to 12,432 feet at the summit of Florence Peak along the crest of the Great Western Divide.

  10. Horizontal spatial and temporal distribution patterns of nearshore larval fish assemblages at a temperate rocky shore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Rita; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Chcharo, M. Alexandra; R, Pedro; Gonalves, Emanuel J.

    2007-02-01

    There have been no previous studies of the composition of nearshore larval fish assemblages along the coast of Portugal. We aimed to describe the composition and horizontal distribution patterns of larval fish assemblages and their temporal dynamics near a rocky reef at depths shallower than 13 m (inshore) and at two miles (3.70 km) from shore (offshore), as well as along transects perpendicular to the shoreline, from the reef to 10 miles offshore (18.52 km). Samples were taken using 5 min sub-surface trawls at the rocky shore of the Arrbida Marine Park (W Portugal). A total of 1021 larvae were collected, belonging to 61 taxa inshore and to 29 taxa offshore. Along transects, 626 larvae of 52 taxa were collected. Most larvae belonged to coastal species associated with rocky reefs. Total larval abundance and diversity were higher from May to July, which is consistent with the spawning activity of adults. Diversity and total larval abundance decreased significantly with increasing distance from shore, both in the inshore/offshore comparison and in the transects, where this decrease was evident at a very small spatial scale (within the first mile from the reef). Species assemblages differed in the pattern of distribution, with most species clearly associated to the extreme nearshore. The distribution patterns obtained were independent of the spawning mode of species. Results are discussed in the light of the possible physical mechanisms that can potentially act at the Arrbida Marine Park to facilitate larvae retention and the role of larval behaviour.

  11. Trophic connections in Lake Superior Part II: the nearshore fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, A.E.; Hrabik, T.R.; Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    We use detailed diet analyses of the predominant planktivorous, benthivorous and piscivorous fish species from Lake Superior to create a nearshore (bathymetric depths Mysis diluviana and Diporeia spp). Although the piscivorous fishes like lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) fed to a lesser extent on Diporeia and Mysis, they were still strongly connected to these macroinvertebrates, which were consumed by their primary prey species (sculpin spp., rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, and coregonines). The addition of Bythotrephes to summer/fall cisco and lake whitefish diets, and the decrease in rainbow smelt in lean lake trout diets (replaced by coregonines) were the largest observed differences relative to historic Lake Superior diet studies. Although the offshore food web of Lake Superior was simpler than nearshore in terms of number of fish species present, the two areas had remarkably similar food web structures, and both fish communities were primarily supported by Mysis and Diporeia. We conclude that declines in Mysis or Diporeia populations would have a significant impact on energy flow in Lake Superior. The food web information we generated can be used to better identify management strategies for Lake Superior.

  12. A system for measuring bottom profile, waves and currents in the high-energy nearshore environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Howard, P.C.; Fletcher, C. H., III; Howd, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    A new data-acquisition system capable of measuring waves, currents and the nearshore profile in breaking waves as high as 5 m has been developed and successfully field-tested. Components of the mechanical system are a sled carrying a vertical mast, a double-drum winch placed landward of the beach, and a line that runs from one drum of the winch around three blocks, which are the corners of a right triangle, to the other drum of the winch. The sled is attached to the shore-normal side of the triangular line arrangement and is pulled offshore by one drum of the winch and onshore by the other. The profile is measured as the sled is towed along the shore-normal transect using an infrared rangefinder mounted landward of the winch and optical prisms mounted on top of the sled's mast. A pressure sensor and two-axis electromagnetic current meter are mounted on the frame of the sled. These data are encoded on the sled and telemetered to a receiving/recording station onshore. Preliminary results suggest that near-bottom offshore-flowing currents during periods of high-energy swell are important in forcing changes to the configuration of the nearshore profile. ?? 1983.

  13. Monitoring and modeling nearshore dredge disposal for indirect beach nourishment, Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hanes, Daniel M.; Lescinski, Jamie; Elias, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    Nearshore dredge disposal was performed during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, a high energy tidal and wave environment. This trial run was an attempt to provide a buffer to a reach of coastline where wave attack during the winter months has had a severe impact on existing sewage infrastructure. Although the subsequent beach response was inconclusive, after one year the peak of the disposal mound had migrated ~100 m toward the shore, providing evidence that annual dredge disposal at this site could be beneficial over the long-term by at the very least providing: 1) additional wave dissipation during storms 2) compatible sediment to feed nearshore bars, 3) sediment cover on an exposed sewage outfall pipe, and 4) a viable alternative to the shoaling offshore disposal site. Numerical modeling suggests that despite the strong tidal currents in the region, wave forcing is the dominant factor moving the sediment slowly toward shore, and placing sediment at just slightly shallower depths (e.g. 9 m) in the future would have a more immediate impact.

  14. Could CO(2)-induced land-cover feedbacks alter near-shore upwelling regimes?

    PubMed

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Snyder, Mark A; Sloan, Lisa C

    2004-01-01

    The response of marine and terrestrial environments to global changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentrations will likely be governed by both responses to direct environmental forcing and responses to Earth-system feedbacks induced by that forcing. It has been proposed that anthropogenic greenhouse forcing will intensify coastal upwelling in eastern boundary current regions [Bakun, A. (1990) Science 247, 198-201]. Focusing on the California Current, we show that biophysical land-cover-atmosphere feedbacks induced by CO(2) radiative forcing enhance the radiative effects of CO(2) on land-sea thermal contrast, resulting in changes in eastern boundary current total seasonal upwelling and upwelling seasonality. Specifically, relative to CO(2) radiative forcing, land-cover-atmosphere feedbacks lead to a stronger increase in peak- and late-season near-shore upwelling in the northern limb of the California Current and a stronger decrease in peak- and late-season near-shore upwelling in the southern limb. Such changes will impact both marine and terrestrial communities [Bakun, A. (1990) Science 247, 198-201; Soto, C. G. (2001) Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 11, 181-195; and Agostini, V. N. & Bakun, A. (2002) Fish. Oceanogr. 11, 129-142], and these and other Earth-system feedbacks should be expected to play a substantial role in shaping the response of eastern boundary current regions to CO(2) radiative forcing. PMID:14691256

  15. Antihemorrhagin in the blood serum of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah): purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Chanhome, Lawan; Khow, Orawan; Omori-Satoh, Tamotsu; Sitprija, Visith

    2003-06-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) serum was found to possess antihemorrhagic activity against king cobra hemorrhagin. The activity was stronger than that in commercial king cobra antivenom. An antihemorrhagin has been purified by ion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography and gel filtration with a 22-fold purification and an overall yield of 12% of the total antihemorrhagic activity contained in crude serum. The purified antihemorrhagin was homogeneous in disc-PAGE and SDS-PAGE. Its apparent molecular weight determined by SDS-PAGE was 120 kDa. The antihemorrhagin was also active against other hemorrhagic snake venoms obtained in Thailand and Japan such as Calloselasma rhodostoma, Trimeresurus albolabris, Trimeresurus macrops and Trimeresurus flavoviridis (Japanese Habu). It inhibited the proteolytic activity of king cobra venom. It is an acid- and thermolabile protein and does not form precipitin lines against king cobra venom. PMID:12875876

  16. Queen Conch (Strombus gigas) Testis Regresses during the Reproductive Season at Nearshore Sites in the Florida Keys

    PubMed Central

    Spade, Daniel J.; Griffitt, Robert J.; Liu, Li; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Feswick, April; Glazer, Robert A.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Queen conch (Strombus gigas) reproduction is inhibited in nearshore areas of the Florida Keys, relative to the offshore environment where conchs reproduce successfully. Nearshore reproductive failure is possibly a result of exposure to environmental factors, including heavy metals, which are likely to accumulate close to shore. Metals such as Cu and Zn are detrimental to reproduction in many mollusks. Methodology/Principal Findings Histology shows gonadal atrophy in nearshore conchs as compared to reproductively healthy offshore conchs. In order to determine molecular mechanisms leading to tissue changes and reproductive failure, a microarray was developed. A normalized cDNA library for queen conch was constructed and sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences GS-FLX pyrosequencer, producing 27,723 assembled contigs and 7,740 annotated transcript sequences. The resulting sequences were used to design the microarray. Microarray analysis of conch testis indicated differential regulation of 255 genes (p<0.01) in nearshore conch, relative to offshore. Changes in expression for three of four transcripts of interest were confirmed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated changes in biological processes: respiratory chain (GO:0015992), spermatogenesis (GO:0007283), small GTPase-mediated signal transduction (GO:0007264), and others. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that Zn and possibly Cu were elevated in some nearshore conch tissues. Conclusions/Significance Congruence between testis histology and microarray data suggests that nearshore conch testes regress during the reproductive season, while offshore conch testes develop normally. Possible mechanisms underlying the testis regression observed in queen conch in the nearshore Florida Keys include a disruption of small GTPase (Ras)-mediated signaling in testis development. Additionally, elevated tissue levels of Cu (34.77 ng/mg in testis) and Zn (831.85 ng/mg in digestive gland, 83.96 ng/mg in testis) nearshore are similar to reported levels resulting in reproductive inhibition in other gastropods, indicating that these metals possibly contribute to NS conch reproductive failure. PMID:20856805

  17. Data Summary for the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) was to quantify potential human health risks associated with Department of Energy (DOE)-related contamination of surface sediments in Watts Bar Reservoir (WBR). An estimated 700 Ci of {sup 137}Cs and 325 Ci of {sup 60}Co were released from White Oak Lake into the Clinch River between 1949 and 1992 (DOE, 1988). A number of previous studies have documented sediment contamination in the deep-water sediments but no study specifically targeted the near-shore environment, which has the most potential for exposure to humans.

  18. Hydrodynamics and sediment-transport in the nearshore of Poverty Bay, New Zealand: Observations of nearshore sediment segregation and oceanic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bever, Aaron J.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Harris, Courtney K.

    2011-04-01

    Nearshore regions act as an interface between the terrestrial environment and deeper waters. As such, they play important roles in the dispersal of fluvial sediment and the transport of sand to and from the shoreline. This study focused on the nearshore of Poverty Bay, New Zealand, and the processes controlling the dispersal of sediment from the main source, the Waipaoa River. Hydrodynamics and sediment-transport in water shallower than 15 m were observed from April through mid-September 2006. This deployment afforded observations during 3-4 periods of elevated river discharge and 5 dry storms. Similar wind, river discharge, wave, current, and turbidity patterns were characterized during three of the wet storms. At the beginning of each event, winds blew shoreward, increasing wave heights to 2-3 m within Poverty Bay. As the cyclonic storms moved through the system the winds reversed direction and became seaward, reducing the local wave height and orbital velocity while river discharge remained elevated. At these times, high river discharge and relatively small waves enabled fluvially derived suspended sediment to deposit in shallow water. Altimetry measurements indicated that at least 7 cm was deposited at a 15 m deep site during a single discharge event. Turbidity and seabed observations showed this deposition to be removed, however, as large swell waves from the Southern Ocean triggered resuspension of the material within three weeks of deposition. Consequently, two periods of dispersal were associated with each discharge pulse, one coinciding with fluvial delivery, and a second driven by wave resuspension a few weeks later. These observations of nearfield sediment deposition contradict current hypotheses of very limited sediment deposition in shallow water offshore of small mountainous rivers when floods and high-energy, large wave and fast current, oceanic conditions coincide. Consistently shoreward near-bed currents, observed along the 10 m isobath of Poverty Bay, were attributed to a combination of estuarine circulation, Stokes drift, and wind driven upwelling. Velocities measured at the 15 m isobath, however, were directed more alongshore and diverged from those at the 10 m isobath. The divergence in the currents observed at the 10 and 15 m locations seemed to facilitate segregation of coarse and fine sediment, with sand transported near-bed toward the beach, while suspended silts and clays were exported to deeper water.

  19. 50 CFR 622.372 - Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern Florida west...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources (Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic) 622.372 Limited access system for king mackerel... renewals of king mackerel gillnet permits, no applications for king mackerel gillnet permits will...

  20. 50 CFR 622.372 - Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern Florida west...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources (Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic) 622.372 Limited access system for king mackerel... renewals of king mackerel gillnet permits, no applications for king mackerel gillnet permits will...

  1. [Oceanography and King Dom Carlos I's collection of iconography].

    PubMed

    Jardim, Maria Estela; Peres, Isabel Marília; Ré, Pedro Barcia; Costa, Fernanda Madalena

    2014-01-01

    After the Challenger expedition (1872-1878), other nations started to show interest in oceanographic research and organizing their own expeditions. As of 1885, Prince Albert I of Monaco conducted oceanographic campaigns with the collaboration of some of the best marine biologists and physical oceanographers of the day, inventing new techniques and instruments for the oceanographic work. Prince Albert's scientific activity certainly helped kindle the interest of his friend, Dom Carlos I, king of Portugal, in the study of the oceans and marine life. Both shared the need to use photography to document their studies. This article analyzes the role of scientific photography in oceanography, especially in the expeditions organized by the Portuguese monarch. PMID:25338032

  2. Biological activities and phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla King.

    PubMed

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Goh, Bey Hing; Chan, Chim Kei; Shabab, Tara; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) is an endangered and medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of the World. S. macrophylla has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The review reveals that limonoids and its derivatives are the major constituents of S. macrophylla. There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of S. macrophylla, which exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, antimutagenic, anticancer, antitumor and antidiabetic activities. Various other activities like anti-nociceptive, hypolipidemic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-infective, antiviral, antimalarial, acaricidal, antifeedant and heavy metal phytoremediation activity have also been reported. In view of the immense medicinal importance of S. macrophylla, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of S. macrophylla, showing its importance. PMID:23999722

  3. The old open clusters Berkeley 32 and King 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, Monica; Bragaglia, Angela; Cignoni, Michele

    2007-06-01

    We have obtained CCD BVI imaging of the old open clusters Berkeley 32 and King 11. Using the synthetic colour-magnitude diagram method with three different sets of stellar evolution models of various metallicities, with and without overshooting, we have determined their age, distance, reddening and indicative metallicity, as well as distance from the Galactic Centre and height from the Galactic plane. The best parameters derived for Berkeley 32 are: subsolar metallicity (Z = 0.008 represents the best choice, Z = 0.006 or 0.01 is more marginally acceptable), age = 5.0-5.5 Gyr (models with overshooting; without overshooting the age is 4.2-4.4 Gyr with poorer agreement), (m - M)0 = 12.4-12.6, E(B - V) = 0.12-0.18 (with the lower value being more probable because it corresponds to the best metallicity), RGC ~ 10.7-11 kpc and |Z| ~ 231-254 pc. The best parameters for King 11 are: Z = 0.01, age = 3.5-4.75 Gyr, (m - M)0 = 11.67-11.75, E(B - V) = 1.03-1.06, RGC ~ 9.2-10 kpc and |Z| ~ 253-387 pc. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundacin Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofsica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias. E-mail: monica.tosi@oabo.inaf.it (MT); angela.bragaglia@oabo.inaf.it (AB); michele.cignoni@unibo.it (MC)

  4. Patterns of Hits to the Nearshore from a Major Fairway in the Gulf of Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikmae, B.; Soomere, T.

    2012-04-01

    The Baltic Sea hosts one of the heaviest ship traffic in the world. Although relatively small in size, still up to 15% of the world's cargo is transported along its numerous fairways. The largest threat to the environment is oil transportation that has increased more than by a factor of two in 2000-2008 and a 40% increase is expected by the year 2015. One of the major marine highways in the European waters enters the Baltic Sea through the Danish Straits, crosses the Baltic Proper and stretches through the Gulf of Finland to Saint Petersburg. An area that is highly vulnerable to ship pollution is the nearshore that usually has the largest ecological value. While the probability of coastal pollution for open ocean coasts can be reduced by shifting ship routes farther offshore, the problem for narrow bays, like the Gulf of Finland, is how to minimize the probability of hitting any of the coasts. To a certain extent, light can be shed to this problem by means of quantification of the offshore areas in terms of their ability to serve a danger to coastal environment if pollution would happen in these areas. A convenient way to address this problem is to use statistical analysis of a large number of Lagrangian trajectories of test particles representing the potential pollution and passively carried by surface currents. In this paper, we make and attempt to quantify the link between potential sources of pollution along an existing fairway and the sections of the coast reached by current-driven pollution. The problem is analysed by means of considering hits to the nearshore from a major fairway in the Gulf of Finland and by making sure whether certain parts of the coast are hit by pollution particles most frequently and whether or not these pollution particles stem from certain specific parts of the fairway. Trajectories are simulated in the Gulf of Finland by placing tracers among a line that follows one of the major fairways from the Baltic Proper to Saint Petersburg. The probabilities for the hit to different parts of the nearshore and the ability of different sections of the fairway to provide coastal pollution have extensive seasonal variability. The potential impact of the fairway is roughly proportional to its distance from the nearest coast. A short section of the fairway to the south of Vyborg and a segment to the west of Tallinn are the most probable sources of coastal pollution. The most frequently hit coastal areas are short fragments between Hanko and Helsinki, the NE coast of the gulf to the south of Vyborg, and longer segments from Tallinn to Hiiumaa on the southern coast of the gulf.

  5. Southwest Washington littoral drift restorationBeach and nearshore morphological monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Ruggiero, Peter; Kaminsky, George M.

    2012-01-01

    A morphological monitoring program has documented the placement and initial dispersal of beach nourishment material (280,000 m3) placed between the Mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) North Jetty and North Head, at the southern end of the Long Beach Peninsula in southwestern Washington State. A total of 21 topographic surveys and 8 nearshore bathymetric surveys were performed between July 11, 2010, and November 4, 2011. During placement, southerly alongshore transport resulted in movement of nourishment material to the south towards the MCR North Jetty. Moderate wave conditions (significant wave height around 4 m) following the completion of the nourishment resulted in cross-shore sediment transport, with most of the nourishment material transported into the nearshore bars. The nourishment acted as a buffer to the more severe erosion, including dune overtopping and retreat, that was observed at the northern end of the study area throughout the winter. One year after placement of the nourishment, onshore transport and beach recovery were most pronounced within the permit area and to the south toward the MCR North Jetty. This suggests that there is some long-term benefit of the nourishment for reducing erosion rates locally, although the enhanced recovery also could be due to natural gradients in alongshore transport causing net movement of the sediment from north to south. Measurements made during the morphological monitoring program documented the seasonal movement and decay of nearshore sand bars. Low-energy conditions in late summer resulted in onshore bar migration early in the monitoring program. Moderate wave conditions in the autumn resulted in offshore movement of the middle bar and continued onshore migration of the outer bar. High-energy wave conditions early in the winter resulted in strong cross-shore transport and creation of a 3-bar system along portions of the coast. More southerly wave events occurred later in the winter and early spring and coincided with the complete loss of the outer bar and net loss of sediment from the study area. These data suggest that bar decay may be an important mechanism for exporting sediment from Benson Beach north to the Long Beach Peninsula. The measurements presented in this report represent one component of a broader monitoring program designed to track the movement of nourishment material on the beach and shoreface at this location, including continuous video monitoring (Argus), in situu measurements of hydrodynamics, and a physical tracer experiment. Field data from the monitoring program will be used to test numerical models of hydrodynamics and sediment transport and to improve the capability of numerical models to support regional sediment management.

