Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David
King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.
Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David;
King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.
... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; King County, Washington AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed project to (1) manage congestion...
Whittaker, Stephen G; Taylor, Jessie; Van Hooser, Linda M
In King County, Washington, the most frequently used alternative solvent to perchloroethylene is a hydrotreated petroleum hydrocarbon. The objectives of the authors' study were to 1) determine the frequency of use of process chemicals used in "hydrocarbon" dry cleaning and gather other operational information; 2) chemically characterize the process chemicals; 3) characterize the still bottoms and separator water wastes according to dangerous waste and wastewater discharge regulations; 4) identify linkages between work practices, process chemicals, and the chemical composition of the waste streams; and 5) evaluate the aquatic toxicity of the hydrocarbon solvent and detergent. Many hydrocarbon dry cleaners are using process chemicals that contain hazardous substances, including trichloroethylene. One sample of separator water contained 13,000 µg/L trichloroethylene. This sample was determined to be federal hazardous waste, state-only dangerous waste (i.e., according to Washington state-specific regulations), and failed wastewater discharge thresholds. All still bottoms were determined to be state-only dangerous wastes. Efforts should be directed towards replacing hazardous spot cleaning chemicals with safer alternatives and ensuring that wastes are disposed of appropriately. PMID:26502560
Kern, Eli; Chan, Nadine L; Fleming, David W; Krieger, James W
The United States has invested heavily, through public and private sector initiatives, in actions to prevent youth obesity by promoting healthy eating and physical activity. This report documents recent trends in youth obesity in King County, Washington, which implemented a Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) obesity prevention initiative during 2010-2012, including a school-based component. Similar large-scale obesity prevention initiatives did not occur elsewhere in Washington. Beginning in 2004, the Washington State Department of Health began monitoring youth obesity through the biennially administered Washington State Healthy Youth Survey (HYS). Based on data from this survey, neither King County nor the rest of Washington showed statistically significant changes in obesity prevalence in 2006, 2008, and 2010, relative to 2004. In 2012, however, King County youth obesity prevalence showed a statistically significant decrease, while no change occurred in the remainder of the state. Within King County, CPPW was implemented only in low-income school districts to address geographic inequities in obesity rates. Analysis within King County comparing CPPW and non-CPPW school districts before and after the intervention (2010 versus 2012) revealed a statistically significant decline in obesity prevalence in CPPW schools yet no change in non-CPPW schools. This decline in CPPW schools was significantly different than in non-CPPW schools. These findings suggest that school-based policy, systems, and environment changes might help reduce youth obesity, warranting further evaluation of short- and long-term impacts on population health. PMID:24553199
Human infection with nontuberculous Mycobacteria spp. in King County, Washington, 1999 - 2002
E Hilborn, T Covert, M Yakrus, G Stelma, M Schmitt
1) US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Research Laboratory,...
Liesch, Bruce A.; Price, Charles E.; Walters, Kenneth L.
King County, in the west-central part of the State of Washington, includes about 2,135 square miles. The eastern part of the county lies in the Sierra-Cascade Mountains province and the remainder is in the Puget Trough of the Pacific Border province. The area covered by the present investigation is almost entirely within the Puget Trough and includes about 450 square miles.
Kent, James B.
To characterize HIV and AIDS cases in foreign-born persons in King County, Washington, HIV surveillance data were analyzed by place of birth, race and ethnicity, mode of transmission, and year of HIV diagnosis. The proportion of new HIV diagnoses among foreign-born Blacks increased from 3.5% during the 3-year period from 1995 to 1997 to 7.5%…
Helgerson, Steven D.
The events leading to the establishment of the King County Medical Service Corporation, now King County Medical-Blue Shield, were varied and complex. Under pressure, the King County Medical Society redefined its code of ethics, expanded its view of acceptable practice and gave birth to a major provider of prepaid health care services. PMID:766413
Kawakami, Vance; Rietberg, Krista; Lipton, Beth; Eckmann, Kaye; Watkins, Maryann; Oltean, Hanna; Kay, Meagan; Rothschild, Chantal; Kobayashi, Miwako; Van Beneden, Chris; Duchin, Jeff
On March 17, 2016, Public Health-Seattle & King County in Washington was notified of two persons who received a diagnosis of Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) infections. S. zooepidemicus is a zoonotic pathogen that rarely causes human illness and is usually associated with consuming unpasteurized dairy products or with direct horse contact (1). In horses, S. zooepidemicus is a commensal bacterium that can cause respiratory, wound, and uterine infections (2). The health department investigated to determine the magnitude of the outbreak, identify risk factors, and offer recommendations. PMID:27490189
Gasperi, J. T.; McClung, J. M.; Hanson, D. L.
The USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service has developed regional hydraulic geometry curves relating drainage area to bankfull top width, mean depth and cross-sectional area for the east and west sides of the northern Cascade Mountains in Chelan and King Counties, Washington. NRCS surveyed 10 channel reaches with drainage areas from 1 to 1000 square miles within the Wenatchee River drainage of Chelan County and 10 channel reaches with drainage areas of 1 to 100 square miles within the Cedar and Green River drainages of King County. Selection criteria for stream reaches required a minimum of 20 years of USGS stream gage discharge records, unregulated flows and safe access. Survey data were collected with a Sokkia Total Station during low flow conditions from August 2004 to September 2005. NRCS measured a channel cross-section at each of the USGS stream gage sites and two or three additional cross-sections up and downstream. The authors also collected samples of bed material for gradation analysis and estimation of Manning's roughness coefficient, n. Bankfull elevations were estimated based on visual identification of field indicators and USGS flood discharges for the 50% exceedance probability event. Field data were evaluated with the Ohio DNR Reference Reach spreadsheet to determine bankfull top width, mean depth and cross-sectional area. We applied a simple linear regression to the data following USGS statistical methods to evaluate the closeness of fit between drainage area and bankfull channel dimensions. The resulting R2 values of 0.83 to 0.93 for the eastern Cascade data of Chelan County and 0.71 to 0.88 for the western Cascade data of King County indicate a close association between drainage area and bankfull channel dimensions for these two sets of data.
In 1996 and 1999, EPA published the results of a community-centered approach for documenting the seafood consumption patterns of Asian American and Pacific Islanders (API) in the King County area of Washington state. Summary statistics were included in the project reports, but n...
Totten, P A; Patton, C M; Tenover, F C; Barrett, T J; Stamm, W E; Steigerwalt, A G; Lin, J Y; Holmes, K K; Brenner, D J
A total of 593 strains of thermophilic Campylobacter species were isolated either from humans with diarrhea or from poultry in King County, Washington. Of these strains, 98 (52 hippurate-positive strains and all 46 of the hippurate-negative strains) were selected for further phenotypic characterization and genetic classification. Hippurate hydrolysis, the test typically used to differentiate Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, did not always correlate with the genetic classification. All hippurate-positive strains were classified as C. jejuni. Of the hippurate-negative strains, 20% were C. jejuni, 78% were C. coli, and 2% were C. laridis. Assuming that the remaining hippurate-positive strains were all C. jejuni, then hippurate-negative C. jejuni represented a small percentage (9 of 556 or 1.6%) of C. jejuni strains but a significant percentage (9 of 46 or 20%) of hippurate-negative strains. This finding suggests that hippurate hydrolysis should not be used as the sole criterion for differentiating thermophilic Campylobacter species, particularly when describing the disease states associated with these organisms. Images PMID:3654945
Moudon, Anne V.; Ulmer, Jared; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Drewnowski, Adam
Objectives. We explored new ways to identify food deserts. Methods. We estimated physical and economic access to supermarkets for 5 low-income groups in Seattle–King County, Washington. We used geographic information system data to measure physical access: service areas around each supermarket were delineated by ability to walk, bicycle, ride transit, or drive within 10 minutes. We assessed economic access by stratifying supermarkets into low, medium, and high cost. Combining income and access criteria generated multiple ways to estimate food deserts. Results. The 5 low-income group definitions yielded total vulnerable populations ranging from 4% to 33% of the county’s population. Almost all of the vulnerable populations lived within a 10-minute drive or bus ride of a low- or medium-cost supermarket. Yet at most 34% of the vulnerable populations could walk to any supermarket, and as few as 3% could walk to a low-cost supermarket. Conclusions. The criteria used to define low-income status and access to supermarkets greatly affect estimates of populations living in food deserts. Measures of access to food must include travel duration and mode and supermarket food costs. PMID:22897554
Isaksen, Tania Busch; Fenske, Richard A; Hom, Elizabeth K; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Yost, Michael G
Extreme heat has been associated with increased mortality, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the Pacific Northwest region in their analyses. This study quantified the historical (May to September, 1980-2010) heat-mortality relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the relationship between heat and all-cause mortality on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis, using a piece-wise linear model fit, was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on mortality, adjusted for temporal trends. For all ages, all causes, we found a 10% (1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06, 1.14)) increase in the risk of death on a heat day versus non-heat day. When considering the intensity effect of heat on all-cause mortality, we found a 1.69% (95% CI, 0.69, 2.70) increase in the risk of death per unit of humidex above 36.0°C. Mortality stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results using both types of analyses for: all-cause, non-traumatic, circulatory, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and diabetes causes of death. All-cause mortality was statistically significantly modified by the type of synoptic weather type. These results demonstrate that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased mortality on heat days, and that risk increases with heat's intensity. While age was the only individual-level characteristic found to modify mortality risks, statistically significant increases in diabetes-related mortality for the 45-64 age group suggests that underlying health status may contribute to these risks. PMID:25956805
Isaksen, Tania Busch; Yost, Michael G.; Hom, Elizabeth K.; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Fenske, Richard A.
Increased morbidity and mortality have been associated with extreme heat events, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the impact of extreme heat events on hospitalization rates in the Pacific Northwest region. This study quantifies the historical (May to September 1990-2010) heat-morbidity relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County -King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the association between heat and all non-traumatic hospitalizations on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis using a piece-wise linear model approximation was used to estimate the effect that heat’s intensity has on hospitalizations, adjusted for temporal trends and day of the week. A non-statistically significant 2% [95% CI: 1.02 (0.98, 1.05)] increase in hospitalization risk, on a heat day versus a non-heat day, was noted for all-ages, all non-traumatic causes. When considering the effect heat intensity has on admissions, we found a statistically significant 1.59% (95% CI: 0.9%, 2.29%) increase in admissions per degree increase in humidex above 37.4 °C. Admissions stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results with both relative risk and time series analyses for nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure and natural heat exposure hospitalizations. This study demonstrates that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased hospital admissions. When stratified by age and cause of admission, the non-elderly (less than 85) age groups experience significant risk for: nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure, natural heat exposure, COPD and asthma hospitalizations. PMID:25719287
Isaksen, Tania Busch; Fenske, Richard A.; Hom, Elizabeth K.; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Yost, Michael G.
Extreme heat has been associated with increased mortality, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the Pacific Northwest region in their analyses. This study quantified the historical (May to September, 1980-2010) heat-mortality relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the relationship between heat and all-cause mortality on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis, using a piece-wise linear model fit, was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on mortality, adjusted for temporal trends. For all ages, all causes, we found a 10 % (1.10 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.06, 1.14)) increase in the risk of death on a heat day versus non-heat day. When considering the intensity effect of heat on all-cause mortality, we found a 1.69 % (95 % CI, 0.69, 2.70) increase in the risk of death per unit of humidex above 36.0 °C. Mortality stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results using both types of analyses for: all-cause, non-traumatic, circulatory, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and diabetes causes of death. All-cause mortality was statistically significantly modified by the type of synoptic weather type. These results demonstrate that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased mortality on heat days, and that risk increases with heat's intensity. While age was the only individual-level characteristic found to modify mortality risks, statistically significant increases in diabetes-related mortality for the 45-64 age group suggests that underlying health status may contribute to these risks.
Background: Pathogenic nontuberculous Mycobacteria spp. (NTM) are not known to be transmitted among persons, but may be acquired from exposure to contaminated media such as soil, food and water. We examined the spectrum of NTM isolated from human specimens in King County, WA.
Prych, Edmund A.; Haushild, W.L.; Stoner, J.D.
A numerical model of a salt-wedge estuary developed by Fischer (1974) has been expanded and used to calculate the distributions of salinity, temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved-oxygen concentration in the Duwamish River estuary, King County, Wash. The model was used to predict the dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Duwamish River estuary when the Renton Treatment Plant sewage-effluent discharge is increased to its proposed maximum of 223 cubic feet per second. The computed monthly average dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the estuary decreased by a maximum of 2 milligrams per liter when compared with computations for the summer of 1971, when the effluent discharge averaged 37 cubic feet per second. The increase in effluent discharge is not expected to cause large changes in phytoplankton concentrations in the estuary. (Woodard-USGS)
Smyser, Michael; Chan, Nadine; Ta, Myduc; Saelens, Brian E.; Krieger, James
Objectives. We examined population-level impact on customer awareness and use and explored potential disparities in outcomes regarding the King County, Washington, regulation requiring chain restaurants to provide calorie information. Methods. We analyzed 2008 to 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 3132 English-speaking King County residents aged 18 years and older who reported eating at a regulated chain. We used regression models to assess changes in calorie information awareness and use from prepolicy to postpolicy implementation by customer demographics, health status, and restaurant type. Results. Calorie information awareness and use increased significantly from 2008 to 2010. Unadjusted analyses indicated that the proportion who saw and used calorie information tripled, from 8.1% to 24.8%. Fully adjusted analyses confirmed significant increases. After policy implementation, White, higher income, and obese respondents had greater odds of seeing calorie information. Women, higher income groups, and those eating at a fast-food versus a sit-down chain restaurant were more likely to use this information. Conclusions. Significant increases in calorie information awareness and use following regulation support the population-wide value of this policy. However, improvements varied across race, income, and gender. PMID:25602868
Stubbs, Benjamin; Fahrenbruch, Carol; Phelan, Elizabeth
Introduction This study investigated facilitators and barriers to adoption of an at-scene patient education program by firefighter emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in King County, Washington. Methods We consulted providers of emergency medical services (EMS) to develop a patient education pamphlet in the form of a tear-off sheet that could be attached to the EMT medical incident report. The pamphlet included resources for at-scene patient education on high blood pressure, blood glucose, falls, and social services. The program was launched in 29 fire departments in King County, Washington, on January 1, 2010, and a formal evaluation was conducted in late 2011. We developed a survey based on diffusion theory to assess 1) awareness of the pamphlet, 2) evaluation of the pamphlet attributes, 3) encouragement by peers and superiors for handing out the pamphlet, 4) perceived behavioral norms, and 5) demographic variables associated with self-reported adoption of the at-scene patient education program. The survey was completed by 822 (40.1%) of 2,047 firefighter emergency medical technicians. We conducted bivariate and multivariable analyses to assess associations between independent variables and self-reported adoption of the program. Results Adoption of the at-scene patient education intervention was significantly associated with positive evaluation of the pamphlet, encouragement from peers and superiors, and perceived behavioral norms. EMS providers reported they were most likely to hand out the pamphlet to patients in private residences who were treated and left at the scene. Conclusion Attributes of chronic disease prevention programs and encouragement from peers and supervisors are necessary in diffusion of patient education interventions in the prehospital care setting. PMID:24480631
Shirreffs, Alexandra; Lee, David P.; Henry, Jsani; Golden, Matthew R.; Stekler, Joanne D.
Objective In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended routine HIV screening in healthcare settings for persons between 13 and 64 years old. In 2010, the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) was changed to align testing rules with these recommendations. We designed this survey to ascertain the current state of HIV testing and barriers to routine screening in King County, Washington. Methods Between March 23 and April 16, 2010, a convenience sample of healthcare providers completed an online survey. Providers answered true-false and multiple choice questions about national recommendations and the WAC, policies in their primary clinical settings, and their personal HIV testing practices. Providers were asked to agree or disagree whether commonly reported barriers limited their implementation of routine HIV screening. Results Although 76% of the 221 respondents knew that the CDC recommended routine HIV screening for persons regardless of their risk, 99 (45%) providers reported that their primary clinical setting had a policy to target testing based on patient risk factors. Forty-four (20%) providers reported that their primary clinical setting had a policy of routine HIV screening, 54 (25%) reported no official policy, and 15 (7%) did not know whether a policy existed. Only 11 (5%) providers offer HIV testing to all patients at initial visits. When asked about barriers to routine screening, 57% of providers agreed that perception that their patient population is low risk limits the number of HIV tests they perform. Only 26 (13%) providers agreed that concern about reimbursement posed a barrier to testing. Conclusions Most providers participating in this survey continue to target HIV testing, despite knowledge of national recommendations. Efforts are still needed to educate providers and policymakers, clarify the recent WAC revisions, and implement structural changes in order to increase HIV testing in Washington State. PMID:22970215
Tabor, Rowland W.; Haugerud, Ralph A.; Booth, Derek B.; Troost, Kathy Goetz
The Olalla 7.5' quadrangle, which lies almost in the center of the Puget Lowland, displays the broad range of geologic environments typical of the region. The upland plain is fluted by the passage of the great continental ice sheet that last covered the area about 17,000 (14,000 radiocarbon) years ago. The plain is cut by channel deposits, both late glacial and postglacial in age, and it is cleaved even more deeply by one of the major arms of Puget Sound, Colvos Passage, which here separates the west coast of Vashon Island from the Kitsap Peninsula. Beneath the deposits of the last ice sheet is a complex sequence of older Quaternary-age sediments that extends about 400 m below the modern ground surface. These older sediments are best exposed along the shorelines and beach cliffs of Puget Sound, where wave action and landslides maintain relatively fresh exposures. The older sediments typically are compact, having been loaded by ice during one or more episodes of glaciation subsequent to their deposition. Locally these sediments are also cemented by iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides, a consequence of many tens or hundreds of thousands of years of weathering and groundwater movement. Our map is an interpretation of a 6-ft resolution lidar-derived digital elevation model combined with the geology depicted on the "Geologic map of the Olalla 7.5' quadrangle, King, Kitsap, and Pierce Counties, Washington," by Booth and Troost (2005), which was described, interpreted, and located on the 1953 1:24,000-scale topographic map of the Olalla 7.5-minute quadrangle. The original topographic base map, derived from 1951 aerial photographs, has 20-ft contours, nominal horizontal resolution of circa 40 ft (12 m), and nominal mean vertical accuracy of circa 13 ft (4 m). This new DEM has a horizontal resolution of 6 ft (2 m) and mean vertical accuracy circa 1 ft (0.3 m). The greater resolution and accuracy of the lidar DEM facilitated a much-improved interpretation of many
Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.
Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.
Mercer, Laina; Wakefield, Jon; Laurent, Amy; Solet, David
Introduction King County, Washington, fares well overall in many health indicators. However, county-level data mask disparities among subcounty areas. For disparity-focused assessment, a demand exists for examining health data at subcounty levels such as census tracts and King County health reporting areas (HRAs). Methods We added a “nearest intersection” question to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and geocoded the data for subcounty geographic areas, including census tracts. To overcome small sample size at the census tract level, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to obtain smoothed estimates in cigarette smoking rates at the census tract and HRA levels. We also used multiple imputation to adjust for missing values in census tracts. Results Direct estimation of adult smoking rates at the census tract level ranged from 0% to 56% with a median of 10%. The 90% confidence interval (CI) half-width for census tract with nonzero rates ranged from 1 percentage point to 37 percentage points with a median of 13 percentage points. The smoothed-multiple–imputation rates ranged from 5% to 28% with a median of 12%. The 90% CI half-width ranged from 4 percentage points to 13 percentage points with a median of 8 percentage points. Conclusion The nearest intersection question in the BRFSS provided geocoded data at subcounty levels. The Bayesian model provided estimation with improved precision at the census tract and HRA levels. Multiple imputation can be used to account for missing geographic data. Small-area estimation, which has been used for King County public health programs, has increasingly become a useful tool to meet the demand of presenting data at more granular levels. PMID:27149070
Rehm, Colin D.; Moudon, Anne V.; Arterburn, David
Introduction Identifying areas of high diabetes prevalence can have an impact on public health prevention and intervention programs. Local health practitioners and public health agencies lack small-area data on obesity and diabetes. Methods Clinical data from the Group Health Cooperative health care system were used to estimate diabetes prevalence among 59,767 adults by census tract. Area-based measures of socioeconomic status and the Modified Retail Food Environment Index were obtained at the census-tract level in King County, Washington. Spatial analyses and regression models were used to assess the relationship between census tract–level diabetes and area-based socioeconomic status and food environment variables. The mediating effect of obesity on the geographic distribution of diabetes was also examined. Results In this population of insured adults, diabetes was concentrated in south and southeast King County, with smoothed diabetes prevalence ranging from 6.9% to 21.2%. In spatial regression models, home value and college education were more strongly associated with diabetes than was household income. For each 50% increase in median home value, diabetes prevalence was 1.2 percentage points lower. The Modified Retail Food Environment Index was not related to diabetes at the census-tract level. The observed associations between area-based socioeconomic status and diabetes were largely mediated by obesity (home value, 58%; education, 47%). Conclusion The observed geographic disparities in diabetes among insured adults by census tract point to the importance of area socioeconomic status. Small-area studies can help health professionals design community-based programs for diabetes prevention and control. PMID:25058671
Neighbors, C.; Noriega, G. R.; Caras, Y.; Cochran, E. S.
coordinators can most effectively utilize their resources for earthquake risk mitigation. This study is being conducted in collaboration with King County, WA officials to determine the best model inputs necessary to generate robust HAZUS-MH models for the Pacific Northwest.
Prych, E.A.; Kresch, D.L.; Ebbert, J.C.; Turney, G.L.
Twenty-nine soil samples from 14 holes at 9 sites in part of the Big Soos Creek drainage basin in southwest King County, Washington, were collected and analyzed to obtain data on the magnitude and variability of background concentrations of metals in soils. Seven streambed-sediment samples and three streamwater samples from three sites also were collected and analyzed. These data are needed by regulating government agencies to determine if soils at sites of suspected contamination have elevated concentrations of metals, and to evaluate the effectiveness of remediation at sites with known contamination. Concentrations of 43 metals were determined by a total method, and concentrations of 17 metals were determined by a total-recoverable method and two different leaching methods. Metals analyzed for by all methods included most of those on the U.S. Environmental Protection agency list of priority pollutants, plus alluminum, iron, and manganese. Ranges of concentrations of metals determined by the total method are within ranges found by others for the conterminous United States. Concentrations of mercury, manganese, phosphorus, lead, selenium, antimony, and zinc as determined by the total method, and of some of these plus other metals as determined by the other methods were larger in shallow soil (less than 12 inches deep) than in deep soil (greater than 12 inches). Concentrations of metals in streambed sediments were more typical of shallow than deep soils.
Booth, Derek B.; Troost, Kathy Goetz; Shimel, Scott A.
This geologic map, approximately coincident with the east half of the Seattle North 7.5 x 15' quadrangle (herein, informally called the 'Seattle NE map'), covers nearly half of the City of Seattle and reaches from Lake Washington across to the Puget Sound shoreline. Land uses are mainly residential, but extensive commercial districts are located in the Northgate neighborhood, adjacent to the University of Washington, and along the corridors of Aurora Avenue North and Lake City Way. Industrial activity is concentrated along the Lake Washington Ship Canal and around Lake Union. One small piece of land outside of the quadrangle boundaries, at the west edge of the Bellevue North quadrangle, is included on this map for geographic continuity. Conversely, a small area in the northeast corner of the Seattle North quadrangle, on the eastside of Lake Washington, is excluded from this map. Within the boundaries of the map area are two large urban lakes, including the most heavily visited park in the State of Washington (Green Lake Park); a stream (Thornton Creek) that still hosts anadromous salmon despite having its headwaters in a golfcourse and a shopping center; parts of three cities, with a combined residential population of about 300,000 people; and the region's premier research institution, the University of Washington. The north boundary of the map is roughly NE 168th Street in the cities of Shoreline and Lake Forest Park, and the south boundary corresponds to Mercer Street in Seattle. The west boundary is 15th Avenue W (and NW), and the east boundary is formed by Lake Washington. Elevations range from sea level to a maximum of 165 m (541 ft), the latter on a broad till-covered knob in the city of Shoreline near the northwest corner of the map. Previous geologic maps of this area include those of Waldron and others (1962), Galster and Laprade (1991), and Yount and others (1993). Seattle lies within the Puget Lowland, an elongate structural and topographic basin between
California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004
This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Kings County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced communication…
The Wyckoff/Eagle Harbor site is a National Priorities List (NPL) site located on the east side of Bainbridge Island, Kitsap County, Washington. The harbor has become contaminated with heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the many years of ship repair and painting as well as from the application of creosote, pentachlorophenol, and other wood preservatives to pilings. The Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) states that the major human health concern is consumption of clam meat contaminated with PAHs. The public health assessment has determined that exposure to contaminants found in Eagle Harbor sediments, shellfish, fish, and crab is a health hazard for those people who ignore warnings.
Snedeker, David M.
