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Sample records for kipukasins nucleoside derivatives

  1. Base-Modified Nucleosides: Etheno Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Jahnz-Wechmann, Zofia; Framski, Grzegorz R.; Januszczyk, Piotr A.; Boryski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This review presents synthesis and chemistry of nucleoside analogs, possessing an additional fused, heterocyclic ring of the “etheno” type, such as 1,N6-ethenoadenosine, 1,N4-ethenocytidine, 1,N2-ethenoguanosine, and other related derivatives. Formation of ethenonucleosides, in the presence of α-halocarbonyl reagents and their mechanism, stability, and degradation, reactions of substitution and transglycosylation, as well as their application in the nucleoside synthesis, have been described. Some of the discussed compounds may be applied as chemotherapeutic agents in antiviral and anticancer treatment, acting as pro-nucleosides of already known, biologically active nucleoside analogs. PMID:27200341

  2. Nucleoside derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Fu, Xiu-Mei; Kong, Chui-Jian; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Four nucleoside derivatives (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus versicolor derived from the gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic method of NMR and MS analysis. All isolated metabolites were evaluated for their cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity and lethality towards brine shrimp Artemia salina. Compounds 1/2 exhibited selective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis with an MIC value of 12.5 μM. It should be noted that 1 and 2, whose structures were listed in SciFinder Scholar, had no associated reference. This is the first report about their isolation, structure elucidation and biological activities. PMID:24670197

  3. Nucleosides of 4-methylthio-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl-carboxylic acid derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Shingarova, I.D.; Yartseva, I.V.; Preobrazhenskaya, M.N.

    1987-08-01

    2-..beta..-D-Ribofuranosyl-4-methylthio-5-methoxycarbonyl-1,2,3-triazole was obtained by fusing 4-methylthio-5-methoxycarbonyl-1,2,3-triazole together with tetraacyl-D-ribofuranose, followed by deacylation, and its amide and hydrazide were prepared. The structures of the new nucleosides were established by converting them into known 2-nucleosides of 1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-carboxylic acid derivatives. By comparing PMR spectra with previously reported PMR spectra for the isomeric 1- and 2-nucleosides of 1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-carboxylic acid derivatives, the synthesized nucleosides could be assigned to 2-substituted triazoles.

  4. Spectrum of activity and mechanisms of resistance of various nucleoside derivatives against gammaherpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Coen, Natacha; Duraffour, Sophie; Topalis, Dimitri; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela

    2014-12-01

    The susceptibilities of gammaherpesviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and animal rhadinoviruses, to various nucleoside analogs was investigated in this work. Besides examining the antiviral activities and modes of action of antivirals currently marketed for the treatment of alpha- and/or betaherpesvirus infections (including acyclovir, ganciclovir, penciclovir, foscarnet, and brivudin), we also investigated the structure-activity relationship of various 5-substituted uridine and cytidine molecules. The antiviral efficacy of nucleoside derivatives bearing substitutions at the 5 position was decreased if the bromovinyl was replaced by chlorovinyl. 1-β-D-Arabinofuranosyl-(E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil (BVaraU), a nucleoside with an arabinose configuration of the sugar ring, exhibited no inhibitory effect against rhadinoviruses but was active against EBV. On the other hand, the fluoroarabinose cytidine analog 2'-fluoro-5-iodo-aracytosine (FIAC) showed high selectivity indices against gammaherpesviruses that were comparable to those of brivudin. Additionally, we selected brivudin- and acyclovir-resistant rhadinoviruses in vitro and characterized them by phenotypic and genotypic (i.e., sequencing of the viral thymidine kinase, protein kinase, and DNA polymerase) analysis. Here, we reveal key amino acids in these enzymes that play an important role in substrate recognition. Our data on drug susceptibility profiles of the different animal gammaherpesvirus mutants highlighted cross-resistance patterns and indicated that pyrimidine nucleoside derivatives are phosphorylated by the viral thymidine kinase and purine nucleosides are preferentially activated by the gammaherpesvirus protein kinase. PMID:25267682

  5. Cladribine Analogues via O6-(Benzotriazolyl) Derivatives of Guanine Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Satishkumar, Sakilam; Vuram, Prasanna K.; Relangi, Siva Subrahmanyam; Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Zhou, Hong; Kreitman, Robert J.; Montemayor, Michelle M. Martínez; Yang, Lijia; Kaliyaperumal, Muralidharan; Sharma, Somesh; Pottabathini, Narender; Lakshman, Mahesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Cladribine, 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest on the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O6-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-2′-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL), T-cell lymphoma (TCL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribo analogue of cladribine possessed activity, but was least active among the C6-NH2-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, only cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active. PMID:26556315

  6. Distribution of the modified nucleoside Q and its derivatives in animal and plant transfer RNA's.

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, H; Kuchino, Y; Nihei, K; Nishimura, S

    1975-01-01

    The modified nucleoside, 7-(4,5-cis-dihydroxy-1-cyclopenten-3-yl-aminomethyl)-7-deazaguanosine, designated as Q, and its derivative, Q*, were found in tRNA's from various organisms, including several mammalian tissues, other animals such as starfish, lingula and hagfish, and wheat germ. Q isolated from rat liver tRNA was found to be identical with E. coli Q by mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography. Thus the rare modified nucleoside Q originally isolated from E. coli tRNA, is widely distributed in various organisms. Analysis of the mass spectrum of Q* suggested that it has a different side chain from Q. PMID:1187350

  7. Farnesides A and B, Sesquiterpenoid Nucleoside Ethers from a Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp., strain CNT-372 from Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Ilan, Ella Zafrir; Torres, Manuel R.; Prudhomme, Jacques; Le Roch, Karine; Jensen, Paul R.; Fenical, William

    2013-01-01

    Farnesides A and B (1, 2), linear sesquiterpenoids connected by ether links to a ribose dihydrouracil nucleoside, were isolated from a marine-derived Streptomyces sp., strain CNT-372, grown in saline liquid culture. The structures of the new compounds were assigned by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis primarily involving 1D and 2D NMR analysis and by comparison of spectroscopic data to the recently reported ribose nucleoside JBIR-68 (3). The farnesides are only the second example of this exceedingly rare class of microbial terpenoid nucleoside metabolites. Farneside A (1) was found to have modest antimalarial activity against the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:23987585

  8. Identification of 8-Aminoadenosine Derivatives as a New Class of Human Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter 2 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purine-rich foods have long been suspected as a major cause of hyperuricemia. We hypothesized that inhibition of human concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 (hCNT2) would suppress increases in serum urate levels derived from dietary purines. To test this hypothesis, the development of potent hCNT2 inhibitors was required. By modifying adenosine, an hCNT2 substrate, we successfully identified 8-aminoadenosine derivatives as a new class of hCNT2 inhibitors. Compound 12 moderately inhibited hCNT2 (IC50 = 52 ± 3.8 μM), and subsequent structure–activity relationship studies led to the discovery of compound 48 (IC50 = 0.64 ± 0.19 μM). Here we describe significant findings about structural requirements of 8-aminoadenosine derivatives for exhibiting potent hCNT2 inhibitory activity. PMID:25815140

  9. A novel bis(pinacolato)diboron-mediated N-O bond deoxygenative route to C6 benzotriazolyl purine nucleoside derivatives.

    PubMed

    Basava, Vikram; Yang, Lijia; Pradhan, Padmanava; Lakshman, Mahesh K

    2016-08-01

    Reaction of amide bonds in t-butyldimethylsilyl-protected inosine, 2'-deoxyinosine, guanosine, 2'-deoxyguanosine, and 2-phenylinosine with commercially available peptide-coupling agents (benzotriazol-1H-yloxy)tris(dimethylaminophosphonium) hexafluorophosphate (BOP), (6-chloro-benzotriazol-1H-yloxy)trispyrrolidinophosphonium hexafluorophosphate (PyClocK), and (7-azabenzotriazol-1H-yloxy)trispyrrolidinophosphonium hexafluorophospate (PyAOP) gave the corresponding O(6)-(benzotriazol-1-yl) nucleoside analogues containing a C-O-N bond. Upon exposure to bis(pinacolato)diboron and base, the O(6)-(benzotriazol-1-yl) and O(6)-(6-chlorobenzotriazol-1-yl) purine nucleoside derivatives obtained from BOP and PyClocK, respectively, underwent N-O bond reduction and C-N bond formation, leading to the corresponding C6 benzotriazolyl purine nucleoside analogues. In contrast, the 7-azabenzotriazolyloxy purine nucleoside derivatives did not undergo efficient deoxygenation, but gave unsymmetrical nucleoside dimers instead. This is consistent with a prior report on the slow reduction of 1-hydroxy-1H-4-aza and 1-hydroxy-1H-7-azabenzotriazoles. Because of the limited number of commercial benzotriazole-based peptide coupling agents, and to show the applicability of the method when such coupling agents are unavailable, 1-hydroxy-1H-5,6-dichlorobenzotriazole was synthesized. Using this compound, silyl-protected inosine and 2'-deoxyinosine were converted to the O(6)-(5,6-dichlorobenzotriazol-1-yl) derivatives via in situ amide activation with PyBroP. The O(6)-(5,6-dichlorobenzotriazol-1-yl) purine nucleosides so obtained also underwent smooth reduction to afford the corresponding C6 5,6-dichlorobenzotriazolyl purine nucleoside derivatives. A total of 13 examples were studied with successful reactions occurring in 11 cases (the azabenzotriazole derivatives, mentioned above, being the only unreactive entities). To understand whether these reactions are intra or intermolecular processes, a

  10. Anti-Mycobacterial Nucleoside Antibiotics from a Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp. TPU1236A

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Ying-Yue; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Five new nucleoside antibiotics, named streptcytosines A–E (1–5), and six known compounds, de-amosaminyl-cytosamine (6), plicacetin (7), bamicetin (8), amicetin (9), collismycin B (10), and SF2738 C (11), were isolated from a culture broth of Streptomyces sp. TPU1236A collected in Okinawa, Japan. The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data (HRFABMS, IR, UV, and 2D NMR experiments including 1H-1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY spectra). Streptcytosine A (1) belonged to the amicetin group antibiotics, and streptcytosines B–E (2–5) were derivatives of de-amosaminyl-cytosamine (6), 2,3,6-trideoxyglucopyranosyl cytosine. Compound 1 inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis (MIC = 32 µg/mL), while compounds 2–5 were not active at 50 µg/disc. Bamicetin (8) and amicetin (9) showed the MICs of 16 and 8 µg/mL, respectively. PMID:25522318

  11. Detection of food-derived damaged nucleosides with possible adverse effects on human health using a global adductomics approach.

    PubMed

    Spilsberg, Bjørn; Rundberget, Thomas; Johannessen, Lene E; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Berdal, Knut G

    2010-05-26

    A range of damaged nucleosides, also found in digested dietary DNA, appear to be taken up by cells and incorporated into the cells' own DNA. Most incorporated damaged nucleosides will be repaired by cellular DNA repair systems. However, a small fraction of these will escape repair and thus ultimately create mutations. Over the long human lifespan this could be a mechanism that contributes to disease, cancer, and aging. This study analyzed damaged nucleosides derived from dietary DNA in a commercially successful fungus-based novel food, Quorn, and in two fungus-based food items with a history of safe use, button mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) and dried powdered brewers yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). By using liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry more than 90 putative DNA adducts were measured, showing that foods do contain a range of different DNA damages. PMID:20429587

  12. Cell-cycle-dependent regulation of CNT1, a concentrative nucleoside transporter involved in the uptake of cell-cycle-dependent nucleoside-derived anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Raquel; Casado, F Javier; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal

    2002-08-23

    Most nucleoside-derived anticancer drugs are taken up by the high-affinity Na-dependent nucleoside transporter CNT1. Since such drugs are to some extent cell-cycle-dependent in their cytotoxic action, we examined the relationship between CNT1 expression and cell-cycle progression in the rat hepatoma cell line FAO. Cell cultures were synchronized either at late G1 or early S stages by combining mimosin treatment with either previous synchronization or not by serum starvation. Cell-cycle progression was then assessed by measuring [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA and monitoring cyclin E and A protein levels. In these conditions, CNT1 protein amounts increase at the G1-S transition. When cells were synchronized using hydroxyurea (HU), which directly interacts with nucleotide metabolism by inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase, CNT1 protein amounts increased in synchronized cells and remained high during cell-cycle progression. These data indicate that CNT1 adapts to cell-cycle progression and responds to nucleos(t)ide metabolism status, a feature that might contribute to the cytotoxic action of cell-cycle-dependent anticancer drugs. PMID:12176019

  13. Rigid Adenine Nucleoside Derivatives as Novel Modulators of the Human Sodium Symporters for Dopamine and Norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Janowsky, Aaron; Tosh, Dilip K; Eshleman, Amy J; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2016-04-01

    Thirty-two congeneric rigid adenine nucleoside derivatives containing a North (N)-methanocarba ribose substitution and a 2-arylethynyl group either enhanced (up to 760% of control) or inhibited [(125)I] methyl (1R,2S,3S)-3-(4-iodophenyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylate (RTI-55) binding at the human dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and inhibited DA uptake. Several nucleosides also enhanced [(3)H]mazindol [(±)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,5-dihydro-2H-imidazo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-ol] binding to the DAT. The combination of binding enhancement and functional inhibition suggests possible allosteric interaction with the tropanes. The structure-activity relationship of this novel class of DAT ligands was explored: small N(6)-substition (methyl or ethyl) was favored, while the N1 of the adenine ring was essential. Effective terminal aryl groups include thien-2-yl (compounds 9 and 16), with EC50 values of 35.1 and 9.1 nM, respectively, in [(125)I]RTI-55 binding enhancement, and 3,4-difluorophenyl as in the most potent DA uptake inhibitor (compound 6) with an IC50 value of 92 nM (3-fold more potent than cocaine), but not nitrogen heterocycles. Several compounds inhibited or enhanced binding at the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and serotonin transporter (SERT) and inhibited function in the micromolar range; truncation at the 4'-position in compound 23 allowed for weak inhibition of the SERT. We have not yet eliminated adenosine receptor affinity from this class of DAT modulators, but we identified modifications that remove DAT inhibition as an off-target effect of potent adenosine receptor agonists. Thus, we have identified a new class of allosteric DAT ligands, rigidified adenosine derivatives, and explored their initial structural requirements. They display a very atypical pharmacological profile, i.e., either enhancement by increasing affinity or inhibition of radioligand binding at the DAT, and in some cases the NET and SERT, and inhibition of neurotransmitter

  14. Rigid Adenine Nucleoside Derivatives as Novel Modulators of the Human Sodium Symporters for Dopamine and Norepinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Tosh, Dilip K.; Eshleman, Amy J.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-two congeneric rigid adenine nucleoside derivatives containing a North (N)-methanocarba ribose substitution and a 2-arylethynyl group either enhanced (up to 760% of control) or inhibited [125I] methyl (1R,2S,3S)-3-(4-iodophenyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylate (RTI-55) binding at the human dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and inhibited DA uptake. Several nucleosides also enhanced [3H]mazindol [(±)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,5-dihydro-2H-imidazo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-ol] binding to the DAT. The combination of binding enhancement and functional inhibition suggests possible allosteric interaction with the tropanes. The structure-activity relationship of this novel class of DAT ligands was explored: small N6-substition (methyl or ethyl) was favored, while the N1 of the adenine ring was essential. Effective terminal aryl groups include thien-2-yl (compounds 9 and 16), with EC50 values of 35.1 and 9.1 nM, respectively, in [125I]RTI-55 binding enhancement, and 3,4-difluorophenyl as in the most potent DA uptake inhibitor (compound 6) with an IC50 value of 92 nM (3-fold more potent than cocaine), but not nitrogen heterocycles. Several compounds inhibited or enhanced binding at the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and serotonin transporter (SERT) and inhibited function in the micromolar range; truncation at the 4′-position in compound 23 allowed for weak inhibition of the SERT. We have not yet eliminated adenosine receptor affinity from this class of DAT modulators, but we identified modifications that remove DAT inhibition as an off-target effect of potent adenosine receptor agonists. Thus, we have identified a new class of allosteric DAT ligands, rigidified adenosine derivatives, and explored their initial structural requirements. They display a very atypical pharmacological profile, i.e., either enhancement by increasing affinity or inhibition of radioligand binding at the DAT, and in some cases the NET and SERT, and inhibition of neurotransmitter uptake

  15. Crosslinking of Chitosan with Dialdehyde Derivatives of Nucleosides and Nucleotides. Mechanism and Comparison with Glutaraldehyde.

    PubMed

    Mikhailov, Sergey N; Zakharova, Alexandra N; Drenichev, Mikhail S; Ershov, Andrey V; Kasatkina, Mariya A; Vladimirov, Leonid V; Novikov, Valentin V; Kildeeva, Natalia R

    2016-03-01

    In medical and pharmaceutical applications, chitosan is used as a component of hydrogels-macromolecular networks swollen in water. Chemical hydrogels are formed by covalent links between the crosslinking reagents and amino functionalities of chitosan. To date, the most commonly used chitosan crosslinkers are dialdehydes, such as glutaraldehyde (GA). We have developed novel GA like crosslinkers with additional functional groups-dialdehyde derivatives of uridine (oUrd) and nucleotides (oUMP and oAMP)-leading to chitosan-based biomaterials with new properties. The process of chitosan crosslinking was investigated in details and compared to crosslinking with GA. The rates of crosslinking with oUMP, oAMP, and GA were essentially the same, though much higher than in the case of oUrd. The remarkable difference in the crosslinking properties of nucleoside and nucleotide dialdehydes can be clearly attributed to the presence of the phosphate group in nucleotides that participates in the gelation process through ionic interactions with the amino groups of chitosan. Using NMR spectroscopy, we have not observed the formation of aldimine bonds. It can be concluded that the real number of crosslinks needed to cause gelation of chitosan chains may be less than 1%. PMID:26855085

  16. Muraymycin nucleoside-peptide antibiotics: uridine-derived natural products as lead structures for the development of novel antibacterial agents

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Marius; Niro, Giuliana; Leyerer, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Muraymycins are a promising class of antimicrobial natural products. These uridine-derived nucleoside-peptide antibiotics inhibit the bacterial membrane protein translocase I (MraY), a key enzyme in the intracellular part of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. This review describes the structures of naturally occurring muraymycins, their mode of action, synthetic access to muraymycins and their analogues, some structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies and first insights into muraymycin biosynthesis. It therefore provides an overview on the current state of research, as well as an outlook on possible future developments in this field. PMID:27340469

  17. Novel carboranyl derivatives of nucleoside mono- and diphosphites and phosphonates: a synthetic investigation.

    PubMed

    Vyakaranam, Kamesh; Hosmane, Narayan S

    2004-01-01

    A number of nucleoside mono- and diphosphites and phosphonates containing 1,2-dicarbadodecaborane (12) (la-6b) at 5'-position of the sugar moiety have been synthesized in good yields. Experimental details along with the spectroscopic and analytical data, supporting the formation of the title compounds, are presented. These constitute a new generation of boron compounds that are envisioned to be useful in cancer treatment via Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). PMID:18365067

  18. Purine (N)-Methanocarba Nucleoside Derivatives Lacking an Exocyclic Amine as Selective A3 Adenosine Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Tosh, Dilip K; Ciancetta, Antonella; Warnick, Eugene; O'Connor, Robert; Chen, Zhoumou; Gizewski, Elizabeth; Crane, Steven; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Auchampach, John A; Salvemini, Daniela; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2016-04-14

    Purine (N)-methanocarba-5'-N-alkyluronamidoriboside A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) agonists lacking an exocyclic amine resulted from an unexpected reaction during a Sonogashira coupling and subsequent aminolysis. Because the initial C6-Me and C6-styryl derivatives had unexpectedly high A3AR affinity, other rigid nucleoside analogues lacking an exocyclic amine were prepared. Of these, the C6-Me-(2-phenylethynyl) and C2-(5-chlorothienylethynyl) analogues were particularly potent, with human A3AR Ki values of 6 and 42 nM, respectively. Additionally, the C2-(5-chlorothienyl)-6-H analogue was potent and selective at A3AR (MRS7220, Ki 60 nM) and also completely reversed mouse sciatic nerve mechanoallodynia (in vivo, 3 μmol/kg, po). The lack of a C6 H-bond donor while maintaining A3AR affinity and efficacy could be rationalized by homology modeling and docking of these hypermodified nucleosides. The modeling suggests that a suitable combination of stabilizing features can partially compensate for the lack of an exocyclic amine, an otherwise important contributor to recognition in the A3AR binding site. PMID:26890707

  19. Enzymatic regioselective acylation of nucleosides in biomass-derived 2-methyltetrahydrofuran: kinetic study and enzyme substrate recognition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wen-Li; Li, Ning; Zong, Min-Hua

    2013-03-10

    Enzymatic regioselective acylation of pyrimidine nucleosides was mediated by immobilized lipase from Penicillium expansum in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF), a bio-solvent derived from biomass. Despite of the moderate dissolution ability of MeTHF toward nucleosides, the initial enzymatic reaction rate was much higher in this eco-friendly solvent than in other commonly used organic solvents. This could be explained by the lower apparent activation energy of the enzymatic reaction (24.5 vs. 43.3-57.1kJ/mol) and the higher catalytic efficiency of the enzyme (Vmax/Km, 5.8 vs. 1.1-2.9h(-1)) in MeTHF. The enzymatic acylation of a group of ribonucleosides afforded the desirable 5'-esters with the conversions of 96-99% and 5'-regioselectivities of 96 to >99%. In enzymatic acylation of 2'-deoxynucleosides, however, 5'-regioselectivities showed a clear dependence on the 5-substituents present in the base moiety although the substrate conversions reached >98% within 1-3h. In the cases of 2',3'-dideoxynucleoside analogs, the reaction rate decreased markedly due to the lack of 3'-hydroxyl. PMID:23337886

  20. Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) participates in the cytotoxic response to nucleoside-derived drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nucleoside analogs used in the chemotherapy of solid tumors, such as the capecitabine catabolite 5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5′-DFUR) trigger a transcriptomic response that involves the aquaglyceroporin aquaporin 3 along with other p53-dependent genes. Here, we examined whether up-regulation of aquaporin 3 (AQP3) mRNA in cancer cells treated with 5′-DFUR represents a collateral transcriptomic effect of the drug, or conversely, AQP3 participates in the activity of genotoxic agents. Methods The role of AQP3 in cell volume increase, cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest was analyzed using loss-of-function approaches. Results 5′-DFUR and gemcitabine, but not cisplatin, stimulated AQP3 expression and cell volume, which was partially and significantly blocked by knockdown of AQP3. Moreover, AQP3 siRNA significantly blocked other effects of nucleoside analogs, including G1/S cell cycle arrest, p21 and FAS up-regulation, and cell growth inhibition. Short incubations with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) also induced AQP3 expression and increased cell volume, and the inhibition of AQP3 expression significantly blocked growth inhibition triggered by this drug. To further establish whether AQP3 induction is related to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, cells were exposed to long incubations with escalating doses of 5-FU. AQP3 was highly up-regulated at doses associated with cell cycle arrest, whereas at doses promoting apoptosis induction of AQP3 mRNA expression was reduced. Conclusions Based on the results, we propose that the aquaglyceroporin AQP3 is required for cytotoxic activity of 5’-DFUR and gemcitabine in the breast cancer cell line MCF7 and the colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29, and is implicated in cell volume increase and cell cycle arrest. PMID:23017148

  1. Nucleoside-derived antagonists to A3 adenosine receptors lower mouse intraocular pressure and act across species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Do, Chi Wai; Avila, Marcel Y; Peterson-Yantorno, Kim; Stone, Richard A; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Joshi, Bhalchandra; Besada, Pedro; Jeong, Lak Shin; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Civan, Mortimer M

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether novel, selective antagonists of human A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) derived from the A3-selective agonist Cl-IB-MECA lower intraocular pressure (IOP) and act across species. IOP was measured invasively with a micropipette by the Servo-Null Micropipette System (SNMS) and by non-invasive pneumotonometry during topical drug application. Antagonist efficacy was also assayed by measuring inhibition of adenosine-triggered shrinkage of native bovine nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells. Five agonist-based A3AR antagonists lowered mouse IOP measured with SNMS tonometry by 3-5 mm Hg within minutes of topical application. Of the five agonist derivatives, LJ 1251 was the only antagonist to lower IOP measured by pneumotonometry. No effect was detected pneumotonometrically over 30 min following application of the other four compounds, consonant with slower, smaller responses previously measured non-invasively following topical application of A3AR agonists and the dihydropyridine A3AR antagonist MRS 1191. Latanoprost similarly lowered SNMS-measured IOP, but not IOP measured non-invasively over 30 min. Like MRS 1191, agonist-based A3AR antagonists applied to native bovine NPE cells inhibited adenosine-triggered shrinkage. In summary, the results indicate that antagonists of human A3ARs derived from the potent, selective A3 agonist Cl-IB-MECA display efficacy in mouse and bovine cells, as well. When intraocular delivery was enhanced by measuring mouse IOP invasively, five derivatives of the A3AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA lowered IOP but only one rapidly reduced IOP measured non-invasively after topical application. We conclude that derivatives of the highly-selective A3AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA can reduce IOP upon reaching their intraocular target, and that nucleoside-based derivatives are promising A3 antagonists for study in multiple animal models. PMID:19878673

  2. Nucleoside-Derived Antagonists to A3 Adenosine Receptors Lower Mouse Intraocular Pressure and Act across Species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Do, Chi Wai; Avila, Marcel Y.; Peterson-Yantorno, Kim; Stone, Richard A.; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Joshi, Bhalchandra; Besada, Pedro; Jeong, Lak Shin; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Civan, Mortimer M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether novel, selective antagonists of human A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) derived from the A3-selective agonist Cl-IB-MECA lower intraocular pressure (IOP) and act across species. IOP was measured invasively with a micropipette by the Servo-Null Micropipette System (SNMS) and by non-invasive pneumotonometry during topical drug application. Antagonist efficacy was also assayed by measuring inhibition of adenosine-triggered shrinkage of native bovine nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells. Five agonist-based A3AR antagonists lowered mouse IOP measured with SNMS tonometry by 3–5 mm Hg within minutes of topical application. Of the five agonist derivatives, LJ 1251 was the only antagonist to lower IOP measured by pneumotonometry. No effect was detected pneumotonometrically over 30 min following application of the other four compounds, consonant with slower, smaller responses previously measured non-invasively following topical application of A3AR agonists and the dihydropyridine A3AR antagonist MRS 1191. Latanoprost similarly lowered SNMS-measured IOP, but not IOP measured non-invasively over 30 minutes. Like MRS 1191, agonist-based A3AR antagonists applied to native bovine NPE cells inhibited adenosine-triggered shrinkage. In summary, the results indicate that antagonists of human A3ARs derived from the potent, selective A3 agonist Cl-IB-MECA display efficacy in mouse and bovine cells, as well. When intraocular delivery was enhanced by measuring mouse IOP invasively, five derivatives of the A3AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA lowered IOP but only one rapidly reduced IOP measured non-invasively after topical application. We conclude that derivatives of the highly selective A3AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA can reduce IOP upon reaching their intraocular target, and that nucleoside-based derivatives are promising A3 antagonists for study in multiple animal models. PMID:19878673

  3. Identification of adducts derived from reactions of (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane with nucleosides and calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Munter, Tony; Cottrell, Lisa; Hill, Stuart; Kronberg, Leif; Watson, William P; Golding, Bernard T

    2002-12-01

    (1-Chloroethenyl)oxirane is a major mutagenic metabolite of chloroprene, an important large-scale petrochemical used in the manufacture of synthetic rubbers. The reactions of (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane with 2'-deoxyguanosine, 2'-deoxyadenosine, 2'-deoxycytidine, thymidine, and calf thymus DNA have been studied in aqueous buffered solutions. The adducts from the nucleosides were isolated by reversed-phase HPLC, and characterized by their UV absorbance and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric features. The reaction with 2'-deoxyguanosine gave one major adduct, N7-(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-guanine (dGI), and eight minor adducts which were identified as diastereoisomeric pairs of N1-(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (dGII, dGIII), N3,N7-bis(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-guanine (dGIV, dGV), N7,N9-bis(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-guanine (dGVI, dGVII), and N1,N7-bis(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-guanine (dGVIII, dGIX). The reaction of 2'-deoxyadenosine with (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane gave two adducts: N1-(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-2'-deoxyadenosine (dAI) and N(6)-(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-2'-deoxyadenosine (dAII). The adduct dAII was shown to arise via a Dimroth rearrangement of adduct dAI. The HPLC analyses of the reaction mixtures of (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane with 2'-deoxycytidine and thymidine showed the formation of one major product in each reaction. The adduct from 2'-deoxycytidine was identified as N3-(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-2'-deoxyuridine (dCI) derived by alkylation at N-3 followed by deamination. The adduct from thymidine was identified as N3-(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-thymidine (TI). Reaction of (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane with calf thymus DNA gave all of the adducts observed from the individual nucleosides except dGII and dGIII. However, there was selectivity for the formation of dGI and dCI. The adduct levels in DNA were 9,630 (dGI), 240 (dCI), 83 (dAI), 6 (dAII), and 28 (TI

  4. Nucleoside Inhibitors of Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Eyer, Luděk; Nencka, Radim; Huvarová, Ivana; Palus, Martin; Joao Alves, Maria; Gould, Ernest A; De Clercq, Erik; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    There is growing evidence that Zika virus (ZIKV) can cause devastating infant brain defects and other neurological disorders in humans. However, no specific antiviral therapy is available at present. We tested a series of 2'-C- or 2'-O-methyl-substituted nucleosides, 2'-C-fluoro-2'-C-methyl-substituted nucleosides, 3'-O-methyl-substituted nucleosides, 3'-deoxynucleosides, derivatives with 4'-C-azido substitution, heterobase-modified nucleosides, and neplanocins for their ability to inhibit ZIKV replication in cell culture. Antiviral activity was identified when 2'-C-methylated nucleosides were tested, suggesting that these compounds might represent promising lead candidates for further development of specific antivirals against ZIKV. PMID:27234417

  5. Exploring isoxazole and carboxamide derivatives as potential non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Sudheer S; Joshi, Kaustubh A

    2016-04-01

    Nonnucleoside reverse transciptase inhibitors (NNRTI) are a class of drug molecules with a specific target of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). In the present work, we evaluated a set of selected oxazole and carboxamide derivatives to identify potential pharmacophoric features using molecular docking approach. The docking approach employed has been validated by enrichment factor calculation at top 1% (EF1%). It shows a considerable improvement in EF1%value compared to earlier reported study carried out on specific dataset of ligands and decoys for RT, in the directory of useful decoys (DUD). The carboxamide derivatives show better activity as NNRT inhibitors than oxazole derivatives. From this study, four pharmacophoric groups including a triazine ring, an aniline substituent, a benzyl amide moiety and a trimethylphenoxy substituent have been recognized and used for designing new NNRT inhibitors. Newly designed molecules show significant enhancement in docking scores over the native ligand, parent and other training set molecules. In addition, some functional groups have also been identified to assist in improving the activity of these pharmacophores. Thus a nitrile group, an amide and fluoro substitution turn out to be an important requisite for NNRT potential inhibitors. PMID:26973048

  6. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Anti-HBV Activity of Hybrid Molecules of Entecavir and Adefovir: Exomethylene Acycloguanine Nucleosides and Their Monophosphate Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Imoto, Shuhei; Kohgo, Satoru; Tokuda, Ryoh; Kumamoto, Hiroki; Aoki, Manabu; Amano, Masayuki; Kuwata-Higashi, Nobuyo; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Haraguchi, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Exomethylene acycloguanine nucleosides 4, 6 and its monophosphate derivatives 5, 7, and 8 have been synthesized. Mitsunobu-type coupling of 2-N-acetyl-6-O-diphenylcarbamoylguanine (11) with primary alcohols proceeded regioselectively to furnish the desired N(9)-substituted products in moderate yield. Evaluation of 4-8 for anti-HBV activity in HepG2 cells revealed that the phosphonate derivative 8 was found to exhibit moderated activity (EC50 value of 0.29 μM), but cytotoxicity (CC50 value of 39 μM) against the host cells was also observed. PMID:26167667

  7. Structural basis of nucleoside and nucleoside drug selectivity by concentrative nucleoside transporters

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Zachary Lee; Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Kiyoun; Lee, Minhee; Kwon, Do-Yeon; Hong, Jiyong; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs) are responsible for cellular entry of nucleosides, which serve as precursors to nucleic acids and act as signaling molecules. CNTs also play a crucial role in the uptake of nucleoside-derived drugs, including anticancer and antiviral agents. Understanding how CNTs recognize and import their substrates could not only lead to a better understanding of nucleoside-related biological processes but also the design of nucleoside-derived drugs that can better reach their targets. Here, we present a combination of X-ray crystallographic and equilibrium-binding studies probing the molecular origins of nucleoside and nucleoside drug selectivity of a CNT from Vibrio cholerae. We then used this information in chemically modifying an anticancer drug so that it is better transported by and selective for a single human CNT subtype. This work provides proof of principle for utilizing transporter structural and functional information for the design of compounds that enter cells more efficiently and selectively. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03604.001 PMID:25082345

  8. Syntheses of 5'-Nucleoside Monophosphate Derivatives with Unique Aminal, Hemiaminal, and Hemithioaminal Functionalities: A New Class of 5'-Peptidyl Nucleotides.

    PubMed

    De, Swarup; Groaz, Elisabetta; Margamuljana, Lia; Herdewijn, Piet

    2016-06-01

    A number of synthetically useful transformations have been developed to generate novel 5'-peptidyl nucleoside monophosphate analogues that incorporate sensitive phosphoaminal, -hemiaminal or -hemithioaminal functionalities. The strategies adopted entailed the coupling between dipeptides, which enclose a reactive Cα-functionalized glycine residue and phosphate or phosphorothioate moieties. These developments led to potentially powerful and general methodologies for the preparation of α-phosphorylated pseudopeptides as well as nucleoside monophosphate mimics. The resulting conjugates are of interest for a variety of important applications, which range from drug development to synthetic biology, as pronucleotides or artificial building blocks for the enzymatic synthesis of xenobiotic information systems. The potential of all dipeptide-TMP conjugates as pyrophosphate mimics in the DNA polymerization reaction was tested, and the influence of the nature of the linker was evaluated by in vitro chain elongation assay in the presence of wild-type microbial DNA polymerases. PMID:27136602

  9. N-phosphonocarbonylpyrrolidine derivatives of guanine: a new class of bi-substrate inhibitors of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Rejman, Dominik; Panova, Natalya; Klener, Pavel; Maswabi, Bokang; Pohl, Radek; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2012-02-23

    A complete series of pyrrolidine nucleotides, (3R)- and (3S)-3-(guanin-9-yl)pyrrolidin-1-N-ylcarbonylphosphonic acids and (3S,4R)-, (3R,4S)-, (3S,4S)-, and (3R,4R)-4-(guanin-9-yl)-3-hydroxypyrrolidin-1-N-ylcarbonylphosphonic acids, were synthesized and evaluated as potential inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and cell lines of myeloid and lymphoid origin. Two compounds, (S)-3-(guanin-9-yl)pyrrolidin-1-N-ylcarbonylphosphonic acid (2a) and (3S,4R)-4-(guanin-9-yl)-3-hydroxypyrrolidin-1-N-ylcarbonylphosphonic acid (6a), were recognized as nanomolar competitive inhibitors of PNP isolated from cell lines with K(i) values within the ranges of 16-100 and 10-24 nM, respectively. The low (MESG)K(i) and (Pi)K(i) values of both compounds for PNP isolated from PBMCs suggest that these compounds could be bisubstrate inhibitors that occupy both the phosphate and nucleoside binding sites of the enzyme. PMID:22264015

  10. Morpholino, piperidino, and pyrrolidino derivatives of pyrimidine nucleosides as inhibitors of ribonuclease A: synthesis, biochemical, and crystallographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Anirban; Leonidas, Demetres D; Dasgupta, Swagata; Pathak, Tanmaya; Zographos, Spyros E; Oikonomakos, Nikos G

    2009-02-26

    Six 5'-deoxy-5'-morpholine, piperidine, and pyrrolidine of pyrimidine nucleosides have been synthesized and characterized. Their inhibitory action to ribonuclease A has been studied by biochemical analysis and X-ray crystallography. These compounds are moderate inhibitors of RNase A with mid-to-upper micromolar inhibition constants (K(i)). The high resolution X-ray crystal structures of the RNase A-inhibitor complexes have shown that all inhibitors bind at the enzyme catalytic cleft with the pyrimidine nucleobase at the B(1)R(2) subsites while the 5' group binds away from the main subsite P(1), where P-O(5') bond cleavage occurs, toward the solvent close to subsite P(0). Structure-activity relationship analysis has demonstrated that the compounds with the larger group in the 5' position are more potent. Comparative structural analysis of these RNase A complexes with other similar RNase A-ligand complexes provides a structural explanation of their potency and suggests ways to improve their efficiency and selectivity. These inhibitors can be the starting point for the development of compounds that can be used as pharmaceuticals against pathologies associated with RNase A homologues such as human angiogenin, which is implicated in tumor induced neovascularization. PMID:19173562

  11. 2'-modified nucleosides for site-specific labeling of oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, Elizabeth S.; Miller, Jeremiah E.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    We report the synthesis of 2'-modified nucleosides designed specifically for incorporating labels into oligonucleotides. Conversion of these nucleosides to phosphoramidite and solid support-bound derivatives proceeds in good yield. Large-scale synthesis of 11-mer oligonucleotides possessing the 2'-modified nucleosides is achieved using these derivatives. Thermal denaturation studies indicate that the presence of 2'-modified nucleosides in 11-mer duplexes has minimal destabilizing effects on the duplex structure when the nucleosides are placed at the duplex termini. The powerful combination of phosphoramidite and support-bound derivatives of 2'-modified nucleosides affords the large-scale preparation of an entirely new class of oligonucleotides. The ability to synthesize oligonucleotides containing label attachment sites at 3', intervening, and 5' locations of a duplex is a significant advance in the development of oligonucleotide conjugates.

  12. Crystal structure of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Vibrio cholerae at 2.4;#8201;Å

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Zachary Lee; Cheong, Cheom-Gil; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2012-07-11

    Nucleosides are required for DNA and RNA synthesis, and the nucleoside adenosine has a function in a variety of signalling processes. Transport of nucleosides across cell membranes provides the major source of nucleosides in many cell types and is also responsible for the termination of adenosine signalling. As a result of their hydrophilic nature, nucleosides require a specialized class of integral membrane proteins, known as nucleoside transporters (NTs), for specific transport across cell membranes. In addition to nucleosides, NTs are important determinants for the transport of nucleoside-derived drugs across cell membranes. A wide range of nucleoside-derived drugs, including anticancer drugs (such as Ara-C and gemcitabine) and antiviral drugs (such as zidovudine and ribavirin), have been shown to depend, at least in part, on NTs for transport across cell membranes. Concentrative nucleoside transporters, members of the solute carrier transporter superfamily SLC28, use an ion gradient in the active transport of both nucleosides and nucleoside-derived drugs against their chemical gradients. The structural basis for selective ion-coupled nucleoside transport by concentrative nucleoside transporters is unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Vibrio cholerae in complex with uridine at 2.4 {angstrom}. Our functional data show that, like its human orthologues, the transporter uses a sodium-ion gradient for nucleoside transport. The structure reveals the overall architecture of this class of transporter, unravels the molecular determinants for nucleoside and sodium binding, and provides a framework for understanding the mechanism of nucleoside and nucleoside drug transport across cell membranes.

  13. Assay of excised oxidative DNA lesions: isolation of 8-oxoguanine and its nucleoside derivatives from biological fluids with a monoclonal antibody column.

    PubMed Central

    Park, E M; Shigenaga, M K; Degan, P; Korn, T S; Kitzler, J W; Wehr, C M; Kolachana, P; Ames, B N

    1992-01-01

    An immunoaffinity column is described that facilitates the analysis of oxidative damage products of DNA and RNA in urine, blood plasma, and medium isolated from cultures of Escherichia coli. In intact animals, lesions (adducts) excised from DNA are transported from the cell through the circulation and excreted in urine. In bacteria, DNA adducts are excreted directly into the medium. In either case, the adducts can be assayed as a measure of oxidative damage to DNA. A monoclonal antibody that recognizes 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (oxo8dG;8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine), a bio-marker of oxidative damage to DNA, has been isolated, and its substrate binding properties have been characterized. The relative binding affinities of this monoclonal antibody for oxo8dG, unmodified nucleosides, or derivatives of Gua made it suitable for the preparation of immunoaffinity columns that greatly facilitate the isolation of oxo8dG, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine from various biological fluids. Quantitative analysis of these adducts in urine of rats fed a nucleic acid-free diet and in the medium from cultures of E. coli suggests that oxo8-7,8-dihydroguanine is the principal repair product from oxo8-dG in DNA of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The results support our previous estimate of about 10(5) oxidative lesions to DNA being formed and excised in an average rat cell per day. PMID:1565629

  14. Antitumor/Antifungal Celecoxib Derivative AR-12 is a Non-Nucleoside Inhibitor of the ANL-Family Adenylating Enzyme Acetyl CoA Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    AR-12/OSU-03012 is an antitumor celecoxib-derivative that has progressed to Phase I clinical trial as an anticancer agent and has activity against a number of infectious agents including fungi, bacteria and viruses. However, the mechanism of these activities has remained unclear. Based on a chemical-genetic profiling approach in yeast, we have found that AR-12 is an ATP-competitive, time-dependent inhibitor of yeast acetyl coenzyme A synthetase. AR-12-treated fungal cells show phenotypes consistent with the genetic reduction of acetyl CoA synthetase activity, including induction of autophagy, decreased histone acetylation, and loss of cellular integrity. In addition, AR-12 is a weak inhibitor of human acetyl CoA synthetase ACCS2. Acetyl CoA synthetase activity is essential in many fungi and parasites. In contrast, acetyl CoA is primarily synthesized by an alternate enzyme, ATP-citrate lyase, in mammalian cells. Taken together, our results indicate that AR-12 is a non-nucleoside acetyl CoA synthetase inhibitor and that acetyl CoA synthetase may be a feasible antifungal drug target. PMID:27088128

  15. Arylthiopyrrole (AThP) derivatives as non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors: synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and docking studies (part 2).

    PubMed

    Lavecchia, Antonio; Costi, Roberta; Artico, Marino; Miele, Gaetano; Novellino, Ettore; Bergamini, Alberto; Crespan, Emmanuele; Maga, Giovanni; Di Santo, Roberto

    2006-12-01

    Arylthio isopropyl pyridinylmethylpyrrolemethanols (AThPs) have been recently reported as a new class of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors acting at the non-nucleoside binding site (NNBS) of this enzyme. Docking experiments of the potent inhibitors 4k (IC(50) = 0.24 microM, SI = 167) and 5e (IC(50) = 0.11 microM, SI > 1667) of wild-type RT prompted the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel AThP derivatives featuring a number of polar groups in position 3 of the pyrrole ring and larger and more hydrophobic alicyclic substituents in place of the isopropyl group at position 4. Among the compounds synthesized and tested in cell-based assays against HIV-1 infected cells, 19b was the most active, with EC(50) = 0.007 microM, CC(50) = 114.5 microm, and SI = 16357. This compound and its precursor 18b retained interesting activities against clinically relevant drug-resistant RT forms carrying K103N, Y181I, and L100I mutations. Docking calculations of 10, 14, 18b, and 19b were also performed to investigate their binding mode into the RT NNBS and to rationalize both structure-activity relationship and resistance data. PMID:17089434

  16. Arylthiopyrrole (AThP) derivatives as non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors: synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and docking studies (part 1).

    PubMed

    Di Santo, Roberto; Costi, Roberta; Artico, Marino; Miele, Gaetano; Lavecchia, Antonio; Novellino, Ettore; Bergamini, Alberto; Cancio, Reynel; Maga, Giovanni

    2006-12-01

    Novel arylthio isopropyl pyridinylmethylpyrrolemethanol (AThP) derivatives 3-5, which are related to capravirine (S-1153), were synthesized and tested for their ability to block the replication cycle of HIV-1 in infected cells. The newly synthesized AThPs are active in the concentration range of 0.008-53 microM. Even if compounds 3-5 are generally less potent than S-1153, their SI values are in some cases similar to that of the reference drug. In fact, the cytotoxicities of AThPs are generally lower than that of S-1153. Compound 4e was the most active derivative of this series in cell-based assays; its potency is similar to that of S-1153 (EC(50)=8 and 3 nM, respectively), as is its selectivity index (SI=6250 and 7000, respectively). AThP derivatives were proven to target HIV-1 RT. In fact, compounds 3-5 generally inhibited the viral enzyme at concentrations similar to those observed in cell-based assays. A selected number of AThPs (4k and 5a,e) were tested against clinically relevant drug-resistant forms of recombinant reverse transcriptase (rRT) carrying the K103N and Y181I mutations. Carbamate 5e showed an approximate 240-fold decrease in activity against Y181I, but only a 10-fold loss in potency against the K103N rRT form. Docking calculations were also performed to investigate the binding mode of compounds 2, 4e, 4j, 4k and 5e into the non-nucleoside binding site of HIV-1 RT and to rationalize some structure-activity relationships and resistance data. PMID:17089433

  17. Discovery of piperidin-4-yl-aminopyrimidine derivatives as potent non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wan, Zheng-Yong; Yao, Jin; Tao, Yuan; Mao, Tian-Qi; Wang, Xin-Long; Lu, Yi-Pei; Wang, Hai-Feng; Yin, Hong; Wu, Yan; Chen, Fen-Er; De Clercq, Erik; Daelemans, Dirk; Pannecouque, Christophe

    2015-06-01

    A novel series of piperidin-4-yl-aminopyrimidine derivatives were designed fusing the pharmacophore templates of etravirine-VRX-480773 hybrids our group previously described and piperidine-linked aminopyrimidines. Most compounds displayed significantly improved activity against wild-type HIV-1 with EC50 values in single-digit nanomolar concentrations compared to etravirine-VRX-480773 hybrids. Selected compounds were also evaluated for activity against reverse transcriptase, and had lower IC50 values than that of nevirapine. The improved potency observed in this in vitro model of HIV RNA replication partly validates the mechanism by which this class of allosteric pyrimidine derivatives inhibits reverse transcriptase, and represents a remarkable step forward in the development of AIDS therapeutics. PMID:25935383

  18. Multicomponent reactions in nucleoside chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Buchowicz, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review covers sixty original publications dealing with the application of multicomponent reactions (MCRs) in the synthesis of novel nucleoside analogs. The reported approaches were employed for modifications of the parent nucleoside core or for de novo construction of a nucleoside scaffold from non-nucleoside substrates. The cited references are grouped according to the usually recognized types of the MCRs. Biochemical properties of the novel nucleoside analogs are also presented (if provided by the authors). PMID:25161730

  19. Development, validation and application of a fast analytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of DNA- and RNA-derived urinary nucleosides by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarnación; Herrero-Herrero, Leticia; García-Gómez, Diego

    2016-04-15

    In the present work we report the development and validation of a fast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of endogenous nucleosides derived from DNA and RNA in urine. The target compounds were 2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, derived from DNA, and the analogue 8-hydroxyguanosine, derived from RNA, together with adenosine, 1-methyladenosine, 7-methylguanosine and inosine. The method is based on the use of a chromatographic column packed with superficially porous particles for high-efficiency separation; further detection by MS/MS was accomplished with a triple quadrupole-mass spectrometer for analyte identification and accurate quantification. As a preliminary purification step, we developed a new procedure based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a mixed-sorbent prepared from three polymeric materials that facilitated the isolation of modified nucleosides, such as 2-deoxynucleosides, that are not retained by phenylboronic acid-based SPE. The proposed approach (SPE prior to LC-MS/MS) was validated in human urine in terms of linearity, the limit of detection, the limit of quantification, accuracy, recovery, repeatability, reproducibility and matrix-effects. For the SPE step, intra-day and inter-cartridge reproducibility were evaluated in natural and spiked urine samples, being ±16.9% or below, with recoveries in the 74-125% range. No significant matrix effects were found in further MS/MS detection. The application of the present method to urine from healthy smoker and non-smoker volunteers is also reported in order to test its usefulness as a tool for clinical and toxicological trials. PMID:26565068

  20. Pyrrolobenzoxazepinone derivatives as non-nucleoside HIV-1 RT inhibitors: further structure-activity relationship studies and identification of more potent broad-spectrum HIV-1 RT inhibitors with antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Campiani, G; Morelli, E; Fabbrini, M; Nacci, V; Greco, G; Novellino, E; Ramunno, A; Maga, G; Spadari, S; Caliendo, G; Bergamini, A; Faggioli, E; Uccella, I; Bolacchi, F; Marini, S; Coletta, M; Nacca, A; Caccia, S

    1999-10-21

    Pyrrolobenzoxazepinone (PBO) derivatives represent a new class of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTs) whose prototype is (+/-)-6-ethyl-6-phenylpyrrolo[2,1-d][1,5]benzoxazepin-7(6H)- one (6). Docking studies based on the three-dimensional structure of RT prompted the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel derivatives and analogues of 6 featuring a meta-substituted phenyl or a 2-thienyl ring at C-6 and a pyridine system in place of the fused-benzene ring to yield pyrrolopyridooxazepinones (PPOs). Compared with the lead 6 and nevirapine, several of the synthesized compounds (PBOs 13a-d and PPOs 13i-k) displayed higher inhibitory activity against wild-type RT and clinically relevant mutant RTs containing the single amino acid substitutions L100I, K103N, V106A, Y181I, and Y188L. The most potent inhibitors were further evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity on lymphocytes and monocyte-macrophages, for cytotoxicity on a panel of cell lines, and for potential synergistic antiviral activity with AZT. Pharmacokinetic studies performed on 13b, 13c, and 13i showed that these compounds achieve high concentrations in the brain. The results of the biological and pharmacokinetic experiments suggest a potential clinical utility of analogues such as 13b-d, 13i, and 13j, in combination with nucleoside RT inhibitors, against strains of HIV-1 bearing those mutations that confer resistance to known NNRTI. PMID:10543890

  1. Membrane-permeable Triphosphate Prodrugs of Nucleoside Analogues.

    PubMed

    Gollnest, Tristan; Dinis de Oliveira, Thiago; Rath, Anna; Hauber, Ilona; Schols, Dominique; Balzarini, Jan; Meier, Chris

    2016-04-18

    The metabolic conversion of nucleoside analogues into their triphosphates often proceeds insufficiently. Rate-limitations can be at the mono-, but also at the di- and triphosphorylation steps. We developed a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) delivery system (TriPPPro-approach). In this approach, NTPs are masked by two bioreversible units at the γ-phosphate. Using a procedure involving H-phosphonate chemistry, a series of derivatives bearing approved, as well as potentially antivirally active, nucleoside analogues was synthesized. The enzyme-triggered delivery of NTPs was demonstrated by pig liver esterase, in human T-lymphocyte cell extracts and by a polymerase chain reaction using a prodrug of thymidine triphosphate. The TriPPPro-compounds of some HIV-inactive nucleoside analogues showed marked anti-HIV activity. For cellular uptake studies, a fluorescent TriPPPro-compound was prepared that delivered the triphosphorylated metabolite to intact CEM cells. PMID:27008042

  2. Expedient and generic synthesis of imidazole nucleosides by enzymatic transglycosylation.

    PubMed

    Vichier-Guerre, S; Dugué, L; Bonhomme, F; Pochet, S

    2016-04-14

    A straightforward route to original imidazole-based nucleosides that makes use of an enzymatic N-transglycosylation step is reported in both the ribo- and deoxyribo-series. To illustrate the scope of this approach, a diverse set of 4-aryl and 4-heteroaryl-1H-imidazoles featuring variable sizes and hydrogen-bonding patterns was prepared using a microwave-assisted Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. These imidazole derivatives were examined as possible substrates for the nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase from L. leichmannii and the purine nucleoside phosphorylase from E. coli. The optimum transglycosylation conditions, including the use of co-adjuvants to address solubility issues, were defined. Enzymatic conversion of 4-(hetero)arylimidazoles to 2'-deoxyribo- or ribo-nucleosides proceeded in good to high conversion yields, except bulky hydrophobic imidazole derivatives. Nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase of class II was found to convert the widest range of functionalized imidazoles into 2'-deoxyribonucleosides and was even capable of bis-glycosylating certain heterocyclic substrates. Our findings should enable chemoenzymatic access to a large diversity of flexible nucleoside analogues as molecular probes, drug candidates and original building blocks for synthetic biology. PMID:26986701

  3. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Thiophene[3,2-d]pyrimidine Derivatives as HIV-1 Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors with Significantly Improved Drug Resistance Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dongwei; Fang, Zengjun; Li, Zhenyu; Huang, Boshi; Zhang, Heng; Lu, Xueyi; Xu, Haoran; Zhou, Zhongxia; Ding, Xiao; Daelemans, Dirk; De Clercq, Erik; Pannecouque, Christophe; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2016-09-01

    We designed and synthesized a series of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) with a piperidine-substituted thiophene[3,2-d]pyrimidine scaffold, employing a strategy of structure-based molecular hybridization and substituent decorating. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited broad-spectrum activity with low (single-digit) nanomolar EC50 values toward a panel of wild-type (WT), single-mutant, and double-mutant HIV-1 strains. Compound 27 was the most potent; compared with ETV, its antiviral efficacy was 3-fold greater against WT, 5-7-fold greater against Y181C, Y188L, E138K, and F227L+V106A, and nearly equipotent against L100I and K103N, though somewhat weaker against K103N+Y181C. Importantly, 27 has lower cytotoxicity (CC50 > 227 μM) and a huge selectivity index (SI) value (ratio of CC50/EC50) of >159101. 27 also showed favorable, drug-like pharmacokinetic and safety properties in rats in vivo. Molecular docking studies and the structure-activity relationships provide important clues for further molecular elaboration. PMID:27541578

  4. Transport characteristics of mouse concentrative nucleoside transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Niitani, Miho; Nishida, Kentaro; Okuda, Hiroto; Nagai, Katsuhito; Fujimoto, Sadaki; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2010-03-30

    Concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 (CNT1, SLC28A1) is a key molecule for determining the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of a candidate compound derived from a pyrimidine nucleoside, but there is no available information on the differences in the functional profile of this ortholog between man and mouse. Here, using a clone of mouse CNT1 (mCNT1), we investigated its transport characteristics and substrate specificity for synthetic nucleoside analogues, and compared them with those of human CNT1 (hCNT1). In mCNT1-transfected Cos-7 cells, pyrimidine, but not purine, nucleosides showed sodium- and concentration-dependent uptake, and uridine uptake was competitively inhibited by uridine analogues, the rank order of the inhibitory effects being 5-bromouridine>3'-deoxyuridine>2'-deoxyuridine. cis- and trans-Inhibition studies involving synthetic nucleoside drugs revealed that gemcitabine and zidovudine greatly inhibited [(3)H]uridine uptake mediated by mCNT1 in the both cases, while cytarabine and zalcitabine showed small cis-inhibitory effect, and no trans-inhibitory effect on the uptake. These results demonstrate that the transport characteristics of mCNT1 are almost the same as those of hCNT1, suggesting that mice may be a good animal model in evaluation of pyrimidine nucleoside analogues as to their applicability in human therapy. PMID:20060452

  5. Synthesis of 5-Fluoroalkylated Pyrimidine Nucleosides via Negishi Cross-Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Ann-Marie; Qu, Wenchao

    2014-01-01

    5-fluoroalkylated pyrimidine nucleosides (1) have potential as therapeutic agents and molecular imaging agents targeting HSV1-tk suicide gene therapy. Thus, straightforward preparation of 5-fluoroalkylated nucleoside derivatives has been developed. Reported herein are the first examples of Pd-catalyzed Negishi cross-coupling of 3-N-benzoyl-3′,5′-di-O-benzoyl-5-iodo-2′-deoxyuridine (2a) and 3-N-benzoyl-3′,5′-di-O-benzoyl-5-iodo-2′-deoxy-2′-fluoroarabinouridine (2b) with unactivated Csp3 fluoroalkylzinc bromides. This paper demonstrates the first synthesis of six 5-fluoroalkyl-2′-deoxy pyrimidine nucleoside derivatives with three to five methylene-chain lengths (5). Furthermore, this methodology has been extended to create a series of thirteen 5-alkyl substituted nucleosides, including the target nucleosides 5 and 5-silyloxypropyl and 5-cyanobutyl derivatives. PMID:18522415

  6. Novel inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth based on modified pyrimidine nucleosides and their analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmalenyuk, E. R.; Kochetkov, S. N.; Alexandrova, L. A.