  6. A hybrid level set/volume-of-fluid approach for simulation of nearshore hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtyar, R.; Kees, C. E.; Miller, C. T.; Farthing, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    Wave breaking can play an important role in hydrodynamics near the coast and subsequently can be a factor in beach morphodynamics. However, an accurate understanding of the wave breaking and mixing of water and air at the free surface has yet to be achieved. Numerical models, based on single phase flow, have been used to study the nearshore hydrodynamics, but air-water two-phase flow is not well understood, and so there is a need for additional investigation into the details of this type of flow. The main objective of this study was to de¬velop further understanding of surf-swash zone hydrodynamics under a variety of wave forcing conditions. The main tool used was a com-prehensive two-phase numerical model - combining two-dimensional wave solver with the state-of-the-art 'Eulerian' technique for free surface modeling- of nearshore hydrodynamics. Surf-swash zone hydrodynamics were modeled using the Navier-Stokes equations, combined with turbulence closure model and a hybrid level set/volume-of-fluid approach. The hybrid level set/volume-of-fluid approach combines the accuracy and conceptual simplicity of front-tracking using level set methods with the conservation properties of volume-of fluid methods. The solver was discretized using a finite element method. The model's grid convergence and refinement were investigated in order to obtain high accuracy at an acceptable computational cost while retain robustness. The numerical set-up was tested against the well-known experimental data, with good agreement found. The numerical results showed that the maximum turbulent kinetic energy, turbulence dissipation rate, and velocity components are located near the free surface in the wave breaking area. The model is appropriate for the simulation of air-water mixing flow, undertow distribution, and turbulence characteristics in the nearshore zone. Generally, the analysis shows that, with reasonable hypotheses, it is possible to simulate the surf-swash zone hydrodynamics under wave breaking, consistent with existing understanding of this area.

  7. Experimental Monitoring of Mixed Sand and Mud Sediment in the Nearshore Area of Santa Cruz, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, S. G.; Greene, H. G.

    2001-12-01

    An experiment conducted in late March of 2001 along the beaches and nearshore of Santa Cruz, California consisted of three phases: pre-experiment, experiment, and post-experiment. In the pre- and post-experimental phases, high-resolution side scan sonar and multibeam bathymetry data were collected to produce maps describing surface sediments and depth changes of the seafloor near the Santa Cruz Harbor. Offshore and beach sediment samples were collected three weeks prior to and after the experiment to analyze for changes in grain size and to provide physical evidence of seafloor substrate. Experimental monitoring consisted of daily beach and offshore sediment sampling. Oceanographic data including swell direction, height, and period were obtained from buoys offshore. Rainfall and stream flow data from the nearby San Lorenzo River were recorded during all phases of the project. Our sedimentological studies of materials dredged from the upper Santa Cruz Harbor, California suggest that sediment containing approximately 40% sand and 60% mud can be disposed in the surf zone without adversely affecting the quality of neighboring beaches or offshore rocky habitats while simultaneously replenishing sand to eroding beaches downcoast. A small amount of the mud-rich material (about 2300 m3) was placed into the surf-zone during the winter of 2000-2001 to determine the retention of sands in the nearshore zone and the impact that fine-grain (mud) sediment may have on rocky habitats. The beaches and other nearshore environments near the disposal site of the Santa Cruz Small Craft Harbor appear to be unchanged by the disposed harbor sediments. The data indicates that little change in sediment grain size or distribution has occurred. This is most likely due to the high-energy nature of this coastline, which results in suspension of silts and clays until they reach lower energy, deeper water offshore outside of the study area. The sand fraction of the disposed sediment was likely transported to the southeast in littoral drift and may replenish downcoast beaches.

  8. A Quick Response Forecasting Model of Pathogen Transport and Inactivation in Near-shore Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Fu, X.

    2011-12-01

    Modeling methods supporting water quality assessments play a critical role by facilitating people to understand and promptly predict the potential threat of waterborne bacterial pathogens pose to human health. A mathematical model to describe and predict bacterial levels can provide foundation for water managers in making decisions on whether a water system is safe to open to the public. The inactivation (decay or die-off) rate of bacteria is critical in a bacterial model by controlling bacterial concentration in waters and depends on numerous factors of hydrodynamics, meteorology, geology, chemistry and biology. Transport and fate of waterborne pathogens in fresh water systems is an essentially three-dimensional problem, which requires a coupling of hydrodynamic equations and transport equations that describe the pathogen and suspended sediment dynamics. However, such an approach could be very demanding and time consuming from a practical point of view due to excess computational efforts. Long computation time may lead people unintentionally drinking or swimming in the contaminated water during the period before the predictive results of water quality come out. Therefore, it is very necessary to find a quick-response model to forecast bacterial concentration instantly to protect human health without any delay. Nearshore regions are the most commonly and directly used area for people in a huge water system. The prior multi-dimensional investigations of E. Coli and Enterococci inactivation in literature indicate that along-shore current predominated the nearshore region. Consequently, the complex dynamic conditions may be potentially simplified to one-dimensional scenario. In this research, a one-dimensional model system coupling both hydrodynamic and bacterial transport modules is constructed considering different complex processes to simulate the transport and fate of pathogens in nearshore regions. The quick-response model mainly focuses on promptly forecasting purpose and will be verified and calibrated with the available data collected from southern Lake Michigan. The modeling results will be compared with those from prior multi-dimensional models. This model is specifically effective for the outfall-controlled waters, where pathogens are primarily predominated by loadings from nearby tributaries and tend to show wide variations in concentrations.

  9. High-Resolution Nested Circulation Modeling in Near-Shore Regions Using Delft3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reath, A. L.; Almeida, T. G.; Walker, D. T.; Warnock, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean circulation modeling in near-shore regions can be accomplished by nesting a high-resolution model in fields obtained from a global or basin-scale operational forecast model; however, the accuracy obtained using this strategy can be limited by coarse spatial and temporal resolution of the operational forecast models. The objective of this study was to investigate nesting of a sub-mesoscale model for near-shore circulation in output fields from an operational forecast model in order to determine both the appropriate boundary condition type, as well as the spatial and temporal sampling requirements, for boundary- and initial-condition specification. A high resolution (~50 m) Delft3D model for the San Diego Bay region for a four-day period in June 2014 is the focus of this study. Boundary and initial condition data is obtained via nesting in the output from the Southern California (SOCAL) regional Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM), with ~3.5 km spatial resolution and three-hour temporal sampling, produced daily by the Naval Oceanographic Office. To assess the impact of different nesting approaches, the Delft3D model results are compared to contemporaneous data for velocity, sea surface heights, temperature, and salinity in the region and also to the low-resolution forecast fields. Results show that the fidelity and consistency of the nested model depend on boundary-condition type, as well as details of the boundary-condition specification, and on the turbulence closure implementation. Results also exhibit sensitivity to bathymetry differences between the low- and high-resolution models; offshore, bathymetry such as ETOPO2 (with 2-minute spatial resolution) is sufficient, but near the shore a higher resolution bathymetry, such as the 1-arc-second Southern California Coastal Relief Model v.2, is required. The results demonstrate the ability to nest high-resolution models within operational forecasts to yield consistent circulation predictions for near-shore regions at higher spatial and temporal resolution than currently available from regional or basin-scale operational models.

  10. Development of an Integrated Assessment of Great Lakes Using Towed in situ Sensor Technologies: Linking Nearshore Conditions with Adjacent Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal and nearshore regions of the US/Canadian Great Lakes have not been included in monitoring efforts in any regular, consistent, or comprehensive fashion. To address this need, we have been developing a survey strategy using towed in situ sensors to provide spatially-compreh...

  11. COASTAL WETLAND-NEARSHORE FOOD WEB LINKAGES ALONG A TROPHIC GRADIENT IN GREEN BAY: A FISH-EYE VIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    To identify ecological interactions among Green Bay coastal wetlands and lake habitats we analyzed stable isotope signatures of organismsa from wetland and adjacent nearshore food webs in Green Bay, Lake Michigan. We were interested in the influence of nutrient loading/trophic st...

  12. Pressure-gradient-driven nearshore circulation on a beach influenced by a large inlet-tidal shoal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shi, F.; Hanes, D.M.; Kirby, J.T.; Erikson, L.; Barnard, P.; Eshleman, J.

    2011-01-01

    The nearshore circulation induced by a focused pattern of surface gravity waves is studied at a beach adjacent to a major inlet with a large ebb tidal shoal. Using a coupled wave and wave-averaged nearshore circulation model, it is found that the nearshore circulation is significantly affected by the heterogeneous wave patterns caused by wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal. The model is used to predict waves and currents during field experiments conducted near the mouth of San Francisco Bay and nearby Ocean Beach. The field measurements indicate strong spatial variations in current magnitude and direction and in wave height and direction along Ocean Beach and across the ebb tidal shoal. Numerical simulations suggest that wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal causes wave focusing toward a narrow region at Ocean Beach. Due to the resulting spatial variation in nearshore wave height, wave-induced setup exhibits a strong alongshore nonuniformity, resulting in a dramatic change in the pressure field compared to a simulation with only tidal forcing. The analysis of momentum balances inside the surf zone shows that, under wave conditions with intensive wave focusing, the alongshore pressure gradient associated with alongshore nonuniform wave setup can be a dominant force driving circulation, inducing heterogeneous alongshore currents. Pressure-gradient- forced alongshore currents can exhibit flow reversals and flow convergence or divergence, in contrast to the uniform alongshore currents typically caused by tides or homogeneous waves.

  13. LIMNETIC LARVAL FISH IN THE NEARSHORE ZONE OF THE SOUTH SHORE OF THE CENTRAL BASIN OF LAKE ERIE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of a survey of larval fish in the nearshore zone of the central basin of Lake Erie from Conneaut to Sandusky, Ohio. Larval fish were sampled at 10 transects during each of 8 cruise periods between 2 May and 9 August 1978. Concentrations of fish la...

  14. Large-scale movements and habitat characteristics of king eiders throughout the nonbreeding period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Laura M.; Powell, A.N.; Rexstad, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    King Eiders (Somateria spectabilis) breeding in western Canada and Alaska molt wing feathers and spend the winter in remote areas of the Bering Sea, precluding direct observation. To characterize timing of migration and habitat used by King Eiders during the nonbreeding period, we collected location data for 60 individuals (27 females and 33 males) over three years from satellite telemetry and utilized oceanographic information obtained by remote sensing. Male King Eiders dispersed from breeding areas, arrived at wing molt sites, and dispersed from wing molt sites earlier than females in all years. Males arriving earlier at wing molt sites molted flight feathers at higher latitudes. Distributions of molt and winter locations did not differ by sex or among years. Of the variables considered for analysis, distance to shore, water depth, and salinity appeared to best describe King Eider habitat throughout the nonbreeding period. King Eiders were located closer to shore, in shallower water with lower salinity than random locations. During the winter, lower ice concentrations were also associated with King Eider locations. This study provides some of the first large-scale descriptions of King Eider migration and habitat outside the breeding season. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  15. Sea-Floor Mapping and Benthic Habitat GIS for the Elwha River Delta Nearshore, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Sagy, Yael; Finlayson, David; Harney, Jodi

    2008-01-01

    From March 1531, 2005, more than 252 km (19.5 km2) of seafloor offshore of the Elwha River Delta in the central Strait of Juan de Fuca was mapped by the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program. The purpose of this nearshore mapping was to (1) obtain high resolution bathymetry and acoustic reflectance properties of the seabed, (2) examine and record geologic characteristics of the seafloor, and (3) construct maps of sea-floor geomorphology and habitat. Substrate distribution was characterized with video-supervised statistical classification of the sonar data. Substrate of the survey was dominated by mixed sand-gravel and sand. Numerous boulder reefs were observed west of the river mouth within Freshwater Bay, whereas the sea-floor immediately adjacent to the river mouth was dominated by sand.

  16. Survey of microbial populations within Lake Michigan nearshore waters at two Chicago public beaches

    PubMed Central

    Malki, Kema; Bruder, Katherine; Putonti, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Lake Michigan is a critical resource for the residents of Chicago, providing drinking water to its 9+ million area residents. Along Chicago׳s 26 miles of public beaches the populous urban environment and this freshwater environment meet. While city-led monitoring initiatives investigate pathogenic bacteria in these nearshore waters, very little is known about other microbial species present. We collected surface water samples from two Chicago public beaches – Montrose Beach and 57th Street Beach – every ten days from June 5 through August 4, 2013 as well as once in early Fall (October 4, 2013). Sixteen bacterial communities in total were surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V4 16S rRNA gene. Taxa were identified using Mothur. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI׳s SRA database (part of BioProject PRJNA245802). OTU calls for each read are also available at our online repository: www.lakemichiganmicrobes.com/bacteria/.

  17. Effects of nearshore recharge on groundwater interactions with a lake in mantled karst terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The recharge and discharge of groundwater were investigated for a lake basin in the mantled karst terrain of central Florida to determine the relative importance of transient groundwater inflow to the lake water budget. Variably saturated groundwater flow modeling simulated water table responses observed beneath two hillsides radiating outward from the groundwater flow-through lake. Modeling results indicated that transient water table mounding and groundwater flow reversals in the nearshore region following large daily rainfall events generated most of the net groundwater inflow to the lake. Simulated daily groundwater inflow was greatest following water table mounding near the lake, not following subsequent peaks in the water level of upper basin wells. Transient mounding generated net groundwater inflow to the lake, that is, groundwater inflow in excess of the outflow occurring through the deeper lake bottom. The timing of the modeled net groundwater inflow agreed with an independent lake water budget; however, the quantity was considerably less than the budge-derived value.

  18. Benthic status of near-shore fishing grounds in the central Philippines and associated seahorse densities.

    PubMed

    Marcus, J E; Samoilys, M A; Meeuwig, J J; Villongco, Z A D; Vincent, A C J

    2007-09-01

    Benthic status of 28 near-shore, artisanal, coral reef fishing grounds in the central Philippines was assessed (2000-2002) together with surveys of the seahorse, Hippocampus comes. Our measures of benthic quality and seahorse densities reveal some of the most degraded coral reefs in the world. Abiotic structure dominated the fishing grounds: 69% of the benthos comprised rubble (32%), sand/silt (28%) and dead coral (9%). Predominant biotic structure included live coral (12%) and Sargassum (11%). Rubble cover increased with increasing distance from municipal enforcement centers and coincided with substantial blast fishing in this region of the Philippines. Over 2 years, we measured a significant decrease in benthic 'heterogeneity' and a 16% increase in rubble cover. Poor benthic quality was concomitant with extremely low seahorse densities (524 fish per km(2)). Spatial management, such as marine reserves, may help to minimize habitat damage and to rebuild depleted populations of seahorses and other reef fauna. PMID:17645896

  19. LANDSAT survey of near-shore ice conditions along the Arctic coast of Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringer, W. J. (Principal Investigator); Barrett, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Winter and spring near-shore ice conditions were analyzed for the Beaufort Sea 1973-77, and the Chukchi Sea 1973-76. LANDSAT imagery was utilized to map major ice features related to regional ice morphology. Significant features from individual LANDSAT image maps were combined to yield regional maps of major ice ridge systems for each year of study and maps of flaw lead systems for representative seasons during each year. These regional maps were, in turn, used to prepare seasonal ice morphology maps. These maps showed, in terms of a zonal analysis, regions of statistically uniform ice behavior. The behavioral characteristics of each zone were described in terms of coastal processes and bathymetric configuration.

  20. Feeding ecology of marine birds in the nearshore waters of Kodiak Island

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnow, L.D.; Sanger, G.A.

    1982-09-01

    The feeding habits of marine birds in the nearshore waters of Kodiak Island were studied during winter 1976-1977 and February 1978 and during summer 1977 and 1978. The authors' goals were to determine which prey were important to each species of bird and to define geographic, seasonal, and annual patterns of prey use. A total of 1,167 birds of 10 species were collected during the two-year study. During both winters, oldsquaws and Steller's elders ate a broad range of invertebrate prey, and common murres ate primarily gadids. Marbled murrelet feeding habits varied between the two winters. Due to the complexity of the fate and effects of petroleum, it is difficult to predict the impacts of a spill.

  1. 18S rDNA dataset profiling microeukaryotic populations within Chicago area nearshore waters.

    PubMed

    Searle, Daniel; Sible, Emily; Cooper, Alexandria; Putonti, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    Despite their critical role in the aquatic food web and nutrient cycling, microeukaryotes within freshwater environments are under-studied. Herein we present the first high-throughput molecular survey of microeukaryotes within Lake Michigan. Every two weeks from May 13 to August 5, 2014, we collected surface water samples from the nearshore waters of four Chicago area beaches: Gillson Park, Montrose Beach, 57th Street Beach, and Calumet Beach. Four biological replicates were collected for each sampling date and location, resulting in 112 samples. Eighty-nine of these samples were surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V7 and V8 regions of the 18S rDNA gene. Both technical and biological replicates were sequenced and are included in this dataset. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI's SRA database (BioProject PRJNA294919). PMID:26904716

  2. Extraordinarily high coral cover on a nearshore, high-latitude reef in south-west Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, D. P.; Frisch, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Photographic line transects were used to quantify the benthic community at Hall Bank, a small, nearshore, high-latitude reef in south-west Australia. On one of the seven transects, the coral cover was 72.5% (mean = 52.6 ± 0.45%), which is the highest ever recorded coral cover at or beyond 32°S. There were no macro-algae, possibly due to the high density of herbivorous sea-urchins (mean = 5.0 ± 0.8 m-2). Fourteen species of scleractinian corals dominated the benthos, seven of which were from the family Faviidae. Given that Hall Bank is at the limit of environmental tolerance for reef formation, it represents a valuable research opportunity for understanding the factors that build and maintain coral reef biodiversity and resilience.

  3. Submarine groundwater discharge into the near-shore zone of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Along the tropical coastline of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region, little is known to date about submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the near-shore ocean. In an oceanographic sense, SGD consists of freshwater flow from land as well as seawater circulated through sediments. Recent radiochemical and geophysical studies, using the tracer (222)Rn and apparent ground conductivity respectively, provide evidence for SGD to occur in a variety of hydrogeological settings. In this paper, a non-quantitative overview of different settings of SGD in the region is presented: (1) recirculation of seawater through animal burrows in mangrove forests, (2) freshwater SGD from unconfined aquifers as a narrow coastal fringe of freshwater along Wet Tropics beaches, (3) SGD from coastal dune systems in form of localised freshwater springs in the intertidal zone, (4) inner-shelf SGD from confined submarine aquifer systems comprised of riverine paleochannels incised into the shelf. PMID:15757707

  4. The nearshore benthic community of Kasatochi Island, one year after the 2008 volcanic eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jewett, S.C.; Bodkin, J.L.; Chenelot, H.; Esslinger, G.G.; Hoberg, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    A description is presented of the nearshore benthic community of Kasatochi Island 1012 months after a catastrophic volcanic eruption in 2008. The eruption extended the coastline of the island approximately 400 m offshore, mainly along the south, southeast, and southwest shores, to roughly the 20 m isobath. Existing canopy kelp of Eualaria (Alaria) fistulosa, as well as limited understory algal species and associated fauna (e.g., urchin barrens) on the hard substratum were apparently buried following the eruption. Samples and observations revealed the substrate around the island in 2009 was comprised almost entirely of medium and coarse sands with a depauperate benthic community, dominated by opportunistic pontogeneiid amphipods. Comparisons of habitat and biological communities with other nearby Aleutian Islands, as well as with the Icelandic volcanic island of Surtsey, confirm dramatic reductions in flora and fauna consistent with an early stage of recovery from a large-scale disturbance event. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  5. LANDSAT survey of near-shore ice conditions along the Arctic coast of Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringer, W. J. (principal investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. On the basis of analysis of late winter 1973, 1974, and 1975 LANDSAT imagery of the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska, the following conclusions regarding near-shore ice conditions were made: (1) by March, the seaward limit of contiguous ice is often beyond the 10 fathom contour. (2) During March, shearing can and does take place along a line roughly coincident with the 10 fathom contour. (3) Ice motions during these shearing events are not extremely great, generally on the order of 10 km. (4) Many large ice features have already been formed by late February. (5) Based on look-ahead at later LANDSAT imagery, it seems apparent that Beaufort Seas shore-fast ice was already formed by late February and may well be safe for exploratory activities from this data forward until the melt season.