Evaluative information is provided on 18 completed workplace literacy classes conducted in the Seattle-King County, Washington, area for 218 limited English proficient workers. The programs were operated by the Employment Opportunities Center and the Refugee Service Federation. Participants were members of the following ethnic groups: Vietnamese,…
Woodruff, Dana L.; Judd, Chaeli; Thom, Ronald M.; Sather, Nichole K.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.
This is the fifth and final report in a series documenting progress of the pre-construction eelgrass restoration and mitigation activities for the proposed King County Brightwater marine outfall, discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. King County began implementing a multiyear eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions, after construction of the outfall. Major eelgrass mitigation program elements include: a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditions and degree of fluctuation over a 5 year period prior to construction, b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagation and stockpiling of local plants for post-construction planting, and c) post-construction planting and subsequent monitoring, occurring in 2009 and beyond. The overall program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2008).
Haushild, W.L.; Prych, Edmund A.
Total- and fecal-coliform bacteria, plus pH, alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon are water-quality parameters that have been added to an existing numerical model of water quality in the salt-wedge reach of the Duwamish River estuary in Washington. The coliform bacteria are modeled using a first-order decay (death) rate, which is a function of the local salinity, temperature, and daily solar radiation. The pH is computed by solving a set of chemical-equilibrium equations for carbonate-bicarbonate buffered aqueous solutions. Concentrations of total- and fecal-coliform bacteria computed by the model for the Duwamish River estuary during June-September 1971 generally agreed with observed concentrations within about 40 and 60 percent, respectively. The computed pH generally agreed with observed pH within about a 0.2 pH unit; however, for one 3-week period the computed pH was about a 0.4 unit lower than the observed pH. (Woodard-USGS)
Strom, Daniel J.
Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document develops plausible and/or likely scenarios, including the identification of likely radioactive materials and quantities of those radioactive materials to be involved. These include 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra, plutonium, and 241Am. Two broad categories of scenarios are considered. The first category includes events that may be suspected from the outset, such as an explosion of a "dirty bomb" in downtown Seattle. The explosion would most likely be heard, but the type of explosion (e.g., sewer methane gas or RDD) may not be immediately known. Emergency first responders must be able to quickly detect the radioisotopes previously listed, assess the situation, and deploy a response to contain and mitigate (if possible) detrimental effects resulting from the incident. In such scenarios, advance notice of about an hour or two might be available before any contaminated wastewater reaches a treatment plant. The second category includes events that could go initially undetected by emergency personnel. Examples of such a scenario would be the inadvertent or surreptitious introduction of radioactive material into the sewer system. Intact rogue radioactive sources from industrial radiography devices, well-logging apparatus, or
Woodruff, Dana L.; Southard, Susan S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Anderson, Michael G.; Vavrinec, John
King County proposes to build a new sewer outfall discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. Construction is scheduled for 2008. The Point Wells site was selected to minimize effects on the nearshore marine environment, but unavoidable impacts to eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds are anticipated during construction. To mitigate for these impacts and prepare for post-construction restoration, King County began implementation of a multi-year eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions. Major program elements are a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditions and degree of fluctuation over 5 years prior to construction, b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagating and stockpiling of local plantstock, and post-construction planting, and c) post-construction monitoring. The program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2006). This report describes calendar year 2006 pre-construction activities conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of King County. Activities included continued propagation of eelgrass shoots and monitoring of the experimental harvest plots in the marine outfall corridor area to evaluate recovery rates relative to harvest rates. Approximately 1500 additional shoots were harvested from the marine outfall corridor in August 2006 to supplement the plants in the propagation tank at the PNNL Marine Sciences Laboratory in Sequim, Washington, bringing the total number of shoots to 4732. Eelgrass densities were monitored in the five experimental harvest plots established in the marine outfall corridor. Changes in eelgrass density were evaluated in year-to-year comparisons with initial harvest rates. Net eelgrass density decreased from 2004 post-harvest to 2006 in all plots
Woodruff, Dana L.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Southard, Susan S.; Vavrinec, John
King County proposes to build a new sewer outfall discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. Construction is scheduled for 2008. The Point Wells site was selected to minimize effects on the nearshore marine environment, but unavoidable impacts to eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds are anticipated during construction. To mitigate these impacts and prepare for post-construction restoration, King County began implementing a multiyear eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions. Major program elements related to eelgrass are (a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditions and degree of fluctuation over 5 years prior to construction, (b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagating, and stockpiling of local plants for post-construction planting, and (c) post-construction planting and subsequent monitoring. The program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2006). This report describes calendar year 2007 pre-construction activities conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for King County. Activities included continued propagation of eelgrass shoots at the PNNL Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) in Sequim, Washington, and monitoring of the experimental harvest plots in the marine outfall corridor area to evaluate recovery rates relative to harvest rates. In addition, 490 eelgrass shoots were also harvested from the Marine Outfall Corridor in July 2007 to supplement the plants in the propagation tank at the MSL, bringing the total number of shoots to 1464. Eelgrass densities were monitored in four of five experimental harvest plots established in the Marine Outfall Corridor. Changes in eelgrass density were evaluated in year-to-year comparisons with initial harvest rates. A net increase in eelgrass density
Rehm, Colin D; Moudon, Anne V; Hurvitz, Philip M; Drewnowski, Adam
Studies of social determinants of weight and health in the US have typically relied on self-reported education and incomes as the two primary measures of socioeconomic status (SES). The assessed value of one's home, an important component of wealth, may be a better measure of the underlying SES construct and a better predictor of obesity. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS), conducted in 2008-9, was a cross-sectional random digit dial telephone survey of 2001 adults in King County, Washington State, US. Participants' addresses were geocoded and residential property values for each tax parcel were obtained from the county tax assessor's database. Prevalence ratios of obesity by property values, education, and household income were estimated separately for women and men, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, household size, employment status and home ownership. Among women, the inverse association between property values and obesity was very strong and independent of other SES factors. Women in the bottom quartile of property values were 3.4 times more likely to be obese than women in the top quartile. No association between property values and obesity was observed for men. The present data strengthen the evidence for a social gradient in obesity among women. Property values may represent a novel and objective measure of SES at the individual level in the US. Measures based on tax assessment data will provide a valuable resource for future health studies. PMID:22591823
Daryl Williams; Ray Clark
This report and its attachments summarizes the results of a unique tribal-farmer cooperative study to evaluate the feasibility of building one or more regional anaerobic digestion systems in Snohomish County, Washington.
Strom, Daniel J.; McConn, Ronald J.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.
The King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into its combined sanitary and storm sewer system. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material. Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. Volume 2 of PNNL-15163 assesses the radiological instrumentation needs for detection of radiological or nuclear terrorism, in support of decisions to treat contaminated wastewater or to bypass the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP), and in support of radiation protection of the workforce, the public, and the infrastructure of the WPTP. Fixed radiation detection instrumentation should be deployed in a defense-in-depth system that provides 1) early warning of significant radioactive material on the way to the WPTP, including identification of the radionuclide(s) and estimates of the soluble concentrations, with a floating detector located in the wet well at the Interbay Pump Station and telemetered via the internet to all authorized locations; 2) monitoring at strategic locations within the plant, including 2a) the pipe beyond the hydraulic ram in the bar screen room; 2b) above the collection funnels in the fine grit facility; 2c) in the sampling tank in the raw sewage pump room; and 2d) downstream of the concentration facilities that produce 6% blended and concentrated biosolids. Engineering challenges exist for these applications. It is necessary to deploy both ultra-sensitive detectors to provide early warning and identification and detectors capable of functioning in high-dose rate environments that are likely under some scenarios, capable
Cartwright, Richard A.
Ground-water withdrawals from the aquifers underlying Kings and Queens Counties varied temporally and spatially during the 20th century and caused extreme changes in water levels. The resultant lowering of water levels during periods of heavy pumping caused saltwater intrusion in nearshore areas and the migration of contaminants from land surface into deep aquifers. The recovery of water levels in response to countywide curtailment of pumping has resulted in the flooding of underground structures. Combined withdrawals for public and industrial supply in Kings and Queens Counties were greatest during the 1930's--about 130 million gallons per day. During this period, a large cone of depression developed in the water table in Kings County; within this depression, water levels were about 45 feet lower than in 1903. All pumping for public supply was halted in Kings County in 1947, and in Jamaica (in Queens County) in 1974. Water levels in Kings County had recovered by 1974 and have remained similar to those of 1903 since then, except for minor localized drawdowns due to industrial-supply or dewatering withdrawals. A large cone of depression that had formed in southeastern Queens County before 1974 has now (1997) disappeared. The estimated combined withdrawal for public supply and industrial supply in Kings and Queens Counties in 1996 was only about 50 million gallons per day. The water-level recoveries in the water-table and confined aquifers generally have resulted in the dilution and dispersion of residual salty and nitrate-contaminated ground water. The majority of recently sampled wells indicate stable or decreasing chloride and nitrate concentrations in all aquifers since 1983. Organic contaminants remain in ground water in Kings, Queens, and Nassau Counties, however; the most commonly detected compounds in 1992-96 were tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, chloroform, and total trihalomethanes. Water samples from monitoring wells in Kings County indicate a greater
During the 1979 water year, a water quality study was conducted on the Weiser and Little Weiser Rivers (17050124) in Washington and Adams Counties, Idaho. The study was completed to obtain background information on effluent limitations for the cities of Cambridge and Council and...
Buxton, Herbert T.; Shernoff, Peter K.
From 1981 through 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the ground-water system of western Long Island, New York, including Kings and Queens counties. This report describes the structure and operation of the western part of the Long Island ground-water system, and the hydrologic effects associated with human development from 1900 to the early 1980's. Recent (early 1980's) ground-water quantity and quality characteristics are described.
Boring, T.H. )
The Pennsylvanian upper Strawn Group of southeastern King County, Texas, provides a unique setting to study interactions between coeval carbonate and clastic deposition during the Desmoinesian. One of the most perplexing problems is the relationship of massive Pennsylvanian platform carbonates to shallow-water terrigenous clastic sediments. Within the study area, carbonate facies were deposited along the northern edge of the Knox-Baylor trough on the Spur platform, and terrigenous clastics were carried toward the Midland basin through the Knox-Baylor trough. Based on the analysis of subsurface cores, five carbonate lithofacies and four clastic lithofacies were recognized in southeastern King County, Texas. The distribution and geometry of these lithofacies are related to variations in the rate of subsidence in the Knox-Baylor trough, Pennsylvanian tectonics, deltaic progradation, avulsion, and compaction. The platform carbonates within the northern region of southeastern King County record environments within the carbonate platform complex, including middle platform, outer platform, algal mound, and platform margin. The quartzarenitic sandstones within the southern region of southeastern King County occur in a variety of complex depositional geometries, including distributary-bar fingers, lobate deltas, and offshore bars. Cores of these sandstones represent mainly the uppermost portion of the various sandstone bodies. The upper Strawn Group provides an attractive area for exploration geology. Both carbonates and clastics provide excellent reservoirs from a depth of approximately 5,000-6,000 ft. Total production within the area is over 100 million bbl of oil since the early 1940s. Multiple pay zones within a 600-ft interval also provide an added incentive for exploration. Areas within and around the Knox-Baylor trough deserve a detailed study due to these relatively shallow, unexplored, multiple pay zones.
Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne V; Rehm, Colin D; Streichert, Laura C; Drewnowski, Adam
Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1%) of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p < 0.001) and high arterial road density (p < 0.001) but not with percent of residents who were nonwhite. Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas. PMID:19630979
Lesser, Jonathan A.
This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.
Lesser, Jonathan A.
This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.
Rivara, F P; Reay, D T; Bergman, A B
Pedestrian fatalities caused by motor vehicles in King County, WA, over a 12-month period were reviewed to examine the potential for prevention by various strategies. Cases were identified through the King County Medical Examiner's Office. Between April 1, 1985, and March 31, 1986, a total of 38 pedestrians died of motor vehicle injuries. The victims were generally children (N = 11), the elderly (N = 13), or intoxicated adults (N = 9). Supervision of the child was inadequate in 64 percent of the children's deaths. The driver was at fault in deaths of seven children, five adults, and three elderly persons. None of the children and only one of the elderly victims was injured at night. The majority of injuries occurred on major thorough-fares; only 16 percent occurred on residential streets. Possible strategies for prevention appear to include improved enforcement of pedestrian right-of-way laws, changes in vehicle design, modification of the environment (particularly in urban areas), and improved training programs for children. PMID:2498980
Cameron, Cornelia Clermont; Mullen, Michael K.
The major portion of the Great Heath, comprising 2,645 acres in the Cherryfield quadrangle, Washington County, Maine, generally averaging 13 feet in thickness, but with as great an average as 15 feet, contain an estimated 6,953 ,000 short tons air-dried peat. The peat #s chiefly sphagnum moss with some reed-sedge of high quality according to ASTM standards for agricultural and horticultural use. This same volume of peat may be considered for use as fuel because BTO per pound ranges from 8,600 to 10,500 with low sulfur and high hydrogen contents.
Granger, Harry Clifford; King, Robert Ugstad
Radioactive rock was discovered on the dump of the Copper King mine, sec. 8, T. 10 N., R. 72 W., Larirrier County, Colo., in the summer of 1949. The mine had been prospected intermittently for copper and zinc since 1,916, but there is no record that ore was produced. The country rock is pre-Cambrian granite containing many schist inclusions and narrow pegmatite dikes. Pitchblende disseminated in chlorite and sulfides was deposited in an obscure vein system during an intermediate stage of mineralization. This stage was preceded by biotitic alteration of amphiboles and sulfide deposition. The latest stage of mineralization is represented-by the limonitic dense quartz vein followed during mining. The uranium-bearing vein is about 2-3 feet wide and the dense quartz vein is less than 6 inches wide. Both veins are bordered by 1-3 feet of biotite- and sulfide-bearing granite and arriphibole schist. The uranium content of 26 samples taken in the mine and on the dump ranges from 0.002 to 1.40 percent. These samples contained as much as 2.97 percent copper and 5.96 percent zinc. The general outlook for further prospecting near the Copper King shaft is not favorable, because much of the 'immediately surrounding area has been thoroughly investigated without finding abnormal radioactivity. The most favorable environment for concentration of uranium minerals appears to have been in or near schist inclusions in granite, and further exploration in nearby prospects may result in the discovery of other uranium-bearing deposits. In the Copper King mine, additional exploration would aid in determining the extent of the uranium-bearing material.
Boring, T.H. )
The Pennsylvanian upper Strawn Group of southeast King County, Texas, provides a unique setting to study interactions between coeval carbonate and clastic deposition during the Desmoinesian. One of the most perplexing problems is the relationship of massive Pennsylvanian platform carbonates to shallow-water marine and deltaic sediments. Within the study area carbonate facies were deposited along the northern edge of the Knox-Baylor trough on the Spur platform, and terrigenous clastics were carried toward the Midland basin through the Knox-Baylor trough. Based on the analysis of subsurface cores, five carbonate lithofacies and four clastic lithofacies were recognized in southeast King County, Texas. The distribution and geometry of these lithofacies are related to variations in the rate of subsidence in the Knox-Baylor trough, Pennsylvanian tectonics, deltaic progradation, avulsion and compaction. The platform carbonates within the northern region record environments within the carbonate platform complex, including middle platform, outer platform, algal mound, and platform margin. The quartzarenitic sandstones within the southern region occur in a variety of complex depositional geometries, including distributary bar fingers, lobate deltas, and offshore bars. The upper Strawn Group provides an attractive area for exploration geology. Both carbonates and clastics provide excellent reservoirs from a depth of approximately 5,000 to 6,000 ft. Total production since the early 1940s, within the area is over 100,000,000 bbl of oil. Multiple pay zones within a 600-ft interval also provide an added incentive for exploration. Areas within and around the Knox-Baylor trough deserve additional study due to these relatively shallow, unexplored, multiple pay zones.
... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Washington County, MN BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR Part 1152 subpart F--Exempt... Commercial Railway Company--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Washington County, Minnesota, in...
... Service 7 CFR Part 922 Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate...: This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the Washington Apricot Marketing Committee (Committee) for the 2012-13 and subsequent fiscal periods from $1.50 to $0.50 per ton of Washington...
...This rule revises the handling regulation for cherries under the Washington cherry marketing order. The marketing order regulates the handling of sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington and is administered locally by the Washington Cherry Marketing Committee (Committee). This rule adds quality and pack requirements for Rainier cherries and other lightly-colored sweet cherry......
Creasey, Saville Cyrus
The Humboldt region is in central Yavapai County, Arizona. The intersection of the 112? 15' meridian and the 34? 30' N parallel is in the approximate geographical center of the region, and the Iron King mine is about 2000 feet west-northwest of the intersection. Pre-Cambrian rocks form the bedrock in the Humboldt region. Late Cenozoic unconsolidated river wash and valley fill, including some interbedded basalt, locally mantle the pre-Cambrian rocks, especially in the north-central part of the region (Lonesome Valley). The pre-Cambrian rocks consist of five newly defined metavolcanic formations derived from flows and tuff s, and of six intrusive units ranging in composition from granite to gabbro or perhaps more mafic types. Relic bedding-and pillow structures are locally prominent in the metavolcanics; geopetal structures are uncommon, but where present, generally indicate that the top is toward the west, though the evidence is too meager to be conclusive. Low-grade dynamothermal metamorphism altered the metavolcanics and to a lesser extent the intrusive rocks, forming textures, structures, and mineral assemblages characteristic of low temperature and moderate stress. The Texas Gulch formation, which is the easternmost metavolcanic formation, consists of five lithologic units. Arranged in the general order of their appearance from east to west they are meta-andesite breccia, purple slate, metarhyolite tuff, meta-andesite, and green slate. The boundary between the Texas Gulch formation and the Iron King meta-andesite is apparently gradational. The Iron King meta-andesite consists of three meta-andesite tuff units, two meta-andesite flow units and one metarhyolite tuff and conglomerate unit. The assemblage chlorite-albite-epitode with or without quartz is dominant in the meta-andesites. Mafic intrusive rocks, which may be approximately contemporaneous with metamorphism, may explain the presence of actinolitic hornblende in the central part of the formation. Toward
Dong, F.B.; Dugan, M.K.; Clark, D.C.
This report presents a fiscal profile of Benton and Franklin counties, and of the cities of Richland, Kennewick, and Pasco. Overall, changes in operating revenues and expenditures in these jurisdictions have corresponded with changes in the local economy. The combined operating expenditures of Benton County, Franklin County, Kennewick, Pasco, and Richland, expressed in current dollars, tripled between 1975 and 1985, increasing from $18.1 million to $55.0 million, an annual average increase of 11.8 percent. During this time, the population of the Benton-Franklin MSA increased from 100,000 to 140,900 people, and the national all-items price index for urban consumers doubled, increasing from 161.2 to 322.2. Adjusted for inflation, per capita expenditures by these governments increased only slightly during this period, from $361.8 in 1975 to $390.3 in 1985. Employment in the Benton-Franklin MSA rose from 40,080 workers in 1970 to a peak of 75,900 in 1981 before declining to 61,100 in 1985, primarily due to the loss of 9,928 jobs in the Washington Public Power Supply System after 1981. The MSA's population followed a similar trend, with a slight lag. In 1970, total population in the Benton-Franklin MSA was 93,356 people. The MSA's population grew rapidly during the late 1970s, reached a peak of 147,900 persons in 1982, and then declined to 139,300 in 1986. 23 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.
Erickson, M.S.; King, H.D.; Bradley, L.; Gent, C.
A U.S. Geological report is presented detailing analytical results and sample locality map of stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate, and rock samples from the King Hill Creek Wilderness Study Area, Elmore County, Idaho.
Hilleary, John T.
This report is a compilation of well construction data, lithologic and geophysical logs, and water level and water quality data for selected wells and springs in the South Branch Casselman River and Marsh Run drainage basins, Garrett and Washington Counties, Maryland. The report contains, for the two areas combined, records of 202 wells and 57 springs; periodic water level measurements and field determinations of specific conductance, pH, and water temperature for 33 wells and 7 springs; geophysical logs for 1 well and lithologic logs for 113 wells; and multi-year water-level data for 9 observation wells. (USGS)
Thompson, C.K; Burson, K.R.; Saunders, D.F. ); Brown, J.J. )
From December, 1987 to September, 1990, 16 prospects within the current confines of the Lower King (Upper Pennsylvanian Cisco age) Sand Play in Concho County, Texas, were tested by several operators on locations found by various combinations of subsurface geology, reconnaissance surface radiometrics, and soil gas hydrocarbon leads A 37.5% exploratory success rate has resulted in six new field discoveries or extensions with a total exploration and development cost of less than $0.50 per barrel of proven oil reserves. The average recoverable reserves per new field discovery are estimated to be 2.6 Mbbl of oil, and the average recoverable reserves per well are estimated to be 285,000 bbl at a depth of 2200 ft. Five of the six new field discoveries were based primarily on surface geochemical data. The sixth discovery, a southeast extension to the Lonesome Dove II field, was found on the basis of subsurface geology. The Agaritta field is one of the two largest of the new field discoveries with estimated proven (producing and undeveloped) recoverable reserves of 6 Mbbl of oil as of September, 1990. Its discovery was based on a combination of (1) detailed interstitial soil gas hydrocarbon data, (2) soil magnetic susceptibility measurements, and (3) surface potassium and uranium concentrations measured by gamma-ray spectrometry applied over two leads based on reconnaissance radiometrics. What initially appeared to be two separate prospects spaced over 7000 ft apart has since developed into one large field.
Turney, G.L. )
Water samples were collected from 76 wells throughout Clark County, in southwest Washington, during April and May 1988, and were analyzed from concentrations of major ions, silica, nitrate, phosphorus, aluminum, manganese, radon, and bacteria. Samples from 20 wells were analyzed for concentrations of trace elements and organic compounds, including most of those on the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority pollutant list. Dissolved solids concentrations range from 12 to 245 mg/L, with a median concentration of 132 mg/L. The major dissolved constituents are calcium, bicarbonate, and silica, and, in some samples, sodium. Nitrate concentrations exceeded 1.0 mg/L throughout the Vancouver urban area, and were as large as 6.7 mg/L. Comparison with limited historical data indicates that nitrate concentrations were somewhat correlated, possibly indicating similar sources. Volatile organic compound, including tetrachloroethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, were detected in samples from three wells in the Vancouver area. Trace amounts of volatile organic compounds were reported in samples from several other wells, but at concentrations too close to analytical detection limits to ascertain that they were in the groundwater. Trace elements and radiochemical constituents were present at small levels indicating natural sources for these constituents. Only pH, turbidity, iron, manganese, and total coliform bacteria had values that did not meet USEPA Drinking Water Standards.
Young, H.L.; Batten, W.G.
Population growth is placing increased demands on water supplies in Washington and Ozaukee Counties. Water from three principal aquifers supplies most municipal, industrial, irrigation, residential, and farm water needs in these counties. These are the sand-and-gravel, Niagara, and sandstone aquifers. As much as 15 gallons per minute can be obtained from wells almost everywhere in these counties. Yields of 500 to 1,000 gallons per minute are available from the sand-and-gravel aquifer in parts of Washington County. The Niagara aquifer underlies most of the area and can yield as much as 500 gallons per minute in most of Ozaukee and eastern Washington Counties. It yields less than 100 gallons per minute in some areas, notably eastern Mequon in Ozaukee County and parts of western Washington County. The sandstone aquifer underlies the entire area and generally can yield more than 1,000 gallons per minute to wells. However, yields of less than 500 gallons per minute are common in southwestern Washington County, where the aquifer is thinnest.
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 922 Apricots Grown in Designated Counties...: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule would increase the assessment rate established for the Washington Apricot... for Washington apricots. The Committee is responsible for local administration of the marketing...
... published in the Federal Register on June 30, 2010 (FR 75 37740). Copies of the proposed rule were also made... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 922 Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Increased... increases the assessment rate established for the Washington Apricot Marketing Committee (Committee) for...
Peterson, Robin M.; Cook, Carolyn; Yerxa, Mary E.; Marshall, James H.; Pulos, Elizabeth; Rollosson, Matthew P.
Washington State has some of the highest percentages of school immunization exemptions in the country. We compared school immunization records in a rural school district in Pierce County, Washington, to immunization records in the state immunization information system (IIS) and parent-held records. Correcting school immunization records resulted…
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 923 Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... currently prescribed for cherries under the Washington cherry marketing order. The marketing order...
McKenna, Jonathan P.; Lidke, David J.; Coe, Jeffrey A.