    2013-09-01

    The review summarizes data on the synthesis and antituberculosis activity of pyrimidine nucleoside derivatives and their analogues. Enzymes from M. tuberculosis as promising targets for prototypes of new-generation drugs are considered. Nucleosides as inhibitors of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains are characterized. The bibliography includes 101 references.

  7. Expression of the nucleoside-derived drug transporters hCNT1, hENT1 and hENT2 in gynecologic tumors.

    PubMed

    Farré, Xavier; Guillén-Gómez, Elena; Sánchez, Lydia; Hardisson, David; Plaza, Yolanda; Lloberas, Jorge; Casado, F Javier; Palacios, José; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal

    2004-12-20

    Deoxynucleoside analogs are used in the treatment of a variety of solid tumors. Their transport across the plasma membrane may determine their cytotoxicity and thus nucleoside transporter (NT) expression patterns may be of clinical relevance. Lack of appropriate antibodies for use in paraffin-embedded biopsies has been a bottleneck to undertake high-throughput analysis of NT expression in solid tumors. Here we report the characterization of 2 new antibodies raised against the low-affinity equilibrative NTs, hENT1 and hENT2, suitable for that purpose. These 2 antisera, along with a previously characterized antibody that specifically recognizes the high-affinity Na-dependent concentrative NT, hCNT1, have been used to analyze, using a tissue array approach, NT expression in gynecologic cancers (90 ovarian, 80 endometrial and 118 uterine cervix carcinomas). Human CNT1 was not detected in 33% and 39% of the ovarian and uterine cervix carcinomas, respectively, whereas hENT1 and hENT2 expression was significantly retained in a high percentage of tumors (91% and 96% for hENT1, 84% and 98% for hENT2, in ovarian and cervix carcinomas, respectively). Only a few endometrial carcinomas (15%) were found to be negative for hCNT1, but they all retained hENT1 and hENT2 expression. In ovarian cancer, the loss of all 3 NT proteins was a more common event in the clear cell histologic subtype than in the serous, mucinous and endometrioid histotypes. In uterine cervix tumors, the loss of expression of hCNT1 was significantly associated with the adenocarcinoma subtype. In summary, hCNT1 was by far the isoform whose expression was most frequently reduced or lost in the 3 types of gynecologic tumors analyzed. Moreover, NT expression is related to the type of gynecologic tumor and its specific subtype, hCNT1 protein loss being highly correlated with poor prognosis histotypes. Since hCNT1, hENT1 and hENT2 recognize fluoropyrimidines as substrates, but with different affinities, this study

  8. Stability of the resistance to the thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone, a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor of bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Castro, Eliana F; Campos, Rodolfo H; Cavallaro, Lucía V

    2014-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototype Pestivirus. BVDV infection is distributed worldwide and causes serious problems for the livestock industry. The thiosemicarbazone of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC) is a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor (NNI) of BVDV. All TSC-resistant BVDV variants (BVDV-TSCr T1-5) present an N264D mutation in the NS5B gene (RdRp) whereas the variant BVDV-TSCr T1 also presents an NS5B A392E mutation. In the present study, we carried out twenty passages of BVDV-TSCr T1-5 in MDBK cells in the absence of TSC to evaluate the stability of the resistance. The viral populations obtained (BVDV R1-5) remained resistant to the antiviral compound and conserved the mutations in NS5B associated with this phenotype. Along the passages, BVDV R2, R3 and R5 presented a delay in the production of cytopathic effect that correlated with a decrease in cell apoptosis and intracellular accumulation of viral RNA. The complete genome sequences that encode for NS2 to NS5B, Npro and Erns were analyzed. Additional mutations were detected in the NS5B of BVDV R1, R3 and R4. In both BVDV R2 and R3, most of the mutations found were localized in NS5A, whereas in BVDV R5, the only mutation fixed was NS5A V177A. These results suggest that mutations in NS5A could alter BVDV cytopathogenicity. In conclusion, the stability of the resistance to TSC may be due to the fixation of different compensatory mutations in each BVDV-TSCr. During their replication in a TSC-free medium, some virus populations presented a kind of interaction with the host cell that resembled a persistent infection: decreased cytopathogenicity and viral genome synthesis. This is the first report on the stability of antiviral resistance and on the evolution of NNI-resistant BVDV variants. The results obtained for BVDV-TSCr could also be applied for other NNIs. PMID:24950191

  9. Stability of the Resistance to the Thiosemicarbazone Derived from 5,6-Dimethoxy-1-Indanone, a Non-Nucleoside Polymerase Inhibitor of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Eliana F.; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Cavallaro, Lucía V.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototype Pestivirus. BVDV infection is distributed worldwide and causes serious problems for the livestock industry. The thiosemicarbazone of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC) is a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor (NNI) of BVDV. All TSC-resistant BVDV variants (BVDV-TSCr T1–5) present an N264D mutation in the NS5B gene (RdRp) whereas the variant BVDV-TSCr T1 also presents an NS5B A392E mutation. In the present study, we carried out twenty passages of BVDV-TSCr T1–5 in MDBK cells in the absence of TSC to evaluate the stability of the resistance. The viral populations obtained (BVDV R1–5) remained resistant to the antiviral compound and conserved the mutations in NS5B associated with this phenotype. Along the passages, BVDV R2, R3 and R5 presented a delay in the production of cytopathic effect that correlated with a decrease in cell apoptosis and intracellular accumulation of viral RNA. The complete genome sequences that encode for NS2 to NS5B, Npro and Erns were analyzed. Additional mutations were detected in the NS5B of BVDV R1, R3 and R4. In both BVDV R2 and R3, most of the mutations found were localized in NS5A, whereas in BVDV R5, the only mutation fixed was NS5A V177A. These results suggest that mutations in NS5A could alter BVDV cytopathogenicity. In conclusion, the stability of the resistance to TSC may be due to the fixation of different compensatory mutations in each BVDV-TSCr. During their replication in a TSC-free medium, some virus populations presented a kind of interaction with the host cell that resembled a persistent infection: decreased cytopathogenicity and viral genome synthesis. This is the first report on the stability of antiviral resistance and on the evolution of NNI-resistant BVDV variants. The results obtained for BVDV-TSCr could also be applied for other NNIs. PMID:24950191

  10. Microbial transformation of nucleosides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamba, S. S.

    1979-01-01

    A study involving the use of coulter counter in studying the effects of neomycin on E. coli, S. aureus and A. aerogenes was completed. The purpose of this was to establish proper technique for enumeration of cells per ml. It was found that inhibitory effects on growth of E. coli and A. aerogenes, both gram negative organisms, were directly related to the concentration of neomycin used. However, in case S. aureus, a gram positive organism, a decreased inhibition was noted at higher concentrations. A paper entitled, Use of Coulter Counter in Studying Effect of Drugs on Cells in Culture 1 - Effects of Neomycin on E. coli, S. aureus and A. aerogenes, is attached in the appendix. Laboratory procedures were also established to study the effects of nucleoside antibiotic cordycepin on He La cell grown in suspension cultures.

  11. [Purine nucleoside phosphorylase].

    PubMed

    Pogosian, L G; Akopian, Zh I

    2013-01-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is one of the most important enzymes of the purine metabolism, wich promotes the recycling of purine bases. Nowadays is the actual to search for effective inhibitors of this enzyme which is necessary for creation T-cell immunodeficient status of the organism in the organs and tissues transplantation, and chemotherapy of a number pathologies as well. For their successful practical application necessary to conduct in-depth and comprehensive study of the enzyme, namely a structure, functions, and an affinity of the reaction mechanism. In the review the contemporary achievements in the study of PNP from various biological objects are presented. New data describing the structure of PNP are summarised and analysed. The physiological role of the enzyme is discussed. The enzyme basic reaction mechanisms and actions are considered. The studies on enzyme physicochemical, kinetic, and catalytic research are presented. PMID:24479338

  12. Brain transfer RNA. II. Analysis of modified nucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, K.D.; Carrier-Malhotra, L.; Murthy, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Transfer RNAs were isolated from rat and calf brains and their nucleosides were analysed by tritium derivative technique. Qualitative changes in the minor nucleoside components were compared on the fluorograms which showed differences in the intensities of spots. Cerebellar and cortical tRNAs were also compared, but revealed no significant quantitative differences in their methylated constituants despite 60% higher methyltransferase activity observed in cerebellum compared to cerebral cortex. An overall similarity was noticed between the relative proportions of the major and minor nucleosides of tRNAs derived from rat or calf brain, expressed as mol%. Brain tRNA was also analysed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which showed qualitative and quantitative changes during postnatal development.

  13. Supramolecular gels made from nucleobase, nucleoside and nucleotide analogs.

    PubMed

    Peters, Gretchen Marie; Davis, Jeffery T

    2016-06-01

    Supramolecular or molecular gels are attractive for various applications, including diagnostics, tissue scaffolding and targeted drug release. Gelators derived from natural products are of particular interest for biomedical purposes, as they are generally biocompatible and stimuli-responsive. The building blocks of nucleic acids (i.e. nucleobases, nucleosides, and nucleotides) are desirable candidates for supramolecular gelation as they readily engage in reversible, noncovalent interactions. In this review, we describe a number of organo- and hydrogels formed through the assembly of nucleosides, nucleotides, and their derivatives. While natural nucleosides and nucleotides generally require derivatization to induce gelation, guanosine and its corresponding nucleotides are well known gelators. This unique gelating ability is due to propensity of the guanine nucleobase to self-associate into stable higher-order assemblies, such as G-ribbons, G4-quartets, and G-quadruplexes. PMID:27146863

  14. Synthesis of α-l-Threofuranosyl Nucleoside Triphosphates (tNTPs)

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Keyong; Horhota, Allen; Yu, Biao; Szostak, Jack W.

    2005-01-01

    The α-l-threofuranosyl nucleoside triphosphates of T, G, and D (tTTP, tGTP, and tDTP) were synthesized from the described 2‘-O-DMT-protected derivatives using the Eckstein method, while the corresponding C derivative (tCTP) was prepared from the 2‘-O-acetyl derivative. The prepared α-l-threofuranosyl nucleoside triphosphates, despite being one carbon shorter than the native 2‘-deoxyfuranosyl nucleoside triphosphates, are effective substrates for selected DNA polymerases. PMID:15816733

  15. Functional characterization of nucleoside transporter gene replacements in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Boitz, Jan M; Galazka, Jon; Arendt, Cassandra S; Carter, Nicola S; Ullman, Buddy

    2006-12-01

    Leishmania donovani express two nucleoside transporters of non-overlapping ligand selectivity. To evaluate the physiological role of nucleoside transporters in L. donovani, homozygous null mutants of the genes encoding the LdNT1 adenosine-pyrimidine nucleoside transporter and the LdNT2 inosine-guanosine transporter were created singly and in combination by single targeted gene replacement followed by selection for loss-of-heterozygosity. The mutant alleles were verified by Southern blotting, and the effects of gene replacement on transport phenotype were evaluated by rapid sampling transport measurements and by drug resistance profiles. The Deltaldnt1, Deltaldnt2, and Deltaldnt1/Deltaldnt2 mutants were all capable of proliferation in defined culture medium supplemented with any of a spectrum of purine nucleobases or nucleosides, except that a Deltaldnt2 lesion conferred an inability to efficiently salvage exogenous xanthosine, a newly discovered ligand of LdNT2. Each of the three knockout strains was viable as promastigotes and axenic amastigotes and capable of maintaining an infection in J774 and bone marrow-derived murine macrophages. These genetic studies demonstrate: (1) that L. donovani promastigotes, axenic amastigotes, and tissue amastigotes are viable in the absence of nucleoside transport; (2) that nucleoside transporters are not essential for sustaining an infection in mammalian host cells; (3) that the phagolysosome of macrophages is likely to contain purines that are not LdNT1 or LdNT2 ligands, i.e., nucleobases. Furthermore, the Deltaldnt1, Deltaldnt2, and Deltaldnt1/Deltaldnt2 knockouts offer a unique genetically defined null background for the biochemical and genetic characterization of nucleoside transporter genes and cDNAs from phylogenetically diverse species and of genetically manipulated LdNT1 and LdNT2 constructs. PMID:17050001

  16. Nucleoside transporters in the disposition and targeting of nucleoside analogs in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Mangravite, Lara M; Badagnani, Ilaria; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2003-10-31

    Systemic disposition of nucleosides and nucleoside analogs is dependent on renal handling of these compounds. There are five known, functionally characterized nucleoside transporters with varying substrate specificities for nucleosides: concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT1-CNT3; Solute Carrier (SLC) 28A1-28A3), which mediate the intracellular flux of nucleosides, and equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENT1-ENT2; SLC29A1-SLC29A2), which mediate bi-directional facilitated diffusion of nucleosides. All five of these transporters are expressed in the kidney. Concentrative nucleoside transporters primarily localize to the apical membrane of renal epithelial cells while equilibrative nucleoside transporters primarily localize to the basolateral membrane. These transporters work in concert to mediate reabsorptive flux of naturally occurring nucleosides and nucleoside analogs. In addition, equilibrative transporters also participate in secretory flux of some nucleoside analogs. Nucleoside transporters also serve in the targeting of nucleoside analog therapies to renal tumors. This review examines the role that these transporters play in renal disposition of nucleosides and nucleoside analogs in both systemic and kidney-specific therapies. PMID:14612157

  17. Theoretical understanding of two-photon-induced fluorescence of isomorphic nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Pralok K; Pati, Swapan K

    2015-04-21

    We use ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations for a detailed understanding of one-photon absorption (1PA) and two-photon absorption (2PA) cross sections of eight different nucleoside analogs. The results are compared and contrasted with the available experimental data. Our calculated results show that the low energy peaks in the absorption spectra mainly arise because of the π-π* electronic transition of the nucleoside analogs. The emission spectra of the nucleoside analogs are also calculated using TDDFT methods. The calculated absorption and emission spectra in the presence of a solvent follow the same trend as those found experimentally. Our results demonstrate that the nucleoside analogs show significantly different electronic and optical properties, although their bonding aspects towards Watson-Crick base pairing remain the same. We also derive the microscopic details of the origin of nonlinear optical properties of the nucleoside analogs. PMID:25785569

  18. Versatile synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 3’-fluorinated purine nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hang; Hatala, Paul J; Stevens, William C; He, Baicheng

    2015-01-01

    Summary A unified synthetic strategy accessing novel 3'-fluorinated purine nucleoside derivatives and their biological evaluation were achieved. Novel 3’-fluorinated analogues were constructed from a common 3’-deoxy-3’-fluororibofuranose intermediate. Employing Suzuki and Stille cross-coupling reactions, fifteen 3’-fluororibose purine nucleosides 1–15 and eight 3’-fluororibose 2-chloro/2-aminopurine nucleosides 16–23 with various substituents at position 6 of the purine ring were efficiently synthesized. Furthermore, 3’-fluorine analogs of natural products nebularine and 6-methylpurine riboside were constructed via our convergent synthetic strategy. Synthesized nucleosides were tested against HT116 (colon cancer) and 143B (osteosarcoma cancer) tumor cell lines. We have demonstrated 3’-fluorine purine nucleoside analogues display potent tumor cell growth inhibition activity at sub- or low micromolar concentration. PMID:26734098

  19. Phosphorylation of RS1 (RSC1A1) Steers Inhibition of Different Exocytotic Pathways for Glucose Transporter SGLT1 and Nucleoside Transporter CNT1, and an RS1-Derived Peptide Inhibits Glucose Absorption.

    PubMed

    Veyhl-Wichmann, Maike; Friedrich, Alexandra; Vernaleken, Alexandra; Singh, Smriti; Kipp, Helmut; Gorboulev, Valentin; Keller, Thorsten; Chintalapati, Chakravarthi; Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Groll, Jürgen; Koepsell, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake adapts rapidly to physiologic demands by changing transporter abundance in the plasma membrane. The human gene RSC1A1 codes for a 67-kDa protein named RS1 that has been shown to induce downregulation of the sodium-D-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and of the concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 (CNT1) in the plasma membrane by blocking exocytosis at the Golgi. Injecting RS1 fragments into Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing SGLT1 or CNT1 and measuring the expressed uptake of α-methylglucoside or uridine 1 hour later, we identified a RS1 domain (RS1-Reg) containing multiple predicted phosphorylation sites that is responsible for this post-translational downregulation of SGLT1 and CNT1. Dependent on phosphorylation, RS1-Reg blocks the release of SGLT1-containing vesicles from the Golgi in a glucose-dependent manner or glucose-independent release of CNT1-containing vesicles. We showed that upregulation of SGLT1 in the small intestine after glucose ingestion is promoted by glucose-dependent disinhibition of the RS1-Reg-blocked exocytotic pathway of SGLT1 between meals. Mimicking phosphorylation of RS1-Reg, we obtained a RS1-Reg variant that downregulates SGLT1 in the brush-border membrane at high luminal glucose concentration. Because RS1 mediates short-term regulation of various transporters, we propose that the RS1-Reg-navigated transporter release from Golgi represents a basic regulatory mechanism of general importance, which implies the existence of receptor proteins that recognize different phosphorylated forms of RS1-Reg and of complex transporter-specific sorting in the trans-Golgi. RS1-Reg-derived peptides that downregulate SGLT1 at high intracellular glucose concentrations may be used for downregulation of glucose absorption in small intestine, which has been proposed as strategy for treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26464324

  20. Design, discovery, modelling, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel and small, low toxicity s-triazine derivatives as HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Viira, Birgit; Selyutina, Anastasia; García-Sosa, Alfonso T; Karonen, Maarit; Sinkkonen, Jari; Merits, Andres; Maran, Uko

    2016-06-01

    A set of top-ranked compounds from a multi-objective in silico screen was experimentally tested for toxicity and the ability to inhibit the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) in cell-free assay and in cell-based assay using HIV-1 based virus-like particles. Detailed analysis of a commercial sample that indicated specific inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcription revealed that a minor component that was structurally similar to that of the main compound was responsible for the strongest inhibition. As a result, novel s-triazine derivatives were proposed, modelled, discovered, and synthesised, and their antiviral activity and cellular toxicity were tested. Compounds 18a and 18b were found to be efficient HIV-1 RT inhibitors, with an IC50 of 5.6±1.1μM and 0.16±0.05μM in a cell-based assay using infectious HIV-1, respectively. Compound 18b also had no detectable toxicity for different human cell lines. Their binding mode and interactions with the RT suggest that there was strong and adaptable binding in a tight (NNRTI) hydrophobic pocket. In summary, this iterative study produced structural clues and led to a group of non-toxic, novel compounds to inhibit HIV-RT with up to nanomolar potency. PMID:27108399

  1. Design, synthesis, assessment, and molecular docking of novel pyrrolopyrimidine (7-deazapurine) derivatives as non-nucleoside hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mosaad S; Sayed, Amira I; Khedr, Mohammed A; Soror, Sameh H

    2016-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly persistent and presents an unmet medical need requiring more effective treatment options. This has spurred intensive efforts to discover novel anti-HCV agents. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), NS5B of HCV, constitutes a selective target for drug discovery due to its absence in human cells; also, it is the centerpiece for viral replication. Here, we synthesized novel pyrrole, pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine and pyrrolo[3,2-e][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-c]pyrimidine derivatives. The non-toxic doses of these compounds on Huh 7.5 cell line were determined and their antiviral activity against HCVcc genotype 4a was examined. Compounds 7j, 7f, 5c, 12i and 12f showed significant anti HCV activity. The percent of reduction for the non-toxic doses of 7j, 7f, 5c, 12i and 12f were 90%, 76.7±5.8%, 73.3±5.8%, 70% and 63.3±5.8%, respectively. The activity of these compounds was interpreted by molecular docking against HCV NS5B polymerase enzyme. PMID:27052365

  2. The concentrative nucleoside transporter family, SLC28.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jennifer H; Owen, Ryan P; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2004-02-01

    The SLC28 family consists of three subtypes of sodium-dependent, concentrative nucleoside transporters, CNT1, CNT2, and CNT3 (SLC28A1, SLC28A2, and SLC28A3, respectively), that transport both naturally occurring nucleosides and synthetic nucleoside analogs used in the treatment of various diseases. These subtypes differ in their substrate specificities: CNT1 is pyrimidine-nucleoside preferring, CNT2 is purine-nucleoside preferring, and CNT3 transports both pyrimidine and purine nucleosides. Recent studies have identified key amino acid residues that are determinants of pyrimidine and purine specificity of CNT1 and CNT2. The tissue distributions of the CNTs vary: CNT1 is localized primarily in epithelia, whereas CNT2 and CNT3 have more generalized distributions. Nucleoside transporters in the SLC28 and SLC29 families play critical roles in nucleoside salvage pathways where they mediate the first step of nucleotide biosynthesis. In addition, these transporters work in concert to terminate adenosine signaling. SLC28 family members are crucial determinants of response to a variety of anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogs, as they modulate the entry of these analogs into target tissues. Further, this family is involved in the absorption and disposition of many nucleoside analogs. Several CNT single nucleoside polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified, but have yet to be characterized. PMID:12856181

  3. Selective loss of nucleoside carrier expression in rat hepatocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Dragan, Y; Valdés, R; Gomez-Angelats, M; Felipe, A; Javier Casado, F; Pitot, H; Pastor-Anglada, M

    2000-08-01

    Evidence that hepatoma cell lines show differential expression of concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT1 and CNT2) prompted us to study the transporter proteins in 2 models of hepatocarcinogenesis, the chemically induced Solt and Farber model and the albumin-SV40 large T antigen (Alb-SV40) transgenic rat. CNT1 expression was lower in tumor biopsy specimens from Alb-SV40 rat livers than in normal tissue. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the CNT1 protein was indeed absent in the tumor lesions. CNT1 was also absent in a cell line, L25, derived from the Alb-SV40 transgenic rat liver tumors, whereas another cell line, L37, derived from the normal-appearing parenchyma, retained the expression of both carrier isoforms. The protein expression correlated with the nucleoside transport properties of these cell lines. Moreover, although CNT2 expression was highly dependent on the growth characteristics of the 2 cell lines, as was CNT1 (albeit to a lower extent) in L37 cells, it was not expressed in L25 cells at any stage of cell growth. In contrast to the transgenic model of hepatocarcinogenesis, in the chemically induced tumors the expression of CNT2 was lower, although still detectable. In summary, these data indicate that hepatocarcinogenesis leads to a selective loss or diminished expression of nucleoside carrier isoforms, a feature that may be relevant to our understanding of the molecular basis of the bioavailability of those drugs that are nucleoside derivatives and may be substrates of these carriers. The transport properties and isoform-expression profile of the L25 and L37 cell lines make them suitable hepatocyte culture models with which to study nucleoside transport processes and drug sensitivity. PMID:10915730

  4. Synthesis of cycloalkyl substituted purine nucleosides via a metal-free radical route.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Chao; Xia, Ran; Xie, Ming-Sheng; Qu, Gui-Rong; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2016-05-01

    An efficient route to synthesize cycloalkyl substituted purine nucleosides was developed. This metal-free C-H activation was accomplished by a tBuOOtBu initiated radical reaction. By adjusting the amount of tBuOOtBu and reaction time, the selective synthesis of C6-monocycloalkyl or C6,C8-dicycloalkyl substituted purine nucleosides could be realized. Furthermore, uracil and related nucleosides were also suitable substrates, giving the C5-cyclohexyl substituted uracil derivatives in good yields with excellent regioselectivities. PMID:27101306

  5. Identification of a novel compound that inhibits osteoclastogenesis by suppressing nucleoside transporters.

    PubMed

    Katsuyama, Shun; Sugino, Kumi; Sasazawa, Yukiko; Nakano, Yoshihiko; Aono, Harumi; Morishita, Keisuke; Kawatani, Makoto; Umezawa, Kazuo; Osada, Hiroyuki; Simizu, Siro

    2016-04-01

    We screened small-molecule compounds that inhibit osteoclast differentiation to find new anti-osteoporosis agents and found that a novel compound, SUKU-1, suppressed osteoclastogenesis. We also synthesized 38 derivatives of SUKU-1 and discovered that nine of them had inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis and that SUKU-33 was the most potent inhibitor. Next, we investigated the mechanisms by which SUKU-33 suppressed osteoclast differentiation. By measuring the uptake of [(3) H]-uridine in cells, we found that SUKU-33 suppressed both equilibrative nucleoside transporters and concentrative nucleoside transporters. These results suggest that SUKU-33 inhibits osteoclast differentiation by suppressing nucleoside transporters. PMID:27001232

  6. Macrophages require different nucleoside transport systems for proliferation and activation.

    PubMed

    Soler, C; García-Manteiga, J; Valdés, R; Xaus, J; Comalada, M; Casado, F J; Pastor-Anglada, M; Celada, A; Felipe, A

    2001-09-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms involved in macrophage proliferation and activation, we studied the regulation of the nucleoside transport systems. In murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, the nucleosides required for DNA and RNA synthesis are recruited from the extracellular medium. M-CSF induced macrophage proliferation and DNA and RNA synthesis, whereas interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) led to activation, blocked proliferation, and induced only RNA synthesis. Macrophages express at least the concentrative systems N1 and N2 (CNT2 and CNT1 genes, respectively) and the equilibrative systems es and ei (ENT1 and ENT2 genes, respectively). Incubation with M-CSF only up-regulated the equilibrative system es. Inhibition of this transport system blocked M-CSF-dependent proliferation. Treatment with IFN-gamma only induced the concentrative N1 and N2 systems. IFN-gamma also down-regulated the increased expression of the es equilibrative system induced by M-CSF. Thus, macrophage proliferation and activation require selective regulation of nucleoside transporters and may respond to specific requirements for DNA and RNA synthesis. This report also shows that the nucleoside transporters are critical for macrophage proliferation and activation. PMID:11532978

  7. Marine Nucleosides: Structure, Bioactivity, Synthesis and Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ri-Ming; Chen, Yin-Ning; Zeng, Ziyu; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Su, Xiangdong; Peng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Nucleosides are glycosylamines that structurally form part of nucleotide molecules, the building block of DNA and RNA. Both nucleosides and nucleotides are vital components of all living cells and involved in several key biological processes. Some of these nucleosides have been obtained from a variety of marine resources. Because of the biological importance of these compounds, this review covers 68 marine originated nucleosides and their synthetic analogs published up to June 2014. The review will focus on the structures, bioactivities, synthesis and biosynthetic processes of these compounds. PMID:25474189

  8. Synthetic strategies toward carbocyclic purine-pyrimidine hybrid nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Joshua M; Mosley, Sylvester L; Dorgan, Kathleen M; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L

    2009-08-01

    The blending of key structural features from the purine and pyrimidine nucleobase scaffolds gives rise to a new class of hybrid nucleosides. The purine-pyrimidine hybrid nucleosides can be viewed as either N-3 ribosylated purines or 5,6-disubstituted pyrimidines, thus recognition by both purine- and pyrimidine-metabolizing enzymes is possible. Given the increasing reports of the development of resistance in many enzymatic systems, a drug that could be recognized by more than one enzyme could prove highly advantageous in overcoming resistance mechanisms related to binding site mutations. In that regard, the design, synthesis and results of preliminary biological activity for a series of carbocyclic uracil derivatives with either a fused imidazole or thiazole ring are presented herein. PMID:19592260

  9. Synthetic Strategies Toward Carbocyclic Purine-Pyrimidine Hybrid Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Joshua M.; Mosley, Sylvester L.; Dorgan, Kathleen M.; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The blending of key structural features from the purine and pyrimidine nucleobase scaffolds gives rise to a new class of hybrid nucleosides. The purine-pyrimidine hybrid nucleosides can be viewed as either N-3 ribosylated purines or 5,6-disubstituted pyrimidines, thus recognition by both purine- and pyrimidine-metabolizing enzymes is possible. Given the increasing reports of the development of resistance in many enzymatic systems, a drug that could be recognized by more than one enzyme could prove highly advantageous in overcoming resistance mechanisms related to binding site mutations. In that regard, the design, synthesis and results of preliminary biological activity for a series of carbocyclic uracil derivatives with either a fused imidazole or thiazole ring are presented herein. PMID:19592260

  10. Alpha-carboxy nucleoside phosphonates as universal nucleoside triphosphate mimics

    PubMed Central

    Balzarini, Jan; Das, Kalyan; Bernatchez, Jean A.; Martinez, Sergio E.; Ngure, Marianne; Keane, Sarah; Ford, Alan; Maguire, Nuala; Mullins, Niki; John, Jubi; Kim, Youngju; Dehaen, Wim; Vande Voorde, Johan; Liekens, Sandra; Naesens, Lieve; Götte, Matthias; Maguire, Anita R.; Arnold, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    Polymerases have a structurally highly conserved negatively charged amino acid motif that is strictly required for Mg2+ cation-dependent catalytic incorporation of (d)NTP nucleotides into nucleic acids. Based on these characteristics, a nucleoside monophosphonate scaffold, α-carboxy nucleoside phosphonate (α-CNP), was designed that is recognized by a variety of polymerases. Kinetic, biochemical, and crystallographic studies with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase revealed that α-CNPs mimic the dNTP binding through a carboxylate oxygen, two phosphonate oxygens, and base-pairing with the template. In particular, the carboxyl oxygen of the α-CNP acts as the potential equivalent of the α-phosphate oxygen of dNTPs and two oxygens of the phosphonate group of the α-CNP chelate Mg2+, mimicking the chelation by the β- and γ-phosphate oxygens of dNTPs. α-CNPs (i) do not require metabolic activation (phosphorylation), (ii) bind directly to the substrate-binding site, (iii) chelate one of the two active site Mg2+ ions, and (iv) reversibly inhibit the polymerase catalytic activity without being incorporated into nucleic acids. In addition, α-CNPs were also found to selectively interact with regulatory (i.e., allosteric) Mg2+-dNTP-binding sites of nucleos(t)ide-metabolizing enzymes susceptible to metabolic regulation. α-CNPs represent an entirely novel and broad technological platform for the development of specific substrate active- or regulatory-site inhibitors with therapeutic potential. PMID:25733891

  11. Complex regulation of nucleoside transporter expression in epithelial and immune system cells.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Anglada, M; Casado, F J; Valdés, R; Mata, J; García-Manteiga, J; Molina, M

    2001-01-01

    Nucleoside transporters have a variety of functions in the cell, such as the provision of substrates for nucleic acid synthesis and the modulation of purine receptors by determining agonist availability. They also transport a wide range of nucleoside-derived antiviral and anticancer drugs. Most mammalian cells co-express several nucleoside transporter isoforms at the plasma membrane, which are differentially regulated. This paper reviews studies on nucleoside transporter regulation, which has been extensively characterized in the laboratory in several model systems: the hepatocyte, an epithelial cell type, and immune system cells, in particular B cells, which are non-polarized and highly specialized. The hepatocyte co-expresses at least two Na+-dependent nucleoside transporters, CNT1 and CNT2, which are up-regulated during cell proliferation but may undergo selective loss in certain experimental models of hepatocarcinomas. This feature is consistent with evidence that CNT expression also depends on the differentiation status of the hepatocyte. Moreover, substrate availability also modulates CNT expression in epithelial cells, as reported for hepatocytes and jejunum epithelia from rats fed nucleotide-deprived diets. In human B cell lines, CNT and ENT transporters are co-expressed but differentially regulated after B cell activation triggered by cytokines or phorbol esters, as described for murine bone marrow macrophages induced either to activate or to proliferate. The complex regulation of the expression and activity of nucleoside transporters hints at their relevance in cell physiology. PMID:11396615

  12. Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent endoplasmic reticulum nucleoside diphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Failer, Bernd U; Braun, Norbert; Zimmermann, Herbert

    2002-10-01

    We have isolated and characterized the cDNA encoding a Ca(2+)-dependent nucleoside diphosphatase (EC ) related to two secreted ATP- and ADP-hydrolyzing apyrases of the bloodsucking insects, Cimex lectularius and Phlebotomus papatasi. The rat brain-derived cDNA has an open reading frame of 1209 bp encoding a protein of 403 amino acids and a calculated molecular mass of 45.7 kDa. The mRNA was expressed in all tissues investigated, revealing two major transcripts with varying preponderance. The immunohistochemical analysis of the Myc-His-tagged enzyme expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells revealed its association with the endoplasmic reticulum and also with pre-Golgi intermediates. Ca(2+)-dependent nucleoside diphosphatase is a membrane protein with its catalytic site facing the organelle lumen. It hydrolyzes nucleoside 5'-diphosphates in the order UDP >GDP = IDP >CDP but not ADP. Nucleoside 5'-triphosphates were hydrolyzed to a minor extent, and no hydrolysis of nucleoside 5'-monophosphates was observed. The enzyme was strongly activated by Ca(2+), insensitive to Mg(2+), and had a K(m) for UDP of 216 microm. Ca(2+)-dependent nucleoside diphosphatase may support glycosylation reactions related to quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:12167635

  13. Aberrant Apoptotic Response of Colorectal Cancer Cells to Novel Nucleoside Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Harmse, Leonie; Dahan-Farkas, Nurit; Panayides, Jenny-Lee; van Otterlo, Willem; Penny, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased understanding of colorectal cancer and the introduction of targeted drug therapy, the metastatic phase of the disease remains refractory to treatment. Since the deregulation of normal apoptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, novel nucleoside analogues were synthesized here and evaluated for their ability to induce apoptosis and cause cell death in two colorectal adeno-carcinoma cell lines, Caco-2 and HT-29. Three novel nucleoside analogues assessed here showed cytotoxic activity, as measured by the MTT assay against both cell lines: the IC50 values ranged between 3 and 37 μM, with Caco-2 cells being more sensitive than HT-29 cells. Compared to camptothecin, the positive control, the nucleoside analogues were significantly less toxic to normal unstimulated leukocytes (p>0.05). Moreover, the nucleosides were able to induce apoptosis as measured by an increase in caspase 8 and caspase 3 activity above that of the control. This was additionally supported by data derived from Annexin V-FITC assays. Despite marginal changes to the mitochondrial membrane potential, all three nucleosides caused a significant increase in cytosolic cytochrome c (p>0.05), with a corresponding decrease in mitochondrial cytochrome c. Morphological analysis of both cell lines showed the rapid appearance of vacuoles following exposure to two of the nucleosides, while a third caused cellular detachment, delayed cytoplasmic vacuolisation and nuclear abnormalities. Preliminary investigations, using the autophagic indicator monodansylcadaverine and chloroquine as positive control, showed that two of the nucleosides induced the formation of autophagic vacuoles. In summary, the novel nucleoside analogues showed selective cytotoxicity towards both cancer cell lines and are effective initiators of an unusual apoptotic response, demonstrating their potential to serve as structural scaffolds for more potent analogues. PMID:26390405

  14. Functional production and reconstitution of the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Interaction of inhibitors of nucleoside transport with recombinant hENT1 and a glycosylation-defective derivative (hENT1/N48Q).

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, M F; Mani, R S; Sundaram, M; Hogue, D L; Young, J D; Baldwin, S A; Cass, C E

    1999-01-01

    We have produced recombinant human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT1) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and have compared the binding of inhibitors of equilibrative nucleoside transport with the wild-type transporter and a N-glycosylation-defective mutant transporter. Equilibrium binding of 3H-labelled nitrobenzylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside ¿6-[(4-nitrobenzyl)thio]-9-beta-d-ribofuranosyl purine; NBMPR¿ to hENT1-producing yeast revealed a single class of high-affinity sites that were shown to be in membrane fractions by (1) equilibrium binding (means+/-S.D.) of [3H]NBMPR to intact yeast (Kd 1.2+/-0.2 nM; Bmax 5.0+/-0.5 pmol/mg of protein) and membranes (Kd 0.7+/-0.2 nM; Bmax 6.5+/-1 pmol/mg of protein), and (2) reconstitution of hENT1-mediated [3H]thymidine transport into proteoliposomes that was potently inhibited by NBMPR. Dilazep and dipyridamole inhibited NBMPR binding to hENT1 with IC50 values of 130+/-10 and 380+/-20 nM respectively. The role of N-linked glycosylation in the interaction of NBMPR with hENT1 was examined by the quantification of binding of [3H]NBMPR to yeast producing either wild-type hENT1 or a glycosylation-defective mutant (hENT1/N48Q) in which Asn-48 was converted into Gln. The Kd for binding of NBMPR to hENT1/N48Q was 10. 5+/-1.6 nM, indicating that the replacement of an Asn residue with Gln decreased the affinity of hENT1 for NBMPR. The decreased affinity of hENT1/N48Q for NBMPR was due to an increased rate of dissociation (koff) and a decreased rate of association (kon) of specifically bound [3H]NBMPR because the values for hENT1-producing and hENT1/N48Q-producing yeast were respectively 0.14+/-0.02 and 0. 36+/-0.05 min-1 for koff, and (1.2+/-0.1)x10(8) and (0.40+/-0. 04)x10(8) M-1.min-1 for kon. These results indicated that the conservative conversion of an Asn residue into Gln at position 48 of hENT1 and/or the loss of N-linked glycosylation capability altered the binding characteristics of the transporter for NBMPR

  15. Basal Expression of Nucleoside Transporter mRNA Differs Among Small Intestinal Epithelia of Beef Steers and is Differentially Altered by Ruminal or Abomasal Infusion of Starch Hydrolysate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In ruminants, microbial-derived nucleic acids are a major source of N and are absorbed as nucleosides by small intestinal epithelia. Although the biochemical activities of 2 nucleoside transport systems have been described for cattle, little is known regarding the regulation of their gene expression...

  16. Synthesis of nucleoside and nucleotide conjugates of bile acids, and polymerase construction of bile acid-functionalized DNA.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, Satu; Macícková-Cahová, Hana; Pohl, Radek; Sanda, Miloslav; Hocek, Michal

    2010-03-01

    Aqueous Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions of 5-iodopyrimidine or 7-iodo-7-deazaadenine nucleosides with bile acid-derived terminal acetylenes linked via an ester or amide tether gave the corresponding bile acid-nucleoside conjugates. Analogous reactions of halogenated nucleoside triphosphates gave directly bile acid-modified dNTPs. Enzymatic incorporation of these modified nucleotides to DNA was successfully performed using Phusion polymerase for primer extension. One of the dNTPs (dCTP bearing cholic acid) was also efficient for PCR amplification. PMID:20165813

  17. Broad-spectrum non-nucleoside inhibitors of human herpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Lora; Zhi, Yun; Cheng, Hoyee; Ghosh, Ayantika; Piazza, Paolo; Yee, Michael B.; Kumar, Santosh; Milosevic, Jadranka; Bloom, David C.; Arav-Boger, Ravit; Kinchington, Paul R.; Yolken, Robert; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; D’Aiuto, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Herpesvirus infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality through lifelong recurrent cycles of lytic and latent infection in several tissues, including the human nervous system. Acyclovir (ACV) and its prodrug, the current antivirals of choice for herpes simplex virus (HSV) and, to some extent, varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections are nucleoside analogues that inhibit viral DNA replication. Rising viral resistance and the need for more effective second-line drugs have motivated searches for additional antiviral agents, particularly non-nucleoside based agents. We evaluated the antiviral activity of five compounds with predicted lysosomotropic activity using conventional and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal (iPSC-neurons) cultures. Their potency and toxicity were compared with ACV and the lysosomotropic agents chloroquine and bafilomycin A1. Out of five compounds tested, micromolar concentrations of 30N12, 16F19, and 4F17 showed antiviral activity comparable to ACV (50μM) during lytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections, reduced viral DNA copy number, and reduced selected HSV-1 protein levels. These compounds also inhibited the reactivation of ‘quiescent’ HSV-1 infection established in iPSC-neurons, but did not inhibit viral entry into host cells. The same compounds had greater potency than ACV against lytic VZV infection; they also inhibited replication of human cytomegalovirus. The anti-herpetic effects of these non-nucleoside agents merit further evaluation in vivo. PMID:26079681

  18. Broad-spectrum non-nucleoside inhibitors of human herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    McClain, Lora; Zhi, Yun; Cheng, Hoyee; Ghosh, Ayantika; Piazza, Paolo; Yee, Michael B; Kumar, Santosh; Milosevic, Jadranka; Bloom, David C; Arav-Boger, Ravit; Kinchington, Paul R; Yolken, Robert; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; D'Aiuto, Leonardo

    2015-09-01

    Herpesvirus infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality through lifelong recurrent cycles of lytic and latent infection in several tissues, including the human nervous system. Acyclovir (ACV) and its prodrug, the current antivirals of choice for herpes simplex virus (HSV) and, to some extent, varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections are nucleoside analogues that inhibit viral DNA replication. Rising viral resistance and the need for more effective second-line drugs have motivated searches for additional antiviral agents, particularly non-nucleoside based agents. We evaluated the antiviral activity of five compounds with predicted lysosomotropic activity using conventional and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal (iPSC-neurons) cultures. Their potency and toxicity were compared with ACV and the lysosomotropic agents chloroquine and bafilomycin A1. Out of five compounds tested, micromolar concentrations of 30N12, 16F19, and 4F17 showed antiviral activity comparable to ACV (50μM) during lytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections, reduced viral DNA copy number, and reduced selected HSV-1 protein levels. These compounds also inhibited the reactivation of 'quiescent' HSV-1 infection established in iPSC-neurons, but did not inhibit viral entry into host cells. The same compounds had greater potency than ACV against lytic VZV infection; they also inhibited replication of human cytomegalovirus. The anti-herpetic effects of these non-nucleoside agents merit further evaluation in vivo. PMID:26079681

  19. Structural modifications of nucleosides in ionic liquids

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vineet; Parmar, Virinder S.; Malhotra, Sanjay V.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleoside chemistry represents an important research area for drug discovery, as many nucleoside analogs are prominent drugs and have been widely applied for cancer and viral chemotherapy. However, the synthesis of modified nucleosides presents a major challenge, which is further aggravated by poor solubility of these compounds in common organic solvents. Most of the currently available methods for nucleoside modification employ toxic high boiling solvents; require long reaction time and tedious workup methods. As such, there is constant effort to develop process chemistry in alternative medium to limit the use of organic solvents that are hazardous to the environment and can be deleterious to human health. One such approach is to use ionic liquids, which are ‘designer materials’ with unique and tunable physico-chemical properties. Studies have shown that methodologies using ionic liquids are highly efficient and convenient for the synthesis of nucleoside analogs, as demonstrated by the preparation of pharmaceutically important anti-viral drugs. This article summarizes recent efforts on nucleoside modification using ionic liquids. PMID:20178825

  20. Synthesis of purine and 7-deazapurine nucleoside analogues of 6-N-(4-Nitrobenzyl)adenosine; inhibition of nucleoside transport and proliferation of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rayala, Ramanjaneyulu; Theard, Patricia; Ortiz, Heysell; Yao, Sylvia; Young, James D; Balzarini, Jan; Robins, Morris J; Wnuk, Stanislaw F

    2014-09-01

    Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) is a prototypical nucleoside transporter protein ubiquitously expressed on the cell surface of almost all human tissue. Given the role of hENT1 in the transport of nucleoside drugs, an important class of therapeutics in the treatment of various cancers and viral infections, efforts have been made to better understand the mechanisms by which hENT1 modulates nucleoside transport. To that end, we report here the design and synthesis of novel tool compounds for the further study of hENT1. The 7-deazapurine nucleoside antibiotic tubercidin was converted into its 4-N-benzyl and 4-N-(4-nitrobenzyl) derivatives by alkylation at N3 followed by a Dimroth rearrangement to the 4-N-isomer or by fluoro-diazotization followed by SN Ar displacement of the 4-fluoro group by a benzylamine. The 4-N-(4-nitrobenzyl) derivatives of sangivamycin and toyocamycin antibiotics were prepared by the alkylation approach. Cross-membrane transport of labeled uridine by hENT1 was inhibited to a weaker extent by the 4-nitrobenzylated tubercidin and sangivamycin analogues than was observed with 6-N-(4-nitrobenzyl)adenosine. Type-specific inhibition of cancer cell proliferation was observed at micromolar concentrations with the 4-N-(4-nitrobenzyl) derivatives of sangivamycin and toyocamycin, and also with 4-N-benzyltubercidin. Treatment of 2',3',5'-O-acetyladenosine with aryl isocyanates gave the 6-ureido derivatives but none of them exhibited inhibitory activity against cancer cell proliferation or hENT1. PMID:24788480

  1. Solution conformations of nucleoside analogues exhibiting antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Sandra; Benevides, James M.; Thomas, George J.

    1991-01-01

    The molecular-conformational basis for HIV-1 antiviral activity of dideoxynucleoside analogues is unknown. A recent proposal by van Roey [1] that furanose sugar puckering in the C2' -endo family (namely C3' -exo) may account for the enhanced anti-HIV-1 activity of azidothymidine (AZT), dideoxythymidine (ddT) and dideoxycytidine (ddC) has been tested by conformational analysis of these and related agents, using laser Raman spectroscopy of their solutions and crystal structures. The results show that nucleoside analogues exhibiting anti-HIV-1 activity, including AZT, ddT and ddC, exist in solution with C3' -endo as the predominating sugar pucker. The C3' -endo solution conformations differ fundamentally from the C3' -exo conformations observed in the corresponding crystal structures. Accordingly, the crystal conformation cannot be responsible for enhanced recognition of these agents, either by nucleoside kinase or reverse transcriptase, as a mechanism to explain antiviral activity. The present findings suggest that C3' -endo sugear pucker, rather than C3' -exo pucker, or other puckers of the C2' -endo family, is more probably the required conformation for antivaral activity. The present work also shows that nucleoside phosphorylation does not, in general, change the preferred solution conformation of a nucleoside. Therefore, C3' -endo sugar pucker is likely to be the preferred conformation for both nucleoside kinase and reverse transcriptase recognition. In this study, the list of thymidine nucleoside conformation markers available from Raman spectra is extended and additional group frequency assignments for C3' -azido, C3' -deoxy and related nucleoside derivatives are provided.

  2. Sequencing, functional expression and characterization of rat NTPDase6, a nucleoside diphosphatase and novel member of the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase family.