  6. The Performance of Nearshore Dredge Disposal at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (USACE). The USACE designated a temporary nearshore dredge disposal site for the annual disposal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand about 750 m offshore and slightly south of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. The site has now been used three times for a total sediment disposal of about 690,000 m3 (about 900,000 yds3). The disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion, as well as prevent further scour on an exposed outfall pipe. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring and modeling the bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region since inception in May 2005. This paper reports on the first 2.5 years of this monitoring program effort (May 2005 to December 2007) and assesses the short-term coastal response. Here are the key findings of this report: *Approximately half of the sediment that has been placed in the nearshore dredge-disposal site during the 2.5 years of this study remains within the dredge focus area. *In the winter of 2006-7, large waves transported the dredge-mound material onshore. *High rates of seasonal cross-shore sediment transport mask any potential profile change in the Coastal Profiling System data due to dredge placement. *Pockets of accretion have been recorded by topographic surveying adjacent to the dredge site, but it is unclear if the accretion is linked to the nourishment. *Cross-shore profile modeling suggests that dredge material must be placed in water depths no greater than 5 m to drive a positive shoreline response. *Area modeling demonstrates that the new dredge site increases wave dissipation and modifies local sediment-transport patterns, although the effect on the nearshore morphology is largely negligible. *Any increase in beach width or wave energy-dissipation related to the nourishment is likely to be realized only in the vicinity directly onshore of the nourishment site, which is several hundred meters south of the area of critical erosion. *Larger waves from the northwest and smaller waves from the west or southwest contribute most to the sediment transport from the dredge mound onshore.

  7. Radar signal return from near-shore surface and shallow subsurface features, Darien Province, Panama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, B. C.; Dellwig, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    The AN/APQ-97 radar imagery over eastern Panama is analyzed. The imagery was directed toward extraction of geologic and engineering data and the establishment of operational parameters. Subsequent investigations emphasized landform identification and vegetation distribution. The parameters affecting the observed return signal strength from such features are considered. Near-shore ocean phenomena were analyzed. Tidal zone features such as mud flats and reefs were identified in the near range, but were not detectable in the far range. Surface roughness dictated the nature of reflected energy (specular or diffuse). In surf zones, changes in wave train orientation relative to look direction, the slope of the surface, and the physical character of the wave must be considered. It is concluded that the establishment of the areal extent of the tidal flats, distributary channels, and reefs is practical only in the near to intermediate range under minimal low tide conditions.

  8. 18S rDNA dataset profiling microeukaryotic populations within Chicago area nearshore waters

    PubMed Central

    Searle, Daniel; Sible, Emily; Cooper, Alexandria; Putonti, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Despite their critical role in the aquatic food web and nutrient cycling, microeukaryotes within freshwater environments are under-studied. Herein we present the first high-throughput molecular survey of microeukaryotes within Lake Michigan. Every two weeks from May 13 to August 5, 2014, we collected surface water samples from the nearshore waters of four Chicago area beaches: Gillson Park, Montrose Beach, 57th Street Beach, and Calumet Beach. Four biological replicates were collected for each sampling date and location, resulting in 112 samples. Eighty-nine of these samples were surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V7 and V8 regions of the 18S rDNA gene. Both technical and biological replicates were sequenced and are included in this dataset. Raw sequence data is available via NCBIs SRA database (BioProject PRJNA294919). PMID:26904716

  9. Synchronization and an application of a novel fractional order King Cobra chaotic system.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, P; Balasubramaniam, P; Ratnavelu, K

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we design a new three dimensional King Cobra face shaped fractional order chaotic system. The multi-scale synchronization scheme of two fractional order chaotic systems is described. The necessary conditions for the multi-scale synchronization of two identical fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems are derived through feedback control. A new cryptosystem is proposed for an image encryption and decryption by using synchronized fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems with the supports of multiple cryptographic assumptions. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is analyzed by the well known algebraic attacks. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results. PMID:25273185

  10. Synchronization and an application of a novel fractional order King Cobra chaotic system

    SciTech Connect

    Muthukumar, P. Balasubramaniam, P.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we design a new three dimensional King Cobra face shaped fractional order chaotic system. The multi-scale synchronization scheme of two fractional order chaotic systems is described. The necessary conditions for the multi-scale synchronization of two identical fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems are derived through feedback control. A new cryptosystem is proposed for an image encryption and decryption by using synchronized fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems with the supports of multiple cryptographic assumptions. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is analyzed by the well known algebraic attacks. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results.

  11. Brood rearing ecology of king eiders on the north slope of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Laura M.; Powell, Abby N.

    2009-01-01

    We examined King Eider (Somateria spectabilis) brood survival in the Kuparak oil field in northern Alaska in 2002 and 2003 by monitoring hens with broods using radiotelemetry. We observed complete brood loss in eight of 10 broods. Broods survived less than 2 weeks on average, and most mortality occurred within 10 days of hatch. Distance hens traveled overland did not affect brood survival. Apparent King Eider brood survival in our study area was lower than reported for eider species in other areas. We recommend future studies examine if higher densities of predators in oil fields reduces King Eider duckling survival.

  12. Modeling the impacts of wildfire on runoff and pollutant transport from coastal watersheds to the nearshore environment.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Katherine D; Kolden, Crystal A

    2015-03-15

    Wildfire is a common disturbance that can significantly alter vegetation in watersheds and affect the rate of sediment and nutrient transport to adjacent nearshore oceanic environments. Changes in runoff resulting from heterogeneous wildfire effects are not well-understood due to both limitations in the field measurement of runoff and temporally-limited spatial data available to parameterize runoff models. We apply replicable, scalable methods for modeling wildfire impacts on sediment and nonpoint source pollutant export into the nearshore environment, and assess relationships between wildfire severity and runoff. Nonpoint source pollutants were modeled using a GIS-based empirical deterministic model parameterized with multi-year land cover data to quantify fire-induced increases in transport to the nearshore environment. Results indicate post-fire concentration increases in phosphorus by 161 percent, sediments by 350 percent and total suspended solids (TSS) by 53 percent above pre-fire years. Higher wildfire severity was associated with the greater increase in exports of pollutants and sediment to the nearshore environment, primarily resulting from the conversion of forest and shrubland to grassland. This suggests that increasing wildfire severity with climate change will increase potential negative impacts to adjacent marine ecosystems. The approach used is replicable and can be utilized to assess the effects of other types of land cover change at landscape scales. It also provides a planning and prioritization framework for management activities associated with wildfire, including suppression, thinning, and post-fire rehabilitation, allowing for quantification of potential negative impacts to the nearshore environment in coastal basins. PMID:25549866

  13. Wind-driven nearshore sediment resuspension in a deep lake during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Kristin E.; Bombardelli, Fabin. A.; Moreno-Casas, Patricio A.; Rueda, Francisco J.; Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    2014-11-01

    Ongoing public concern over declining water quality at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada (USA) led to an investigation of wind-driven nearshore sediment resuspension that combined field measurements and modeling. Field data included: wind speed and direction, vertical profiles of water temperature and currents, nearbed velocity, lakebed sediment characteristics, and suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution. Bottom shear stress was computed from ADV-measured nearbed velocity data, adapting a turbulent kinetic energy method to lakes, and partitioned according to its contributions attributed to wind-waves, mean currents, and random motions. When the total shear stress exceeded the critical shear stress, the contribution to overall shear stress was about 80% from wind-waves and 10% each from mean currents and random motions. Therefore, wind-waves were the dominant mechanism resulting in sediment resuspension as corroborated by simultaneous increases in shear stress and total measured sediment concentration. The wind-wave model STWAVE was successfully modified to simulate wind-wave-induced sediment resuspension for viscous-dominated flow typical in lakes. Previous lake applications of STWAVE have been limited to special instances of fully turbulent flow. To address the validity of expressions for sediment resuspension in lakes, sediment entrainment rates were found to be well represented by a modified 1991 Garca and Parker formula. Last, in situ measurements of suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution revealed that the predominance of fine particles (by particle count) that most negatively impact clarity was unchanged by wind-related sediment resuspension. Therefore, we cannot assume that wind-driven sediment resuspension contributes to Lake Tahoe's declining nearshore clarity.

  14. Ecoregional Analysis of Nearshore Sea-Surface Temperature in the North Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Meredith C.; Brown, Cheryl A.; Reusser, Deborah A.; Lee, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The quantification and description of sea surface temperature (SST) is critically important because it can influence the distribution, migration, and invasion of marine species; furthermore, SSTs are expected to be affected by climate change. To better understand present temperature regimes, we assembled a 29-year nearshore time series of mean monthly SSTs along the North Pacific coastline using remotely-sensed satellite data collected with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument. We then used the dataset to describe nearshore (<20 km offshore) SST patterns of 16 North Pacific ecoregions delineated by the Marine Ecoregions of the World (MEOW) hierarchical schema. Annual mean temperature varied from 3.8C along the Kamchatka ecoregion to 24.8C in the Cortezian ecoregion. There are smaller annual ranges and less variability in SST in the Northeast Pacific relative to the Northwest Pacific. Within the 16 ecoregions, 3194% of the variance in SST is explained by the annual cycle, with the annual cycle explaining the least variation in the Northern California ecoregion and the most variation in the Yellow Sea ecoregion. Clustering on mean monthly SSTs of each ecoregion showed a clear break between the ecoregions within the Warm and Cold Temperate provinces of the MEOW schema, though several of the ecoregions contained within the provinces did not show a significant difference in mean seasonal temperature patterns. Comparison of these temperature patterns shared some similarities and differences with previous biogeographic classifications and the Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). Finally, we provide a web link to the processed data for use by other researchers. PMID:22253893

  15. Coral bleaching: one disturbance too many for near-shore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. A.; Dolman, A. M.

    2010-09-01

    The dynamic nature of coral communities can make it difficult to judge whether a reef system is resilient to the current disturbance regime. To address this question of resilience for near-shore coral communities of the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) a data set consisting of 350 annual observations of benthic community change was compiled from existing monitoring data. These data spanned the period 1985-2007 and were derived from coral reefs within 20 km of the coast. During years without major disturbance events, cover increase of the Acroporidae was much faster than it was for other coral families; a median of 11% per annum compared to medians of less than 4% for other coral families. Conversely, Acroporidae were more severely affected by cyclones and bleaching events than most other families. A simulation model parameterised with these observations indicated that while recovery rates of hard corals were sufficient to compensate for impacts associated with cyclones and crown-of-thorns starfish, the advent of mass bleaching has lead to a significant change in the composition of the community and a rapid decline in hard coral cover. Furthermore, if bleaching events continue to occur with the same frequency and severity as in the recent past, the model predicts that the cover of Acroporidae will continue to decline. Although significant cover of live coral remains on near-shore reefs, and recovery is observed during inter-disturbance periods, it appears that this system will not be resilient to the recent disturbance regime over the long term. Conservation strategies for coral reefs should focus on both mitigating local factors that act synergistically to increase the susceptibility of Acroporidae to climate change while promoting initiatives that maximise the recovery potential from inevitable disturbances.

  16. Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, K.A.; Warner, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical modeling of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation models, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated models. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation model that is quasi-3D to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH model. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully 3D ocean circulation model which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the models with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the models are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-3D model is faster, however the applicability of the fully 3D model allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. 36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... boundary of Kings Canyon National Park near Redwood Gap to Quail Flat junction of the General's Highway and... and from national forest lands on either side of the General Grant Grove section of the park....

  18. 3 CFR 8534 - Proclamation 8534 of June 10, 2010. King Kamehameha Day, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... symbol of the State’s concern for public safety.” On this bicentennial King Kamehameha Day, we celebrate... culture. The Hawaiian narrative is one of both profound triumph and, sadly, deep injustice. It is...

  19. 50 CFR 622.371 - Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... original permit to the RA with an application for the changed permit. (f) NMFS will not reissue a commercial vessel permit for king mackerel if the permit is revoked or if the RA does not receive...

  20. 36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. 7.8 Section 7.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.8 Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. (a) Dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  1. Microhabitat selection, demography, and correlates of home range size for the King Rail (Rallus elegans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pickens, Bradley A.; King, Sammy L.

    2013-01-01

    Animal movements and habitat selection within the home range, or microhabitat selection, can provide insights into habitat requirements, such as foraging and area requirements. The King Rail (Rallus elegans) is a wetland bird of high conservation concern in the United States, but little is known about its movements, habitats, or demography. King Rails (n = 34) were captured during the 2010–2011 breeding seasons in the coastal marshes of southwest Louisiana and southeast Texas. Radio telemetry and direct habitat surveys of King Rail locations were conducted to estimate home ranges and microhabitat selection. Within home ranges, King Rails selected for greater plant species richness and comparatively greater coverage of Phragmites australis, Typha spp., and Schoenoplectus robustus. King Rails were found closer to open water compared to random locations placed 50 m from King Rail locations. Home ranges (n = 22) varied from 0.8–32.8 ha and differed greatly among sites. Home range size did not vary by year or sex; however, increased open water, with a maximum of 29% observed in the study, was correlated with smaller home ranges. Breeding season cumulative survivorship was 89% ± 22% in 2010 and 61% ± 43% in 2011, which coincided with a drought. With an equal search effort, King Rail chicks and juveniles observed in May-June decreased from 110 in 2010 to only 16 in the drier year of 2011. The findings show King Rail used marsh with ≤ 29% open water and had smaller home ranges when open water was more abundant.

  2. Distribution and habitat use of king rails in the Illinois and Upper Mississippi River valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darrah, Abigail J.; Krementz, David G.

    2009-01-01

    The migratory population of the king rail (Rallus elegans) has declined dramatically during the past 40 years, emphasizing the need to identify habitat requirements of this species to help guide conservation efforts. To assess distribution and habitat use of king rails along the Illinois and Upper Mississippi valleys, USA, we conducted repeated call-broadcast surveys at 83 locations in 2006 and 114 locations in 2007 distributed among 21 study sites. We detected king rails at 12 survey locations in 2006 and 14 locations in 2007, illustrating the limited distribution of king rails in this region. We found king rails concentrated at Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge, an adjacent private Wetlands Reserve program site, and B. K. Leach Conservation Area, which were located in the Mississippi River floodplain in northeast Missouri. Using Program PRESENCE, we estimated detection probabilities and built models to identify habitat covariates that were important in king rail site occupancy. Habitat covariates included percentage of cover by tall (> 1 m) and short (<= 1 m) emergent vegetation, percentage of cover of woody vegetation, and interspersion of water and vegetation ( 2007 only) within 50 m of the survey location. Detection probability was 0.43 (SE = 0.12) in 2006 and 0.35 (SE = 0.03) in 2007 and was influenced by observer identity and percentage of cover by tall herbaceous vegetation. Site occupancy was 0.11 (SE = 0.04) in 2006 and 0.14 (SE = 0.04) in 2007 and was negatively influenced most by percentage of cover by woody vegetation. In addition, we found that interspersion of vegetation and water was positively related to occupancy in 2007. Thus, nesting king rails used wetlands that were characterized by high water-vegetation interspersion and little or no cover by woody vegetation. Our results suggest that biologists can improve king rail habitat by implementing management techniques that reduce woody cover and increase vegetation-water interspersion in wetlands.

  3. KING (Kinemage, Next Generation): A versatile interactive molecular and scientific visualization program

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Vincent B; Davis, Ian W; Richardson, David C

    2009-01-01

    Proper visualization of scientific data is important for understanding spatial relationships. Particularly in the field of structural biology, where researchers seek to gain an understanding of the structure and function of biological macromolecules, it is important to have access to visualization programs which are fast, flexible, and customizable. We present KiNG, a Java program for visualizing scientific data, with a focus on macromolecular visualization. KiNG uses the kinemage graphics format, which is tuned for macromolecular structures, but is also ideal for many other kinds of spatially embedded information. KiNG is written in cross-platform, open-source Java code, and can be extended by end users through simple or elaborate “plug-in” modules. Here, we present three such applications of KiNG to problems in structural biology (protein backbone rebuilding), bioinformatics of high-dimensional data (e.g., protein sidechain chi angles), and classroom education (molecular illustration). KiNG is a mature platform for rapidly creating and capitalizing on scientific visualizations. As a research tool, it is invaluable as a test bed for new methods of visualizing scientific data and information. It is also a powerful presentation tool, whether for structure browsing, teaching, direct 3D display on the web, or as a method for creating pictures and videos for publications. KiNG is freely available for download at http://kinemage.biochem.duke.edu. PMID:19768809

  4. Trace elements in king eiders and common eiders in the Canadian arctic.

    PubMed

    Wayland, M; Gilchrist, H G; Dickson, D L; Bollinger, T; James, C; Carreno, R A; Keating, J

    2001-11-01

    We determined concentrations of selected trace elements in tissues of king and common eiders at three locations in the Canadian arctic. Renal and hepatic cadmium concentrations in king eiders at a location in the eastern arctic were among the highest ever recorded in eider ducks: there, they were higher in king eiders than in common eiders. Cadmium concentrations were lower in king eiders from the western arctic than in those from the east. In the western arctic, cadmium concentrations did not differ between species. Hepatic mercury and zinc were higher in king eiders than in common eiders. Zinc and selenium were higher in eiders from the western arctic than in those from the eastern arctic. Trace element concentrations in these two duck species were below published toxicity thresholds. Positive correlations in trace element concentrations in both species were found between total and organic hepatic mercury, renal and hepatic cadmium as well as hepatic zinc, copper, mercury, and cadmium. Body mass of common but not king eiders and spleen mass of both species were negatively correlated with mercury concentrations. In common eiders, the number of nematode parasites was positively correlated with total and organic mercury. Histopathological evidence of kidney or liver lesions that are typical of trace metal poisoning was not found. We did not find evidence to support the hypothesis that trace metal exposure may be contributing to adverse effects on the health of individuals of these species. PMID:11598787

  5. A preliminary appraisal of sediment sources and transport in Kings Bay and vicinity, Georgia and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McConnell, J.B.; Radtke, D.B.; Hale, T.W.; Buell, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    Water-quality, bottom-material, suspended-sediment, and current-velocity data were collected during November 1981 in Kings Bay and vicinity to provide information on the sources and transport of estuarine sediments. Kings Bay and Cumberland Sound , the site of the Poseidon Submarine Base in southeast Georgia, are experiencing high rates of sediment deposition and accumulation, which are causing serious navigational and operational problems. Velocity, bathymetry, turbidity, and bottom-material data suggest that the area in the vicinity of lower Kings Bay is accumulating deposits of suspended sediment transported from Cumberland Sound on the floodtide and from upper Kings Bay and the tidal marsh drained by Marianna Creek on the ebbtide. Suspended-sediment discharges computed for consecutive 13-hour ebbtides and floodtides showed that a net quantity of suspended sediment was transported seaward from upper Kings Bay and Marianna Creek. A net landward transport of suspended sediment computed at the St. Marys Entrance indicated areas seaward of St. Marys Entrance may be supplying sediment to the shoaling areas of the estuary, including lower Kings Bay. (USGS)

  6. Use of the Beaufort Sea by king eiders breeding on the North Slope of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Laura M.; Powell, A.N.; Taylor, E.J.; Rexstad, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    We estimated areas used by king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, how distributions of used areas varied, and characteristics that explained variation in the number of days spent at sea, to provide regulatory agencies with baseline data needed to minimize impacts of potential offshore oil development. We implanted sixty king eiders with satellite transmitters at nesting areas on the North Slope of Alaska, USA, in 2002-2004. More than 80% of marked eiders spent >2 weeks staging offshore prior to beginning a postbreeding molt migration. During postbreeding staging and migration, male king eiders had much broader distributions in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea than female eiders, which were concentrated in Harrison and Smith Bays. Distribution did not vary by sex during spring migration in the year after marking. Shorter residence times of eiders and deeper water at locations used during spring migration suggest the Alaskan Beaufort Sea might not be as critical a staging area for king eiders during prebreeding as it is postbreeding. Residence time in the Beaufort Sea varied by sex, with female king eiders spending more days at sea than males in spring and during postbreeding. We conclude the Alaskan Beaufort Sea is an important staging area for king eiders during postbreeding, and eider distribution should be considered by managers when mitigating for future offshore development. We recommend future studies examine the importance of spring staging areas outside the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