Landslides are a recurring problem on hillslopes throughout the Puget Lowland, Washington, but can be difficult to identify in the densely forested terrain. However, digital terrain models of the bare-earth surface derived from LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) data express topographic details sufficiently well to identify landslides. Landslides and escarpments were mapped using LIDAR imagery and field checked (when permissible and accessible) throughout Kitsap County. We relied almost entirely on derivatives of LIDAR data for our mapping, including topographic-contour, slope, and hill-shaded relief maps. Each mapped landslide was assigned a level of 'high' or 'moderate' confidence based on the LIDAR characteristics and on field observations. A total of 231 landslides were identified representing 0.8 percent of the land area of Kitsap County. Shallow debris topples along the coastal bluffs and large (>10,000 m2) landslide complexes are the most common types of landslides. The smallest deposit mapped covers an area of 252 m2, while the largest covers 0.5 km2. Previous mapping efforts that relied solely on field and photogrammetric methods identified only 57 percent of the landslides mapped by LIDAR (61 percent high confidence and 39 percent moderate confidence), although nine landslides previously identified were not mapped during this study. The remaining 43 percent identified using LIDAR have 13 percent high confidence and 87 percent moderate confidence. Coastal areas are especially susceptible to landsliding; 67 percent of the landslide area that we mapped lies within 500 meters of the present coastline. The remaining 33 percent are located along drainages farther inland. The LIDAR data we used for mapping have some limitations including (1) rounding of the interface area between low slope surfaces and vertical faces (that is, along the edges of steep escarpments) which results in scarps being mapped too far headward (one or two meters), (2) incorrect laser
Seeberger, Donald A.
The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the normal'' municipal waste streams. The Plan sets ambitious goals for diverting thousands of tons of hazardous wastes from being thrown, poured or dumped in the municipal waste stream. During the first five years, over $30 millon will be spent for a variety of HHW and SQG programs. The Plan incorporates a wide range of elements, including education, collection, and compliance components. Many of the hazardous waste education and collection programs have been developed in response to the Plan, so their effectiveness is still undetermined. A key component of the Plan is program evaluation. This report provides descriptions of two evaluation methods used to establish baselines for assessing the effectiveness of the Hazardous Waste Management Plan's programs. Focusing on the Plan's household hazardous waste programs, the findings of the baseline evaluations are discussed and conclusions are made. A general population survey, conducted through telephone interviews, was designed to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of area residents. Characterization of the solid waste stream was used to identify the hazardous constituents contributed to municipal solid waste by households. Monitoring changes in the amount of hazardous materials present in the waste stream was used to indicate whether or not Program strategies are influencing disposal behaviors. Comparing the data gathered by these two evaluation methods provided a unique opportunity to cross-check the findings and validate that change, if any, has occurred. From the comparisons, the report draws a number of conclusions.
The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the ``normal`` municipal waste streams. The Plan sets ambitious goals for diverting thousands of tons of hazardous wastes from being thrown, poured or dumped in the municipal waste stream. During the first five years, over $30 millon will be spent for a variety of HHW and SQG programs. The Plan incorporates a wide range of elements, including education, collection, and compliance components. Many of the hazardous waste education and collection programs have been developed in response to the Plan, so their effectiveness is still undetermined. A key component of the Plan is program evaluation. This report provides descriptions of two evaluation methods used to establish baselines for assessing the effectiveness of the Hazardous Waste Management Plan`s programs. Focusing on the Plan`s household hazardous waste programs, the findings of the baseline evaluations are discussed and conclusions are made. A general population survey, conducted through telephone interviews, was designed to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of area residents. Characterization of the solid waste stream was used to identify the hazardous constituents contributed to municipal solid waste by households. Monitoring changes in the amount of hazardous materials present in the waste stream was used to indicate whether or not Program strategies are influencing disposal behaviors. Comparing the data gathered by these two evaluation methods provided a unique opportunity to cross-check the findings and validate that change, if any, has occurred. From the comparisons, the report draws a number of conclusions.
Hammett, K.M.; Goodwin, C.R.; Sanders, G.L.
Kings Bay is an estuary on the gulf coast of peninsular Florida with a surface area of less than one square mile. It is a unique estuarine system with no significant inflowing rivers or streams. As much as 99 percent of the freshwater entering the bay originates from multiple spring vents at the bottom of the estuary. The circulation and flushing characteristics of Kings Bay were evaluated by applying SIMSYS2D, a two-dimensional numerical model. Field data were used to calibrate and verify the model. Lagrangian particle simulations were used to determine the circulation characteristics for three hydrologic conditions: low inflow, typical inflow, and low inflow with reduced friction from aquatic vegetation. Spring discharge transported the particles from Kings Bay through Crystal River and out of the model domain. Tidal effects added an oscillatory component to the particle paths. The mean particle residence time was 59 hours for low inflow with reduced friction; therefore, particle residence time is affected more by spring discharge than by bottom friction. Circulation patterns were virtually identical for the three simulated hydroloigc conditions. Simulated particles introduced in the southern part of Kings Bay traveled along the eastern side of Buzzard Island before entering Crystal River and existing the model domain. The flushing characteristics of Kings Bay for the three hydrodynamic conditions were determined by simulating the injection of conservative dye constituents. The average concentration of dye initially injected in Kings Bay decreased asymptotically because of spring discharge, and the tide caused some oscillation in the average dye concentration. Ninety-five percent of the injected dye exited Kings Bay and Crystal River with 94 hours for low inflow, 71 hours for typical inflow, and 94 hours for low inflow with reduced bottom friction. Simulation results indicate that all of the open waters of Kings Bay are flushed by the spring discharge. Reduced
... inspection. The order also authorizes production research and marketing research and development projects, as... FR 26817). The suspended handling regulations (Sec. 924.319) consist of minimum quality requirements... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 924 Fresh Prunes Grown in Designated Counties in Washington and...
... marketing research and development projects, as well as the necessary reporting and recordkeeping functions... implemented pursuant to publication in the Federal Register (71 FR 26817). The Committee used this form to... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 924 Fresh Prunes Grown in Designated Counties in Washington and...
... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...
... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...
... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...
... Washington County, UT AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ] ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of... approximately 271.57 acres in Washington County, Utah, at not less than appraised fair market value. The sale... all written comments concerning this notice to the St. George Field Office, Attn: Shered Mullins,...
Bedrock of the White River area is dominated by Miocene age volcanics of andesite to rhyolite composition, which may be in part coeval with plutonic phases of the nearby 26 - 14 m.y. Tatoosh batholith. These volcanic rocks host two spatially distinct and gold-bearing epithermal deposits of the acid-sulfate type that are structurally, temporally, and genetically related to the formation and resurgent magmatic activity at the margin of an early Miocene caldera (22.6 - 19.1 m.y.). The age of hydrothermal activity is 20.4 +/- 0.1 m.y. based on UAr/TZAr analysis of hypogene alunite from the mineralized zone. Hydrothermal alteration and metallization of both deposits is chemically and mineralogically similar and consists of a central core of pervasive silicification that grades outward into zones of advanced argillic, argillic, and propylitic alteration. The largest of the two target areas is defined by a silica capping. Sulfur isotope analyses of cogenetic alunite-pyrite-enargite demonstrate a (34)S of +28.8 per thousand for the alunite-pyrite mineral pair. This large fractionation corroborates other field and mineralogic evidence for the hypogene origin of the alunite, and provides a geologically reasonable isotopic temperature estimate of 190 C for this epithermal deposit. Fold was introduced in at least 3 distinct episodes of structural-hydrothermal activity. The highest concentration of gold is within a zone measuring 1600 by 300-600 feet, and is localized in parts of the similar capping that contain outcrops of matrix-supported explosion breccias and veins having anomalous concentrations of up to 480 ppb Au, 13.7 ppm Ag, 1900 ppm As, 213 ppm Sb, 7.5 ppm Hg, and 10 ppm Mo.
Introduction Cross-sector community partnerships are a potentially powerful strategy to address population health problems, including health disparities. US immigrants — commonly employed in low-wage jobs that pose high risks to their health — experience such disparities because of hazardous exposures in the workplace. Hazardous exposures contribute to chronic health problems and complicate disease management. Moreover, prevention strategies such as worksite wellness programs are not effective for low-wage immigrant groups. The purpose of this article was to describe an innovative application of social network analysis to characterize interagency connections and knowledge needed to design and deliver a comprehensive community-based chronic disease prevention program for immigrant workers. Methods Using iterative sample expansion, we identified 42 agencies representing diverse community sectors (service agencies, faith-based organizations, unions, nonprofits, government agencies) pertinent to the health of Chinese immigrant workers. To capture data on shared information, resources, and services as well as organizational characteristics, we jointly interviewed 2 representatives from each agency. We used social network analysis to describe interagency network structure and the positions of agencies within the networks. Results Agency interconnections were established primarily for information sharing. In the overall interagency network, a few service-oriented agencies held central or gatekeeper positions. Strong interconnectedness occurred predominately across service, public, and nonprofit sectors. The Chinese and Pan-Asian service sectors showed the strongest interconnectedness. Conclusion Network analysis yields critical understanding of community structural links and assets needed to inform decisions about actual and potential community collaborations. Alternative intervention strategies may be needed to address health disparities among immigrant workers. PMID:27253636
Hidaka, F.T.; Garrett, Arthur Angus
Hydrologic data collected in the Cedar and Snoqualmie River basins on the west slope of the Cascade Range have been analyzed to determine the amount of water lost by seepage from Chester Morse Lake and Masonry Pool and the. consequent gain by seepage to the Cedar and South Fork Snoqualmie Rivers. For water years 1957-64, average losses were about 220 cfs (cubic feet per second) while average gains were about 180 cfs in the Cedar River and 50 cfs in the South Fork Snoqualmie River. Streamflow and precipitation data for water years 1908-26 and 1930-F2 indicate that a change in runoff regimen occurred in Cedar and South Fork Snoqualmie Rivers after the Boxley Creek washout in December 1918. For water years 1919-26 and 1930-32, the flow of Cedar River near Landsburg averaged about 80 cfs less than it would have if the washout had not occurred. In contrast, the flow of South Fork Snoqualmie River at North Bend averaged about 60 cfs more than it would have.
Booth, Derek B.; Waldron, H.H.; Troost, K.G.
The Poverty Bay quadrangle lies near the center of the region?s intensively developing urban core. Less than 20 km north lies the city of Seattle; downtown Tacoma lies just southwest of the quadrangle. The map area expresses much of the tremendous range of Quaternary environments and deposits found throughout the central Puget Lowland. Much of the ground surface is mantled by a rolling surface of glacial till deposited during the last occupation of the Puget Lowland by a great continental ice sheet about 14,000 years ago. A complex sequence of older unconsolidated sediments extends far below sea level across most of the quadrangle, with no bedrock exposures at all.
Leung, R; Koenig, J Q; Simcox, N; van Belle, G; Fenske, R; Gilbert, S G
This study examined behavioral changes in households after participation in a home environmental assessment. Home assessment visits by a trained coach, which involved a walk-through in the home with the home residents, were conducted in 36 homes. The walk-through included a list of recommended behavioral changes that the residents could make to reduce their exposures to home pollutants in areas such as dust control, moisture problems, indoor air, hazardous household products, and hobbies. Recruited households were surveyed 3 months after the home assessment to evaluate their implementation of the recommendations. Following the home visits, 31 of 36 households reported making at least one behavioral change, and 41% of the recommendations made by the volunteer coaches were implemented. In conclusion, this study found that the majority of the households who participated in the home assessment reported implementing at least one recommendation. This home health promotional method was effective in influencing behavioral changes. PMID:9349831
During a study of the effects of waste-water input on the stratified Duwamish River estuary, intensive water-velocity and salinity measurements were made in both the lower salt wedge and the upper fresher water layer for tidal-cycle periods. The net movement of water and salt mass past a cross section during a tidal cycle was determined from integration of the measured rates of movement of water and salt past the section. The net volume of water that moved downstream past the section during the cycle agreed with the volume of fresh-water inflow at the head of the estuary within (1) 3.8 and 7.2 percent, respectively, for two studies made during periods of maximum and minimum tidal-prism thickness and identical inflow rates .of 312 cfs (cubic feet per second), and (2) 15 percent for one study made during a period of average tidal-prism thickness and an inflow rate of 1,280 cfs. For the three studies, the difference between salt mass transported upstream and downstream during the cycles ranged from 0.8 to 19 percent of the respective mean salt-mass transport. Water was entrained from the .salt-water wedge into the overlying layer of mixed fresh and salt water at tidal-cycle-average rates of 30 and 69 cfs per million square feet of interface for the inflow rates of 312 cfs, and 99 cfs per million square feet of interface for an inflow rate of 1,280 cfs. At a constant inflow rate, the rate of entrainment of salt-wedge water in the Duwamish River estuary more than doubled for a doubling of tidal-prism thickness. It also doubled for a quadrupling of inflow rate at about constant tidal-prism thickness.
Leung, R; Koenig, J Q; Simcox, N; van Belle, G; Fenske, R; Gilbert, S G
This study examined behavioral changes in households after participation in a home environmental assessment. Home assessment visits by a trained coach, which involved a walk-through in the home with the home residents, were conducted in 36 homes. The walk-through included a list of recommended behavioral changes that the residents could make to reduce their exposures to home pollutants in areas such as dust control, moisture problems, indoor air, hazardous household products, and hobbies. Recruited households were surveyed 3 months after the home assessment to evaluate their implementation of the recommendations. Following the home visits, 31 of 36 households reported making at least one behavioral change, and 41% of the recommendations made by the volunteer coaches were implemented. In conclusion, this study found that the majority of the households who participated in the home assessment reported implementing at least one recommendation. This home health promotional method was effective in influencing behavioral changes. PMID:9349831
National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.
This lesson plan teaches students about the life and work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Students listen to a brief biography, view photographs of the March on Washington, hear a portion of King's "I Have a Dream" speech, and discuss what King's words mean to them. Finally, they will create picture books about their own dreams of freedom for Americans…
Mitten, Hugh T.
Agricultural ground-water pumpage data are presented for 1974-77 for the area on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley in parts of Fresno, Kings, and Madera Counties, Calif., which has approximately the boundaries of the Westlands Water District. The method of estimating pumpage was based on electric-power consumption at the agricultual wells. (Woodard-USGS)
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County, Washington; Notice of Revised Procedural Schedule for Processing the License Application Based on the information in the record now, the Commission will...
The Lower Weiser River, Crane Creek to the mouth at Weiser (17050124), Washington County, Idaho and its tributaries and selected irrigation inflows were the subject of a water quality survey for one year during 1983-84. The Weiser River contributes nearly 260,000 tons of annual ...
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 923 Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated... sweet cherry growers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington. DATES: The referendum will...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Public Utility District No. 1 of Klickitat County, Washington; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions to Intervene, and Competing Applications On May 1, 2012,...
McCoy, John L.
Step-wise multiple regression and typological analysis were used to analyze the extent to which selected factors influence vertical mobility and achieved level of living. A sample of 418 male household heads who were 18 to 45 years old in Washington County, Mississippi were interviewed during 1971. A prescreening using census and local housing…
... Register on August 2, 2006 (71 FR 43641), and adopted as a final rule on November 13, 2006 (71 FR 66093... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 922 Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Temporary Relaxation of the Minimum Grade Requirement; Correction AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA....
Purpose and Methods: This report is the second benchmark study to assess the system of supports for school readiness. The data for this study was collected in the fall of 2006 on 537 entering kindergarten children and their families in eight representative schools across the County. The ecological model and methods from the first study, which was…
Echert, W. H. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. Sufficient spectral separability exists among softwood, hardwood, grassland, and water to develop a level 2 classification and inventory. Using the tested automatic data processing technology, softwood and grassland signatures can be extended across the county with acceptable accuracy; with more dense sampling, the hardwood signature probably could also be extended. Fall was found to be the best season for mapping this ecosystem.
The Starr molybdenum mine, Okanogan County, Wash., is about 5 airline miles west of Tonasket in the north-central part of the State. The mineralized zone has been explored to a depth of 250 feet by means of three adit levels, one sublevel, and a raise which connects two of the adits and the sublevel. In all, there are about 2,700 feet of underground workings. The mine has neither machinery nor a developed water supply adequate for any work other than a small exploratory program.
Mondale, Clarence C.
The most important single outcome of the grant from the Mellon Trusts to the George Washington University (GW) was the development of the Division of Experimental Programs. This new division is centrally concerned with turning GW's Washington location to academic advantage. Under the terms of the grant, GW was to develop means to relate the "total…
Brashears, M.L., Jr.
Since 1932 the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York Water Power and Control Commission, the Nassau County Department of Public Works, the Suffolk County Water Authority, and the Suffolk County Board of Supervisors has conducted studies dealing with the occurrence, movement, quantity, quality, and temperature of ground water on Long Island. Also, as a part of three investigations, data on the withdrawals by pumpage for public water supply are assembled an analyzed. Previously, pumpage records for periods from 1904 through 1946 have been released.
The Northwest Power Planning Council completed its ``Strategy for Salmon'' in 1992. This is a plan, composed of four specific elements,designed to double the present production of 2.5 million salmon in the Columbia River watershed. These elements have been called the ``four H's'': (1) improve harvest management; (2) improve hatcheries and their production practices; (3) improve survival at hydroelectric dams; and (4) improve and protect fish habitat. The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon''. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity.
The 40-acre Washington County Landfill site is an inactive sanitary landfill in Lake Elmo, Washington County, Minnesota. Land use in the area is predominantly residential and agricultural. From 1969 to 1975, Washington and Ramsey counties used the site as a sanitary landfill. Monitoring by Washington County in 1981 revealed low level VOC contamination, which poses a health risk based on long-term ingestion of ground water. The ROD addresses a final remedy for drinking water supply as part of a second operable unit. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are VOCs including benzene, PCE, TCE, and xylenes. The selected remedial action for the site includes providing a municipal drinking water supply system to supply drinking water to 10 homes with private wells that have been affected by the contaminant plume; and continuing operation of the gradient control well and spray-irrigation treatment system for the first operable unit.
Jennings, Michael D.; Reganold, John P.
The Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) promotes the conservation of natural resources through procedural review of proposed actions which may impact natural systems. There are, however, many actions specifically exempt from the SEPA review process. Since many exempt actions could have significant adverse effects on natural resources at one location and not another, the SEPA statute contains a provision that enables local governments to designate Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs). Within the ESAs, these potentially adverse activities are subject to SEPA review. Local governments have complete control over the exact definition of the ESA criteria and the types of local projects exempt from SEPA. Whitman County, the most productive wheat-producing county in Washington, has recognized the need for conservation of its natural resources in its comprehensive plan but has not implemented the ESA provision. A representative watershed within Whitman County was used as a case study to identify areas which would qualify for ESA status. In these areas, specific soil, water, and biological characteristics or resources were identified as sensitive to certain common land uses. Significant differences were found between state and county policies regarding ESAs and actual conditions within the watershed. It may be more effective for the state to manage ESAs on a consistent and regional basis.
Hill, Sheri L.; De Wys, Shelley; Mandell, Dorothy J.; Chang, Matt; Brandon, Richard N.
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of community population, health and safety, economic well-being, and education, for all of Washington's 39 counties as well its 3 major cities. The specific indicators include: (1) population…
Turmelle, J.M. )
Heluma field was discovered and initially developed in 1956 as a four-well Ellenburger pool with some marginal Devonian reserves up-hole. For fifteen years it was reasonable to map the field as a tilted fault block at the Ellenburger level. In 1971, a field extension well proved that the supposed bounding high-angle normal fault was instead a low-angle backthrust, which overrides and does not cut the Ellenburger. The Devonian came in 500 ft structurally high to the older wells and has since produced nearly 4 million bbl of oil. Eighteen additional Ellenburger locations were also drilled beneath the backthrust. The present spacing shows that some structurally low Ellenburger tops were due to drilling into Ordovician sinkholes. King Mountain field is a long narrow anticline that has produced 5.5 million bbl of oil from the Ellenburger. This field was more completely developed than Heluma during the late 1950s and the same style of backthrust so prolific at Heluma is also present here, yet with a lesser throw. During the 1950s, all faults easily may have been interpreted as very high-angle normal faults. Similarly, one can easily conclude they are flower structures created by wrench tectonics. These oil fields lie in an ancillary direction to the Big Lake fault. The key to the backthrusts, however, is the compression of the intervening asymmetric synclines. The thick section of Devonian limestone and chert could not be tightly folded so it rode up the flank of the syncline until the limb was higher than the adjacent anticline.
Roppo, Monica R; Lilja, Jack L; Maloney, Francis A; Sames, William J
This is a report on the 1st occurrence of Ochlerotatus japonicus in the state of Washington. In August through November 2001, immature stages were found near the King County communities of Carnation (2 sites), Black Diamond, Kent, and Issaquah and were reared to the adult stage for identification and preservation. PMID:15088708
Fox, Kenneth F., Jr.; Rinehart, C. Dean
A geochemical exploration program aimed at determining regional patterns of metal distribution as well as pinpointing areas likely to contain undiscovered ore deposits was carried out in north-central Okanogan County, Washington. About 1,000 gully and stream sediment samples were collected from a rectangular area of about 800 square miles. The area includes two contiguous, virtually dormant, mining districts that had yielded nearly $1.4 million in gold, silver, lead, copper, and zinc prior to the end of World War I, mostly from quartz lodes.
Evarts, Russell C.; O'Connor, Jim E.
The Camas 7.5' quadrangle is in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon approximately 20 km east of Portland. The map area, bisected by the Columbia River, lies on the eastern margin of the Portland Basin, which is part of the Puget-Willamette Lowland that separates the Cascade Range from the Oregon Coast Range. Since late Eocene time, the Cascade Range has been the locus of an episodically active volcanic arc associated with underthrusting of oceanic lithosphere beneath the North American continent along the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Bedrock consists largely of basalt and basaltic andesite flows that erupted during late Oligocene time from one or more vents located outside the map area. These rocks crop out only north of the Columbia River: at the base of Prune Hill in Camas, where they dip southward at about 5?; and east of Lacamas Creek, where they dip to the southeast at 15 to 30?. The volcanic bedrock is unconformably overlain by Neogene sediments that accumulated as the Portland Basin subsided. In the Camas quadrangle, most of these sediments consist of basaltic hyaloclastic debris generated in the volcanic arc to the east and carried into the Portland Basin by the ancestral Columbia River. The dominant structures in the map area are northwest-striking dextral strike-slip faults that offset the Paleogene basin floor as well as the lower part of the basin fill. The Oligocene rocks at Prune Hill and to the east were uplifted in late Pliocene to early Pleistocene time within a restraining bend along one of these dextral faults. In Pleistocene time, basaltic andesite flows issued from a volcano centered on the west side of Prune Hill; another flow entered the map area from the east. These flows are part of the Boring volcanic field, which comprises several dozen late Pliocene and younger monogenetic volcanoes scattered throughout the greater Portland region. In latest Pleistocene time, the Missoula floods of glacial-outburst origin inundated the Portland
Brown, Jessica; Bindler, Ruth C.; Miller, Kris
Background One-third of the US population is obese, and childhood obesity has tripled since the late 1970s. Childhood obesity is a significant health issue requiring interventions on individual, interpersonal, community, organizational, and policy levels. Community coalitions offer successful strategies for engaging community partners with health improvement goals. Community Context In 2008, Yakima County, an agricultural community in eastern Washington, was ranked the eighth fattest city in the United States. Recognizing the obesity problem, the Yakima Health District (YHD) established 2 objectives: to decrease rates of childhood obesity in Yakima County and to recruit and establish a community coalition of key stakeholders and experts to help address the problem. Methods The YHD spearheaded a movement to create a community coalition. The coalition applied for and received state and federal grants. In September 2008, the YHD held the first recruitment event for Rev It Up!, its community-based effort to address the obesity problem in Yakima. YHD invited the Washington State Department of Health to advise the coalition-building and action-planning process. Outcome The community coalition achieved 5 of 7 objectives, including developing a common vision, creating an advisory committee, and conducting a community inventory, prioritization process, and action plan. However, unexpected public health challenges in the YHD delayed coalition efforts. Interpretation Creating the Rev It Up! coalition met a community need and engaged community partners. Some potential partners were dissuaded by the 6-month period required to establish the coalition. Rev It Up! continues as a community effort to reduce rates of obesity in Yakima County. PMID:22765932
Buchen, Christopher T.
U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains separated from elastic sedimentary rocks is combined with field, petrographic and geochemical data to reconstruct the geologic history of Mesozoic rocks exposed at the southern end of the Lake Kaweah metamorphic pendant, western Sierra Nevada. Identification of rocks exposed at Limekiln Hill, Kern County, CA, as belonging to the Calaveras complex and Kings sequence was confirmed. Detrital zircon populations from two Calaveras complex samples provide Permo-Triassic maximum depositional ages (MDA) and reveal a Laurentian provenance indicating that continental accretion of the northwest-trending Kings-Kaweah ophiolite belt was in process prior to the Jurassic Period. Rock types including radiolarian metachert, metachert-argillite, and calc-silicate rocks with marble lenses are interpreted as formed in a hemipelagic environment of siliceous radiolarian deposition, punctuated by extended episodes of lime-mud gravity flows mixing with siliceous ooze forming cafe-silicate protoliths and limestone olistoliths forming marble lenses. Two samples of the overlying Kings sequence turbidites yield detrital zircons with an MDA of 181.4 +/-3.0 Ma and an interpreted provenance similar to other Jurassic metasediments found in the Yokohl Valley, Sequoia and Boyden Cave roof pendants. Age peaks indicative of Jurassic erg heritage are also present. In contrast, detrital zircon samples from the Sequoia and Slate Mountain roof pendants bear age-probability distributions interpreted as characteristic of the Snow Lake block, a tectonic sliver offset from the Paleozoic miogeocline.