    PubMed

    Braun, N; Fengler, S; Ebeling, C; Servos, J; Zimmermann, H

    2000-11-01

    We have isolated and characterized the cDNA encoding nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 6 (NTPDase6), a novel member of the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase family. The rat-brain-derived cDNA has an open reading frame of 1365 bp encoding a protein of 455 amino acid residues, a calculated molecular mass of 49971 Da and a predicted N-terminal hydrophobic sequence. It shares 86% sequence identity with the human CD39L2 sequence and 48% and 51% identity respectively with sequences of the two related human and murine nucleoside diphosphatases (CD39L4, NTPDase5/ER-UDPase). The mRNA was expressed in all tissues investigated, revealing two major transcripts with differing abundances. PCR analysis suggests a single open reading frame. A Myc-His-tagged NTPDase6 was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and PC12 cells for immunological analysis and protein isolation. The protein was contained in membrane fractions of transfected CHO cells and occurred in a soluble form in the cell culture supernatants. NTPDase6 preferentially hydrolysed nucleoside 5'-diphosphates. With different substrates the order of activity was GDP>IDP>UDP,CDP>ADP. Nucleoside 5'-triphosphates were hydrolysed only to a minor extent and no hydrolysis of nucleoside 5'-monophosphates was observed. The enzyme was strongly and equally activated by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and had a K(m) for GDP of 211 microM. The immunohistochemical analysis of transfected CHO and PC12 cells suggests that NTPDase6 is associated with the Golgi apparatus and to a small extent also with the plasma membrane. The enzyme might support glycosylation reactions in the Golgi apparatus and, when released from cells, might catalyse the hydrolysis of extracellular nucleotides. PMID:11042118

  3. Synthesis and in vitro growth inhibitory activity of novel silyl- and trityl-modified nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Panayides, Jenny-Lee; Mathieu, Véronique; Banuls, Laetitia Moreno Y; Apostolellis, Helen; Dahan-Farkas, Nurit; Davids, Hajierah; Harmse, Leonie; Rey, M E Christine; Green, Ivan R; Pelly, Stephen C; Kiss, Robert; Kornienko, Alexander; van Otterlo, Willem A L

    2016-06-15

    Seventeen silyl- and trityl-modified (5'-O- and 3',5'-di-O-) nucleosides were synthesized with the aim of investigating the in vitro antiproliferative activities of these nucleoside derivatives. A subset of the compounds was evaluated at a fixed concentration of 100μM against a small panel of tumor cell lines (HL-60, K-562, Jurkat, Caco-2 and HT-29). The entire set was also tested at varying concentrations against two human glioma lines (U373 and Hs683) to obtain GI50 values, with the best results being values of ∼25μM. PMID:27157005

  4. N-Branched acyclic nucleoside phosphonates as monomers for the synthesis of modified oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Hocková, Dana; Rosenbergová, Šárka; Ménová, Petra; Páv, Ondřej; Pohl, Radek; Novák, Pavel; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2015-04-21

    Protected N-branched nucleoside phosphonates containing adenine and thymine bases were prepared as the monomers for the introduction of aza-acyclic nucleotide units into modified oligonucleotides. The phosphotriester and phosphoramidite methods were used for the incorporation of modified and natural units, respectively. The solid phase synthesis of a series of nonamers containing one central modified unit was successfully performed in both 3'→5' and 5'→3' directions. Hybridization properties of the prepared oligoribonucleotides and oligodeoxyribonucleotides were evaluated. The measurement of thermal characteristics of the complexes of modified nonamers with the complementary strand revealed a considerable destabilizing effect of the introduced units. We also examined the substrate/inhibitory properties of aza-acyclic nucleoside phosphono-diphosphate derivatives (analogues of nucleoside triphosphates) but neither inhibition of human and bacterial DNA polymerases nor polymerase-mediated incorporation of these triphosphate analogues into short DNA was observed. PMID:25766752

  5. Conformational analysis of a nucleoside of 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccur Leal, Kátia; Rudolf Seidl, Peter; Diniz Yoneda, Julliane; Santos, CarlaV. B.; Marques, Isakelly P.; Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Francisco Ferreira, Vitor

    2005-06-01

    The synthesis of new ribonucleosides is an essential research area in the investigation of new therapeutically useful agents, particularly those used in the treatment of HIV infection. The conformation of these nucleosides may have direct implications for their ability to bind to receptor targets. We have prepared the 7-methoxy-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives and used the ensemble of low-energy minima to develop conformational profiles of quinolonic nucleosides and verify their accuracy in different calculations of structural parameters. Results are compared with experimental data obtained by X-ray and NMR analysis. Finally, we intend to test the applicability of these methods to conformational analysis of other nucleosides and verify if the preferential conformation is the one which gives the best anti-HIV or antiviral activity.

  6. Development of a Diastereoselective Phosphorylation of a Complex Nucleoside via Dynamic Kinetic Resolution.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kristy; Beutner, Gregory L; Schmidt, Michael; Janey, Jacob; Chen, Ke; Rosso, Victor; Eastgate, Martin D

    2015-05-15

    The development of a diastereoselective nucleoside phosphorylation is described, which produces a single isomer of a complex nucleoside monophosphate pro-drug. A stable phosphoramidic acid derivative is coupled to the nucleoside, in a process mediated by HATU and quinine, to deliver the coupled product in high chemical yield and good diastereoselectivity. This unusual process was shown to proceed through a dynamic kinetic resolution of a 1:1 mixture of activated phosphonate ester diastereoisomers. The optimized conditions afforded the product with a combined [S,S(P)] and [S,R(P)] in-process yield of 89% and a ∼7:1 [S,S(P):S,R(P)] diastereomeric ratio. Isolation of the major isomer was facilitated by single crystallization from anisole, where the product was obtained in 57% isolated yield, excellent purity (>95%), and a high diastereomeric ratio (>50:1). PMID:25840459

  7. Binding Strength of Nucleobases and Nucleosides on Silver Nanoparticles Probed by a Colorimetric Method.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu; Li, Na

    2016-06-01

    Because of their unique and tunable properties, oligonucleotide-functionalized noble metal nanoparticles have provided a versatile platform for various engineering and biomedical applications. The vast majority of such applications were demonstrated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) while only a few were demonstrated with sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs). This is largely due to the lack of robust protocols to functionalize AgNPs with thiol-modified oligonucleotides. Previous studies have revealed strong interactions between nucleobases and AgNPs. This could enable an alternative way to functionalize AgNPs with non-thiolated oligonucleotides. However, there is no quantitative study on the interaction strengths between AgNPs and oligonucleotides. Several methods have been used for quantitative evaluation of the interaction strengths between AuNPs and oligonucleotides. These methods often require specialized equipment that might not be widely accessible or rely on labor-intensive procedures to obtain the adsorption isotherms. Herein, we developed a colorimetric method, as a simple and high-throughput alternative of existing methods, to quantify the binding strength between AgNPs and nucleobases/nucleosides. In this colorimetric method, concentration-dependent destabilizing effects of nucleobase/nucleoside adsorption on AgNPs are utilized to indirectly quantify the amount of nucleobases/nucleosides adsorbed on AgNPs, thus deriving the binding strength between AgNPs and nucleobases/nucleosides. First, the concentration-dependent AgNP aggregation kinetics in the presence of nucleobases/nucleosides were systematically investigated. Then, this colorimetric method was used to determine the binding strengths between AgNPs and various DNA/RNA nucleobases/nucleosides. It was found that the ranking of interaction strengths between AgNPs and DNA/RNA nucleosides (dC < dT < dA, rC < rU < rA) is generally agreed with that between AgNPs and corresponding nucleobases (C < T < U < A). This

  8. Nucleoside transporters and liver cell growth.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Anglada, M; Felipe, A; Casado, F J; del Santo, B; Mata, J F; Valdés, R

    1998-01-01

    Liver parenchymal cells show a wide variety of plasma membrane transporters that are tightly regulated by endocrine and nutritional factors. This review summarizes work performed in our laboratory on these transport systems, particularly nucleoside transporters, which are up-regulated in physiological situations associated with liver cell growth. Rat hepatocytes show a Na+-dependent nucleoside transport activity that is stimulated by pancreatic hormones. Indeed, this biological activity appears to be the result of the co-expression of at least two isoforms of nucleoside carriers, CNT1 and CNT2 (also called SPNT). These two transporters are up-regulated during the early phase of liver growth after partial hepatectomy, although to different extents, suggesting differential regulation of the two isoforms. The recent generation of isoform-specific antibodies allowed us to demonstrate that carrier expression may also have complex post-transcriptional regulation on the basis of the lack of correspondence between mRNA and protein levels. The analysis of nucleoside transport systems in hepatoma cells and the comparison with those in hepatocytes has also provided evidence that the differentiation status of liver parenchymal cells may determine the pattern of nucleoside transporters expressed. PMID:10353710

  9. Carboranyl Nucleosides & Oligonucleotides for Neutron Capture Therapy Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2004-12-01

    This proposal enabled us to synthesize and develop boron-rich nucleosides and oligonucleotide analogues for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the treatment of various malignancies. First, we determined the relationship between structure, cellular accumulation and tissue distribution of 5-o-carboranyl-2'-deoxyuridine (D-CDU) and its derivatives D-ribo-CU and 5-o-carboranyluracil (CU), to potentially target brain and other solid tumors for neutron capture therapy. Synthesized carborane containing nucleoside derivatives of CDU, D- and L-enantiomers of CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU were used. We measured tissue disposition in xenografted mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors xenografts and in rats bearing 9L gliosarcoma isografts in their flanks and intracranially. The accumulation of D-CDU, 1-({beta}-L-arabinosyl)-5-o-carboranyluracil, D-ribo-CU, and CU were also studied in LnCap human prostate tumor cells and their retention was measured in male nude mice bearing LnCap and 9479 human prostate tumor xenografts. D-CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU levels were measured after administration in mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors in their flanks. D-CDU achieved high cellular concentrations in LnCap cells and up to 2.5% of the total cellular compound was recovered in the 5'-monophosphorylated form. D-CDU cellular concentrations were similar in LnCap and 9479 tumor xenografts. Studies in tumor bearing animals indicated that increasing the number of hydroxyl moieties in the sugar constituent of the carboranyl nucleosides lead to increased rate and extent of renal elimination, a decrease in serum half-lives and an increased tissue specificity. Tumor/brain ratios were greatest for CDU and D-ribo-CU, while tumor/prostate ratios were greatest with CU. CDU and D-ribo-CU have potential for BNCT of brain malignancies, while CU may be further developed for prostate cancer. A method was developed for the solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides containing (ocarboran-1-yl

  10. Prebiotic phosphorylation of nucleosides in formamide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoffstall, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study intended to assess phosphorylation under neither aqueous nor dry thermal conditions. Instead, phosphorylations were attempted in possible nonaqueous prebiotic solvents. Formamide appeared to be the most obvious candidate for phosphorylation studies. Three main classes of phosphorylated products were formed in formamide solution: adenosine monophosphates, cyclic adenosine phosphate, and adenosine diphosphates. Experiments were designed to investigate the extent of phosphorylation of nucleosides in formamide, the relative amounts of nucleoside monophosphate, diphosphates and cyclic phosphate formed and the relative effectiveness of different sources of phosphate as phosphorylating agents in formamide. Reaction variables were temperature, nature of the phosphate or condensed phosphate, nucleoside, concentration of reactants and possible effects of additives. Product identification was based on qualitative and quantitative thin layer chromatography.

  11. Polymeric nanogel formulations of nucleoside analogs

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Serguei V

    2008-01-01

    Nanogels are colloidal microgel carriers that have been introduced recently as a prospective drug delivery system for nucleotide therapeutics. The crosslinked protonated polymer network of nanogels binds oppositely charged drug molecules, encapsulating them into submicron particles with a core-shell structure. The nanogel network also provides a suitable template for chemical engineering, surface modification and vectorisation. This review reveals recent attempts to develop novel drug formulations of nanogels with antiviral and antiproliferative nucleoside analogs in the active form of 5′-triphosphates; discusses structural approaches to the optimisation of nanogel properties, and; discusses the development of targeted nanogel drug formulations for systemic administration. Notably, nanogels can improve the CNS penetration of nucleoside analogs that are otherwise restricted from passing across the blood–brain barrier. The latest findings reviewed here demonstrate an efficient intracellular release of nucleoside analogs, encouraging further applications of nanogel carriers for targeted drug delivery. PMID:17184158

  12. Synthesis of Nucleoside Triphosphates from 2'-3'-Protected Nucleosides Using Trimetaphosphate.

    PubMed

    Mohamady, Samy; Taylor, Scott D

    2016-02-01

    Chemists have been attempting to triphosphorylate nucleosides and other alcohols using trimetaphosphate (TriMP) since the 1960s. However, this route appears to have been abandoned due to poor yields. The first practical syntheses of nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) are reported using TriMP as the key reagent. This was achieved by reacting the tetrabutylammonium salt of TriMP with mesitylenesulfonyl chloride in the presence of DABCO in pyridine followed by the addition of an appropriately protected nucleoside and phthalimide. Quenching the reaction with aqueous buffer followed by hydrolysis of the OH protecting groups gave the NTPs in good yield. PMID:26759914

  13. Effects of nucleosides on glia - neuron interactions open up new vistas in the development of more effective antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Zsolt; Kardos, Julianna; Kekesi, Katalin A; Juhasz, Gabor; Lakatos, Renata; Heja, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    One-third of epileptic patients are drug refractory due to the limited efficacy of antiepileptic therapy. Thus, there is an immense need to find more effective, safer and well-tolerated antiepileptic drugs. A great deal of results suggests that adenosine (Ado), guanosine (Guo), inosine (Ino) or uridine (Urd) are endogenous antiepileptogenic modulators. Furthermore, nucleosides and their derivatives may be safe and effective potential drugs in the treatment of epilepsy. Conversely, nucleosidergic modulatory system implying nucleoside levels, metabolism, receptors and transporters may also be involved in seizure pathomechanisms. Application of Ado receptor agonists as well as antagonists, elevation of nucleoside levels (e.g., by nucleoside metabolism inhibitors, and Adoreleasing implants) or utilization of non-Ado nucleosides may also turn to be useful approaches to decrease epileptic activity. However, all drugs exerting their effects on the nucleosidergic modulatory system may affect the fine regulation of glia-neuron interactions that are intimately governed by various nucleosidergic processes. Perturbation of the complex, bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes through these nucleosidergic modulatory mechanisms may lead to pathological changes in the central nervous system (CNS) and therefore may cause significant side effects. Thus, a deeper understanding of the nucleosidergic modulatory control over glia-neuron interactions is essential in order to develop more effective and safe nucleoside-based antiepileptic drugs. In this review article we focus on the role of Ado and Urd in glia-neuron interactions, placing emphasis on their implications for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:25666791

  14. Characterization of intestinal absorption of mizoribine mediated by concentrative nucleoside transporters in rats.

    PubMed

    Mori, Nobuhiro; Yokooji, Tomoharu; Kamio, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Teruo

    2008-05-31

    Mizoribine, an imidazole nucleoside, is an inhibitor of purine synthesis and has been used as an orally available immunosuppressive agent in human renal transplantation. In the present study, the intestinal absorption of mizoribine was characterized by examining the contribution of concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT1, CNT2) in rats. When mizoribine was administered orally in conscious rats, the bioavailability of mizoribine estimated by urinary excretion percentage of unchanged mizoribine was a dose dependent: 53.1+/-6.0% at 5 mg/kg and 24.0+/-5.1% at 20 mg/kg. In in-situ loop studies, the disappearance rate, or absorption rate, of mizoribine from the intestinal lumen was comparable between 1 and 5 mg/kg, but significantly lower at 25 mg/kg. Coadministration of adenosine (a substrate of both CNT1 and CNT2), thymidine (a CNT1 substrate) and inosine (a CNT2 substrate) significantly suppressed the intestinal mizoribine absorption, depending on the nucleoside concentrations coadministered. Gemcitabine (a pyrimidine nucleoside analogue, a CNT1 substrate) and ribavirin (a purine nucleoside analog, a CNT2 substrate) also significantly suppressed the mizoribine intestinal absorption. Bile salts such as sodium cholate and sodium glycocholate (10 mM) also significantly suppressed the intestinal mizoribine absorption, but not ribavirin absorption. Mizoribine is an amphoteric compound, however, the suppression of intestinal absorption by bile salts was not ascribed to the electrostatic interaction or micellar formation between mizoribine and bile salts. In conclusion, the intestinal absorption of mizoribine is mediated by CNT1 and CNT2, and nucleoside-derived drugs such as gemcitabine and ribavirin can suppress the intestinal absorption of mizoribine. Bile salts such as sodium glycocholate were also found to cause interaction with mizoribine. PMID:18371949

  15. Nucleoside transporter proteins as biomarkers of drug responsiveness and drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Pérez-Torras, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Nucleoside and nucleobase analogs are currently used in the treatment of solid tumors, lymphoproliferative diseases, viral infections such as hepatitis and AIDS, and some inflammatory diseases such as Crohn. Two gene families are implicated in the uptake of nucleosides and nucleoside analogs into cells, SCL28 and SLC29. The former encodes hCNT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3 proteins. They translocate nucleosides in a Na+ coupled manner with high affinity and some substrate selectivity, being hCNT1 and hCNT2 pyrimidine- and purine-preferring, respectively, and hCNT3 a broad selectivity transporter. SLC29 genes encode four members, being hENT1 and hENT2 the only two which are unequivocally implicated in the translocation of nucleosides and nucleobases (the latter mostly via hENT2) at the cell plasma membrane. Some nucleoside-derived drugs can also interact with and be translocated by members of the SLC22 gene family, particularly hOCT and hOAT proteins. Inter-individual differences in transporter function and perhaps, more importantly, altered expression associated with the disease itself might modulate the transporter profile of target cells, thereby determining drug bioavailability and action. Drug transporter pharmacology has been periodically reviewed. Thus, with this contribution we aim at providing a state-of-the-art overview of the clinical evidence generated so far supporting the concept that these membrane proteins can indeed be biomarkers suitable for diagnosis and/or prognosis. Last but not least, some of these transporter proteins can also be envisaged as drug targets, as long as they can show “transceptor” functions, in some cases related to their role as modulators of extracellular adenosine levels, thereby providing a functional link between P1 receptors and transporters. PMID:25713533

  16. 5-(1-Substituted) alkyl pyrimidine nucleosides as antiviral (herpes) agents.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh

    2004-10-01

    The treatment of viral diseases remains one of the major challenges to modern medicine. During the past two decades there has been increased recognition of the consequences of serious viral illnesses that are not controlled by vaccination. These illnesses include human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes viruses, and viruses that cause hepatitis. There are now eight pathogens recognized in the herpes virus family that cause infections in humans. Infections by the herpes viruses are opportunistic and often life-threatening, leading to significant morbidity and mortality in the increasing number of chronically immune compromised individuals such as AIDS patients, cancer patients and transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapy. Nearly all individuals with AIDS are infected with one or more of the herpes viruses. Antiviral therapy with guanosine nucleoside analogs acyclovir and ganciclovir has had a major impact on diseases caused by herpes simplex virus type-1 and type-2 (HSV-1, HSV-2), Varicella zoster virus (VZV), and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) but development of resistant virus strains and the absence of any effective treatment for other members of the herpes family provide a stimulus for increased search of new agents effective against various herpes viruses. Pyrimidine nucleosides have taken up an important role in the therapy of virus infection. Significant progress in the study of anti-herpes nucleosides has been made by the advent of 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleosides such as 5-iodo-, 5-ethyl-, 5-(2-chloroethyl)-, and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)- derivatives of 2'-deoxyuridine. These are highly specific inhibitors of HSV-1, HSV-2, and/or VZV infections. However, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and HCMV are much less sensitive to these agents. In 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleosides the nature of substituents, particularly at the C-5 position, has been found to be an important determinant of anti-herpes activity. Structural requirements at the C-2 carbon of the 5

  17. Basolateral Uptake of Nucleosides by Sertoli Cells Is Mediated Primarily by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    Klein, David M.; Evans, Kristen K.; Hardwick, Rhiannon N.; Dantzler, William H.; Wright, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) prevents the entry of many xenobiotic compounds into seminiferous tubules thereby protecting developing germ cells. Understanding drug transport across the BTB may improve drug delivery into the testis. Members of one class of drug, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), do penetrate the BTB, presumably through interaction with physiologic nucleoside transporters. By investigating the mechanism of nucleoside transport, it may be possible to design other drugs to bypass the BTB in a similar manner. We present a novel ex vivo technique to study transport at the BTB that employs isolated, intact seminiferous tubules. Using this system, we found that over 80% of total uptake by seminiferous tubules of the model nucleoside uridine could be inhibited by 100 nM nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR, 6-S-[(4-nitrophenyl)methyl]-6-thioinosine), a concentration that selectively inhibits equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) activity. In primary cultured rat Sertoli cells, 100 nM NBMPR inhibited all transepithelial transport and basolateral uptake of uridine. Immunohistochemical staining showed ENT1 to be located on the basolateral membrane of human and rat Sertoli cells, whereas ENT2 was located on the apical membrane of Sertoli cells. Transepithelial transport of uridine by rat Sertoli cells was partially inhibited by the NRTIs zidovudine, didanosine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, consistent with an interaction between these drugs and ENT transporters. These data indicate that ENT1 is the primary route for basolateral nucleoside uptake into Sertoli cells and a possible mechanism for nucleosides and nucleoside-based drugs to undergo transepithelial transport. PMID:23639800

  18. New hypoxanthine nucleosides with RNA antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Nair, V; Ussery, M A

    1992-08-01

    A series of novel C-2 functionalized hypoxanthine and purine ribonucleosides have been synthesized and evaluated against exotic RNA viruses of the family or genus alpha, arena, flavi, and rhabdo. Both specific and broad-spectrum antiviral activities were discovered but only with hypoxanthine nucleosides. PMID:1444325

  19. Mycoplasmas and cancer: focus on nucleoside metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vande Voorde, Johan; Balzarini, Jan; Liekens, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The standard of care for patients suffering cancer often includes treatment with nucleoside analogues (NAs). NAs are internalized by cell-specific nucleobase/nucleoside transporters and, after enzymatic activation (often one or more phosphorylation steps), interfere with cellular nucleo(s)(t)ide metabolism and DNA/RNA synthesis. Therefore, their efficacy is highly dependent on the expression and activity of nucleo(s)(t)ide-metabolizing enzymes, and alterations thereof (e.g. by down/upregulated expression or mutations) may change the susceptibility to NA-based therapy and/or confer drug resistance. Apart from host cell factors, several other variables including microbial presence may determine the metabolome (i.e. metabolite concentrations) of human tissues. Studying the diversity of microorganisms that are associated with the human body has already provided new insights in several diseases (e.g. diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease) and the metabolic exchange between tissues and their specific microbiota was found to affect the bioavailability and toxicity of certain anticancer drugs, including NAs. Several studies report a preferential colonization of tumor tissues with some mycoplasma species (mostly Mycoplasma hyorhinis). These prokaryotes are also a common source of cell culture contamination and alter the cytostatic activity of some NAs in vitro due to the expression of nucleoside-catabolizing enzymes. Mycoplasma infection may therefore bias experimental work with NAs, and their presence in the tumor microenvironment could be of significance when optimizing nucleoside-based cancer treatment. PMID:26417262

  20. Nucleoside phosphorylation by the mineral schreibersite

    PubMed Central

    Gull, Maheen; Mojica, Mike A.; Fernández, Facundo M.; Gaul, David A.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Liotta, Charles L.; Pasek, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the nucleosides adenosine and uridine by the simple mixing and mild heating of aqueous solutions of the organic compounds with synthetic analogs of the meteoritic mineral schreibersite, (Fe,Ni)3P under slightly basic conditions (pH ~9) is reported. These results suggest a potential role for meteoritic phosphorus in the origin and development of early life. PMID:26606901

  1. Acyclic nucleoside/nucleotide analogues with an imidazole ring skeleton.

    PubMed

    Chen, H M; Hosmane, R S

    2001-08-01

    Syntheses of a few acyclic nucleoside and acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues containing an imidazole ring have been reported. These analogues include methyl 1-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)imidazole-4, 5-dicarbo-xylate (1), 4,5-dicarbamoyl-1-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)imidazole (2), 4,5-dicyano-1-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)imidazole (4), Methyl 1-(2-bromoethoxymethyl)imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylate (7), 4,5-dicyano-(2-bromoethoxymethyl)imidazole (8), and Methyl 1-(2-phosphonomethoxyethyl)imidazole (10). Also reported are a few potential prodrugs of the above compounds, including the acetyl derivatives 5 and 6 (of 1 and 4, respectively), and the diethyl phosphonate ester 9 (of 10). In addition, the corresponding benzyl-protected precursors 11 and 12 (of 1 and 4, respectively), along with their common hydrolysis product, 1-(2-benzyloxy-ethoxymethyl)-4,5-imidazoledicarboxylic acid (3), are reported. Another potential prodrug included in the list is 1-(2-acetoxyethyl)-4,5-dicyanoimidazole (15). The compounds were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against a wide variety of herpes and respiratory viruses. The most active compound was the phosphonate analogue 9 which exhibited an anti-measles virus activity with an EC50 of <2.5 microg/mL and an SI value of > 176. PMID:11554548

  2. Characterization of nucleoside transport systems in cultured rat epididymal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Leung, G P; Ward, J L; Wong, P Y; Tse, C M

    2001-05-01

    The nucleoside transport systems in cultured epididymal epithelium were characterized and found to be similar between the proximal (caput and corpus) and distal (cauda) regions of the epididymis. Functional studies revealed that 70% of the total nucleoside uptake was Na(+) dependent, while 30% was Na(+) independent. The Na(+)-independent nucleoside transport was mediated by both the equilibrative nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR)-sensitive system (40%) and the NBMPR-insensitive system (60%), which was supported by a biphasic dose response to NBMPR inhibition. The Na(+)-dependent [(3)H]uridine uptake was selectively inhibited 80% by purine nucleosides, indicating that the purine nucleoside-selective N1 system is predominant. Since Na(+)-dependent [(3)H]guanosine uptake was inhibited by thymidine by 20% and Na(+)-dependent [(3)H]thymidine uptake was broadly inhibited by purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, this suggested the presence of the broadly selective N3 system accounting for 20% of Na(+)-dependent nucleoside uptake. Results of RT-PCR confirmed the presence of mRNA for equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1, ENT2, and concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) 2 and the absence of CNT1. It is suggested that the nucleoside transporters in epididymis may be important for sperm maturation by regulating the extracellular concentration of adenosine in epididymal plasma. PMID:11287319

  3. [Synthesis, conformation, and spectroscopy of nucleoside analogues concerning their antiviral activity].

    PubMed

    Kuśmierek, Jarosław T; Stolarski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Chemically modified analogues of nucleosides and nucleotides, have been thoroughly investigated since the discovery of DNA double helix by Watson and Crick in 1953 (Nature 171: 737). Chemical structures, first of all tautomerism, of the nucleic acid bases, as well as the conformations of the nucleic acids constituents, determine the secondary and tertiary structures of DNA and RNA polymers. Similarly, structural and dynamic parameters of nucleoside derivatives determine their biological activity in mutagenesis, neoplastic transformation, as well as antiviral or anticancer properties. In this review, a multidisciplinary approach of Prof. David Shugar's group is presented in the studies on nucleosides and nucleotides. It consists in chemical syntheses of suitable analogues, measurements of physicochemical and spectral parameters, conformational analysis by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray diffraction, as well as characteristics of the nucleoside analogues as inhibitors of some selected, target enzymes, crucial in respect to antiviral activity of the analogues. These long-lasting studies follows upon the line of the main paradigm of molecular biophysics, i. e. structure-activity relationship. PMID:26677575

  4. Fluorescent pyrimidopyrimidoindole nucleosides: control of photophysical characterizations by substituent effects.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Masahiro; Seio, Kohji; Miyata, Kenichi; Sekine, Mitsuo

    2007-07-01

    10-(2-Deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)pyrimido[4',5':4,5]pyrimido[1,6-a]indole-6,9(7H)-dione (dCPPI) and its derivatives were synthesized via the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction of 5-iododeoxycytidine with 5-substituted N-Boc-indole-2-borates and characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The new fluorescent nucleosides showed rather large Stokes shifts (116-139 nm) in an aqueous buffer. The fluorescent intensities were dependent on the nature of the substituents on the indole rings. The electron-withdrawing groups increased the fluorescent intensity while the electron-donating groups having lone pairs decreased it. Among the substituted dCPPI derivatives tested, the trimethylammonium derivative of dCPPI was found to emit the brightest fluorescent light. The solvatochromism of dCPPI and its derivatives was also studied. Some of the dCPPI derivatives showed interesting solvent-dependent fluorescence enhancement and could be useful as new fluorescent structural probes for nucleic acids. The Lippert-Mataga analyses of the Stokes shift were also carried out to obtain estimated values of the dipole moment of the excited states of some of the derivatives. PMID:17555352

  5. RIBOSE MODIFIED NUCLEOSIDES AND NUCLEOTIDES AS LIGANDS FOR PURINE RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, R. G.; Nandanan, E.; Kim, H. S.; Moro, S.; Kim, Y. C.; Lee, K.; Barak, D.; Marquez, V. E.; Ji, X. D.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular modeling of receptors for adenosine and nucleotide (P2) receptors with docked ligand, based on mutagenesis, was carried out. Adenosine 3′,5′-bisphosphate derivatives act as selective P2Y1 antagonists/partial agonists. The ribose moiety was replaced with carbocyclics, smaller and larger rings, conformationally constrained rings, and acyclics, producing compounds that retained receptor affinity. Conformational constraints were built into the ribose rings of nucleoside and nucleotide ligands using the methanocarba approach, i.e. fused cyclopropane and cyclopentane rings in place of ribose, suggesting a preference for the Northern (N) conformation among ligands for P2Y1 and A1 and A3ARs. PMID:11563046

  6. Summary: the modified nucleosides of RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Limbach, P A; Crain, P F; McCloskey, J A

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive listing is made of posttranscriptionally modified nucleosides from RNA reported in the literature through mid-1994. Included are chemical structures, common names, symbols, Chemical Abstracts registry numbers (for ribonucleoside and corresponding base), Chemical Abstracts Index Name, phylogenetic sources, and initial literature citations for structural characterization or occurrence, and for chemical synthesis. The listing is categorized by type of RNA: tRNA, rRNA, mRNA, snRNA, and other RNAs. A total of 93 different modified nucleosides have been reported in RNA, with the largest number and greatest structural diversity in tRNA, 79; and 28 in rRNA, 12 in mRNA, 11 in snRNA and 3 in other small RNAs. PMID:7518580

  7. Application of germyldesulfonylation reactions to the synthesis of germanium-containing nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Wnuk, Stanislaw F; Sacasa, Pablo R; Restrepo, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    Treatment of the protected (E)-5'-deoxy-5'-[(p-toluenesulfonyl)methylene]uridine and adenosine derivatives with tributyl- or triphenylgermane hydride (AIBN/toluene/Delta) effected radical-mediated germyldesulfonylations to give 5'-(tributyl- or triphenylgermyl)methylene-5'-deoxyuridine and adenosine derivatives as single (E)-isomers. Analogous treatment of 2'-deoxy-2'-[(phenylsulfonyl)methylene]uridine with Ph(3)GeH afforded the corresponding vinyl triphenylgermane product. Stereoselective halodegermylation of the (E)-5'-(tributylgermyl)methylene-5'-deoxy nucleosides with N-iodosuccinimide or N-bromosuccinimide provided the Wittig-type (E)-5'-deoxy-5'-(halomethylene) nucleosides quantitatively, while no halodegermylations was observed with the 5'-deoxy-5'-(triphenylgermyl)methylene counterparts. Treatment of the vinyl trialkylgermanes with aqueous trifluoroacetic acid effected protiodegermylation, while vinyl triarylgermanes were stable under the acidic conditions. PMID:20183601

  8. Nucleoside transport in primary cultured rabbit tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Neil R; Wu, Sharon K; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Lee, Vincent H L

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed at elucidating the mechanisms of nucleoside transport in primary cultured rabbit tracheal epithelial cells (RTEC) grown on a permeable filter support. Uptake of (3)H-uridine, the model nucleoside substrate, from the apical fluid of primary cultured RTEC was examined with respect to its dependence on Na(+), substrate concentration, temperature and its sensitivity to inhibitors, other nucleosides and antiviral nucleoside analogs. Apical (3)H-uridine uptake in primary cultured RTEC was strongly dependent on an inward Na(+) gradient and temperature. Ten micromolar nitro-benzyl-mercapto-purine-ribose (NBMPR) (an inhibitor of es-type nucleoside transport in the nanomolar range) did not further inhibit this process. (3)H-uridine uptake from apical fluid was inhibited by basolateral ouabain (10 microM) and apical phloridzin (100 microM), indicating that uptake may involve a secondary active transport process. Uridine uptake was saturable with a K(m) of 3.4 +/- 1.8 microM and the V(max) of 24.3 +/- 5.2 pmoles/mg protein/30 s. Inhibition studies indicated that nucleoside analogs that have a substitution on the nucleobase competed with uridine uptake from apical fluid, but those with modifications on the ribose sugar including acyclic analogs were ineffective. The pattern of inhibition of apical (3)H-uridine, (3)H-inosine and (3)H-thymidine uptake into RTEC cells by physiological nucleosides was consistent with multiple systems: A pyrimidine-selective transport system (CNT1); a broad nucleoside substrate transport system that excludes inosine (CNT4) and an equilibrative NBMPR-insensitive nucleoside transport system (ei type). These results indicate that the presence of apically located nucleoside transporters in the epithelial cells lining the upper respiratory tract can lead to a high accumulation of nucleosides in the trachea. At least one Na(+)-dependent, secondary, active transport process may mediate the apical absorption of nucleosides or

  9. A one-pot synthesis of α-l-threofuranosyl nucleoside triphosphates (tNTPs).

    PubMed

    Sau, Sujay P; Chaput, John C

    2016-07-15

    TNA (α-l-threofuranosyl nucleoside) triphosphates of adenosine (tATP), guanosine (tGTP), cytidine (tCTP), and thymidine (tTTP) were synthesized from their corresponding 3'-O-phosphoramidite derivatives using a novel one-pot reaction that is less moisture sensitive than traditional methods. The chemically synthesized tNTPs, despite containing an unnatural 3'-triphosphate moiety, are similar in thermal stability to natural nucleotide triphosphates. PMID:27246616

  10. Inhibition of nucleoside transport by a new series of compounds related to lidoflazine and mioflazine.

    PubMed

    Ijzerman, A P; Thedinga, K H; Custers, A F; Hoos, B; Van Belle, H

    1989-08-15

    A new series of compounds related to the nucleoside transport inhibitors, lidoflazine and mioflazine, is introduced. The influence of these derivatives on nucleoside-specific transport proteins was studied in two ways. First, a rapid, non-radioactive assay was developed for the screening of this type of material for actual transport inhibition in human erythrocytes. The method is based on the dose-dependent reversal of the inhibition of inorganic phosphate release induced by inosine when human erythrocytes are suspended in a phosphate-free medium. It enables the estimation of the potency and specificity of this new series of nucleoside transport inhibitors, most of which are highly active (EC50 values as low as 13 nM). Second, the displacement of a radiolabeled transport inhibitor, [3H]nitrobenzylthioinosine, was examined. All compounds were capable of displacing specific [3H]nitrobenzylthioinosine binding to crude and solubilized plasma membranes of calf lung tissue, displaying affinities in the nanomolar range. Pseudo-Hill coefficients derived from the shape of the displacement curves were significantly greater than unity for most derivatives, in contrast to values of approximately unity obtained for dipyridamole and analogs. These findings were incorporated in a mathematical model describing the interaction of mioflazine analogs with the transport protein, suggesting that one molecule of mioflazine is capable of displacing two or more molecules of [3H]nitrobenzylthioinosine at a time. The consequences of this model regarding the nature of the transport protein are discussed. PMID:2776845

  11. Interaction of purine bases and nucleosides with serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sułkowska, A.; Michnik, A.

    1997-06-01

    The proton NMR spectra of alkyl derivatives of adenine and adenosine have been studied. High-resolution (400 MHz) proton spectra were recorded at 300 K at increasing concentrations of serum albumin. The dependence of the chemical shifts and the line width of the individual spectral lines on the protein concentration provides some detailed information about the nature of the complexes between the purine derivatives and albumin. Comparison of data for the methylated and non-methylated purine bases and nucleosides indicates the formation of non-specific complexes with serum albumin. However, the presence of the ethyl group in 8-ethyl-9 N-methyladenine means that in the adenine derivative-serum albumin complex the ethyl chain preserves its dominant role in binding. An advantage of our model is that the π-π interaction between the adenine ring and the amino acids of the protein can be replaced by hydrophobic interaction in the case of complexation of the ethyl adenine derivative.

  12. Hypouricemic effects of novel concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 inhibitors through suppressing intestinal absorption of purine nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Hiratochi, Masahiro; Tatani, Kazuya; Shimizu, Kazuo; Kuramochi, Yu; Kikuchi, Norihiko; Kamada, Noboru; Itoh, Fumiaki; Isaji, Masayuki

    2012-09-01

    We have developed concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 (CNT2) inhibitors as a novel pharmacological approach for improving hyperuricemia by inhibiting intestinal absorption of purines. Dietary purine nucleosides are absorbed in the small intestines by CNTs expressed in the apical membrane. In humans, the absorbed purine nucleosides are rapidly degraded to their final end product, uric acid, by xanthine oxidase. Based on the expression profile of human CNTs in digestive tract tissues, we established a working hypothesis that mainly CNT2 contributes to the intestinal absorption of purine nucleosides. In order to confirm this possibility, we developed CNT2 inhibitors and found that (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-amino-8-{[3'-(3-aminopropoxy)-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diol (KGO-2142) and 1-[3-(5-{[1-((2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylamino]-methyl}-2-ethoxyphenoxy)-propyl]-piperidine-4-carboxylic acid amide (KGO-2173) were inhibitory. These CNT2 inhibitors had potent inhibitory activity against inosine uptake via human CNT2, but they did not potently interfere with nucleoside uptake via human CNT1, CNT3 or equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) in vitro. After oral administration of KGO-2173 along with [(14)C]-inosine, KGO-2173 significantly decreased the urinary excretion of radioactivity at 6 and 24h in rats. Since dietary purine nucleosides are not utilized in the body and are excreted into the urine rapidly, this decrease in radioactivity in the urine represented the inhibitory activity of KGO-2173 toward the absorption of [(14)C]-inosine in the small intestines. KGO-2142 almost completely inhibited dietary RNA-induced hyperuricemia and the increase in urinary excretion of uric acid in cebus monkeys. These novel CNT2 inhibitors, KGO-2142 and KGO-2173, could be useful therapeutic options for the treatment of hyperuricemia. PMID:22709993

  13. Carbocyclic pyrimidine nucleosides as inhibitors of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Sylvester L; Bakke, Brian A; Sadler, Joshua M; Sunkara, Naresh K; Dorgan, Kathleen M; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L

    2006-12-01

    The design, synthesis, and unexpected inhibitory activity against S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH) hydrolase (SAHase, EC 3.3.1.1) for a series of truncated carbocyclic pyrimidine nucleoside analogues is presented. Of the four nucleosides obtained, 10 was found to be active with a Ki value of 5.0 microM against SAHase. PMID:16904326

  14. Cytokinin Nucleosides - Natural Compounds with a Unique Spectrum of Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Drenichev, Mikhail S; Oslovsky, Vladimir E; Mikhailov, Sergey N

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinin nucleosides exhibit antitumor, antiviral, antiprotozoal, blood pressure reducing, anti-inflammatory, and antipsychotic activity. These compounds also influence platelet aggregation and exhibit some other biological activities. Cytokinins are N6-substituted adenines and represent an important group of phytohormones with diverse biochemical functions in plants, stimulating cell division and plant growth. The main structural feature of cytokinin nucleosides is the presence of a hydrophobic hydrocarbon moiety at the N6-position of adenosine. This moiety is responsible for a difference in physicochemical and biological properties as compared to adenosine. 1-N-Tuberculosinyladenosine and N6-tuberculosinyladenosine are specifically produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis as components of the plasmatic membrane, thus making them attractive targets for clinical test development. Structurally related compounds were found in marine organisms. It has been shown also that tRNA contains N6-isoprenyladenosine and some other related compounds. This review summarizes the structural features, biological activity, and the synthesis of cytokinin nucleosides and some of their closely related derivatives such as cytokinins and terpene derivatives of adenine. PMID:27086793

  15. Hybridization accompanying FRET event in labeled natural nucleoside-unnatural nucleoside containing chimeric DNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Bag, Subhendu Sekhar; Das, Suman K; Pradhan, Manoj Kumar; Jana, Subhashis

    2016-09-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a highly efficient strategy in illuminating the structures, structural changes and dynamics of DNA, proteins and other biomolecules and thus is being widely utilized in studying such phenomena, in designing molecular/biomolecular probes for monitoring the hybridization event of two single stranded DNA to form duplex, in gene detection and in many other sensory applications in chemistry, biology and material sciences. Moreover, FRET can give information about the positional status of chromophores within the associated biomolecules with much more accuracy than other methods can yield. Toward this end, we want to report here the ability of fluorescent unnatural nucleoside, triazolylphenanthrene ((TPhen)BDo) to show FRET interaction upon hybridization with fluorescently labeled natural nucleosides, (Per)U or (OxoPy)U or (Per)U, forming two stable chimeric DNA duplexes. The pairing selectivity and the thermal duplex stability of the chimeric duplexes are higher than any of the duplexes with natural nucleoside formed. The hybridization results in a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from donor triazolylphenanthrene of (TPhen)BDo to acceptor oxopyrene of (OxoPy)U and/or to perylene chromophore of (Per)U, respectively, in two chimeric DNA duplexes. Therefore, we have established the FRET process in two chimeric DNA duplexes wherein a fluorescently labeled natural nucleoside ((OxoPy)U or (Per)U) paired against an unnatural nucleoside ((TPhen)BDo) without sacrificing the duplex stability and B-DNA conformation. The hybridization accompanying FRET event in these classes of interacting fluorophores is new. Moreover, there is no report of such designed system of chimeric DNA duplex. Our observed phenomenon and the design can potentially be exploited in designing more of such efficient FRET pairs for useful application in the detection and analysis of biomolecular interactions and in material science application. PMID:27498231

  16. Crystal structures of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase complexes with thiocarbamate non-nucleoside inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Spallarossa, Andrea Cesarini, Sara; Ranise, Angelo; Ponassi, Marco; Unge, Torsten; Bolognesi, Martino

    2008-01-25

    O-Phthalimidoethyl-N-arylthiocarbamates (TCs) have been recently identified as a new class of potent HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNRTIs), by means of computer-aided drug design techniques [Ranise A. Spallarossa, S. Cesarini, F. Bondavalli, S. Schenone, O. Bruno, G. Menozzi, P. Fossa, L. Mosti, M. La Colla, et al., Structure-based design, parallel synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and molecular modeling studies of thiocarbamates, new potent non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor isosteres of phenethylthiazolylthiourea derivatives, J. Med. Chem. 48 (2005) 3858-3873]. To elucidate the atomic details of RT/TC interaction and validate an earlier TC docking model, the structures of three RT/TC complexes were determined at 2.8-3.0 A resolution by X-ray crystallography. The conformations adopted by the enzyme-bound TCs were analyzed and compared with those of bioisosterically related NNRTIs.

  17. Three-dimensional structure of E. Coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase at 0.99 Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, V. I.; Abramchik, Yu. A.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2016-03-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylases (PNPs) catalyze the reversible phosphorolysis of nucleosides and are key enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism. They are essential for normal cell function and can catalyze the transglycosylation. Crystals of E. coli PNP were grown in microgravity by the capillary counterdiffusion method through a gel layer. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined by the molecular-replacement method at 0.99 Å resolution. The structural features are considered, and the structure of E. coli PNP is compared with the structures of the free enzyme and its complexes with purine base derivatives established earlier. A comparison of the environment of the purine base in the complex of PNP with formycin A and of the pyrimidine base in the complex of uridine phosphorylase with thymidine revealed the main structural features of the base-binding sites. Coordinates of the atomic model determined with high accuracy were deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB_ID: 4RJ2).

  18. Chromophoric Nucleoside Analogues: Synthesis and Characterization of 6-Aminouracil-Based Nucleodyes.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Noam S; Moore, Curtis E; Wilhelmsson, L Marcus; Tor, Yitzhak

    2016-06-01

    Nucleodyes, visibly colored chromophoric nucleoside analogues, are reported. Design criteria are outlined and the syntheses of cytidine and uridine azo dye analogues derived from 6-aminouracil are described. Structural analysis shows that the nucleodyes are sound structural analogues of their native nucleoside counterparts, and photophysical studies demonstrate that the nucleodyes are sensitive to microenvironmental changes. Quantum chemical calculations are presented as a valuable complementary tool for the design of strongly absorbing nucleodyes, which overlap with the emission of known fluorophores. Förster critical distance (R0) calculations determine that the nucleodyes make good FRET pairs with both 2-aminopurine (2AP) and pyrrolocytosine (PyC). Additionally, unique tautomerization features exhibited by 5-(4-nitrophenylazo)-6-oxocytidine (8) are visualized by an extraordinary crystal structure. PMID:27128151

  19. (Biological applications of nucleosides and nucleotides)

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.

    1990-08-20

    The traveler was invited to visit The Meditech Group, VTT Technology, Inc., Reactor Laboratory, VTT Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT), Otakaari, Espoo, Finland. The Meditech Group commands a 70 percent market share of Finland's radiopharmaceutical business and plans to expand its activities to other Scandinavian countries as well as in the Leningrad area of USSR. Meditech has plans to separate itself from Technical Research Center of Finland and its subsidiary VTT Technology, Inc., to become a private radiopharmaceutical company in the near future. As a private company, Meditech could expand its activities to encompass radiopharmaceutical research and development and may require foreign technical experts to support its research endeavors. The traveler also attended the Ninth International Round Table Conference on Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Their Biological Applications held at the Biomedical Center, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden. The meeting focused on the chemistry and biology of RNA and DNA and their building blocks, nucleosides and nucleotides. The traveler also presented an invited paper entitled Design, Synthesis and Tumor Specificity of Azomycin Ribo- and Acyclonucleosides,'' describing his recent work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  20. An improved method for the enzymatic transformation of nucleosides into 5'-monophosphates.

    PubMed

    Barai, Vladimir N; Kvach, Sergei V; Zinchenko, Anatoli I; Mikhailopulo, Igor A

    2004-12-01

    An improved method to transform nucleosides into 5'-monophosphates using nucleoside phosphotransferase from Erwinia herbicola is reported. The method is based on the shift in the equilibrium state of the reaction to the formation of desired product due to its precipitation by Zn2+. Under optimal conditions, the extent of nucleoside transformations into nucleoside-5'-monophosphates were 41-91% (mol). PMID:15672226

  1. Anti‐flavivirus Activity of Different Tritylated Pyrimidine and Purine Nucleoside Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Serpi, Michaela; Slusarczyk, Magdalena; Ferrari, Valentina; Pertusati, Fabrizio; Meneghesso, Silvia; Derudas, Marco; Farleigh, Laura; Zanetta, Paola; Bugert, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A series of tritylated and dimethoxytritylated analogues of selected pyrimidine and purine nucleosides were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against two important members of the genus Flavivirus in the Flaviviridae family, the yellow fever (YFV) and dengue viruses (DENV). Among all compounds tested, the 5′‐O‐tritylated and the 5′‐O‐dimethoxytritylated 5‐fluorouridine derivatives exerted potency against YFV. Interestingly in the series of purine analogues, the 5′O, N‐bis‐tritylated fludarabine derivative revealed strong inhibitory activity against DENV at μm concentrations, however significantly weaker potency against YFV. PMID:27551659

  2. Anti-flavivirus Activity of Different Tritylated Pyrimidine and Purine Nucleoside Analogues.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Christopher; Serpi, Michaela; Slusarczyk, Magdalena; Ferrari, Valentina; Pertusati, Fabrizio; Meneghesso, Silvia; Derudas, Marco; Farleigh, Laura; Zanetta, Paola; Bugert, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    A series of tritylated and dimethoxytritylated analogues of selected pyrimidine and purine nucleosides were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against two important members of the genus Flavivirus in the Flaviviridae family, the yellow fever (YFV) and dengue viruses (DENV). Among all compounds tested, the 5'-O-tritylated and the 5'-O-dimethoxytritylated 5-fluorouridine derivatives exerted potency against YFV. Interestingly in the series of purine analogues, the 5'O, N-bis-tritylated fludarabine derivative revealed strong inhibitory activity against DENV at μm concentrations, however significantly weaker potency against YFV. PMID:27551659

  3. In Silico Investigation of Flavonoids as Potential Trypanosomal Nucleoside Hydrolase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Christina Hung Hung; Fatima, Ayesha; Gaurav, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis is endemic to 37 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by two related species of Trypanosoma brucei. Current therapies suffer from resistance and public accessibility of expensive medicines. Finding safer and effective therapies of natural origin is being extensively explored worldwide. Pentamidine is the only available therapy for inhibiting the P2 adenosine transporter involved in the purine salvage pathway of the trypanosomatids. The objective of the present study is to use computational studies for the investigation of the probable trypanocidal mechanism of flavonoids. Docking experiments were carried out on eight flavonoids of varying level of hydroxylation, namely, flavone, 5-hydroxyflavone, 7-hydroxyflavone, chrysin, apigenin, kaempferol, fisetin, and quercetin. Using AutoDock 4.2, these compounds were tested for their affinity towards inosine-adenosine-guanosine nucleoside hydrolase and the inosine-guanosine nucleoside hydrolase, the major enzymes of the purine salvage pathway. Our results showed that all of the eight tested flavonoids showed high affinities for both hydrolases (lowest free binding energy ranging from −10.23 to −7.14 kcal/mol). These compounds, especially the hydroxylated derivatives, could be further studied as potential inhibitors of the nucleoside hydrolases. PMID:26640486

  4. Fructose-1,6-biphosphate and nucleoside pool modifications prevent neutrophil accumulation in the reperfused intestine.