  7. Color ornaments and territory position in king penguins.

    PubMed

    Keddar, Ismal; Jouventin, Pierre; Dobson, F Stephen

    2015-10-01

    King penguins exhibit mutual color ornamentation of feathers and beak color. They breed in dense colonies and produce a single chick every 2 years. Thus, males and females must choose partners carefully to be reproductively successful, and auricular patches of males and UV coloration of beak spots have been shown to influence mate choice. Position in the breeding colony is also important to reproductive success, with pairs on the edge of the colony less successful than those in the center. We studied the mutual ornaments, individual condition, and position of pairs in their breeding colony. Males were significantly larger than females in size, body mass, and auricular patch size. Within pairs, auricular patch size of males and females were significantly correlated, and male auricular patch size and body mass were significantly associated, suggesting a link between this ornament and male body condition. Moving from the edge to the center of the colony, pairs had larger yellow-orange auricular patches, indicating a link between this ornament and settlement in higher quality territories in the center of the colony. Pairs were also less brightly brown colored on the breast and less saturated in UV color of the beak spot. Since we observed pairs that were settling for egg laying, location in the colony may have reflected aspects of pair condition, rather than later jockeying for positioning using ornaments as signals of behavioral dominance. PMID:26168874

  8. Identification of the remains of King Richard III

    PubMed Central

    King, Turi E.; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G.; Balding, David; Delser, Pierpaolo Maisano; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard’s appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming. PMID:25463651

  9. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    PubMed

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age. PMID:25052413

  10. Identification of the remains of King Richard III.

    PubMed

    King, Turi E; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G; Balding, David; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schrer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard's appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming. PMID:25463651

  11. Late Pleistocene vegetation of Kings Canyon, Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Kenneth

    1983-01-01

    Seven packrat midden samples make possible a comparison between the modern and late Pleistocene vegetation in Kings Canyon on the western side of the southern Sierra Nevada. One modern sample contains macrofossils and pollen derived from the present-day oak-chaparral vegetation. Macrofossils from the six late Pleistocene samples record a mixed coniferous forest dominated by the xerophytic conifers Juniperus occidentalis, Pinus cf. ponderosa, and P. monophylla. The pollen spectra of these Pleistocene middens are dominated by Pinus sp., Taxodiaceae-Cupressaceae-Taxaceae (TCT), and Artemisia sp. Mesophytic conifers are represented by low macrofossil concentrations. Sequoiadendron giganteum is represented by a few pollen grains in the full glacial. Edaphic control and snow dispersal are the most likely causes of these mixed assemblages. The dominant macrofossils record a more xeric plant community than those that now occur on similar substrates at higher elevations or latitudes in the Sierra Nevada. These assemblages suggest that late Wisconsin climates were cold with mean annual precipitation not necessarily greater than modern values. This conclusion supports a model of low summer ablation allowing for the persistence of the glaciers at higher elevations during the late Wisconsin. The records in these middens also suggest that S. giganteum grew at lower elevations along the western side of the range and that P. monophylla was more widely distributed in cismontane California during the Pleistocene.

  12. Truncated ambition: Thomas King Chambers, MD (1817-1889).

    PubMed

    Drain, Susan

    2014-03-27

    Thomas King Chambers clearly intended to be a physician of note and at times indeed he was mentioned in the same breath as Sir James Paget (1814-1899), Sir Henry Acland (1815-1900) and Francis Anstie (1833-1874). At the time of his death his career was pronounced 'less than brilliant though far from inglorious'. He had made all the right political moves-networking through the medical societies, marrying well and even accompanying the Prince of Wales on his first foreign tour. He wanted to be more than a society doctor, however: he published his clinical lectures and original research, proposed a new paradigm for medicine that he dubbed 'the renewal of life' and found his ideas taken up enthusiastically in the United States. Alas, his career foundered when he suffered an aneurysm and underwent amputation through the thigh. Nevertheless, he made significant contributions to the profession through his service on the General Medical Council and to medical education, in particular to medical education for women, through his strong support of the London School of Medicine for Women. To examine his life is to revisit what makes a life meaningful and worthwhile, for Chambers' life, unlike his body, is remarkably whole. PMID:24677565

  13. Magnetometry at Uruk (Iraq): The city of King Gilgamesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassbinder, J.; Becker, H.; van Ess, M.

    2003-04-01

    Uruk (Tell Warka) is one of the most famous sites for the early cultural development at Mesopotamia. The Sumerian city state was also important for the origin of writing and Uruk was the scene of action of mans oldest epic, the famous Epic of Gilgamesh (2600 B.C). During the time of the Sassanides, 400 A.D. the city was given up completely. Today the ruin is dominated by shallow hills and wadis, covered by pottery, mudbricks and slags. The area is totally free of modern buildings and far away from the modern village of Warka. Therefore it is an ideal place for uncompensated cesium magnetometry. The most sensational find was the discovery of a canal system inside the city. Furthermore the magnetogram shows the remains of buildings of the Babylonian type as well as garden structures, a middle Babylonian graveyard and the so called "New Years Temple" of the God Anu or Godess Ischtar. The city wall, which we prospected in a length of more than one kilometer, includes a water gate and is nearly 40 meters broad. From magnetometry it is evident that it was build by burned mudbricks as it was described by the Epic. In the west of the "New Years Temple" in the middle of the former Euphrates river we detected the remains of a building which may be interpreted as a burial. But if this building is the grave of the famous King Gilgamesh as it was described by the Epic of Gilgamesh it must remain speculative.

  14. Wind-induced nearshore sediment resuspension in a lake during a winter storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, K. E.; Moreno, P. A.; Schladow, S. G.; Bombardelli, F. A.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment resuspension is the process by which sediment is entrained into the water column at the sediment-water interface. It occurs when the bottom shear stress exceeds the critical shear stress and has the potential to negatively impact water quality. Wind-induced sediment resuspension could be a factor contributing to the declining clarity of the nearshore at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada and is therefore the subject of this study. An observational experiment included vertical profiles of water temperature using a thermistor chain; vertical profiles of water currents as well as surface wave periods and significant wave heights using a Nortek AWAC; high-frequency, near-bed measurements of water velocity using a Nortek Vector and a Sontek ADVOcean Probe; and suspended sediment concentrations using a LISST-100X. During a winter storm event we observed simultaneous peaks in wind speed, significant wave height and wave period, and suspended sediment concentration. Coincident peaks in suspended sediment concentration and wind speed strongly suggested wind-driven resuspension. During this same stormy period currents shifted to align with the wind. Total bottom shear stress was computed from the high-frequency, near-bed velocity data. During this winter storm, measured estimates of total bottom shear stress exceeded the critical shear stress for incipient motion corresponding to an average grain size of 400 ?m. Bottom shear stress was also partitioned according to its provenance (wind-waves; mean currents; and random motions). We implemented the wind-wave model STWAVE to simulate nearshore wind-wave growth and propagation, from which we derived the bottom orbital velocity to estimate bottom shear stress due to wind-waves. When wind directions favored a larger fetch, promoting full development of the wave field, the simulated bottom shear stress from STWAVE was in good agreement with the measured bottom shear stress attributed to wind-waves. We estimated bottom shear stress due to currents as a percentage of the total wind-induced shear stress at the surface of the lake, which was in turn derived from the wind record and the quadratic drag law. Simulated and measured bottom shear stress attributed to mean currents were in good agreement and remained small, which was to be expected. The wind-waves contributed far more to the development of the bottom shear stress during critical periods. For those times when the total bottom shear stress was in excess of the critical shear stress, the sediment entrainment rates were well represented by the 1991 Garcia and Parker formula.

  15. Composition and Dynamics of the Black Sea Benthopelagic Plankton and Its Contribution to the Near-Shore Plankton Communities

    PubMed Central

    Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Anokhina, Ludmila L.

    2014-01-01

    At a shallow (7 m) near-shore sampling site in the Black Sea we analyzed composition, abundance, and biomass of benthopelagic organisms and the contribution these animals make to the total plankton. The site was monitored across several years (19962001; 20062007) whilst for 19992000 the seasonal variations were analysed. A total of 321 samples from Golubaja Bay near Novorossiysk (4434?31.04? N, 3758?45.11? E) in 19962007 were taken with a Judey net. The benthopelagic fauna was represented by 69 taxa, a diversity comparable to similar shelf areas. The benthopelagic component played an important role in near-shore plankton communities in the Black Sea accounting for 50% of the total zooplankton biomass at night during all seasons. Abundance and biomass of the benthopelagic animals showed seasonal fluctuations, the highest biomass being recorded during winter (>75% of the total zooplankton biomass) and early spring due to large amphipods, whilst the highest abundances occur during late summer because of numerous young stages of various taxa. Amphipods, mysids, and decapods are the main contributors to the plankton biomass and abundances. Both night and daytime samples are strongly recommended for the adequate description of the near-shore plankton communities. PMID:24945680

  16. A description of the nearshore fish communities in the Huron-Erie Corridor using multiple gear types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francis, James T.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Thomas, Mike V.; Manny, Bruce A.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide a critical habitat for many fish species throughout their life cycles. Once home to one of the largest wetland complexes in the Great Lakes, coastal wetlands in the Huron–Erie Corridor (HEC) have decreased dramatically since the early 1900s. We characterized the nearshore fish communities at three different wetland complexes in the HEC using electrofishing, seines, and fyke nets. Species richness was highest in the Detroit River (63), followed by the St. Clair Delta (56), and Western Lake Erie (47). The nearshore fish communities in the Detroit River and St. Clair Delta consisted primarily of shiners, bluntnose minnow, centrarchids, and brook silverside, while the Western Lake Erie sites consisted of high proportions of non-native taxa including common carp, gizzard shad, goldfish, and white perch. Species richness estimates using individual-based rarefaction curves were higher when using electrofishing data compared to fyke nets or seine hauls at each wetland. Twelve fish species were captured exclusively during electrofishing assessments, while one species was captured exclusively in fyke nets, and none exclusively during seine hauls. Western Lake Erie wetlands were more indicative of degraded systems with lower species richness, lower proportion of turbidity intolerant species, and increased abundance of non-native taxa. This work highlights the importance of coastal wetlands in the HEC by capturing 69 different fish species utilizing these wetlands to fulfill life history requirements and provides insight when selecting gears to sample nearshore littoral areas.

  17. Factors affecting the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass in Irish estuaries and nearshore coastal waters: A conceptual model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Boyle, Shane; Wilkes, Robert; McDermott, Georgina; N Longphuirt, Sorcha; Murray, Clare

    2015-03-01

    A multivariate statistical approach was used to investigate the response of phytoplankton in Irish estuaries and nearshore coastal waters to nutrient enrichment and to examine the factors which modulate this response. The analysis suggests that while many estuaries are nutrient-enriched, relatively few display phytoplankton-related symptoms of eutrophication as the response to nutrients is primarily affected by insufficient retention time, in some by inadequate light availability, and only rarely by both factors acting together. Nearshore coastal waters are nitrogen (N) and silica (Si) limited in summer, but in some nearshore waters along the south coast, where N is elevated, phosphorus (P) is potentially limiting. The reduction in P loadings to estuarine waters is likely to lead to an improvement in the eutrophication status of these mainly P-limited waters. The disproportionate reduction in loadings of P compared to N (52% versus 24%, since the early 1990s), and the potential weakening of the estuarine N filter, as eutrophication symptoms lessen, may result in the downstream movement of nitrogen to N-limited coastal waters. These findings support the view that an integrated dual-nutrient reduction strategy is required to address eutrophication along the freshwater-marine continuum. The outcome of the analysis is a conceptual model which is of direct value and use to water managers in determining the relative susceptibility of these waters to nutrient enrichment. This understanding can in turn be used to develop informed programmes of measures which are targeted and ultimately cost effective.

  18. Natural intrusions of hypoxic, low pH water into nearshore marine environments on the California coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, J. Ashley T.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Chua, Paul; Kingsley, Eric; Denny, Mark; Phillips, Roger; Bograd, Steven J.; Zeidberg, Louis D.; Gilly, William F.

    2012-08-01

    A decade-long time series recorded in Central California demonstrates that a shallow, near-shore environment (17 m depth) is regularly inundated with pulses of cold, hypoxic and low-pH water. During these episodes, oxygen can drop to physiologically stressful levels, and pH can reach values that potentially result in dissolution of calcium carbonate. Pulses of the greatest intensity arose at the onset of the spring upwelling season, and fluctuations were strongly semidiurnal and diurnal. Arrival of cold, hypoxic water on the inner shelf appears to be driven by tidal-frequency internal waves pushing deep, upwelled water into nearshore habitats. We found no relationship between the timing of low-oxygen events and the diel solar cycle. These observations are consistent with the interpretation that hypoxic water is advected shoreward from the deep, offshore environment where water masses experience a general decline of temperature, oxygen and pH with depth. Analysis of the durations of exposure to low oxygen concentrations establishes a framework for assessing the ecological relevance of these events, but physiological tolerance limits to such hypoxic events are not well documented for most near-shore organisms expected to be impacted.

  19. Composition and dynamics of the Black Sea benthopelagic plankton and its contribution to the near-shore plankton communities.

    PubMed

    Vereshchaka, Alexander L; Anokhina, Ludmila L

    2014-01-01

    At a shallow (7 m) near-shore sampling site in the Black Sea we analyzed composition, abundance, and biomass of benthopelagic organisms and the contribution these animals make to the total plankton. The site was monitored across several years (1996-2001; 2006-2007) whilst for 1999-2000 the seasonal variations were analysed. A total of 321 samples from Golubaja Bay near Novorossiysk (4434'31.04? N, 3758'45.11? E) in 1996-2007 were taken with a Judey net. The benthopelagic fauna was represented by 69 taxa, a diversity comparable to similar shelf areas. The benthopelagic component played an important role in near-shore plankton communities in the Black Sea accounting for 50% of the total zooplankton biomass at night during all seasons. Abundance and biomass of the benthopelagic animals showed seasonal fluctuations, the highest biomass being recorded during winter (>75% of the total zooplankton biomass) and early spring due to large amphipods, whilst the highest abundances occur during late summer because of numerous young stages of various taxa. Amphipods, mysids, and decapods are the main contributors to the plankton biomass and abundances. Both night and daytime samples are strongly recommended for the adequate description of the near-shore plankton communities. PMID:24945680

  20. Structure-function relationship of king cobra cathelicidin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Hui; Yu, Guo-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Shen, Ji-Hong; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2010-08-01

    King cobra cathelicidin (OH-CATH) is composed of 34 amino acid residues having strong antibacterial and very weak hemolytic activities as reported by us recently. OH-CATH can be served as a valuable template to develop novel therapeutic drugs. In this study, OH-CATH and six of its analogs were synthesized to explore their structure-function relationships based on their bactericidal and hemolytic activities. Experimental results of OH-CATH(3-34) and OH-CATH(5-34) indicated that the N-terminal 4 amino acid residues of OH-CATH played an important role on its hemolytic activity but had weak effects on its bactericidal activity. Among OH-CATH and its analogs, OH-CATH(5-34) had the lowest hemolytic activity while maintained strong antimicrobial activity. To evaluate its potential usage, the biological activities of OH-CATH(5-34) were compared with those of pexiganan. The bactericidal activity of OH-CATH(5-34) against 5 different species (11 laboratory strains) was 2-4 times stronger than that of pexiganan (4-16 microg/ml vs 8-32 microg/ml). Hemolytic activity of OH-CATH(5-34) against human erythrocytes was 0.69% while that of pexiganan was 16.5% at the dosage of 200 microg/ml. OH-CATH(5-34) showed very weak cytotoxic activities against primary rabbit ventricular endothelial cells and four human cancer cell lines whereas pexiganan showed strong cytotoxic activity against these five cell lines (IC(50)=20-90 microg/ml). The intravenous LD(50) value of OH-CATH(5-34) on mice was 7-fold higher than that of pexiganan (175 mg/kg vs 25mg/kg). Taken together, our results suggested that OH-CATH(5-34) should be considered as an excellent candidate for developing therapeutic drugs. PMID:20576537

  1. Nearshore transects of surface wind and wind stress in the Atlantic eastern boundary upwelling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlundt, Michael; Dengler, Marcus; Brandt, Peter; Bumke, Karl

    2015-04-01

    The two large eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUSs) in the Atlantic (Canary upwelling system and Benguela upwelling system) are both strikingly affected by the equatorward trades. The equatorward alongshore component of the wind stress leads to a coastal Ekman divergence, while a nearshore cyclonic wind stress curl results in Ekman suction. Therefore both processes are related to the upwelling and impact its intensity. Several satellite radiometer and scatterometer products have been used for years to estimate the horizontal structures of wind speed, wind stress and wind stress curl in the EBUSs in order to relate them to upwelling intensity and ocean-atmosphere energy fluxes. But an investigation of well known features of the EBUSs, as strong wind gradients at sea surface temperature fronts or the drop off zone in wind speed near the coast, based on satellite observations is difficult, because satellite retrievals give actually no reliable estimates within 25 km from the shore due to land contamination. Here we show a comparison of shipboard observations of wind speed, direction, and subsequently estimated stress and stress curl along transects close to the coast with available satellite observations for the period from 2000 until 2014. The data are from German and international research vessels which are frequently present in the near coastal region. Estimates of turbulent heat fluxes between the ocean and the atmosphere, strongly affected by the wind speed, are also given and compared with commonly used satellite products.

  2. Organic priority pollutants in nearshore fish from 14 Lake Michigan tributaries and embayments, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Camanzo, J.; Rice, C.P.; Jude, D.J.; Rossmann, R.

    1987-01-01

    Composite, nearshore, whole fish samples of selected species, collected in fall 1983 from 13 Lake Michigan tributaries and Grand Traverse Bay, were analyzed for a wide range of pesticides and priority pollutants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study was carried out to identify existing source areas for known and previously unrecognized toxic substances. The authors strategy was to analyze those resident fish with the highest likely levels of contaminant. All fish analyzed exceeded the 2 mg/kg FDA action levels for PCBs, while 50% of the samples exceeded the DDTr IJC objective of 1 mg/kg. St. Joseph River common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carried the heaviest contaminant burden of all fish examined for PCBs (27.6 mg/kg), DDTr (10.2 kg/mg), and toxaphene (3.3 mg/kg); chlordane levels (0.85 mg/kg) were second highest to those in Kalamazoo River common carp (0.87 mg/kg). Concentrations of PCBs, toxaphene, DDT, DDE, and other pesticides were higher in bottom-feeding fish, such as common carp, than in top predators, e.g., northern pike (Esox lucius). Bottom feeders are relatively fatty fish, and live and feed near contaminated sediments, which increases their potential to bioaccumulate fat-soluble contaminants. Pesticides were also present in elevated concentrations in fish from sites with higher industrial and agricultural development. 31 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  3. A hydrodynamic model of nearshore waves and wave-induced currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seif, Ahmed Khaled; Kuroiwa, Masamitsu; Abualtayef, Mazen; Mase, Hajime; Matsubara, Yuhei

    2011-09-01

    In This study develops a quasi-three dimensional numerical model of wave driven coastal currents with accounting the effects of the wave-current interaction and the surface rollers. In the wave model, the current effects on wave breaking and energy dissipation are taken into account as well as the wave diffraction effect. The surface roller associated with wave breaking was modeled based on a modification of the equations by Dally and Brown (1995) and Larson and Kraus (2002). Furthermore, the quasi-three dimensional model, which based on Navier-Stokes equations, was modified in association with the surface roller effect, and solved using frictional step method. The model was validated by data sets obtained during experiments on the Large Scale Sediment Transport Facility (LSTF) basin and the Hazaki Oceanographical Research Station (HORS). Then, a model test against detached breakwater was carried out to investigate the performance of the model around coastal structures. Finally, the model was applied to Akasaki port to verify the hydrodynamics around coastal structures. Good agreements between computations and measurements were obtained with regard to the cross-shore variation in waves and currents in nearshore and surf zone.