Horton, J. Wright, Jr.
This geologic map of the Kings Mountain and Grover 7.5-minute quadrangles, N.C.-S.C., straddles a regional geological boundary between the Inner Piedmont and Carolina terranes. The Kings Mountain sequence (informal name) on the western flank of the Carolina terrane in this area includes the Neoproterozoic Battleground and Blacksburg Formations. The Battleground Formation has a lower part consisting of metavolcanic rocks and interlayered schist, and an upper part consisting of quartz-sericite phyllite and schist interlayered with quartz-pebble metaconglomerate, aluminous quartzite, micaceous quartzite, manganiferous rock, and metavolcanic rocks. The Blacksburg Formation consists of phyllitic metasiltstone interlayered with thinner units of marble, laminated micaceous quartzite, hornblende gneiss, and amphibolite. Layered metamorphic rocks of the Inner Piedmont terrane include muscovite-biotite gneiss, muscovite schist, and amphibolite. The Kings Mountain sequence has been intruded by metatonalite and metatrondhjemite (Neoproterozoic), metadiorite and metagabbro (Paleozoic), and High Shoals Granite (Pennsylvanian). Layered metamorphic rocks of the Inner Piedmont in this area have been intruded by Toluca Granite (Ordovician?), Cherryville Granite and associated pegmatite (Mississippian), and spodumene pegmatite (Mississippian). Diabase dikes (early Jurassic) are locally present throughout the area. Ductile fault zones of regional scale include the Kings Mountain and Kings Creek shear zones. In this area, the Kings Mountain shear zone forms the boundary between the Inner Piedmont and Carolina terranes, and the Kings Creek shear zone separates the Battleground Formation from the Blacksburg Formation. Structural styles change across the Kings Mountain shear zone from steeply-dipping layers, foliations, and folds on the southeast to gently- and moderately-dipping layers, foliations, and recumbent folds on the northwest. Mineral assemblages in the Kings Mountain sequence
Horton, J. Wright, Jr.
This geologic map of the Kings Mountain and Grover 7.5-min quadrangles, N.C.-S.C., straddles a regional geological boundary between the Inner Piedmont and Carolina terranes. The Kings Mountain sequence (informal name) on the western flank of the Carolina terrane in this area includes the Neoproterozoic Battleground and Blacksburg Formations. The Battleground Formation has a lower part consisting of metavolcanic rocks and interlayered schist and an upper part consisting of quartz-sericite phyllite and schist interlayered with quartz-pebble metaconglomerate, aluminous quartzite, micaceous quartzite, manganiferous rock, and metavolcanic rocks. The Blacks-burg Formation consists of phyllitic metasiltstone interlayered with thinner units of marble, laminated micaceous quartzite, hornblende gneiss, and amphibolite. Layered metamorphic rocks of the Inner Piedmont terrane include muscovite-biotite gneiss, muscovite schist, and amphibolite. The Kings Mountain sequence has been intruded by metatonalite and metatrondhjemite (Neoproterozoic), metagabbro and metadiorite (Paleozoic?), and the High Shoals Granite (Pennsylvanian). Layered metamorphic rocks of the Inner Piedmont in this area have been intruded by the Toluca Granite (Ordovician?), the Cherryville Granite and associated pegmatite (Mississippian), and spodumene pegmatite (Mississippian). Diabase dikes (early Jurassic) are locally present throughout the area. Ductile fault zones of regional scale include the Kings Mountain and Kings Creek shear zones. In this area, the Kings Mountain shear zone forms the boundary between the Inner Piedmont and Carolina terranes, and the Kings Creek shear zone separates the Battleground Formation from the Blacksburg Formation. Structural styles change across the Kings Mountain shear zone from steeply dipping layers, foliations, and folds on the southeast to gently and moderately dipping layers, foliations, and recumbent folds on the northwest. Mineral assemblages in the Kings Mountain
Welch, Wendy B.; Savoca, Mark E.
This report describes the hydrogeologic framework of the groundwater-flow system in the Johns Creek subbasin and vicinity. The study area covers 97 square miles in southeastern Mason County, Washington, and includes the Johns Creek subbasin, which drains an area of about 11 square miles. The study area extends beyond the Johns Creek subbasin to include major hydrologic features that could be used as regional groundwater-flow model boundaries. The subbasin is underlain by a thick sequence of unconsolidated Quaternary glacial and interglacial deposits, which overlie Tertiary igneous and sedimentary bedrock units. Geologic units were grouped into eight hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, undifferentiated deposits, and an underlying bedrock unit. A surficial hydrogeologic map was developed and used with lithologic information from 200 drillers' logs to construct 4 hydrogeologic sections, and unit extent and thickness maps.
Hill, Sheri L.; Malhotra, Sumit; De Wys, Shelley; Mandell, Dorothy J.; Brandon, Richard
These 43 Kids Count summaries, one for each of the state's counties, major metropolitan areas, and the state as a whole, examine trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The summaries each reiterate key statewide trends in the areas of education, child maltreatment, housing affordability, and employment levels, as well as family…
Nelson, Steve; Clark, Robey
Comparing program objectives with program outcomes, 4 program components targeted at 1,100 American Indian students in 9 school districts in Pierce County, Washington were evaluated. Program objectives operationalized by an 11-member staff including 9 specialists and 1 coordinator were to develop: (1) basic skills via tutoring services for…
... Fish and Wildlife Service DeSoto and Boyer Chute National Wildlife Refuges; Washington County, Nebraska... National Wildlife Refuges (Refuges, NWRs) for public review and comment. In this EA/Draft CCP, we describe... Manager, DeSoto and Boyer Chute National Wildlife Refuges, 1434 316th Lane, Missouri Valley, IA 51555....
Sisson, T. W.; Moore, J. G.
From the late 1940s to the early 1990s, scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapped the geology of most of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, and published the results as a series of 15-minute (1:62,500 scale) Geologic Quadrangles. The southwest corner of Sequoia National Park, encompassing the Mineral King and eastern edge of the Kaweah 15-minute topographic quadrangles, however, remained unfinished. At the request of the National Park Service's Geologic Resources Division (NPS-GRD), the USGS has mapped the geology of that area using 7.5-minute (1:24,000 scale) topographic bases and high-resolution ortho-imagery. With partial support from NPS-GRD, the major plutons in the map area were dated by the U-Pb zircon method with the Stanford-USGS SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe. Highlights include: (1) Identification of the Early Cretaceous volcano-plutonic suite of Mineral King (informally named), consisting of three deformed granodiorite plutons and the major metarhyolite tuffs of the Mineral King metamorphic pendant. Members of the suite erupted or intruded at 130-140 Ma (pluton ages: this study; rhyolite ages: lower-intercept concordia from zircon results of Busby-Spera, 1983, Princeton Ph.D. thesis, and from Klemetti et al., 2011, AGU abstract) during the pause of igneous activity between emplacement of the Jurassic and Cretaceous Sierran batholiths. (2) Some of the deformation of the Mineral King metamorphic pendant is demonstrably Cretaceous, with evidence including map-scale folding of Early Cretaceous metarhyolite tuff, and an isoclinally folded aplite dike dated at 98 Ma, concurrent with the large 98-Ma granodiorite of Castle Creek that intruded the Mineral King pendant on the west. (3) A 21-km-long magmatic synform within the 99-100 Ma granite of Coyote Pass that is defined both by inward-dipping mafic inclusions (enclaves) and by sporadic, cm-thick, sharply defined mineral layering. The west margin of the granite of Coyote Pass overlies
Calvert, Geoffrey M; Rodriguez, Luis; Prado, Joanne Bonnar
On April 10, 2014 the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) was notified by a local newspaper of a suspected pesticide poisoning incident in Douglas County involving pesticides not previously reported in the published literature to be associated with human illness. On that same day, WSDA notified the Washington State Department of Health, which investigated this incident by conducting a site visit, reviewing medical and applicator records, and interviewing affected farmworkers, pesticide applicators, and the farmworkers' employer. In addition, on April 11, WSDA collected swab, foliage, and clothing samples and tested them for residues of pyridaben, novaluron, and triflumizole. In this incident, all 20 farmworkers working in a cherry orchard became ill from off-target drift of a pesticide mixture that was being applied to a neighboring pear orchard. Sixteen sought medical treatment for neurologic, gastrointestinal, ocular, and respiratory symptoms. This event highlights the need for greater efforts to prevent off-target drift exposures and promote awareness about the toxicity of some recently marketed pesticides. Incidents such as this could be prevented if farm managers planning pesticide applications notify their neighbors of their plans. PMID:25611169
Wells, Ray E.; Sawlan, Michael G.
This digital map database and the PDF derived from the database were created from the analog geologic map: Wells, R.E. (1981), “Geologic map of the eastern Willapa Hills, Cowlitz, Lewis, and Wahkiakum Counties, Washington.” The geodatabase replicates the geologic mapping of the 1981 report with minor exceptions along water boundaries and also along the north and south map boundaries. Slight adjustments to contacts along water boundaries were made to correct differences between the topographic base map used in the 1981 compilation (analog USGS 15-minute series quadrangle maps at 1:62,500 scale) and the base map used for this digital compilation (scanned USGS 7.5-minute series quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale). These minor adjustments, however, did not materially alter the geologic map. No new field mapping was performed to create this digital map database, and no attempt was made to fit geologic contacts to the new 1:24,000 topographic base, except as noted above. We corrected typographical errors, formatting errors, and attribution errors (for example, the name change of Goble Volcanics to Grays River Volcanics following current State of Washington usage; Walsh and others, 1987). We also updated selected references, substituted published papers for abstracts, and cited published radiometric ages for the volcanic and plutonic rocks. The reader is referred to Magill and others (1982), Wells and Coe (1985), Walsh and others (1987), Moothart (1993), Payne (1998), Kleibacker (2001), McCutcheon (2003), Wells and others (2009), Chan and others (2012), and Wells and others (in press) for subsequent interpretations of the Willapa Hills geology.
The low-temperature geothermal resource of portions of Yakima County, south-central Washington, is defined by several least squares linear regression analyses of bottom-hole temperature and depth data. Bottom-hole temperature and depth data were separated into fourteen well data groups based on geographic proximity, land slope azimuth, and position within the regional ground-water flow system. The depths of these wells range from over 50m to almost 600m. The regression analyses of these well data groups indicate that the projected land-surface temperature and geothermal gradient range from 10.6 to 14.0/sup 0/C and from 24.9 to 52.2/sup 0/C/km, respectively. Stratigraphic correlation diagrams developed from borehole geophysical and lithologic logs are given for localities within the lower Yakima, Black Rock, Moxee, Ahtanum, Cowiche, and Naches valleys. These correlation diagrams are combined with their respective borehole temperature logs and well data group predicted temperature curves to assess the validity of the regression analyses and to determine aquifer locations, temperatures, and directions of intra-borehole flow. A regression analysis of data from wells of south-central Washington with bottom-hole depths of over 700m to almost 3km suggests that the projected land-surface temperature and geothermal gradient of this depth interval are 21.8/sup 0/C and 31.3/sup 0/C/km, respectively. The depth to the 100/sup 0/C isotherm is approximately 2513m.
DiMichele, W.A.; Hook, R.W.; Nelson, W.J.; Chaney, D.S.
A new Middle Permian plant assemblage from South Ash Pasture in King County, Texas, may be the youngest and is certainly the most unusual flora known from the Permian of either West Texas or adjoining north-central Texas. Found serendipitously in the evaporite-rich upper Blaine Formation (Pease River Group, Guadalupian Series), the flora is of very low diversity despite intensive collecting efforts, and the affinities of nearly all taxa are enigmatic. The most common elements are parallel-veined leaves that resemble cordaites but that could be isolated pinnules of a pinnate leaf. Gigantopterid foliage is present but not assignable to any known taxon. A single foliar conifer specimen is too incomplete for assignment. Numerous reproductive organs, however, and an abundance of axes may represent conifers. Conchostracans, palaeoniscoid fish scales, and small heteropolar coprolites also occur in the deposit, which originated as a small, claystone-dominated channel fill in a coastal plain setting.
Kawakami, Vance M; Bottichio, Lyndsay; Angelo, Kristina; Linton, Natalie; Kissler, Bonnie; Basler, Colin; Lloyd, Jennifer; Inouye, Wendy; Gonzales, Elysia; Rietberg, Krista; Melius, Beth; Oltean, Hanna; Wise, Matthew; Sinatra, Jennifer; Marsland, Paula; Li, Zhen; Meek, Roxanne; Kay, Meagan; Duchin, Jeff; Lindquist, Scott
During June-July 2015, Public Health-Seattle & King County (PHSKC) and Washington State Department of Health (WADOH) investigated 22 clusters of Salmonella serotype I 4,, 12:i:- infections. Serotype I 4,, 12:i:- is the fifth most frequently reported Salmonella serotype in the United States, but is uncommon in Washington.* On July 29, 2015, WADOH and PHSKC requested assistance from CDC to identify the infection source, determine risk factors, and make recommendations for prevention. PMID:27078514
Johnson, Donna B.; Krieger, James; MacDougall, Erin; Payne, Elizabeth; Chan, Nadine L.
Policies that change environments are important tools for preventing chronic diseases, including obesity. Boards of health often have authority to adopt such policies, but few do so. This study assesses 1) how one local board of health developed a policy approach for healthy food access through vending machine guidelines (rather than regulations) and 2) the impact of the approach. Using a case study design guided by “three streams” policy theory and RE-AIM, we analyzed data from a focus group, interviews, and policy documents. The guidelines effectively supported institutional policy development in several settings. Recognition of the problem of chronic disease and the policy solution of vending machine guidelines created an opening for the board to influence nutrition environments. Institutions identified a need for support in adopting vending machine policies. Communities could benefit from the study board’s approach to using nonregulatory evidence-based guidelines as a policy tool. PMID:25927606
Welch, Wendy B.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Savoca, Mark E.; Lane, Ron C.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Marshall, Cameron; Clothier, Burt G.; Knoedler, Eric N.
The water-budget area received about 1,428,000 acre-feet or about 52 inches of precipitation per year (January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012). About 41 percent of precipitation enters the groundwater system as recharge. Seven percent of this recharge is withdrawn from wells and the remainder leaves the groundwater system as discharge to rivers, discharge to springs, or submarine discharge to Puget Sound, or exits the study area through subsurface flow in the Green River valley.
Tabor, Rowland W.; Booth, Derek B.; Troost, Kathy Goetz
In 2003, the Puget Sound Lidar Consortium obtained a lidar-derived digital elevation model (DEM) for the Puget Sound region including all of the Poverty Bay 7.5' quadrangle. For a brief description of lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) and this data acquisition program, see Haugerud and others (2003). This new DEM has a horizontal resolution and accuracy of 6 ft (2 m) and vertical accuracy of approximately 1 ft (0.3 m). The greater resolution and accuracy of the lidar DEM have facilitated a new interpretation of the geology, especially the distribution and relative age of some surficial deposits.
Batt, Angela L; Snow, Daniel D; Aga, Diana S
Samples from six private wells formerly used as sources for drinking water by the residents of Washington County (Weiser, Idaho) were collected to assess the impact of a nearby confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) on the quality of the local groundwater. All six samples were found contaminated by two veterinary antimicrobials, sulfamethazine (at concentrations from 0.076 to 0.22 microg/l) and sulfadimethoxine (at concentrations from 0.046 to 0.068 microg/l). These groundwater samples also contained elevated concentrations of nitrate and ammonium. Three of the sampled wells have nitrate levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level set by the US Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water, with nitrate concentration as high as 39.1mg/l. All but one well showed nitrate, which instead contained ammonium at 1.22 mg/l. Analysis of the nitrate and ammonium in these samples by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry indicated delta(15)N characteristic of an animal or human waste source. Results from this study underscore the role of CAFO as an important source of antibiotic contamination of groundwater. PMID:16497355
Hansen, Arnold J.; Molenaar, Dee
General information is presented on water resources--with emphasis on ground-water occurrence and availability--in that part of Kitsap County (referred to as Trident Impact Area) that would be most affected by the development of the Trident submarine construction facility at Bangor, Washington. The estimated 1970 water use in the study area averaged about 13 million gallons per day (mgd); of this amount about 9 mgd came from surface-water sources--from a large reservoir outside the study area--and about 4 mgd came from ground water pumped from two aquifers in the area. Anticipated water use soon will be about 18 to 21 mgd; virtually all the additional quantity required (about 5 to 8 mgd) above present use must come from ground-water sources. Preliminary evaluation of the aquifers suggests that an additional 1.5 mgd can be developed from the upper aquifer and 7 mgd from the lower aquifer. Existing wells tapping the lower aquifer might yield additional water and increase the total yield in the area by 3.5 mgd, and new wells drilled in selected areas could produce an additional 3.5 mgd from this aquifer. However, additional, large-scale ground-water withdrawal from the lower aquifer could induce saltwater intrusion into wells situated in coastal areas. (Woodard-USGS)
A method to conceptualize and simulate the generation of runoff from rainfall was applied to three small drainage basins in north-central Thurston County, Washington. Because the study basins face continued urban development, this method was developed to provide a technique for assessing the effects of alternative urban-development plans on runoff characteristics. A conceptual model of runoff generation and three numerical simulation models, called basin models, were constructed for the study basins. Hydrologic Simulation Program- FORTRAN was the program used to construct the basin models. The basin models were constructed using parameter values based on qualitative rainfall- runoff relations defined in the conceptual model. The features of the conceptual model, incorporated in the basin models, were assessed by calibration and evaluation of the basin models with observed streamflow data collected from March 1988 through March 1990. The simulation results from the basin models generally confirmed the study's conceptual model of runoff generation. Absolute differences between simulated and observed streamflows were less than 6 percent for total runoff volumes, equal to or less than 32 percent for daily mean discharges, less than 32 percent for storm runoff volumes, and less than 33 percent for peak discharges. Although the conceptual model adequately described runoff generation from rainfall, it did not adequately describe the actual flow paths from land segments to streams.
Lum, W.E.; Turney, G.L.
The Tacoma landfill, located in western Pierce County, Washington, has been used for the disposal of waste since about 1960. Disposal operations are planned to continue at this site until at least 1990. Data were compiled and interpreted to help understand the possible effects of the landfill on water quality in the surrounding area. Data were collected from published and unpublished reports of the U.S. Geological Survey, and from predominantly unpublished data in the files of other government agencies. The Tacoma landfill is underlain by unconsolidated, glacially derived deposits that consist of a wide variety of mixtures of clay to boulder-sized materials. Ground water is mostly the result of rainfall on the land surface, and moves through artesian aquifers (under the landfill) that are tapped for both domestic and municipal use. Hazardous liquid and dissolved wastes are probably present in the landfill, and potential flow paths for waste migration exist. An undetermined number of single-family domestic wells and 18 public-supply wells are within 3 miles of the landfill, three as close as 0.2 miles. There is only limited evidence indicating ground- and surface-water contamination. Further investigations of the geology, hydrology and water quality are needed to characterize the impact the landfill has on ground- and surface-water of the surrounding area. (USGS)
Erickson, W.P.; Johnson, G.D.; Strickland, M.D.; Kronner, K.; Becker, P.S.; Orloff, S.
This report presents a literature review on avian-wind turbine interactions and the results of a one-year avian baseline study conducted in 1998 at the proposed Conservation and Renewable Energy System (CARES) wind development site in Klickitat County, Washington. Avian use of the site ranged from 1.11/survey in the winter to 5.69/survey in the spring. Average use by passerines in the study plots ranged from 1.15 minutes/survey in the winter to 40.98 minutes/survey in the spring. Raptors spent much less time within plots than other groups, ranging from 0.05 minutes/survey in the winter to 0.77 minutes/survey during the fall. Thirteen percent of all flying birds were within the rotor-swept height (25 to 75 m); 41.6% of all raptors were flying at this height. Raptors with the greatest potential turbine exposure are red-tailed hawks and golden eagles. Passerines with the highest turbine exposure are common ravens, American robins, and horned larks. Spatial use data for the site indicate that avian use tends to be concentrated near the rim, indicating that placing turbines away from the rim may reduce risk. Avian use data at the CARES site indicate that if a wind plant is constructed in the future, avian mortality would likely be relatively low.
Dion, N.P.; Ebbert, J.C.; Poole, J.E.; Peck, B.S.
The Goat Lake watershed in Snohomish County, Washington, functions as an ' experimental watershed ' for long-term studies to determine the effects of acidic precipitation on water resources. Data have been collected there by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1982. The watershed is in a wilderness area of the Cascade Range and is downwind of an industrial and urban area that produces chemical compounds found in acidic precipitation. The lake is considered sensitive to acidic inputs from atmospheric deposition and streamflow. The mean annual discharge of the Goat Lake outflow is 35 cu ft/sec; precipitation on the watershed is calculated to be about 170 in/yr. The inflow to Goat Lake is sufficient to replace the entire contents of the lake basin on an average every 21.5 days, or 17 times/year. Water in Goat Lake, and that of the inlet and outlet, is of low ionic strength and of calcium-bicarbonate type. The lake, although considered oligotrophic, is sufficiently deep to stratify thermally, and summer dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion are depressed. Even though alkalinity and specific conductance at Goat Lake are in the range considered sensitive to acidic inputs , the pH of water in the lake has consistently ranged from 6.1 to 7.2, indicating that the lake is not acidified at this time. (USGS)
VIEW OF THE OFFICE CREATED FOR MARTIN LUTHER KING JR, LOOKING TOWARDS MAIN DOOR INTO SECRETARY'S OFFICE. - Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church, 454 Dexter Avenue, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL
VIEW OF OFFICE CREATED FOR MARTIN LUTHER KING JR IN 1957-58, LOOKING TOWARD THE REAR DOOR. THE DESK IS A PIECE OF THE ORIGINAL FURNITURE. - Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church, 454 Dexter Avenue, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL
Uzmann, J.R.; Douglas, J.
Clinostomum marginatum (Trematoda: Clinostomatidae), the yellow grub parasite, was recorded in epizootic proportions from Lynch Lake, King County, Washington, in 1961 and 1962. The parasite larvae occurred principally in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri); cutthroat trout (S. clarki) were infected to a relatively minor degree. Fish and snail host populations were destroyed by rotenone and copper sulfate treatments.
The low-temperature geothermal resource of portions of Yakima County, south-central Washington, is defined by several least squares linear regression analyses of bottom-hole temperature and depth data. Intra-borehole flow prevents the use of borehole temperature gradients for geothermal resource assessment. Bottom-hole temperature and depth data were separated into fourteen well data groups based on geographic proximity, land slope azimuth, and position within the regional ground-water flow system. The regression analyses of these well data groups indicate that the projected land-surface temperature and geothermal gradient range from 10.6 to 14.0/sup 0/C and from 24.9 to 52.2/sup 0/C/km, respectively. The depth to the 20/sup 0/C isotherm ranges from 142 to 346m. The average projected land-surface temperature and geothermal gradient are approximately 11.3/sup 0/C and 43.0/sup 0/C/km, respectively. The average depth to the 20/sup 0/C isoterm is approximately 202m. The projected land-surface temperature appears to decrease and the depth to the 20/sup 0/C isotherm appears to increase as the land-surface elevation of the well dat group increases. Stratigraphic correlation diagrams developed from borehole geophysical and lithologic logs are given for localities within the lower Yakima, Black Rock, Moxee, Ahtanum, Cowiche, and Naches valleys. These correlation diagrams are combined with their respective borehole temperatue logs and well data group predicted temperature curves to assess the validity of the regression analyses and to determine aquifer locations, temperatures, and directions of intra-borehole flow.
Fox, I. William; Thigpen, Claude H.; Ginter, Roy L.; Alden, George P.
The Hogshooter field, located in east central Washington County, Oklahoma, was first developed during the period 1906 to 1913. The field was extended later during the period 1918 to 1922. The principal producing horizon is the Bartlesville sand, found at an average depth of 1,150 feet. To January 1, 1944, the Bartlesville sand has produced 7,566,000 barrels of oil from 5,610 productive acres and 871 oil wells. Peak production, averaging 2,025 barrels per day for the year, was attained in the year 1910. The accumulation of oil in the Bartlesville sand is not related to structure. The total recovery from the Bartlesville sand in the Hogshooter field to January 1, 1944, is estimated to represent 10.3 per cent of the original oil in place, and the total residual oil is estimated to average 11,776 barrels per acre. Widespread application of vacuum, started in 1915, has had little beneficial effect on production. Some gas-repressuring in recent years has increased recovery to a small extent. Conservatively estimated water-flood recovery possibilities are: 3,500 barrels per acre for an area consisting of 1,393 acres (4,875,000 barrels total) with a reasonable profit at the present price of crude oil, and 2,500 barrels per acre for an area of 2,248 acres (5,620,000 barrels total), with no profit indicated under existing conditions. The latter area would show a profit equal to the first-mentioned area only with an increase in price of crude oil of forty-five cents per barrel. Subsurface waters at depths of 1,400 to 1,700 feet are indicated as a satisfactory source for use in water-flooding operations.