    PubMed

    Sola, Anna; Panés, Julián; Xaus, Carme; Hotter, Georgina

    2003-01-01

    Fructose-1,6-biphosphate (F16BP) attenuates ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by inhibiting microvascular leukocyte adhesion or reducing neutrophil-derived oxygen free-radical production, but the causes of this action, the mechanisms in vivo, and the possible implication of nucleoside pool modifications are still controversial issues. We explored whether F16BP's inhibition of free-radical production and neutrophil recruitment is a result of its effect on adenosine (Ado) accumulation during intestinal I/R injury. The effects of F16BP administration were tested on the nucleotide/nucleoside metabolism at the end of the ischemic period and on microvascular neutrophil recruitment and free-radical production after reperfusion in vivo, in the presence or absence of Ado deaminase (ADA). Infusion of F16BP markedly increased endogenous Ado, decreased xanthine accumulation during the ischemic period, and inhibited neutrophil recruitment and subsequent neutrophil free-radical generation during reperfusion. Administration of ADA reversed these processes. The results provide strong evidence that F16BP prevents neutrophil accumulation and neutrophil free-radical generation during intestinal I/R by a key mechanism that modifies the nucleoside pool, leading to an endogenous accumulation of Ado and to a reduction of xanthine during ischemia. PMID:12525564

  5. Membrane protein crystallization in micelles conjugated by nucleoside base-pairing: A different concept.

    PubMed

    Hosamani, Basavaprabhu; Kale, Raju R; Sharma, Hemlata; Wachtel, Ellen; Kesselman, Ellina; Danino, Dganit; Friedman, Noga; Sheves, Mordechai; Namboothiri, Irishi N N; Patchornik, Guy

    2016-09-01

    The dearth of high quality, three dimensional crystals of membrane proteins, suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis, constitutes a serious barrier to progress in structural biology. To address this challenge, we have developed a new crystallization medium that relies on the conjugation of surfactant micelles via base-pairing of complementary hydrophobic nucleosides. Base-pairs formed at the interface between micelles bring them into proximity with each other; and when the conjugated micelles contain a membrane protein, crystal nucleation centers can be stabilized, thereby promoting crystal growth. Accordingly, two hydrophobic nucleoside derivatives - deoxyguanosine (G) and deoxycytidine (C), each covalently bonded to a 10 carbon chain were synthesized and added to an aqueous solution containing octyl β-d-thioglucopyranoside micelles. These hydrophobic nucleosides induced the formation of oil-rich globules after 2days incubation at 19°C or after a few hours in the presence of ammonium sulfate; however, phase separation was inhibited by 100mM GMP. The presence of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin in the conjugated - micellar dispersion resulted in the growth within the colorless globules of a variety of purple crystals, the color indicating a functional protein. On this basis, we suggest that conjugation of micelles via base-pair complementarity may provide significant assistance to the structural determination of integral membrane proteins. PMID:27368128

  6. Cytidine is a novel substrate for wild-type concentrative nucleoside transporter 2.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Katsuhito; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Koma, Mineto; Hotta, Ayumi; Fujimoto, Sadaki

    2006-08-25

    Nucleoside transporter (NT) plays key roles in the physiology of nucleosides and the pharmacology of its analogues in mammals. We previously cloned Na+/nucleoside cotransporter CNT2 from mouse M5076 ovarian sarcoma cells, the peptide encoded by it differing from that by the previously reported mouse CNT2 in five substitutions, and observed that the transporter can take up cytidine, like CNT1 and CNT3. In the present study, we examined which of the two aforementioned CNT2 is the normal one, and whether or not cytidine is transported via the previously reported CNT2. The peptide encoded by CNT2 derived from mouse intestine, liver, spleen, and ovary was identical to that previously reported. The uptake of [3H]cytidine, but not [3H]thymidine, by Cos-7 cells transfected with CNT2 cDNA obtained from mouse intestine was much greater than that by mock cells, as in the case of [3H]uridine, a typical substrate of NT. [3H]Cytidine and [3H]uridine were taken up via CNT2, in temperature-, extracellular Na+-, and substrate concentration-dependent manners. The uptake of [3H]cytidine and [3H]uridine mediated by CNT2 was significantly inhibited by the variety of nucleosides used in this study, except for thymidine, and inhibition of the [3H]uridine uptake by cytidine was competitive. The [3H]uridine uptake via CNT2 was significantly decreased by the addition of cytarabin or gemcitabine, antimetabolites of cytidine analogue. These results indicated that the previously reported mouse CNT2 is the wild-type one, and cytidine is transported mediated by the same recognition site on the CNT2 with uridine, and furthermore, cytidine analogues may be substrates for the transporter. PMID:16828706

  7. Natural and engineered biosynthesis of nucleoside antibiotics in Actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenqing; Qi, Jianzhao; Wu, Pan; Wan, Dan; Liu, Jin; Feng, Xuan; Deng, Zixin

    2016-03-01

    Nucleoside antibiotics constitute an important family of microbial natural products bearing diverse bioactivities and unusual structural features. Their biosynthetic logics are unique with involvement of complex multi-enzymatic reactions leading to the intricate molecules from simple building blocks. Understanding how nature builds this family of antibiotics in post-genomic era sets the stage for rational enhancement of their production, and also paves the way for targeted persuasion of the cell factories to make artificial designer nucleoside drugs and leads via synthetic biology approaches. In this review, we discuss the recent progress and perspectives on the natural and engineered biosynthesis of nucleoside antibiotics. PMID:26153500

  8. Hepatotoxicity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Montessori, Valentina; Harris, Marianne; Montaner, Julio S G

    2003-05-01

    Hepatotoxicity is an adverse effect of all available classes of antiretrovirals, including nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). A syndrome of hepatic steatosis and lactic acidosis has been recognized as a rare, potentially fatal complication since the advent of NRTI monotherapy in the early 1990s. Today, NRTI remain the backbone of antiretroviral combination regimens, and, with the success of current treatment strategies, exposure to two or more of these agents may occur over a number of years. Hepatic steatosis and lactic acidosis are accordingly being observed more frequently, along with a more recently recognized syndrome of chronic hyperlactatemia. These as well as other adverse effects of NRTI are mediated by inhibition of human DNA polymerase gamma, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver and other tissues. Early recognition and intervention are essential to avert serious outcomes. PMID:12800069

  9. Functional non-nucleoside adenylyl cyclase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lelle, Marco; Hameed, Abdul; Ackermann, Lisa-Maria; Kaloyanova, Stefka; Wagner, Manfred; Berisha, Filip; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Peneva, Kalina

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we describe the synthesis of novel functional non-nucleoside adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, which can be easily modified with thiol containing biomolecules such as tumour targeting structures. The linkage between inhibitor and biomolecule contains cleavable bonds to enable efficient intracellular delivery in the reductive milieu of the cytosol as well as in the acidic environment within endosomes and lysosomes. The suitability of this synthetic approach was shown by the successful bioconjugation of a poor cell-permeable inhibitor with a cell-penetrating peptide. Additionally, we have demonstrated the excellent inhibitory effect of the compounds presented here in a live-cell Förster resonance energy transfer-based assay in human embryonic kidney cells. PMID:25319071

  10. Base-Modified Nucleosides as Chemotherapeutic Agents: Past and Future.

    PubMed

    Burke, Matthew P; Borland, Kayla M; Litosh, Vladislav A

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside and nucleobase antimetabolites have substantially impacted treatment of cancer and infections. Their close resemblance to natural analogs gives them the power to interfere with a variety of intracellular targets, which on one hand gives them high potency, but on the other hand incurs severe side effects, especially of the chemotherapeutics used against malignancies. Therefore, the development of novel nucleoside analogs with widened therapeutic windows represents an attractive target to synthetic organic and medicinal chemists. This review discusses the current antimetabolite drugs: 5- fluorouracil, 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, Cladribine, Vidaza, Decitabine, Emtricitabine, Abacavir, Sorivudine, Clofarabine, Fludarabine, and Nelarabine; gives insight into the nucleoside drug candidates that are being developed; and outlines the approaches to nucleobase modifications that may help discover novel bioactive nucleoside analogs with the mechanism of action focused on termination of DNA synthesis, which is expected to diminish the off-target toxicity in non-proliferating human cells. PMID:26369814

  11. Medicinal chemistry of fluorinated cyclic and acyclic nucleoside phosphonates.

    PubMed

    Baszczyňski, Ondřej; Janeba, Zlatko

    2013-11-01

    The fluorine atom plays an important role in medicinal chemistry because fluorine substitution has a strong impact on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of bioactive compounds. Such fluorine modifications have also been extensively studied among the pharmaceutically important class of nucleoside phosphonates, nucleotide analogues in which the phosphate group is replaced by the enzymatically and chemically stable phosphonate moiety. The fluorinated nucleoside phosphonates abound with antiviral, antiparasitic, and anticancer properties because they are able to act as inhibitors of important enzymes of nucleoside/nucleotide metabolism. In this paper, we review the biological properties of cyclic and acyclic nucleoside phosphonates modified by the attachment of one or more fluorine atoms to various parts of the molecule, namely to nucleobases, alkylphosphonate groups, cyclic or acyclic linkers, or to prodrug moieties. PMID:23893552

  12. Nucleoside transporter expression and function in cultured mouse astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Huang, Rong; Yu, Albert C H; Fung, King Y; Rathbone, Michel P; Hertz, Leif

    2005-10-01

    Uptake of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides in astrocytes is important for several reasons: (1) uptake of nucleosides contributes to nucleic acid synthesis; (2) astrocytes synthesize AMP, ADP, and ATP from adenosine and GTP from guanosine; and (3) adenosine and guanosine function as neuromodulators, whose effects are partly terminated by cellular uptake. It has previously been shown that adenosine is rapidly accumulated by active uptake in astrocytes (Hertz and Matz, Neurochem Res 14:755-760, 1989), but the ratio between active uptake and metabolism-driven uptake of adenosine is unknown, as are uptake characteristics for guanosine. The present study therefore aims at providing detailed information of nucleoside transport and transporters in primary cultures of mouse astrocytes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction identified the two equilibrative nucleoside transporters, ENT1 and ENT2, together with the concentrative nucleoside transporter CNT2, whereas CNT3 was absent, and CNT1 expression could not be investigated. Uptake studies of tritiated thymidine, formycin B, guanosine, and adenosine (3-s uptakes at 1-4 degrees C to study diffusional uptake and 1-60-min uptakes at 37 degrees C to study concentrative uptake) demonstrated a fast diffusional uptake of all four nucleosides, a small, Na(+)-independent and probably metabolism-driven uptake of thymidine (consistent with DNA synthesis), larger metabolism-driven uptakes of guanosine (consistent with synthesis of DNA, RNA, and GTP) and especially of adenosine (consistent with rapid nucleotide synthesis), and Na(+)-dependent uptakes of adenosine (consistent with its concentrative uptake) and guanosine, rendering neuromodulator uptake independent of nucleoside metabolism. Astrocytes are accordingly well suited for both intense nucleoside metabolism and metabolism-independent uptake to terminate neuromodulator effects of adenosine and guanosine. PMID:15892125

  13. Synthesis and Evaluation of 2'-Deoxy-2'-Spirodiflurocyclopropyl Nucleoside Analogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Xia, Xueliang; Sun, Chenghai; Lin, Cai; Zhou, Yiqian; Hussain, Muzammal; Tang, Fei; Liu, Lu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Jiancun

    2016-09-01

    The preparation of 2'-deoxy-2'-siprodifluorocyclopropany-lnucleoside analogs has been achieved from α-d-glucose in several steps. The key step in the synthesis was the introduction of the difluorocyclopropane through a difluorocarbene type reaction at the 2'-position. Then, a series of novel 2'-deoxy-2'-spirodifluorocyclopropanyl nucleoside analogs were synthesized using the Vorbrüggen method. All the synthesized nucleosides were characterized and subsequently evaluated against hepatitis C and influenza A virus strains in vitro. PMID:27556785

  14. Distribution of nucleosides in populations of Cordyceps cicadae.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wen-Bo; Yu, Hong; Ge, Feng; Yang, Jun-Yuan; Chen, Zi-Hong; Wang, Yuan-Bing; Dai, Yong-Dong; Adams, Alison

    2014-01-01

    A rapid HPLC method had been developed and used for the simultaneous determination of 10 nucleosides (uracil, uridine, 2'-deoxyuridine, inosine, guanosine, thymidine, adenine, adenosine, 2'-deoxyadenosine and cordycepin) in 10 populations of Cordyceps cicadae, in order to compare four populations of Ophicordyceps sinensis and one population of Cordyceps militaris. Statistical analysis system (SAS) 8.1 was used to analyze the nucleoside data. The pattern of nucleoside distribution was analyzed in the sampled populations of C. cicadae, O. sinensis and C. militaris, using descriptive statistical analysis, nested analysis and Q cluster analysis. The total amount of the 10 nucleosides in coremium was 1,463.89-5,678.21 µg/g in 10 populations of C. cicadae, 1,369.80-3,941.64 µg/g in sclerotium. The average contents of the 10 analytes were 4,392.37 µg/g and 3,016.06 µg/g in coremium and sclerotium, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) of nucleosides ranged from 8.36% to 112.36% in coremium of C. cicadae, and from 10.77% to 155.87% in sclerotium of C. cicadae. The CV of the nucleosides was wide within C. cicadae populations. The nested variation analysis by the nine nucleosides' distribution indicated that about 42.29% of the nucleoside variability in coremium was attributable to the differentiation among populations, and the remaining 57.71% resided in the populations. It was also shown that about 28.94% of the variation in sclerotium was expressed between populations, while most of the variation (71.06%) corresponded to the populations. PMID:24830714

  15. Flexibility as a Strategy in Nucleoside Antiviral Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Peters, H L; Ku, T C; Seley-Radtke, K L

    2015-01-01

    As far back as Melville Wolfrom's acyclic sugar synthesis in the 1960's, synthesis of flexible nucleoside analogues have been an area of interest. This concept, however, went against years of enzyme-substrate binding theory. Hence, acyclic methodology in antiviral drug design did not take off until the discovery and subsequent FDA approval of such analogues as Acyclovir and Tenofovir. More recently, the observation that flexible nucleosides could overcome drug resistance spawned a renewed interest in the field of nucleoside drug design. The next generation of flexible nucleosides shifted the focus from the sugar moiety to the nucleobase. With analogues such as Seley-Radtke "fleximers", and Herdewijn's C5 substituted 2'-deoxyuridines, the area of base flexibility has seen great expansion. More recently, the marriage of these methodologies with acyclic sugars has resulted in a series of acyclic flex-base nucleosides with a wide range of antiviral properties, including some of the first to exhibit anti-coronavirus activity. Various flexible nucleosides and their corresponding nucleobases will be compared in this review. PMID:26282942

  16. Nucleosides Accelerate Inflammatory Osteolysis, Acting as Distinct Innate Immune Activators

    PubMed Central

    Pan, George; Zheng, Rui; Yang, Pingar; Li, Yao; Clancy, John P.; Liu, Jianzhong; Feng, Xu; Garber, David A; Spearman, Paul; McDonald, Jay M

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune system and its components play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bone destruction. Blockade of inflammatory cytokines does not completely arrest bone erosion, suggesting that other mediators also may be involved in osteolysis. Previously we showed that nucleosides promote osteoclastogenesis and bone-resorption activity in the presence of receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in vitro. The studies described here further demonstrate that selected nucleosides and nucleoside analogues accelerate bone destruction in mice immunized with collagen II alone (CII) but also further enhance bone erosion in mice immunized by collagen II plus complete Freund's adjuvant (CII + CFA). Abundant osteoclasts are accumulated in destructive joints. These data indicate that nucleosides act as innate immune activators distinct from CFA, synergistically accelerating osteoclast formation and inflammatory osteolysis. The potential roles of the surface triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) and the intracellular inflammasome in nucleoside-enhanced osteoclastogenesis have been studied. These observations provide new insight into the pathogenesis and underlying mechanism of bone destruction in inflammatory autoimmune osteoarthritis. PMID:21472777

  17. Nucleoside transporter expression and adenosine uptake in the rat cochlea.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul F; Thorne, Peter R; Muñoz, David J B; Wang, Carol J H; Housley, Gary D; Vlajkovic, Srdjan M

    2007-02-12

    Even though extracellular adenosine plays multiple roles in the cochlea, the mechanisms that control extracellular adenosine concentrations in this organ are unclear. This study investigated the expression of nucleoside transporters and adenosine uptake in the rat cochlea. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed the expression of mRNA transcripts for two equilibrative (ENT1 and ENT2) and two concentrative (CNT1 and CNT2) nucleoside transporters. Exogenous adenosine perfused through the cochlear perilymphatic compartment was taken up by cells lining the compartment. Adenosine uptake was sensitive to changes in extracellular Na concentrations and inhibited by nitrobenzylthioinosine (an adenosine uptake blocker). The study suggests that the bi-directional nucleoside transport supports the uptake and recycling of purines and regulates the activation of adenosine receptors by altering adenosine concentrations in cochlear fluid spaces. PMID:17314663

  18. Flow cytomeric measurement of DNA and incorporated nucleoside analogs

    DOEpatents

    Dolbeare, Frank A.; Gray, Joe W.

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for simultaneously measuring total cellular DNA and incorporated nucleoside analog. The method entails altering the cellular DNA of cells grown in the presence of a nucleoside analog so that single stranded and double stranded portions are present. Separate stains are used against the two portions. An immunochemical stain is used against the single stranded portion to provide a measure of incorporated nucleoside analog, and a double strand DNA-specific stain is used against the double stranded portion to simultaneously provide a measure of total cellular DNA. The method permits rapid flow cytometric analysis of cell populations, rapid identification of cycling and noncycling subpopulations, and determination of the efficacy of S phase cytotoxic anticancer agents.

  19. pH-Cleavable Nucleoside Lipids: A New Paradigm for Controlling the Stability of Lipid-Based Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Oumzil, Khalid; Benizri, Sébastien; Tonelli, Giovanni; Staedel, Cathy; Appavoo, Ananda; Chaffanet, Max; Navailles, Laurence; Barthélémy, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Lipid-based delivery systems are an established technology with considerable clinical acceptance and several applications in human. Herein, we report the design, synthesis and evaluation of novel orthoester nucleoside lipids (ONLs) for the modulation of liposome stability. The ONLs contain head groups with 3'-orthoester nucleoside derivatives featuring positive or negative charges. The insertion of the orthoester function in the NL structures allows the formation of pH-sensitive liposomes. ONL-based liposomes can be hydrolyzed to provide nontoxic products, including nucleoside derivatives and hexadecanol. To allow the release to be tunable at different hydrolysis rates, the charge of the polar head structure is modulated, and the head group can be released at a biologically relevant pH. Crucially, when ONLs are mixed with natural phosphocholine lipids (PC), the resultant liposome evolves toward the formation of a hexadecanol/PC lamellar system. Biological evaluation shows that stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALPs) formulated with ONLs and siRNAs can effectively enter into tumor cells and release their nucleic acid payload in response to an intracellular acidic environment. This results in a much higher antitumor activity than conventional SNALPs. The ability to use pH-cleavable nucleolipids to control the stability of lipid-based delivery systems represents a promising approach for the intracellular delivery of drug cargos. PMID:26381578

  20. Chemoselective N-Deacetylation of Protected Nucleosides and Nucleotides Promoted by Schwartz's Reagent

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Valentina; Serpi, Michaela; McGuigan, Christopher; Pertusati, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Protection and deprotection strategies involving the N-acetyl group are widely utilized in nucleoside and nucleotide chemistry. Herein, we present a mild and selective N-deacetylation methodology, applicable to purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, by means of Schwartz's reagent, compatible with most of the common protecting groups used in nucleoside chemistry. PMID:26492555

  1. Antibodies to Yeast Phenylalanine Transfer Ribonucleic Acid Are Specific for the Odd Nucleoside Y in the Anticodon Loop

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Sara; Aharonov, Aharon; Sela, Michael; Von Der Haar, Friedrich; Cramer, Friedrich

    1974-01-01

    Antibodies with specificity to a single species of tRNA were elicited in a goat by immunization with a glutaraldehyde conjugate of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA with bovine gamma globulin. The specificity of the antibodies was studied by a radioimmunoassay measuring the direct binding of [3H]tRNAPhe or the inhibition of the binding. The antibodies formed are predominantly directed towards the characteristic highly modified nucleoside Y, which is located right next to the anticodon. The antibodies bind specifically to tRNAPhe, to oligonucleotides derived by enzymatic digestion from the anticodon loop of tRNAPhe, and to the Y nucleoside itself. tRNA species which do not contain Y in their sequences, or tRNAPhe from which the Y base has been excised, do not bind to the antibodies. Yeast tRNAPhe can be separated from other tRNA species with an immunoadsorbent of antibodies to tRNAPhe. PMID:4527666

  2. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha and bile acids regulate human concentrative nucleoside transporter-1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Klein, Kerstin; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Wagner, Martin; Trauner, Michael; Eloranta, Jyrki J

    2009-04-01

    The concentrative nucleoside transporter-1 (CNT1) is a member of the solute carrier 28 (SLC28) gene family and is expressed in the liver, intestine, and kidneys. CNT1 mediates the uptake of naturally occurring pyrimidine nucleosides, but also nucleoside analogs used in anticancer and antiviral therapy. Thus expression levels of CNT1 may affect the pharmacokinetics of these drugs and the outcome of drug therapy. Because little is known about the transcriptional regulation of human CNT1 gene expression, we have characterized the CNT1 promoter with respect to DNA response elements and their binding factors. The transcriptional start site of the CNT1 gene was determined by 5'-RACE. In silico analysis revealed the existence of three putative binding sites for the nuclear receptor hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) within the CNT1 promoter. A luciferase reporter gene construct containing the CNT1 promoter region was transactivated by HNF-4alpha in human cell lines derived from the liver, intestine, and kidneys. Consistent with this, we showed in electromobility shift assays that HNF-4alpha specifically binds to two conserved direct repeat-1 motifs within the proximal CNT1 promoter. In cotransfection experiments, the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha further increased, whereas the bile acid-inducible corepressor small heterodimer partner reduced, HNF-4alpha-dependent CNT1 promoter activity. Consistent with the latter phenomenon, CNT1 mRNA expression levels were suppressed in primary human hepatocytes upon bile acid treatment. Supporting the physiological relevance and species conservation of this effect, ileal Cnt1 mRNA expression was decreased upon bile acid feeding and increased upon bile duct ligation in mice. PMID:19228884

  3. Inhibition of nucleoside diphosphate kinase in rat liver mitochondria by added 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine.

    PubMed

    Valenti, D; Barile, M; Quagliariello, E; Passarella, S

    1999-02-12

    The effect of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine on nucleoside diphosphate kinase of isolated rat liver mitochondria has been studied. This is done by monitoring the increase in the rate of oxygen uptake by nucleoside diphosphate (TDP, UDP, CDP or GDP) addition to mitochondria in state 4. It is shown that 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine inhibits the mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase in a competitive manner, with a Ki value of about 10 microM as measured for each tested nucleoside diphosphate. It is also shown that high concentrations of GDP prevent 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine inhibition of the nucleoside diphosphate kinase. PMID:10050777

  4. Ethenoguanines undergo glycosylation by nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferases at non-natural sites.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenjie; Paul, Debamita; Gao, Lina; Seckute, Jolita; Sangaiah, Ramiah; Jayaraj, Karupiah; Zhang, Zhenfa; Kaminski, P Alexandre; Ealick, Steven E; Gold, Avram; Ball, Louise M

    2014-01-01

    Deoxyribosyl transferases and functionally related purine nucleoside phosphorylases are used extensively for synthesis of non-natural deoxynucleosides as pharmaceuticals or standards for characterizing and quantitating DNA adducts. Hence exploring the conformational tolerance of the active sites of these enzymes is of considerable practical interest. We have determined the crystal structure at 2.1 Å resolution of Lactobacillus helveticus purine deoxyribosyl transferase (PDT) with the tricyclic purine 8,9-dihydro-9-oxoimidazo[2,1-b]purine (N2,3-ethenoguanine) at the active site. The active site electron density map was compatible with four orientations, two consistent with sites for deoxyribosylation and two appearing to be unproductive. In accord with the crystal structure, Lactobacillus helveticus PDT glycosylates the 8,9-dihydro-9-oxoimidazo[2,1-b]purine at N7 and N1, with a marked preference for N7. The activity of Lactobacillus helveticus PDT was compared with that of the nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase enzymes (DRT Type II) from Lactobacillus leichmannii and Lactobacillus fermentum, which were somewhat more effective in the deoxyribosylation than Lactobacillus helveticus PDT, glycosylating the substrate with product profiles dependent on the pH of the incubation. The purine nucleoside phosphorylase of Escherichia coli, also commonly used in ribosylation of non-natural bases, was an order of magnitude less efficient than the transferase enzymes. Modeling based on published active-site structures as templates suggests that in all cases, an active site Phe is critical in orienting the molecular plane of the purine derivative. Adventitious hydrogen bonding with additional active site residues appears to result in presentation of multiple nucleophilic sites on the periphery of the acceptor base for ribosylation to give a distribution of nucleosides. Chemical glycosylation of O9-benzylated 8,9-dihydro-9-oxoimidazo[2,1-b]purine also resulted in N7 and N1

  5. Ethenoguanines Undergo Glycosylation by Nucleoside 2′-Deoxyribosyltransferases at Non-Natural Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Wenjie; Paul, Debamita; Gao, Lina; Seckute, Jolita; Jayaraj, Karupiah; Zhang, Zhenfa; Kaminski, P. Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Deoxyribosyl transferases and functionally related purine nucleoside phosphorylases are used extensively for synthesis of non-natural deoxynucleosides as pharmaceuticals or standards for characterizing and quantitating DNA adducts. Hence exploring the conformational tolerance of the active sites of these enzymes is of considerable practical interest. We have determined the crystal structure at 2.1 Å resolution of Lactobacillus helveticus purine deoxyribosyl transferase (PDT) with the tricyclic purine 8,9-dihydro-9-oxoimidazo[2,1-b]purine (N2,3-ethenoguanine) at the active site. The active site electron density map was compatible with four orientations, two consistent with sites for deoxyribosylation and two appearing to be unproductive. In accord with the crystal structure, Lactobacillus helveticus PDT glycosylates the 8,9-dihydro-9-oxoimidazo[2,1-b]purine at N7 and N1, with a marked preference for N7. The activity of Lactobacillus helveticus PDT was compared with that of the nucleoside 2′-deoxyribosyltransferase enzymes (DRT Type II) from Lactobacillus leichmannii and Lactobacillus fermentum, which were somewhat more effective in the deoxyribosylation than Lactobacillus helveticus PDT, glycosylating the substrate with product profiles dependent on the pH of the incubation. The purine nucleoside phosphorylase of Escherichia coli, also commonly used in ribosylation of non-natural bases, was an order of magnitude less efficient than the transferase enzymes. Modeling based on published active-site structures as templates suggests that in all cases, an active site Phe is critical in orienting the molecular plane of the purine derivative. Adventitious hydrogen bonding with additional active site residues appears to result in presentation of multiple nucleophilic sites on the periphery of the acceptor base for ribosylation to give a distribution of nucleosides. Chemical glycosylation of O9-benzylated 8,9-dihydro-9-oxoimidazo[2,1-b]purine also resulted in N7 and N1

  6. The GABA transaminase, ABAT, is essential for mitochondrial nucleoside metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Arnaud; Wu, Ping; Bruni, Francesco; Donti, Taraka; Graham, Brett H.; Craigen, William J.; McFarland, Robert; Moretti, Paolo; Lalani, Seema; Scott, Kenneth L.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bonnen, Penelope E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary ABAT is a key enzyme responsible for catabolism of principal inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We report an essential role for ABAT in a seemingly unrelated pathway, mitochondrial nucleoside salvage, and demonstrate that mutations in this enzyme cause an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder and mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS). We describe a family with encephalomyopathic MDS caused by a homozygous missense mutation in ABAT that results in elevated GABA in subjects’ brains as well as decreased mtDNA levels in subjects’ fibroblasts. Nucleoside rescue and co-IP experiments pinpoint that ABAT functions in the mitochondrial nucleoside salvage pathway to facilitate conversion of dNDPs to dNTPs. Pharmacological inhibition of ABAT through the irreversible inhibitor Vigabatrin caused depletion of mtDNA in photoreceptor cells that was prevented through addition of dNTPs in cell culture media. This work reveals ABAT as a connection between GABA metabolism and nucleoside metabolism and defines a neurometabolic disorder that includes MDS. PMID:25738457

  7. Arabidopsis thaliana nucleosidase mutants provide new insights into nucleoside degradation

    PubMed Central

    Riegler, Heike; Geserick, Claudia; Zrenner, Rita

    2011-01-01

    A central step in nucleoside and nucleobase salvage pathways is the hydrolysis of nucleosides to their respective nucleobases. In plants this is solely accomplished by nucleosidases (EC 3.2.2.x). To elucidate the importance of nucleosidases for nucleoside degradation, general metabolism, and plant growth, thorough phenotypic and biochemical analyses were performed using Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion mutants lacking expression of the previously identified genes annotated as uridine ribohydrolases (URH1 and URH2). Comprehensive functional analyses of single and double mutants demonstrated that both isoforms are unimportant for seedling establishment and plant growth, while one participates in uridine degradation. Rather unexpectedly, nucleoside and nucleotide profiling and nucleosidase activity screening of soluble crude extracts revealed a deficiency of xanthosine and inosine hydrolysis in the single mutants, with substantial accumulation of xanthosine in one of them. Mixing of the two mutant extracts, and by in vitro activity reconstitution using a mixture of recombinant URH1 and URH2 proteins, both restored activity, thus providing biochemical evidence that at least these two isoforms are needed for inosine and xanthosine hydrolysis. This mutant study demonstrates the utility of in vivo systems for the examination of metabolic activities, with the discovery of the new substrate xanthosine and elucidation of a mechanism for expanding the nucleosidase substrate spectrum. PMID:21599668

  8. Nucleoside-Based Diarylethene Photoswitches: Synthesis and Photochromic Properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Xia; Xi, Dan-Dan; Xie, Ming-Sheng; Wang, Hui-Xuan; Qu, Gui-Rong; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Diarylethene photoswitches based on the natural nucleoside deoxyadenosine were designed and synthesized. In aqueous solution, some of them exhibited good photochromic properties, including clear changes in color upon irradiation at 365 nm, red-shifts of the absorption wavelength, with good fatigue resistance, thermal stability, conversion efficiency, and base-pairing properties. PMID:27124421

  9. Theophylline inhibition of renal and cerebral nucleoside formation.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    1 Theophylline inhibits the enzymatic formation of purine nucleosides, among these adenosine (dephosphorylated adenosine 5'-monophosphate), in kidney and brain of the rat. 2 Some pharmacological effects of theophylline on regional blood flow and electrophysiological activity of the nervous system may be caused by inhibition of the endogenous formation of adenosine. PMID:7236996

  10. Structural optimization of non-nucleoside DNA methyltransferase inhibitor as anti-cancer agent.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Bo; Vatolin, Sergei; Idippily, Nethrie D; Lama, Rati; Alhadad, Laila A; Reu, Frederic J; Su, Bin

    2016-02-15

    Inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) can reverse the malignant behavior of cancer cells by restoring expression of aberrantly silenced genes that are required for differentiation, senescence, and apoptosis. Clinically used DNMT1 inhibitors decitabine and azacitidine inhibit their target by covalent trapping after incorporation into DNA as azacytidine analogs. These nucleoside compounds are prone to rapid enzymatic inactivation in blood, posing challenges to the development of purely epigenetic dosing schedules. Non-nucleoside compounds that suppress expression or function of DNMT1 may overcome this problem. Using a high-throughput PCR-based site specific chromatin condensation assay, we identified a compound that reactivated Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) in myeloma cells and suppressed expression of DNMT1 from a library of 5120 chemically diverse small molecules. Lead optimization was performed to generate 26 new analogs with lung cancer proliferation and DNMT1 expression as activity readout. Two of the new derivatives showed 2 fold improvement of growth inhibiting potency and also decreased DNMT1 protein levels in lung cancer cells. PMID:26774653

  11. Novel reactivity of Fhit proteins: catalysts for fluorolysis of nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidates and nucleoside 5'-phosphosulfates to generate nucleoside 5'-phosphorofluoridates.

    PubMed

    Wojdyła-Mamoń, Anna M; Zimny, Jarosław; Romanowska, Joanna; Kraszewski, Adam; Stawinski, Jacek; Bieganowski, Paweł; Guranowski, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Fragile histidine triad (HIT) proteins (Fhits) occur in all eukaryotes but their function is largely unknown. Human Fhit is presumed to function as a tumour suppressor. Previously, we demonstrated that Fhits catalyse hydrolysis of not only dinucleoside triphosphates but also natural adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate (NH2-pA) and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (SO4-pA) as well as synthetic adenosine 5'-phosphorofluoridate (F-pA). In the present study, we describe an Fhit-catalysed displacement of the amino group of nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidates (NH2-pNs) or the sulfate moiety of nucleoside 5'-phosphosulfates (SO4-pNs) by fluoride anion. This results in transient accumulation of the corresponding nucleoside 5'-phosphorofluoridates (F-pNs). Substrate specificity and kinetic characterization of the fluorolytic reactions catalysed by the human Fhit and other examples of involvement of fluoride in the biochemistry of nucleotides are described. Among other HIT proteins, human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein (Hint1) catalysed fluorolysis of NH2-pA 20 times and human Hint2 40 times more slowly than human Fhit. PMID:25826698

  12. Involvement of Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 in Intestinal Absorption of Trifluridine Using Human Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Koichi; Yoshisue, Kunihiro; Chiba, Masato; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2015-09-01

    TAS-102, which is effective for refractory metastatic colorectal cancer, is a combination drug of anticancer trifluridine (FTD; which is derived from pyrimidine nucleoside) and FTD-metabolizing enzyme inhibitor tipiracil hydrochloride (TPI) at a molecular ratio of 1:0.5. To evaluate the intestinal absorption mechanism of FTD, the uptake and transcellular transport of FTD by human small intestinal epithelial cell (HIEC) monolayer as a model of human intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. The uptake and membrane permeability of FTD by HIEC monolayers were saturable, Na(+) -dependent, and inhibited by nucleosides. These transport characteristics are mostly comparable with those of concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs). Moreover, the uptake of FTD by CNT1-expressing Xenopus oocytes was the highest among human CNT transporters. The obtained Km and Vmax values of FTD by CNT1 were 69.0 μM and 516 pmol/oocyte/30 min, respectively. The transcellular transport of FTD by Caco-2 cells, where CNT1 is heterologously expressed, from apical to basolateral side was greater than that by Mock cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that FTD exhibits high oral absorption by the contribution of human CNT1. PMID:25900515

  13. Non-adenosine nucleoside inosine, guanosine and uridine as promising antiepileptic drugs: a summary of current literature.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Zsolt; Kekesi, Katalin A; Juhasz, Gabor; Barna, Janos; Heja, Laszlo; Lakatos, Renata; Dobolyi, Arpad

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine (Ado) and some non-adenosine (non-Ado) nucleosides including inosine (Ino), guanosine (Guo) and uridine (Urd) are modulatory molecules in the central nervous system (CNS), regulating different physiological and pathophysiological processes in the brain such as sleep and epilepsy. Indeed, different drugs effective on adenosinergic system (e.g., Ado metabolism inhibitors, agonists and antagonists of Ado receptors) are being used in drug development for the treatment of epileptic disorders. Although (i) endogenous Ino, Guo and Urd showed anticonvulsant/antiepileptic effects (e.g., in quinolinic acid - induced seizures and in different epilepsy models such as hippocampal kindling models), and (ii) there is a need to generate new and more effective antiepileptic drugs for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsies, our knowledge about antiepileptic influence of non-Ado nucleosides is far from complete. Thus, in this review article, we give a short summary of anticonvulsant/antiepileptic effects and mechanisms evoked by Ino, Guo, and Urd. Finally, we discuss some non-Ado nucleoside derivatives and their structures, which may be candidates as potential antiepileptic agents. PMID:25382017

  14. Sensing Metal Ions with DNA Building Blocks: Fluorescent Pyridobenzimidazole Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jeong; Kool, Eric T.

    2008-01-01

    We describe novel fluorescent N-deoxyribosides (1 and 2) having 2-pyrido-2-benzimidazole and 2-quino-2-benzimidazole as aglycones. The compounds were prepared from the previously unknown heterocyclic precursors and Hoffer’s chlorosugar, yielding alpha anomers as the chief products. X-ray crystal structures confirmed the geometry, and showed that the pyridine and benzimidazole ring systems deviated from coplanarity in the solid state by 154° and 140°, respectively. In methanol the compounds 1 and 2 had absorption maxima at 360 and 370 nm respectively, and emission maxima at 494 and 539 nm. Experiments revealed varied fluorescence responses of the nucleosides to a panel of seventeen monovalent, divalent and trivalent metal ions in methanol. One or both of the nucleosides showed significant changes with ten of the metal ions. The most pronounced spectral changes for ligand-nucleoside 1 included red shifts in fluorescence (Au+, Au3+), strong quenching (Cu2+, Ni2+, Pt2+), and in substantial enhancements in emission intensity coupled with redshifts (Ag+, Cd2+, Zn2+). The greatest spectral changes for ligand-nucleoside 2 included a redshift in fluorescence (Ag+), a blueshift (Cd2+), strong quenching (Pd2+, Pt2+), and in substantial enhancements in emission intensity coupled with a blueshift (Zn2+). The compounds could be readily incorporated into oligodeoxynucleotides, where an initial study revealed that they retained sensitivity to metal ions in aqueous solution, and demonstrated possible cooperative sensing behavior with several ions. The two free nucleosides alone can act as differential sensors for at multiple metal ions, and they are potentially useful monomers for contributing metal ion sensing capability to DNAs. PMID:16669686

  15. Synthesis of Purine and 7-Deazapurine Nucleoside Analogues of 6-N-(4-Nitrobenzyl)adenosine; Inhibition of Nucleoside Transport and Proliferation of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rayala, Ramanjaneyulu; Theard, Patricia; Ortiz, Heysell; Yao, Sylvia; Young, James D.; Balzarini, Jan; Robins, Morris J.

    2014-01-01

    The 7-deazapurine nucleoside antibiotic tubercidin was converted into its 4-N-benzyl and 4-N-(4-nitrobenzyl) derivatives by alkylation at N3 followed by Dimroth rearrangement to the 4-N- isomer or by fluoro-diazotization followed by SNAr displacement of the 4-fluoro group by a benzylamine. The 4-N-(4-nitrobenzyl) derivatives of sangivamycin and toyocamycin antibiotics were prepared by the alkylation approach. Cross-membrane transport of labeled uridine by hENT1 was inhibited to a weaker extent by the 4-nitrobenzylated tubercidin and sangivamycin analogues than was observed with 6-N-(4-nitrobenzyl)adenosine. Type-specific inhibition of cancer cell proliferation was observed at μM concentrations with the 4-N-(4-nitrobenzyl) derivatives of sangivamycin and toyocamycin, and also with 4-N-benzyltubercidin. Treatment of 2′,3′,5′-O-acetyladenosine with aryl isocyanates gave the 6-ureido derivatives but none of them exhibited inhibitory activity against cancer cell proliferation or hENT1. PMID:24788480

  16. Structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in binary complexes with purine and pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates

    PubMed Central

    López-Zavala, Alonso A.; Quintero-Reyes, Idania E.; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesús S.; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weichsel, Andrzej; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK; EC 2.7.4.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the third phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates, leading to nucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication. Expression of the NDK from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvNDK) is known to be regulated under viral infection. Also, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, LvNDK binds both purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside diphosphates with high binding affinity for dGDP and dADP and with no heat of binding interaction for dCDP [Quintero-Reyes et al. (2012 ▶), J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44, 325–331]. In order to investigate the differences in selectivity, LvNDK was crystallized as binary complexes with both acceptor (dADP and dCDP) and donor (ADP) phosphate-group nucleoside diphosphate substrates and their structures were determined. The three structures with purine or pyrimidine nucleotide ligands are all hexameric. Also, the binding of deoxy or ribonucleotides is similar, as in the former a water molecule replaces the hydrogen bond made by Lys11 to the 2′-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. This allows Lys11 to maintain a catalytically favourable conformation independently of the kind of sugar found in the nucleotide. Because of this, shrimp NDK may phosphorylate nucleotide analogues to inhibit the viral infections that attack this organism. PMID:25195883

  17. A New Subfamily of Polyphosphate Kinase 2 (Class III PPK2) Catalyzes both Nucleoside Monophosphate Phosphorylation and Nucleoside Diphosphate Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Motomura, Kei; Hirota, Ryuichi; Okada, Mai; Ikeda, Takeshi; Ishida, Takenori

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a linear polymer of tens to hundreds of phosphate (Pi) residues linked by “high-energy” phosphoanhydride bonds as in ATP. PolyP kinases, responsible for the synthesis and utilization of polyP, are divided into two families (PPK1 and PPK2) due to differences in amino acid sequence and kinetic properties. PPK2 catalyzes preferentially polyP-driven nucleotide phosphorylation (utilization of polyP), which is important for the survival of microbial cells under conditions of stress or pathogenesis. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the PPK2 family could be divided into three subfamilies (classes I, II, and III). Class I and II PPK2s catalyze nucleoside diphosphate and nucleoside monophosphate phosphorylation, respectively. Here, we demonstrated that class III PPK2 catalyzes both nucleoside monophosphate and nucleoside diphosphate phosphorylation, thereby enabling us to synthesize ATP from AMP by a single enzyme. Moreover, class III PPK2 showed broad substrate specificity over purine and pyrimidine bases. This is the first demonstration that class III PPK2 possesses both class I and II activities. PMID:24532069

  18. Structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in binary complexes with purine and pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates.

    PubMed

    López-Zavala, Alonso A; Quintero-Reyes, Idania E; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesús S; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weichsel, Andrzej; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2014-09-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK; EC 2.7.4.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the third phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates, leading to nucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication. Expression of the NDK from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvNDK) is known to be regulated under viral infection. Also, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, LvNDK binds both purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside diphosphates with high binding affinity for dGDP and dADP and with no heat of binding interaction for dCDP [Quintero-Reyes et al. (2012), J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44, 325-331]. In order to investigate the differences in selectivity, LvNDK was crystallized as binary complexes with both acceptor (dADP and dCDP) and donor (ADP) phosphate-group nucleoside diphosphate substrates and their structures were determined. The three structures with purine or pyrimidine nucleotide ligands are all hexameric. Also, the binding of deoxy or ribonucleotides is similar, as in the former a water molecule replaces the hydrogen bond made by Lys11 to the 2'-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. This allows Lys11 to maintain a catalytically favourable conformation independently of the kind of sugar found in the nucleotide. Because of this, shrimp NDK may phosphorylate nucleotide analogues to inhibit the viral infections that attack this organism. PMID:25195883

  19. Nucleoside transporters, bcl-2 and apoptosis in CLL cells exposed to nucleoside analogues in vitro.

    PubMed

    Petersen, A J; Brown, R D; Gibson, J; Pope, B; Luo, X F; Schutz, L; Wiley, J S; Joshua, D E

    1996-04-01

    The purine nucleoside analogues fludarabine (F1) and chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) are considered to be cell cycle specific agents which require DNA synthesis for cytotoxicity. However, their efficacy in the treatment of CLL, an indolent lymphoid malignancy suggests additional mechanisms of action. Like cytosine arabinoside (AraC), F1 and 2-CdA gain access to the cell via a specific nucleoside transporter (NST) protein. To investigate the mode of action of these drugs in CLL, we used a fluorescent ligand for the NST (5'-(SAENTA- x8)-fluorescein) and 3-colour flow cytometry to determine NST expression on CD5+/CD19+ B-cells from the peripheral blood (PB) of patients with CLL. NST levels on these cells was found to be not significantly different from normal control lymphocytes (mean = 485 +/- 425) vs. (mean = 553 +/- 178). Exposure to varying concentrations (0, 3 microM and 30 microM) of F1 and 2-CdA, however, resulted in an upregulation of NST (mean = 1552 +/- 775 with 30 microM FL; mean = 3392 +/- 2197 with 30 microM 2-CdA) after 48. "Large" lymphoid cells (not present in normal PB) were found to express significantly more NST (mean = 2540 +/- 2861) and have a higher proliferative capacity than "small" cells (mean = 357 +/- 517 NST/cell). Incubation of CLL cells with F1 (n = 6) and 2-CdA (n = 8) in vitro over 48 h also resulted in an increase in the proportion of cells in S-phase (0 microM = 0.2 + 2 - 0.1; 30 microM FL = 2.4 +/- 2.0; 30 microM 2-CdA = 3.3 +/- 1.3) and a significant increase in morphologically identifiable apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by flow cytometric DNA analysis (0 microM = 13 +/- 8%; 30 microM FL = 40 +/- 20%; 30 microM 2-CdA = 48 +/- 11%). In situ hybridization using a biotinylated cDNA bcl-2 probe demonstrated that bcl-2 mRNA expression was markedly decreased in treated cells after 24 h. These studies have demonstrated that: (1) NST expression on CLL lymphocytes is low; (2) in vitro exposure to the analogues increases both the level of

  20. The SLC28 (CNT) and SLC29 (ENT) nucleoside transporter families: a 30-year collaborative odyssey.

    PubMed

    Young, James D

    2016-06-15

    Specialized nucleoside transporter (NT) proteins are required for passage of nucleosides and hydrophilic nucleoside analogues across biological membranes. Physiologic nucleosides serve as central salvage metabolites in nucleotide biosynthesis, and nucleoside analogues are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer and antiviral diseases. The nucleoside adenosine modulates numerous cellular events via purino-receptor cell signalling pathways. Human NTs are divided into two structurally unrelated protein families: the SLC28 concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) family and the SLC29 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family. Human CNTs are inwardly directed Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporters found predominantly in intestinal and renal epithelial and other specialized cell types. Human ENTs mediate bidirectional fluxes of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides down their concentration gradients and are ubiquitously found in most, possibly all, cell types. Both protein families are evolutionarily old: CNTs are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; ENTs are widely distributed in mammalian, lower vertebrate and other eukaryote species. This mini-review describes a 30-year collaboration with Professor Stephen Baldwin to identify and understand the structures and functions of these physiologically and clinically important transport proteins. PMID:27284054

  1. Direct synthesis of imino-C-nucleoside analogues and other biologically active iminosugars

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron-Brlek, Milan; Meanwell, Michael; Britton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Iminosugars have attracted increasing attention as chemical probes, chaperones and leads for drug discovery. Despite several clinical successes, their de novo synthesis remains a significant challenge that also limits their integration with modern high-throughput screening technologies. Herein, we describe a unique synthetic strategy that converts a wide range of acetaldehyde derivatives into iminosugars and imino-C-nucleoside analogues in two or three straightforward transformations. We also show that this strategy can be readily applied to the rapid production of indolizidine and pyrrolizidine iminosugars. The high levels of enantio- and diastereoselectivity, excellent overall yields, convenience and broad substrate scope make this an appealing process for diversity-oriented synthesis, and should enable drug discovery efforts. PMID:25903019

  2. Complete inactivation of HIV-1 using photo-labeled non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rios, Adan; Quesada, Jorge; Anderson, Dallas; Goldstein, Allan; Fossum, Theresa; Colby-Germinario, Susan; Wainberg, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that a photo-labeled derivative of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) dapivirine termed DAPY, when used together with exposure to ultraviolet light, was able to completely and irreversibly inactivate both HIV-1 RT activity as well as infectiousness in each of a T cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Control experiments using various concentrations of DAPY revealed that a combination of exposure to ultraviolet light together with use of the specific, high affinity photo-labeled compound was necessary for complete inactivation to occur. This method of HIV RT inactivation may have applicability toward preservation of an intact viral structure and warrants further investigation in regard to the potential of this approach to elicit a durable, broad protective immune response. PMID:20937333

  3. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for In-vitro Selection Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Dellafiore, María A.; Montserrat, Javier M.; Iribarren, Adolfo M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed. PMID:27200340

  4. A Novel and Fast Purification Method for Nucleoside Transporters.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhenyu; Thomsen, Maren; Postis, Vincent L G; Lesiuk, Amelia; Sharples, David; Wang, Yingying; Bartlam, Mark; Goldman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside transporters (NTs) play critical biological roles in humans, and to understand the molecular mechanism of nucleoside transport requires high-resolution structural information. However, the main bottleneck for structural analysis of NTs is the production of pure, stable, and high quality native protein for crystallization trials. Here we report a novel membrane protein expression and purification strategy, including construction of a high-yield membrane protein expression vector, and a new and fast purification protocol for NTs. The advantages of this strategy are the improved time efficiency, leading to high quality, active, stable membrane proteins, and the efficient use of reagents and consumables. Our strategy might serve as a useful point of reference for investigating NTs and other membrane proteins by clarifying the technical points of vector construction and improvements of membrane protein expression and purification. PMID:27376071

  5. A Novel and Fast Purification Method for Nucleoside Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Zhenyu; Thomsen, Maren; Postis, Vincent L. G.; Lesiuk, Amelia; Sharples, David; Wang, Yingying; Bartlam, Mark; Goldman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside transporters (NTs) play critical biological roles in humans, and to understand the molecular mechanism of nucleoside transport requires high-resolution structural information. However, the main bottleneck for structural analysis of NTs is the production of pure, stable, and high quality native protein for crystallization trials. Here we report a novel membrane protein expression and purification strategy, including construction of a high-yield membrane protein expression vector, and a new and fast purification protocol for NTs. The advantages of this strategy are the improved time efficiency, leading to high quality, active, stable membrane proteins, and the efficient use of reagents and consumables. Our strategy might serve as a useful point of reference for investigating NTs and other membrane proteins by clarifying the technical points of vector construction and improvements of membrane protein expression and purification. PMID:27376071

  6. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for In-vitro Selection Techniques.

    PubMed

    Dellafiore, María A; Montserrat, Javier M; Iribarren, Adolfo M

    2016-01-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed. PMID:27200340

  7. Compositions containing nucleosides and manganese and their uses

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Michael J.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.; Matrosova, Vera Y.; Levine, Rodney L.; Wehr, Nancy B.

    2015-11-17

    This invention encompasses methods of preserving protein function by contacting a protein with a composition comprising one or more purine or pyrimidine nucleosides (such as e.g., adenosine or uridine) and an antioxidant (such as e.g., manganese). In addition, the invention encompasses methods of treating and/or preventing a side effect of radiation exposure and methods of preventing a side effect of radiotherapy comprising administration of a pharmaceutically effective amount of a composition comprising one or more purine or pyrimidine nucleosides (such as e.g., adenosine or uridine) and an antioxidant (such as e.g., manganese) to a subject in need thereof. The compositions may comprise D. radiodurans extracts.

  8. Overcoming nucleoside analog chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer: A therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Sau Wai; Mody, Hardik R.; Govindarajan, Rajgopal

    2013-01-01

    Clinical refractoriness to nucleoside analogs (e.g., gemcitabine, capecitabine) is a major scientific problem and is one of the main reasons underlying the extremely poor prognostic state of pancreatic cancer. The drugs’ effects are suboptimal partly due to cellular mechanisms limiting their transport, activation, and overall efficacy. Nonetheless, novel therapeutic approaches are presently under study to circumvent nucleoside analog resistance in pancreatic cancer. With these new approaches come additional challenges to be addressed. This review describes the determinants of chemoresistance in the gemcitabine cytotoxicity pathways, provides an overview of investigational approaches for overcoming chemoresistance, and discusses new challenges presented. Understanding the future directions of the field may assist in the successful development of novel treatment strategies for enhancing chemotherapeutic efficacy in pancreatic cancer. PMID:22425961

  9. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for in-vitro Selection Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarren, Adolfo; Dellafiore, María; Montserrat, Javier

    2016-05-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed.