  4. Assessment of microbial populations within Chicago area nearshore waters and interfaces with river systems.

    PubMed

    Sible, Emily; Cooper, Alexandria; Malki, Kema; Bruder, Katherine; Hatzopoulos, Thomas; Watkins, Siobhan C; Putonti, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    The Chicago area locks separate and control water flow between the freshwaters of Lake Michigan and the network of Illinois waterways. Under extreme storm conditions, however, the locks are opened and storm waters, untreated waste, and runoff are released directly into the lake. These combined sewer overflow (CSO) events introduce microbes, viruses, and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous into nearshore waters which likely affect the native species. We collected surface water samples from four Chicago area beaches - Gillson Park, Montrose Beach, 57th Street Beach, and Calumet Beach - every two weeks from May 13 through August 5, 2014. Sampling was conducted with four biological replicates for each sampling date and location, resulting in 112 samples. Each community was surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V4 16S rRNA gene. Technical replicates were also sequenced and are included in this dataset. Taxa were identified using Mothur. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI?s SRA database (part of BioProject PRJNA245802). PMID:26566540

  5. Establishment of two invasive crustaceans (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) on the nearshore sands of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horvath, Thomas G.; Whitman, Richard L.; Last, Laurel L.

    2001-01-01

    Benthic copepods (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) in the nearshore sediments of southern Lake Michigan appear to be dominated by two new invasive species. We report the first occurrence in North America of Schizopera borutzkyi Montschenko, a native to the Danube River delta, and Heteropsyllus nr. nunni, likely a new species that is morphologically similar to the marine species Heteropsyllus nunni and represents the first occurrence of this genus in freshwater. Schizopera borutzkyi is a euryhaline species occurring in shallow sands in its native habitat and in deeper sands (6-15 m) in southern Lake Michigan. Based on the absence of these species from previous studies, we suggest that they are recent introductions. Heteropsyllus nr. nunni dominated (55-100%) the harpacticoid abundance to depths of 9 m, but S. borutzkyi comprised 75% of the harpacticoid abundance at 15 m. Native harpacticoids were always greatly outnumbered by invasive harpacticoids in our samples, which suggests that the natives are being replaced rapidly or that the invasive species are finding unused resources. The ecological implications of these introductions are not known, but these invasions may represent continued 'invasional meltdown' in Lake Michigan.

  6. An efficient mode-splitting method for a curvilinear nearshore circulation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shi, Fengyan; Kirby, James T.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    A mode-splitting method is applied to the quasi-3D nearshore circulation equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The gravity wave mode and the vorticity wave mode of the equations are derived using the two-step projection method. Using an implicit algorithm for the gravity mode and an explicit algorithm for the vorticity mode, we combine the two modes to derive a mixed difference–differential equation with respect to surface elevation. McKee et al.'s [McKee, S., Wall, D.P., and Wilson, S.K., 1996. An alternating direction implicit scheme for parabolic equations with mixed derivative and convective terms. J. Comput. Phys., 126, 64–76.] ADI scheme is then used to solve the parabolic-type equation in dealing with the mixed derivative and convective terms from the curvilinear coordinate transformation. Good convergence rates are found in two typical cases which represent respectively the motions dominated by the gravity mode and the vorticity mode. Time step limitations imposed by the vorticity convective Courant number in vorticity-mode-dominant cases are discussed. Model efficiency and accuracy are verified in model application to tidal current simulations in San Francisco Bight.

  7. Delayed upwelling alters nearshore coastal ocean ecosystems in the northern California current

    PubMed Central

    Barth, John A.; Menge, Bruce A.; Lubchenco, Jane; Chan, Francis; Bane, John M.; Kirincich, Anthony R.; McManus, Margaret A.; Nielsen, Karina J.; Pierce, Stephen D.; Washburn, Libe

    2007-01-01

    Wind-driven coastal ocean upwelling supplies nutrients to the euphotic zone near the coast. Nutrients fuel the growth of phytoplankton, the base of a very productive coastal marine ecosystem [Pauly D, Christensen V (1995) Nature 374:255257]. Because nutrient supply and phytoplankton biomass in shelf waters are highly sensitive to variation in upwelling-driven circulation, shifts in the timing and strength of upwelling may alter basic nutrient and carbon fluxes through marine food webs. We show how a 1-month delay in the 2005 spring transition to upwelling-favorable wind stress in the northern California Current Large Marine Ecosystem resulted in numerous anomalies: warm water, low nutrient levels, low primary productivity, and an unprecedented low recruitment of rocky intertidal organisms. The delay was associated with 20- to 40-day wind oscillations accompanying a southward shift of the jet stream. Early in the upwelling season (MayJuly) off Oregon, the cumulative upwelling-favorable wind stress was the lowest in 20 years, nearshore surface waters averaged 2C warmer than normal, surf-zone chlorophyll-a and nutrients were 50% and 30% less than normal, respectively, and densities of recruits of mussels and barnacles were reduced by 83% and 66%, respectively. Delayed early-season upwelling and stronger late-season upwelling are consistent with predictions of the influence of global warming on coastal upwelling regions. PMID:17360419

  8. Assessment of microbial populations within Chicago area nearshore waters and interfaces with river systems

    PubMed Central

    Sible, Emily; Cooper, Alexandria; Malki, Kema; Bruder, Katherine; Hatzopoulos, Thomas; Watkins, Siobhan C.; Putonti, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The Chicago area locks separate and control water flow between the freshwaters of Lake Michigan and the network of Illinois waterways. Under extreme storm conditions, however, the locks are opened and storm waters, untreated waste, and runoff are released directly into the lake. These combined sewer overflow (CSO) events introduce microbes, viruses, and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous into nearshore waters which likely affect the native species. We collected surface water samples from four Chicago area beaches – Gillson Park, Montrose Beach, 57th Street Beach, and Calumet Beach – every two weeks from May 13 through August 5, 2014. Sampling was conducted with four biological replicates for each sampling date and location, resulting in 112 samples. Each community was surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V4 16S rRNA gene. Technical replicates were also sequenced and are included in this dataset. Taxa were identified using Mothur. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI׳s SRA database (part of BioProject PRJNA245802). PMID:26566540

  9. Hierarchical multi-scale classification of nearshore aquatic habitats of the Great Lakes: Western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, J.E.; Castiglione, C.

    2010-01-01

    Classification is a valuable conservation tool for examining natural resource status and problems and is being developed for coastal aquatic habitats. We present an objective, multi-scale hydrospatial framework for nearshore areas of the Great Lakes. The hydrospatial framework consists of spatial units at eight hierarchical scales from the North American Continent to the individual 270-m spatial cell. Characterization of spatial units based on fish abundance and diversity provides a fish-guided classification of aquatic areas at each spatial scale and demonstrates how classifications may be generated from that framework. Those classification units then provide information about habitat, as well as biotic conditions, which can be compared, contrasted, and hierarchically related spatially. Examples within several representative coastal or open water zones of the Western Lake Erie pilot area highlight potential application of this classification system to management problems. This classification system can assist natural resource managers with planning and establishing priorities for aquatic habitat protection, developing rehabilitation strategies, or identifying special management actions.

  10. Evaluation of the physical process controlling beach changes adjacent to nearshore dredge pits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedet, L.; List, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical modeling of a beach nourishment project is conducted to enable a detailed evaluation of the processes associated with the effects of nearshore dredge pits on nourishment evolution and formation of erosion hot spots. A process-based numerical model, Delft3D, is used for this purpose. The analysis is based on the modification of existing bathymetry to simulate "what if" scenarios with/without the bathymetric features of interest. Borrow pits dredged about 30??years ago to provide sand for the nourishment project have a significant influence on project performance and formation of erosional hot spots. It was found that the main processes controlling beach response to these offshore bathymetric features were feedbacks between wave forces (roller force or alongshore component of the radiation stress), pressure gradients due to differentials in wave set-up/set-down and bed shear stress. Modeling results also indicated that backfilling of selected borrow sites showed a net positive effect within the beach fill limits and caused a reduction in the magnitude of hot spot erosion. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphological response of a double nearshore bar system under oblique waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiebot, J.; Robin, N.; Garnier, R.; Certain, R.; Idier, D.; Calvete, D.; Falques, A.; Levoy, F.

    2009-04-01

    The Ste beach (Mediterranean Sea - France) is characterized by two nearshore bars which are generally considered to run parallel to the shore. However in-situ wave/current/bathymetry measurements have shown the possible reorganization of this double bar system during storms associated with oblique waves. Two situations are studied. During the field campaign in 1999, the bar system was submitted to moderately oblique stormy waves. At the end of the campaign, the inner bar was divided in segments which were oriented parallel to the wave crests and to the current. During the field campaign in 1994, the stormy waves were strongly oblique. The response of the bar system led to the appearance of rhythmic features along both bars. The nonlinear surf zone model MORFO55 is used to understand the mechanisms which govern the bar reorganization under energetic wave conditions. This model is based on a wave and depth averaged shallow water equations solver with wave driver, sediment transport and bed updating (Garnier et al. 2006, J. Fluid Mech.). Modeling shows that the main characteristics of the bar response can be simulated from self-organization processes. The wave incidence has a tremendous influence on the bar response. Particularly, in agreement with the observations, the outer bar is stable for moderate obliquity while it is unstable for strongly oblique waves.

  12. Seasonal occurrence of larval fishes in the nearshore Southern California Bight off San Onofre, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, H. J.; Watson, William; Barnett, Arthur M.

    1987-07-01

    Larval fishes were sampled from the nearshore region of the Southern California Bight off San Onofre for 29 months and analyzed with a Curtis-Bray Cluster Analysis to determine temporal assemblages and species associations. Two major assemblages of larvae were found: members of the winter-spring (December-May) assemblage were most abundant from January to May; members of the summer-fall (June-November) assemblage were most abundant from July to September. The winter-spring assemblage was composed primarily of Engraulis mordax, Genyonemus lineatus, Sebastes spp. and Paralichthys californicus; some abundant taxa in the summer-fall assemblage were Seriphus politus, Paralabrax spp., and Hypsoblennius spp., although E. mordax again predominated. Demersal spawners tended to have spawning seasons of longer duration than pelagic spawners; winter-spring spawners generally had longer spawning seasons than summer-fall spawners. We suggest that temperature is an important determinant in the seasonal pattern of larval fish occurrence. The annual ocean temperature cycle near San Onofre was a good indicator of the seasonal occurrence of fish larvae in this area. Larvae found in the cooler months were generally offspring of adults whose northern ranges extend to Canada. Warm-water larvae were offspring of adults whose northern ranges extend to Point Conception or northern California.

  13. Anthropogenic inputs of several heavy metals to nearshore basins off Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Chih-an; Finney, Bruce P.; Stull, Janet K.

    Budgets of anthropogenically-derived Cr, Zn and Pb in the Santa Monica-San Pedro Basin and the Palos Verdes Shelf are estimated from profiles of these metals in a large number of sediment cores. Comparisons of inventories in the deep basin with combined emissions from the responsible sewage outfalls indicate that no more than 7% of the Cr, 2% of the Zn and 5% of the Pb derived from the sewage source are buried in the nearshore basin. A similar comparison of metal accumulation on the Palos Verdes Shelf with discharges from the nearby JWPCP outfall indicates that 12% of the Zn and 20% of the Cr and Pb are deposited locally. The annual percentages of sewage-derived Pb retained should be significantly lower, because surface runoff and atmospheric fallout are also important input pathways for anthropogenic Pb. Offshore variations in sediment metal composition suggest that Cr is most strongly attached to sewage particles while Zn and Pb are more labile. We conclude that the majority of anthropogenic metals are exported offshore beyond the inner basin.

  14. Trophic dynamics in marine nearshore systems of the Alaskan high arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Dunton, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation describes two ecological studies in the arctic Alaskan nearshore zone: the productivity and growth strategies of arctic kelp and the use of natural carbon isotope abundances to examine food web structure and energy flow in the marine ecosystem. Linear growth of the kelp, Laminaria solidungula is greatest in winter and early spring when nutrients are available for new tissue growth. Since over 90% of this growth occurs in complete darkness beneath a turbid ice canopy, the plant draws on stored food reserves and is in a carbon deficit during the ice covered period. Annual productivity of L. solidungula under these conditions is about 6 g C m/sup -2/ compared to about 10 g c m/sup -2/ if light penetrates the ice canopy. Carbon isotope abundances were used to assess food web structure and energy flow in the Boulder Patch, an isolated kelp bed community, and in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea fauna. Isotopic analyses of the resident fauna of the Boulder Patch revealed that kelp carbon contributes significantly to the diet of many benthic animals, including suspension feeders. Across the shelf of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, a distinct gradient in the isotopic composition of marine zooplankton and benthic fauna was related to the intrusion of the Bering Sea water and upwelling in the eastern Beaufort Sea near Barter Island. The /sup 13/C depletion in fauna of the eastern Beaufort Sea is presumed due to the cycling of /sup 13/C depleted inorganic carbon into the euphotic zone.

  15. Mapping of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Using Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in Nearshore Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Mark E.; Miller, Lee M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Ewert, Daniel W.

    2007-10-02

    The use of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) equipped with sidescan sonar was investigated for determining the boundaries of nearshore submerged aquatic vegetation beds, specifically eelgrass (Zostera marina). Shifts in eelgrass bed morphology, size, and distribution are used as indicators in monitoring programs to measure the impacts of coastal development and environmental stressors on eelgrass and to establish the efficacy of restoration programs. However, many monitoring programs necessarily extend over multiple-year time periods. Therefore, techniques that are easily reproducible, accurate, and cost-effective can demonstrate distinct advantages over some of the more traditional and labor-intensive methods, such as diver assessments and transects of shoot counts. Remote monitoring of eelgrass beds using satellite and aerial imagery has been demonstrated with moderate success, but requires groundtruthing, which can be costly and which frequently cannot delineate the deeper boundaries of eelgrass beds. One possible means for low-cost mapping is the use of AUVs equipped with acoustic imaging hardware. AUVs provide an ideal platform, because they can be deployed by small teams (two people), they are highly maneuverable, they can cover large areas over a relatively short time period (3knot operational speed), and they are equipped with multiple oceanographic instruments for correlated data collection. This paper describes the use of sidescan-equipped AUV technology deployed over multiple time periods at the same location where imagery of eelgrass beds was obtained and analyzed for comparative purposes.

  16. Larval fish assemblages in nearshore coastal waters off central Chile: temporal and spatial patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernndez-Miranda, E.; Palma, A. T.; Ojeda, F. P.

    2003-04-01

    In this study we identified spatial and temporal patterns in the distribution and abundance of larval stages of several fish species in nearshore waters off central Chile. Larvae were sampled monthly at two close (20 km apart) but contrasting localities, El Quisco and Las Cruces. Surveys corresponded to standard plankton tows stratified according to bathymetry and distance from shore. Our results indicate that at both localities: (1) there is a seasonal reproductive pattern for most of the species studied; (2) there is a seasonal-related change in larval species composition and abundance, with austral Winter-Spring being the time of greatest diversity; (3) larval stages of several species that, as adults occupy intertidal, estuarine-riverine, subtidal, benthic-demersal, epipelagic or mesopelagic habitats, are found within these coastal environments; (4) there is a distinctive cross-shelf pattern of larval distribution, which seems to correspond, at least for the intertidal species, with the shallower (<30 m depth) portion of area surveyed; and (5) there is a coupling between the patterns of distribution and abundance of the entire ichthyoplankton assemblage with short-term physical features such as wind forcing, Ekman transport, and local currents. Our findings suggest that both the specific composition as well as the abundance of larval fish species varies spatially and temporally and that this variability may result from the interaction of physical and biological factors at different scales.

  17. Population structure of Cladophora-borne Escherichia coli in nearshore water of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byappanahalli, M.N.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Ferguson, J.; Ishii, S.; Sadowsky, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that the macrophytic green alga Cladophora harbors high densities (up to 106 colony-forming units/g dry weight) of the fecal indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli and enterococci, in shoreline waters of Lake Michigan. However, the population structure and genetic relatedness of Cladophora-borne indicator bacteria remain poorly understood. In this study, 835 E. coli isolates were collected from Cladophora tufts (mats) growing on rocks from a breakwater located within the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in northwest Indiana. The horizontal fluorophore enhanced rep-PCR (HFERP) DNA fingerprinting technique was used to determine the genetic relatedness of the isolates to each other and to those in a library of E. coli DNA fingerprints. While the E. coli isolates from Cladophora showed a high degree of genetic relatedness (???92% similarity), in most cases, however, the isolates were genetically distinct. The Shannon diversity index for the population was very high (5.39). Both spatial and temporal influences contributed to the genetic diversity. There was a strong association of isolate genotypes by location (79% and 80% for lake- and ditch-side samplings, respectively), and isolates collected from 2002 were distinctly different from those obtained in 2003. Cladophora-borne E. coli isolates represented a unique group, which was distinct from other E. coli isolates in the DNA fingerprint library tested. Taken together, these results indicate that E. coli strains associated with Cladophora may be a recurring source of indicator bacteria to the nearshore beach. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of a nearshore wastewater discharge: Water column and sediment pore water toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, P.R.; Carr, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    The relationship between water column and sediment pore water toxicity was investigated near a municipal-industrial wastewater discharge in southern Texas. Toxicity associated with effluent distributions in the water column are known to vary in both time and space. Toxicity of sediment, however, is often more stable over time. Sediment can serve as a long-term integrator of toxicity in areas subject to chronic exposure of effluents. This study addressed the relationship between water column toxicity and that found in the sediments on both spatial and temporal scales. Four 2 Km transacts were established around a nearshore wastewater outfall. Eight stations along each transact were sampled for both surface waters and sediment pore water toxicity. Toxicity was determined using a modified sea urchin fertilization test. Surface waters were sampled and tested for eight consecutive months, while sediment pore waters were sampled on three occasions over the length of this study. Results have shown that toxicity in receiving waters was a good indicator to trace movements of the highly variable effluent plume. The distribution of effluent in the water column, and hence water column toxicity, was primarily driven by local wind conditions. Toxicity in sediment porewater was, much less variable and more evenly distributed over the study site. Sediment pore water toxicity was also a good predictor of the distribution of benthic infaunal invertebrates over much of the study site.