Social Studies and the Young Learner, 2011
This article features the newest monument, the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. The memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. will be an engaging landscape experience to convey four fundamental and recurring themes throughout Dr. King's life--democracy, justice, hope, and love. Natural…
Hampel, Angelica; And Others
Intended for use by vocational administrators responsible for mainstreaming handicapped students into vocational education classes, the resource guide lists and describes governmental and private agencies that provide vocational programs and support services for the handicapped on a local and statewide basis in the California counties of Fresno,…
This report describes the housing stock and its availability in Benton and Franklin counties. Depending on the specific measures, data are presented for the entire MSA, for Benton and Franklin counties separately, for incorporated and unincorporated areas within the counties, and for specific incorporated areas. The most detailed data are available for the two counties and for the major cities of Kennewick and Richland in Benton County and Pasco in Franklin County. In 1986, 64 percent of the population of Benton County and 66 percent of the housing units were in Kennewick and Richland. Seventy-three percent of the population and 75 percent of the housing were in the incorporated area of Benton County. In Franklin County, Pasco accounted for 52 percent of the county's 1986 population and 57 percent of its housing. Fifty-nine percent of the population and 63 percent of the housing were in the incorporated areas of Franklin County. More detailed data are needed to fully describe the housing conditions in the jurisdictions described here. 13 refs., 9 tabs.
Johnson, Kenneth H.
Effects of tree canopy removal on a wellfield were simulated using a groundwater flow model characteristic of hydrogeologic settings in the Puget Sound aquifer system. Effects were estimated according to simulated changes in flow patterns that may result from tree canopy removal associated with varying degrees of residential development. The flow model used was a modified version of a model of the hydrogeologic setting in Thurston County, Washington; the wellfield was one planned for Olympia, Washington, and the canopy modifications spanned a range of possible land use change scenarios. The relative effects of tree canopy removal were estimated in terms of potential changes in capture zones for the wellfield and groundwater levels. Because of the depth of the wellfield and the dispersal of the effects from changes in recharge at ground surface, potential changes in wellfield capture zones and groundwater levels were discernible but small compared to other possible influences.
... mineral holdings northeast of Tonasket, Washington (FR 72781, Vol. 75, No. 227). That notice of intent.... Cooperating Agencies: Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior; and Department of Ecology... Natural Resources (DNR), and Washington Department of Ecology (WADOE), announced the intent to prepare...
Heilweil, Victor M.; Susong, David D.
Sand Hollow, Utah, is the site of a surface-water reservoir completed in March 2002 and operated by the Washington County Water Conservancy District (WCWCD) primarily as an aquifer storage and recovery project. The reservoir is an off-channel facility that receives water from the Virgin River, diverted near the town of Virgin, Utah. Hydrologic data collected are described and listed in this report, including ground-water levels, reservoir stage, reservoir-water temperature, meteorology, evaporation, and estimated ground-water recharge. Since the construction of the reservoir in 2002, diversions from the Virgin River have resulted in generally rising stage and surface area. Large spring run-off volumes during 2005-06 allowed the WCWCD to fill the reservoir to near capacity, with a surface area of about 1,300 acres in 2006. Reservoir stage reached a record altitude of about 3,060 feet in May 2006, resulting in a depth of nearly 90 feet and a reservoir storage of about 51,000 acre-feet. Water temperature in the reservoir shows large seasonal variation and has ranged from about 5 to 32?C. Estimated ground-water recharge rates have ranged from 0.01 to 0.43 feet per day. Estimated recharge volumes have ranged from about 200 to about 3,500 acre-feet per month. Total ground-water recharge from March 2002 through August 2006 is estimated to be about 51,000 acre-feet. Estimated evaporation rates have varied from 0.05 to 0.97 feet per month, resulting in evaporation losses of 20 to 1,200 acre-feet per month. Total evaporation from March 2002 through August 2006 is estimated to be about 17,000 acre-feet. The combination of generally declining recharge rates and increasing reservoir altitude and area explains the trend of an increasing ratio of evaporation to recharge volume over time, with the total volume of water lost through evaporation nearly as large as the volume of ground-water recharge during the first 8 months of 2006. With removal of the viscosity effects (caused by
Maskrey, Joshua R; Insley, Allison L; Hynds, Erin S; Panko, Julie M
A 3-month air monitoring study was conducted in Washington County, Pennsylvania, at the request of local community members regarding the potential risks resulting from air emissions of pollutants related to hydraulic fracturing operations. Continuous air monitoring for total volatile organic compounds was performed at two sampling sites, including a school and a residence, located within 900 m of a hydraulic fracturing well pad that had been drilled prior to the study. Intermittent 24-hour air samples for 62 individual volatile organic compounds were also collected. The ambient air at both sites was monitored during four distinct periods of unconventional natural gas extraction activity: an inactive period prior to fracturing operations, during fracturing operations, during flaring operations, and during another inactive period after operations. The results of the continuous monitoring during fracturing and flaring sampling periods for total volatile organic compounds were similar to the results obtained during inactive periods. Total volatile organic compound 24-hour average concentrations ranged between 0.16 and 80 ppb during all sampling periods. Several individual volatile compounds were detected in the 24-hour samples, but they were consistent with background atmospheric levels measured previously at nearby sampling sites and in other areas in Washington County. Furthermore, a basic yet conservative screening level evaluation demonstrated that the detected volatile organic compounds were well below health-protective levels. The primary finding of this study was that the operation of a hydraulic fracturing well pad in Washington County did not substantially affect local air concentrations of total and individual volatile organic compounds. PMID:27312253
Major, Thomas J.; Vaught, Kenneth D.
Water levels measured during March 1977 in 350 wells tapping alluvial aquifers in Adams, Larimer, Logan, Morgan, Sedgwick, Washington, and Weld Counties, Colo., are presented. Water-level records for the 4 preceding years are included to serve as references illustrating declining or rising water levels. These data can be used by well owners for planning their irrigation schedules for the next irrigation season and can be used by water managers for developing plans to manage the ground-water resources. (Woodard-USGS)
Trace element and major ion concentrations were measured in water samples collected monthly between March 1985 and March 1986 at the MD-1 pumping station at the Tulare Lake Drainage District evaporation ponds, Kings County, California. Samples were analyzed for selected pesticides several times during the year. Salinity, as measured by specific conductance, ranged from 11,500 to 37,600 microsiemens/centimeter; total recoverable boron ranged from 4,000 to 16,000 micrg/L; and total recoverable molybdenum ranged from 630 to 2,600 microg/L. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium were 97 and 2 microg/L. Atrazine, prometone, propazine, and simazine were the only pesticides detected in water samples collected at the MD-1 pumping station. Major ions, trace elements, and selected pesticides also were analyzed in water and bottom-sediment samples from five of the southern evaporation ponds at Tulare Lake Drainage District. The water samples increased in specific conductance and concentrations of total arsenic, total recoverable boron and total recoverable molybdenum going from pond 1 to pond 10, respectively. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium in the bottom sediments were 4.0 and 0.9 microg/g, respectively. 6 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.
Powell, Charles L.; Fisk, Lanny H.; Maloney, David F.; Haasl, David M.
The stratigraphic occurrences and interpreted biostratigraphy of invertebrate fossil taxa in the upper San Joaquin Formation and lower-most Tulare Formation encountered at the Chemical Waste Management Kettleman Hills waste disposal facility on the North Dome of the Kettleman Hills, Kings County, California are documented. Significant new findings include (1) a detailed biostratigraphy of the upper San Joaquin Formation; (2) the first fossil occurrence of Modiolus neglectus; (3) distinguishing Ostrea sequens from Myrakeena veatchii (Ostrea vespertina of authors) in the Central Valley of California; (4) differentiating two taxa previously attributed to Pteropurpura festivus; (5) finding a stratigraphic succession between Caesia coalingensis (lower in the section) and Catilon iniquus (higher in the section); and (6) recognizing Pliocene-age fossils from around Santa Barbara. In addition, the presence of the bivalves Anodonta and Gonidea in the San Joaquin Formation, both restricted to fresh water and common in the Tulare Formation, confirm periods of fresh water or very close fresh-water environments during deposition of the San Joaquin Formation.
Marston, Thomas M.; Heilweil, Victor M.
Sand Hollow Reservoir in Washington County, Utah, was completed in March 2002 and is operated primarily for managed aquifer recharge by the Washington County Water Conservancy District. From 2002 through 2014, diversions of about 216,000 acre-feet from the Virgin River to Sand Hollow Reservoir have allowed the reservoir to remain nearly full since 2006. Groundwater levels in monitoring wells near the reservoir rose through 2006 and have fluctuated more recently because of variations in reservoir stage and nearby pumping from production wells. Between 2004 and 2014, about 29,000 acre-feet of groundwater was withdrawn by these wells for municipal supply. In addition, about 31,000 acre-feet of shallow seepage was captured by French drains adjacent to the North and West Dams and used for municipal supply, irrigation, or returned to the reservoir. From 2002 through 2014, about 127,000 acre-feet of water seeped beneath the reservoir to recharge the underlying Navajo Sandstone aquifer.Water quality continued to be monitored at various wells in Sand Hollow during 2013–14 to evaluate the timing and location of reservoir recharge as it moved through the aquifer. Changing geochemical conditions at monitoring wells WD 4 and WD 12 indicate rising groundwater levels and mobilization of vadose-zone salts, which could be a precursor to the arrival of reservoir recharge.
Heilweil, Victor M.; Marston, Thomas M.
Sand Hollow Reservoir in Washington County, Utah, was completed in March 2002 and is operated primarily for managed aquifer recharge by the Washington County Water Conservancy District. From 2002 through 2009, total surface-water diversions of about 154,000 acre-feet to Sand Hollow Reservoir have allowed it to remain nearly full since 2006. Groundwater levels in monitoring wells near the reservoir rose through 2006 and have fluctuated more recently because of variations in reservoir water-level altitude and nearby pumping from production wells. Between 2004 and 2009, a total of about 13,000 acre-feet of groundwater has been withdrawn by these wells for municipal supply. In addition, a total of about 14,000 acre-feet of shallow seepage was captured by French drains adjacent to the North and West Dams and used for municipal supply, irrigation, or returned to the reservoir. From 2002 through 2009, about 86,000 acre-feet of water seeped beneath the reservoir to recharge the underlying Navajo Sandstone aquifer. Water-quality sampling was conducted at various monitoring wells in Sand Hollow to evaluate the timing and location of reservoir recharge moving through the aquifer. Tracers of reservoir recharge include major and minor dissolved inorganic ions, tritium, dissolved organic carbon, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and noble gases. By 2010, this recharge arrived at monitoring wells within about 1,000 feet of the reservoir.
The environmental impacts associated with remedial actions in connection with residual radioactive materials remaining at the inactive uranium processing site located in Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania are evaluated. The Canonsburg site is an 18.5-acre property that was formerly owned by the Vitro Rare Metals Company. The expanded Canonsburg site would be 30-acre property that would include the Canonsburg site (the former Vitro Rare Metals plant), seven adjacent private houses, and the former Georges Pottery property. During the period 1942 through 1957 the Vitro Manufacturing Company and its successor, the Vitro Corporation of America, processed onsite residues and ores, and government-owned ores, concentrates, and scraps to extract uranium and other rare metals. The Canonsburg site is now the Canon Industrial Park. In addition to storing the residual radioactive materials of this process at the Canonsburg site, about 12,000 tons of radioactively contaminated materials were transferred to a railroad landfill in Burrell Township, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. This Canonsburg FEIS evaluates five alternatives for removing the potential public health hazard associated with the radioactively contaminated materials. In addition to no action, these alternatives involve various combinations of stabilization of the radioactively contaminated materials in place or decontamination of the Canonsburg and Burrell sites by removing the radioactively contaminated materials to another location. In addition to the two sites mentioned, a third site located in Hanover Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania has been considered as a disposal site to which the radioactively contaminated materials presently located at either of the other two sites might be moved.
Krieger, James K; Takaro, Tim K; Allen, Carol; Song, Lin; Weaver, Marcia; Chai, Sanders; Dickey, Phillip
Pediatric asthma is a growing public health issue, disproportionately affecting low-income people and people of color. Exposure to indoor asthma triggers plays an important role in the development and exacerbation of asthma. We describe the implementation of the Seattle-King County Healthy Homes Project, a randomized, controlled trial of an outreach/education intervention to improve asthma-related health status by reducing exposure to allergens and irritants in the home. We randomly assigned 274 low-income children with asthma ages 4-12 to either a high- or a low-intensity group. In the high-intensity group, community health workers called Community Home Environmental Specialists (CHES) conducted initial home environmental assessments, provided individualized action plans, and made additional visits over a 12-month period to provide education and social support, encouragement of participant actions, provision of materials to reduce exposures (including bedding encasements), assistance with roach and rodent eradication, and advocacy for improved housing conditions. Members of the low-intensity group received the initial assessment, home action plan, limited education during the assessment visit, and bedding encasements. We describe the recruitment and training of CHES and challenges they faced and explain the assessment and exposure reduction protocols addressing dust mites, mold, tobacco smoke, pets, cockroaches, rodents, dust, moisture, and toxic or hazardous chemicals. We also discuss the gap between the practices recommended in the literature and what is feasible in the home. We accomplished home interventions and participants found the project very useful. The project was limited in resolving structural housing quality issues that contributed to exposure to indoor triggers. PMID:11929743
Trace element and major ion concentrations were measured in water samples collected monthly between March 1985 and March 1986 at the MD-1 pumping station at the Tulare Lake Drainage District evaporation ponds, Kings County, California. Samples were analyzed for selected pesticides several times during the year. Salinity, as measured by specific conductance, ranged from 11,500 to 37,600 microsiemens/centimeter; total recoverable boron ranged from 4,000 to 16,000 micrg/L; and total recoverable molybdenum ranged from 630 to 2,600 microg/L. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium were 97 and 2 microg/L. Atrazine, prometone, propazine, and simazine were the only pesticides detected in water samples collected at the MD-1 pumping station. Major ions, trace elements, and selected pesticides also were analyzed in water and bottom-sediment samples from five of the southern evaporation ponds at Tulare Lake Drainage District. Water enters the ponds from the MD-1 pumping station at pond 1 and flows through the system terminating at pond 10. The water samples increased in specific conductance (21,700 to 90,200 microsiemens/centimeter) and concentrations of total arsenic (110 to 420 microg/L), total recoverable boron (12,000 to 80,000 microg/L) and total recoverable molybdenum (1,200 to 5,500 microg/L) going from pond 1 to pond 10, respectively. Pesticides were not detected in water from any of the ponds sampled. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium in the bottom sediments were 4.0 and 0.9 microg/g, respectively. The only pesticides detected in bottom sediment samples from the evaporation ponds were DDD and DDE, with maximum concentration of 0.8 microg/kilogram. (Author 's abstract)
..., 2013, and effective on August 9, 2013, (78 FR 48283, Doc. No. AMS-FV- 13-0055, FV13-923-1 IR), Sec. 923..., without change, as published in the Federal Register (78 FR 48283, August 8, 2013) will tend to effectuate... WASHINGTON Accordingly, the interim rule amending 7 CFR part 923, which was published at 78 FR 48283...
...,600 per year. In addition, the Committee reports that most of the industry's 53 handlers reported... the Washington sweet cherry industry. All interested persons were invited to attend the meeting and... requirements and duplication by industry and public sector agencies. AMS is committed to complying with the...
... concerning this action was published in the Federal Register on August 20, 2013 (78 FR 51098). Copies of the... this issue. The Committee's meeting was widely publicized throughout the Washington apricot industry... reviewed to reduce information requirements and duplication by industry and public sector agencies....
The Northwest Power Planning Council and the Bonneville Power Administration approved the pygmy rabbit project as partial mitigation for impacts caused by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The focus of this project is the protection and enhancement of shrub-steppe/pygmy rabbit habitat in northeastern Washington.
Paulson, A.J.; Norton, D.
Concentrations of mercury (Hg) were measured in six dated cores from four lakes in western Whatcom County, Washington, USA, that were at various bearings from a chlor-alkali plant, two municipal waste incinerators and a municipal sewage sludge incinerator. The importance of atmospheric emissions of Hg from these local municipal and industrial sources was evaluating by comparing the temporal trends in sedimentation of the lake cores with the emission history of each Hg species and by examining the geographical distribution of Hg sedimentation in relation to the region's primary wind pattern. Local municipal and industrial sources of atmospheric Hg were not responsible for the majority of the Hg in the upper layer of sediments of Whatcom County lakes because of (1) the significant enrichment of Hg in lake sediments prior to emissions of local industrial and municipal sources in 1964, (2) smaller increases in Hg concentrations occurred after 1964, (3) the similarity of maximum enrichments found in Whatcom County lakes to those in rural lakes around the world, (4) the inconsistency of the temporal trends in Hg sedimentation with the local emission history, and (5) the inconsistency of the geographic trends in Hg sedimentation with estimated deposition. Maximum enrichment ratios of Hg in lake sediments between 2 and 3 that are similar to rural areas in Alaska, Minnesota, and New England suggest that global sources of Hg were primarily responsible for increases of Hg in Whatcom County lakes beginning about 1900. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Government, Department of Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.
Curran, Christopher A.; Anderson, Scott W.; Barbash, Jack E.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Cox, Stephen E.; Norton, Katherine K.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Spanjer, Andrew R.; Foreman, James R.
Heavy sediment loads in the Sumas River of Whatcom County, Washington, increase seasonal turbidity and cause locally acute sedimentation. Most sediment in the Sumas River is derived from a deep-seated landslide of serpentinite that is located on Sumas Mountain and drained by Swift Creek, a tributary to the Sumas River. This mafic sediment contains high amounts of naturally occurring asbestiform chrysotile. A known human-health hazard, asbestiform chrysotile comprises 0.25–37 percent, by mass, of the total suspended sediment sampled from the Sumas River as part of this study, which included part of water year 2011 and all of water years 2012 and 2013. The suspended-sediment load in the Sumas River at South Pass Road, 0.6 kilometers (km) downstream of the confluence with Swift Creek, was 22,000 tonnes (t) in water year 2012 and 49,000 t in water year 2013. The suspended‑sediment load at Telegraph Road, 18.8 km downstream of the Swift Creek confluence, was 22,000 t in water year 2012 and 27,000 t in water year 2013. Although hydrologic conditions during the study were wetter than normal overall, the 2-year flood peak was only modestly exceeded in water years 2011 and 2013; runoff‑driven geomorphic disturbance to the watershed, which might have involved mass wasting from the landslide, seemed unexceptional. In water year 2012, flood peaks were modest, and the annual streamflow was normal. The fact that suspended-sediment loads in water year 2012 were equivalent at sites 0.6 and 18.8 km downstream of the sediment source indicates that the conservation of suspended‑sediment load can occur under normal hydrologic conditions. The substantial decrease in suspended-sediment load in the downstream direction in water year 2013 was attributed to either sedimentation in the intervening river reach, transfer to bedload as an alternate mode of sediment transport, or both.The sediment in the Sumas River is distinct from sediment in most other river systems because of the
The ALCOA (also known as Vancouver Smelter) site, located on the northern bank of the Columbia River about 4 miles west of Interstate 5 in Vancouver, Clark County, Washington, has been proposed for the National Priorities List. The site consists of three waste piles containing about 66,000 tons of waste (spent potlinings and alumina insulation) that were deposited on the north bank of the Columbia River by ALCOA between 1973 and 1981. ALCOA has since sold the aluminum smelter to another company, VANALCO. The contaminants detected in the groundwater in the area surrounding the piles include cyanide, fluoride, and trichloroethene (TCE). The ALCOA site is of potential public health concern because humans may be exposed to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects.
Snyder, Daniel T.; Wilkinson, James M.; Orzol, Leonard L.
A ground-water flow model was used in conjunction with a particle-tracking program to demonstrate a method of evaluating ground-water vulnerability. The study area encompassed the part of the Portland Basin located in Clark County, Washington. A new computer program was developed that interfaces the particle-tracking program with a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS was used to display and analyze the particle-tracking results and to evaluate ground-water vulnerability by identifying recharge areas and their characteristics, determining the downgradient impact of land use at recharge areas, and estimating the age of ground water. The report presents a description of the methods used and the results of the evaluation of ground-water vulnerability.
Marston, Thomas M.; Heilweil, Victor M.
Sand Hollow Reservoir in Washington County, Utah, was completed in March 2002 and is operated primarily for managed aquifer recharge by the Washington County Water Conservancy District. From 2002 through 2011, surface-water diversions of about 199,000 acre-feet to Sand Hollow Reservoir have allowed the reservoir to remain nearly full since 2006. Groundwater levels in monitoring wells near the reservoir rose through 2006 and have fluctuated more recently because of variations in reservoir altitude and nearby pumping from production wells. Between 2004 and 2011, a total of about 19,000 acre-feet of groundwater was withdrawn by these wells for municipal supply. In addition, a total of about 21,000 acre-feet of shallow seepage was captured by French drains adjacent to the North and West Dams and used for municipal supply, irrigation, or returned to the reservoir. From 2002 through 2011, about 106,000 acre-feet of water seeped beneath the reservoir to recharge the underlying Navajo Sandstone aquifer. Water quality was sampled at various monitoring wells in Sand Hollow to evaluate the timing and location of reservoir recharge as it moved through the aquifer. Tracers of reservoir recharge include major and minor dissolved inorganic ions, tritium, dissolved organic carbon, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and noble gases. By 2012, this recharge arrived at four monitoring wells located within about 1,000 feet of the reservoir. Changing geochemical conditions at five other monitoring wells could indicate other processes, such as changing groundwater levels and mobilization of vadose-zone salts, rather than arrival of reservoir recharge.
Budding, K.E.; Sommer, S.N.
Exploration techniques included the following: (1) a temperature survey of springs, (2) chemical analyses and calculated geothermometer temperatures of water samples collected from selected springs and wells, (3) chemical analyses and calculated geothermometer temperatures of spring and well water samples in the literature, (4) thermal gradients measured in accessible wells, and (5) geology. The highest water temperature recorded in the St. George basin is 42/sup 0/C at Pah Tempe Hot Springs. Additional spring temperatures higher than 20/sup 0/C are at Veyo Hot Spring, Washington hot pot, and Green Spring. The warmest well water in the study area is 40/sup 0/C in Middleton Wash. Additional warm well water (higher than 24.5/sup 0/C) is present north of St. George, north of Washington, southeast of St. George, and in Dameron Valley. The majority of the Na-K-Ca calculated reservoir temperatures range between 30/sup 0/ and 50/sup 0/C. Anomalous geothermometer temperatures were calculated for water from Pah Tempe and a number of locations in St. George and vicinity. In addition to the known thermal areas of Pah Tempe and Veyo Hot Spring, an area north of Washington and St. George is delineated in this study to have possible low-temperature geothermal potential.
Walsh, Gregory J.; Kim, Jonathan; Gale, Marjorie H.; King, Sarah M.
The bedrock geology of the Montpelier and Barre West quadrangles consists of Silurian and Devonian metasedimentary rocks of the Connecticut Valley-Gaspe synclinorium (CVGS) and metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and metaintrusive rocks of the Cambrian and Ordovician Moretown and Cram Hill Formations. Devonian granite dikes occur throughout the two quadrangles but are more abundant in the Silurian and Devonian rocks. The pre-Silurian rocks are separated from the rocks of the CVGS by the informally named 'Richardson Memorial Contact,' historically interpreted as either an unconformity or a fault. The results of this report represent mapping by G.J. Walsh, Jonathan Kim, and M.H. Gale from 2002 to 2005. S.M. King assisted Kim and Gale from 2002 to 2003. A.M. Satkoski (Indiana University) assisted Walsh, and L.R. Pascale (University of Vermont) and C.M. Orsi (Middlebury College) assisted Kim and Gale as summer interns in 2003. This study was designed to map the bedrock geology in the area. This map supersedes a preliminary map of the Montpelier quadrangle (Kim, Gale, and others, 2003). A companion study in the Barre West quadrangle (Walsh and Satkoski, 2005) determined the levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in the bedrock from surface measurements at outcrops during the course of 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping to identify which rock types were potential sources of radionuclides. Results of that study indicate that the carbonaceous phyllites in the CVGS have the highest levels of natural radioactivity.
Curran, Christopher A.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Dinehart, Randal L.; Moran, Edward H.
The removal of two dams from the mainstem of the Elwha River is expected to cause a broad range of changes to the river and nearby coastal ecosystem. The U.S. Geological Survey has documented aspects of the condition of the river to allow analysis of ecological responses to dam removal. This report documents the bank topography, river bathymetry, and current velocity data collected along the lower 0.5 kilometer of the Elwha River, May 15-17, 2006. This information supplements nearshore and beach surveys done in 2006 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal Habitats in Puget Sound program near the Elwha River delta in the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington.
Frest, T.J.; Johannes, E.J.