  10. Localization of GFP-tagged concentrative nucleoside transporters in a renal polarized epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Mangravite, L M; Lipschutz, J H; Mostov, K E; Giacomini, K M

    2001-05-01

    Many nucleosides undergo active reabsorption within the kidney, probably via nucleoside transporters. To date, two concentrative nucleoside transporters have been cloned, the sodium-dependent purine-selective nucleoside transporter (SPNT) and concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 (CNT1). We report the stable expression of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged SPNT and CNT1 in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, a polarized renal epithelial line. We demonstrate that the GFP tag does not alter the substrate selectivity and only modestly affects the kinetic activity of the transporters. By using confocal microscopy and functional studies, both SPNT and CNT1 are localized primarily to the apical membrane of MDCK and LLC-PK(1) cells. Apical localization of these transporters suggests a role in renal nucleoside reabsorption and regulation of tubular function via the adenosine pathway. PMID:11292631

  11. A comparison of enzymatic phosphorylation and phosphatidylation of beta-L- and beta-D-nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Birichevskaya, Larisa L; Kvach, Sergei V; Sivets, Grigorii G; Kalinichenko, Elena N; Zinchenko, Anatoly I; Mikhailopulo, Igor A

    2007-04-01

    Enzymatic 5'-monophosphorylation and 5'-phosphatidylation of a number of beta-L- and beta-D-nucleosides was investigated. The first reaction, catalyzed by nucleoside phosphotransferase (NPT) from Erwinia herbicola, consisted of the transfer of the phosphate residue from p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP) to the 5'-hydroxyl group of nucleoside; the second was the phospholipase D (PLD)-catalyzed transphosphatidylation of L-alpha-lecithin with a series of beta-L- and beta-D-nucleosides as the phosphatidyl acceptor resulted in the formation of the respective phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates. Some beta-L-nucleosides displayed similar or even higher substrate activity compared to the beta-D-enantiomers. PMID:17206374

  12. Evaluation of anti-HIV-1 mutagenic nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Vivet-Boudou, Valérie; Isel, Catherine; El Safadi, Yazan; Smyth, Redmond P; Laumond, Géraldine; Moog, Christiane; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Because of their high mutation rates, RNA viruses and retroviruses replicate close to the threshold of viability. Their existence as quasi-species has pioneered the concept of "lethal mutagenesis" that prompted us to synthesize pyrimidine nucleoside analogues with antiviral activity in cell culture consistent with an accumulation of deleterious mutations in the HIV-1 genome. However, testing all potentially mutagenic compounds in cell-based assays is tedious and costly. Here, we describe two simple in vitro biophysical/biochemical assays that allow prediction of the mutagenic potential of deoxyribonucleoside analogues. The first assay compares the thermal stabilities of matched and mismatched base pairs in DNA duplexes containing or not the nucleoside analogues as follows. A promising candidate should display a small destabilization of the matched base pair compared with the natural nucleoside and the smallest gap possible between the stabilities of the matched and mismatched base pairs. From this assay, we predicted that two of our compounds, 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine, should be mutagenic. The second in vitro reverse transcription assay assesses DNA synthesis opposite nucleoside analogues inserted into a template strand and subsequent extension of the newly synthesized base pairs. Once again, only 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine are predicted to be efficient mutagens. The predictive potential of our fast and easy first line screens was confirmed by detailed analysis of the mutation spectrum induced by the compounds in cell culture because only compounds 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine were found to increase the mutation frequency by 3.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively. PMID:25398876

  13. Synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides using N-benzyloxycarbonyl-blocked nucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, B.E.; Kiely, J.S.; Rapoport, H.

    1982-10-20

    The exo amino groups of 2'-deoxyadenosine and 2'-deoxycytidine have been blocked as the benzyl carbamates, and 2'-deoxyguanosine has been blocked as its 2-N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)carbamate and 6-O-benzyl ether. These blocked nucleosides have been incorporated into an efficient oligodeoxyribonucleotide synthetic scheme, and the resulting oligomer has been successfully deblocked by using transfer hydrogenation. The deblocking conditions result in no reduction of the pyrimidine bases.

  14. Non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase: molecular modeling and X-ray structure investigations.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, W; Friebe, W G; Leinert, H; Mertens, A; Poll, T; von der Saal, W; Zilch, H; Nuber, B; Ziegler, M L

    1993-03-19

    The structural features of a new class of non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (3) are presented. Comparison of the structural and electronic properties with those of TIBO (1) and Nevirapine (2) yields a common three-dimensional model. This model permits the improvement of the lead compound 3 by chemical modification (5,6). Additionally, two new types of inhibitors (4, 7) with similar biological activity can be derived from this model. The structure of the new compounds, including their absolute configuration, are determined by X-ray crystallography. PMID:7681480

  15. Nucleobase and nucleoside transport and integration into plant metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Girke, Christopher; Daumann, Manuel; Niopek-Witz, Sandra; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolism is an essential process in all living organisms. Besides newly synthesized nucleotides, the recycling (salvage) of partially degraded nucleotides, i.e., nucleosides and nucleobases serves to keep the homeostasis of the nucleotide pool. Both types of metabolites are substrates of at least six families of transport proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with a total of 49 members. In the last years several members of such transport proteins have been analyzed allowing to present a more detailed picture of nucleoside and nucleobase transport and the physiological function of these processes. Besides functioning in nucleotide metabolism it turned out that individual members of the before named transporters exhibit the capacity to transport a wide range of different substrates including vitamins and phytohormones. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on nucleobase and nucleoside transport processes in plants and integrate this into nucleotide metabolism in general. Thereby, we will focus on those proteins which have been characterized at the biochemical level. PMID:25250038

  16. Effects of halides on reaction of nucleosides with ozone.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshinori; Kaya, Eriko; Inukai, Michiyo

    2012-01-01

    Ozone (O(3)), a major component of photochemical oxidants, is used recently as a deodorizer in living spaces. It has been reported that O(3) can directly react with DNA, causing mutagenesis in human cells and carcinogenesis in mice. However, little is known about the effects of coexistent ions in the reaction of O(3). In the present study, we analyzed the effects of halides on the reaction of O(3) with nucleosides using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. When aqueous O(3) solution was added to a nucleoside mixture in potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.3), the nucleosides were consumed with the following decreasing order of importance: dGuo > Thd > dCyd > dAdo. The effects of addition of fluoride and chloride in the system were slight. Bromide suppressed the reactions of dGuo, Thd, and dAdo but enhanced the reaction of dCyd. The major products were 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxycytidine, 5-bromo-2'-deoxycytidine, and 8-bromo-2'-deoxyguanosine. The time course and pH dependence of the product yield indicated formation of hypobromous acid as the reactive agent. Iodide suppressed all the reactions effectively. The results suggest that bromide may alter the mutation spectrum by O(3) in humans. PMID:22646086

  17. Aqueous microwaves assisted cross-coupling reactions applied to unprotected nucleosides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Len, Christophe; Hervé, Gwénaelle

    2015-02-01

    Nucleoside analogues have attracted much attention due to their potential biological activities. Amongst all synthetic nucleosides, C5-modified pyrimidines and C7- or C8-modified purines have mostly been prepared using palladium cross-coupling reactions and then studied as antitumoral and antiviral agents. Our objective is to focus this review on the Suzuki-Miyaura and on the Heck cross-couplings of nucleosides using microwave irradiations which are an alternative technology compatible with green chemistry and sustainable development.

  18. The role of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 on the cellular transport of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitors 5-azacytidine and CP-4200 in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hummel-Eisenbeiss, Johanna; Hascher, Antje; Hals, Petter-Arnt; Sandvold, Marit Liland; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Lyko, Frank; Rius, Maria

    2013-09-01

    The nucleoside analog 5-azacytidine is an archetypical drug for epigenetic cancer therapy, and its clinical effectiveness has been demonstrated in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, therapy resistance in patients with MDS/AML remains a challenging issue. Membrane proteins that are involved in drug uptake are potential mediators of drug resistance. The responsible proteins for the transport of 5-azacytidine into MDS/AML cells are unknown. We have now systematically analyzed the expression and activity of various nucleoside transporters. We identified the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) as the most abundant nucleoside transporter in leukemia cell lines and in AML patient samples. Transport assays using [¹⁴C]5-azacytidine demonstrated Na⁺-independent uptake of the drug into the cells, which was inhibited by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI), a hENT1 inhibitor. The cellular toxicity of 5-azacytidine and its DNA demethylating activity were strongly reduced after hENT1 inhibition. In contrast, the cellular activity of the 5-azacytidine derivative 5-azacytidine-5'-elaidate (CP-4200), a nucleoside transporter-independent drug, persisted after hENT1 inhibition. A strong dependence of 5-azacytidine-induced DNA demethylation on hENT1 activity was also confirmed by array-based DNA methylation profiling, which uncovered hundreds of loci that became demethylated only when hENT1-mediated transport was active. Our data establish hENT1 as a key transporter for the cellular uptake of 5-azacytidine in leukemia cells and raise the possibility that hENT1 expression might be a useful biomarker to predict the efficiency of 5-azacytidine treatments. Furthermore, our data suggest that CP-4200 may represent a valuable compound for the modulation of transporter-related 5-azacytidine resistances. PMID:23814180

  19. Cyclopropanation of nitroso Diels–Alder cycloadducts and application to the synthesis of a 2’,3’-methano carbocyclic nucleoside

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Cheng; Miller, Marvin J.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of nitroso Diels–Alder cycloadducts 1 with diazomethane in the presence of palladium acetate gives synthetically useful exo-6-oxa-7-azatricyclo[3.2.1.02,4]octane derivatives 7 in good to excellent yield. Using this methodology, a conformationally restricted 2’,3’-methano carbocyclic nucleoside was efficiently synthesized from nitroso cycloadduct 1a in 7 steps. PMID:20607121

  20. A review of non-nucleoside anti-hepatitis B virus agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Gang

    2014-03-21

    Hepatitis B Virus is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently approved agents of chronic HBV infection treatment include interferon and nucleoside analogues. However, the side effects of interferon and the viral resistance of nucleoside analogues make the current treatment far from satisfactory. Therefore, new drugs with novel structures and mechanisms are needed. Recently, a number of non-nucleoside HBV inhibitors have been obtained from natural sources or prepared by synthesis/semi-synthesis. Some of them exhibited potent anti-HBV activity with novel mechanisms. These compounds provide useful information for the medicinal chemist to develop novel non-nucleoside compounds as anti-HBV agents. PMID:24549242

  1. Nucleoside transport at the blood-testis barrier studied with primary-cultured sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ryo; Maeda, Tomoji; Akaike, Toshihiro; Tamai, Ikumi

    2005-02-01

    Nucleosides are essential for nucleotide synthesis in testicular spermatogenesis. In the present study, the mechanism of the supply of nucleosides to the testicular system across the blood-testis barrier was studied using primary-cultured Sertoli cells from rats and TM4 cells from mice. Uptake of uridine by these cells was time- and concentration-dependent. Uridine uptake was decreased under Na(+)-free conditions, and the system was presumed to be high affinity, indicating an Na(+)-dependent concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) is involved. On the other hand, nitrobenzylthioinosine, a potent inhibitor of Na(+)-independent equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs), inhibited uridine uptake by the Sertoli cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of nucleoside transporters ENT1, ENT2, ENT3, CNT1, CNT2, and CNT3 was detected in Sertoli cells by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Inhibition studies of the uptake of uridine by various nucleosides both in the presence and absence of Na(+) indicated that the most of those expressed nucleoside transporters, ENTs and CNTs, are involved functionally. These results demonstrated that Sertoli cells are equipped with multiple nucleoside transport systems, including ENT1, ENT2, and CNTs, to provide nucleosides for spermatogenesis. PMID:15547112

  2. Chemical Logic and Enzymatic Machinery for Biological Assembly of Peptidyl Nucleoside Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Christopher T.; Zhang, Wenjun

    2011-01-01

    Peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics are a group of natural products targeting MraY, a bacterial translocase involved in the lipid-linked cycle in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. In this Perspective, we explore how Nature builds complex peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics scaffolds from simple nucleoside and amino acid building blocks. We discuss the current stage of research on biosynthetic pathways for peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics, primarily focusing on chemical logic and enzymatic machinery for uridine transformation and coupling to peptides. We further survey the nonribosomal biosynthetic paradigm for a subgroup of uridyl peptide antibiotics represented by pacidamycins, concluded by diversification opportunities for antibiotic optimization. PMID:21851099

  3. A metal-containing nucleoside that possesses both therapeutic and diagnostic activity against cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Suk; Maity, Ayan; Gray, Thomas; Berdis, Anthony J

    2015-04-10

    Nucleoside transport is an essential process that helps maintain the hyperproliferative state of most cancer cells. As such, it represents an important target for developing diagnostic and therapeutic agents that can effectively detect and treat cancer, respectively. This report describes the development of a metal-containing nucleoside designated Ir(III)-PPY nucleoside that displays both therapeutic and diagnostic properties against the human epidermal carcinoma cell line KB3-1. The cytotoxic effects of Ir(III)-PPY nucleoside are both time- and dose-dependent. Flow cytometry analyses validate that the nucleoside analog causes apoptosis by blocking cell cycle progression at G2/M. Fluorescent microscopy studies show rapid accumulation in the cytoplasm within 4 h. However, more significant accumulation is observed in the nucleus and mitochondria after 24 h. This localization is consistent with the ability of the metal-containing nucleoside to influence cell cycle progression at G2/M. Mitochondrial depletion is also observed after longer incubations (Δt ∼48 h), and this effect may produce additional cytotoxic effects. siRNA knockdown experiments demonstrate that the nucleoside transporter, hENT1, plays a key role in the cellular entry of Ir(III)-PPY nucleoside. Collectively, these data provide evidence for the development of a metal-containing nucleoside that functions as a combined therapeutic and diagnostic agent against cancer. PMID:25713072

  4. All-trans-retinoic Acid Promotes Trafficking of Human Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter-3 (hCNT3) to the Plasma Membrane by a TGF-β1-mediated Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Calotti, Paula; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal

    2010-01-01

    Human concentrative nucleoside transporter-3 (hCNT3) is a sodium-coupled nucleoside transporter that exhibits high affinity and broad substrate selectivity, making it the most suitable candidate for mediating the uptake and cytotoxic action of most nucleoside-derived drugs. The drug of this class most commonly used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the pro-apoptotic nucleoside analog fludarabine (Flu), which enters CLL cells primarily through human equilibrative nucleoside transporters (hENTs). Although CLL cells lack hCNT3 activity, they do express this transporter protein, which is located mostly in the cytosol. The aim of our study was to identify agents and mechanisms capable of promoting hCNT3 trafficking to the plasma membrane. Here, we report that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), currently used in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), increases hCNT3-related activity through a mechanism that involves trafficking of pre-existing hCNT3 proteins to the plasma membrane. This effect is mediated by the autocrine action of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, which is transcriptionally activated by ATRA in a p38-dependent manner. TGF-β1 acts through activation of ERK1/2 and the small GTPase RhoA to promote plasma membrane trafficking of the hCNT3 protein. PMID:20172853

  5. Purine nucleoside modulation of functions of human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Priebe, T; Platsoucas, C D; Seki, H; Fox, F E; Nelson, J A

    1990-09-01

    The accumulation of endogenous substrates in patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency or purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency is believed to be responsible for the immunodeficiency observed in these patients. To identify the lymphocyte populations that are most susceptible to these substrates, we investigated the effect of their nucleoside analogs on a number of T and B cell functions of human lymphocytes. We found that tubercidin (Tub), 2-chloro 2'deoxyadenosine (2CldA), 2-fluoro adenine arabinoside-5'phosphate (FaraAMP), and 9-beta-D-arabinosyl guanine (AraGua) inhibited the proliferative responses of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to polyclonal activators (PHA, OKT3 mab) or to allogeneic PBMC in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC). Addition of recombinant IL-2 from the beginning of the culture did not alter the inhibition by Tub of the proliferative responses of PBMC. These purine nucleoside analogs also inhibited the proliferative responses of purified human peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to PHA and of purified B cells to SAC. The concentrations of these nucleosides required to achieve a given degree of inhibition of proliferative responses of T lymphocyte subpopulations or B cells was similar, suggesting that these analogs do not exhibit any selectivity for these purified lymphocyte populations. Tub and FaraAMP, respectively, inhibited and enhanced, at the effector phase, both NK cytotoxicity and specific T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast to these findings, LAK cytotoxicity at the effector phase was not significantly inhibited by Tub, and was not enhanced by FaraAMP. Both analogs inhibited rIL-2-induced proliferative responses of PBMC, but did not affect the generation of LAK cytotoxicity (induction phase) against the K562 targets when added at the beginning of the culture. This suggests that DNA synthesis is not required for LAK cell induction. Both Tub and FaraAMP inhibited immunoglobulin production (IgG and IgM) by

  6. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase as a cytosolic arsenate reductase.

    PubMed

    Gregus, Zoltán; Németi, Balázs

    2002-11-01

    The findings of the accompanying paper (Németi and Gregus, Toxicol: Sci. 70, 4-12) indicate that the arsenate (AsV) reductase activity of rat liver cytosol is due to an SH enzyme that uses phosphate (or its analogue, arsenate, AsV) and a purine nucleoside (guanosine or inosine) as substrates. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is such an enzyme. It catalyzes the phosphorolytic cleavage of 6-oxopurine nucleosides according to the following scheme: guanosine (or inosine) + phosphate <--> guanine (or hypoxanthine) + ribose-1-phosphate. Therefore, we have tested the hypothesis that PNP is responsible for the thiol- and purine nucleoside-dependent reduction of AsV to AsIII by rat liver cytosol. AsIII formed from AsV was quantified by HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry analysis of the deproteinized incubates. The following findings support the conclusion that PNP reduces AsV to AsIII, using AsV instead of phosphate in the reaction above: (1) Specific PNP inhibitors (CI-1000, BCX-1777) at a concentration of 1 microM completely inhibited cytosolic AsV reductase activity. (2) During anion-exchange chromatography of cytosolic proteins, PNP activity perfectly coeluted with the AsV reductase activity, suggesting that both activities belong to the same protein. (3) PNP purified from calf spleen catalyzed reduction of AsV to AsIII in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT) and a 6-oxopurine nucleoside (guanosine or inosine). (4) AsV reductase activity of purified PNP, like the cytosolic AsV reductase activity, was inhibited by phosphate (a substrate of PNP alternative to AsV), guanine and hypoxanthine (products of PNP favoring the reverse reaction), mercurial thiol reagents (nonspecific inhibitors of PNP), as well as CI-1000 and BCX-1777 (specific PNP inhibitors). Thus, PNP appears to be responsible for the AsV reductase activity of rat liver cytosol in the presence of DTT. Further research should clarify the mechanism and the in vivo significance of PNP

  7. Permeation of aldopentoses and nucleosides through fatty acid and phospholipid membranes: implications to the origins of life.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chenyu; Pohorille, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Permeation of aldopentoses and nucleosides through fatty acid and phospholipid membranes was investigated by way of molecular dynamics simulations. Calculated permeability coefficients of membranes to aldopentoses, which exist predominantly in the pyranose form, are in a very good agreement with experimental results. The unexpected preferential permeation of ribose, compared to its diastereomers, found by Sacerdote and Szostak, is explained in terms of inter- and intramolecular interactions involving hydroxyl groups. In aqueous solution, these groups favor the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds with neighboring water molecules. Inside the membrane, however, they form intramolecular hydrogen bonds, which in ribose are arranged in a chain. In its diastereomers this chain is broken, which yields higher free energy barrier to transfer through membranes. Faster permeation of ribose would lead to its preferential accumulation inside cells if sugars were converted sufficiently quickly to nonpermeable derivatives. An estimate for the rate of such reaction was derived. Preferential accumulation of ribose would increase the probability of correct monomers' incorporation during synthesis of nucleic acids inside protocells. The same mechanism does not apply to nucleosides or their activated derivatives because sugars are locked in the furanose form, which contains fewer exocyclic hydroxyl groups than does pyranose. The results of this study underscore concerted early evolution of membranes and the biochemical processes that they encapsulated. PMID:23397957

  8. Conserved Glutamate Residues Glu-343 and Glu-519 Provide Mechanistic Insights into Cation/Nucleoside Cotransport by Human Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter hCNT3*

    PubMed Central

    Slugoski, Melissa D.; Smith, Kyla M.; Ng, Amy M. L.; Yao, Sylvia Y. M.; Karpinski, Edward; Cass, Carol E.; Baldwin, Stephen A.; Young, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Human concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 (hCNT3) utilizes electrochemical gradients of both Na+ and H+ to accumulate pyrimidine and purine nucleosides within cells. We have employed radioisotope flux and electrophysiological techniques in combination with site-directed mutagenesis and heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes to identify two conserved pore-lining glutamate residues (Glu-343 and Glu-519) with essential roles in hCNT3 Na+/nucleoside and H+/nucleoside cotransport. Mutation of Glu-343 and Glu-519 to aspartate, glutamine, and cysteine severely compromised hCNT3 transport function, and changes included altered nucleoside and cation activation kinetics (all mutants), loss or impairment of H+ dependence (all mutants), shift in Na+:nucleoside stoichiometry from 2:1 to 1:1 (E519C), complete loss of catalytic activity (E519Q) and, similar to the corresponding mutant in Na+-specific hCNT1, uncoupled Na+ currents (E343Q). Consistent with close-proximity integration of cation/solute-binding sites within a common cation/permeant translocation pore, mutation of Glu-343 and Glu-519 also altered hCNT3 nucleoside transport selectivity. Both residues were accessible to the external medium and inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate when converted to cysteine. PMID:19380587

  9. Quantitative analysis of intracellular nucleoside triphosphates and other polar metabolites using ion pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianmei; Zhang, Yingtao; Wiegand, Richard; Wang, Jian; Bepler, Gerold; Li, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous, quantitative determination of intracellular nucleoside triphosphates and other polar metabolites using liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) represents a bioanalytic challenge because of charged, highly hydrophilic analytes presented at a large concentration range in a complex matrix. In this study, an ion pair LC-MS/MS method using triethylamine (TEA)-hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) ion-pair mobile phase was optimized and validated for simultaneous and unambiguous determination of 8 nucleoside triphosphates (including ATP, CTP, GTP, UTP, dATP, dCTP, dGTP, and dTTP) in cellular samples. Compared to the the less volatile ion-pair reagent, triethylammonium acetate (100mM, pH 7.0), the combination of HFIP (100mM) and TEA (8.6mM) increased the MS signal intensity by about 50-fold, while retaining comparable chromatographic resolution. The isotope-labeled internal standard method was used for the quantitation. Lower limits of quantitation were determined at 0.5nM for CTP, UTP, dATP, dCTP, and dTTP, at 1nM for ATP, and at 5nM for GTP and dGTP. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within the generally accepted criteria for bioanalytical method validation (<15%). While the present method was validated for the quantitation of intracellular nucleoside triphosphates, it had a broad application potential for quantitative profiling of nucleoside mono- and bi-phosphates as well as other polar, ionic metabolic intermediates (including carbohydrate derivatives, carboxylic acid derivatives, co-acyl A derivatives, fatty acyls, and others) in biological samples. PMID:26551209

  10. Immuno-Northern Blotting: Detection of RNA Modifications by Using Antibodies against Modified Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Eikan; Jinno, Daisuke; Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Itoh, Kunihiko; Nankumo, Shinnosuke; Shima, Hisato; Kikuchi, Koichi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Elkordy, Alaa; Suzuki, Takehiro; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Ito, Sadayoshi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Abe, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    The biological roles of RNA modifications are still largely not understood. Thus, developing a method for detecting RNA modifications is important for further clarification. We developed a method for detecting RNA modifications called immuno-northern blotting (INB) analysis and herein introduce its various capabilities. This method involves the separation of RNAs using either polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by transfer onto a nylon membrane and subsequent immunoblotting using antibodies against modified nucleosides for the detection of specific modifications. We confirmed that INB with the antibodies for 1-methyladenosine (m1A), N6-methyladenosine (m6A), pseudouridine, and 5-methylcytidine (m5C) showed different modifications in a variety of RNAs from various species and organelles. INB with the anti-m5C antibody revealed that the antibody cross-reacted with another modification on DNA, suggesting the application of this method for characterization of the antibody for modified nucleosides. Additionally, using INB with the antibody for m1A, which is a highly specific modification in eukaryotic tRNA, we detected tRNA-derived fragments known as tiRNAs under the cellular stress response, suggesting the application for tracking target RNA containing specific modifications. INB with the anti-m6A antibody confirmed the demethylation of m6A by the specific demethylases fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) and ALKBH5, suggesting its application for quantifying target modifications in separated RNAs. Furthermore, INB demonstrated that the knockdown of FTO and ALKBH5 increased the m6A modification in small RNAs as well as in mRNA. The INB method has high specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capability, and it can be employed with conventional experimental apparatus. Therefore, this method would be useful for research on RNA modifications and metabolism. PMID:26606401

  11. Immuno-Northern Blotting: Detection of RNA Modifications by Using Antibodies against Modified Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Itoh, Kunihiko; Nankumo, Shinnosuke; Shima, Hisato; Kikuchi, Koichi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Elkordy, Alaa; Suzuki, Takehiro; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Ito, Sadayoshi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Abe, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    The biological roles of RNA modifications are still largely not understood. Thus, developing a method for detecting RNA modifications is important for further clarification. We developed a method for detecting RNA modifications called immuno-northern blotting (INB) analysis and herein introduce its various capabilities. This method involves the separation of RNAs using either polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by transfer onto a nylon membrane and subsequent immunoblotting using antibodies against modified nucleosides for the detection of specific modifications. We confirmed that INB with the antibodies for 1-methyladenosine (m1A), N6-methyladenosine (m6A), pseudouridine, and 5-methylcytidine (m5C) showed different modifications in a variety of RNAs from various species and organelles. INB with the anti-m5C antibody revealed that the antibody cross-reacted with another modification on DNA, suggesting the application of this method for characterization of the antibody for modified nucleosides. Additionally, using INB with the antibody for m1A, which is a highly specific modification in eukaryotic tRNA, we detected tRNA-derived fragments known as tiRNAs under the cellular stress response, suggesting the application for tracking target RNA containing specific modifications. INB with the anti-m6A antibody confirmed the demethylation of m6A by the specific demethylases fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) and ALKBH5, suggesting its application for quantifying target modifications in separated RNAs. Furthermore, INB demonstrated that the knockdown of FTO and ALKBH5 increased the m6A modification in small RNAs as well as in mRNA. The INB method has high specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capability, and it can be employed with conventional experimental apparatus. Therefore, this method would be useful for research on RNA modifications and metabolism. PMID:26606401

  12. A Novel [15N] Glutamine Flux using LC-MS/MS-SRM for Determination of Nucleosides and Nucleobases

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Feng; Bhowmik, Salil Kumar; Putluri, Vasanta; Gu, Franklin; Gohlke, Jie; Von Rundstedt, Friedrich Carl; Dasgupta, Subhamoy; Krishnapuram, Rashmi; O’Malley, Bert W.; Sreekumar, Arun; Putluri, Nagireddy

    2016-01-01

    The growth of cancer cells relies more on increased proliferation and autonomy compared to non-malignant cells. The rate of de novo nucleotide biosynthesis correlates with cell proliferation rates. In part, glutamine is needed to sustain high rates of cellular proliferation as a key nitrogen donor in purine and pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. In addition, glutamine serves as an essential substrate for key enzymes involved in the de novo synthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. Here, we developed a novel liquid chromatography (LC-MS) to quantify glutamine-derived [15N] nitrogen flux into nucleosides and nucleobases (purines and pyrimidines). For this, DNA from 5637 bladder cancer cell line cultured in 15N labelled glutamine and then enzymatically hydrolyzed by sequential digestion. Subsequently, DNA hydrolysates were separated by LC-MS and Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) was employed to identify the nucleobases and nucleosides. Thus, high sensitivity and reproducibility of the method make it a valuable tool to identify the nitrogen flux primarily derived from glutamine and can be further adaptable for high throughput analysis of large set of DNA in a clinical setting. PMID:27158554

  13. Artificial receptors for the extraction of nucleoside metabolite 7-methylguanosine from aqueous media made by molecular imprinting.

    PubMed

    Krstulja, Aleksandra; De Schutter, Coralie; Favetta, Patrick; Manesiotis, Panagiotis; Agrofoglio, Luigi A

    2014-10-24

    A series of imprinted polymers targeting nucleoside metabolites, prepared using a template analogue approach, are presented. These were prepared following selection of the optimum functional monomer by solution association studies using (1)H NMR titrations whereby methacrylic acid was shown to be the strongest receptor with and affinity constant of 621±51Lmol(-1)vs. 110±16Lmol(-1) for acrylamide. The best performing polymers were prepared using methanol as porogenic co-solvent and although average binding site affinities were marginally reduced, 2.3×10(4)Lmol(-1)vs. 2.7×10(4)Lmol(-1) measured for a polymer prepared in acetonitrile, these polymers contained the highest number of binding sites, 5.27μmolg(-1)vs. 1.64μmolg(-1), while they also exhibited enhanced selectivity for methylated guanosine derivatives. When applied as sorbents in the extraction of nucleoside derivative cancer biomarkers from synthetic urine samples, significant sample clean-up and recoveries of up to 90% for 7-methylguanosine were achieved. PMID:25218630

  14. Origin, Utilization, and Recycling of Nucleosides in the Central Nervous System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipata, Piero Luigi

    2011-01-01

    The brain relies on the salvage of preformed purine and pyrimidine rings, mainly in the form of nucleosides, to maintain its nucleotide pool in the proper qualitative and quantitative balance. The transport of nucleosides from blood into neurons and glia is considered to be an essential prerequisite to enter their metabolic utilization in the…

  15. Analysis of Nucleosides in Municipal Wastewater by Large-Volume Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Alex J.; Lunte, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Nucleosides are components of both DNA and RNA, and contain either a ribose (RNA) or 2deoxyribose (DNA) sugar and a purine or pyrimidine base. In addition to DNA and RNA turnover, modified nucleosides found in urine have been correlated to a diminished health status associated with AIDS, cancers, oxidative stress and age. Nucleosides found in municipal wastewater influent are potentially useful markers of community health status, and as of now, remain uninvestigated. A method was developed to quantify nucleosides in municipal wastewater using large-volume injection, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. Method accuracy ranged from 92 to 139% when quantified by using isotopically labeled internal standards. Precision ranged from 6.1 to 19% of the relative standard deviation. The method’s utility was demonstrated by the analysis of twenty-four hour composite wastewater influent samples that were collected over a week to investigate community nucleoside excretion. Nucleosides originating from RNA were more abundant that DNA over the study period, with total loads of nucleosides ranging from 2 to 25 kg/day. Given this relatively high amount of nucleosides found over the study period they present an attractive analyte for the investigation of community health. PMID:26322136

  16. Synthesis of carbocyclic nucleoside analogs with five-membered heterocyclic nucleobases

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jong hyun; Coats, Steven J.; Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2015-01-01

    New carbocyclic nucleoside analogs with five-membered heterocyclic nucleobases were synthesized and evaluated as potential anti-HIV and anti-HCV agents. Among the synthesized carbocyclic nucleoside analogs, the pyrazole amide 15f exhibited modest selective anti-HIV-1 activity (EC50 = 24 µM). PMID:26028788

  17. Visualizing nucleic acid metabolism using non-natural nucleosides and nucleotide analogs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Suk; Berdis, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Nucleosides and their corresponding mono-, di-, and triphosphates play important roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis. In addition, perturbations in this homeostasis can result in dysfunctional cellular processes that cause pathological conditions such as cancer and autoimmune diseases. This review article discusses contemporary research areas applying nucleoside analogs to probe the mechanistic details underlying the complexities of nucleoside metabolism at the molecular and cellular levels. The first area describes classic and contemporary approaches used to quantify the activity of nucleoside transporters, an important class of membrane proteins that mediate the influx and efflux of nucleosides and nucleobases. A focal point of this section is describing how biophotonic nucleosides are replacing conventional assays employing radiolabeled substrates to study the mechanism of these proteins. The second section describes approaches to understand the utilization of nucleoside triphosphates by cellular DNA polymerases during DNA synthesis. Emphasis here is placed on describing how novel nucleoside analogs such as 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine are being used to quantify DNA synthesis during normal replication as well as during the replication of damaged DNA. In both sections, seminal research articles relevant to these areas are described to highlight how these novel probes are improving our understanding of these biological processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Physiological Enzymology and Protein Functions. PMID:26004088

  18. A procedure for the preparation and isolation of nucleoside-5’-diphosphates

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, Heidi J; Bolt, Hannah L

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tris[bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene)ammonium] pyrophosphate (PPN pyrophosphate) was used in the SN2 displacements of the tosylate ion from 5’-tosylnucleosides to afford nucleoside-5’-diphosphates. Selective precipitation permitted the direct isolation of nucleoside-5’-diphosphates from crude reaction mixtures. PMID:25977720

  19. Nucleoside inhibitors of tick-borne encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Eyer, Luděk; Valdés, James J; Gil, Victor A; Nencka, Radim; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Šála, Michal; Salát, Jiří; Černý, Jiří; Palus, Martin; De Clercq, Erik; Růžek, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a leading cause of human neuroinfections in Europe and Northeast Asia. There are no antiviral therapies for treating TBEV infection. A series of nucleoside analogues was tested for the ability to inhibit the replication of TBEV in porcine kidney cells and human neuroblastoma cells. The interactions of three nucleoside analogues with viral polymerase were simulated using advanced computational methods. The nucleoside analogues 7-deaza-2'-C-methyladenosine (7-deaza-2'-CMA), 2'-C-methyladenosine (2'-CMA), and 2'-C-methylcytidine (2'-CMC) inhibited TBEV replication. These compounds showed dose-dependent inhibition of TBEV-induced cytopathic effects, TBEV replication (50% effective concentrations [EC50]of 5.1 ± 0.4 μM for 7-deaza-2'-CMA, 7.1 ± 1.2 μM for 2'-CMA, and 14.2 ± 1.9 μM for 2'-CMC) and viral antigen production. Notably, 2'-CMC was relatively cytotoxic to porcine kidney cells (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50] of ∼50 μM). The anti-TBEV effect of 2'-CMA in cell culture diminished gradually after day 3 posttreatment. 7-Deaza-2'-CMA showed no detectable cellular toxicity (CC50 > 50 μM), and the antiviral effect in culture was stable for >6 days posttreatment. Computational molecular analyses revealed that compared to the other two compounds, 7-deaza-2'-CMA formed a large cluster near the active site of the TBEV polymerase. High antiviral activity and low cytotoxicity suggest that 7-deaza-2'-CMA is a promising candidate for further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent in treating TBEV infection. PMID:26124166

  20. Nucleoside Inhibitors of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Eyer, Luděk; Valdés, James J.; Gil, Victor A.; Nencka, Radim; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Šála, Michal; Salát, Jiří; Černý, Jiří; Palus, Martin; De Clercq, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a leading cause of human neuroinfections in Europe and Northeast Asia. There are no antiviral therapies for treating TBEV infection. A series of nucleoside analogues was tested for the ability to inhibit the replication of TBEV in porcine kidney cells and human neuroblastoma cells. The interactions of three nucleoside analogues with viral polymerase were simulated using advanced computational methods. The nucleoside analogues 7-deaza-2′-C-methyladenosine (7-deaza-2′-CMA), 2′-C-methyladenosine (2′-CMA), and 2′-C-methylcytidine (2′-CMC) inhibited TBEV replication. These compounds showed dose-dependent inhibition of TBEV-induced cytopathic effects, TBEV replication (50% effective concentrations [EC50]of 5.1 ± 0.4 μM for 7-deaza-2′-CMA, 7.1 ± 1.2 μM for 2′-CMA, and 14.2 ± 1.9 μM for 2′-CMC) and viral antigen production. Notably, 2′-CMC was relatively cytotoxic to porcine kidney cells (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50] of ∼50 μM). The anti-TBEV effect of 2′-CMA in cell culture diminished gradually after day 3 posttreatment. 7-Deaza-2′-CMA showed no detectable cellular toxicity (CC50 > 50 μM), and the antiviral effect in culture was stable for >6 days posttreatment. Computational molecular analyses revealed that compared to the other two compounds, 7-deaza-2′-CMA formed a large cluster near the active site of the TBEV polymerase. High antiviral activity and low cytotoxicity suggest that 7-deaza-2′-CMA is a promising candidate for further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent in treating TBEV infection. PMID:26124166

  1. Binding of nucleotides to nucleoside diphosphate kinase: a calorimetric study.

    PubMed

    Cervoni, L; Lascu, I; Xu, Y; Gonin, P; Morr, M; Merouani, M; Janin, J; Giartosio, A

    2001-04-17

    The source of affinity for substrates of human nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinases is particularly important in that its knowledge could be used to design more effective antiviral nucleoside drugs (e.g., AZT). We carried out a microcalorimetric study of the binding of enzymes from two organisms to various nucleotides. Isothermal titration calorimetry has been used to characterize the binding in terms of Delta G degrees, Delta H degrees and Delta S degrees. Thermodynamic parameters of the interaction of ADP with the hexameric NDP kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum and with the tetrameric enzyme from Myxococcus xanthus, at 20 degrees C, were similar and, in both cases, binding was enthalpy-driven. The interactions of ADP, 2'deoxyADP, GDP, and IDP with the eukaryotic enzyme differed in enthalpic and entropic terms, whereas the Delta G degrees values obtained were similar due to enthalpy--entropy compensation. The binding of the enzyme to nonphysiological nucleotides, such as AMP--PNP, 3'deoxyADP, and 3'-deoxy-3'-amino-ADP, appears to differ in several respects. Crystallography of the protein bound to 3'-deoxy-3'-amino-ADP showed that the drug was in a distorted position, and was unable to interact correctly with active site side chains. The interaction of pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates with the hexameric enzyme is characterized by a lower affinity than that with purine nucleotides. Titration showed the stoichiometry of the interaction to be abnormal, with 9--12 binding sites/hexamer. The presence of supplementary binding sites might have physiological implications. PMID:11294625

  2. Computer-generated Model of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (PNP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (PNP) is an important target enzyme for the design of anti-cancer and immunosuppressive drugs. Bacterial PNP, which is slightly different from the human enzyme, is used to synthesize chemotherapuautic agents. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the bacterial PNP molecule is useful in efforts to engineer different types of PNP enzymes, that can be used to produce new chemotherapeutic agents. This picture shows a computer model of bacterial PNP, which looks a lot like a display of colorful ribbons. Principal Investigator was Charles Bugg.

  3. Polymerization of the cyclic pyrophosphates of nucleosides and their analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tohidi, Mahrokh; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    When 2-prime-deoxythymidine 3-prime, 5-prime-cyclic diphosphate, or the cyclic pyrophosphates of the acyclic nucleoside analogs II and IV are heated to 65-85 C in the presence of imidazole, oligomers with lengths up to 20-30 are formed in excellent yield. This reaction provides a useful source of oligomers for use as templates in aqueous condensation reactions. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, it is assumed that the oligomers are atactic. The potential significance of this reaction in prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

  4. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing 1,3-propanediol as nucleoside substitute.

    PubMed Central

    Seela, F; Kaiser, K

    1987-01-01

    1,3-Propanediol was protected with one dimethoxytrityl residue and converted into the methoxy- and cyanoethoxyphosphoramidites 2a and 2b, respectively. Solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis, employing the phosphoramidite 2a resulted in the dodecamers d(CGCGAATTCGCG) (6-9), in which dA or dT residues were replaced by 1,3-propanediol. These oligomers showed a high tendency to form hairpins. Their phosphodiester bonds between the 3'-position of a nucleoside and the propanediol moiety was not cleaved by snake venom phosphodiesterase. PMID:3562246

  5. A high-yielding, strictly regioselective prebiotic purine nucleoside formation pathway.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sidney; Thoma, Ines; Deutsch, Amrei; Gehrke, Tim; Mayer, Peter; Zipse, Hendrik; Carell, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    The origin of life is believed to have started with prebiotic molecules reacting along unidentified pathways to produce key molecules such as nucleosides. To date, a single prebiotic pathway to purine nucleosides had been proposed. It is considered to be inefficient due to missing regioselectivity and low yields. We report that the condensation of formamidopyrimidines (FaPys) with sugars provides the natural N-9 nucleosides with extreme regioselectivity and in good yields (60%). The FaPys are available from formic acid and aminopyrimidines, which are in turn available from prebiotic molecules that were also detected during the Rosetta comet mission. This nucleoside formation pathway can be fused to sugar-forming reactions to produce pentosides, providing a plausible scenario of how purine nucleosides may have formed under prebiotic conditions. PMID:27174989

  6. Synthesis, antiviral activity, cytotoxicity and cellular pharmacology of l-3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxypurine nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Wang; Detorio, Mervi; Herman, Brian D; Solomon, Sarah; Bassit, Leda; Nettles, James H; Obikhod, Aleksandr; Tao, Si-Jia; Mellors, John W; Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas; Coats, Steven J; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2011-09-01

    Microwave-assisted optimized transglycosylation reactions were used to prepare eleven modified l-3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxypurine nucleosides. These l-nucleoside analogs were evaluated against HIV and hepatitis B virus. The l-3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxypurines nucleosides were metabolized to nucleoside 5'-triphosphates in primary human lymphocytes, but exhibited weak or no antiviral activity against HIV-1. The nucleosides were also inactive against HBV in HepG2 cells. Pre-steady state kinetic experiments demonstrated that the l-3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxypurine triphosphates could be incorporated by purified HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, although their catalytic efficiency (k(pol)/K(d)) of incorporation was low. Interestingly, a phosphoramidate prodrug of l-3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine exhibited anti-HIV-1 activity without significant toxicity. PMID:21700368

  7. Comprehensive Structural Studies of 2′,3′-Difluorinated Nucleosides: Comparison of Theory, Solution, and Solid State

    PubMed Central

    Barchi, Joseph J.; Karki, Rajeshri G.; Nicklaus, Marc C.; Siddiqui, Maqbool A.; George, Clifford; Mikhailopulo, Igor A.; Marquez, Victor E.

    2009-01-01

    The conformations of three 2′,3′-difluoro uridine nucleosides were studied by X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations in an attempt to define the roles that the two vicinal fluorine atoms play in the puckering preferences of the furanose ring. Two of the compounds examined contained fluorine atoms in either the arabino or xylo dispositions at C2′ and C3′ of a 2′,3′-dideoxyuridine system. The third compound also incorporated fluorine atoms in the xylo configuration on the furanose ring but was substituted with a 6-azauracil base in place of uracil. A battery of NMR experiments in D2O solution was used to identify conformational preferences primarily from coupling constant and NOE data. Both 1H and 19F NMR data were used to ascertain the preferred sugar pucker of the furanose ring through the use of the program PSEUROT. Compound-dependent parameters used in the PSEUROT calculations were newly derived from complete sets of conformations calculated from high-level ab initio methods. The solution and theoretical data were compared to the conformations of each molecule in the solid state. It was shown that both gauche and antiperiplanar effects may be operative to maintain a pseudodiaxial arrangement of the C2′and C3′ vicinal fluorine atoms. These data, along with previously reported data by us and others concerning monofluorinated nucleoside conformations, were used to propose a model of how fluorine influences different aspects of nucleoside conformations. PMID:18558684

  8. Na+ reabsorption in cultured rat epididymal epithelium via the Na+/nucleoside cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Leung, G P; Cheung, K H; Tse, C M; Wong, P Y

    2001-03-01

    The effect of nucleoside on Na+ reabsorption via Na+/nucleoside cotransporter in cultured rat epididymal epithelia was studied by short-circuit current (Isc) technique. Guanosine added apically stimulated Isc in a dose-dependent manner, with a median effective concentration (EC50) of 7 +/- 2 microM (mean +/- SEM). Removal of Na+ from the apical bathing solution or pretreatment with a nonspecific Na+/nucleoside cotransporter inhibitor, phloridzin, completely blocked the Isc response to guanosine. Moreover, the guanosine response was abolished by pretreatment of the tissue with ouabain, a Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of Na+/nucleoside cotransporter on the apical side and Na+/K+-ATPase on the basolateral side in Na+ reabsorption. In contrast, the Isc response to guanosine was not affected after desensitization of purinoceptors by ATP. Addition of the Na+/K+/2Cl- symport inhibitor bumetanide to the basolateral side or the nonspecific Cl- channel blocker diphenylamine-2-carboxylate to the apical side showed no effect on the Isc response to guanosine, excluding stimulation of Cl- secretion by guanosine as the cause of the guanosine-induced Isc. The Isc response to purine nucleoside (guanosine and inosine) was much higher than that to pyrimidine nucleoside (thymidine and cytidine). Consistent with substrate specificity, results of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed mRNA for concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT2), which is a purine nucleoside-selective Na+/nucleoside cotransporter in the epididymis, but not for CNT1. It is suggested that the Na+/nucleoside cotransporter (i.e., CNT2) may be one of the elements involved in Na+ and fluid reabsorption in the epididymis, thereby providing an optimal microenvironment for the maturation and storage of spermatozoa. PMID:11207189

  9. Involvement of concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 in intestinal absorption of trifluorothymidine, a novel antitumor nucleoside, in rats.

    PubMed

    Okayama, Takashige; Yoshisue, Kunihiro; Kuwata, Keizo; Komuro, Masahito; Ohta, Shigeru; Nagayama, Sekio

    2012-02-01

    ααα-Trifluorothymidine (TFT), an anticancer nucleoside analog, is a potent thymidylate synthase inhibitor. TFT exerts its antitumor activity primarily by inducing DNA fragmentation after incorporation of the triphosphate form of TFT into the DNA. Although an oral combination of TFT and a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor has been clinically developed, there is little information regarding TFT absorption. Therefore, we investigated TFT absorption in the rat small intestine. After oral administration of TFT in rats, more than 75% of the TFT was absorbed. To identify the uptake transport system, uptake studies were conducted by using everted sacs prepared from rat small intestines. TFT uptake was saturable, significantly reduced under Na(+)-free conditions, and strongly inhibited by the addition of an endogenous pyrimidine nucleoside. From these results, we suggested the involvement of concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs) in TFT absorption into rat small intestine. In rat small intestines, the mRNAs coding for rat CNT1 (rCNT1) and rCNT2, but not for rCNT3, were predominantly expressed. To investigate the roles of rCNT1 and rCNT2 in TFT uptake, we conducted uptake assays by using Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with rCNT1 complementary RNA (cRNA) and rCNT2 cRNA. TFT uptake by X. laevis oocytes injected with rCNT1 cRNA, and not rCNT2 cRNA, was significantly greater than that by water-injected oocytes. In addition, in situ single-pass perfusion experiments performed using rat jejunum regions showed that thymidine, a substrate for CNT1, strongly inhibited TFT uptake. In conclusion, TFT is absorbed via rCNT1 in the intestinal lumen in rats. PMID:22076553

  10. Kinetic and biochemical characterization of Trypanosoma evansi nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Paulo Henrique Exterchoter; Batista, Franciane; Wagner, Glauber; Magalhães, Maria de Lourdes Borba; Miletti, Luiz Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Nucleoside triphosphate diphospho-hydrolases (NTPDases) catalyze the hydrolysis of several nucleosides tri and diphosphate playing major roles in eukaryotes including purinergic signaling, inflammation, hemostasis, purine salvage and host-pathogen interactions. These enzymes have been recently described in parasites where several evidences indicated their involvement in virulence and infection. Here, we have investigated the presence of NTPDase in the genome of Trypanosoma evansi. Based on the genomic sequence from Trypanosoma brucei, we have amplified an 1812 gene fragment corresponding to the T. evansi NTPDase gene. The protein was expressed in the soluble form and purified to homogeneity and enzymatic assays were performed confirming the enzyme identity. Kinetic parameters and substrate specificity were determined. The dependence of cations on enzymatic activity was investigated indicating the enzyme is stimulated by divalent cations and carbohydrates but inhibited by sodium. Bioinformatic analysis indicates the enzyme is a membrane bound protein facing the extracellular side of the cell with 98% identity to the T. brucei homologous NTPDase gene. PMID:25819299

  11. Adenylate kinase complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency in nucleotide metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Q; Inouye, M

    1996-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is a ubiquitous nonspecific enzyme that evidently is designed to catalyze in vivo ATP-dependent synthesis of ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates from the corresponding diphosphates. Because Escherichia coli contains only one copy of ndk, the structural gene for this enzyme, we were surprised to find that ndk disruption yields bacteria that are still viable. These mutant cells contain a protein with a small amount NDP kinase activity. The protein responsible for this activity was purified and identified as adenylate kinase. This enzyme, also called myokinase, catalyzes the reversible ATP-dependent synthesis of ADP from AMP. We found that this enzyme from E. coli as well as from higher eukaryotes has a broad substrate specificity displaying dual enzymatic functions. Among the nucleoside monophosphate kinases tested, only adenylate kinase was found to have NDP kinase activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of NDP kinase activity associated with adenylate kinase. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8650159

  12. Lethal Mutagenesis of HIV with Mutagenic Nucleoside Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Lawrence A.; Essigmann, John M.; Kazazi, Farhad; Zhang, Jue; Rose, Karl D.; Mullins, James I.

    1999-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replicates its genome and mutates at exceptionally high rates. As a result, the virus is able to evade immunological and chemical antiviral agents. We tested the hypothesis that a further increase in the mutation rate by promutagenic nucleoside analogs would abolish viral replication. We evaluated deoxynucleoside analogs for lack of toxicity to human cells, incorporation by HIV reverse transcriptase, resistance to repair when incorporated into the DNA strand of an RNA\\cdot DNA hybrid, and mispairing at high frequency. Among the candidates tested, 5-hydroxydeoxycytidine (5-OH-dC) fulfilled these criteria. In seven of nine experiments, the presence of this analog resulted in the loss of viral replicative potential after 9-24 sequential passages of HIV in human CEM cells. In contrast, loss of viral replication was not observed in 28 control cultures passaged in the absence of the nucleoside analog, nor with other analogs tested. Sequence analysis of a portion of the HIV reverse transcriptase gene demonstrated a disproportionate increase in G -> A substitutions, mutations predicted to result from misincorporation of 5-OH-dC into the cDNA during reverse transcription. Thus, "lethal mutagenesis" driven by the class of deoxynucleoside analogs represented by 5-OH-dC could provide a new approach to treating HIV infections and, potentially, other viral infections.