  19. Parasite richness in fish larvae from the nearshore waters of central and northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Gabriela; Landaeta, Mauricio F; Palacios-Fuentes, Pamela; Lopez, Zambra; Gonzalez, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we determine the presence of parasites in fish larvae collected from nearshore waters along the northern and central coast of Chile. The parasites were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level based on morphological and molecular analyses. The fish sample was composed of 5 574 fish larvae. Of these, 3% harboured only larval ectoparasitic copepods whereas no endoparasites were found in the 1 141 fish evaluated for this group of parasites. The parasitic copepods collected were initially classified as 'morphotypes' according to differences in morphological characteristics. They were then analysed using molecular techniques based on the 28S and COI genes. Seven morphotypes of parasitic copepods (mostly at chalimus stages) were recognised: two of the morphotypes belonged to Pennellidae Burmeister, 1835, three to Caligidae Burmeister, 1835 and two were not identified. Only five morphotypes of copepods were analysed using molecular sequences, which confirmed the existence of six species: two pennellids of the genus Trifur Wilson, 1917 and two caligids of the genus Caligus Mller, 1785, plus two additional species that were morphologically different from these taxa. The pennellids were present in several fish species, being generally more prevalent than the caligids, in both the central and northern localities of Chile. Multispecies infections in larval fish were infrequent (< 1%). We conclude that fish larvae were rich in parasites, considering that these hosts exhibited small body sizes and were very young. We suggest that fish larvae could play a role, as intermediate hosts, in the life cycle of the parasitic copepods found. PMID:26040465

  20. Mechanisms of nearshore retention and offshore export of mussel larvae over the Agulhas Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidberg, Nicolás; Porri, Francesca; Von der Meden, Charles E. O.; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Goschen, Wayne; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2015-04-01

    Ecological connectivity is critical for population dynamics but in many benthic species it is complicated by a planktonic larval phase, whose dispersal remains poorly understood. Using a plankton pump, we examine the distribution of intertidal mussel larvae along three axes: alongshore, cross-shelf and by depth during a large scale (600 km) cruise over the Agulhas Bank off southern Africa in August/September 2010. As a general pattern, higher veliger abundances were found close to the coast. Our analyses of the nearshore flow, estimated from ADCP data and the vertical distribution of larvae, show that onshore larval retention may be mediated by active vertical swimming through the water column guided by light and wind-induced turbulence. A massive offshore export of larvae off St Francis Bay was, however, observed during an Agulhas Current meander which influenced inner shelf waters. We hypothesize that, by increasing and homogenizing flow, the Agulhas Current may erase the effects of larval vertical positioning on onshore retention and transport larvae offshore. Our study highlights the need to integrate the effects of complex, region-specific physical dynamics with the swimming behaviour of larvae in order to explain their spatial distribution, population connectivity and the consequences for population dynamics.

  1. Tidal area dispersant project: Fate of dispersed and undispersed oil in two nearshore test spills

    SciTech Connect

    Page, D.S.; Foster, J.C.; Gerber, R.P.; Gilfillan, E.S.; Hanson, S.A.; Hotham, J.R.; Vallas, D.

    1982-10-01

    In 1981, an oil spill field experiment was done in Maine to assess the effects to the benthos of dispersant used in nearshore oil spills. Three test plots, each 60 by 100 m, were set up, each with an upper and a lower intertidal sampling area. There were also five subtidal sampling stations in water depths from 5 to 20 m. One plot was exposed to 945 L (250 gal) of Murban crude oil released on an ebbing tide withincontainment booms and cleaned up by conventional mechanical methods 24 h later. A second plot was exposed to 945 L of Murban crude oil premixed with 94 L (25 gal)of a widely available self-mix nonionic dispersant. The dispersant-treated oil was discharged over a 2-h period around high water slack tide. Dispersed oil in water reaching the bottom had lost most of the hydrocarbons more volatile than n-C/sub 17/ compared with dispersed oil in water sampled at the same time near the surface. Petroleum retention by intertidal sediments and bivalves measured one week postspill was less in areas exposed to dispersed oil than in areas exposed to untreated oil.

  2. County Staff or Area Staff?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, William J.

    1970-01-01

    McIntryre explores the questions of county-based extention and increased specialization in Indiana. He compares the multi-county with individual county systems using variables including clientele's reactions to the two systems. (NL)

  3. Sources of fecal indicator bacteria to groundwater, Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean, Malibu, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Burton, Carmen A.; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie; Holden, Patricia A.; Dubinsky, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) used to treat residential and commercial sewage near Malibu, California have been implicated as a possible source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean. For this to occur, treated wastewater must first move through groundwater before discharging to the Lagoon or ocean. In July 2009 and April 2010, δ18O and δD data showed that some samples from water-table wells contained as much as 70% wastewater; at that time FIB concentrations in those samples were generally less than the detection limit of 1 Most Probable Number (MPN) per 100 milliliters (mL). In contrast, Malibu Lagoon had total coliform, Escherichia coli, and enterococci concentrations as high as 650,000, 130,000, and 5,500 MPN per 100 mL, respectively, and as many as 12% of samples from nearby ocean beaches exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency single sample enterococci standard for marine recreational water of 104 MPN per 100 mL. Human-associated Bacteroidales, an indicator of human-fecal contamination, were not detected in water from wells, Malibu Lagoon, or the near-shore ocean. Similarly, microarray (PhyloChip) data show Bacteroidales and Fimicutes Operational Taxanomic Units (OTUs) present in OWTS were largely absent in groundwater; in contrast, 50% of Bacteroidales and Fimicutes OTUs present in the near-shore ocean were also present in gull feces. Terminal-Restriction Length Fragment Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) data showed that microbial communities in groundwater were different and less abundant than communities in OWTS, Malibu Lagoon, or the near-shore ocean. However, organic compounds indicative of wastewater (such as fecal sterols, bisphenol-A and cosmetics) were present in groundwater having a high percentage of wastewater and were present in groundwater discharging to the ocean. FIB in the near-shore ocean varied with tides, ocean swells, and waves. Movement of water from Malibu Lagoon through the sand berm at the mouth of the Lagoon contributed FIB to the adjacent beach at low tide. Similar increases in FIB concentrations did not occur at beaches adjacent to unsewered residential development, although wastewater indicator compounds and radon-222 (indicative of groundwater discharge) were present. High FIB concentrations at high tide were not related to groundwater discharge, but may be related to FIB associated with debris accumulated along the high-tide line.

  4. Population status and habitat associations of the King Rail in the midwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolenbaugh, Jason R.; Cooper, Tom; Brady, Ryan S.; Willard, Karen L.; Krementz, David G.

    2012-01-01

    The migratory population of the King Rail (Rallus elegans) has declined dramatically during the past 50 years, emphasizing the need to document the distribution and status of this species to help guide conservation efforts. In an effort to guide King Rail breeding habitat protection and restoration, a landscape suitability index (LSI) model was developed for the Upper Mississippi River and Great Lakes Region Joint Venture (JV). To validate this model, 264 sites were surveyed across the JV region in 2008 and 2009 using the National Marshbird Monitoring protocol. Two other similarly collected data sets from Wisconsin (250 sites) and Ohio (259 sites) as well as data from the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology's eBird database were added to our data set. Sampling effort was not uniform across the study area. King Rails were detected at 29 sites with the greatest concentration in southeastern Wisconsin and northeastern Illinois. Too few detections were made to validate the LSI model. King Rail detection sites tended to have microtopographic heterogeneity, more emergent herbaceous wetland vegetation and less woody vegetation. The migrant population of the King Rail is rare and warrants additional conservation efforts to achieve stated conservation population targets.

  5. International importance of the eastern Chukchi Sea as a staging area for migrating king eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, S.; Dickson, D.L.; Powell, A.N.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of habitats used by arctic birds on migration is crucial for their conservation. We explored the importance of the eastern Chukchi Sea (ECS) as a staging area for king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) migrating between breeding areas in Siberia and western North America and wintering areas in the Bering Sea. We tracked 190 king eiders with satellite transmitters between 1997 and 2007. In late summer, 74% of satellite-tracked king eiders migrating south staged in the ECS for 13 ?? 13 (SD) days between late June and early November. During spring migration, king eiders staged in the ECS between mid-April and early June for 21 ?? 10 days. All instrumented birds migrating to breeding grounds in western North America (n = 62), and 6 of 11 males migrating to breeding grounds in Siberia, used this area for at least 1 week during spring migration. The importance of this staging area renders it possible that industrial development could adversely affect king eider populations in both Siberia and North America. ?? 2009 US Government.

  6. Evidence for wing molt and breeding site fidelity in King Eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Laura M.; Powell, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Fidelity of King Eiders (Somateria spectabilis) to breeding and wing molt sites was examined using satellite telemetry data obtained opportunistically when battery life of transmitters provided locations in a second year. Consecutive breeding locations were obtained for eleven female and 23 male King Eiders. All females exhibited breeding site fidelity by returning to sites within 15 km of first year breeding areas on the North Slope of Alaska. Breeding locations of males in a subsequent year were located on average >1000 km from their prior breeding sites and were primarily outside Alaska, on the coasts of Russia and Canada. Second-year wing molt locations were obtained for two female and six male King Eiders. Wing molt sites of males were located 6.2 ?? 3.1 km apart on average in successive years, while female wing molt locations averaged almost 50 km apart. Our results demonstrate site fidelity of female King Eiders to a breeding area on the North Slope of Alaska, document the dispersal of male King Eiders between breeding seasons, and present the first evidence for wing molt site fidelity in males.

  7. Hancock County Awards Gala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Gene Goldman (left), deputy director of NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, accepts an Award of Excellence from Jack Zink, executive director of the Hancock County Port and Harbor Commission, during the 2008 Annual Hancock County Awards Gala. The Award of Excellence was presented to recognize Stennis Space Center's contribution to NASA's 50 years of excellence in space exploration.

  8. Climate Controlled Sedimentation in Maxwell Bay, King George Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H.; Kuhn, G.; Wittenberg, N.; Woelfl, A.; Betzler, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climatic change in Antarctica is strongest over the Antarctic Peninsula where in places the annual mean temperatures increased by 0.5 K per decade through the past 60 years. The impact of this warming trend is clearly visible in the form of retreating glaciers and melting ice sheets, loss of sea ice and strong meltwater discharge into the coastal zone. While it is generally accepted that the rapidity of the present climate change bears a significant anthropogenic aspect, it is not clear whether the effects caused by the warming trend are exceptional and unprecedented or whether the reaction of the environment is similar to that of earlier climate phases such as the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) about 1,000 years ago. One of the major goals of the joint international research project IMCOAST is to investigate the strength of the recent warming trend and its impact on the marine environment of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). The study we present here reveals the Upper Holocene climatic history based on high-resolution sediment cores from Maxwell Bay (King George Island, WAP) and information on the actual processes triggered or altered by the recent warming trend based on sedimentologic and hydroacoustic investigations in Potter Cove, a tributary fjord to Maxwell Bay. Long sediment cores from Maxwell Bay reveal grain-size changes that can be linked to cold and warm phases such as the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the MWP. Generally, warm phases are finer grained than cold phases as a result of longer and stronger melting processes during the warm phases. It is suggested that meltwater plumes carry fine-grained sediment out of the surrounding fjords into Maxwell Bay where it settles in suitable areas to produce sediments that have a modal value around 16 ?m. This mode is largely absent in sediments deposited during e.g. the LIA. However, post LIA sediments are depleted in the 16 ?m-mode sediment suggesting slightly different conditions during the last century. One reason might be that the recent warming trend is mainly characterized by winter and spring warming rather than by summer warming. Sediment distribution in Potter Cove reveals only a small sheltered patch of this very fine sediment. From the front of the glacier that retreated onto land during the past decades slightly coarser sediment is spreading out in the fjord. Data of an acoustic ground discrimination system together with sidescan-sonar data and some underwater-video ground truthing allows to identify and discriminate morphologic, sedimentologic and also habitat units that elucidate the presently active environmental processes.

  9. Modern sedimentation patterns in Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H. Christian; Kuhn, Gerhard; Wlfl, Anne-Cathrin; Wittenberg, Nina; Betzler, Christian

    2013-04-01

    IMCOAST among a number of other initiatives investigates the modern and the late Holocene environmental development of south King George Island with a strong emphasis on Maxwell Bay and its tributary fjord Potter Cove (maximum water depth: about 200 m). In this part of the project we aim at reconstructing the modern sediment distribution in the inner part of Potter Cove using an acoustic ground discrimination system (RoxAnn) and more than136 ground-truth samples. Over the past 20 years the air temperatures in the immediate working area increased by more than 0.6 K (Schloss et al. 2012) which is less than in other parts of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) but it is still in the range of the recovery of temperatures from the Little Ice Age maximum to the beginning of the 20th century. Potter Cove is a small fjord characterized by a series of moraine ridges produced by a tidewater glacier (Fourcade Glacier). Presumably, the farthest moraine is not much older than about 500 years (LIA maximum), hence the sediment cover is rather thin as evidenced by high resolution seismic data. Since a few years at least the better part of the tidewater glacier retreated onto the island's mainland. It is suggested that such a fundamental change in the fjord's physiography has also changed sedimentation patterns in the area. Potter Cove is characterized by silty-clayey sediments in the deeper inner parts of the cove. Sediments are coarser (fine to coarse sands and boulders) in the shallower areas; they also coarsen from the innermost basin to the mouth of the fjord. Textural structures follow the seabed morphology, i.e. small v-shaped passages through the moraine ridges. The glacier still produces large amounts of turbid melt waters that enter the cove at various places. We presume that very fine-grained sediments fall out from the meltwater plumes and are distributed by mid-depth or even bottom currents, thus suggesting an anti-estuarine circulation pattern. Older sediments that are more distal to the glacier front and sediments in shallower places (e.g. on top of the moraine ridges) become increasingly overprinted by coarser sediments from the shallow areas of the fjord. These areas are prone to wave induced winnowing effects as well as disturbances by ploughing icebergs. It can be concluded that coarsening of the fjord sediments will continue while the supply of fine-grained meltwater sediments might cease due to exhaustion of the reservoirs.

  10. Statistical outliers and dragon-kings as Bose-condensed droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.

    2012-05-01

    A theory of exceptional extreme events, characterized by their abnormal sizes compared with the rest of the distribution, is presented. Such outliers, called "dragon-kings", have been reported in the distribution of financial drawdowns, city-size distributions (e.g., Paris in France and London in the UK), in material failure, epileptic seizure intensities, and other systems. Within our theory, the large outliers are interpreted as droplets of Bose-Einstein condensate: the appearance of outliers is a natural consequence of the occurrence of Bose-Einstein condensation controlled by the relative degree of attraction, or utility, of the largest entities. For large populations, Zipf's law is recovered (except for the dragon-king outliers). The theory thus provides a parsimonious description of the possible coexistence of a power law distribution of event sizes (Zipf's law) and dragon-king outliers.

  11. [Could the Czech King Ladislav Pohrobek have had hypophosphatemic osteomalacia caused by a neoplastic disease?].

    PubMed

    Povsil, C; Vlcek, E

    1992-06-01

    Histological examination of undecalcified specimens from different parts of skeletal remnants of king Ladislaus revealed a considerable degree of demineralization of a similar type as found in osteomalacia. This fact along with the finding of multiple osteolytic foci in different parts of the skeleton, and consistent with reports of the clinical picture of the disease made the authors present the hypothesis according to which the king may have suffered from so-called oncogenic osteomalacia. This bone disease may develop as a complication of some neoplastic disease incl. haemoblastoses and haemoblastomas. The authors think that with regard to the age of the king, historical reports and the multiplicity of osteolytic lesions that the most plausible hypothesis is that of oncogenic osteomalacia associated with some type of malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma. PMID:1638601

  12. Heavy metals and POPs in red king crab from the Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Julshamn, Kaare; Valdersnes, Stig; Duinker, Arne; Nedreaas, Kjell; Sundet, Jan H; Maage, Amund

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the food safety of the red king crab from Norwegian waters and obtain information on possible geographical and gender differences. Samples of claw and leg meat of 185 red king crabs (Paralithodes camtschaticus), collected from 23 positions in the Barents Sea, were analysed for dioxins, furans, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs, non dioxin-like PCBs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated alkyl substances and elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead. The concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and metals were low compared to maximum levels laid down in European regulations. Hence, red king crab is a safe food. Significant differences in the concentrations of metals among different areas, and between male and female crabs, were found. Positive correlations were found between carapace length and mercury, methylmercury and cadmium concentrations, and between fat and arsenic and inorganic arsenic concentrations. PMID:25149005

  13. Coral Colonisation of an Artificial Reef in a Turbid Nearshore Environment, Dampier Harbour, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Blakeway, David; Byers, Michael; Stoddart, James; Rossendell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements). Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 17 SE to 909 85 SE per m2 over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 1.0 SE per m2 at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 2.1 SE per m2 at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportionsPseudosiderastreatayami, Mycediumelephantotus and Leptastreapurpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations. PMID:24040405

  14. Coral colonisation of an artificial reef in a turbid nearshore environment, Dampier Harbour, western Australia.

    PubMed

    Blakeway, David; Byers, Michael; Stoddart, James; Rossendell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements). Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 17 SE to 909 85 SE per m(2) over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 1.0 SE per m(2) at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 2.1 SE per m(2) at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportions--Pseudosiderastrea tayami, Mycedium elephantotus and Leptastrea purpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations. PMID:24040405

  15. Estimation of wave phase speed and nearshore bathymetry from video imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockdon, H.F.; Holman, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    A new remote sensing technique based on video image processing has been developed for the estimation of nearshore bathymetry. The shoreward propagation of waves is measured using pixel intensity time series collected at a cross-shore array of locations using remotely operated video cameras. The incident band is identified, and the cross-spectral matrix is calculated for this band. The cross-shore component of wavenumber is found as the gradient in phase of the first complex empirical orthogonal function of this matrix. Water depth is then inferred from linear wave theory's dispersion relationship. Full bathymetry maps may be measured by collecting data in a large array composed of both cross-shore and longshore lines. Data are collected hourly throughout the day, and a stable, daily estimate of bathymetry is calculated from the median of the hourly estimates. The technique was tested using 30 days of hourly data collected at the SandyDuck experiment in Duck, North Carolina, in October 1997. Errors calculated as the difference between estimated depth and ground truth data show a mean bias of -35 cm (rms error = 91 cm). Expressed as a fraction of the true water depth, the mean percent error was 13% (rms error = 34%). Excluding the region of known wave nonlinearities over the bar crest, the accuracy of the technique improved, and the mean (rms) error was -20 cm (75 cm). Additionally, under low-amplitude swells (wave height H ???1 m), the performance of the technique across the entire profile improved to 6% (29%) of the true water depth with a mean (rms) error of -12 cm (71 cm). Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Methane concentrations and oxidation in nearshore waters of the Lena River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joye, S. B.; Samarkin, V.; Shakhova, N. E.; Semiletov, I. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic is warming dramatically, with potentially catastrophic impacts on climate change through rapid mobilization of labile carbon reservoirs sequestered presently in permafrost. Increasingly, Arctic feedbacks are recognized as key contributors to climate change, including cycles associated with the powerful greenhouse gas methane, whose atmospheric concentration has more than doubled since the pre-industrial epoch. Sustained methane release to the atmosphere from thawing Arctic permafrost and delivery to the coastal ocean through groundwater or riverine discharge or expulsion from the seabed is a positive and likely highly significant feedback to climate warming. Microbially-mediated methane oxidation provides a key sink and effective biofilter that can limit methane fluxes from coastal environments to the atmosphere. We examined methane dynamics on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf by determining concentrations and oxidation rates at a series of stations near the Lena River Delta and moving offshore. Methane concentrations and oxidation rates were highly elevated in and near the river mouth compared to offshore waters, except when the offshore waters were impacted by seabed methane seepage. The regulation of methane oxidation in Arctic waters appears two-fold: first, rates are strongly related to methane availability and second, in the presence of methane, nutrient availability strongly regulates methane consumption. Along the Lena river delta, elevated concentrations of both nutrients and methane create ideal conditions to support high rates of pelagic methanotrophy. Offshore, where nutrient concentrations are lower and more limiting, methane oxidation rates are considerably lower. These data suggest that, at present, nearshore waters are fairly efficient methane sinks while in offshore waters, pelagic methanotrophy is inefficient, allowing methane to escape to the atmosphere.