Assessment of the beneficial uses of the Columbia River and surrounding land at Hanford is enhanced by knowing the distribution of the plants and animals that live there. Deixis Consultants conducted surveys to determine the distribution of land and freshwater molluscs (malacofauna) on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site and surrounding areas for the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The surveys were conducted in 1992. Five species of freshwater molluscs and six species of land snails were found at 21 localities on the Site. The malacofauna of the Site is sparse in comparison to that of other areas in Washington with roughly comparable substrate and climate. Most species found at Hanford are widely distributed forms or are introduced (nonnative) taxa. The Site does have a single endemic land snail, Cryptomastix n. sp., found at a single location. This species likely will be considered a candidate for federal listing. Geologic factors and human modification of spring habitats are the likely causes for the depauperate malacofauna.
McLaughlin, R.J.; Sorg, D.H.; Ohlin, H.N.; Beutner, E.C.
Minor manganese resources occur adjacent to the southeast corner of the King Range Instant Study Area near Queen Peak. The manganese forms small stratabound deposits associated with radiolarian chert and pillow basalt. The known deposits are too small and the manganese too low in concentration for further economic exploitation. Similar manganese mineralization may be within the belt of melange in the southeast corner of the King Range area and within the Chemise Mountain Instant Study Area, but economic deposits are unlikely. Although there has been historical base- and precious-metal exploration activity north of the King Range in the Mattole River drainage, our geologic and geochemical field data indicate almost no gold potential and low potentials for lead, zinc, copper, and silver. During this investigation, one high-grade vein and several minor veins containing lead, zinc, copper, and silver were discovered at Point Delgada immediately south of the King Range Instant Study Area. The vein mineralization is Miocene and cuts Cretaceous basalt flows, dikes, flow breccia, and younger overlying sedimentary rocks of the King Range. The vein mineralization at Point Delgada could be remobilized from more extensive unexposed stratabound base-metal mineralization at depth. Traces of lead and zinc detected within the King Range Instant Study Area may have similar stratabound or vein origins, but no resource potential is indicated. Minor copper mineralization with associated lead, zinc, and manganese anomalies within the Chemise Mountain Instant Study Area is of low economic potential because of the shearing, isolation, and lenticularity of the basaltic and cherty rocks within the melange mineralization.
Jones, Joseph L.; Welch, Wendy B.; Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.
This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater flow system in the Chimacum Creek basin. It includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework; groundwater recharge and discharge; groundwater levels and flow directions; seasonal fluctuations in groundwater level; interactions between aquifers and the surface-water system; and a groundwater budget. The study area covers 124 square miles in northeastern Jefferson County, Washington, and includes the Chimacum Creek basin, which drains an area of about 37 square miles. The area is underlain by a north-thickening sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits that overlie sedimentary and igneous bedrock units that crop out along the margins and western interior of the study area. Six hydrogeologic units consisting of unconsolidated aquifers and confining units, along with an underlying bedrock unit, were identified. A surficial hydrogeologic map was developed and used with well information from 187 drillers' logs to construct 4 hydrogeologic sections, and maps showing the extent and thickness of the units. Natural recharge was estimated using precipitation-recharge relation regression equations developed for western Washington, and estimates were calculated for return flow from data on domestic indoor and outdoor use and irrigated agriculture. Results from synoptic streamflow measurements and water table elevations determined from monthly measurements at monitoring wells are presented and compared with those from a study conducted during 2002-03. A water budget was calculated comprising long-term average recharge, domestic public-supply withdrawals and return flow, self-supplied domestic withdrawals and return flow, and irrigated agricultural withdrawals and return flow.
Paillet, Frederick L.
Acoustic-waveform and acoustic-televiewer logs were obtained for a 400-meter interval of deeply buried basalt flows in three boreholes, and over shorter intervals in two additional boreholes located on the U.S. Department of Energy 's Hanford site in Benton County, Washington. Borehole-wall breakouts were observed in the unaltered interiors of a large part of individual basalt flows; however, several of the flows in one of the five boreholes had almost no breakouts. The distribution of breakouts observed on the televiewer logs correlated closely with the incidence of core disking in some intervals, but the correlation was not always perfect, perhaps because of the differences in the specific fracture mechanisms involved. Borehole-wall breakouts were consistently located on the east and west sides of the boreholes. The orientation is consistent with previous estimates of the principal horizontal-stress field in south-central Washington, if breakouts are assumed to form along the azimuth of the least principal stress. The distribution of breakouts repeatedly indicated an interval of breakout-free rock at the top and bottom of flows. Because breakouts frequently terminate at major low-angle fractures, the data indicate that fracturing may have relieved some of the horizontal stresses near flow tops and bottoms. Unaltered and unfractured basalt appeared to have a uniform compressional velocity of 6.0 + or - 0.1 km/sec and a uniform shear velocity of 3.35 + or - 0.1 km/sec throughout flow interiors. Acoustics-waveform logs also indicated that borehole-wall breakouts did not affect acoustic propagation along the borehole; so fracturing associated with the formation of breakouts appeared to be confined to a thin annulus of stress concentration around the borehole. Televiewer logs obtained before and after hydraulic fracturing in these boreholes indicated the extent of induced fractures, and also indicated minor changes to pre-existing fractures that may have been inflated
Marston, Thomas M.; Heilweil, Victor M.
The Hurricane Bench area of Washington County, Utah, is a 70 square-mile area extending south from the Virgin River and encompassing Sand Hollow basin. Sand Hollow Reservoir, located on Hurricane Bench, was completed in March 2002 and is operated primarily as a managed aquifer recharge project by the Washington County Water Conservancy District. The reservoir is situated on a thick sequence of the Navajo Sandstone and Kayenta Formation. Total recharge to the underlying Navajo aquifer from the reservoir was about 86,000 acre-feet from 2002 to 2009. Natural recharge as infiltration of precipitation was approximately 2,100 acre-feet per year for the same period. Discharge occurs as seepage to the Virgin River, municipal and irrigation well withdrawals, and seepage to drains at the base of reservoir dams. Within the Hurricane Bench area, unconfined groundwater-flow conditions generally exist throughout the Navajo Sandstone. Navajo Sandstone hydraulic-conductivity values from regional aquifer testing range from 0.8 to 32 feet per day. The large variability in hydraulic conductivity is attributed to bedrock fractures that trend north-northeast across the study area. A numerical groundwater-flow model was developed to simulate groundwater movement in the Hurricane Bench area and to simulate the movement of managed aquifer recharge from Sand Hollow Reservoir through the groundwater system. The model was calibrated to combined steady- and transient-state conditions. The steady-state portion of the simulation was developed and calibrated by using hydrologic data that represented average conditions for 1975. The transient-state portion of the simulation was developed and calibrated by using hydrologic data collected from 1976 to 2009. Areally, the model grid was 98 rows by 76 columns with a variable cell size ranging from about 1.5 to 25 acres. Smaller cells were used to represent the reservoir to accurately simulate the reservoir bathymetry and nearby monitoring wells
Heilweil, Victor M.; Ortiz, Gema; Susong, David D.
Sand Hollow Reservoir in Washington County, Utah, was completed in March 2002 and is operated primarily as an aquifer storage and recovery project by the Washington County Water Conservancy District (WCWCD). Since its inception in 2002 through 2007, surface-water diversions of about 126,000 acre-feet to Sand Hollow Reservoir have resulted in a generally rising reservoir stage and surface area. Large volumes of runoff during spring 2005-06 allowed the WCWCD to fill the reservoir to a total storage capacity of more than 50,000 acre-feet, with a corresponding surface area of about 1,300 acres and reservoir stage of about 3,060 feet during 2006. During 2007, reservoir stage generally decreased to about 3,040 feet with a surface-water storage volume of about 30,000 acre-feet. Water temperature in the reservoir shows large seasonal variation and has ranged from about 3 to 30 deg C from 2003 through 2007. Except for anomalously high recharge rates during the first year when the vadose zone beneath the reservoir was becoming saturated, estimated ground-water recharge rates have ranged from 0.01 to 0.09 feet per day. Estimated recharge volumes have ranged from about 200 to 3,500 acre-feet per month from March 2002 through December 2007. Total ground-water recharge during the same period is estimated to have been about 69,000 acre-feet. Estimated evaporation rates have varied from 0.04 to 0.97 feet per month, resulting in evaporation losses of 20 to 1,200 acre-feet per month. Total evaporation from March 2002 through December 2007 is estimated to have been about 25,000 acre-feet. Results of water-quality sampling at monitoring wells indicate that by 2007, managed aquifer recharge had arrived at sites 37 and 36, located 60 and 160 feet from the reservoir, respectively. However, different peak arrival dates for specific conductance, chloride, chloride/bromide ratios, dissolved oxygen, and total dissolved-gas pressures at each monitoring well indicate the complicated nature of
This report is organized into five sections. Section 2 summarizes the methods used to compile and analyze the data presented in the report. It includes a discussion of the Qualilty Assurance context within which the data were collected, analyzed, and stored; a definition of the variables and time period included in the profile; description of the secondary and primary data collection, compilation, and analysis procedures used in preparing the report; and a summary of the database management system that will be used to store and provide access to the data presented in the the report. Section 3 contains the profile information, organized by topic. A combination of tables, figures, and text are used to describe the economic and demographic conditions in Benton and Franklin counties. Section 4 summarizes outstanding technical issues and data requirements, and Section 5 provides a bibliography of the documents and personal communications from which the data in this report were obtained. 27 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs.
Hsieh, Paul A.; Barber, Michael E.; Contor, Bryce A.; Hossain, Md. Akram; Johnson, Gary S.; Jones, Joseph L.; Wylie, Allan H.
This report presents a computer model of ground-water flow in the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie (SVRP) aquifer in Spokane County, Washington, and Bonner and Kootenai Counties, Idaho. The aquifer is the sole source of drinking water for more than 500,000 residents in the area. In response to the concerns about the impacts of increased ground-water withdrawals resulting from recent and projected urban growth, a comprehensive study was initiated by the Idaho Department of Water Resources, the Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Geological Survey to improve the understanding of ground-water flow in the aquifer and of the interaction between ground water and surface water. The ground-water flow model presented in this report is one component of this comprehensive study. The primary purpose of the model is to serve as a tool for analyzing aquifer inflows and outflows, simulating the effects of future changes in ground-water withdrawals from the aquifer, and evaluating aquifer management strategies. The scale of the model and the level of detail are intended for analysis of aquifer-wide water-supply issues. The SVRP aquifer model was developed by the Modeling Team formed within the comprehensive study. The Modeling Team consisted of staff and personnel working under contract with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, personnel working under contract with the Washington Department of Ecology, and staff of the U.S. Geological Survey. To arrive at a final model that has the endorsement of all team members, decisions on modeling approach, methodology, assumptions, and interpretations were reached by consensus. The ground-water flow model MODFLOW-2000 was used to simulate ground-water flow in the SVPR aquifer. The finite-difference model grid consists of 172 rows, 256 columns, and 3 layers. Ground-water flow was simulated from September 1990 through September 2005 using 181 stress periods of 1 month each. The areal extent of the model encompasses an area of
Frest, T.J.; Johannes, E.J.
Assessment of the beneficial uses of the Columbia River and surrounding land at Hanford is enhanced by knowing the distribution of the plants and animals that live there. Deixis Consultants conducted surveys to determine the distribution of land and freshwater molluscs (malacofauna) on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site and surrounding areas for the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The surveys were conducted in 1992. Five species of freshwater molluscs and six species of land snails were found at 21 localities on the Site. The malacofauna of the Site is sparse in comparison to that of other areas in Washington with roughly comparable substrate and climate. Most species found at Hanford are widely distributed forms or are introduced (nonnative) taxa. The Site does have a single endemic land snail, Cryptomastix n. sp., found at a single location. This species likely will be considered a candidate for federal listing. Geologic factors and human modification of spring habitats are the likely causes for the depauperate malacofauna.
Sapik, D.B.; Bortleson, Gilbert C.; Drost, B.W.; Jones, M.A.; Prych, E.A.
Aquifers in Island County, Washington, that are intruded by seawater from Puget Sound contain chloride concentrations that exceed 100 mg/L. Chloride concentrations exceeded 100 mg/L in 24 % of the wells that were drilled below sea level and sampled in August 1981, but most of the chloride concentrations did not exceed 1,000 mg/L. Groundwater occurs in glacial deposits that have a maximum thickness of 3,000 ft; the deposits were divided into five aquifers and five confining units. Four overlapping digital models were calibrated, using time-averaged data, to simulate three-dimensional steady flow of fresh groundwater in multiple aquifers containing freshwater and seawater separated by a sharp interface. Model simulations indicate that most of the recharge is discharged from aquifers C and D as springs below sea levels, and only a small fraction of the recharge moves downward below aquifer C. Simulations also indicate that aquifers beneath the islands are not recharged by groundwater that moves from the mainland through aquifers beneath Puget Sound except in the area of northeast Camano Island. Between Whidbey and Camano Islands, the freshwater-seawater interface intersects the bottom of Puget Sound and prevents movement of fresh groundwater between the two islands. (USGS)
Tabor, Rowland W.; Haugerud, Ralph A.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Clark, Kenneth P.
This map is an interpretation of a 6-ft-resolution (2-m-resolution) lidar (light detection and ranging) digital elevation model combined with the geology depicted on the Geologic Map of the Wildcat Lake 7.5' quadrangle, Kitsap and Mason Counties, Washington (Haeussler and Clark, 2000). Haeussler and Clark described, interpreted, and located the geology on the 1:24,000-scale topographic map of the Wildcat Lake 7.5' quadrangle. This map, derived from 1951 aerial photographs, has 20-ft contours, nominal horizontal resolution of approximately 40 ft (12 m), and nominal mean vertical accuracy of approximately 10 ft (3 m). Similar to many geologic maps, much of the geology in the Haeussler and Clark (2000) map-especially the distribution of surficial deposits-was interpreted from landforms portrayed on the topographic map. In 2001, the Puget Sound lidar Consortium obtained a lidar-derived digital elevation model (DEM) for Kitsap Peninsula including all of the Wildcat Lake 7.5' quadrangle. This new DEM has a horizontal resolution of 6 ft (2 m) and a mean vertical accuracy of about 1 ft (0.3 m). The greater resolution and accuracy of the lidar DEM compared to topography constructed from air photo stereo models have much improved the interpretation of geology in this heavily vegetated landscape, especially the distribution and relative age of some surficial deposits. Many contacts of surficial deposits are adapted unmodified or slightly modified from Haugerud (2009).
National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.
This lesson plan teaches students about the life and work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Students listen to a brief biography, view photographs of the March on Washington, and read a portion of King's "I Have a Dream" speech. After studying Dr. King's use of imagery and allusion, students create original poetic phrases about freedom and illustrate…
This report focuses on measures of supply and demand for key facilities and services and provides a summary of 1985 conditions in education (public schools and libraries), public safety (police and sheriff, correction facilities, courts, and fire departments), health care and social services, and infrastructure (streets and roads, water and waste, and parks and recreation). These facilities and services are provided by public entities for use by the general public. In most cases, the providing agencies are funded by tax dollars and governed by elected representatives. As is generally demonstrated in this section none of the areas presented reveals demands for facilites and services in excess of current supply. In the area of education, the study area is providing service slightly above the state average by spending $1812 per pupil for certificated staff salaries ( the state average is $1789), and enrollment levels are below capacity. Public safety also appears to be adequately covered with approximately 1.5 police officers per 1000 people and 0.75 fire fighters per 1000 people. One potential concern is that the Benton County correctional facility is currently being run at its capacity level. Health facilites, with the major hospitals operating at less than half capacity, appear to be adequate to meet the needs of the population. Infrastructure also appears to be adequate. Water and waste facilities have been expanded in recent years. However, this report is based on data for a single year and does not include historical trends. As the monitoring program continues, historical data will be collected and presented in order to put the information presented here in an historical perspective. 55 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.
Bradley, G. ); Luce, C.
An evaluation of the Washington State Environmental Policy Act's (SEPA) use by King County shows that the substantive provisions of SEPA are seldom used. Because of this lack of use, the fundamental purposes of the act are being undermined and ecological damage continues without accountability. The authors propose a simple approach to increase the use of the substantive provision. The approach requires that administrators make precise interpretations of often vague environmental policies. This will result in increased use of applied science in the adaptive management paradigm and fulfilling the substantive intent of SEPA.
Evarts, Russell C.
The Woodland 7.5' quadrangle is situated in the Puget-Willamette Lowland approximately 50 km north of Portland, Oregon (fig. 1). The lowland, which extends from Puget Sound into west-central Oregon, is a complex structural and topographic trough that lies between the Coast Range and the Cascade Range. Since late Eocene time, the Cascade Range has been the locus of an active volcanic arc associated with underthrusting of oceanic lithosphere beneath the North American continent along the Cascadia Subduction Zone. The Coast Range occupies the forearc position within the Cascadia arc-trench system and consists of a complex assemblage of Eocene to Miocene volcanic and marine sedimentary rocks. The Woodland quadrangle lies at the northern edge of the Portland Basin, a roughly 2000-km2 topographic and structural depression that is the northernmost of several sediment-filled structural basins, which collectively constitute the Willamette Valley segment of the Puget-Willamette Lowland (Beeson and others, 1989; Swanson and others, 1993; Yeats and others, 1996). The Portland Basin is approximately 70 km long and 30 km wide; its long dimension is oriented northwest. Its northern boundary coincides, in part, with the lower Lewis River, which flows westward through the center of the quadrangle. The Lewis drains a large area in the southern Washington Cascade Range, including the southern flank of Mount St. Helens approximately 25 km upstream from the quadrangle, and joins the Columbia River about 6 km south of Woodland (fig. 1). Northwest of Woodland, the Columbia River exits the broad floodplain of the Portland Basin and flows northward through a relatively narrow bedrock valley at an elevation near sea level. The flanks of the Portland Basin consist of Eocene through Miocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks that rise to elevations exceeding 2000 ft (610 m). Seismic-reflection profiles (L.M. Liberty, written commun., 2003) and lithologic logs of water wells (Swanson and others
Approval of the Lemoore Center of the West Hills Community College District. A Report to the Governor and Legislature in Response to a Request from the Board of Governors to Recognize the Center as the Official Community College Center for the Lemoore/Hanford Area of Kings County.
California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.
The Lemoore Center of the West Hills Community College District serves the Lemoore/Hanford area of Kings and Fresno Counties--an area lying within both the West Hills and the College of the Sequoias Community College Districts. Jurisdictional problems between the districts prompted the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges to…
This report evaluates evapotranspiration for six sites in Benton, Spokane, and Yakima Counties, Washington. Three sites were located on the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve in Benton County: one at a full-canopy grassland in Snively Basin (Snively Basin site), one at a sparse-canopy grassland adjacent to two weighing lysimeters (grass lysimeter site), and one at a sagebrush grassland adjacent to two weighing lysimeters (sage lysimeter site). Two sites were located on the Turnbull National Wildlife Refuge in Spokane County: one at a full-canopy grassland in a meadow (Turnbull meadow site), the other a full-canopy grassland near a marsh (Turnbull marsh site). The last site was located in a sagebrush grassland in the Black Rock Valley in Yakima County (Black Rock Valley site). The periods of study at the six sites varied, ranging from 5 months at the Black Rock Valley site to more than 2 years at the Snively Basin, grass lysimeter, and sage lysimeter sites. The periods of study were May 1990 to September 1992 for the Snively Basin, grass lysimeter, and sage lysimeter sites; May 1991 to September 1992 for the Turnbull meadow site; May 1991 to April 1992 for the Turnbull marsh site; and March to September 1992 for the Black Rock Valley site. Evapotranspiration and energy-budget fluxes were estimated for the Snively Basin site, the Turnbull meadow site, and the Black Rock Valley site using the Bowen-ratio and Penman-Monteith methods. Daily evapotranspiration for the Snively Basin site was also estimated using a deep-percolation model for the Columbia Basin. The Bowen-ratio method and weighing lysimeters were used at the grass and sage lysimeter sites. The Penman-Monteith method was used at the Turnbull marsh site. Daily evapotranspiration at the sites ranged from under 0.2 millimeter during very dry or cold periods to over 4\\x11millimeters after heavy rainfall or during periods of peak transpiration. At all sites, peak evapotranspiration occurred in spring, coinciding with
Lusczynski, N.J.; Spiegel, S.J.
The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Water Power and Control Commission, the Nassau County Department of Public Works, the Suffolk County Board of Supervisors, and the Suffolk County Water Authority has been conducting continuing investigations since 1932 on the ground-water resources in Long Island, N. Y. One of the several phases of these studies is the collection and tabulation of data on the withdrawals by pumpage for public supply.
3. Photocopy of architectural rendering, ca. 1902, from Moses King, Philadelphia and Notable Philadelphians, (1902), page 24 D. - Drexel Institute, Thirty-second & Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT ROOM (WHERE MARTIN LUTHER KING MADE PLANS FOR HIS MOVEMENT) - Penn School Historic District, Arnett House, SC Route 37, 1 mile South of Frogmore, St. Helena Island, Frogmore, Beaufort County, SC
2. Photocopy of photograph (from Moses King, Philadelphia and Notable Philadelphians , 1902, p. 260) OBLIQUE VIEW, SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) AND EAST(SIDE) ELEVATIONS - Old U.S. Mint, Chestnut & Juniper Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Snyder, D.T.; Wilkinson, J.M.; Orzol, L.L.
A ground-water flow model was used in conjunction with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability in Clark County, Washington. Using the particle-tracking program, particles were placed in every cell of the flow model (about 60,000 particles) and tracked backwards in time and space upgradient along flow paths to their recharge points. A new computer program was developed that interfaces the results from a particle-tracking program with a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS was used to display and analyze the particle-tracking results. Ground-water vulnerability was evaluated by selecting parts of the ground-water flow system and combining the results with ancillary information stored in the GIS to determine recharge areas, characteristics of recharge areas, downgradient impact of land use at recharge areas, and age of ground water. Maps of the recharge areas for each hydrogeologic unit illustrate the presence of local, intermediate, or regional ground-water flow systems and emphasize the three-dimensional nature of the ground-water flow system in Clark County. Maps of the recharge points for each hydrogeologic unit were overlaid with maps depicting aquifer sensitivity as determined by DRASTIC (a measure of the pollution potential of ground water, based on the intrinsic characteristics of the near-surface unsaturated and saturated zones) and recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems. A large number of recharge areas were identified, particularly in southern Clark County, that have a high aquifer sensitivity, coincide with areas of recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems, or both. Using the GIS, the characteristics of the recharge areas were related to the downgradient parts of the ground-water system that will eventually receive flow that has recharged through these areas. The aquifer sensitivity, as indicated by DRASTIC, of the recharge areas for downgradient parts of the flow system was mapped for each hydrogeologic unit. A number of
Dinicola, Richard S.
The validity of a previously determined numerical modeling method was assessed. Numerical models for 11 drainage basins were constructed with the Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) with parameter values that were generalized for the physiographic region. Large and recurrent simulation errors were initially identified, but three systematic modifications of the models corrected those errors for 10 out of the 11 basins. The validity of the numerical modeling method for simulating rainfall-runoff relations in the study area, as modified during this investigation, was not rejected, but observed streamflow data were needed to apply the method.
Booth, Derek B.; Walsh, Timothy J.; Goetz-Troost, Kathy; Shimel, Scott A.
The Issaquah area includes several of the most outstanding geologic features of the eastern Puget Lowland region. Folds have warped thousands of meters of Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Several hundred meters of both glacial and postglacial sediment have accumulated in a deep glacial trough, which is now partly occupied by Lake Sammamish but which was previously the conduit for massive volumes of meltwater during ice-sheet occupation and retreat. The eastern projection of an east-west-oriented crustal structure, which reflects Tertiary through Holocene fault displacement, extends across the eastern part of the map area. In addition to these geologic features, some of the most rapid human alteration of the landscape in the entire Puget Lowland has occurred here. Since the 19th century, coal was extensively mined and, since the early 1980s, the region has been overtaken by urbanization. In places, this alteration has dramatically accelerated the rate of geomorphic processes. For example, the hillsides have been regraded as a result of mining and quarries throughout the southern one-third of the quadrangle; stream channels have recently incised above the eastern shores of Lake Sammamish; and sediments have deposited on the lakeshore and into the lake itself.
Haushild, W.L.; Stoner, J.D.
A model of the circulation and quality of water in the Duwamish River estuary has been sufficiently developed to allow prediction of the effects of a proposed widening and deepening of waterways on residence time and dissolved oxygen in the estuary's salt wedge. For a low river-discharge period in August 1970, use of the model yielded an estimated residence time of wedge water to be 6.3 days in the present waterways estuary and 8.6 days in the wider and deeper proposed-waterways estuary--a 37-percent increase. June-September 1970 and for the estuary about 4 miles upstream from its mouth, the model estimates indicate that dissolved-oxygen values in the wedge of the proposed-waterways estuary would be as much as 1.4 milligrams per liter lower and would average 0.4 milligram per liter lower than (average difference significant at 95-percent confidence level) dissolved-oxygen values in the wedge of the present-waterways estuary. Extrapolation to low dissolved-oxygen values of a regression between the predicted dissolved oxygen for both the proposed and present-waterways estuaries suggests that 4 miles upstream of the estuary mouth oxygen would be completely depleted from the proposed-waterways estuary wedge whereas there still would be 0.2 milligram of oxygen per liter of water in the wedge of the present-waterways estuary.