  13. Radiolabeled nucleoside analogs in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Kassis, A I; Adelstein, S J; Mariani, G

    1996-09-01

    Radiolabeled nucleosides, specifically 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR) radioiodinated with the Auger-electronemitting 123I or 125I, have been shown to produce extensive DNA damage in mammalian cell systems in vitro. Such nucleosides are cycle-dependent agents that are taken up by mitotically dividing cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. The degree of damage that occurs is related to the fact that these nucleosides bind covalently to DNA bringing the decaying Augerelectron-emitting radionuclide in close proximity to the genome. The use of these radiohalogenated nucleosides in vivo is associated with several problems. The first relates to their extremely short biologic half-life in blood (T1/2 of minutes in humans). The second involves achieving therapeutic ratios in tumor cells in the face of efficient hepatic dehalogenation. The third concerns the uptake of these radiopharmaceuticals by actively proliferating normal cell renewal systems, thus potentially causing toxic side effects. The fourth, one shared with other cycle-dependent drugs, relates to the matter of labeling the whole tumor cell population. To facilitate targeting to tumors, investigators have been examining the direct introduction of these agents into the targeted area or into an arterial blood supply that immediately precedes the target. For example, radiopharmaceutical administration could be intracavitary (bladder, spinal fluid, peritoneum), intralesional (brain tumor, breast mass) or intra-arterial (liver, pancreas). In all these situations, the following conditions must be met: (a) once within the vicinity of the tumor the agent can freely diffuse through the tissues and is selectively taken up by cancerous cells; (b) once the agent has left the target area it is converted quickly into a nontoxic form and/or excreted from the body; and finally, (c) the biologic behavior of the agent is not altered by repeated injections. We report herein our experience and that of others with [123I/125I/131I

  14. Transport of physiological nucleosides and anti-viral and anti-neoplastic nucleoside drugs by recombinant Escherichia coli nucleoside-H(+) cotransporter (NupC) produced in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed

    Loewen, Shaun K; Yao, Sylvia Y M; Slugoski, Melissa D; Mohabir, Nadira N; Turner, Raymond J; Mackey, John R; Weiner, Joel H; Gallagher, Maurice P; Henderson, Peter J F; Baldwin, Stephen A; Cass, Carol E; Young, James D

    2004-01-01

    The recently identified human and rodent plasma membrane proteins CNT1, CNT2 and CNT3 belong to a gene family (CNT) that also includes the bacterial nucleoside transport protein NupC. Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes has established that CNT1-3 correspond functionally to the three major concentrative nucleoside transport processes found in human and other mammalian cells (systems cit, cif and cib, respectively) and mediate Na(+) - linked uptake of both physiological nucleosides and anti-viral and anti-neoplastic nucleoside drugs. Here, one describes a complementary Xenopus oocyte transport study of Escherichia coli NupC using the plasmid vector pGEM-HE in which the coding region of NupC was flanked by 5'- and 3'-untranslated sequences from a Xenopus beta-globin gene. Recombinant NupC resembled human (h) and rat (r) CNT1 in nucleoside selectivity, including an ability to transport adenosine and the chemotherapeutic drugs 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), 2',3'- dideoxycytidine (ddC) and 2'-deoxy-2',2'-difluorocytidine (gemcitabine), but also interacted with inosine and 2',3'- dideoxyinosine (ddl). Apparent affinities were higher than for hCNT1, with apparent K(m) values of 1.5-6.3 microM for adenosine, uridine and gemcitabine, and 112 and 130 microM, respectively, for AZT and ddC. Unlike the relatively low translocation capacity of hCNT1 and rCNT1 for adenosine, NupC exhibited broadly similar apparent V(max) values for adenosine, uridine and nucleoside drugs. NupC did not require Na(+) for activity and was H(+) - dependent. The kinetics of uridine transport measured as a function of external pH were consistent with an ordered transport model in which H(+) binds to the transporter first followed by the nucleoside. These experiments establish the NupC-pGEM-HE/oocyte system as a useful tool for characterization of NupC-mediated transport of physiological nucleosides and clinically relevant nucleoside therapeutic drugs. PMID:14668133

  15. NMR-spectroscopic screening of spider venom reveals sulfated nucleosides as major components for the brown recluse and related species.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Frank C; Taggi, Andrew E; Gronquist, Matthew; Malik, Rabia U; Grant, Jacqualine B; Eisner, Thomas; Meinwald, Jerrold

    2008-09-23

    Extensive chemical analyses of spider venoms from many species have revealed complex mixtures of biologically active compounds, of which several have provided important leads for drug development. We have recently shown that NMR spectroscopy can be used advantageously for a direct structural characterization of the small-molecule content of such complex mixtures. Here, we report the application of this strategy to a larger-scale analysis of a collection of spider venoms representing >70 species, which, in combination with mass spectrometric analyses, allowed the identification of a wide range of known, and several previously undescribed, small molecules. These include polyamines, common neurotransmitters, and amino acid derivatives as well as two additional members of a recently discovered family of natural products, the sulfated nucleosides. In the case of the well studied brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa, sulfated guanosine derivatives were found to comprise the major small-molecule components of the venom. PMID:18794518

  16. NMR-spectroscopic screening of spider venom reveals sulfated nucleosides as major components for the brown recluse and related species

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Frank C.; Taggi, Andrew E.; Gronquist, Matthew; Malik, Rabia U.; Grant, Jacqualine B.; Eisner, Thomas; Meinwald, Jerrold

    2008-01-01

    Extensive chemical analyses of spider venoms from many species have revealed complex mixtures of biologically active compounds, of which several have provided important leads for drug development. We have recently shown that NMR spectroscopy can be used advantageously for a direct structural characterization of the small-molecule content of such complex mixtures. Here, we report the application of this strategy to a larger-scale analysis of a collection of spider venoms representing >70 species, which, in combination with mass spectrometric analyses, allowed the identification of a wide range of known, and several previously undescribed, small molecules. These include polyamines, common neurotransmitters, and amino acid derivatives as well as two additional members of a recently discovered family of natural products, the sulfated nucleosides. In the case of the well studied brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa, sulfated guanosine derivatives were found to comprise the major small-molecule components of the venom. PMID:18794518

  17. Synthesis and Solution Conformation Studies of 3-Substituted Uridine and Pseudouridine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Herath, Jayatilake; Wang, Tony H.-H.; Chow, Christine S.

    2008-01-01

    A series of 3-substituted uridine and pseudouridine derivatives, based on the naturally occurring 3-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl) modification, were synthesized. Their aqueous solution conformations were determined by using circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy. Functional group composition and chain length were shown to have only a subtle influence on the distribution of syn/anti conformations of the modified nucleosides. The dominating factor appears to be the glycosidic linkage (C– vs. N–glycoside) in determining the nucleoside conformation. PMID:18078759

  18. Functionalization of 2H-1,2,3-Triazole C-Nucleoside Template via N(2) Selective Arylation.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Alexandra Basilio; Wagner, Patrick; de Souza, Rodrigo Octavio Mendonça Alves; Germain, Nadège Lubin; Uziel, Jacques; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Schmitt, Martine; Miranda, Leandro S M

    2016-06-01

    C-Nucleosides are an underexplored and important class of nucleosides with antiviral and anticancer activity. In addition, triazole heterocycles are well employed as a strategy to modify nucleobase in nucleoside analogues, although rare examples were described for triazoyl C-nucleosides. N(2)-Aryl-1,2,3-triazole C-nucleoside compounds that could be obtained by selective 1,2,3-triazole heterocycle N(2) arylation in 1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-2H-1,2,3-triazole substrate were designed in this study. The optimized condition used AdBrettPhos/[PdCl(allyl)]2 as the catalyst system. This transformation was accomplished by aryl halides bearing an electron donor and withdrawing groups, as well as by heterocyclic halides in good to excellent yields. The transformation developed in this study represents a significant contribution to the nucleoside field, once it allows for the synthesis of unexplored scaffolds through selective functionalization of triazole nucleosides. PMID:27166644

  19. Modified nucleosides as biomarkers for early cancer diagnose in exposed populations.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Annerose; Seidel, Peter; Manuwald, Olaf; Herbarth, Olf

    2015-07-01

    There is increasing worldwide interest in developing of markers for tumor diagnosis and identification of individuals who are at high cancer risk. Cancer, like other diseases accompanied by metabolic disorders, causes characteristic effects on cell turnover rate, activity of modifying enzymes, and RNA/DNA modifications. This results in an increased excretion of modified nucleosides in cancer patients. Therefore, for many years modified nucleosides have been suggested as tumor markers. The aim of the study was to elucidate further the usefulness of urinary nucleosides as possible markers at early detection of cancer in persons which are exposed against tumor promoting influences during their working life. Uranium miners are exposed to many kinds of pollutants that can cause health damage even lead to carcinogenesis. We analyzed modified nucleosides in urine samples from 92 miners who are at high risk for lung cancer to assess the levels of nucleosides by a multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifier - a neural network model. Eighteen nucleosides/metabolites were detected with reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). A valid set of urinary metabolites were selected and multivariate statistical technique of multilayer perceptron neural network were applied. In a previous study, MLP shows a sensitivity and specificity of 97 and 85%, respectively. MLP classification including the most relevant markers/nucleosides clearly demonstrates the elevation of RNA metabolism in miners, which is associated with possible malignant disease. We found that there were 30 subjects with early health disorders among 92 uranium workers based on MLP technique using modified nucleosides. The combination of RP-HPLC analysis of modified nucleosides and subsequent MLP analyses represents a promising tool for the development of a non-invasive prediction system and may assist in developing management and surveillance procedures. PMID:24615900

  20. The search for nucleoside/nucleotide analog inhibitors of dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Liang; Yokokawa, Fumiaki; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2015-10-01

    Nucleoside analogs represent the largest class of antiviral agents and have been actively pursued for potential therapy of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Early success in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the recent approval of sofosbuvir for chronic hepatitis C have provided proof of concept for this class of compounds in clinics. Here we review (i) nucleoside analogs with known anti-DENV activity; (ii) challenges of the nucleoside antiviral approach for dengue; and (iii) potential strategies to overcome these challenges. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on flavivirus drug discovery. PMID:26241002

  1. Application of crystallographic and modeling methods in the design of purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Ealick, S E; Babu, Y S; Bugg, C E; Erion, M D; Guida, W C; Montgomery, J A; Secrist, J A

    1991-01-01

    Competitive inhibitors of the salvage pathway enzyme purine-nucleoside phosphorylase (purine-nucleoside:orthophosphate ribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.1) have been designed by using the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme as determined by x-ray crystallography. The process was an iterative one that utilized interactive computer graphics, Monte Carlo-based conformational searching, energy minimization, and x-ray crystallography. The proposed compounds were synthesized and tested by an in vitro assay. Among the compounds designed and synthesized are the most potent competitive inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase thus far reported. Images PMID:1763067

  2. An Efficient Protection-Free One-Pot Chemical Synthesis of Modified Nucleoside-5'-Triphosphates.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, Muthian; Senthilvelan, Annamalai; Xiao, Zejun; Kore, Anilkumar R

    2016-07-01

    A simple, reliable, and an efficient "one-pot, three step" chemical method for the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphates such as 5-methylcytidine-5'-triphosphate (5-MeCTP), pseudouridine-5'-triphosphate (pseudoUTP) and N(1)-methylpseudouridine-5'-triphosphate (N(1)-methylpseudoUTP) starting from the corresponding nucleoside is described. The overall reaction involves the monophosphorylation of nucleoside, followed by the reaction with pyrophosphate and subsequent hydrolysis of the cyclic intermediate to furnish the corresponding NTP in moderate yields with high purity (>99.5%). PMID:27159048

  3. Synthesis of α-L-threose nucleoside phosphonates via regioselective sugar protection.

    PubMed

    Dumbre, Shrinivas G; Jang, Mi-Yeon; Herdewijn, Piet

    2013-07-19

    A new synthesis route to α-L-threose nucleoside phosphonates via 2-O and 3-O selectively protected L-threose is developed. The key intermediates 2-O-benzoyl-L-threonolactone and 1-O-acetyl-2-O-benzoyl-3-O-t-butyldiphenylsilyl-L-threofuranose were functionalized to synthesize 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro- and 3'-C-ethynyl L-threose 3'-O-phosphonate nucleosides. The key intermediates developed are important intermediates for the synthesis of new L-threose-based nucleoside analogues, TNA phosphoramidites, and TNA triphosphates. PMID:23822647

  4. Synthesis of Methylenecyclopropane Analogues of Antiviral Nucleoside Phosphonates

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhaohua; Zhou, Shaoman; Kern, Earl R.; Zemlicka, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    Synthesis of methylenecyclopropane analogues of nucleoside phosphonates 6a, 6b, 7a and 7b is described. Cyclopropyl phosphonate 8 was transformed in four steps to methylenecyclopropane phosphonate 16. The latter intermediate was converted in seven steps to the key Z- and E-methylenecyclopropane alcohols 23 and 24 separated by chromatography. Selenoxide eliminations (15 → 16 and 22 → 23 + 24) were instrumental in the synthesis. The Z- and E-isomers 23 and 24 were transformed to bromides 25a and 25b which were used for alkylation of adenine and 2-amino-6-chloropurine to give intermediates 26a, 26b, 26c and 26d. Acid hydrolysis provided the adenine and guanine analogues 6a, 6b, 7a and 7b. Phosphonates 6b and 7b are potent inhibitors of replication of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). PMID:16758001

  5. Attenuation of nucleoside and anti-cancer nucleoside analog drug uptake in prostate cancer cells by Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO-1055.

    PubMed

    Dueregger, Andrea; Guggenberger, Fabian; Barthelmes, Jan; Stecher, Günther; Schuh, Markus; Intelmann, Daniel; Abel, Gudrun; Haunschild, Jutta; Klocker, Helmut; Ramoner, Reinhold; Sampson, Natalie

    2013-11-15

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative effects of the ethanolic Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO-1055 on prostate cells and evaluate its therapeutic potential. BNO-1055 dose-dependently attenuated cellular uptake and incorporation of thymidine and BrdU and significantly inhibited cell growth after long-time exposure. Similar results were obtained using saponin-enriched sub-fractions of BNO-1055. These inhibitory effects of BNO-1055 could be mimicked using pharmacological inhibitors and isoform-specific siRNAs targeting the equilibrative nucleoside transporters ENT1 and ENT2. Moreover, BNO-1055 attenuated the uptake of clinically relevant nucleoside analogs, e.g. the anti-cancer drugs gemcitabine and fludarabine. Consistent with inhibition of the salvage nucleoside uptake pathway BNO-1055 potentiated the cytotoxicity of the de novo nucleotide synthesis inhibitor 5-FU without significantly altering its uptake. Collectively, these data show for the first time that the anti-proliferative effects of BNO-1055 result from hindered nucleoside uptake due to impaired ENT activity and demonstrate the potential therapeutic use of BNO-1055 for modulation of nucleoside transport. PMID:23972793

  6. Products of the direct reaction of the diazonium ion of a metabolite of the carcinogen N-nitrosomorpholine with purines of nucleosides and DNA.

    PubMed

    Zink, Charles N; Soissons, Nicolas; Fishbein, James C

    2010-07-19

    A number of putative purine nucleoside and nucleobase adducts of the diazonium ion derived from 3-hydroxy-N-nitrosomorpholine have been synthesized as dimethylacetals. These are converted, in most cases nearly quantitatively, to the aldehydes, or in two cases to their derivatives, on treatment with mild acid to yield standards for a quantitative investigation of alkylation of purine nucleosides and DNA by the above metabolite of the powerful carcinogen N-nitrosomorpholine. The stability of the resulting nucleobase ethoxyacetaldehyde (EA) adducts has been characterized under a number of conditions with respect to their propensity to decompose. The stabilities, compared to that of the previously characterized adduct of the model benzimidazole, are generally unexceptional. Deposition of adducts on purine nucleosides and DNA were quantified in reactions in which 3-hydroperoxy-N-nitrosomorpholine was reduced to the hydroxy metabolite by a water-soluble phosphine at 21 +/- 2 degrees C. The adduct profile is highly similar to that observed from simpler alpha-hydroxy metabolites of acyclic dialkylnitrosamines, with the three most abundant ethoxyacetaldehyde (EA) adducts in reactions of duplex DNA being N7-EA-Gua approximately O(6)-EA-Gua > N3-EA-Ade. The initial rate kinetics of formation of hydroxyethyl (HE) lesions from the initially formed EA lesions have been determined in the case of the major products in the cases of both the nucleoside and DNA adducts. The rates of formation of HE adducts are accelerated in DNA, relative to the nucleosides in the cases of the N7-EA-Ade, N7-EA-Gua, and O(6)-EA-Gua adducts by factors of 7, 14, and 54, respectively. The initial rates of depurination of the N3-EA-Ade, N7-EA-Gua, and N7-EA-Gua adducts have also been quantified, and they are unexceptional in comparison with what has been previously reported for simple alkyl adducts. The adduct profiles reported here stand in significant contrast to what has been reported previously for

  7. Syntheses of nicotinamide riboside and derivatives: effective agents for increasing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentrations in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianle; Chan, Noel Yan-Ki; Sauve, Anthony A

    2007-12-27

    A new two-step methodology achieves stereoselective synthesis of beta-nicotinamide riboside and a series of related amide, ester, and acid nucleosides. Compounds were prepared through a triacetylated-nicotinate ester nucleoside, via coupling of either ethylnicotinate or phenylnicotinate with 1,2,3,5-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-ribofuranose. Nicotinamide riboside, nicotinic acid riboside, O-ethylnicotinate riboside, O-methylnicotinate riboside, and several N-alkyl derivatives increased NAD+ concentrations from 1.2-2.7-fold in several mammalian cell lines. These findings establish bioavailability and potent effects of these nucleosides in stimulating the increase of NAD+ concentrations in mammalian cells. PMID:18052316

  8. Novel indole-3-sulfonamides as potent HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhijian; Wolkenberg, Scott E.; Lu, Meiqing; Munshi, Vandna; Moyer, Gregory; Feng, Meizhen; Carella, Anthony V.; Ecto, Linda T.; Gabryelski, Lori J.; Lai, Ming-Tain; Prasad, Sridar G.; Yan, Youwei; McGaughey, Georgia B.; Miller, Michael D.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Hartman, George D.; Vacca, Joseph P.; Williams, Theresa M.

    2008-09-29

    This Letter describes the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel 3-indole sulfonamides as potent non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) with balanced profiles against common HIV RT mutants K103N and Y181C.

  9. KP-1212/1461, a nucleoside designed for the treatment of HIV by viral mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kevin S; Brabant, William; Styrchak, Sheila; Gall, Alexander; Daifuku, Richard

    2005-07-01

    We report the activities of a novel nucleoside analog against HIV. This nucleoside (KP-1212) is not a chain terminator but exerts its antiviral effects via mutagenesis of the viral genome. Serial passaging of HIV in the presence of KP-1212 causes an increase in the mutation rate of the virus leading to viral ablation. HIV strains resistant to KP-1212 have not yet been isolated. Quite to the contrary, virus treated with KP-1212 exhibited an increased sensitivity not only to KP-1212 but also to another nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), zidovudine. HIV strains resistant to other NRTIs (e.g. zidovudine, lamivudine, stavudine, abacavir, etc.) exhibited no cross-resistance towards KP-1212. Multiple assays confirmed that KP-1212 has a favorable (low) genotoxicity profile when compared to some approved antiviral nucleosides. In addition, KP-1212 is not toxic to mitochondria nor does it exhibit any inhibitory effects on mitochondrial DNA synthesis. PMID:15890415

  10. The Role of Flexible Loops in Folding, Trafficking and Activity of Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Aseervatham, Jaya; Tran, Lucky; Machaca, Khaled; Boudker, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) are integral membrane proteins, which reside in plasma membranes of all eukaryotic cells and mediate thermodynamically downhill transport of nucleosides. This process is essential for nucleoside recycling, and also plays a key role in terminating adenosine-mediated cellular signaling. Furthermore, ENTs mediate the uptake of many drugs, including anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogues. The structure and mechanism, by which ENTs catalyze trans-membrane transport of their substrates, remain unknown. To identify the core of the transporter needed for stability, activity, and for its correct trafficking to the plasma membrane, we have expressed human ENT deletion mutants in Xenopus laevis oocytes and determined their localization, transport properties and susceptibility to inhibition. We found that the carboxyl terminal trans-membrane segments are essential for correct protein folding and trafficking. In contrast, the soluble extracellular and intracellular loops appear to be dispensable, and must be involved in the fine-tuning of transport regulation. PMID:26406980

  11. Comparison of nucleoside concentrations in blood of fish with and without tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehl, D.W.; Johnson, R.D. ); Eisenschenk, L.; Naumann, S. ); Regal, R.; Barnidge, P. ); McKim, J. Jr. )

    1991-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and use HPLC based analytical methodology to characterize nucleosides in blood plasma and serum from fish with and without tumors, with a goal of determining if fish blood nucleoside concentrations could similarly be used as a bioindicator of tumor development in fish. The approach was to develop analytical methodology and quality assurance criteria for the analysis of nucleosides in fish blood, and to characterize nucleoside concentrations in blood of fish for which both healthy and tumor-bearing samples were available. Data would then be used to establish parameters with which tumor-bearing fish could be distinguished from healthy fish. Blood samples used to establish the diagnostic parameters were from control rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and those with tumors developed after exposure to aflatoxins. A second set of blood samples was from field collected black bullheads (Ictalurus melas).

  12. The Role of Flexible Loops in Folding, Trafficking and Activity of Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters.

    PubMed

    Aseervatham, Jaya; Tran, Lucky; Machaca, Khaled; Boudker, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) are integral membrane proteins, which reside in plasma membranes of all eukaryotic cells and mediate thermodynamically downhill transport of nucleosides. This process is essential for nucleoside recycling, and also plays a key role in terminating adenosine-mediated cellular signaling. Furthermore, ENTs mediate the uptake of many drugs, including anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogues. The structure and mechanism, by which ENTs catalyze trans-membrane transport of their substrates, remain unknown. To identify the core of the transporter needed for stability, activity, and for its correct trafficking to the plasma membrane, we have expressed human ENT deletion mutants in Xenopus laevis oocytes and determined their localization, transport properties and susceptibility to inhibition. We found that the carboxyl terminal trans-membrane segments are essential for correct protein folding and trafficking. In contrast, the soluble extracellular and intracellular loops appear to be dispensable, and must be involved in the fine-tuning of transport regulation. PMID:26406980

  13. Lipophilic prodrugs of nucleoside triphosphates as biochemical probes and potential antivirals

    PubMed Central

    Gollnest, Tristan; de Oliveira, Thiago Dinis; Schols, Dominique; Balzarini, Jan; Meier, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The antiviral activity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is often limited by ineffective phosphorylation. We report on a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) prodrug approach in which the γ-phosphate of NTPs is bioreversibly modified. A series of TriPPPro-compounds bearing two lipophilic masking units at the γ-phosphate and d4T as a nucleoside analogue are synthesized. Successful delivery of d4TTP is demonstrated in human CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell extracts by an enzyme-triggered mechanism with high selectivity. In antiviral assays, the compounds are potent inhibitors of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in CD4+ T-cell (CEM) cultures. Highly lipophilic acyl residues lead to higher membrane permeability that results in intracellular delivery of phosphorylated metabolites in thymidine kinase-deficient CEM/TK− cells with higher antiviral activity than the parent nucleoside. PMID:26503889

  14. a Nucleoside Under Observation in the Gas Phase: a Rotational Study of Uridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Isabel; Alonso, José L.

    2014-06-01

    The nucleoside of uridine has been placed in the gas phase by laser ablation and the most stable C2{'}-anti conformation characterized by broadband chirped pulse (CP-FTMW) and narrowband molecular beam Fourier transform microwave (LA-MB-FTMW) spectroscopies. The quadrupole hyperfine structure, originated by two 14N nuclei, has been completely resolved. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving uracil and ribose moieties have been found to play an important role in the stabilization of the nucleoside.

  15. Enantioselective Intermolecular Cyclopropanations for the Synthesis of Chiral Pyrimidine Carbocyclic Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming-Sheng; Zhou, Peng; Niu, Hong-Ying; Qu, Gui-Rong; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2016-09-01

    A direct route to chiral cyclopropylpyrimidine carbocyclic nucleoside analogues has been reported via highly enantioselective intermolecular cyclopropanation reactions of N1-vinylpyrimidines with α-diazoesters. With chiral ruthenium(II)-phenyloxazoline complex (2 mol %) as the catalyst, cyclopropyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues could be obtained in good yields (71-96% yields) with high levels of diastereo- and enantioselectivities (10:1 to >20:1 dr and 96-99% ee) in 1 min. PMID:27526779

  16. Mild, efficient, selective and "green" benzoylation of nucleosides using benzoyl cyanide in ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ashok K; Kumar, Vineet; Maity, Jyotirmoy; Sanghvi, Yogesh S; Ravikumar, Vasulinga T; Parmar, Virinder S

    2005-01-01

    Use of benzoyl cyanide (BzCN) for benzoylation of nucleosides has been studied, both in pyridine and in ionic liquid BzCN in 1-methoxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium methanesulfonate as ionic liquid has been found to be a "green "alternative compared to the pyridine-BzCN system. An efficient and selective benzoylation of nucleosides of both, the 2'-deoxy- and the ribo-series at ambient temperature was accomplished. PMID:16248029

  17. Structure-Function Relationship of Substituted Bromomethylcoumarins in Nucleoside Specificity of RNA Alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Stefanie; Kollar, Laura Bettina; Ochel, Antonia; Ghate, Manjunath; Helm, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Selective alkylation of RNA nucleotides is an important field of RNA biochemistry, e.g. in applications of fluorescent labeling or in structural probing experiments, yet detailed structure-function studies of labeling agents are rare. Here, bromomethylcoumarins as reactive compounds for fluorescent labeling of RNA are developed as an attractive scaffold on which electronic properties can be modulated by varying the substituents. Six different 4-bromomethyl-coumarins of various substitution patterns were tested for nucleotide specificity of RNA alkylation using tRNA from Escherichia coli as substrate. Using semi-quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis, reactions at mildly acidic and slightly alkaline pH were compared. For all tested compounds, coumarin conjugates with 4-thiouridine, pseudouridine, guanosine, and uridine were identified, with the latter largely dominating. This data set shows that selectivity of ribonucleotide alkylation depends on the substitution pattern of the reactive dye, and even more strongly on the modulation of the reaction conditions. The latter should be therefore carefully optimized when striving to achieve selectivity. Interestingly, the highest selectivity for labeling of a modified nucleoside, namely of 4-thiouridine, was achieved with a compound whose selectivity was somewhat less dependent on reaction conditions than the other compounds. In summary, bromomethylcoumarin derivatives are a highly interesting class of compounds, since their selectivity for 4-thiouridine can be efficiently tuned by variation of substitution pattern and reaction conditions. PMID:23844135

  18. Effective strand invasion ODN incorporating a new bicyclic nucleoside analogue (WNA).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Eriko; Taniguchi, Yosuke; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    Efficient and specific targeting of DNA sequences by synthetic ligands is a major goal in chemical biology. Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) are sequence-specific DNA-binding agents, but are limited to homopurine/homopyrimidine target sequences. We have previously reported two useful analogues (WNA: W-shaped nucleoside analogues), WNA-bT and WNAbC, which recognize a TA and a CG interrupting site forming triplexes with high stability and selectivity, respectively. However, their ability to form triplexes depended on their neighbouring bases in the TFO. Subsequent studies have shown that the sequence-dependency of the WNA analogues, for the formation of triplexes, has been partially solved by use of a WNA analogue bearing a substituted aromatic ring. Investigations into the effects of the substituted aromatic ring of WNA derivatives on the stability of triplexes led to the discovery of strand invasion by the TFO incorporating the new WNA analogue to form a highly stable duplex. PMID:18029683

  19. Glycosyl conformational and inductive effects on the acid catalysed hydrolysis of purine nucleosides.

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, F; Niv, H

    1977-01-01

    The log kobs vs. pH profiles were determined in the intermediate acidity region for the glycosyl hydrolysis of guanosine and its 8-amino, 8-monomethylamino, 8-dimethylamino and 8-bromo derivatives. The decreased rate of the 8-amino and enhanced rate of the 8-bromo compound compared to guanosine support an A type mechanism: base protonation followed by glycosyl bond cleavage. All three 8-amino guanosines exhibited log kobs - pH profiles clearly showing that both mono and di-base protonated nucleosides undergo hydrolysis. The 700 fold rate acceleration of 8-N(CH3)-guanosine compared to 8-NHCH3-guanosine and the 110 fold rate acceleration of 8-N(CH3)2-adenosine compared to 8-NHCH3-adenosine could be unequivocally attributed to the fixed syn glycosyl conformation of both 8-dimethylamino compounds and relief of steric compression upon hydrolysis in these molecules. The lack of anomerization of all substrates during the course of the reaction supports an A rather than a Schiff-base mechanism. PMID:17100

  20. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV dependent water-soluble prodrugs of highly lipophilic bicyclic nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Diez-Torrubia, Alberto; Balzarini, Jan; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert; De Meester, Ingrid; Camarasa, María-José; Velázquez, Sonsoles

    2011-03-24

    We present the first report of the application of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV/CD26) based prodrug approach to hydroxy-containing drug derivatives. In particular, we applied this strategy to the highly lipophilic antiviral drug family of bicyclic furanopyrimidine nucleoside analogues (BCNA) in order to improve their physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Our stability data demonstrated that the prodrugs efficiently release the parent BCNA drug upon selective conversion by purified DPPIV/CD26 and by soluble DPPIV/CD26 present in bovine, murine, and human serum. Vildagliptin, a specific inhibitor of DPPIV/CD26, was able to completely block the hydrolysis of the prodrugs in the presence of purified DPPIV/CD26 human, murine, and bovine serum. Several novel prodrugs showed remarkable increases in water solubility (up to more than 3 orders of magnitude) compared to the poorly soluble parent drug. We also demonstrated a markedly enhanced oral bioavailability of the prodrugs versus the parent drug in mice. PMID:21332170

  1. Ester prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside thiophosphonates compared to phosphonates: synthesis, antiviral activity and decomposition study.

    PubMed

    Roux, Loïc; Priet, Stéphane; Payrot, Nadine; Weck, Clément; Fournier, Maëlenn; Zoulim, Fabien; Balzarini, Jan; Canard, Bruno; Alvarez, Karine

    2013-05-01

    9-[2-(Thiophosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine [S-PMEA, 8] and (R)-9-[2-(Thiophosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine [S-PMPA, 9] are acyclic nucleoside thiophosphonates we described recently that display the same antiviral spectrum (DNA viruses) as approved and potent phosphonates PMEA and (R)-PMPA. Here, we describe the synthesis, antiviral activities in infected cell cultures and decomposition study of bis(pivaloyloxymethoxy)-S-PMEA [Bis-POM-S-PMEA, 13] and bis(isopropyloxymethylcarbonyl)-S-PMPA [Bis-POC-S-PMPA, 14] as orally bioavailable prodrugs of the S-PMEA 8 and S-PMPA 9, in comparison to the equivalent "non-thio" derivatives [Bis-POM-PMEA, 11] and [Bis-POC-PMPA, 12]. Compounds 11, 12, 13 and 14 were evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activity against HIV-1-, HIV-2-, HBV- and a broad panel of DNA viruses, and found to exhibit moderate to potent antiviral activity. In order to determine the decomposition pathway of the prodrugs 11, 12, 13 and 14 into parent compounds PMEA, PMPA, 8 and 9, kinetic data and decomposition pathways in several media are presented. As expected, bis-POM-S-PMEA 13 and bis-POC-S-PMPA 14 behaved as prodrugs of S-PMEA 8 and S-PMPA 9. However, thiophosphonates 8 and 9 were released very smoothly in cell extracts, in contrast to the release of PMEA and PMPA from "non-thio" prodrugs 11 and 12. PMID:23603046

  2. Capillary bioreactors based on human purine nucleoside phosphorylase: a new approach for ligands identification and characterization.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Marcela Cristina; Ducati, Rodrigo Gay; Donato, Augusto José; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Santos, Diógenes Santiago; Cardoso, Carmen Lucia; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2012-04-01

    The enzyme purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is a target for the discovery of new lead compounds employed on the treatment severe T-cell mediated disorders. Within this context, the development of new, direct, and reliable methods for ligands screening is an important task. This paper describes the preparation of fused silica capillaries human PNP (HsPNP) immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER). The activity of the obtained IMER is monitored on line in a multidimensional liquid chromatography system, by the quantification of the product formed throughout the enzymatic reaction. The K(M) value for the immobilized enzyme was about twofold higher than that measured for the enzyme in solution (255 ± 29.2 μM and 133 ± 14.9 μM, respectively). A new fourth-generation immucillin derivative (DI4G; IC(50)=40.6 ± 0.36 nM), previously identified and characterized in HsPNP free enzyme assays, was used to validate the IMER as a screening method for HsPNP ligands. The validated method was also used for mechanistic studies with this inhibitor. This new approach is a valuable tool to PNP ligand screening, since it directly measures the hypoxanthine released by inosine phosphorolysis, thus furnishing more reliable results than those one used in a coupled enzymatic spectrophotometric assay. PMID:22099222

  3. Synthesis, DNA Polymerase Incorporation, and Enzymatic Phosphate Hydrolysis of Formamidopyrimidine Nucleoside Triphosphates

    PubMed Central

    Imoto, Shuhei; Patro, Jennifer N.; Jiang, Yu Lin; Oka, Natsuhisa; Greenberg, Marc M.

    2007-01-01

    The nucleoside triphosphates of N6-(2-deoxy-α,β-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (Fapy·dGTP) and its C-nucleoside analogue (β-C-Fapy·dGTP) were synthesized. The lability of the formamide group required that nucleoside triphosphate formation be carried out using an umpolung strategy in which pyrophosphate was activated toward nucleophilic attack. The Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I from Escherichia coli accepted Fapy·dGTP and β-C-Fapy·dGTP as substrates much less efficiently than it did dGTP. Subsequent extension of a primer containing either modified nucleotide was less affected compared to when the native nucleotide is present at the 3′-terminus. The specificity constants are sufficiently large that nucleoside triphosphate incorporation could account for the level of Fapy·dG observed in cells if 1% of the dGTP pool is converted to Fapy·dGTP. Similarly, polymerase-mediated introduction of β-C-Fapy·dG could be useful for incorporating useful amounts of this nonhydrolyzable analogue for use as an inhibitor of base excision repair. The kinetic viability of these processes is enhanced by inefficient hydrolysis of Fapy·dGTP and β-C-Fapy·dGTP by MutT, the E. coli enzyme that releases pyrophosphate and the corresponding nucleoside monophosphate upon reaction with structurally related nucleoside triphosphates. PMID:17090045

  4. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-Oxo/Thioxoquinoxaline and 2-Oxo/Thioxoquinoxaline-Based Nucleoside Analogues.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Hassan A; Said, Said A; Moustafa, Ahmed H; Baraka, Mohamed M; Abdel-Kader, Rimaa T

    2016-01-01

    Several O- and S-quinoxaline glycosides have been prepared by glycosidation of 3-methyl-2-oxo(thioxo)-1,2-dihydroquinoxalines 1a,b with α-D-glucopyranosyl, α-D-galactopyranosyl, and α-D-lactosyl bromide in the presence of K2CO3 followed by deacetylation with Et3N/H2O. Furthermore, alkylation of 1a,b with 4-bromobutyl acetate, 2-acetoxyethoxymethyl bromide, and 3-chloropropanol afforded the corresponding O- and S-acycloquinoxaline nucleosides. Reaction of 1b with chloroacetic acid followed by condensation with sulfacetamide and sulfadiazine in the presence of Et3N/THF and ethyl chloroformate gave the corresponding sulfonamide derivatives 14 and 15, respectively. The structures of new compounds were confirmed by using IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR spectra and microanalysis. Some of these compounds were screened in vitro for antitumor and antifungal activities. PMID:26810144

  5. Synthesis and antiviral activity of novel acyclic nucleoside analogues of 5-(1-azido-2-haloethyl)uracils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Sharma, N; Nath, M; Saffran, H A; Tyrrell, D L

    2001-11-22

    We present the discovery of a novel category of 5-substituted acyclic pyrimidine nucleosides as potent antiviral agents. A series of 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl] (5-7), 1-[(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy)methyl] (8-10), and 1-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-butyl] (11-13) derivatives of 5-(1-azido-2-haloethyl)uracil were synthesized and evaluated for their biological activity in cell culture. 1-[4-Hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-butyl]-5-(1-azido-2-chloroethyl)uracil (12) was the most effective antiviral agent in the in vitro assays against DHBV (EC(50) = 0.31-1.55 microM) and HCMV (EC(50) = 3.1 microM). None of the compounds investigated showed any detectable toxicity to several stationary and proliferating host cells. PMID:11708924

  6. Quantifying the Length and Variance of the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle Phases by a Stochastic Model and Dual Nucleoside Pulse Labelling

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Tom Serge; Jaehnert, Irene; Schichor, Christian; Or-Guil, Michal; Carneiro, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental property of cell populations is their growth rate as well as the time needed for cell division and its variance. The eukaryotic cell cycle progresses in an ordered sequence through the phases and and is regulated by environmental cues and by intracellular checkpoints. Reflecting this regulatory complexity, the length of each phase varies considerably in different kinds of cells but also among genetically and morphologically indistinguishable cells. This article addresses the question of how to describe and quantify the mean and variance of the cell cycle phase lengths. A phase-resolved cell cycle model is introduced assuming that phase completion times are distributed as delayed exponential functions, capturing the observations that each realization of a cycle phase is variable in length and requires a minimal time. In this model, the total cell cycle length is distributed as a delayed hypoexponential function that closely reproduces empirical distributions. Analytic solutions are derived for the proportions of cells in each cycle phase in a population growing under balanced growth and under specific non-stationary conditions. These solutions are then adapted to describe conventional cell cycle kinetic assays based on pulse labelling with nucleoside analogs. The model fits well to data obtained with two distinct proliferating cell lines labelled with a single bromodeoxiuridine pulse. However, whereas mean lengths are precisely estimated for all phases, the respective variances remain uncertain. To overcome this limitation, a redesigned experimental protocol is derived and validated in silico. The novelty is the timing of two consecutive pulses with distinct nucleosides that enables accurate and precise estimation of both the mean and the variance of the length of all phases. The proposed methodology to quantify the phase length distributions gives results potentially equivalent to those obtained with modern phase-specific biosensor-based fluorescent

  7. Kinetics and mechanism of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of a hypermodified nucleoside wyosine and its 5'-monophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Golankiewicz, B; Zielonacka-Lis, E; Folkman, W

    1985-01-01

    The rates of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of a hypermodified nucleoside, wyosine and its 5'-monophosphate were determined at various pH, temperature and buffer concentrations. The results show that despite distinct differences in structure and the glycosyl bond stability, the hydrolysis of wyosine proceeds via cleavage of the C-N bond by A-1 mechanism, analogously to simple nucleosides. Unlike majority of other monophosphates studied so far, wyosine 5'-monophosphate is not more stable than respective nucleoside. PMID:4000960

  8. Triple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy in children.

    PubMed

    Handforth, Jennifer; Sharland, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Much of the success attributed to HIV therapy in the last few years has resulted from improved ways of using existing drugs in combination therapy regimens. The availability of new, more potent drugs such as protease inhibitors and more accurate viral load tests to aid decisions to start or change treatment has also contributed to the success. Published recommendations for pediatric HIV therapy, generated by a panel of experts and specialists, are readily available and regularly updated. Preferred regimens of 'potent' therapy (referred to as highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAART) currently consist of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) combined with either a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or a protease inhibitor. More intense four-drug regimens using an NNRTI or a second protease inhibitor as a fourth drug are being evaluated. Problems with HAART include: unpalatable drug formulations and adverse effects, coupled with lack of data on the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of various drug combinations. Adherence is a major factor influencing the efficacy and outcome of antiretroviral therapy. Many children cannot adhere to complex multidrug regimens, which cause virologic failure, despite excellent CD4+ cell count responses. This means a rapid progression through the limited number of treatment regimens available. Simpler regimens such as those containing three NRTIs have been proposed as a method of treatment that will allow suppression of the virus, yet circumvent many of the problems previously mentioned. An additional benefit would be the preservation of antiretroviral drugs from other classes for future treatment options if required. The major advantages of triple NRTI regimens are the simplicity of the regimen, good tolerability, few drug-drug interactions, and infrequent adverse effects coupled with a low pill burden. However, abacavir hypersensitivity remains a major problem. Up to 3% of patients may

  9. Influence of Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase Activity on Trypanosoma cruzi Infectivity and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Ramon F.; Pôssa, Marcela A. S.; Bastos, Matheus S.; Guedes, Paulo M. M.; Almeida, Márcia R.; DeMarco, Ricardo; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Bahia, Maria T.; Fietto, Juliana L. R.

    2009-01-01

    Background The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease. There are no vaccines or effective treatment, especially in the chronic phase when most patients are diagnosed. There is a clear necessity to develop new drugs and strategies for the control and treatment of Chagas disease. Recent papers have suggested the ecto-nucleotidases (from CD39 family) from pathogenic agents as important virulence factors. In this study we evaluated the influence of Ecto-Nucleoside-Triphosphate-Diphosphohydrolase (Ecto-NTPDase) activity on infectivity and virulence of T. cruzi using both in vivo and in vitro models. Methodology/Principal Findings We followed Ecto-NTPDase activities of Y strain infective forms (trypomastigotes) obtained during sequential sub-cultivation in mammalian cells. ATPase/ADPase activity ratios of cell-derived trypomastigotes decreased 3- to 6-fold and infectivity was substantially reduced during sequential sub-cultivation. Surprisingly, at third to fourth passages most of the cell-derived trypomastigotes could not penetrate mammalian cells and had differentiated into amastigote-like parasites that exhibited 3- to 4-fold lower levels of Ecto-NTPDase activities. To evidence the participation of T. cruzi Ecto-NTPDase1 in the infective process, we evaluated the effect of known Ecto-ATPDase inhibitors (ARL 67156, Gadolinium and Suramin), or anti-NTPDase-1 polyclonal antiserum on ATPase and ADPase hydrolytic activities in recombinant T. cruzi NTPDase-1 and in live trypomastigotes. All tests showed a partial inhibition of Ecto-ATPDase activities and a marked inhibition of trypomastigotes infectivity. Mice infections with Ecto-NTPDase-inhibited trypomastigotes produced lower levels of parasitemia and higher host survival than with non-inhibited control parasites. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that Ecto-ATPDases act as facilitators of infection and virulence in vitro and in vivo and emerge as target candidates in chemotherapy

  10. Nucleoside transporter subtype expression: effects on potency of adenosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, C J D; Powell, A E; Xiong, W; LaRivière, C G; Baldwin, S A; Cass, C E; Young, J D; Parkinson, F E

    2001-01-01

    Adenosine kinase (AK) inhibitors can enhance adenosine levels and potentiate adenosine receptor activation. As the AK inhibitors 5′ iodotubercidin (ITU) and 5-amino-5′-deoxyadenosine (NH2dAdo) are nucleoside analogues, we hypothesized that nucleoside transporter subtype expression can affect the potency of these inhibitors in intact cells.Three nucleoside transporter subtypes that mediate adenosine permeation of rat cells have been characterized and cloned: equilibrative transporters rENT1 and rENT2 and concentrative transporter rCNT2. We stably transfected rat C6 glioma cells, which express rENT2 nucleoside transporters, with rENT1 (rENT1-C6 cells) or rCNT2 (rCNT2-C6 cells) nucleoside transporters.We tested the effects of ITU and NH2dAdo on [3H]-adenosine uptake and conversion to [3H]-adenine nucleotides in the three cell types. NH2dAdo did not show any cell type selectivity. In contrast, ITU showed significant inhibition of [3H]-adenosine uptake and [3H]-adenine nucleotide formation at concentrations ⩽100 nM in rENT1-C6 cells, while concentrations ⩾3 μM were required for C6 or rCNT2-C6 cells.Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR; 100 nM), a selective inhibitor of rENT1, abolished the effects of nanomolar concentrations of ITU in rENT1-C6 cells.This study demonstrates that the effects of ITU, but not NH2dAdo, in whole cell assays are dependent upon nucleoside transporter subtype expression. Thus, cellular and tissue differences in expression of nucleoside transporter subtypes may affect the pharmacological actions of some AK inhibitors. PMID:11682452

  11. A Computational Study of Expanded Heterocyclic Nucleosides in DNA

    PubMed Central

    O'Daniel, Peter I.; Jefferson, Malcolm; Wiest, Olaf; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L.

    2008-01-01

    The first molecular dynamics study of a series of heterospacer-expanded tricyclic bases in DNA using modified force field parameters in AMBER is detailed. The expanded purine nucleoside monomers have been designed to probe the effects of a heteroaromatic spacer ring on the structure, function, and dynamics of the DNA helix. The heterobase scaffold has been expanded with a furan, pyrrole, or thiophene spacer ring. This structural modification increases the polarizability of the bases and provides an additional hydrogen bond donor with the amine hydrogen of the pyrrole ring or hydrogen bond acceptor with the furan or thiophene ring free electron pairs. The polarizability of the expanded bases were determined by AM1 calculations and the results of the MD simulations of 20-mers predict that the modified curvature of the expanded base leads to a much larger major groove, while the effect on the minor groove is negligible. Overall, the structure resembles A-DNA. MD simulations of 10-mers suggest that the balance between base pairing vs. base stacking and intercalation can be shifted towards the latter due to the increased surface area and polariz-ability of the expanded bases. PMID:18808194

  12. DNA nucleoside composition and methylation in several species of microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, E.E.; Dunahay, T.G.; Brown, L.M. )

    1992-06-01

    Total DNA was isolated from 10 species of microalgae, including representatives of the Chlorophyceae (Chlorella ellipsoidea, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Monoraphidium minutum), Bacillariophyceae (Cyclotella cryptica, Navicula saprophila, Nitzschia pusilla, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum), Charophyceae (Stichococcus sp.), Dinophyceae (Crypthecodinium cohnii), and Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis suecica). Control samples of Escherichia coli and calf thymus DNA were also analyzed. The nucleoside base composition of each DNA sample was determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. All samples contained 5-methyldeoxycytidine, although at widely varying levels. In M. minutum, about one-third of the cytidine residues were methylated. Restriction analysis supported this high degree of methylation in M. minutum and suggested that methylation is biased toward 5[prime]-CG dinucleotides. The guanosine + cytosine (GC) contents of the green algae were, with the exception of Stichococcus sp., consistently higher than those of the diatoms. Monoraphidium minutum exhibited an extremely high GC content of 71%. Such a value is rare among eukaryotic organisms and might indicate an unusual codon usage. This work is important for developing strategies for transformation and gene cloning in these algae. 46 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Allelic isoforms of the H+/nucleoside co-transporter (CaCNT) from Candida albicans reveal separate high- and low-affinity transport systems for nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Slugoski, Melissa D; Loewen, Shaun K; Ng, Amy M L; Baldwin, Stephen A; Cass, Carol E; Young, James D

    2004-11-01

    Contigs 19-10196 and 19-20196 of the Stanford Candida albicans genome sequence databank encode two putative allelic isoforms of C. albicans CaCNT, a recently characterized 608 amino acid residue H+-coupled fungal member of the CNT family of concentrative nucleoside transport proteins. The single Ser/Gly difference between CaCNT/19-20196 and CaCNT occurs at position 328 in putative TM 7, and corresponds to a Ser/Gly substitution previously shown to contribute to the contrasting pyrimidine and purine nucleoside selectivities of human (h) and rat (r) Na+-dependent CNT1 and CNT2. CaCNT/19-10196 differs from CaCNT by four amino acids, but has Gly at position 328. These new proteins were recreated by site-directed mutagenesis of CaCNT and characterized functionally by heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. In marked contrast to h/rCNT1/2, both CaCNT/19-10196 and CaCNT/19-20196 exhibited permeant selectivities for purine nucleosides (adenosine, guanosine and inosine) and uridine similar to that of CaCNT. However, although H+-coupled, CaCNT/19-20196 exhibited a approximately 10-fold higher apparent Km for uridine than either CaCNT or CaCNT/19-10196. CaCNT/19-20196 also exhibited a low apparent affinity for inosine. We conclude that the three proteins correspond to high-affinity (CaCNT, CaCNT/19-10196) and low-affinity (CaCNT/19-20196) allelic isoforms of the C. albicans CNT nucleoside transporter. This is the first example of a single amino acid residue substitution altering a CNT protein's overall apparent affinity for nucleosides. PMID:15543539

  14. Saturable Hepatic Extraction of Gemcitabine Involves Biphasic Uptake Mediated by Nucleoside Transporters Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Takuya; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tajima, Hidehiro; Yamazaki, Maiko; Yokono, Rina; Takabayashi, Makiko; Shimada, Tsutomu; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Ohta, Tetsuo; Tamai, Ikumi; Sai, Yoshimichi

    2015-09-01

    Hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy with gemcitabine (GEM) is expected to be more effective and safer method to treat hepatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer compared with intravenous administration, because it affords higher tumor exposure with lower systemic exposure. Thus, a key issue for dose selection is the saturability of hepatic uptake of GEM. Therefore, we investigated GEM uptake in rat and human isolated hepatocytes. Hepatic GEM uptake involved high- and low-affinity saturable components with Km values of micromolar and millimolar order, respectively. The uptake was inhibited concentration dependently by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBMPR) and was sodium-ion-independent, suggesting a contribution of equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs). The concentration dependence of uptake in the presence of 0.1 μM NBMPR showed a single low-affinity binding site. Therefore, the high- and low-affinity sites correspond to ENT1 and ENT2, respectively. Our results indicate hepatic extraction of GEM is predominantly mediated by the low-affinity site (hENT2), and at clinically relevant hepatic concentrations of GEM, hENT2-mediated uptake would not be completely saturated. This is critical for HAI, because saturation of hepatic uptake would result in a marked increase of GEM concentration in the peripheral circulation, abrogating the advantage of HAI over intravenous administration in terms of severe adverse events. PMID:26037416

  15. Cloning and functional expression of a complementary DNA encoding a mammalian nucleoside transport protein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Q Q; Yao, S Y; Ritzel, M W; Paterson, A R; Cass, C E; Young, J D

    1994-07-01

    Expression screening in Xenopus oocytes was used to isolate a cDNA from rat jejunal epithelium encoding a Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transport protein (named cNT1). The cDNA sequence of cNT1 predicts a protein of 648 amino acids (relative molecular mass 71,000) with 14 potential transmembrane domains. Data base searches indicate significant sequence similarity to the NUPC proton/nucleoside symporter of Escherichia coli. There is no sequence similarity between cNT1 and proteins of mammalian origin. Functionally, cNT1 exhibited the transport characteristics of the nucleoside transport system cit (selective for pyrimidine nucleosides and adenosine) and accepted both 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC) as permeants (Km = 0.49 and 0.51 mM, respectively). The demonstration of transport of AZT by cNT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes provides the first direct evidence that AZT enters cells by transporter-mediated processes, as well as by passive diffusion. Consistent with the tissue distribution of system cit transport activity, transcripts for cNT1 were detected in kidney as well as jejunum. cNT1 therefore belongs to a potential new gene family and may be involved in the intestinal absorption and renal handling of pyrimidine nucleoside analogs used to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:8027026

  16. Supramolecular polymerization of a prebiotic nucleoside provides insights into the creation of sequence-controlled polymers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V; Rangel, E.; Vallejo, E.; Sanchez-Castillo, Ariadna; Cleaves, II, H. James; Baddorf, Arthur P; Sumpter, Bobby G; Pan, Minghu; Maksymovych, Petro; et al

    2016-01-04

    The self-assembly of a nucleoside on Au(111) was studied to ascertain whether polymerization on well-defined substrates constitutes a promising approach for making sequence-controlled polymers. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory were used to investigate the self-assembly on Au(111) of (RS)-N9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine (DHPA), a plausibly prebiotic nucleoside analog of adenosine. It is found that DHPA molecules self-assemble into a hydrogen-bonded polymer that grows almost exclusively along the herringbone reconstruction pattern, has a two component sequence that is repeated over hundreds of nanometers, and is erasable with electron-induced excitation. Although the sequence is simple, more complicated ones are envisioned if two ormore » more nucleoside types are combined. Because polymerization occurs on a substrate in a dry environment, the success of each combination can be gauged with high-resolution imaging and accurate modeling techniques. The resulting characteristics make nucleoside self-assembly on a substrate an attractive approach for designing sequence-controlled polymers. Moreover, by choosing plausibly prebiotic nucleosides, insights may be provided into how nature created the first sequence-controlled polymers capable of storing information. Such insights, in turn, can inspire new ways of synthesizing sequence-controlled polymers.« less

  17. Supramolecular polymerization of a prebiotic nucleoside provides insights into the creation of sequence-controlled polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Rangel, E.; Vallejo, E.; Sanchez-Castillo, Ariadna; James Cleaves, H., II; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Pan, Minghu; Maksymovych, Petro; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly of a nucleoside on Au(111) was studied to ascertain whether polymerization on well-defined substrates constitutes a promising approach for making sequence-controlled polymers. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory were used to investigate the self-assembly on Au(111) of (RS)-N9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine (DHPA), a plausibly prebiotic nucleoside analog of adenosine. It is found that DHPA molecules self-assemble into a hydrogen-bonded polymer that grows almost exclusively along the herringbone reconstruction pattern, has a two component sequence that is repeated over hundreds of nanometers, and is erasable with electron-induced excitation. Although the sequence is simple, more complicated ones are envisioned if two or more nucleoside types are combined. Because polymerization occurs on a substrate in a dry environment, the success of each combination can be gauged with high-resolution imaging and accurate modeling techniques. These characteristics make nucleoside self-assembly on a substrate an attractive approach for designing sequence-controlled polymers. Further, by choosing plausibly prebiotic nucleosides, insights may be provided into how nature created the first sequence-controlled polymers capable of storing information. Such insights, in turn, can inspire new ways of synthesizing sequence-controlled polymers.