  17. Nearshore fish distributions in an Alaskan estuary in relation to stratification, temperature, and salinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abookire, A.A.; Piatt, J.F.; Robards, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Fish were sampled with beach seines and small-meshed beam trawls in nearshore (<1 km) and shallow (<25 m) habitats on the southern coast of Kachemak Bay, Cook Inlet, Alaska, from June to August, 1996-1998. Fish distributions among habitats were analysed for species composition, catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and frequency of occurrence. Two oceanographically distinct areas of Kachemak Bay were sampled and compared: the Outer Bay and the Inner Bay. Outer Kachemak Bay is exposed and receives oceanic, upwelled water from the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Inner Bay is more estuarine. Thermohaline properties of bottom water in the Outer and Inner Bay were essentially the same, whereas the Inner Bay water-column was stratified with warmer, less saline waters near the surface. Distribution and abundance of pelagic schooling fish corresponded with area differences in stratification, temperature and salinity. The Inner Bay supported more species and higher densities of schooling and demersal fish than the Outer Bay. Schooling fish communities sampled by beach seine differed between the Outer and Inner Bays. Juvenile and adult Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi), osmerids (Osmeridae) and sculpins (Cottidae) were all more abundant in the Inner Bay. Gadids (Gadidae) were the only schooling fish taxa more abundant in the Outer Bay. Thermohaline characteristics of bottom water were similar throughout Kachemak Bay. Correspondingly, bottom fish communities were similar in all areas. Relative abundances (CPUE) were not significantly different between areas for any of the five demersal fish groups: flatfishes (Pleuronectidae), ronquils (Bathymasteridae), sculpins (Cottidae), gadids (Gadidae) and pricklebacks (Stichaeidae).

  18. Exploring the nearshore marine wind profile from field measurements and numerical hindcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Jesus, F.; Menendez, M.; Guanche, R.; Losada, I.

    2012-12-01

    Wind power is the predominant offshore renewable energy resource. In the last years, offshore wind farms have become a technically feasible source of electrical power. The economic feasibility of offshore wind farms depends on the quality of the offshore wind conditions compared to that of onshore sites. Installation and maintenance costs must be balanced with more hours and a higher quality of the available resources. European offshore wind development has revealed that the optimum offshore sites are those in which the distance from the coast is limited with high available resource. Due to the growth in the height of the turbines and the complexity of the coast, with interactions between inland wind/coastal orography and ocean winds, there is a need for field measurements and validation of numerical models to understand the marine wind profile near the coast. Moreover, recent studies have pointed out that the logarithmic law describing the vertical wind profile presents limitations. The aim of this work is to characterize the nearshore vertical wind profile in the medium atmosphere boundary layer. Instrumental observations analyzed in this work come from the Idermar project (www.Idermar.es). Three floating masts deployed at different locations on the Cantabrian coast provide wind measurements from a height of 20 to 90 meters. Wind speed and direction are measured as well as several meteorological variables at different heights of the profile. The shortest wind time series has over one year of data. A 20 year high-resolution atmospheric hindcast, using the WRF-ARW model and focusing on hourly offshore wind fields, is also analyzed. Two datasets have been evaluated: a European reanalysis with a ~15 Km spatial resolution, and a hybrid downscaling of wind fields with a spatial resolution of one nautical mile over the northern coast of Spain.. These numerical hindcasts have been validated based on field measurement data. Several parameterizations of the vertical wind profile are evaluated and, based on this work, a particular parameterization of the wind profile is proposed.

  19. Linear Scour Depressions or Bedforms? Using Interferometric Sonar to Investigate Nearshore Sediment Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, M.; Giese, G. S.; Dingman, S. L.; Gontz, A. M.; Adams, M. B.; Norton, A. R.; Brown, T. L.

    2011-12-01

    A series of ambiguous features on the seafloor off the coast of Provincetown, Massachusetts USA has been identified in two bathymetric lidar surveys (2007, 2010) conducted by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Similar features in the area have been described as linear scour depressions by other investigators, but at deeper water depths. These features exhibit some of the characteristics of bedforms, they have migrated tens of meters and maintained similar 3 dimensional morphologies. However, what would be described as the slipface more closely resembles the updrift face of a linear scour depression. The features are in relatively shallow water (9 - 15 m), are 150 - 200 m long, have spacings of 100 - 150 m and are 5-6 m in height. Further investigations are being undertaken to better understand these features and nearshore sediment transport in the area. The features appear along a high energy, accreting coast with both strong wave-driven sediment flux and tidal currents. Mapping of the study area with an interferometric sonar system, which collects coincident swath bathymetry and acoustic backscatter imagery, is ongoing. Interferometric sonar increases bathymetric swath width to depth ratios, in comparison to multibeam systems, and expedites data collection by reducing costs, vessel-time and hazards associated with navigating shallow waters. In addition, sediment grab samples and a series of seismic reflection profiles will also be collected in the area to ground-truth acoustic imagery and provide a subsurface framework for the features, respectively. These datasets will allow investigators to better document bottom conditions, estimate flow velocities needed to create these features and improve our understanding of sediment transport processes and pathways in the area.

  20. Aspects of Benthic Decapod Diversity and Distribution from Rocky Nearshore Habitat at Geographically Widely Dispersed Sites

    PubMed Central

    Pohle, Gerhard; Iken, Katrin; Clarke, K. Robert; Trott, Thomas; Konar, Brenda; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Wong, Melisa; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Mieszkowska, Nova; Milne, Rebecca; Tamburello, Laura; Knowlton, Ann; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2011-01-01

    Relationships of diversity, distribution and abundance of benthic decapods in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters to 10 m depth are explored based on data obtained using a standardized protocol of globally-distributed samples. Results indicate that decapod species richness overall is low within the nearshore, typically ranging from one to six taxa per site (mean = 4.5). Regionally the Gulf of Alaska decapod crustacean community structure was distinguishable by depth, multivariate analysis indicating increasing change with depth, where assemblages of the high and mid tide, low tide and 1 m, and 5 and 10 m strata formed three distinct groups. Univariate analysis showed species richness increasing from the high intertidal zone to 1 m subtidally, with distinct depth preferences among the 23 species. A similar depth trend but with peak richness at 5 m was observed when all global data were combined. Analysis of latitudinal trends, confined by data limitations, was equivocal on a global scale. While significant latitudinal differences existed in community structure among ecoregions, a semi-linear trend in changing community structure from the Arctic to lower latitudes did not hold when including tropical results. Among boreal regions the Canadian Atlantic was relatively species poor compared to the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Caribbean and Sea of Japan appeared to be species hot spots. While species poor, samples from the Canadian Atlantic were the most diverse at the higher infraordinal level. Linking 11 environmental variables available for all sites to the best fit family-based biotic pattern showed a significant relationship, with the single best explanatory variable being the level of organic pollution and the best combination overall being organic pollution and primary productivity. While data limitations restrict conclusions in a global context, results are seen as a first-cut contribution useful in generating discussion and more in-depth work in the still poorly understood field of biodiversity distribution. PMID:21533220

  1. Infrared measurements of surface renewal and subsurface vortices in nearshore breaking waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yasunori; Mori, Nobuhito

    2008-07-01

    When ocean waves reach a surf zone, jets projecting from the breakers splash sequentially, producing horizontal roller vortices beneath the jets and longitudinal counterrotating vortices behind the rollers; these vortices organize into three-dimensional structures that evolve into a turbulent bore with wave propagation. This disrupts any uniform temperature distributions on the surface, creating heterogeneous patterns of surface temperatures. In this study, we extracted surface temperature distributions from infrared measurements in small- and large-scale wave flumes, then used those data to study the renewed surfaces created by subsurface vortices beneath spilling and plunging breakers. In our large-scale experiments, temporal and spatial scales of surface renewal and surface recovery were consistent with earlier work; however, in our small-scale experiments, the spatial scales showed significant deviations from earlier in situ observations. These inconsistencies may be attributed to scale effects for subsurface vortices, and we show that the Froude number (Fr) can be used to characterize the initial formation of longitudinal counterrotating vortices. Further, for turbulent flows fully developed by wave breaking in a bore region, the frequency of surface renewal correlates exponentially with Reynolds number (Re). The computed vorticity on the breaking wave surface exhibits local patterns which correlate strongly with the gravity induced counterrotating vortices, which in turn renew the rear-facing surface of the breaking waves. In contrast the turbulent bore which precedes the wave crest rapidly disturbs and renews the surface in front of the crest. These two different mechanisms for surface renewal, during the nearshore breaking process, lead to modulations in the surface temperature distribution and changes in thermal diffusivity during the propagation of the breaking wave.

  2. Determination of Nearshore Surface Slope Field and Wave Heights Using Optical Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russotto, R. D.; Holman, R. A.; Stanley, J.; Palmsten, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    In order to gain an accurate, predictive modeling capability for nearshore dynamics, it is necessary to be able to measure the heights of waves. We are developing a technique to do this remotely, by exploiting the polarization properties of light reflected from the ocean surface. A polarization camera was built for the purposes of laboratory testing, and was calibrated to determine filter orientations and to correct for gain differences between pixels, lens distortion, and slightly varying fields of view of the four component cameras before being used in laboratory tests. The cameras ability to determine degree and azimuth of linear polarization (DOLP and AOLP), from which sea surface slope and, in turn, wave height can be determined, was then tested by comparing calculated polarization parameters to known conditions created by an external polarizer. While error in DOLP could not be precisely quantified without further tests, we found that we could determine AOLP to within one degree. Following this, the camera was used to make measurements of known wave conditions at the Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory at Oregon State University. Incident band waves were isolated from noise and high-frequency chop using spectral processing of time series of AOLP values at individual pixels. The processed signals were then used to make estimates of surface slope and wave amplitude, which were compared to ground-truth data from electric and acoustic wave height sensors installed at the wave tank. While further analysis is necessary to fully demonstrate and quantify the accuracy of this technique, we have confidence in our ability to measure wave height based on the preliminary results obtained.

  3. Tectonic controls on nearshore sediment accumulation and submarine canyon morphology offshore La Jolla, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Le, Dantec N.; Hogarth, L.J.; Driscoll, N.W.; Babcock, J.M.; Barnhardt, W.A.; Schwab, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    CHIRP seismic and swath bathymetry data acquired offshore La Jolla, California provide an unprecedented three-dimensional view of the La Jolla and Scripps submarine canyons. Shore-parallel patterns of tectonic deformation appear to control nearshore sediment thickness and distribution around the canyons. These shore-parallel patterns allow the impact of local tectonic deformation to be separated from the influence of eustatic sea-level fluctuations. Based on stratal geometry and acoustic character, we identify a prominent angular unconformity inferred to be the transgressive surface and three sedimentary sequences: an acoustically laminated estuarine unit deposited during early transgression, an infilling or "healing-phase" unit formed during the transgression, and an upper transparent unit. Beneath the transgressive surface, steeply dipping reflectors with several dip reversals record faulting and folding along the La Jolla margin. Scripps Canyon is located at the crest of an antiform, where the rocks are fractured and more susceptible to erosion. La Jolla Canyon is located along the northern strand of the Rose Canyon Fault Zone, which separates Cretaceous lithified rocks to the south from poorly cemented Eocene sands and gravels to the north. Isopach and structure contour maps of the three sedimentary units reveal how their thicknesses and spatial distributions relate to regional tectonic deformation. For example, the estuarine unit is predominantly deposited along the edges of the canyons in paleotopographic lows that may have been inlets along barrier beaches during the Holocene sea-level rise. The distribution of the infilling unit is controlled by pre-existing relief that records tectonic deformation and erosional processes. The thickness and distribution of the upper transparent unit are controlled by long-wavelength, tectonically induced relief on the transgressive surface and hydrodynamics. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  4. County by County in Ohio Genealogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khouw, Petta; And Others

    This comprehensive sourcebook and bibliography lists Ohio genealogical materials available at the State Library of Ohio for each county in the state. It serves as a guide to Ohio genealogical resources, including 14,000 volumes and 15,000 microforms in the non-circulating genealogy collection. The library's genealogy collection consists of a broad…

  5. A herpes-like virus in king crabs: Characterization and transmission under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Ryazanova, T V; Eliseikina, M G; Kalabekov, I M; Odintsova, N A

    2015-05-01

    A herpes-like virus was found infecting the antennal gland and bladder epithelium in the blue king crab Paralithodes platypus from the eastern area of the Sea of Okhotsk. Electron microscopic analysis of antennal gland samples from blue king crabs with histologically confirmed signs of disease revealed virus particles, which were mostly hexagonal in shape and located primarily in the nucleus; these particles were rarely observed in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Most virus particles ranged in size from 115 to 125nm. Hemocytes of the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus in cell culture could be experimentally infected with virus from thawed antennal gland samples of the blue king crabs with histologically confirmed signs of viral infection. Clear signs of infection were observed in hemocyte cultures at 3-4days post-inoculation as small foci of highly vacuolated formations. These formations included several nuclei and were surrounded by a halo of small cytoplasmic bubbles containing actin and tubulin. As demonstrated by electron microscopic studies, no virus-like particles were found in the cells 1day post-inoculation, but particles become abundant at 7days post-inoculation. We developed a consensus primer PCR method for amplification of a region of the herpesviral DNA-directed DNA polymerase. Primers were designed to target sequences encoding highly conserved amino acid motifs covering a region of approximately 800bp. Thus, macroscopic, histological and ultra-structural examinations of blue king crabs infected with a virus and the molecular identification of the pathogen revealed the presence of herpesviruses. The frequency of the herpes-like viral infection in natural populations of blue king crabs in the Sea of Okhotsk ranged from 0% to 3% in different years. PMID:25712900

  6. Shut out of medicine in Canada, Dr. Leonora Howard King blazed a trail in China.

    PubMed Central

    Negodaeff-Tomsik, M

    1996-01-01

    After being denied the opportunity to study medicine and work at home, Dr. Leonora Howard King became Canada's first female medical missionary to China. Although she attempted to wear both the religious and secular hats handed her by the Women's Foreign Missionary Society, Howard King found that she was too busy meeting the medical needs of destitute women and children to proselytize. She won the favour of Chinese royalty, and after treating hundreds of wounded soldiers during the 1894-95 war with Japan became the first Western woman to become a mandarin, an honour bestowed by her adopted country. Images p1742-a PMID:8976342

  7. 76 FR 5326 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... established on June 15, 2004 (70 FR 67985). The control date would apply to persons who are contemplating..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal Migratory Pelagic Fishery Off the... future access to the king and Spanish mackerel components of the coastal migratory pelagics...

  8. "A Creative Psalm of Brotherhood": The (De)Constructive Play in Martin Luther King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaipa, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Scholars have celebrated the spoken word in King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail," but they have overlooked the significance of the Letter's writing. In this essay I closely read King's act of writing the Letter, along with the figures of speech he employs in it, and I show how both--by enacting the mass media's ability to cross contexts--are

  9. Treatment of the first known case of king cobra envenomation in the United Kingdom, complicated by severe anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Veto, T; Price, R; Silsby, J F; Carter, J A

    2007-01-01

    We report the first known case of envenomation following snake bite by a king cobra in the UK. The patient required tracheal intubation and ventilation. Treatment with king cobra antivenom resulted in anaphylaxis (bronchospasm and hypotension), requiring adrenaline infusion. The patient's trachea was extubated 11 h after administration of antivenom. PMID:17156231

  10. "A Creative Psalm of Brotherhood": The (De)Constructive Play in Martin Luther King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaipa, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Scholars have celebrated the spoken word in King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail," but they have overlooked the significance of the Letter's writing. In this essay I closely read King's act of writing the Letter, along with the figures of speech he employs in it, and I show how both--by enacting the mass media's ability to cross contexts--are…

  11. Developing local board of health guidelines to promote healthy food access - King County, Washington, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Emilee; Johnson, Donna B; Krieger, James; MacDougall, Erin; Payne, Elizabeth; Chan, Nadine L

    2015-01-01

    Policies that change environments are important tools for preventing chronic diseases, including obesity. Boards of health often have authority to adopt such policies, but few do so. This study assesses 1) how one local board of health developed a policy approach for healthy food access through vending machine guidelines (rather than regulations) and 2) the impact of the approach. Using a case study design guided by "three streams" policy theory and RE-AIM, we analyzed data from a focus group, interviews, and policy documents. The guidelines effectively supported institutional policy development in several settings. Recognition of the problem of chronic disease and the policy solution of vending machine guidelines created an opening for the board to influence nutrition environments. Institutions identified a need for support in adopting vending machine policies. Communities could benefit from the study board's approach to using nonregulatory evidence-based guidelines as a policy tool. PMID:25927606

  12. Developing Local Board of Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Food Access — King County, Washington, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Donna B.; Krieger, James; MacDougall, Erin; Payne, Elizabeth; Chan, Nadine L.

    2015-01-01

    Policies that change environments are important tools for preventing chronic diseases, including obesity. Boards of health often have authority to adopt such policies, but few do so. This study assesses 1) how one local board of health developed a policy approach for healthy food access through vending machine guidelines (rather than regulations) and 2) the impact of the approach. Using a case study design guided by “three streams” policy theory and RE-AIM, we analyzed data from a focus group, interviews, and policy documents. The guidelines effectively supported institutional policy development in several settings. Recognition of the problem of chronic disease and the policy solution of vending machine guidelines created an opening for the board to influence nutrition environments. Institutions identified a need for support in adopting vending machine policies. Communities could benefit from the study board’s approach to using nonregulatory evidence-based guidelines as a policy tool. PMID:25927606

  13. 75 FR 53735 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on East Lake Sammamish Master Plan Trail in King County, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...- motorized transportation corridor and recreational trail. The actions by the Federal agencies, and the laws... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.... 139(l)(1). The actions relate to a proposed transportation enhancement project, the East...

  14. Hydrogeology of the surficial aquifer in the vicinity of a former landfill, Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Camden County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeth, David C.

    1999-01-01

    Neogene and Quaternary sediments constitute the surficial aquifer beneath the study area; in descending order from youngest to oldest these include-the Quaternary undifferentiated surficial sand and Satilla Formation; the Pliocene(?) Cypresshead Formation; and the middle Miocene Coosawhatchie Formation. Beneath the surficial aquifer, the upper Brunswick aquifer consists of part of the lower Miocene Marks Head Formation. The surficial aquifer is divided into three water-bearing zones on the basis of lithologic and geophysical properties of sediments, hydraulic-head differences between zones, and differences in ground-water chemistry. The shallowest zone-the water-table zone-consists of medium to fine sand and clayey sand and is present from land surface to a depth of about 77 feet. Below the water-table zone, the confined upper water-bearing zone consists of medium to very coarse sand and is present from a depth of about 110 to 132 feet. Beneath the upper water-bearing zone, the confined lower water-bearing zone consists of coarse sand and very fine gravel and is present from a depth of about 195 to 237 feet. Hydraulic separation is suggested by differences in water chemistry between the water-table zone and upper water-bearing zone. The sodium chloride type water in the water-table zone differs from the calcium bicarbonate type water in the upper water-bearing zone. Hydraulic separation also is indicated by hydraulic head differences of more than 6.5 feet between the water-table zone and the upper water-bearing zone. Continuous and synoptic water-level measurements in the water-table zone, from October 1995 to April 1997, indicate the presence of a water-table high beneath and adjacent to the former landfill-the surface of which varies about 5 feet with time because of recharge and discharge. Water-level data from clustered wells also suggest that restriction of vertical ground-water flow begins to occur at an altitude of about 5 to 10 feet below sea level (35 to 40 feet below land surface) in the water-table zone because of the increasing clay content of the Cypresshead Formation.