Deibert, Ryan J.; Goldbaum, Gary; Parker, Theodore R.; Hagan, Holly; Marks, Robert; Hanrahan, Michael; Thiede, Hanne
We examined pharmacists’ attitudes and practices related to syringe sales to injection drug users before and after legal reform and local programming to enhance sterile syringe access. We replicated a 1996 study by conducting pharmacist phone surveys and syringe test-buys in randomly selected pharmacies. Test-buy success increased from 48% in 1996 to 65% in 2003 (P=.04). Pharmacists agreeing that syringes should be available to injection drug users through pharmacy purchase increased from 49% to 71% (P<.01). Pharmacy policies and pharmacist attitudes were strongly associated with syringe access. Structural changes, including policy reform and pharmacy outreach, appear to increase syringe access. Interventions should address pharmacy policies and pharmacist attitudes and policies. PMID:16809607
Tabor, Rowland W.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Haugerud, Ralph A.; Wells, Ray E.
In 2000 and 2001, the Puget Sound Lidar Consortium obtained 1 pulse/m2 lidar data for about 65 percent of the Uncas 7.5' quadrangle. For a brief description of LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) and this data acquisition program, see Haugerud and others (2003). This map combines geologic interpretation (mostly by Haugerud and Tabor) of the 6-ft (2-m) lidar-derived digital elevation model (DEM) with the geology depicted on the Preliminary Geologic Map of the Uncas 7.5' Quadrangle, Clallam and Jefferson Counties, Washington, by Peter J. Haeussler and others (1999). The Uncas quadrangle in the northeastern Olympic Peninsula covers the transition from the accreted terranes of the Olympic Mountains on the west to the Tertiary and Quaternary basin fills of the Puget Lowland to the east. Elevations in the map area range from sea level at Port Discovery to 4,116 ft (1,255 m) on the flank of the Olympic Mountains to the southwest. Previous geologic mapping within and marginal to the Uncas quadrangle includes reports by Cady and others (1972), Brown and others (1960), Tabor and Cady (1978a), Yount and Gower (1991), and Yount and others (1993). Paleontologic and stratigraphic investigations by University of Washington graduate students (Allison, 1959; Thoms, 1959; Sherman, 1960; Hamlin, 1962; Spencer, 1984) also encompass parts of the Uncas quadrangle. Haeussler and Wells mapped in February 1998, following preliminary mapping by Yount and Gower in 1976 and 1979. The description of surficial map units follows Yount and others (1993) and Booth and Waldron (2004). Bedrock map units are modified from Yount and Gower (1991) and Spencer (1984). We used the geologic time scale of Gradstein and others (2005). The Uncas quadrangle lies in the forearc of the Cascadia subduction zone, about 6.25 mi (10 km) east of the Cascadia accretionary complex exposed in the core of the Olympic Mountains (Tabor and Cady, 1978b). Underthrusting of the accretionary complex beneath the forearc
Slizovskiy, Ilya B.; Lamers, Vanessa; Trufan, Sally J.; Holford, Theodore R.; Dziura, James D.; Peduzzi, Peter N.; Kane, Michael J.; Reif, John S.; Weiss, Theresa R.; Stowe, Meredith H.
of specific air and water exposures, is warranted. Citation: Rabinowitz PM, Slizovskiy IB, Lamers V, Trufan SJ, Holford TR, Dziura JD, Peduzzi PN, Kane MJ, Reif JS, Weiss TR, Stowe MH. 2015. Proximity to natural gas wells and reported health status: results of a household survey in Washington County, Pennsylvania. Environ Health Perspect 123:21–26; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307732 PMID:25204871
van Heeswijk, Marijke; Cox, Stephen E.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Curran, Christopher A.
The Lower and Combined Aquifers of the Eastbank Aquifer system, located in a river-terrace deposit along the Columbia River near Rocky Reach Dam, Washington, are primarily recharged by the Columbia River and provide water to the Eastbank Hatchery and the regional water system servicing the cities of Wenatchee, East Wenatchee, and parts of unincorporated Chelan and Douglas Counties. In 2006, mean annual pumpage from the aquifers by the hatchery and regional water system was about 43 and 16 cubic feet per second, respectively. Reportedly, temperatures of ground water pumped by the hatchery have been increasing, thereby making water potentially too warm for salmonid fish production. An evaluation of hourly ground-water and river temperatures from January 1991 through August 2007 indicates increasing interannual trends in temperatures in most of the Lower and Combined Aquifers from 1999 through 2006 that correspond to increasing trends in the annual mean and annual maximum river temperatures during the same period of 0.07 and 0.17?C per year, respectively. There were no trends in the annual minimum river temperatures from 1999 through 2006, and there were no trends in the annual minimum, mean, and maximum river temperatures from 1991 through 1998 and from 1991 through 2007. Increases in river temperatures from 1999 through 2006 are within the natural variability of the river temperatures. Most of the Lower and Combined Aquifers reached thermal equilibrium?defined by constant time lags between changes in river temperatures and subsequent changes in ground-water temperatures?during 1991?98. The only exceptions are the Combined Aquifer north of the well field of the regional water system, which had not reached thermal equilibrium by 2006, and the Lower Aquifer west of the well fields of the hatchery and the regional water system, which reached thermal equilibrium prior to 1991. Because most of the Lower and Combined Aquifers were in thermal equilibrium from 1999 through
Hinkle, Stephen R.; Ely, D. Matthew
As part of a multidisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey study of water resources in Upper Kittitas County, Washington, chemical and isotopic data were collected from groundwater, surface-water, and atmospheric precipitation sites from 2010 to 2012. These data are documented here so that interested parties can quickly and easily find those chemical and isotopic data related to this study. The locations of the samples are shown on an interactive map of the study area. This report is dynamic; additional data will be added to it as they become available.
Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Ely, D. Matthew; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Kahle, Sue C.; Welch, Wendy B.
The hydrogeology, hydrology, and geochemistry of groundwater and surface water in the upper (western) 860 square miles of the Yakima River Basin in Kittitas County, Washington, were studied to evaluate the groundwater-flow system, occurrence and availability of groundwater, and the extent of groundwater/surface-water interactions. The study area ranged in altitude from 7,960 feet in its headwaters in the Cascade Range to 1,730 feet at the confluence of the Yakima River with Swauk Creek. A west-to-east precipitation gradient exists in the basin with the western, high-altitude headwaters of the basin receiving more than 100 inches of precipitation per year and the eastern, low-altitude part of the basin receiving about 20 inches of precipitation per year. From the early 20th century onward, reservoirs in the upper part of the basin (for example, Keechelus, Kachess, and Cle Elum Lakes) have been managed to store snowmelt for irrigation in the greater Yakima River Basin. Canals transport water from these reservoirs for irrigation in the study area; additional water use is met through groundwater withdrawals from wells and surface-water withdrawals from streams and rivers. Estimated groundwater use for domestic, commercial, and irrigation purposes is reported for the study area. A complex assemblage of sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous bedrock underlies the study area. In a structural basin in the southeastern part of the study area, the bedrock is overlain by unconsolidated sediments of glacial and alluvial origin. Rocks and sediments were grouped into six hydrogeologic units based on their lithologic and hydraulic characteristics. A map of their extent was developed from previous geologic mapping and lithostratigraphic information from drillers’ logs. Water flows through interstitial space in unconsolidated sediments, but largely flows through fractures and other sources of secondary porosity in bedrock. Generalized groundwater-flow directions within the
Savoca, Mark E.; Welch, Wendy B.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Lane, R.C.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.
This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater-flow system in the Chambers-Clover Creek Watershed and vicinity, and includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework; groundwater recharge and discharge; groundwater levels and flow directions; seasonal groundwater level fluctuations; interactions between aquifers and the surface-water system; and a water budget. The study area covers about 706 square miles in western Pierce County, Washington, and extends north to the Puyallup River, southwest to the Nisqually River, and is bounded on the south and east by foothills of the Cascade Range and on the west by Puget Sound. The area is underlain by a northwest-thickening sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits which overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the foothills along the southern and southeastern margin of the study area. Geologic units were grouped into 11 hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit. A surficial hydrogeologic unit map was developed and used with well information from 450 drillers' logs to construct 6 hydrogeologic sections, and unit extent and thickness maps. Groundwater in unconsolidated glacial and interglacial aquifers generally flows to the northwest towards Puget Sound, and to the north and northeast towards the Puyallup River. These generalized flow patterns likely are complicated by the presence of low permeability confining units that separate discontinuous bodies of aquifer material and act as local groundwater-flow barriers. Water levels in wells completed in the unconsolidated hydrogeologic units show seasonal variations ranging from less than 1 to about 50 feet. The largest groundwater-level fluctuation (78 feet) observed during the monitoring period (March 2007-September 2008) was in a well completed in the bedrock unit. Synoptic streamflow measurements made in September 2007 and July 2008 indicated a
Johnson, Kenneth H.; Savoca, Mark E.; Clothier, Burt
A groundwater-flow model was developed to contribute to an improved understanding of water resources in the Chambers-Clover Creek Watershed. The model covers an area of about 491 square miles in western Pierce County, Washington, and is bounded to the northeast by the Puyallup River valley, to the southwest by the Nisqually River valley, and extends northwest to Puget Sound, and southeast to Tanwax Creek. The Puyallup and Nisqually Rivers occupy large, relatively flat alluvial valleys that are separated by a broad, poorly drained, upland area that covers most of the model area. Chambers and Clover Creeks drain much of the central uplands and flow westward to Puget Sound. The model area is underlain by a northwest-thickening sequence of unconsolidated glacial (till and outwash) and interglacial (fluvial and lacustrine) deposits. Ten unconsolidated hydrogeologic units in the model area form the basis of the groundwater-flow model. Groundwater flow in the Chambers-Clover Creek Watershed and vicinity was simulated using the groundwater-flow model, MODFLOW-2000. The finite-difference model grid comprises 146 rows, 132 columns, and 11 layers. Each model cell has a horizontal dimension of 1,000 by 1,000 feet, and the model contains a total of 123,602 active cells. The thickness of model layers varies throughout the model area and ranges from 1.5 feet in the A3 aquifer unit to 1,567 feet in the G undifferentiated unit. Groundwater flow was simulated for both steady-state and transient conditions. Steady-state conditions were simulated using average recharge, discharge, and water levels for the 24-month period September 2006-August 2008. Transient conditions were simulated for the period September 2006-August 2008 using 24 monthly stress periods. Resource managers and local stakeholders intend to use the model to evaluate a range of water resource issues under both steady-state and transient conditions. Initial conditions for the transient model were developed from a 3-year
Gallagher, Mary Grace
This year marks the 40th anniversary of the first Coretta Scott King Book Award, which encourages "the artistic expression of the black experience via literature and the graphic arts." The award, which began honoring illustrators in 1974, added the John Steptoe Award for New Talent in 1995. No doubt, past King award winners like Sharon Flake,…
... Subarea Special Study. The Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) is a joint lead with Reclamation in..., Congress has funded Reclamation to investigate this problem. Ecology has partnered with Reclamation by... legislature passed the Columbia River Water Resource Management Act (HB 2860) that directs Ecology...
Schrumpf, B. J. (Principal Investigator); Simonson, G. H.; Paine, D. P.; Lawrence, R. D.; Pyott, W. T.; Herzog, J. H.; Murray, R. J.; Norgren, J. A.; Cornwell, J. A.; Rogers, R. A.
The author has identified the following significant results. Multidiscipline team interpretation and mapping of resources for Crook County is complete on 1:250,000 scale enlargements of ERTS imagery and 1:120,000 hi-flight photography. Maps of geology, soils, vegetation-land use and land resources units were interpreted to show limitations, suitabilities, and geologic hazards for land use planning. Mapping of lineaments and structures from ERTS imagery has shown a number of features not previously mapped in Oregon. A multistage timber inventory of Ochoco National Forest was made, using ERTS images as the first stage. Inventory of forest clear-cutting practices was successfully demonstrated with color composites. Soil tonal differences in fallow fields correspond with major soil boundaries in loess-mantled terrain. A digital classification system used for discriminating natural vegetation and geologic material classes was successful in separating most major classes around Newberry Caldera, Mt. Washington, and Big Summit Prairie.
Jones, William P.; Euchner, Charles; Hill, Norman; Hill, Velma Murphy
One of the most historical events in American history, the non-violent protest "March on Washington," August 28, 1963, is detailed in an article of remembrance by William P. Jones. His article is crowned by highlights from the "I Have a Dream" speech by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., but also highlights the lessor known role…
Kahle, Sue C.; Caldwell, Rodney R.; Bartolino, James R.
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources and Washington Department of Ecology compiled and described geologic, hydrologic, and ground-water flow modeling information about the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie (SVRP) aquifer in northern Idaho and northeastern Washington. Descriptions of the hydrogeologic framework, water-budget components, ground- and surface-water interactions, computer flow models, and further data needs are provided. The SVRP aquifer, which covers about 370 square miles including the Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho and the Spokane valley and Hillyard Trough, Washington, was designated a Sole Source Aquifer by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1978. Continued growth, water management issues, and potential effects on water availability and water quality in the aquifer and in the Spokane and Little Spokane Rivers have illustrated the need to better understand and manage the region's water resources. The SVRP aquifer is composed of sand, gravel, cobbles, and boulders primarily deposited by a series of catastrophic glacial outburst floods from ancient Glacial Lake Missoula. The material deposited in this high-energy environment is coarser-grained than is typical for most basin-fill deposits, resulting in an unusually productive aquifer with well yields as high as 40,000 gallons per minute. In most places, the aquifer is bounded laterally by bedrock composed of granite, metasedimentary rocks, or basalt. The lower boundary of the aquifer is largely unknown except along the margins or in shallower parts of the aquifer where wells have penetrated its entire thickness and reached bedrock or silt and clay deposits. Based on surface geophysics, the thickness of the aquifer is about 500 ft near the Washington-Idaho state line, but more than 600 feet within the Rathdrum Prairie and more than 700 feet in the Hillyard trough based on drilling records. Depth to water in the aquifer is greatest in the northern
Justin, G.B.; Julich, R.; Payne, K.L.
Selected groundwater level hydrographs for the Chambers-Clover Creek watershed (CCCW) and vicinity, Washington, are presented in an interactive web-based map to illustrate changes in groundwater levels in and near the CCCW on a monthly and seasonal basis. Hydrographs are linked to points corresponding to the well location on an interactive map of the study area. Groundwater level data and well information from Federal, State, and local agencies were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS), Groundwater Site Inventory (GWSI) System.
The report evaluates evapotranspiration at four grassland sites in eastern Washington: the Snively Basin and grass lysimeter sites on the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, and the meadow and marsh sites on the Turnbull National Wildlife Refuge. A combination of the Bowen-ratio and Penman-Monteith methods were used to estimate evapotranspiration at the sites from May 30, 1990 to September 30, 1991. The Bowen-ratio method could be used to estimate latent-heat flux during only parts of the study period. Latent heat-flux values during these periods were used in the Penman-Monteith method to estimate canopy resistance. The daily average resistance values were used to recalculate latent-heat-flux with the Penman-Monteith method for all periods. Evapotranspiration estimates made with the two methods agreed within 3 percent over the period of study. However, for the grass lysimeter site, evapotranspiration estimates made with the Bowen-ratio method were only 41 percent of those made with weighing lysimeters. A water budget from August 20, 1990 to September 30, 1991 at the Snively Basin site estimated that 101 percent of the precipitation was returned to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration. Sixteen percent of the evapotranspiration occurred from October to February, while 76 percent occurred from March to July. April accounted for over 25 percent of the evapotranspiration for the water budget period.
Kahle, Sue C.; Bartolino, James R.
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources and Washington State Department of Ecology, investigated the hydrogeologic framework and ground-water budget of the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie (SVRP) aquifer located in northern Idaho and northeastern Washington. Descriptions of the hydrogeologic framework, water-budget components, and further data needs are provided. The SVRP aquifer, which covers about 370 square miles including the Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho, and the Spokane Valley and Hillyard Trough, Washington, is the sole source of drinking water for more than 500,000 residents. Continued growth, water-management issues, and potential effects on water availability and water quality in the aquifer and in the Spokane and Little Spokane Rivers have illustrated the need to better understand and manage the region's water resources. The SVRP aquifer consists mostly of gravels, cobbles, and boulders - deposited during a series of outburst floods resulting from repeated collapse of the ice dam that impounded ancient Glacial Lake Missoula. In most places, the SVRP aquifer is bounded by bedrock of pre-Tertiary granite or metasedimentary rocks, or Miocene basalt and associated sedimentary deposits. Discontinuous fine-grained layers are scattered throughout the SVRP aquifer at considerably different altitudes and with considerably different thicknesses. In the Hillyard Trough and the Little Spokane River Arm of the aquifer, a massive fine-grained layer with a top altitude ranging from about 1,500 to 1,700 feet and thickness ranging from about 100 to 200 feet separates the aquifer into upper and lower units. Most of the Spokane Valley part of the aquifer is devoid of fine-grained layers except near the margins of the valley and near the mouths of lakes. In the Rathdrum Prairie, multiple fine-grained layers are scattered throughout the aquifer with top altitudes ranging from about 1,700 to 2,400 feet with thicknesses ranging from 1
Hall, Charles A. S.
importance of these more comprehensive EROIs but we do understand that our usual methods of including only energy used directly (e.g. to run a pump) or indirectly (e.g. to manufacture the steel forms used) greatly underestimates the total amount of energy needed to produce energy. In conclusion, Carey King appears to be one of the real rising energy stars as energy becomes again much more important. He is very bright, original and is a very hard worker. I look forward to much exciting, innovative and important work from his endeavors. References Barnett H and Morse C 1963 Scarcity and Growth: The Economics of Natural Resource Availability (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press) Cleveland C J, Costanza R, Hall C A S and Kaufmann R 1984 Energy and the United States economy: a biophysical perspective Science 225 890-7 Denison E F 1989 Estimates of Productivity Change by Industry, an Evaluation and an Alternative (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution) Hall C A S 1972 Migration and metabolism in a temperate stream ecosystem Ecology 53 585-604 Hall C A S and Cleveland C J 1981 Petroleum drilling and production in the United States: yield per effort and net energy analysis Science 211 576-9 Hall C A S and Klitgaard K 2011 Energy and the Wealth of Nations: Understanding the Biophysical Economy (New York: Springer) Kaufmann R 2004 The mechanisms for autonomous energy efficiency increases: a cointegration analysis of the US Energy/GDP Ratio The Energy Journal 25 63-86 King C W 2010 Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures Environ. Res. Lett. 5 044006 Murphy D J and Hall C A S 2011 Energy return on investment, peak oil, and the end of economic growth in 'Ecological Economics Reviews' ed Robert Costanza, Karin Limburg and Ida Kubiszewski Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1219 52-72 Solow R M 1974 The economics of resources or the resources of economics American Economic Review 66 1-14 Odum H T 1973 Environment, Power and Society (New York
Barnett, Elizabeth A.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Norris, Robert; Gibbons, Douglas
The Boylston Mountains anticlinal ridge is one of several that are cored by rocks of the Columbia River Basalt Group and, with the interceding synclinal valleys, constitute the Yakima fold-and-thrust belt of central Washington. Lidar data acquired from the U.S. Army's Yakima Training Center reveal a prominent, northwest-side-up, 65°- to 70°-trending, 3- to 4-meter-high scarp that cuts across the western end of the Boylston Mountains, perpendicular to the mapped anticline. The scarp continues to the northeast from the ridge on the southern side of Park Creek and across the low ridges for a total length of about 3 kilometers. A small stream deeply incises its flood plain where it projects across Johnson Canyon. The scarp is inferred to be late Quaternary in age based on its presence on the modern landscape and the incised flood-plain sediments in Johnson Canyon. Two trenches were excavated across this scarp. The most informative of the two, the Horned Lizard trench, exposed shallow, 15.5-Ma Grande Ronde Basalt, which is split by a deep, wide crack that is coincident with the base of the scarp and filled with wedges of silty gravels that are interpreted to represent at least two generations of fault colluvium that offset a buried soil.
In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.
Drost, B.W.; Ely, D.M.; Lum, W. E., II
The demand for water in Thurston County has increased steadily in recent years because of a rapid growth in population. Surface-water resources in the county have been fully appropriated for many years and Thurston County now relies entirely on ground water for new supplies of water. Thurston County is underlain by up to 2,000 feet of unconsolidated glacial and non-glacial Quaternary sediments which overlie consolidated rocks of Tertiary age. Six geohydrologic units have been identified within the unconsolidated sediments. Between 1988 and 1990, median water levels rose 0.6 to 1.9 feet in all geohydrologic units except bedrock, in which they declined 1.4 feet. Greater wet-season precipitation in 1990 (43 inches) than in 1988 (26 inches) was the probable cause of the higher 1990 water levels. Ground-water flow in the unconsolidated sediments underlying Thurston County was simulated with a computerized numerical model (MODFLOW). The model was constructed to simulate 1988 ground-water conditions as steady state. Simulated inflow to the model area from precipitation and secondary recharge was 620,000 acre-feet per year (93 percent), leakage from streams and lakes was 38,000 acre-ft/yr (6 percent), and ground water entering the model along the Chehalis River valley was 5,800 acre-ft/yr (1 percent). Simulated outflow from the model was primarily leakage to streams, springs, lakes, and seepage faces (500,000 acre-ft/yr or 75 percent of the total outflow). Submarine seepage to Puget Sound was simulated to be 88,000 acre-ft/yr (13 percent). Simulated ground-water discharge along the Chehalis River valley was simulated to be 12,000 acreft/yr (2 percent). Simulated withdrawals by wells for all purposes was 62,000 acre-ft/yr (9 percent). The numerical model was used to simulate the possible effects of increasing ground-water withdrawals by 23,000 acre-ft/yr above the 1988 rate of withdrawal. The model indicated that the increased withdrawals would come from reduced discharge
Sumioka, S.S.; Bauer, H.H.
Ground-water recharge from precipitation to unconsolidated deposits on Whidbey and Camano Islands, Washington, was estimated for water years 1998-99 using a near-surface water-balance method and a chloride mass-balance method. A daily near-surface water-balance method, the Deep Percolation Model (DPM), was used to simulate water budgets for October 1, 1997 through September 30, 1999 (water years 1998-99) for six small drainage basins?four on Whidbey Island and two on Camano Island. Adjusted parameters from the DPM for each small basin were then used in island-wide DPM simulations. A spatial distribution of annual recharge was simulated for each island, with island averages of 5.71 inches per year for Whidbey Island and 5.98 inches per year for Camano Island. The spatial distribution of simulated annual recharge for each island reflects variations in precipitation amounts and the distribution of surficial materials. DPM results indicate that recharge generally is higher in areas underlain by coarse-grained deposits (outwash) than in areas underlain by fine-grained deposits (till). A chloride mass-balance method was used to estimate combined recharge to unconsolidated deposits on Whidbey and Camano Islands. The average combined recharge for Whidbey and Camano Islands estimated by this method was 2.00 inches per year. The range of chloride concentrations in ground-water samples from selected wells indicates that the average recharge to unconsolidated deposits ranges from 0.78 to 7.81 inches per year. Sources of chloride in ground water other than from the atmosphere would cause recharge estimated by the chloride mass-balance method to be less than the actual recharge, therefore, these estimates may represent lower limits.
Peters, James G.; Wilber, W.G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Girardi, F.P.
A digital computer model calibrated to observe stream conditions was used to evaluate water quality in West Fork Blue River, Washington County, IN. Instream dissolved-oxygen concentration averaged 96.5% of saturation at selected sites on West Fork Blue River during two 24-hour summer surveys. This high dissolved-oxygen concentration reflects small carbonaceous and nitrogenous waste loads; adequate dilution of waste by the stream; and natural reaeration. Nonpoint source waste loads accounted for an average of 53.2% of the total carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand and 90.2% of the nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand. Waste-load assimilation was studiedfor critical summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow for these conditions was zero, so no benefit from dilution was provided. The projected stream reaeration capacity was not sufficient to maintain the minimum daily dissolved-oxygen concentration (5 milligrams per liter) in the stream with current waste-discharge restrictions. During winter low flow, ammonia toxicity, rather than dissolved-oxygen concentration, was the limiting water-quality criterion downstream from the Salem wastewater-treatment facility. (USGS)
Lane, R.C.; Ebbert, J.C.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and compiled hydrogeologic and water quality data from September 1998 through September 1999 to describe the hydrogeologic setting and to assess the quality of the water in the artesian aquifer under the Shoalwater Bay Indian Reservation and the adjacent Tokeland Peninsula area of Pacific County, Washington. Hydrogeologic data include descriptions of 38 wells, lithologic data for 27 wells, and water-level data for 17 wells and 1 tidal station. Water-quality data include field measurements for temperature, specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, bicarbonate, carbonate, dissolved oxygen, and laboratory analyses for major inorganic ions, metals, nutrients, methylene blue-active substances, and pesticides. None of the 93 field measurements or chemicals analyzed for exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) primary standards for drinking water and only 2 constituents (iron and manganese) exceeded the USEPA secondary standards. Sixty-six of the constituents (including all 53 pesticides) were at or below the reporting or detection levels established by the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory.