  18. Supramolecular polymerization of a prebiotic nucleoside provides insights into the creation of sequence-controlled polymers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Rangel, E.; Vallejo, E.; Sanchez-Castillo, Ariadna; James Cleaves II, H.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Pan, Minghu; Maksymovych, Petro; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly of a nucleoside on Au(111) was studied to ascertain whether polymerization on well-defined substrates constitutes a promising approach for making sequence-controlled polymers. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory were used to investigate the self-assembly on Au(111) of (RS)-N9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine (DHPA), a plausibly prebiotic nucleoside analog of adenosine. It is found that DHPA molecules self-assemble into a hydrogen-bonded polymer that grows almost exclusively along the herringbone reconstruction pattern, has a two component sequence that is repeated over hundreds of nanometers, and is erasable with electron-induced excitation. Although the sequence is simple, more complicated ones are envisioned if two or more nucleoside types are combined. Because polymerization occurs on a substrate in a dry environment, the success of each combination can be gauged with high-resolution imaging and accurate modeling techniques. These characteristics make nucleoside self-assembly on a substrate an attractive approach for designing sequence-controlled polymers. Further, by choosing plausibly prebiotic nucleosides, insights may be provided into how nature created the first sequence-controlled polymers capable of storing information. Such insights, in turn, can inspire new ways of synthesizing sequence-controlled polymers. PMID:26725380

  19. Evaluating the reproducibility of quantifying modified nucleosides from ribonucleic acids by LC-UV-MS.

    PubMed

    Russell, Susan P; Limbach, Patrick A

    2013-04-01

    Post-transcriptional chemical covalent modification of adenosine, guanosine, uridine and cytidine occurs frequently in all types of ribonucleic acids (RNAs). In ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) these modifications make important contributions to RNA structure and stability and to the accuracy and efficiency of protein translation. The functional dynamics, synergistic nature and regulatory roles of these posttranscriptional nucleoside modifications within the cell are not well characterized. These modifications are present at very low levels and isolation of individual nucleosides for analysis requires a complex multi-step approach. The focus of this study is to characterize the reproducibility of a liquid chromatography method used to isolate and quantitatively characterize modified nucleosides in tRNA and rRNA when nucleoside detection is performed using ultraviolet and mass spectrometric detection (UV and MS, respectively). Despite the analytical challenges of sample isolation and dynamic range, quantitative profiling of modified nucleosides obtained from bacterial tRNAs and rRNAs is feasible at relative standard deviations of 5% RSD or less. PMID:23500350

  20. Supramolecular polymerization of a prebiotic nucleoside provides insights into the creation of sequence-controlled polymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V; Rangel, E; Vallejo, E; Sanchez-Castillo, Ariadna; James Cleaves Ii, H; Baddorf, Arthur P; Sumpter, Bobby G; Pan, Minghu; Maksymovych, Petro; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly of a nucleoside on Au(111) was studied to ascertain whether polymerization on well-defined substrates constitutes a promising approach for making sequence-controlled polymers. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory were used to investigate the self-assembly on Au(111) of (RS)-N(9)-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine (DHPA), a plausibly prebiotic nucleoside analog of adenosine. It is found that DHPA molecules self-assemble into a hydrogen-bonded polymer that grows almost exclusively along the herringbone reconstruction pattern, has a two component sequence that is repeated over hundreds of nanometers, and is erasable with electron-induced excitation. Although the sequence is simple, more complicated ones are envisioned if two or more nucleoside types are combined. Because polymerization occurs on a substrate in a dry environment, the success of each combination can be gauged with high-resolution imaging and accurate modeling techniques. These characteristics make nucleoside self-assembly on a substrate an attractive approach for designing sequence-controlled polymers. Further, by choosing plausibly prebiotic nucleosides, insights may be provided into how nature created the first sequence-controlled polymers capable of storing information. Such insights, in turn, can inspire new ways of synthesizing sequence-controlled polymers. PMID:26725380

  1. Apoplastic Nucleoside Accumulation in Arabidopsis Leads to Reduced Photosynthetic Performance and Increased Susceptibility Against Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Daumann, Manuel; Fischer, Marietta; Niopek-Witz, Sandra; Girke, Christopher; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between plant and pathogen often occur in the extracellular space and especially nucleotides like ATP and NAD have been identified as key players in this scenario. Arabidopsis mutants accumulating nucleosides in the extracellular space were generated and studied with respect to susceptibility against Botrytis cinerea infection and general plant fitness determined as photosynthetic performance. The mutants used are deficient in the main nucleoside uptake system ENT3 and the extracellular nucleoside hydrolase NSH3. When grown on soil but not in hydroponic culture, these plants markedly accumulate adenosine and uridine in leaves. This nucleoside accumulation was accompanied by reduced photosystem II efficiency and altered expression of photosynthesis related genes. Moreover, a higher susceptibility toward Botrytis cinerea infection and a reduced induction of pathogen related genes PR1 and WRKY33 was observed. All these effects did not occur in hydroponically grown plants substantiating a contribution of extracellular nucleosides to these effects. Whether reduced general plant fitness, altered pathogen response capability or more direct interactions with the pathogen are responsible for these observations is discussed. PMID:26779190

  2. Biological activity of N(4)-boronated derivatives of 2'-deoxycytidine, potential agents for boron-neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Nizioł, Joanna; Uram, Łukasz; Szuster, Magdalena; Sekuła, Justyna; Ruman, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary anticancer therapy that requires boron compound for nuclear reaction during which high energy alpha particles and lithium nuclei are formed. Unnatural, boron-containing nucleoside with hydrophobic pinacol moiety was investigated as a potential BNCT boron delivery agent. Biological properties of this compound are presented for the first time and prove that boron nucleoside has low cytotoxicity and that observed apoptotic effects suggest alteration of important functions of cancer cells. Mass spectrometry analysis of DNA from cancer cells proved that boron nucleoside is inserted into nucleic acids as a functional nucleotide derivative. NMR studies present very high degree of similarity of natural dG-dC base pair with dG-boron nucleoside system. PMID:26344594

  3. Basal expression of nucleoside transporter mRNA differs among small intestinal epithelia of beef steers and is differentially altered by ruminal or abomasal infusion of starch hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Liao, S F; Alman, M J; Vanzant, E S; Miles, E D; Harmon, D L; McLeod, K R; Boling, J A; Matthews, J C

    2008-04-01

    In ruminants, microbial-derived nucleic acids are a major source of N and are absorbed as nucleosides by small intestinal epithelia. Although the biochemical activities of 2 nucleoside transport systems have been described for cattle, little is known regarding the regulation of their gene expression. This study was conducted to test 2 hypotheses: (1) the small intestinal epithelia of beef cattle differentially express mRNA for 3 concentrative (CNT1, 2, 3) and 2 equilibrative (ENT1, 2) nucleoside transporters (NT), and (2) expression of these NT is responsive to small intestine luminal supply of rumen-derived microbes (hence, nucleosides), energy (cornstarch hydrolysate, SH), or both. Eighteen ruminally and abomasally catheterized Angus steers (260 +/- 17 kg of BW) were fed an alfalfa cube-based diet at 1.33x NE(m) requirement. Six steers in each of 3 periods were blocked by BW (heavy vs. light). Within each block, 3 steers were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (n = 6): ruminal and abomasal water infusion (control), ruminal SH infusion/abomasal water infusion, or ruminal water infusion/abomasal SH infusion. The dosage of SH infusion amounted to 20% of ME intake. After a 14-or 16-d infusion period, steers were slaughtered, and duodenal, jejunal, and ileal epithelia were harvested for total RNA extraction and the relative amounts of mRNA expressed were determined using real-time RT-PCR quantification methodologies. All 5 NT mRNA were found expressed by each epithelium, but their abundance differed among epithelia. Specifically, jejunal expression of all 5 NT mRNA was higher than that by the ileum, whereas jejunal expression of CNT1, CNT3, and ENT1 mRNA was higher, or tended to be higher, than duodenal expression. Duodenal expression of CNT2, CNT3, and ENT2 mRNA was higher than ileal expression. With regard to SH infusion treatments, ruminal infusion increased duodenal expression of CNT3 (67%), ENT1 (51%), and ENT2 (39%) mRNA and ileal expression of CNT3 (210%) and

  4. Synthesis of C3' modified nucleosides for selective generation of the C3'-deoxy-3'-thymidinyl radical: a proposed intermediate in LEE induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Audat, Suaad A S; Love, CherylAnn Trzasko; Al-Oudat, Buthina A S; Bryant-Friedrich, Amanda C

    2012-04-20

    DNA damage pathways induced by low-energy electrons (LEEs) are believed to involve the formation of 2-deoxyribose radicals. These radicals, formed at the C3' and C5' positions of nucleotides, are the result of cleavage of the C-O phosphodiester bond through transfer of LEEs to the phosphate group of DNA oligomers from the nucleobases. A considerable amount of information has been obtained to illuminate the identity of the unmodified oligonucleotide products formed through this process. There exists, however, a paucity of information as to the nature of the modified lesions formed from degradation of these sugar radicals. To determine the identity of the damage products formed via the 2',3'-dideoxy-C3'-thymidinyl radical (C3'(dephos) sugar radical), phenyl selenide and acyl modified sugar and nucleoside derivatives have been synthesized, and their suitability as photochemical precursors of the radical of interest has been evaluated. Upon photochemical activation of C3'-derivatized nucleosides in the presence of the hydrogen atom donor tributyltin hydride, 2',3'-dideoxythymidine is formed indicating the selective generation of the C3'(dephos) sugar radical. These precursors will make the identification and quantification of products of DNA damage derived from radicals generated by LEEs possible. PMID:22468713

  5. Probing the TRAP-RNA interaction with nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Elliott, M B; Gottlieb, P A; Gollnick, P

    1999-10-01

    The trp RNA-binding Attenuation Protein (TRAP) from Bacillus subtilis binds a series of GAG and UAG repeats separated by 2-3 nonconserved spacer nucleotides in trp leader mRNA. To identify chemical groups on the RNA required for stability of the TRAP-RNA complex, we introduced several different nucleoside analogs into each pentamer of the RNA sequence 5'-(UAGCC)-3' repeated 11 times and measured their effect on the TRAP-RNA interaction. Deoxyribonucleoside substitutions revealed that a 2'-hydroxyl group (2'-OH) is required only on the guanosine occupying the third residue of the RNA triplets for high-affinity binding to TRAP. The remaining hydroxyl groups are dispensable. Base analog substitutions identified all of the exocyclic functional groups and N1 nitrogens of adenine and guanine in the second and third nucleotides, respectively, of the triplets as being involved in binding TRAP. In contrast, none of the substitutions made in the first residue caused any detectable changes in affinity, indicating that elements of these bases are not necessary for complex formation and stability. Studies using abasic nucleotides in the first residue of the triplets and in the two spacer residues confirmed that the majority of the specificity and stability of the TRAP-RNA complex is provided by the AG dinucleotide of the triplet repeats. In addition to direct effects on binding, we demonstrate that the N7-nitrogen of adenosine and guanosine in UAG triplet and the 2'-OHs of (UAGCC)11 RNA are involved in the formation of an as yet undetermined structure that interferes with TRAP binding. PMID:10573119

  6. Resistance issues with new nucleoside/nucleotide backbone options.

    PubMed

    Wainberg, Mark A; Turner, Dan

    2004-09-01

    The nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs/NtRTIs) remain an enduring feature of combination therapy. As NRTI/NtRTI options continue to expand, questions arise about how best to combine these agents to create effective dual NRTI/NtRTI backbones in antiretroviral regimens while avoiding treatment-emergent drug resistance. Clinicians must consider how NRTIs/NtRTIs such as tenofovir DF (TDF), abacavir (ABC), and emtricitabine (FTC), as well as new once-daily and coformulated NRTIs/NtRTIs, interact with older agents when combined in novel regimens and how sequencing the new NRTIs can preserve future treatment options. Resistance data from clinical trials have revealed important information on the patterns, prevalence, and effects of resistance seen among patients experiencing virologic failure. In recent years, the prevalence of some mutations such as M184V and Q151M has remained relatively constant, while the L74V mutation, the 69 insertions, and thymidine analogue mutations have decreased in prevalence. Other mutations such as K65R and Y115F, while still relatively uncommon, are increasing in prevalence. This increase may be due to the use of new treatment combinations that select for these mutations at a higher rate. Clinical trials suggest that new regimens containing TDF or ABC select for K65R and that this mutation is observed more frequently with TDF; in contrast, L74V is observed more frequently in ABC-containing regimens but is not commonly selected by TDF-containing regimens. Several lines of evidence are converging to suggest that the presence of zidovudine may decrease the risk of L74V and K65R in ABC- or TDF-containing regimens. This review summarizes the clinical implications of resistance profiles associated with new NRTI/NtRTI regimens in current use and in advanced clinical studies. PMID:15319668

  7. The concentrative nucleoside transporter family (SLC28): new roles beyond salvage?

    PubMed

    Aymerich, I; Duflot, S; Fernández-Veledo, S; Guillén-Gómez, E; Huber-Ruano, I; Casado, F J; Pastor-Anglada, M

    2005-02-01

    The concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) family (SLC28) has three members: SLC28A1 (CNT1), SLC28A2 (CNT2) and SLC28A3 (CNT3). The CNT1 and CNT2 transporters are co-expressed in liver parenchymal cells and macrophages, two suitable models in which to study cell cycle progression. Despite initial observations suggesting that these transporter proteins might contribute to nucleoside salvage during proliferation, their subcellular localization and regulatory properties suggest alternative roles in cell physiology. In particular, CNT2 is a suitable candidate for modulation of purinergic responses, since it is under the control of the adenosine 1 receptor. Increasing evidence also suggests a role for CNT2 in energy metabolism, since its activation relies on the opening of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Animal and cell models genetically modified to alter nucleoside transporter expression levels may help to elucidate the particular roles of CNT proteins in cell physiology. PMID:15667311

  8. Transition State Analogues of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase: the Work of Vernon L. Schramm

    PubMed Central

    Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Transition State Analogue Inhibitors of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase from Plasmodium falciparum (Kicska, G. A., Tyler, P. C., Evans, G. B., Furneaux, R. H., Kim, K., and Schramm, V. L. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 3219–3225) Purine-less Death in Plasmodium falciparum Induced by Immucillin-H, a Transition State Analogue of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (Kicska, G. A., Tyler, P. C., Evans, G. B., Furneaux, R. H., Schramm, V. L., and Kim, K. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 3226–3231) Achieving the Ultimate Physiological Goal in Transition State Analogue Inhibitors for Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (Lewandowicz, A., Tyler, P. C., Evans, G. B., Furneaux, R. H., and Schramm, V. L. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 31465–31468)

  9. Structural and Enzymatic Characterization of a Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugar Hydrolase from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    PubMed Central

    Duong-ly, Krisna C.; Schoeffield, Andrew J.; Pizarro-Dupuy, Mario A.; Zarr, Melissa; Pineiro, Silvia A.; Amzel, L. Mario; Gabelli, Sandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Given the broad range of substrates hydrolyzed by Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked to X) enzymes, identification of sequence and structural elements that correctly predict a Nudix substrate or characterize a family is key to correctly annotate the myriad of Nudix enzymes. Here, we present the structure determination and characterization of Bd3179 –- a Nudix hydrolase from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus–that we show localized in the periplasmic space of this obligate Gram-negative predator. We demonstrate that the enzyme is a nucleoside diphosphate sugar hydrolase (NDPSase) and has a high degree of sequence and structural similarity to a canonical ADP-ribose hydrolase and to a nucleoside diphosphate sugar hydrolase (1.4 and 1.3 Å Cα RMSD respectively). Examination of the structural elements conserved in both types of enzymes confirms that an aspartate-X-lysine motif on the C-terminal helix of the α-β-α NDPSase fold differentiates NDPSases from ADPRases. PMID:26524597

  10. Structure of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (DeoD) from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Grenha, Rosa; Levdikov, Vladimir M.; Fogg, Mark J.; Blagova, Elena V.; Brannigan, James A. Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Wilson, Keith S.

    2005-05-01

    The crystal structure of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (DeoD) from B. anthracis was solved by X-ray crystallography using molecular replacement and refined at a resolution of 2.24 Å. Protein structures from the causative agent of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) are being determined as part of a structural genomics programme. Amongst initial candidates for crystallographic analysis are enzymes involved in nucleotide biosynthesis, since these are recognized as potential targets in antibacterial therapy. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase is a key enzyme in the purine-salvage pathway. The crystal structure of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (DeoD) from B. anthracis has been solved by molecular replacement at 2.24 Å resolution and refined to an R factor of 18.4%. This is the first report of a DeoD structure from a Gram-positive bacterium.

  11. Nucleoside-5'-phosphorothioate analogues are biocompatible antioxidants dissolving efficiently amyloid beta-metal ion aggregates.

    PubMed

    Amir, Aviran; Shmuel, Eran; Zagalsky, Rostislav; Sayer, Alon H; Nadel, Yael; Fischer, Bilha

    2012-07-28

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide is known to precipitate and form aggregates with zinc and copper ions in vitro and, in vivo in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Metal-ion-chelation was suggested as therapy for the metal-ion-induced Aβ aggregation, metal-ion overload, and oxidative stress. In a quest for biocompatible metal-ion chelators potentially useful for AD therapy, we tested a series of nucleoside 5'-phosphorothioate derivatives as re-solubilization agents of Cu(+)/Cu(2+)/Zn(2+)-induced Aβ-aggregates, and inhibitors of Fenton reaction in Cu(+) or Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) system. The most promising chelator in this series was found to be APCPP-γ-S. This nucleotide was found to be more efficient than EDTA in re-solubilization of Aβ(40)-Cu(2+) aggregates as observed by the lower diameter, d(H), (86 vs. 64 nm, respectively) obtained in dynamic light scattering measurements. Likewise, APCPP-γ-S dissolved Aβ(40)-Cu(+) and Aβ(42)-Cu(2+)/Zn(2+) aggregates, as monitored by (1)H-NMR and turbidity assays, respectively. Furthermore, addition of APCPP-γ-S to nine-day old Aβ(40)-Cu(2+)/Zn(2+) aggregates, resulted in size reduction as observed by transition electron microscopy (diameter reduction from 2.5 to 0.1 μm for Aβ(40)-Cu(2+) aggregates). APCPP-γ-S proved to be more efficient than ascorbic acid and GSH in reducing OH radical production in Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) system (IC(50) values 85, 216 and, 92 μM, respectively). Therefore, we propose APCPP-γ-S as a potential AD therapy capable of both reducing OH radical production and re-solubilization of Aβ(40/42)-M(n+) aggregates. PMID:22652964

  12. O2 Protonation Controls Threshold Behavior for N-Glycosidic Bond Cleavage of Protonated Cytosine Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Wu, R R; Rodgers, M T

    2016-06-01

    IRMPD action spectroscopy studies of protonated 2'-deoxycytidine and cytidine, [dCyd+H](+) and [Cyd+H](+), have established that both N3 and O2 protonated conformers coexist in the gas phase. Threshold collision-induced dissociation (CID) of [dCyd+H](+) and [Cyd+H](+) is investigated here using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry techniques to elucidate the mechanisms and energetics for N-glycosidic bond cleavage. N-Glycosidic bond cleavage is observed as the major dissociation pathways resulting in competitive elimination of either protonated or neutral cytosine for both protonated cytosine nucleosides. Electronic structure calculations are performed to map the potential energy surfaces (PESs) for both N-glycosidic bond cleavage pathways observed. The molecular parameters derived from theoretical calculations are employed for thermochemical analysis of the energy-dependent CID data to determine the minimum energies required to cleave the N-glycosidic bond along each pathway. B3LYP and MP2(full) computed activation energies for N-glycosidic bond cleavage associated with elimination of protonated and neutral cytosine, respectively, are compared to measured values to evaluate the efficacy of these theoretical methods in describing the dissociation mechanisms and PESs for N-glycosidic bond cleavage. The 2'-hydroxyl of [Cyd+H](+) is found to enhance the stability of the N-glycosidic bond vs that of [dCyd+H](+). O2 protonation is found to control the threshold energies for N-glycosidic bond cleavage as loss of neutral cytosine from the O2 protonated conformers is found to require ∼25 kJ/mol less energy than the N3 protonated analogues, and the activation energies and reaction enthalpies computed using B3LYP exhibit excellent agreement with the measured thresholds for the O2 protonated conformers. PMID:27159774

  13. Triazole pyrimidine nucleosides as inhibitors of Ribonuclease A. Synthesis, biochemical, and structural evaluation.

    PubMed

    Parmenopoulou, Vanessa; Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Manta, Stella; Bougiatioti, Stamatina; Maragozidis, Panagiotis; Gkaragkouni, Dimitra-Niki; Kaffesaki, Eleni; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Zographos, Spyridon E; Zounpoulakis, Panagiotis; Balatsos, Nikolaos A A; Komiotis, Dimitris; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2012-12-15

    Five ribofuranosyl pyrimidine nucleosides and their corresponding 1,2,3-triazole derivatives have been synthesized and characterized. Their inhibitory action to Ribonuclease A has been studied by biochemical analysis and X-ray crystallography. These compounds are potent competitive inhibitors of RNase A with low μM inhibition constant (K(i)) values with the ones having a triazolo linker being more potent than the ones without. The most potent of these is 1-[(β-D-ribofuranosyl)-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]uracil being with K(i) = 1.6 μM. The high resolution X-ray crystal structures of the RNase A in complex with three most potent inhibitors of these inhibitors have shown that they bind at the enzyme catalytic cleft with the pyrimidine nucleobase at the B(1) subsite while the triazole moiety binds at the main subsite P(1), where P-O5' bond cleavage occurs, and the ribose at the interface between subsites P(1) and P(0) exploiting interactions with residues from both subsites. The effect of a susbsituent group at the 5-pyrimidine position at the inhibitory potency has been also examined and results show that any addition at this position leads to a less efficient inhibitor. Comparative structural analysis of these RNase A complexes with other similar RNase A-ligand complexes reveals that the triazole moiety interactions with the protein form the structural basis of their increased potency. The insertion of a triazole linker between the pyrimidine base and the ribose forms the starting point for further improvement of these inhibitors in the quest for potent ribonucleolytic inhibitors with pharmaceutical potential. PMID:23122937

  14. Functional and genetic diversity in the concentrative nucleoside transporter, CNT1, in human populations.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jennifer H; Mangravite, Lara M; Owen, Ryan P; Urban, Thomas J; Chan, Wendy; Carlson, Elaine J; Huang, Conrad C; Kawamoto, Michiko; Johns, Susan J; Stryke, Douglas; Ferrin, Thomas E; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2004-03-01

    The concentrative nucleoside transporter, CNT1 (SLC28A1), mediates the cellular uptake of naturally occurring pyrimidine nucleosides and many structurally diverse anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogs. As a first step toward understanding whether genetic variation in CNT1 contributes to variation in the uptake and disposition of clinically used nucleoside analogs, we determined the haplotype structure and functionally analyzed all coding region variants of CNT1 identified in ethnically diverse populations (100 African Americans, 100 European Americans, 30 Asians, 10 Mexican Americans, and 7 Pacific Islanders) (Leabman et al., 2003). A total of 58 coding region haplotypes were identified using PHASE analysis, 44 of which contained at least one amino acid variant. More than half of the coding region haplotypes were population-specific. Using site-directed mutagenesis, 15 protein-altering CNT1 variants, including one amino acid insertion and one base pair (bp) deletion, were constructed and expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. All variant transporters took up [3H]thymidine with the exception of CNT1-Ser546Pro, a rare variant, and CNT1-1153del, a single bp deletion found at a frequency of 3% in the African American population. The bp deletion results in a frame-shift followed by a stop-codon. The anticancer nucleoside analog gemcitabine had a reduced affinity for CNT1-Val189Ile (a common CNT1 variant found at a frequency of 26%) compared with reference CNT1 (IC50=13.8 +/- 0.60 microM for CNT1-reference and 23.3 +/- 1.5 microM for CNT1-Val189Ile, p<0.05). These data suggest that common genetic variants of CNT1 may contribute to variation in systemic and intracellular levels of anti-cancer nucleoside analogs. PMID:14978229

  15. Isolation and functional characterization of the PfNT1 nucleoside transporter gene from Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Carter, N S; Ben Mamoun, C; Liu, W; Silva, E O; Landfear, S M; Goldberg, D E; Ullman, B

    2000-04-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most lethal form of human malaria, is incapable of de novo purine synthesis, and thus, purine acquisition from the host is an indispensable nutritional requirement. This purine salvage process is initiated by the transport of preformed purines into the parasite. We have identified a gene encoding a nucleoside transporter from P. falciparum, PfNT1, and analyzed its function and expression during intraerythrocytic parasite development. PfNT1 predicts a polypeptide of 422 amino acids with 11 transmembrane domains that is homologous to other members of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter family. Southern analysis and BLAST searching of The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) malaria data base indicate that PfNT1 is a single copy gene located on chromosome 14. Northern analysis of RNA from intraerythrocytic stages of the parasite demonstrates that PfNT1 is expressed throughout the asexual life cycle but is significantly elevated during the early trophozoite stage. Functional expression of PfNT1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes significantly increases their ability to take up naturally occurring D-adenosine (K(m) = 13.2 microM) and D-inosine (K(m) = 253 microM). Significantly, PfNT1, unlike the mammalian nucleoside transporters, also has the capacity to transport the stereoisomer L-adenosine (K(m) > 500 microM). Inhibition studies with a battery of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and bases as well as their analogs indicate that PfNT1 exhibits a broad substrate specificity for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides. These data provide compelling evidence that PfNT1 encodes a functional purine/pyrimidine nucleoside transporter whose expression is strongly developmentally regulated in the asexual stages of the P. falciparum life cycle. Moreover, the unusual ability to transport L-adenosine and the vital contribution of purine transport to parasite survival makes PfNT1 an attractive target for therapeutic evaluation. PMID

  16. Evidence for incorporation of intact dietary pyrimidine (but not purine) nucleosides into hepatic RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Berthold, H K; Crain, P F; Gouni, I; Reeds, P J; Klein, P D

    1995-01-01

    The absorption and metabolism of dietary nucleic acids have received less attention than those of other organic nutrients, largely because of methodological difficulties. We supplemented the rations of poultry and mice with the edible alga Spirulina platensis, which had been uniformly labeled with 13C by hydroponic culture in 13CO2. The rations were ingested by a hen for 4 wk and by four mice for 6 days; two mice were fed a normal diet and two were fed a nucleic acid-deficient diet. The animals were killed and nucleosides were isolated from hepatic RNA. The isotopic enrichment of all mass isotopomers of the nucleosides was analyzed by selected ion monitoring of the negative chemical ionization mass spectrum and the labeling pattern was deconvoluted by reference to the enrichment pattern of the tracer material. We found a distinct difference in the 13C enrichment pattern between pyrimidine and purine nucleosides; the isotopic enrichment of uniformly labeled [M + 9] isotopomers of pyrimidines exceeded that of purines [M + 10] by > 2 orders of magnitude in the avian nucleic acids and by 7- and 14-fold in the murine nucleic acids. The purines were more enriched in lower mass isotopomers, those less than [M + 3], than the pyrimidines. Our results suggest that large quantities of dietary pyrimidine nucleosides and almost no dietary purine nucleosides are incorporated into hepatic nucleic acids without hydrolytic removal of the ribose moiety. In addition, our results support a potential nutritional role for nucleosides and suggest that pyrimidines are conditionally essential organic nutrients. PMID:7479738

  17. Correlation of nucleoside and nucleobase transporter gene expression with antimetabolite drug cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin; Gong, Shimei; Monks, Anne; Zaharevitz, Daniel; Moscow, Jeffrey A

    2002-01-01

    Antimetabolite drugs that inhibit nucleic acid metabolism are widely used in cancer chemotherapy. Nucleoside and nucleobase transporters are important for the cellular uptake of nucleic acids and their corresponding anticancer analogue drugs. Thus, these transporters may play a role both in antimetabolite drug sensitivity, by mediating the uptake of nucleoside analogues, and in antimetabolite drug resistance, by mediating the uptake of endogenous nucleosides that may rescue cells from toxicity. Therefore, we examined the relation of the expression of nucleoside and nucleobase transporters to antimetabolite cytotoxicity. We measured the RNA levels of all eight known nucleoside and nucleobase transporters in 50 cell lines included in the National Cancer Institute's Anticancer Drug Screen panel. RNA levels of concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs), equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) and nucleobase transporters (NCBTs) were determined by quantitative RT-PCR using real-time fluorescence acquisition. This method was validated by measuring the expression of the MDR1 gene, and correlating our results with independently determined measurements of MDR1 RNA levels and protein function in these cell lines. We then correlated the pattern of RNA levels to the pattern of cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs in the NCI drug screen database using the COMPARE analysis. Several hypothesized relations between transporter gene expression and cytotoxicity, based upon known interactions between certain nucleoside analogues and transporter proteins, were not observed, suggesting that expression of individual transporters may not be a significant determinant of the cytotoxicity of these drugs. The most closely correlated drug cytotoxicity patterns to transporter gene expression patterns (where increased expression corresponds to increase sensitivity) included those between CNT1 and O6-methylguanine and between ENT2 and hydroxyurea. We also observed that p53 status influenced

  18. Structure of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (DeoD) from Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Grenha, Rosa; Levdikov, Vladimir M.; Fogg, Mark J.; Blagova, Elena V.; Brannigan, James A.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Wilson, Keith S.

    2005-01-01

    Protein structures from the causative agent of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) are being determined as part of a structural genomics programme. Amongst initial candidates for crystallographic analysis are enzymes involved in nucleotide biosynthesis, since these are recognized as potential targets in antibacterial therapy. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase is a key enzyme in the purine-salvage pathway. The crystal structure of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (DeoD) from B. anthracis has been solved by molecular replacement at 2.24 Å resolution and refined to an R factor of 18.4%. This is the first report of a DeoD structure from a Gram-positive bacterium. PMID:16511068

  19. Synthesis of optically pure dioxolane nucleosides and their anti-HIV activity

    SciTech Connect

    Siddigui, M.A.; Evans, C.; Jin, H.L.; Tse, A.; Brown, W.; Nguyen-Ba, N.; Mansour, T.S.; Cameron, J.M.

    1993-12-31

    The clinical candidate 3TC, 1, possessing non-natural absolute stereochemistry is a potent and non-toxic inhibitor of a key enzyme, reverse transcriptase, involved in the replicative cycle of the HIV. Selective inhibition of both HIV and HBV is seen. In view of the authors` interest in finding correlation between stereochemistry and antiviral activity, several enantiomerically pure dioxolane nucleosides, 2, were synthesized and assayed. The discussion will focus on (a) the synthesis of optically pure dioxolane sugars from L-ascorbic acid, (b) enzymatic resolution of purine dioxolane nucleosides, (c) anti HIV-1 activity in MT-4 cells.

  20. Anopheles gambiae Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase: Catalysis, Structure, and Inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor,E.; Rinaldo-Matthis, A.; Li, L.; Ghanem, M.; Hazleton, K.; Cassera, M.; Almo, S.; Schramm, V.

    2007-01-01

    The purine salvage pathway of Anopheles gambiae, a mosquito that transmits malaria, has been identified in genome searches on the basis of sequence homology with characterized enzymes. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is a target for the development of therapeutic agents in humans and purine auxotrophs, including malarial parasites. The PNP from Anopheles gambiae (AgPNP) was expressed in Escherichia coli and compared to the PNPs from Homo sapiens (HsPNP) and Plasmodium falciparum (PfPNP). AgPNP has kcat values of 54 and 41 s-1 for 2'-deoxyinosine and inosine, its preferred substrates, and 1.0 s-1 for guanosine. However, the chemical step is fast for AgPNP at 226 s-1 for guanosine in pre-steady-state studies. 5'-Deaza-1'-aza-2'-deoxy-1'-(9-methylene)-Immucillin-H (DADMe-ImmH) is a transition-state mimic for a 2'-deoxyinosine ribocation with a fully dissociated N-ribosidic bond and is a slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitor with a dissociation constant of 3.5 pM. This is the tightest-binding inhibitor known for any PNP, with a remarkable Km/Ki* of 5.4 x 107, and is consistent with enzymatic transition state predictions of enhanced transition-state analogue binding in enzymes with enhanced catalytic efficiency. Deoxyguanosine is a weaker substrate than deoxyinosine, and DADMe-Immucillin-G is less tightly bound than DADMe-ImmH, with a dissociation constant of 23 pM for AgPNP as compared to 7 pM for HsPNP. The crystal structure of AgPNP was determined in complex with DADMe-ImmH and phosphate to a resolution of 2.2 Angstroms to reveal the differences in substrate and inhibitor specificity. The distance from the N1' cation to the phosphate O4 anion is shorter in the AgPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}PO4 complex than in HsPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}SO4, offering one explanation for the stronger inhibitory effect of DADMe-ImmH for AgPNP.

  1. Selective Phosphorylation of South and North-Cytidine and Adenosine Methanocarba-Nucleosides by Human Nucleoside and Nucleotide Kinases Correlates with Their Growth Inhibitory Effects on Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Sjuvarsson, Elena; Marquez, Victor E; Eriksson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    Here bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane locked deoxycytidine (S-MCdC, N-MCdC), and deoxyadenosine analogs (S-MCdA and N-MCdA) were examined as substrates for purified preparations of human deoxynucleoside kinases: dCK, dGK, TK2, TK1, the ribonucleoside kinase UCK2, two NMP kinases (CMPK1, TMPK) and a NDP kinase. dCK can be important for the first step of phosphorylation of S-MCdC in cells, but S-MCdCMP was not a substrate for CMPK1, TMPK, or NDPK. dCK and dGK had a preference for the S-MCdA whereas N-MCdA was not a substrate for dCK, TK1, UCK2, TK2, dGK nucleoside kinases. The cell growth experiments suggested that N-MCdC and S-MCdA could be activated in cells by cellular kinases so that a triphosphate metabolite was formed. List of abbreviations: ddC, 2', 3'-didioxycytosine, Zalcitabine; 3TC, β-L-(-)-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine, Lamivudine; CdA, 2-cloro-2'-deoxyadenosine, Cladribine; AraA, 9-β-D-arabinofuranosyladenine; hCNT 1-3, human Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter type 1, 2 and 3; hENT 1-4, human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter type 1, 2, 3, and 4. PMID:26167664

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains selected for resistance against the HIV-1-specific [2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-3'-spiro- 5''-(4''-amino-1'',2''-oxathiole-2'',2''-dioxide)]-beta-D-pentofurano syl (TSAO) nucleoside analogues retain sensitivity to HIV-1-specific nonnucleoside inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Balzarini, J; Karlsson, A; Vandamme, A M; Pérez-Pérez, M J; Zhang, H; Vrang, L; Oberg, B; Bäckbro, K; Unge, T; San-Félix, A

    1993-01-01

    We recently reported that a newly discovered class of nucleoside analogues--[2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)- 3'-spiro-5''-(4''-amino-1'',2''-oxathiole-2'',2''-dioxide)]-beta-D - pentofuranosyl derivatives of pyrimidines and purines (designated TSAO)--are highly specific inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and targeted at the nonsubstrate binding site of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). We now find that HIV-1 strains selected for resistance against three different TSAO nucleoside derivatives retain sensitivity to the other HIV-1-specific nonnucleoside derivatives (tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]benzodiazepin-2(1H)-one and -thione (TIBO), 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-phenylthiothymine, nevirapine, and pyridinone L697,661, as well as to the nucleoside analogues 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, ddI, ddC, and 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Pol gene nucleotide sequence analysis of the TSAO-resistant and -sensitive HIV-1 strains revealed a single amino acid substitution at position 138 (Glu-->Lys) in the RT of all TSAO-resistant HIV-1 strains. HIV-1 RT in which the Glu-138-->Lys substitution was introduced by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed in Escherichia coli could not be purified because of rapid degradation. However, HIV-1 RT containing the Glu-138-->Arg substitution was stable. It lost its sensitivity to the TSAO nucleosides but not to the other HIV-1-specific RT inhibitors (i.e., TIBO and pyridinone). Our findings point to a specific interaction of the 4''-amino group on the 3'-spiro-substituted ribose moiety of the TSAO nucleosides with the carboxylic acid group of glutamic acid at position 138 of HIV-1 RT. PMID:7688467

  3. Pyrimidine and nucleoside gamma-esters of L-Glu-Sar: synthesis, stability and interaction with hPEPT1.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, André H; Elm, Peter L; Begtrup, Mikael; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert; Steffansen, Bente

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve the synthetic pathway of bioreversible dipeptide derivatives as well as evaluate the potential of using l-Glu-Sar as a pro-moiety for delivering three newly synthesised nucleoside and pyrimidine l-Glu-Sar derivatives. l-Glu(trans-2-thymine-1-yl-tetrahydrofuran-3-yl ester)-Sar (I), l-Glu(thymine-1-yl-methyl ester)-Sar (II) and l-Glu(acyclothymidine)-Sar (III) were synthesised and in vitro stability was studied in various aqueous and biological media. Affinity to and translocation via hPEPT1 was investigated in mature Caco-2 cell monolayers, grown on permeable supports. Affinity was estimated in a competition assay, using [14C] labelled Gly-Sar (glycylsarcosine). Translocation was measured as pHi-changes induced by the substrates using the fluorescent probe BCECF and an epifluorescence microscope setup. All dipeptide derivatives released the model drugs quantitatively by specific base-catalysed hydrolysis at pH>6.0. II was labile in aqueous buffer solution, whereas I and III showed appropriate stability for oral administration. In 10% porcine intestinal homogenate, the half-lives of the dipeptide derivatives indicated limited enzyme catalyzed degradation. All compounds showed good affinity to hPEPT1, but the Compounds I and III showed not to be translocated by hPEPT1. The translocation of the l-Glu-Sar derivative of acyclovir, l-Glu(acyclovir)-Sar was also investigated and showed not to take place. Consequently, l-Glu-Sar seems to be a poor pro-moiety for hPEPT1-mediated transport. PMID:15854810

  4. Synthesis of Chromone, Quinolone, and Benzoxazinone Sulfonamide Nucleosides as Conformationally Constrained Inhibitors of Adenylating Enzymes Required for Siderophore Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Engelhart, Curtis A.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2013-01-01

    MbtA catalyzes the first committed step of mycobactin biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and is responsible for the incorporation of salicylic acid into the mycobactin siderophores. 5′-O-[N-(Salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine (Sal-AMS) is an extremely potent nucleoside inhibitor of MbtA that possesses excellent activity against whole-cell Mtb, but suffers from poor bioavailability. In an effort to improve the bioavailability, we have designed four conformationally constrained analogues of Sal-AMS that remove two rotatable bonds and the ionized sulfamate group based on computational and structural studies. Herein we describe the synthesis, biochemical, and microbiological evaluation of chromone-, quinolone-, and benzoxazinone-3-sulfonamide derivatives of Sal-AMS. We developed new chemistry to assemble these three heterocycles from common β-ketosulfonamide intermediates. The synthesis of the chromone- and quinolone-3-sulfonamide intermediates features formylation of a β-ketosulfonamide employing dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal to afford an enaminone that can react intramolecularly with a phenol or intermolecularly with a primary amine via addition-elimination reaction(s). The benzoxazinone-3-sulfonamide was prepared by nitrosation of a β-ketosulfonamide followed by intramolecular nucleophilic aromatic substitution. Mitsunobu coupling of these bicyclic sulfonamides with a protected adenosine derivative followed by global deprotection provides a concise synthesis of the respective inhibitors. PMID:23805993

  5. The Ugi reaction in the generation of new nucleosides as potential antiviral and antileishmanial agents.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuesen; Zhang, Xinying; Bories, Christian; Loiseau, Philippe M; Torrence, Paul F

    2007-04-01

    5-Formyl-2'-deoxyuridine-3',5'-diacetate was converted to a small library of 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleoside N-acylamino acid amides by means of a Ugi multicomponent reaction. The reaction allowed introduction of various substituents at the acyl moiety, at the amino acid alpha-amide group, and at the amino acid carboxyl function. Evaluation of these novel 5-substituted nucleosides against vaccinia virus and cowpox virus provided one compound with discernable activity against cowpox virus but five- to eightfold less active than the Cidofovir standard. More promising activity was seen for the inhibition of Leishmania donovani promastigotes. Several synthetic products showed antileishmanial activity in the 10(-5)M range. When compared to earlier studies demonstrating anti-orthopoxviral and antileishmanial activity of 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleosides, these results imply that the 5-(N-acylamino acid amide)-derivatized pyrimidine nucleosides may possess more steric bulk, greater hydrophobicity, and more flexibility than is compatible with these particular biological activities. PMID:16996561

  6. Chemical synthesis of nucleoside-gamma-[32P]triphosphates of high specific activity.

    PubMed

    Janecka, A; Panusz, H; Pankowski, J; Koziołkiewicz, W

    1980-01-01

    A simple chemical procedure for the preparation of four common ribonucleoside 5-gamma-[32P]triphosphates of high specific activity (up to 10 Ci/mmole) based on the condensation of orthophosphoric acid with the corresponding nucleoside 5-diphosphate in the presence of ethyl chloroformate as well as the methods of purification and identification of the products are described. PMID:7375446

  7. Structural and functional characterization of a noncanonical nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphatase from Thermotoga maritima

    SciTech Connect

    Awwad, Khaldeyah; Desai, Anna; Smith, Clyde; Sommerhalter, Monika

    2013-02-01

    A 2.15 Å resolution crystal structure of TM0159 with bound IMP and enzyme-kinetic data are presented. This noncanonical nucleoside triphosphatase from T. maritima helps to maintain a correct pool of DNA and RNA precursor molecules. The hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima has a noncanonical nucleoside triphosphatase that catalyzes the conversion of inosine triphosphate (ITP), deoxyinosine triphosphate (dITP) and xanthosine triphosphate (XTP) into inosine monophosphate (IMP), deoxyinosine monophosphate (IMP) and xanthosine monophosphate (XMP), respectively. The k{sub cat}/K{sub m} values determined at 323 and 353 K fall between 1.31 × 10{sup 4} and 7.80 × 10{sup 4} M{sup −1} s{sup −1}. ITP and dITP are slightly preferred over XTP. Activity towards canonical nucleoside triphosphates (ATP and GTP) was not detected. The enzyme has an absolute requirement for Mg{sup 2+} as a cofactor and has a preference for alkaline conditions. A protein X-ray structure of the enzyme with bound IMP was obtained at 2.15 Å resolution. The active site houses a well conserved network of residues that are critical for substrate recognition and catalysis. The crystal structure shows a tetramer with two possible dimer interfaces. One of these interfaces strongly resembles the dimer interface that is found in the structures of other noncanonical nucleoside pyrophosphatases from human (human ITPase) and archaea (Mj0226 and PhNTPase)

  8. Carbocyclic nucleoside analogues: classification, target enzymes, mechanisms of action and synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyugina, E. S.; Khandazhinskaya, A. P.; Kochetkov, Sergei N.

    2012-08-01

    Key biological targets (S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, telomerase, human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase, herpes virus DNA polymerase and hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase) and the mechanisms of action of carbocyclic nucleoside analogues are considered. Structural types of analogues are discussed. Methods of synthesis for the most promising compounds and the spectrum of their biological activities are described. The bibliography includes 126 references.

  9. Antiproliferative activity of bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides: synthesis, DNA-binding and cell cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Sontakke, Vyankat A; Lawande, Pravin P; Kate, Anup N; Khan, Ayesha; Joshi, Rakesh; Kumbhar, Anupa A; Shinde, Vaishali S

    2016-04-26

    An efficient route was developed for synthesis of bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides from readily available d-glucose. The key reactions were Vörbruggen glycosylation and ring closing metathesis (RCM). Primarily, to understand the mode of DNA binding, we performed a molecular docking study and the binding was found to be in the minor groove region. Based on the proposed binding model, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques using calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) demonstrated a non-intercalative mode of binding. Antiproliferative activity of nucleosides was tested against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines and found to be active at low micromolar concentrations. Compounds and displayed significant antiproliferative activity as compared to and with the reference anticancer drug, doxorubicin. Cell cycle analysis showed that nucleoside induced cell cycle arrest at the S-phase. Confocal microscopy has been performed to validate the induction of cellular apoptosis. Based on these findings, such modified bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides will make a significant contribution to the development of anticancer drugs. PMID:27074628

  10. Purification and characterization of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from developing embryos of Hyalomma dromedarii.

    PubMed

    Kamel, M Y; Fahmy, A S; Ghazy, A H; Mohamed, M A

    1991-04-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Hyalomma dromedarii, the camel tick, was purified to apparent homogeneity. A molecular weight of 56,000 - 58,000 was estimated for both the native and denatured enzyme, suggesting that the enzyme is monomeric. Unlike purine nucleoside phosphorylase preparations from other tissues, the H. dromedarii enzyme was unstable in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol. The enzyme had a sharp pH optimum at pH 6.5. It catalyzed the phosphorolysis and arsenolysis of ribo- and deoxyribo-nucleosides of hypoxanthine and guanine, but not of adenine or pyrimidine nucleosides. The Km values of the enzyme at the optimal pH for inosine, deoxyinosine, guanosine, and deoxyguanosine were 0.31, 0.67, 0.55, and 0.33 mM, respectively. Inactivation and kinetic studies suggested that histidine and cysteine residues were essential for activity. The pKa values determined for catalytic ionizable groups were 6-7 and 8-9. The enzyme was completely inactivated by thiol reagents and reactivated by excess beta-mercaptoethanol. The enzyme was also susceptible to pH-dependent photooxidation in the presence of methylene blue, implicating histidine. Initial velocity studies showed an intersecting pattern of double-reciprocal plots of the data, consistent with a sequential mechanism. PMID:1905141

  11. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ynk1p: localization to the mitochondrial intermembrane space.

    PubMed Central

    Amutha, Boominathan; Pain, Debkumar

    2003-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) is a highly conserved multifunctional enzyme. It catalyses the transfer of gamma phosphates from nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates by a mechanism that involves formation of an autophosphorylated enzyme intermediate. The phosphate is usually supplied by ATP. NDPK activity in different subcellular compartments may regulate the crucial balance between ATP and GTP or other nucleoside triphosphates. NDPKs are homo-oligomeric proteins and are predominantly localized in the cytosol. In this paper, we demonstrate that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae a small fraction of total NDPK activity encoded by YNK1 is present in the intermembrane space (IMS) of mitochondria, and the corresponding protein Ynk1p in the IMS represents approx. 0.005% of total mitochondrial proteins. Ynk1p, synthesized as a single gene product, must therefore be partitioned between cytoplasm and mitochondrial IMS fractions. A mechanism for this partitioning is suggested by our observations that interaction with a 40 kDa protein of the translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane (Tom40p), occurs preferentially with unfolded, unphosphorylated forms of Ynk1p. A population of newly translated, but not yet folded or autophosphorylated, Ynk1p intermediates may be imported into the IMS of mitochondria and trapped there by subsequent folding and oligomerization. Within the small volume of the IMS, Ynk1p may be more concentrated and may be required to supply GTP to several important proteins in this compartment. PMID:12472466

  12. Hypoxanthine enters human vascular endothelial cells (ECV 304) via the nitrobenzylthioinosine-insensitive equilibrative nucleoside transporter.

    PubMed Central

    Osses, N; Pearson, J D; Yudilevich, D L; Jarvis, S M

    1996-01-01

    The transport properties of the nucleobase hypoxanthine were examined in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line ECV 304. Initial rates of hypoxanthine influx were independent of extracellular cations: replacement of Na+ with Li+, Rb+, N-methyl-D-glucamine or choline had no significant effect on hypoxanthine uptake by ECV 304 cells. Kinetic analysis demonstrated the presence of a single saturable system for the transport of hypoxanthine in ECV 304 cells with an apparent K(m) of 320 +/- 10 microM and a Vmax of 5.6 +/- 0.9 pmol/10(6) cells per s. Hypoxanthine uptake was inhibited by the nucleosides adenosine, uridine and thymidine (apparent Ki 41 +/- 6, 240 +/- 27 and 59 +/- 8 microM respectively) and the nucleoside transport inhibitors nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), dilazep and dipyridamole (apparent Ki 2.5 +/- 0.3, 11 +/- 3 and 0.16 +/- 0.006 microM respectively), whereas the nucleobases adenine, guanine and thymine had little effect (50% inhibition at > 1 mM). ECV 304 cells were also shown to transport adenosine via both the NBMPR-sensitive and -insensitive nucleoside carriers. Hypoxanthine specifically inhibited adenosine transport via the NBMPR-insensitive system in a competitive manner (apparent Ki 290 +/- 14 microM). These results indicate that hypoxanthine entry into ECV 304 endothelial cells is mediated by the NBMPR-insensitive nucleoside carrier present in these cells. PMID:8760371

  13. Synthesis of phosphonate analogues of the antiviral cyclopropane nucleoside A-5021.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Tomoyuki; Sekiyama, Takaaki; Tsuji, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    A series of phosphonate analogues of the antiviral cyclopropane nucleoside A-5021 were synthesized from (1S*, 7R*)-3,5-dioxa-4,4-diphenylbicyclo[5. 1.0]octane-l-methanol by a 10-step process. In contrast to the potent antiherpetic activity of A-5021, they were all devoid of antiviral activity. PMID:16270661

  14. Release of nucleosides from canine and human hearts as an index of prior ischemia.

    PubMed

    Fox, A C; Reed, G E; Meilman, H; Silk, B B

    1979-01-01

    During ischemia, myocardial adenosine triphosphate is degraded to adenosine, inosine and hypoxanthine. These nucleosides are released into coronary venous blood and may provide an index of ischemia; adenosine may also participate in the autoregulation of coronary flow. In dogs, the temporal relations between reactive hyperemic flow and nucleoside concentrations in regional venous blood were correlated after brief occlusions of a segmental coronary artery. Reactive hyperemia and adenosine release peaked together in 10 seconds, persisted for 10 to 30 seconds and then decreased in a pattern consistent with the hypothesis that they are related. During initial reflow after 45 seconds of ischemia, mean concentrations of adenosine, inosine and hypoxanthine increased, respectively, to 52, 67 and 114 nmol/100 ml plasma; after 5 minutes of ischemia, the respective levels increased to 58, 1,570 and 1,134 nmol and fell quickly. In nine patients there was a similar release of nucleosides into coronary sinus blood during reperfusion after 59 to 80 minutes of ischemic arrest during cardiac surgery. With initial reflow, adenosine, inosine and hypoxanthine levels reached 65, 655 and 917 nmol/100 ml of blood, respectively. Inosine and hypoxanthine concentrations remained high for 5 to 10 minutes after cardiac beating resumed, often when production of lactate had decreased. The results indicate that postischemic release of nucleosides reaches significant levels in man as well as animals, is parallel with the duration of ischemia, is temporary and may be a useful supplement to measurement of lactate as an index of prior myocardial ischemia. PMID:758770

  15. Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudret, Robin; Parks, Jerry M.; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. However, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum mechanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3)-N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nucleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic properties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nucleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach.