  15. Geologic Map of Northeastern Seattle (Part of the Seattle North 7.5' x 15' Quadrangle), King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, Derek B.; Troost, Kathy Goetz; Shimel, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    This geologic map, approximately coincident with the east half of the Seattle North 7.5 x 15' quadrangle (herein, informally called the 'Seattle NE map'), covers nearly half of the City of Seattle and reaches from Lake Washington across to the Puget Sound shoreline. Land uses are mainly residential, but extensive commercial districts are located in the Northgate neighborhood, adjacent to the University of Washington, and along the corridors of Aurora Avenue North and Lake City Way. Industrial activity is concentrated along the Lake Washington Ship Canal and around Lake Union. One small piece of land outside of the quadrangle boundaries, at the west edge of the Bellevue North quadrangle, is included on this map for geographic continuity. Conversely, a small area in the northeast corner of the Seattle North quadrangle, on the eastside of Lake Washington, is excluded from this map. Within the boundaries of the map area are two large urban lakes, including the most heavily visited park in the State of Washington (Green Lake Park); a stream (Thornton Creek) that still hosts anadromous salmon despite having its headwaters in a golfcourse and a shopping center; parts of three cities, with a combined residential population of about 300,000 people; and the region's premier research institution, the University of Washington. The north boundary of the map is roughly NE 168th Street in the cities of Shoreline and Lake Forest Park, and the south boundary corresponds to Mercer Street in Seattle. The west boundary is 15th Avenue W (and NW), and the east boundary is formed by Lake Washington. Elevations range from sea level to a maximum of 165 m (541 ft), the latter on a broad till-covered knob in the city of Shoreline near the northwest corner of the map. Previous geologic maps of this area include those of Waldron and others (1962), Galster and Laprade (1991), and Yount and others (1993). Seattle lies within the Puget Lowland, an elongate structural and topographic basin between the Cascade Range and Olympic Mountains. The Seattle area has been glaciated repeatedly during the past two million years by coalescing glaciers that advanced southward from British Columbia. The landscape we see today was molded by cyclic glacial scouring and deposition and later modified by landsliding and stream erosion. The last ice sheet reached the central Puget Sound region about 14,500 years ago, as measured by 14C dating, and it had retreated from this area by 13,650 14C yr B.P. (equivalent calendar years are about 17,600 and 16,600 years ago; Porter and Swanson, 1998). Seattle now sits atop a complex and incomplete succession of interleaved glacial and nonglacial deposits that overlie an irregular bedrock surface. These glacial and nonglacial deposits vary laterally in both texture and thickness, and they contain many local unconformities. In addition, they have been deformed by faults and folds, at least as recently as 1,100 years ago, and this deformation further complicates the geologic record. The landforms and near-surface deposits that cover much of the Seattle NE map area record a relatively brief, recent interval of the region's geologic history. The topography is dominated in the north by a broad, fluted, and south-sloping upland plateau, which gives way to a more complex set of elongated hills in the map's southern half. The valleys of Pipers Creek, Green Lake, and Thornton Creek mark the transition between these two topographic areas. Most of the uplands are mantled by a rolling surface of sand (unit Qva) and till (unit Qvt) deposited during the last occupation of the Puget Lowland by a continental ice sheet. Beneath these ice sheet deposits is a complex succession of older sediments that extends far below sea level across most of the map area. These older sediments are now locally exposed where modern erosion and landslides have sliced through the edge of the upland, and where subglacial processes apparently left these older sedimen

  16. Health assessment for Harbor Island Lead, Seattle, King County, Washington, Region 10. CERCLIS No. WAD980722839. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-19

    The Harbor Island Lead site is on the National Priorities List. Harbor Island is a 405-acre island that was constructed during the early 1900s in an area consisting of inter-tidal wetlands at the mouth of the Duwamish River and Elliott Bay. The extent of environmental contamination on Harbor Island has not been described. Environmental contamination in surface sediments and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in Elliott Bay fish has been provided. Sediments are contaminated with heavy metals, including antimony (91,370 ppm), arsenic (584 ppm), chromium (1,0080 ppm), lead (71,100 ppm), manganese (3,390 ppm), nickel (366 ppm), and zinc (6,010 ppm); polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (3,800 ppm), including benzo(a)pyrene (100 ppm), fluoranthene (1,300 ppm), phenanthrene (330 ppm), and pyrene (740 ppm); various pesticides (0.9 ppm total); and phenols (10 ppm), including pentachlorophenol (6 ppm). The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because it appears that the most important pathway is ingestion of contaminated fish and shellfish.

  17. Hydrogeologic framework, groundwater movement, and water budget in the Puyallup River Watershed and vicinity, Pierce and King Counties, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Wendy B.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Savoca, Mark E.; Lane, Ron C.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Marshall, Cameron; Clothier, Burt G.; Knoedler, Eric N.

    2015-01-01

    The water-budget area received about 1,428,000 acre-feet or about 52 inches of precipitation per year (January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012). About 41 percent of precipitation enters the groundwater system as recharge. Seven percent of this recharge is withdrawn from wells and the remainder leaves the groundwater system as discharge to rivers, discharge to springs, or submarine discharge to Puget Sound, or exits the study area through subsurface flow in the Green River valley.

  18. Lidar-revised geologic map of the Poverty Bay 7.5' quadrangle, King and Pierce Counties, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, Rowland W.; Booth, Derek B.; Troost, Kathy Goetz

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, the Puget Sound Lidar Consortium obtained a lidar-derived digital elevation model (DEM) for the Puget Sound region including all of the Poverty Bay 7.5' quadrangle. For a brief description of lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) and this data acquisition program, see Haugerud and others (2003). This new DEM has a horizontal resolution and accuracy of 6 ft (2 m) and vertical accuracy of approximately 1 ft (0.3 m). The greater resolution and accuracy of the lidar DEM have facilitated a new interpretation of the geology, especially the distribution and relative age of some surficial deposits.

  19. Granulometry and mineralogy of some northeastern Florida placers: a consequence of heavy mineral concentration in nearshore bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Harald

    1992-03-01

    Heavy mineral placer deposits of Pleistocene age in northeastern Florida were examined sedimentologically. Neither general setting, nor granulometric or mineralogic results are in agreement with a concentration of the heavy minerals in a beach, eolian or fluvial environment. Granulometric moment parameters of the ore sands seem to be distinctive. They include moderate sorting, high positive skewness, high kurtosis and a distinctive fine tail. Similarities of grain size curves of the placer sands with nearshore-offshore sands exist. Mineralogically the samples are more variable but always impoverished in epidote. This scarcity of epidote is atypical for eolian sediments in the study area, and the lack of garnet and the fineness of ore sands are uncommon for beach placers of northeast Florida. Underlain by dune ridges, which acted as obstacles on the shallow sea floor during the Penholoway transgression (1.3 ± 0.1 Ma B.P.), heavy minerals in the Boulogne and Green Cove Springs main ore body must have been concentrated in bars by the interplay of longshore and transverse bottom currents. Lighter heavy minerals were deposited in smaller nearshore bars closer to the former coast (Green Cove Springs small ore body) or in dunes of barrier islands (Green Cove Springs western ore body). As is true today, layers of noteworthy concentrations of economic minerals in the swash zone of Florida beaches were formed only rarely during storms, contrary to the coasts of Australia or India, where higher energetic conditions prevail. The proposed model of concentration of heavy minerals in certain outer nearshore bars has long been assumed but never been proven.

  20. Nearshore benthic habitat GIS for the Channel Islands National Sanctuary and southern California State Fisheries Reserves. Volume 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Nasby, Nicole M.; Reid, Jane A.; Waltenberger, Ben; Lee, Kristen M.

    2003-01-01

    The nearshore benthic habitat of the Santa Barbara coast and Channel Islands supports diverse marine life that is commercially, recreationally, and intrinsically valuable. Some of these resources are known to be endangered including a variety of rockfish and the white abalone. Agencies of the state of California and the United States have been mandated to preserve and enhance these resources. Data from sidescan sonar, bathymetry, video and dive observations, and physical samples are consolidated in a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS provides researchers and policymakers a view of the relationship among data sets to assist scienctific research and to help with economic and social policy-making decisions regarding this protected environment.

  1. Terrestrial and oceanic influence on spatial hydrochemistry and trophic status in subtropical marine near-shore waters.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ojeda, Sara M; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Montero, Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial and oceanic influences like groundwater discharges and/or oceanic upwelling define the hydrochemical and biological characteristics of near-shore regions. In karst environments, such as the Yucatan Peninsula (SE Mexico), the balance between these two influences on spatial and temporal scales is poorly understood. This study focused on near-shore waters within 200m offshore along the Yucatan coast. The trophic status and hydrochemical zones of the study area were determined as a function of physical and nutrient data collected from 2005 to 2006. The main terrestrial influence was groundwater discharge, while the most important marine influence was related to seasonal changes in water turbulence. Spatial differences (p<0.05) were observed among salinity, light extinction coefficient (k), NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+), and Chl-a. Seasonal differences were observed for all variables except for k. During the dry season, terrestrial influences are the dominant factor on near-shore hydrochemistry. The region around Dzilam exhibited the maximum influence of groundwater discharge estimated by salinity dissolution (?). During the rainy and "nortes" seasons, there is a balance between oceanic and terrestrial influences. The trophic status measured using the TRIX index, indicated that near-shore waters were mainly oligo-mesotrophic; with a meso-eutrophic status in areas with documented anthropogenic impacts. Four hydrological zones were identified by a Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) using salinity, NO(2)(-), k and NH(4)(+) as the main discriminating variables. Zones I and II showed almost pristine conditions, with well-balanced terrestrial-oceanic influences. In Zone III, terrestrial influences such as groundwater discharges and inland pollution suggesting human impacts were dominant respect to the effects of oceanic influences like upwelling and sediment resuspension caused by winds and oceanic currents. Zone IV received enhanced groundwater and associated nutrients. Anthropogenic activities have led to ecosystem degradation but the speed at which this occurs depends on local and regional characteristics. Therefore, this study has defined those characteristics so as to enact better management policies. PMID:20719354

  2. Analysis of the impacts of Wave Energy Converter arrays on the nearshore wave climate in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, A.; Haller, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    As concerns over the use of fossil fuels increase, more and more effort is being put into the search for renewable and reliable sources of energy. Developments in ocean technologies have made the extraction of wave energy a promising alternative. Commercial exploitation of wave energy would require the deployment of arrays of Wave Energy Converters (WECs) that include several to hundreds of individual devices. Interactions between WECs and ocean waves result in both near-field and far-field changes in the incident wave field, including a significant decrease in wave height and a redirection of waves in the lee of the array, referred to as the wave shadow. Nearshore wave height and direction are directly related to the wave radiation stresses that drive longshore currents, rip currents and nearshore sediment transport, which suggests that significant far-field changes in the wave field due to WEC arrays could have an impact on littoral processes. The goal of this study is to investigate the changes in nearshore wave conditions and radiation stress forcing as a result of an offshore array of point-absorber type WECs using a nested SWAN model, and to determine how array size, configuration, spacing and distance from shore influence these changes. The two sites of interest are the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC) test sites off the coast of Newport Oregon, the North Energy Test Site (NETS) and the South Energy Test Site (SETS). NETS and SETS are permitted wave energy test sites located approximately 4 km and 10 km offshore, respectively. Twenty array configurations are simulated, including 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 devices in two and three staggered rows in both closely spaced (three times the WEC diameter) and widely spaced (ten times the WEC diameter) arrays. Daily offshore wave spectra are obtained from a regional WAVEWATCH III hindcast for 2011, which are then propagated across the continental shelf using SWAN. Arrays are represented in SWAN through the external modification of the wave spectra at the device locations, based on a new experimentally determined Power Transfer Function established in an earlier WEC-array laboratory study. Changes in nearshore forcing conditions for each array size and configuration are compared in order to determine the scale of the far-field effects of WEC arrays and which array sizes and configurations could have the most significant impacts on coastal processes.

  3. Distribution of larval and juvenile red king crabs (Paralithodes camtschatica) in Bristol Bay. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMurray, G.; Vogel, A.H.; Fishman, P.A.; Armstrong, D.A.; Jewett, S.C.

    1984-02-01

    The goal of the present study is to provide sufficient information on larval and juvenile red king crab distributions and associated environmental variables to reasonably describe the potential effects of oil and gas development on the crab population and its fishery in Bristol Bay.

  4. Coretta Scott King Award Books: Using Great Literature with Children and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Claire Gatrell

    First presented in 1970, the Coretta Scott King Award has become one of the most prestigious honors bestowed on authors and illustrators of children's literature. This book provides information on the award and award winners, and ideas for using selected award-winning titles in the classroom. The first part of the book "The Award," offers a

  5. The King Pre-Retirement Checklist: Assessing Differences in Pre-Retirement Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitzow, Darryl; King, Donald N.

    In an effort to assess the retirement preparedness of Midwestern populations above the age of 28, the King Pre-Retirement Checklist was administered to a sampling of 458 persons randomly selected and proportionally stratified by geographic location and community size. Factors examined were financial, social, family cohesion, mobility/health,

  6. Primary Process Content in the King James Bible: The Five Stages of Christian Mysticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alan N.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the "Regressive Imagery Dictionary," a computerized content analysis technique for evaluating primary process thought in natural language texts. Describes its use in evaluating the King James Bible. Reports that findings are consistent with a fifth degree polynomial function, as suggested by one model of spiritual development in the…

  7. "Free at Last": Kennedy, King, and the Meaning of Liberty in the Disability Rights Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III

    2012-01-01

    There is a direct link connecting President Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr., to the causes of liberty, consent, choice, the least restrictive environment, and genuine community presence for people with intellectual and related developmental disabilities. This article connects the meaning of liberty in those civil rights movements to the

  8. Making E-Learning Invisible: Experience at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwalidi, Abdullah; Lefrere, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe progress at King Khalid University (KKU) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in developing and implementing a user-centered road map for teaching and learning, with pervasive e-learning as a core element. They named the approach "Invisible" e-learning. As part of it, they are investigating ways to capture and share expertise, as in

  9. If Dr. King Were a Principal: Building the "Beloved Community" in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, Michael; Woolworth, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a more humanistic vision of educational community, one that is substantive in content yet flexible in its application to the diverse contexts in which American schooling occurs. In doing so, the authors turn specifically to the nonviolent philosophy of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and consider what a school

  10. Presidents' Panel: A Conversation with I. King Jordan, Robert Davila, and T. Alan Hurwitz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Brian H.; Jordan, I. King; Davila, Robert; Hurwitz, T. Alan

    2014-01-01

    Former Gallaudet presidents: I. King Jordan and Robert Davila join current president T. Alan Hurwitz on a panel moderated by Brian H. Greenwald as they share their experience leading this institution of higher education and offer insight into the transformative changes brought about by the "Deaf President Now" movement.

  11. Pulpit Responses to Contemporary Issues: The On-Going Rhetoric of Dr. Martin Luther King.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadely, Dean; Greene, Ronald W.

    Many theoreticians have indicated that a major task of the nonpresumptive rhetor is to gain presumption, thereby shifting the burden of proof to the opposition. Rhetorically, Martin Luther King, Jr., sought to effect this shift in the burden of proof through the use of hierarchies of values. At the top of his value system was the love of God. The…

  12. Cloning and purification of alpha-neurotoxins from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah).

    PubMed

    He, Ying-Ying; Lee, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2004-09-01

    Thirteen complete and three partial cDNA sequences were cloned from the constructed king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom gland cDNA library. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of king cobra with those from other snake venoms revealed that obtained cDNAs are highly homologous to snake venom alpha-neurotoxins. Alignment of deduced mature peptide sequences of the obtained clones with those of other reported alpha-neurotoxins from the king cobra venom indicates that our obtained 16 clones belong to long-chain neurotoxins (seven), short-chain neurotoxins (seven), weak toxin (one) and variant (one), respectively. Up to now, two out of 16 newly cloned king cobra alpha-neurotoxins have identical amino acid sequences with CM-11 and Oh-6A/6B, which have been characterized from the same venom. Furthermore, five long-chain alpha-neurotoxins and two short-chain alpha-neurotoxins were purified from crude venom and their N-terminal amino acid sequences were determined. The cDNAs encoding the putative precursors of the purified native peptide were also determined based on the N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The purified alpha-neurotoxins showed different lethal activities on mice. PMID:15302536

  13. Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream": The Speech Event as Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Alexandra

    1988-01-01

    Martin Luther King's speech is examined as a sermon in the Black Baptist tradition. The speech, which is a dialog between speaker and audience, has, in addition to the "message" contained in the code, a broader ethnographic meaning. The speech event itself is metaphorical in nature, signaling political protest. (Author/BJV)

  14. A Dream Remembered! Martin Luther King Birthday Celebration January 1986. Combined Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchorage Municipal Libraries, AK.

    This bibliography of print and non-print materials on Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was prepared by the Anchorage, Alaska School District and the Anchorage Municipal Libraries. The resource list is divided into two sections according to its availability from these two organizations. Each resource is listed by call number and, for those available

  15. "The Lion King" and "Hamlet": A Homecoming for the Exiled Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, Rosemarie

    1996-01-01

    Explains how the movie "The Lion King" may be used to elucidate Shakespeare's "Hamlet," a play about a prince who does not always seem heroic to modern audiences. Gives specific points of comparison between the two works concerning heroes, characters, conflicts, themes, ending scenes, and archetypal patterns. (TB)

  16. Making E-Learning Invisible: Experience at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwalidi, Abdullah; Lefrere, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe progress at King Khalid University (KKU) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in developing and implementing a user-centered road map for teaching and learning, with pervasive e-learning as a core element. They named the approach "Invisible" e-learning. As part of it, they are investigating ways to capture and share expertise, as in…

  17. Martin Luther King, Jr.: A Lesson with Interdisciplinary Connections for Middle-Level Music Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Mary Frances; Terry, Cynthia

    This lesson begins with a very brief biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. The lesson identifies its educational objectives; addresses National Standards for Music Education; lists materials needed; details six step-by-step classroom procedures for lesson implementation; and provides curriculum connections for language arts, visual art, physical

  18. Giving Peace a Chance: Gandhi and King in the English Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, David

    2000-01-01

    Describes how one high school English teacher developed and taught a unit that would give students the opportunity to see how violence and nonviolence affects their lives. Notes the unit involves discussing the lives and careers of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., viewing film clips and film, reading, writing in journals, and writing a

  19. King Cotton's Lasting Legacy of Poverty and Southern Region Contemporary Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, James W.; Peevely, Gary

    2010-01-01

    One hundred fifty years ago, cotton was considered as the king of all United States' agricultural exports. Cotton's dollar value far exceeded that of any other mid-19th-century United States trade item, much more than tobacco, fish, forest products, raw materials for manufacturing, or manufactured items. Indeed, in the mid-19th century, cotton was…

  20. Endotracheal Intubation Using the Macintosh Laryngoscope or KingVision Video Laryngoscope during Uninterrupted Chest Compression

    PubMed Central

    Gaszynska, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Advanced airway management, endotracheal intubation (ETI), during CPR is more difficult than, for example, during anesthesia. However, new devices such as video laryngoscopes should help in such circumstances. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the KingVision video laryngoscopes in a manikin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) scenario. Methods. Thirty students enrolled in the third year of paramedic school took part in the study. The simulated CPR scenario was ETI using the standard laryngoscope with a Macintosh blade (MCL) and ETI using the KingVision video laryngoscope performed during uninterrupted chest compressions. The primary endpoints were the time needed for ETI and the success ratio. Results. The mean time required for intubation was similar for both laryngoscopes: 16.6 (SD 5.11, median 15.64, range 7.927.9) seconds versus 17.91 (SD 5.6, median 16.28, range 10.628.6) seconds for the MCL and KingVision, respectively (P = 0.1888). On the first attempt at ETI, the success rate during CPR was comparable between the evaluated laryngoscopes: P = 0.9032. Conclusion. The KingVision video laryngoscope proves to be less superior when used for endotracheal intubation during CPR compared to the standard laryngoscope with a Mackintosh blade. This proves true in terms of shortening the time needed for ETI and increasing the success ratio. PMID:24995278