Grauch, Richard I.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Seeger, Cheryl M.; Budahn, James R.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.
The Minerals at Risk and for Emerging Technologies Project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program is examining potential sources of lanthanide elements (rare earth elements) as part of its objective to provide up-to-date geologic information regarding mineral commodities likely to have increased demand in the near term. As part of the examination effort, a short visit was made to the Pea Ridge iron (-lanthanide-gold) deposit, Washington County, Missouri in October 2008. The deposit, currently owned by Wings Enterprises, Inc. of St. Louis, Missouri (Wings), contains concentrations of lanthanides that may be economic as a primary product or as a byproduct of iron ore production. This report tabulates the results of chemical analyses of the Pea Ridge samples and compares rare earth elements contents for world class lanthanide deposits with those of the Pea Ridge deposit. The data presented for the Pea Ridge deposit are preliminary and include some company data that have not been verified by the USGS or by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey (DGLS), Geological Survey Program (MGS). The inclusion of company data is for comparative purposes only and does not imply an endorsement by either the USGS or MGS.
Perspective view of Post and King Saloon, 129 North E Street (corner of E and North 2nd Streets), view looking southwest - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR
40. GARRET TRUSS DETAIL. The south queen post (called 'king post' in the 1755 account for scantling for the Greater Meeting House) of the third truss from the east end. Note the numerals for assembling the truss members and the plaster marks from the 1755 Monthly Meeting Room. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Savoca, Mark E.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Sumioka, Steven S.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.; Huffman, Raegan L.
A study to characterize the groundwater-flow system in four tributary subbasins and vicinity of the lower Skagit River basin was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to assist Skagit County and the Washington State Department of Ecology in evaluating the effects of potential groundwater withdrawals and consumptive use on tributary streamflows. This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater and surface-water flow system in the subbasins, and includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework of the subbasins; groundwater recharge and discharge; groundwater levels and flow directions; seasonal groundwater-level fluctuations; interactions between aquifers and the surface-water system; and a water budget for the subbasins. The study area covers about 247 mi2 along the Skagit River and its tributary subbasins (East Fork Nookachamps Creek, Nookachamps Creek, Carpenter Creek, and Fisher Creek) in southwestern Skagit County and northwestern Snohomish County, Washington. The geology of the area records a complex history of accretion along the continental margin, mountain building, deposition of terrestrial and marine sediments, igneous intrusion, and the repeated advance and retreat of continental glaciers. A simplified surficial geologic map was developed from previous mapping in the area, and geologic units were grouped into nine hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers and confining units. A surficial hydrogeologic unit map was constructed and, with lithologic information from 296 drillers'logs, was used to produce unit extent and thickness maps and four hydrogeologic sections. Groundwater in unconsolidated aquifers generally flows towards the northwest and west in the direction of the Skagit River and Puget Sound. This generalized flow pattern is likely complicated by the presence of low-permeability confining units that separate discontinuous bodies of aquifer material and act as local groundwater-flow barriers. Groundwater
Lum, W. E., II; Turney, G.L.; Alvord, R.C.
The Greenacres Landfill, located about 11 mi east of the city of Spokane, Washington, was used for the disposal of waste from 1951 to 1972. Materials in the landfill include household and industrial waste materials, and various hazardous wastes. In 1983 the landfill was designated by the U.S. EPA as a ' Superfund ' site. The purposes of this investigation were to gather, describe, and interpret all the existing data concerning the hydrology and groundwater quality of the area surrounding the landfill, and to identify any additional data needed to describe the hydrology of the area. The quantity of water flow through the landfill as a result of precipitation on the landfill and in the drainage basin above the landfill probably ranges from 21,000 to 85,000 gal/day. This water movement may be creating a leachate and transporting some of the wastes out of the landfill. The plume would encompass an area where groundwater provides most of the water used for municipal, industrial, irrigation, and domestic purposes. Water quality analyses of water from numerous wells in the area which are open to the Spokane aquifer are available, but well 25/45-16K1 is the only well where groundwater contamination was consistently apparent. This well is only 500 ft from the landfill. Contamination of water in this well was indicated by high concentrations of dissolved mineral constituents and several organic compounds, including trans-dichloroethene (115 to 392 micrograms/L). Available data are insufficient to completely interpret the groundwater flow system near this well and the source of the contamination cannot be determined conclusively. While the existing data are adequate to provide background information, more data are needed to: (1) determine the source of contamination in well 25/45-16K1; (2) determine groundwater flow in the Spokane aquifer near well 25/45-16K1; and (3) determine the extent of contamination in the Spokane aquifer. The degree of the influence of the landfill on
... The DOLP expresses the fraction of the reflected light that is polarized relative to the overall intensity. In this image, ... to provide insights into the composition of clouds and air pollution particles, as well as information about land and water surfaces. ...
Mastin, M.C.; Fosness, R.L.
Yakima County is collaborating with the Bureau of Reclamation on a study of the hydraulics and sediment-transport in the lower Naches River and in the Yakima River between Union Gap and Selah Gap in Washington. River bathymetry and topographic data of the river channels are needed for the study to construct hydraulic models. River survey data were available for most of the study area, but river bathymetry and near-river topography were not available for Selah Gap, near the confluence of the Naches and Yakima Rivers, and for Union Gap. In August 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey surveyed the areas where data were not available. If possible, the surveys were made with a boat-mounted, single-beam echo sounder attached to a survey-grade Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) global positioning system (GPS). An RTK GPS rover was used on a walking survey of the river banks, shallow river areas, and river bed areas that were impenetrable to the echo sounder because of high densities of macrophytes. After the data were edited, 95,654 bathymetric points from the boat survey with the echo sounder and 1,069 points from the walking survey with the GPS rover were used in the study. The points covered 4.6 kilometers on the Yakima River and 0.6 kilometers on the Naches River. GPS-surveyed points checked within 0.014 to 0.047 meters in the horizontal direction and -0.036 to 0.078 meters in the vertical direction compared to previously established survey control points
Holcomb, David Joseph; Patteson, Raymond; Wesenberg, Donald L.; Attaway, Stephen W.
This report provides soil evaluation and characterization testing for the submarine bases at Kings Bay, Georgia, and Bangor, Washington, using triaxial testing at high confining pressures with different moisture contents. In general, the samples from the Bangor and Kings Bay sites appeared to be stronger than a previously used reference soil. Assuming the samples of the material were representative of the material found at the sites, they should be adequate for use in the planned construction. Since soils can vary greatly over even a small site, a soil specification for the construction contractor would be needed to insure that soil variations found at the site would meet or exceed the requirements. A suggested specification for the Bangor and Kings Bay soils was presented based on information gathered from references plus data obtained from this study, which could be used as a basis for design by the construction contractor.
Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites
Olis, D.; Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.
Nordlander, N B
The English king Georg III (1738-1820) was a dutiful sovereign, a loving family man, a good rider and sportsman, temperate in drink and food, refusing the orgies of his contemporaries. He patronized science and was a dedicated collector of book and pictures. In spite of his healthy living he four times after the age of 50 suffered from periods of illness, causing political crises. His symptoms were confusion, pains and discoloured urine. Each time he completely recovered after 3-4 months. These enigmatic fits have now been diagnosed as porphyria. Reference is given to the outstanding research by Swedish scientists regarding this disease. PMID:11625469
Kahle, Sue C.; Taylor, William A.; Lin, Sonja; Sumioka, Steven S.; Olsen, Theresa D.
A study of the water resources of the unconsolidated groundwater system of the Chamokane Creek basin was conducted to determine the hydrogeologic framework, interactions of shallow and deep parts of the groundwater system with each other and the surface-water system, changes in land use and land cover, and water-use estimates. Chamokane Creek basin is a 179 mi2 area that borders and partially overlaps the Spokane Indian Reservation in southern Stevens County in northeastern Washington State. Aquifers within the Chamokane Creek basin are part of a sequence of glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sediment that may reach total thicknesses of about 600 ft. In 1979, most of the water rights in the Chamokane Creek basin were adjudicated by the United States District Court requiring regulation in favor of the Spokane Tribe of Indians' senior water right. The Spokane Tribe, the State of Washington, and the United States are concerned about the effects of additional groundwater development within the basin on Chamokane Creek. Information provided by this study will be used to evaluate the effects of potential increases in groundwater withdrawals on groundwater and surface-water resources within the basin. The hydrogeologic framework consists of six hydrogeologic units: The Upper outwash aquifer, the Landslide Unit, the Valley Confining Unit, the Lower Aquifer, the Basalt Unit, and the Bedrock Unit. The Upper outwash aquifer occurs along the valley floors of the study area and consists of sand, gravel, cobbles, boulders, with minor silt and (or) clay interbeds in places. The Lower aquifer is a confined aquifer consisting of sand and gravel that occurs at depth below the Valley confining unit. Median horizontal hydraulic conductivity values for the Upper outwash aquifer, Valley confining unit, Lower aquifer, and Basalt unit were estimated to be 540, 10, 19, and 3.7 ft/d, respectively. Many low-flow stream discharge measurements at sites on Chamokane Creek and its tributaries
Lin, C.-C.; Ho, C.-R.; Cheng, Y.-H.
The spatial and temporal distributions of sea level rise present regional floods in some certain areas. The low-lying island countries are obviously the spots affected severely. Tuvalu, an atoll island country located in the south-west Pacific Ocean, is suffering the devastating effects of losing life, property, and intending migration caused by floods. They blame the regional flooding to King Tide, a term used but not clearly identified by Pacific islanders. In this study, we clarify what King Tide is first. By the tide gauge and topography data, we estimated the reasonable value of 3.2 m as the threshold of King Tide. This definition also fits to the statement by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of King Tide occurring once or twice a year. In addition, We cross validate the 19 yr data of tide gauge and satellite altimeter (1993-2012), the correlation coefficient indicates King Tide phenomenon is considerable connected to warm water mass. The 28 King Tide events revealed the fact that flooding can be referenced against spring tide levels, so can it be turned up by warm water mass. The warm water mass pushes up sea level; once spring tide, storm surge, or other climate variability overlaps it, the rising sea level might overflow and so has been called "King Tide" for the floods in Tuvalu. This study provides more understanding of the signals of King Tide and an island country case study of regional sea level rise.
Johnson, Kenneth H.; Savoca, Mark E.
A groundwater-flow model was developed to evaluate the effects of potential groundwater withdrawals and consumptive use on streamflows in tributary subbasins of the lower portion of the Skagit River basin. The study area covers about 155 square miles along the Skagit River and its tributary subbasins (East Fork Nookachamps Creek, Nookachamps Creek, Carpenter Creek, Fisher Creek) in southwestern Skagit County and northwestern Snohomish County, Washington. The Skagit River occupies a large, relatively flat alluvial valley that extends across the northern and western margins of the study area, and is bounded to the south and east by upland and mountainous terrain. The alluvial valley and upland are underlain by unconsolidated deposits of glacial and inter- glacial origin. Bedrock underlies the alluvial valley and upland areas, and crops out throughout the mountainous terrain. Nine hydrogeologic units are recognized in the study area and form the basis of the groundwater-flow model. Groundwater flow in tributary subbasins of the lower Skagit River and vicinity was simulated using the groundwater-flow model, MODFLOW-2000. The finite-difference model grid consists of 174 rows, 156 columns, and 15 layers. Each model cell has a horizontal dimension of 500 by 500 feet. The thickness of model layers varies throughout the model area. Groundwater flow was simulated for both steady-state and transient conditions. The steady-state condition simulated average recharge, discharge, and water levels for the period, August 2006-September 2008. The transient simulation period, September 2006-September 2008, was divided into 24 monthly stress periods. Initial conditions for the transient model were developed from a 6-year ?lead-in? period that used recorded precipitation and Skagit River levels, and extrapolations of other boundary conditions. During model calibration, variables were adjusted within probable ranges to minimize differences between measured and simulated groundwater
... for the Tarmac King Road Limestone Mine Proposed in Levy County, Florida AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of..., roads, and other infrastructure over a period of approximately 100 years. At present, the majority...
...). This segment of the BQE extends from Atlantic Avenue to Sands Street and encompasses 21 structures... proposed improvements along the Brooklyn Queens Expressway in Kings County, New York, from Sands Street...
A 20 year struggle between energy and environmental interests concerning a proposed pumped storage plant near Storm King Mountain, N.Y., has ended in a compromise that will hopefully protect the Hudson River's fish and scenic beauty. Consolidated Edison has agreed to halt construction of the pumped storage power plant and, along with other utilities operating power generating units on the Hudson River, has agreed to undertake appropriate measures to reduce destruction of fish and other aquatic life. These utilities will also set up a $12 million endowment to fund independent research on ways to lessen power plant impacts on aquatic ecosystems. In exchange for these commitments, the utilities will not be required to build cooling towers at operating power plant sites, and all lawsuits and administrative proceedings against them will be dropped.
11. VIEW FROM JUST AFT OF THE KING POST IN THE FOC'S'LE OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART. FIRE EXTINGUISHER IS MOUNTED ON STUB OF FOREMAST. OBJECT AT LOWER LEFT IS A FOLDING MESS TABLE. LADDER LEADS TO DECK. CABINET AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED SINK FOR CLEAN-UP AND COOKING. A SMALL CHINA SINK AT RIGHT CENTER SERVED FOR PERSONAL CLEAN-UP AND SHAVING. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA
View of inside second floor stairwell of George Washington Junior High School looking at double doors, facing north. - George Washington Junior High School, 707 Columbus Drive, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL
2. View of Mainline elevated structure, parallel to Washington Street, crossing over the Massachusetts Turnpike and the B&A R.R. tracks - looking North. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA
54. AERIAL VIEW OF WIDE MEDIAN JUST SOUTH OF WASHINGTON SAILING MARINA LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA
174. WIDE MEDIAN BETWEEN NORTH END OF ALEXANDRIA AND WASHINGTON SAILING MARINA LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA
56. AERIAL VIEW OF WIDE MEDIAN NEXT TO WASHINGTON SAILING MARINA LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA
... National Park Service Boundary Revision at George Washington Carver National Monument AGENCY: National Park... the boundary of George Washington Carver National Monument, Newton County, Missouri, to include..., Superintendent, George Washington Carver National Monument, 5646 Carver Road, Diamond, Missouri 64840, or...
Heilweil, Victor M.; Susong, David D.; Gardner, Philip M.; Watt, Dennis E.
Sand Hollow, Utah, is the site of a surface-water reservoir completed in March 2002, which is being operated by the Washington County Water Conservancy District primarily as an aquifer storage and recovery project. The reservoir is an off-channel facility receiving water from the Virgin River, diverted near the town of Virgin, Utah. It is being operated conjunctively, providing both surface-water storage and artificial recharge to the underlying Navajo aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Bureau of Reclamation conducted a study to document baseline ground-water conditions at Sand Hollow prior to the operation of the reservoir and to evaluate changes in ground-water conditions caused by the reservoir. Pre-reservoir age dating using tritium/helium, chlorofluorocarbons, and carbon-14 shows that shallow ground water in the Navajo Sandstone in some areas of Sand Hollow entered the aquifer from 2 to 25 years before sample collection. Ground water in low-recharge areas and deeper within the aquifer may have entered the aquifer more than 8,000 years ago. Ground-water levels in the immediate vicinity of Sand Hollow Reservoir have risen by as much as 80 feet since initial filling began in March 2002. In 2005, ground water was moving laterally away from the reservoir in all directions, whereas the pre-reservoir direction of ground-water flow was predominantly toward the north. Tracers, or attributes, of artificial recharge include higher specific conductance, higher dissolved-solids concentrations, higher chloride-to-bromide ratios, more-depleted stable isotopes (2H and 18O), and higher total-dissolved gas pressures. These tracers have been detected at observation and production wells close to the reservoir. About 15,000 tons of naturally occurring salts that previously accumulated in the vadose zone beneath the reservoir are being flushed into the aquifer. Except for the shallowest parts of the aquifer, this is generally not affecting water quality, largely because of
Simonds, F. William; Sinclair, Kirk A.
The Dungeness River emerges from the Olympic Mountains and flows generally north toward the Strait of Juan De Fuca, crossing the broad, fertile alluvial fan of the Sequim-Dungeness peninsula in northeastern Clallam County, Washington. Increasing competition for the peninsula's ground-water resources, changing water-use patterns, and recent requirements to maintain minimum in-stream flows to enhance endangered salmon and trout populations have severely strained the peninsula's water resources and necessitated a better understanding of the interaction between surface water and groundwater. Three methods were used to characterize the interchange between surface water and groundwater along the lower 11.8 miles of the Dungeness River corridor between September 1999 and July 2001. In-stream mini-piezometers were used to measure vertical hydraulic gradients between the river and the water-table aquifer at 27 points along the river and helped to define the distribution of gaining and losing stream reaches. Seepage runs were used to quantify the net volume of water exchanged between the river and ground water within each of five river reaches, termed 'seepage reaches.' Continuous water-level and water-temperature monitoring at two off-stream well transects provided data on near-river horizontal hydraulic gradients and temporal patterns of water exchange for a representative gaining stream reach and a representative losing stream reach. Vertical hydraulic gradients in the mini-piezometers generally were negative between river miles 11.8 and 3.6, indicating loss of water from the river to ground water. Gradients decreased in the downstream direction from an average of -0.86 at river mile 10.3 to -0.23 at river mile 3.7. Small positive gradients (+0.01 to +0.02) indicating ground-water discharge occurred in three localized reaches below river mile 3.7. Data from the seepage runs and off-stream transect wells supported and were generally consistent with the mini
The video presents Dr M King Hubbert, scholar and federal authority on fuel and energy, explaining the limits of the fossil fuel supply and the impact of coming energy problems on health care institutions.
1. DELAWARE AVE. (right, looking north) AND WASHINGTON AVE. SHOWING GLORIA DEI CHURCH (note steeple) - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows one octant of a larger panoramic image which has not yet been fully processed. The full panorama, dubbed 'Lion King' was obtained on sols 58 and 60 of the mission as the rover was perched at the lip of Eagle Crater, majestically looking down into its former home. It is the largest panorama yet obtained by either rover. The octant, which faces directly into the crater, shows features as small as a few millimeters across in the field near the rover arm, to features a few meters across or larger on the horizon.The full panoramic image was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. This enhanced color composite was assembled from the infrared (750 nanometer), green (530 nanometer), and violet (430 nanometer) filters. Additional lower elevation tiers were added relative to other panoramas to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic.
On October 30, 1996, the Seattle-King County Department of Public Health and the Washington State Department of Health reported an outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections epidemiologically associated with drinking Odwalla brand unpasteurized apple juice or Odwalla juice mixtures containing apple juice from a coffee shop chain, grocery stores, or other locations. A case was defined as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) or a stool culture yielding E. coli O157:H7 in a person who became ill after September 30, 1996, and drank Odwalla juice within 10 days before illness onset. As of November 6, British Columbia, California, Colorado, and Washington had reported a total of 45 cases. PMID:8965797
Hall, David M.; Boboltz, David
This report summarizes the activities of the Washington Correlator for 2012. The Washington Correlator provides up to 80 hours of attended processing per week plus up to 40 hours of unattended operation, primarily supporting Earth Orientation and astrometric observations. In 2012, the major programs supported include the IVS-R4, IVS-INT, APSG, and CRF observing sessions.
Washington State Office of Program Planning and Fiscal Management, Olympia.
As of April 1, 1975, Washington's population was estimated at 3,494,124--an increase of 80,874 since 1970. Prepared yearly, this report presents tabular data pertaining to: (1) current April 1 estimates for cities, towns, and counties; (2) current decline in household size; (3) the use of postal vacancy surveys in estimating vacancy rates; and (4)…
Washington State Office of Program Planning and Fiscal Management, Olympia.
As of April 1, 1977, Washington's population was estimated at 3,661,975--an increase of 248,725 since 1970. Prepared yearly, this report presents data on the official April 1 population estimates for cities, towns, and counties; components of population change; planned population forecasting activities; procedures which help make the housing unit…
Davis, Alan H.
Discusses views of Martin Luther King, Jr., including concepts of human rights, related counseling approaches, and ethics. Claims King's views provide helpful insights for counselors and clients. Concludes King invited individuals to view challenging life situations as moral opportunities. (Author/ABL)
Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford.
This Connecticut teachers' manual on Martin Luther King, Jr. includes: (1) teacher background information; (2) five excerpts from King's speeches; (3) four themes for lesson plans; and (4) sample lesson plans. The teacher's background information provides biographical sketches of King and his precursors. The five speeches reproduced here are "I've…
Woll, Christina B.
Briefly reviews three recent biographies of Martin Luther King, Jr. that also deal with the civil rights movement. Summarizes contents and identifies reading ability levels appropriate for elementary and junior high students. Recommends six additional King biographies for children. Also endorses two filmstrips on King and the movement. Gives full…
Washington State Dept. of Employment Security, Olympia.
The annual report of the Rural Manpower Program, Employment Service Division, contains narrative and statistical data that describe important developments in Washington State during 1973. In terms of man-months of labor, rural counties provided less than 25% of the total seasonal farm employment in 1973, while urban Yakima County alone provided…
Fletcher, Paul F.
T. H. White's "Once and Future King" provides an antidote of humor for the pessimism found in many modern literary works. As the title implies, many of the book's themes are timeless--the fruitless quest, the eternal triangle, the conflict of desire and morality, and the opposition of good and evil. Other themes--the fall of the leader and the…
Offers an art lesson designed to introduce junior high school students to a Shiva sculpture and to Hindu symbolism. The lesson is based on a full-color photograph of a 500 year-old bronze sculpture entitled Shiva Nataraja, King of Dancers. (BR)
... may send them by U.S. Postal Service or other mail delivery service, or hand deliver your comments to... National Park Service Wilderness Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, Tulare and Fresno Counties, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ] ACTION: Notice...
Hall, Charles A. S.
I first came across Carey King when, out of the blue, he invited me to a special session of the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (the largest and most prestigious US scientific meeting) where he was developing a special session on energy return on investment (EROI). At that meeting and since, I have found Carey to be a refreshing new colleague, extremely intelligent, very knowledgeable about many diverse aspects of energy and other things, able to take criticism and to dish it out, and very ambitious, which is mostly a good thing. He is becoming a leader in thinking about EROI and its implications, and I am delighted to see him honored by Environmental Research Letters. This is important because in the US, there is little insight about energy or, especially, its potential physical limitations except when gas prices increase. There is also little awareness of the very strong historical connection in both the US and the world between increased affluence and increased use of energy, especially petroleum. It is not understood by all that many of the economic problems we have now (such as the budgetary problems faced by most of our State governments, pension plans and universities) have substantial origin in the fact that oil and other energy production no longer increase reliably year after year, as they once did (Murphy and Hall 2011). Many economists have argued in the past that energy is not important because it constituted only 5 per cent or so of GDP, or because they believe that market forces and innovations will substitute for any shortage (e.g. Barnett and Morse 1963, Passell et al 1972, Solow 1974, Denison 1989). One problem with that view is that if you remove that five per cent the economy comes to a dead stop, as Cuba found out in 1989 when Russia removed its oil subsidy. Additionally if that five per cent goes up to 10 or 15 per cent, as it did in the early 1980s, and again in 2008, recession steps in (Murphy and
Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert
The University of Washington, College of Forest Resources and the Center for Streamside Studies in Seattle, Washington, is being funded by the Bonneville Power Administration to conduct a three-year research project to measure the watershed scale response of stream habitat to abandoned mine waste, the dispersion of metals, and their effects on biota in the Methow River basin. The purpose of this project is to determine if there are processes and pathways that result in the dispersion of metals from their source at abandoned mines to biological receptors in the Methow River. The objectives of this study are the following: (1) Assess ecological risk due to metal contamination from mines near the Methow; (2) Measure impact of metals from mines on groundwater and sediments in Methow River; (3) Measure response of organisms in the Methow River to excess metals in the sediments of the Methow River; (4) Recommend restoration guidelines and biological goals that target identified pathways and processes of metal pollution affecting salmon habitat in the Methow basin; and (5) Submit peer review journal publications. When concluded, this study will contribute to the advancement of current best management practices by describing the processes responsible for the release of metals from small abandoned mine sites in an arid environment, their dispersal pathways, and their chemical and biological impacts on the Methow River. Based on these processes and pathways, specific remediation recommendations will be proposed.
Heinze, K. R.
The volumetric flux through Deception Pass, Washington will be determined by using tidal height differences between Bowman and Cornet Bays, which are located on the seaward and landward sides of Deception Pass respectively in Deception Pass State Park. Hydrolab sensors for measuring temperature, salinity and fluid depth will be attached to public boat docks in each of these bays. The numerical Puget Sound Regional Synthesis Model, PRISM, will be run with and without the flux through Deception Pass and compared to determine theoretically whether or not the flow through Deception Pass plays a significant role in the circulation of the Whidbey Basin, which could affect the circulation in the northern part of the Main Basin known as the Triple Junction. This could influence water movement near the new sewer outfall that King County is proposing to build in that area.