  16. Donor/acceptor chromophores-decorated triazolyl unnatural nucleosides: synthesis, photophysical properties and study of interaction with BSA.

    PubMed

    Bag, Subhendu Sekhar; Talukdar, Sangita; Das, Suman Kalyan; Pradhan, Manoj Kumar; Mukherjee, Soumen

    2016-06-14

    Much effort has been put forth to develop unnatural, stable, hydrophobic base pairs with orthogonal recognition properties and study their effect on DNA duplex stabilisation. Our continuous efforts on the design of fluorescent unnatural biomolecular building blocks lead us to the synthesis of some triazolyl donor/acceptor unnatural nucleosides via an azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction as a key step, which we want to report herein. We have studied their photophysical properties and found interesting solvatochromic fluorescence for two of the nucleosides. Photophysical interactions among two donor-acceptor β-nucleosides as well as a pair of α/β-nucleosides have also been evaluated. Furthermore, we have exploited one of the fluorescent nucleosides in studying its interaction with BSA with the help of UV-visible and steady state fluorescence techniques. Our design concept is based on the hypothesis that a pair of such donor/acceptor nucleosides might be involved in π-stacking as well as in photophysical interactions, leading to stabilization of the DNA duplex if such nucleosides can be incorporated into short oligonucleotide sequences. Therefore, the designed bases may find application in biophysical studies in the context of DNA. PMID:27181694

  17. Modulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and poly(adenosine diphosphoribose) metabolism by the synthetic "C" nucleoside analogs, tiazofurin and selenazofurin. A new strategy for cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, N A; Berger, S J; Catino, D M; Petzold, S J; Robins, R K

    1985-01-01

    Tiazofurin (2-beta-D-ribofuranosylthiazole-4-carboxamide) and selenazofurin (2-beta-D-ribofuranosylselenazole-4-carboxamide) are synthetic "C" nucleosides whose antineoplastic activity depends on their conversion to tiazofurin-adenine dinucleotide and selenazofurin-adenine dinucleotide which are analogs of NAD. The present study was conducted to determine whether these nucleoside analogs and their dinucleotide derivatives interfere with NAD metabolism and in particular with the NAD-dependent enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Incubation of L1210 cells with 10 microM tiazofurin or selenazofurin resulted in inhibition of cell growth, reduction of cellular NAD content, and interference with NAD synthesis. Using [14C]nicotinamide to study the uptake of nicotinamide and its conversion to NAD, we showed that the analogs interfere with NAD synthesis, apparently by blocking formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide. The analogs also serve as weak inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which is an NAD-utilizing, chromatin-bound enzyme, whose function is required for normal DNA repair processes. Continuous incubation of L1210 cells in tiazofurin or selenazofurin resulted in progressive and synergistic potentiation of the cytotoxic effects of DNA-damaging agents, such as 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. These studies provide a basis for designing chemotherapy combinations in which tiazofurin or selenazofurin are used to modulate NAD and poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism to synergistically potentiate the effects of DNA strand-disrupting agents. PMID:3919063

  18. Base release in nucleosides induced by low-energy electrons: a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xifeng; Sanche, Léon; Sevilla, Michael D

    2006-06-01

    Low-energy electrons are known to induce strand breaks and base damage in DNA and RNA through fragmentation of molecular bonding. Recently the glycosidic bond cleavage of nucleosides by low-energy electrons has been reported. These experimental results call for a theoretical investigation of the strength of the C(1)'-N link in nucleosides (dA, dC and dT) between the base and deoxyribose before and after electron attachment. Through density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we compare the C(1)'-N bond strength, i.e., the bond dissociation energy of the neutral and its anionic radical, and find that an excess electron effectively weakens the C(1)'- N bond strength in nucleosides by 61-75 kcal/mol in the gas phase and 76-83 kcal/mol in the solvated environment. As a result, electron-induced fragmentation of the C(1)'-N bond in the gas phase is exergonic for dA (DeltaG=-14 kcal/mol) and for dT (DeltaG=-6 kcal/mol) and is endergonic (DeltaG=+1 kcal/ mol) only for dC. In the gas phase all the anionic nucleosides are found to be in valence states. Solvation is found to increase the exergonic nature by an additional 20 kcal, making the fragmentation both exothermic and exergonic for all nucleoside anion radicals. Thus C(1)'-N bond breaking in nucleoside anion radicals is found to be thermodynamically favorable both in the gas phase and under solvation. The activation barrier for the C(1)'-N bond breaking process was found to be about 20 kcal/mol in every case examined, suggesting that a 1 eV electron would induce spontaneous cleavage of the bond and that stabilized anion radicals on the DNA strand would undergo base release at only a modest rate at room temperature. These results suggest that base release from nucleosides and DNA is an expected consequence of low-energy electron-induced damage but that the high barrier would inhibit this process in the stable anion radicals. PMID:16802873

  19. Expression of nucleoside transporter in freshly isolated neurons and astrocytes from mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Gu, L; Hertz, L; Peng, L

    2013-11-01

    Nucleoside transporters comprise equilibrative ENT1-4 and concentrative CNT1-3. CNTs transport against an intracellular/extracellular gradient and are essential for transmitter removal, independently of metabolic need. ENT1-4 mediate transport until intracellular/extracellular equilibrium of the transported compound, but are very efficient, when the accumulated nucleoside or nucleobase is rapidly eliminated by metabolism. Most nucleoside transporters are membrane-bound, but ENT3 is mainly intracellular. This study uses freshly isolated neurons and astrocytes from two adult mouse strains. In one transgenic strain the neuronal marker Thy1 was associated with a compound fluorescing at one wavelength, and in the other the astrocytic marker GFAP was associated with a compound fluorescent at a different wavelength. Highly purified astrocytic and neuronal populations (as determined by presence/absence of cell-specific genes) were obtained from these mice by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. In each population mRNA analysis was performed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. CNT1 was absent in both cell types; all other nucleoside transporters were expressed to at least a similar degree (in relation to applied amount of RNA and to a house-keeping gene) in astrocytes as in neurons. Astrocytic ENT3 enrichment was dramatic, but it was not up-regulated after fluoxetine-mediated increase in DNA synthesis. A comparison with results obtained in cultured astrocytes shows that the latter are generally compatible with the present findings and suggests that many observations obtained in intact tissue, mainly by in situ hybridization (which also determines mRNA expression) may underestimate astrocytic nucleoside transporter expression. PMID:24026568

  20. Reduced Ribavirin Antiviral Efficacy via Nucleoside Transporter-Mediated Drug Resistance▿

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Kristie D.; Pfeiffer, Julie K.

    2009-01-01

    Treatment for hepatitis C virus infection currently consists of pegylated interferon and ribavirin (RBV), a nucleoside analog. Although RBV clearly plays a role in aiding the treatment response, its antiviral mechanism is unclear. Regardless of the specific mechanism of RBV, we hypothesize that differences in levels of cellular uptake of RBV may affect antiviral efficacy and treatment success and that cells may become RBV resistant through reduced uptake. We monitored RBV uptake in various cell lines and determined the effect of uptake capacity on viral replication. RBV-resistant cells demonstrated reduced RBV uptake and increased growth of a model RNA virus, poliovirus, in the presence of RBV. Overexpression of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) or concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 (CNT3) increased RBV uptake in RBV-sensitive cell lines and restored the uptake defect in most RBV-resistant cell lines. However, CNT3 is not expressed in Huh-7 liver cells, and inhibition of concentrative transport did not affect RBV uptake. Blocking equilibrative transport using the inhibitor nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside recapitulated the RBV-resistant phenotype in RBV-sensitive cell lines, with a reduction in RBV uptake and increased poliovirus growth. Taken together, these results indicate that RBV uptake is restricted primarily to ENT1 in the cell lines examined. Interestingly, some RBV-resistant cell lines may compensate for reduced ENT1-mediated nucleoside uptake by increasing the activity of an alternative nucleoside transporter, ENT2. It is possible that RBV uptake affects the antiviral treatment response, either through natural differences in patients or through acquired resistance. PMID:19244331

  1. d- and l-2′,3′-Didehydro-2′,3′-Dideoxy-3′-Fluoro-Carbocyclic Nucleosides: Synthesis, Anti-HIV Activity and Mechanism of Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianing; Jin, Yunho; Rapp, Kimberly L.; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Chu, Chung K.

    2008-01-01

    Introducing 2′-fluoro substitution on the 2′,3′-double bond in carbocyclic nucleosides has provided biologically interesting compounds with potent anti-HIV activity. As an extension of our previous works in the discovery of anti-HIV agents, d- and l-2′,3′-unsaturated 3′-fluoro carbocyclic nucleosides were synthesized and evaluated against HIV-1 in human peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells. Among the synthesized l-series nucleosides, compounds 18, 19, 26, 28 exhibited moderate antiviral activity (EC50 7.1 μM, 6.4 μM, 10.3 μM and 20.7 μM, respectively), while among the d-series, the guanosine analogue (35, d-3′-F-C-d4G) exhibited the most potent anti-HIV activity (EC50 0.4 μM, EC90 2.8 μM). However, the guanosine analogue 35 was cross-resistant to the lamivudine-resistant variants (HIV-1M184V). Molecular modeling studies suggest that hydrophobic interaction as well as hydrogen bonding stabilize the binding of compound 35 in the active site of wild type HIV reverse transcriptase (HIV-RT). In the case of l-nucleosides, these two effects are opposite which results in a loss of binding affinity. According to the molecular modeling studies, cross-resistance of d-3′-F-C-d4G (35) to M184V mutant may be caused by the realignment of the primer and template in the HIV-RTM184V interaction, which destabilizes the RT-inhibitor triphosphate complex, resulting in a significant reduction in anti-HIV activity of the d-guanine derivative 35. PMID:17373782

  2. Oxalyl-CPG: a labile support for synthesis of sensitive oligonucleotide derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Alul, R H; Singman, C N; Zhang, G R; Letsinger, R L

    1991-01-01

    A procedure is described for linking nucleosides covalently to controlled pore glass or cross-linked polystyrene supports by means of an oxalyl anchor. Though stable to triethylamine and diisopropylamine, the nucleoside-oxalyl link can be cleaved within a few minutes at room temperature with ammonium hydroxide in methanol. This new anchor can be used in automated synthesis of conventional oligonucleotides. The primary value, however, is that it enables one to employ solid support methodology to synthesize a variety of base-sensitive oligonucleotide derivatives, as illustrated here by synthesis of oligomers with base protecting groups intact and with methyl phosphotriester groups at the internucleoside links. PMID:2027761

  3. Data for the morphometric characterization of NT2-derived postmitotic neurons.

    PubMed

    González-Burguera, Imanol; Ricobaraza, Ana; Aretxabala, Xabier; Barrondo, Sergio; García Del Caño, Gontzal; López de Jesús, Maider; Sallés, Joan

    2016-06-01

    NTERA2/D1 human teratocarcinoma progenitors induced to differentiate into postmitotic neurons by either long-term treatment with retinoic acid or short-term treatment with the nucleoside analog cytosine β-D-arabinofuranoside were subjected to morphometric analysis and compared. Our data provide a methodological and conceptual framework for future investigations aiming at distinguishing neuronal phenotypes on the basis of morphometric analysis. Data presented here are related to research concurrently published in "Highly Efficient Generation of Glutamatergic/Cholinergic NT2-Derived Postmitotic Human Neurons by Short-Term treatment with the Nucleoside Analogue Cytosine β-D-Arabinofuranoside" [1]. PMID:27158648

  4. Data for the morphometric characterization of NT2-derived postmitotic neurons

    PubMed Central

    González-Burguera, Imanol; Ricobaraza, Ana; Aretxabala, Xabier; Barrondo, Sergio; García del Caño, Gontzal; López de Jesús, Maider; Sallés, Joan

    2016-01-01

    NTERA2/D1 human teratocarcinoma progenitors induced to differentiate into postmitotic neurons by either long-term treatment with retinoic acid or short-term treatment with the nucleoside analog cytosine β-D-arabinofuranoside were subjected to morphometric analysis and compared. Our data provide a methodological and conceptual framework for future investigations aiming at distinguishing neuronal phenotypes on the basis of morphometric analysis. Data presented here are related to research concurrently published in “Highly Efficient Generation of Glutamatergic/Cholinergic NT2-Derived Postmitotic Human Neurons by Short-Term treatment with the Nucleoside Analogue Cytosine β-D-Arabinofuranoside” [1]. PMID:27158648

  5. Preparative purification and desalting of bases and nucleosides labeled with tritium by column chromatography on sephadex G-10

    SciTech Connect

    Yalovleva, L.A.; Kaminskii, Y.L.; Kozyreva, O.I.; Nagorskii, A.I.; Patokina, N.A.; Sosnova, L.P.

    1986-03-01

    The authors demonstrate the application of column chromatography on Sephadex G-10 and elution with water for the isolation of tritium labeled components of nucleic acids from reaction mixtures after catalytic dehalogenation or enzymic desoxyribosylation and simultaneous removal from inorganic salts. Distribution constants of 16 bases and nucleosides on elution with water were determined. Comparison of the sorbents with Sephadex G-20 disclosed the undoubted advantages of the latter in processes of desalting and separation of mixtures of bases and nucleosides.

  6. Salvadenosine, a 5′-Deoxy-5′-(methylthio) Nucleoside from the Bahamian Tunicate Didemnum sp.

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Salvadenosine, (1) a rare 5′-deoxy-5′-(methylthio) nucleoside, was isolated from the deep-water Bahaman tunicate Didemnum sp. The structure was solved by integrated analysis of MS and 1D and 2D NMR data. We revise the structure of the known natural product, hamiguanosinol, which is a constitutional isomer of 1, to 5 by interpretation of the spectroscopic data and comparison with synthesized nucleosides. PMID:25284474

  7. Transfection of Human Keratinocytes with Nucleoside-Modified mRNA Encoding CPD-Photolyase to Repair DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Boros, Gábor; Karikó, Katalin; Muramatsu, Hiromi; Miko, Edit; Emri, Eszter; Hegedűs, Csaba; Emri, Gabriella; Remenyik, Éva

    2016-01-01

    In vitro-synthesized mRNA containing nucleoside modifications has great therapeutical potential to transiently express proteins with physiological importance. One such protein is photolyase which rapidly removes UV-induced DNA damages, but this enzyme is absent in humans. Here, we apply a novel mRNA-based platform to achieve functional nonhuman photolyase production in cultured human keratinocytes. Transfection of nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding photolyase leads to accelerated repair of DNA photolesions in human keratinocytes. PMID:27236802

  8. Novel regulation of equlibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) by receptor-stimulated Ca2+-dependent calmodulin binding.

    PubMed

    Bicket, Alex; Mehrabi, Pedram; Naydenova, Zlatina; Wong, Victoria; Donaldson, Logan; Stagljar, Igor; Coe, Imogen R

    2016-05-15

    Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) facilitate the flux of nucleosides, such as adenosine, and nucleoside analog (NA) drugs across cell membranes. A correlation between adenosine flux and calcium-dependent signaling has been previously reported; however, the mechanistic basis of these observations is not known. Here we report the identification of the calcium signaling transducer calmodulin (CaM) as an ENT1-interacting protein, via a conserved classic 1-5-10 motif in ENT1. Calcium-dependent human ENT1-CaM protein interactions were confirmed in human cell lines (HEK293, RT4, U-87 MG) using biochemical assays (HEK293) and the functional assays (HEK293, RT4), which confirmed modified nucleoside uptake that occurred in the presence of pharmacological manipulations of calcium levels and CaM function. Nucleoside and NA drug uptake was significantly decreased (∼12% and ∼39%, respectively) by chelating calcium (EGTA, 50 μM; BAPTA-AM, 25 μM), whereas increasing intracellular calcium (thapsigargin, 1.5 μM) led to increased nucleoside uptake (∼26%). Activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (in U-87 MG) by glutamate (1 mM) and glycine (100 μM) significantly increased nucleoside uptake (∼38%) except in the presence of the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (50 μM), or CaM antagonist, W7 (50 μM). These data support the existence of a previously unidentified novel receptor-dependent regulatory mechanism, whereby intracellular calcium modulates nucleoside and NA drug uptake via CaM-dependent interaction of ENT1. These findings suggest that ENT1 is regulated via receptor-dependent calcium-linked pathways resulting in an alteration of purine flux, which may modulate purinergic signaling and influence NA drug efficacy. PMID:27009875

  9. Design and synthesis of novel 5-substituted acyclic pyrimidine nucleosides as potent and selective inhibitors of hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Nath, Mahendra; Tyrrell, D Lorne J

    2002-05-01

    A novel class of 5-substituted acyclic pyrimidine nucleosides, 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-5-(1-azidovinyl)uracil (9a), 1-[(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy)methyl]-5-(1-azidovinyl)uracil (9b), and 1-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-butyl]-5-(1-azidovinyl)uracil (9c), were synthesized by regiospecific addition of bromine azide to the 5-vinyl substituent of the respective 5-vinyluracils (2a-c) followed by treatment of the obtained 5-(1-azido-2-bromoethyl) compounds (3a-c) with t-BuOK, to affect the base-catalyzed elimination of HBr. Thermal decomposition of 9b and 9c at 110 degrees C in dioxane yielded corresponding 5-[2-(1-azirinyl)]uracil analogues (10b,c). The 5-(1-azidovinyl)uracil derivatives 9a-c were found to exhibit potent and selective in vitro anti-HBV activity against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infected primary duck hepatocytes at low concentrations (EC(50) = 0.01-0.1 microg/mL range). The most active anti-DHBV agent (9c), possessing a [4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-butyl] substituent at N-1, exhibited an activity (EC(50) of 0.01-0.05 microg/mL) comparable to that of reference compound (-)-beta-L-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3-TC) (EC(50) = 0.01-0.05 microg/mL). In contrast, related 5-[2-(1-azirinyl)]uracil analogues (10b,c) were devoid of anti-DHBV activity, indicating that an acyclic side chain at C-5 position of the pyrimidine ring is essential for anti-HBV activity. The pyrimidine nucleosides (9a-c, 10b,c) exhibited no cytotoxic activity against a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines. All of the compounds investigated did not show any detectable toxicity to several stationary and proliferating host cell lines or to mitogen stimulated proliferating human T lymphocytes, up to the highest concentration tested. PMID:11985471

  10. Purification and Biochemical Characterisation of Rabbit Calicivirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases and Identification of Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Urakova, Nadya; Netzler, Natalie; Kelly, Andrew G; Frese, Michael; White, Peter A; Strive, Tanja

    2016-04-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus that causes acute infections in both domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The virus causes significant economic losses in rabbit farming and reduces wild rabbit populations. The recent emergence of RHDV variants capable of overcoming immunity to other strains emphasises the need to develop universally effective antivirals to enable quick responses during outbreaks until new vaccines become available. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a primary target for the development of such antiviral drugs. In this study, we used cell-free in vitro assays to examine the biochemical characteristics of two rabbit calicivirus RdRps and the effects of several antivirals that were previously identified as human norovirus RdRp inhibitors. The non-nucleoside inhibitor NIC02 was identified as a potential scaffold for further drug development against rabbit caliciviruses. Our experiments revealed an unusually high temperature optimum (between 40 and 45 °C) for RdRps derived from both a pathogenic and a non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus, possibly demonstrating an adaptation to a host with a physiological body temperature of more than 38 °C. Interestingly, the in vitro polymerase activity of the non-pathogenic calicivirus RdRp was at least two times higher than that of the RdRp of the highly virulent RHDV. PMID:27089358

  11. Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates as Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum and Human 6-Oxopurine Phosphoribosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Martin M; Hocková, Dana; Wang, Tzu-Hsuan; Dračínský, Martin; Poštová-Slavětínská, Lenka; Procházková, Eliška; Edstein, Michael D; Chavchich, Marina; Keough, Dianne T; Guddat, Luke W; Janeba, Zlatko

    2015-10-01

    Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) are a promising class of antimalarial therapeutic drug leads that exhibit a wide variety of Ki values for Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and human hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferases [HG(X)PRTs]. A novel series of ANPs, analogues of previously reported 2-(phosphonoethoxy)ethyl (PEE) and (R,S)-3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl (HPMP) derivatives, were designed and synthesized to evaluate their ability to act as inhibitors of these enzymes and to extend our ongoing antimalarial structure-activity relationship studies. In this series, (S)-3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonoethoxy)propyl (HPEP), (S)-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propanoic acid (CPME), or (S)-2-(phosphonoethoxy)propanoic acid (CPEE) are the acyclic moieties. Of this group, (S)-3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonoethoxy)propylguanine (HPEPG) exhibits the highest potency for PfHGXPRT, with a Ki value of 0.1 μM and a Ki value for human HGPRT of 0.6 μM. The crystal structures of HPEPG and HPEPHx (where Hx=hypoxanthine) in complex with human HGPRT were obtained, showing specific interactions with active site residues. Prodrugs for the HPEP and CPEE analogues were synthesized and tested for in vitro antimalarial activity. The lowest IC50 value (22 μM) in a chloroquine-resistant strain was observed for the bis-amidate prodrug of HPEPG. PMID:26368337

  12. Purification and Biochemical Characterisation of Rabbit Calicivirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases and Identification of Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Urakova, Nadya; Netzler, Natalie; Kelly, Andrew G.; Frese, Michael; White, Peter A.; Strive, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus that causes acute infections in both domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The virus causes significant economic losses in rabbit farming and reduces wild rabbit populations. The recent emergence of RHDV variants capable of overcoming immunity to other strains emphasises the need to develop universally effective antivirals to enable quick responses during outbreaks until new vaccines become available. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a primary target for the development of such antiviral drugs. In this study, we used cell-free in vitro assays to examine the biochemical characteristics of two rabbit calicivirus RdRps and the effects of several antivirals that were previously identified as human norovirus RdRp inhibitors. The non-nucleoside inhibitor NIC02 was identified as a potential scaffold for further drug development against rabbit caliciviruses. Our experiments revealed an unusually high temperature optimum (between 40 and 45 °C) for RdRps derived from both a pathogenic and a non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus, possibly demonstrating an adaptation to a host with a physiological body temperature of more than 38 °C. Interestingly, the in vitro polymerase activity of the non-pathogenic calicivirus RdRp was at least two times higher than that of the RdRp of the highly virulent RHDV. PMID:27089358

  13. Telomerase inhibition and telomere targeting in hematopoietic cancer cell lines with small non-nucleosidic synthetic compounds (BIBR1532).

    PubMed

    El Daly, Hesham; Martens, Uwe M

    2007-01-01

    Telomere maintenance has been shown to be essential for unlimited growth potential of human cells and is regarded as one hallmark of cancer. Telomere repeats at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes are synthesized by the enzyme telomerase, which is active in most cancers and to some extend also in normal somatic cells. Therefore, targeting the telomerase/telomere complex offers great potential for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics. An example of such a strategy is the small molecule BIBR1532 that is a selective, non-nucleosidic inhibitor of the catalytic component hTERT. Treatment of cancer cells with this compound leads to progressive telomere shortening, consecutive telomere dysfunction, and finally growth arrest after a lag period that is largely dependent on initial telomere length. We have additionally shown that using this class of telomerase inhibitor at higher concentrations exerts a direct cytotoxic effect on malignant cells of the hematopoietic system but not on normal stem cells, which appears to derive from direct damage to the structure of individual telomeres. PMID:18369817

  14. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase 1): localization and in vitro inhibition of promastigotes growth by polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Porcino, Gabriane Nascimento; Carvalho-Campos, Cristiane; Maia, Ana Carolina Ribeiro Gomes; Detoni, Michelle Lima; Faria-Pinto, Priscila; Coimbra, Elaine Soares; Marques, Marcos José; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Juliano, Luiz; Diniz, Vanessa Álvaro; Corte-Real, Suzana; Vasconcelos, Eveline Gomes

    2012-10-01

    Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity was recently characterized in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes (Lb), and an antigenic conserved domain (r82-121) from the specific NTPDase 1 isoform was identified. In this work, mouse polyclonal antibodies produced against two synthetic peptides derived from this domain (LbB1LJ, r82-103; LbB2LJ, r102-121) were used. The anti-LbB1LJ or anti-LbB2LJ antibodies were immobilized on protein A-sepharose and immunoprecipitated the NTPDase 1 of 48 kDa and depleted approximately 40% of the phosphohydrolytic activity from detergent-homogenized Lb preparation. Ultrastructural immunocytochemical microscopy identified the NTPDase 1 on the parasite surface and in its subcellular cytoplasmic vesicles, mitochondria, kinetoplast and nucleus. The ATPase and ADPase activities of detergent-homogenized Lb preparation were partially inhibited by anti-LbB1LJ antibody (43-79%), which was more effective than that inhibition (18-47%) by anti-LbB2LJ antibody. In addition, the immune serum anti-LbB1LJ (67%) or anti-LbB2LJ (33%) was cytotoxic, significantly reducing the promastigotes growth in vitro. The results appoint the conserved domain from the L. braziliensis NTPDase as an important target for inhibitor design and the potential application of these biomolecules in experimental protocols of disease control. PMID:22921497

  15. The crystal structure and activity of a putative trypanosomal nucleoside phosphorylase reveal it to be a homodimeric uridine phosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Eric T.; Mudeppa, Devaraja G.; Gillespie, J. Robert; Mueller, Natascha; Napuli, Alberto J.; Arif, Jennifer A.; Ross, Jenni; Arakaki, Tracy L.; Lauricella, Angela; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Zucker, Frank; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Fan, Erkang; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylases and uridine phosphorylases are closely related enzymes involved in purine and pyrimidine salvage, respectively, which catalyze the removal of the ribosyl moiety from nucleosides so that the nucleotide base may be recycled. Parasitic protozoa generally are incapable of de novo purine biosynthesis so the purine salvage pathway is of potential therapeutic interest. Information about pyrimidine biosynthesis in these organisms is much more limited. Though all seem to carry at least a subset of enzymes from each pathway, the dependency on de novo pyrimidine synthesis versus salvage varies from organism to organism and even from one growth stage to another. We have structurally and biochemically characterized a putative nucleoside phosphorylase from the pathogenic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei and find that it is a homodimeric uridine phosphorylase. This is the first characterization of a uridine phosphorylase from a trypanosomal source despite this activity being observed decades ago. Although this gene was broadly annotated as a putative nucleoside phosphorylase, it was widely inferred to be a purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Our characterization of this trypanosomal enzyme shows that it is possible to distinguish between purine and uridine phosphorylase activity at the sequence level based on the absence or presence of a characteristic uridine phosphorylase-specificity insert. We suggest that this recognizable feature may aid in proper annotation of the substrate specificity of enzymes in the nucleoside phosphorylase family. PMID:20070944

  16. Biodegradation of DNA and nucleotides to nucleosides and free bases.

    PubMed

    Kruszewska, Hanna; Misicka, Aleksandra; Chmielowiec, Urszula

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-two different microorganisms were examined in order to check their ability to degrade an exogenous DNA. Bacteria from species: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Brevundimonas diminuta, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium butyricum and fungus Fusarium moniliforme were capable to degrade DNA to nucleic bases or their derivatives. Degradation of DNA by S. maltophilia resulted in formation of free bases, such as hypoxanthine, thymine, uracil and xanthine. The optimum concentration of DNA seemed to be 3 mg ml(-1). The mode of degradation of DNA nucleotides depended on the type of nucleotide and its concentration, but nucleic bases or their derivatives were always formed at the end of the reaction process. PMID:14751311

  17. 5'-S-(2-aminoethyl)-N6-(4-nitrobenzyl)-5'-thioadenosine (SAENTA), a novel ligand with high affinity for polypeptides associated with nucleoside transport. Partial purification of the nitrobenzylthioinosine-binding protein of pig erythrocytes by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Agbanyo, F R; Vijayalakshmi, D; Craik, J D; Gati, W P; McAdam, D P; Asakura, J; Robins, M J; Paterson, A R; Cass, C E

    1990-01-01

    Derivatives of N6-(4-aminobenzyl)adenosine (substituted at the aminobenzyl group) and 5'-linked derivatives of N6-(4-nitrobenzyl)adenosine (NBAdo) were evaluated as inhibitors of site-specific binding of [3H]nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) to pig erythrocyte membranes. Potent inhibitors were SAENTA [5'-S-(2-aminoethyl)-N6-(4-nitrobenzyl)-5'-thioadenosine] and acetyl-SAENTA (the 2-acetamidoethyl derivative of SAENTA). SAENTA was coupled to derivatized agarose-gel beads (Affi-Gel 10) to form an affinity matrix for chromatographic purification of NBMPR-binding polypeptides, which in pig erythrocytes are part of, or are associated with, the equilibrative nucleoside transporter. When pig erythrocyte membranes were solubilized with octyl glucoside (n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside) and applied to SAENTA-Affi-Gel 10 (SAENTA-AG10), polypeptides that migrated as a broad band on SDS/PAGE with an apparent molecular mass of 58-60 kDa were selectively retained by the affinity gel. These polypeptides were identified as components of the nucleoside transporter of pig erythrocytes by reactivity with a monoclonal antibody (mAb 11C4) that recognizes the NBMPR-binding protein of pig erythrocytes. Retention of the immunoreactive polypeptides by SAENTA-AG10 was blocked by NBAdo. The immunoreactive polypeptides were released from SAENTA-AG10 by elution under denaturing conditions with 1% SDS or by elution with detergent solutions containing competitive ligands (NBAdo or NBMPR). A 72-fold enrichment of the immunoreactive polypeptides was achieved by a single passage of solubilized, protein-depleted membranes through a column of SAENTA-AG10, followed by elution with detergent solutions containing NBAdo. These results demonstrate that polypeptide components of NBMPR-sensitive nucleoside-transport systems may be partly purified by affinity chromatography using gel media bearing SAENTA groups. Images Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2241896

  18. TAOK3 Phosphorylates the Methylenecyclopropane Nucleoside MBX 2168 to its Monophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Komazin-Meredith, Gloria; Cardinale, Steven C.; Comeau, Katelyn; Magalhaes, Kevin J.; Hartline, Caroll B.; Williams, John D.; Opperman, Timothy J.; Prichard, Mark N.; Bowlin, Terry L.

    2015-01-01

    Monohydroxymethyl methylenecyclopropane nucleosides (MCPNs) with ether or thioether substituents at the 6-position show promise as broad-spectrum herpes virus inhibitors. Their proposed mechanism of action involves sequential phosphorylation to a triphosphate, which can then inhibit viral DNA polymerase. The inhibition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) by these compounds is not dependent on the viral thymidine kinase (TK), which is known to phosphorylate acyclovir (ACV), a standard treatment for HSV infections. Previous studies on the mechanism of action of these compounds against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) implicated a host kinase in addition to HCMV UL97 kinase in performing the initial phosphorylation. After first eliminating other candidate HSV-1 encoded kinases (UL13 and US3) as well as potential host nucleoside kinases, using activity-based fractionation, we have now identified the host serine-threonine protein kinase TAOK3 as the kinase responsible for transforming the representative monohydroxymethyl MCPN analog MBX 2168 to its monophosphate. PMID:25857706

  19. A New Alkylation-Elimination Method for Synthesis of Antiviral Fluoromethylenecyclopropane Analogues of Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shaoman; Zemlicka, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    A new method for the synthesis of fluoromethylenecyclopropane nucleosides by alkylation-elimination procedure is described. Fluorination of methylenecyclopropane carboxylate 6 gave fluoroester 7. Treatment of 7 with phenylselenenyl bromide afforded the desired ethyl (E)-2-bromomethyl-1-fluoro-2-phenylselenenylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate 11 in 85% yield. DIBALH reduction of 11 gave 13, which after acetylation to 14 was reacted with 2-amino-6-chloropurine to give the 9-alkylated product 15 in 87% yield. Se-oxydation of 15 with hydrogen peroxide afforded 16, which underwent smooth elimination in a mixture of THF-DMF at 60 °C giving rise to a Z,E mixture of protected nucleosides 17. Deacetylation gave Z-1a and E-1a which were separated on a silica gel column. Both Z-1a and E-1a were converted into the respective guanine analogues Z-1b and E-1b. PMID:16801980

  20. Electronic Signatures of all Four DNA Nucleosides in a Tunneling Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shuai

    2011-03-01

    New approaches to DNA sequencing are required to reduce costs and increase the availability of personalized genomics. Using Scanning Tunneling Microscope as a tool, we report measurements of the current signals generated as free nucleosides diffuse into a tunnel junction in which both electrodes are functionalized with a reagent that presents a hydrogen bond donor and acceptor to the nucleosides. This functionalization serves to both limit the range of molecular orientations in the tunnel gap and reduce the contact resistance, increasing the selectivity of the tunneling signal, so that a direct readout may be possible with a few repeated reads. This work was supported by a grant from the Sequencing Technology Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute (HG004378).

  1. Linker phosphoramidite reagents for the attachment of the first nucleoside to underivatized solid-phase supports

    PubMed Central

    Pon, Richard T.; Yu, Shuyuan

    2004-01-01

    New linker phosphoramidite reagents containing a cleavable 3′-ester linkage are used for attaching the first nucleoside to the surface of a solid- phase support. Inexpensive, underivatized amino supports, such as long chain alkylamine controlled-pore glass, can serve as universal supports. No modifications to phosphoramidite coupling conditions are required and, after synthesis, treatment with NH4OH releases the products with 3′-OH ends. No 3′-dephosphorylation is required. Phosphoramidite reagents containing a succinate and sulfonyl diethanol linkage between the nucleoside and phosphoramidite group are particularly advantageous and can be used to create both 3′-OH and 5′-phosphate ends on oligonucleotides. Reproducibility and quality of oligonucleotide synthesis is demonstrated for either column and 96-well plate formats on low-, medium- or high-loading CPG supports. PMID:14752050

  2. Glucaminium ionic liquid-functionalized stationary phase for the separation of nucleosides in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiong; Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Xusheng; Guo, Yong; Qiu, Hongdeng; Zhang, Shusheng

    2015-10-01

    A glucaminium-based ionic liquid stationary phase was prepared via facile epoxy-amine reaction and subsequent quaternization. Successful immobilization of glucaminium-based ionic liquid onto silica surface was validated by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The new stationary phase was evaluated for the separation of nucleosides in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Effects of various factors, such as acetonitrile concentration, salt concentration, pH value, as well as column temperature, on the chromatographic behavior toward nucleosides were studied in detail. The results indicated that this new stationary phase can be used for separation of water-soluble polar substances in HILIC mode. The retention of solutes on the stationary phase was influenced by a mixed-mode retention mechanism with a combination of adsorptive and partitioning interactions. PMID:26231689

  3. Rapid and Liquid-Based Selection of Genetic Switches Using Nucleoside Kinase Fused with Aminoglycoside Phosphotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Kawai-Noma, Shigeko; Saito, Kyoichi; Umeno, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary design of genetic switches and circuits requires iterative rounds of positive (ON-) and negative (OFF-) selection. We previously reported a rapid OFF selection system based on the kinase activity of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (hsvTK) on the artificial mutator nucleoside dP. By fusing hsvTK with the kanamycin resistance marker aminoglycoside-(3’)-phosphotransferase (APH), we established a novel selector system for genetic switches. Due to the bactericidal nature of kanamycin and nucleoside-based lethal mutagenesis, both positive and negative selection could be completed within several hours. Using this new selector system, we isolated a series of homoserine lactone-inducible genetic switches with different expression efficiencies from libraries of the Vibrio fischeri lux promoter in two days, using only liquid handling. PMID:25790096

  4. Multistep virtual screening for rapid and efficient identification of non-nucleoside bacterial thymidine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zander, Johannes; Hartenfeller, Markus; Hähnke, Volker; Proschak, Ewgenij; Besier, Silke; Wichelhaus, Thomas A; Schneider, Gisbert

    2010-08-16

    Antimicrobial activity of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is antagonized by thymidine, which is abundant in infected or inflamed human tissue. To restore the antimicrobial activity of SXT in the presence of thymidine, we screened for small-molecule inhibitors of S. aureus thymidine kinase with non-nucleoside scaffolds. We present the successful application of an adaptive virtual screening protocol for novel antibiotics using a combination of ligand- and structure-based approaches. Two consecutive rounds of virtual screening and in vitro testing were performed that resulted in several non-nucleoside hits. The most potent compound exhibits substantial antimicrobial activity against both methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain ATCC 700699 and nonresistant strain ATCC 29213, when combined with SXT in the presence of thymidine. This study demonstrates how virtual screening can be used to guide hit finding in antibacterial screening campaigns with minimal experimental effort. PMID:20648496

  5. Purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Abramchik, Yu. A. Timofeev, V. I. Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2015-07-15

    Crystals of E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase were grown in microgravity by the capillary counter-diffusion method through a gel layer. The X-ray diffraction data set suitable for the determination of the three-dimensional structure at atomic resolution was collected from one crystal at the Spring-8 synchrotron facility to 0.99 Å resolution. The crystals belong to sp. gr. P2{sub 1} and have the following unit-cell parameters: a = 74.1 Å, b = 110.2 Å, c = 88.2 Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 111.08°. The crystal contains six subunits of the enzyme comprising a hexamer per asymmetric unit. The hexamer is the biological active form of E. coli. purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

  6. Mechanism of human telomerase inhibition by BIBR1532, a synthetic, non-nucleosidic drug candidate.

    PubMed

    Pascolo, Emanuelle; Wenz, Christian; Lingner, Joachim; Hauel, Norbert; Priepke, Henning; Kauffmann, Iris; Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Rettig, Wolfgang J; Damm, Klaus; Schnapp, Andreas

    2002-05-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein acting as a reverse transcriptase, has been identified as a target for cancer drug discovery. The synthetic, non-nucleosidic compound, BIBR1532, is a potent and selective telomerase inhibitor capable of inducing senescence in human cancer cells (). In the present study, the mode of drug action was characterized. BIBR1532 inhibits the native and recombinant human telomerase, comprising the human telomerase reverse transcriptase and human telomerase RNA components, with similar potency primarily by interfering with the processivity of the enzyme. Enzyme-kinetic experiments show that BIBR1532 is a mixed-type non-competitive inhibitor and suggest a drug binding site distinct from the sites for deoxyribonucleotides and the DNA primer, respectively. Thus, BIBR1532 defines a novel class of telomerase inhibitor with mechanistic similarities to non-nucleosidic inhibitors of HIV1 reverse transcriptase. PMID:11854300

  7. Preliminary crystallographic studies of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Qiao-Ming; Liu, Xiang; Brostromer, Erik; Li, Lan-Fen; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2009-01-01

    The punA gene of the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans encodes purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), which is a pivotal enzyme in the nucleotide-salvage pathway, catalyzing the phosphorolysis of purine nucleosides to generate purine bases and α-ribose 1-phosphate. In the present work, the PNP protein was expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) in a soluble form at a high level. After purification of the PNP enzyme, the protein was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique; the crystals diffracted to 1.6 Å resolution at best. The crystals belonged to space group H3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 113.0, c = 60.1 Å. PMID:20054131

  8. TAOK3 phosphorylates the methylenecyclopropane nucleoside MBX 2168 to its monophosphate.

    PubMed

    Komazin-Meredith, Gloria; Cardinale, Steven C; Comeau, Katelyn; Magalhaes, Kevin J; Hartline, Caroll B; Williams, John D; Opperman, Timothy J; Prichard, Mark N; Bowlin, Terry L

    2015-07-01

    Monohydroxymethyl methylenecyclopropane nucleosides (MCPNs) with ether or thioether substituents at the 6-position show promise as broad-spectrum herpes virus inhibitors. Their proposed mechanism of action involves sequential phosphorylation to a triphosphate, which can then inhibit viral DNA polymerase. The inhibition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) by these compounds is not dependent on the viral thymidine kinase (TK), which is known to phosphorylate acyclovir (ACV), a standard treatment for HSV infections. Previous studies on the mechanism of action of these compounds against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) implicated a host kinase in addition to HCMV UL97 kinase in performing the initial phosphorylation. After first eliminating other candidate HSV-1 encoded kinases (UL13 and US3) as well as potential host nucleoside kinases, using activity-based fractionation, we have now identified the host serine-threonine protein kinase TAOK3 as the kinase responsible for transforming the representative monohydroxymethyl MCPN analog MBX 2168 to its monophosphate. PMID:25857706

  9. Using conformationally locked nucleosides to calibrate the anomeric effect: Implications for glycosyl bond stability

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyung Ryong; Siddiqui, Maqbool A.; Sun, Guangyu; Filippov, Igor V.; Landsman, Nicholas A.; Lee, Yi-Chien; Adams, Kristie M.; Barchi, Joseph J.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Nicklaus, Marc C.; Kelley, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Steric and electronic parameters such as the anomeric effect (AE) and gauche effect play significant roles in steering the North ⇆ South equilibrium of nucleosides in solution. Two isomeric oxa-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane nucleosides that are conformationally locked in either the North or the South conformation of the pseudorotational cycle were designed to study the consequences of having the AE operational or not, independent of other parameters. The rigidity of the system allowed the orientation of the orbitals involved to be set in “fixed” relationships, either antiperiplanar where the AE is permanently “on”, or gauche where the AE is impaired. The consequences of these two alternatives were subject to high-level calculations and measured experimentally by x-ray crystallography, hydrolytic stability of the glycosyl bond, and pKa values. PMID:21052524

  10. Comparison of Clostridium difficile detection by monolayer and by inhibition of nucleoside uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhr, J.E.; Trent, D.J.; Collmann, I.R.

    1987-02-01

    Detection and identification of Clostridium difficile toxin by traditional monolayer assay were compared with results obtained by a new procedure based on toxin-dependent inhibition of target cell uptake of a radioactive nucleoside. A high degree of correlation was noted between the two determinations. Although the new procedure was quantitative and objective, its value is seen at present as a rapid screen that may support results obtained in monolayers and as a potential assay for other, currently unidentified, toxins.

  11. Nuclear quadrupole resonance of 14N and 2H in pyrimidines, purines, and their nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbani, S. R.; Edmonds, D. T.; Gosling, P.

    Using nuclear quadrupole double-resonance techniques, nitrogen-14 and deuterium nuclear quadrupole coupling constants and asymmetry parameters have been measured in uracil, 5-bromouracil, cytosine, adenine, xanthine, hypoxanthine, their nucleosides, 2-aminopyrimidine, and benzimidazole. Zeeman studies and the detection of the simultaneous transitions of neighboring nuclei allowed in many cases a complete assignment of the observed spectral lines to particular 14N and 2D sites.

  12. Modulation of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter by inhibitors of DNA synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Pressacco, J.; Wiley, J. S.; Jamieson, G. P.; Erlichman, C.; Hedley, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    Expression of the equilibrative, S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBMPR)-sensitive nucleoside transporter (es), a component of the nucleoside salvage pathway, was measured during unperturbed growth and following exposure to various antimetabolites at growth-inhibitory concentrations. The probe 5-(SAENTA-x8)-fluorescein is a highly modified form of adenosine incorporating a fluorescein molecule. It binds. with high affinity and specificity to the (es) nucleoside transporter at a 1:1 stoichiometry, allowing reliable estimates of es expression by flow cytometry. Using a dual labelling technique which combined the vital DNA dye Hoechst-33342 and 5-(SAENTA-x8)-fluorescein, we found that surface expression of es approximately doubled between G1 and G2 + M phases of the cell cycle. To address the question of whether es expression could be modulated in cells exposed to drugs which inhibit de novo synthesis of nucleotides, cells were exposed to antimetabolite drugs having different modes of action. Hydroxyurea and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which inhibit the de novo synthesis of DNA precursors, produced increases in the expression of es. In contrast, cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) and aphidicolin, which directly inhibit DNA synthesis, produced no significant increase in es expression. Thymidine (TdR), which is an allosteric inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase that depletes dATP, dCTP and dGTP pools while repleting the dTTP pool, had no significant effect on es expression. These data suggest that surface expression of the es nucleoside transporter is regulated by a mechanism which is sensitive to the supply of deoxynucleotides. Because 5-FU (which specifically depletes dTTP pools) causes a large increase in expression whereas TdR (which depletes all precursors except dTTP) does not, this mechanism might be particularly sensitive to dTTP pools. PMID:7547244

  13. Synthesis and properties of novel base-discriminating fluorescent (BDF) nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshio; Hanawa, Kazuo; Hayashi, Keigo; Motegi, Kaori; Okaoto, Akimitsu; Saito, Isao

    2005-01-01

    We designed a new type of pyrene-labeled base-discrimination fluorescent (BDF) nucleosides (Py)U, (Py)C, (8Py)A and (MePy)dA, which emitted strong fluorescence only when the bases opposite the BDF base are A, G, T and C, respectively. The DNA probes containing four different BDF bases enable us to distinguish single base alterations by simply mixing with a sample solution of target DNA. PMID:17150679

  14. An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment: The Multistep Synthesis of a Modified Nucleoside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delannoy, Peter; Howell, Joseph

    1997-08-01

    We have designed and integrated the multistep synthesis of a modified nucleoside into an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. The laboratory was designed as a multidisciplinary approach towards a single synthetic problem. Here we report the synthesis and subsequent purification of 5'-O-dimethoxytrityl-2'-O-methyluridine and 5'-O-dimethoxytrityl-3'-O-methyluridine directly from the literature by a protocol that is appropriate in a small school setting.

  15. Nucleoside modifications in the regulation of gene expression: focus on tRNA.

    PubMed

    Duechler, Markus; Leszczyńska, Grażyna; Sochacka, Elzbieta; Nawrot, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Both, DNA and RNA nucleoside modifications contribute to the complex multi-level regulation of gene expression. Modified bases in tRNAs modulate protein translation rates in a highly dynamic manner. Synonymous codons, which differ by the third nucleoside in the triplet but code for the same amino acid, may be utilized at different rates according to codon-anticodon affinity. Nucleoside modifications in the tRNA anticodon loop can favor the interaction with selected codons by stabilizing specific base pairs. Similarly, weakening of base pairing can discriminate against binding to near-cognate codons. mRNAs enriched in favored codons are translated in higher rates constituting a fine-tuning mechanism for protein synthesis. This so-called codon bias establishes a basic protein level, but sometimes it is necessary to further adjust the production rate of a particular protein to actual requirements, brought by, e.g., stages in circadian rhythms, cell cycle progression or exposure to stress. Such an adjustment is realized by the dynamic change of tRNA modifications resulting in the preferential translation of mRNAs coding for example for stress proteins to facilitate cell survival. Furthermore, tRNAs contribute in an entirely different way to another, less specific stress response consisting in modification-dependent tRNA cleavage that contributes to the general down-regulation of protein synthesis. In this review, we summarize control functions of nucleoside modifications in gene regulation with a focus on recent findings on protein synthesis control by tRNA base modifications. PMID:27094388

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Bridged Nucleosides on Thermus aquaticus DNA Polymerase and Insight into the Binding Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Kun; Castro, Aaron; Kim, Edward S.; Dinkel, Austin P.; Liu, Xiaoyun; Castro, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Modified nucleosides have the potential to inhibit DNA polymerases for the treatment of viral infections and cancer. With the hope of developing potent drug candidates by the modification of the 2’,4’-position of the ribose with the inclusion of a bridge, efforts were focused on the inhibition of Taq DNA polymerase using quantitative real time PCR, and the results revealed the significant inhibitory effects of 2’,4’-bridged thymidine nucleoside on the polymerase. Study on the mode of inhibition revealed the competitive mechanism with which the 2’,4’-bridged thymidine operates. With a Ki value of 9.7 ± 1.1 μM, the 2’,4’-bridged thymidine proved to be a very promising inhibitor. Additionally, docking analysis showed that all the nucleosides including 2’,4’-bridged thymidine were able to dock in the active site, indicating that the substrate analogs reflect a structural complementarity to the enzyme active site. The analysis also provided evidence that Asp610 was a key binding site for 2’,4’-bridged thymidine. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to further understand the conformational variations of the binding. The root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) values for the peptide backbone of the enzyme and the nitrogenous base of the inhibitor stabilized within 0.8 and 0.2 ns, respectively. Furthermore, the MD analysis indicates substantial conformational change in the ligand (inhibitor) as the nitrogenous base rotated anticlockwise with respect to the sugar moiety, complemented by the formation of several new hydrogen bonds where Arg587 served as a pivot axis for binding formation. In conclusion, the active site inhibition of Taq DNA polymerase by 2’,4’-bridged thymidine suggests the potential of bridged nucleosides as drug candidates. PMID:26820310

  17. Control of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the rat spinal dorsal horn by the nucleoside transporter ENT1.

    PubMed

    Ackley, Michael A; Governo, Ricardo J M; Cass, Carol E; Young, James D; Baldwin, Stephen A; King, Anne E

    2003-04-15

    Adenosine modulates nociceptive processing in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord. In other tissues, membrane transporters influence profoundly the extracellular levels of adenosine. To investigate the putative role of nucleoside transporters in the regulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn, we employed immunohistochemistry and whole-cell patch-clamp recording of substantia gelatinosa neurons in slices of rat spinal cord in vitro. The rat equilibrative nucleoside transporter (rENT1) was revealed by antibody staining to be abundant in neonatal and mature dorsal horn, especially within laminae I-III. This was confirmed by immunoblots of dorsal horn homogenate. Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), a potent non-transportable inhibitor of rENT1, attenuated synaptically evoked EPSCs onto lamina II neurons in a concentration-dependent manner. Application of an adenosine A1 antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine produced a parallel rightward shift in the NBMPR concentration-effect curve. The effects of NBMPR were partially reversed by adenosine deaminase, which facilitates the metabolic degradation of adenosine. The modulation by NBMPR of evoked EPSCs was mimicked by exogenous adenosine or the selective A1 receptor agonist, 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyl adenosine. NBMPR reduced the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous miniature EPSCs and increased the paired-pulse ratio of evoked currents, an effect that is consistent with presynaptic modulation. These data provide the first direct evidence that nucleoside transporters are able to critically modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission. PMID:12611914

  18. The search for and identification of amino acids, nucleobases and nucleosides in samples returned from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, Charles W.; Ponnamperuma, Cyril; Kuo, Kenneth C.; Stalling, David L.; Zumwalt, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of the returned Mars samples for biologically important organic compounds, with emphasis on amino acid, the puring and pyrimidine bases, and nucleosides is proposed. These studies would be conducted on subsurface samples obtained by drilling past the surface oxidizing layer with emphasis on samples containing the larges quantities of organic carbon as determined by the rover gas chromatographic mass spectrometer (GCMS). Extraction of these molecules from the returned samples will be performed using the hydrothermal extraction technique described by Cheng and Ponnamperuma. More rigorous extraction methods will be developed and evaluated. For analysis of the extract for free amino acids or amino acids present in a bound or peptidic form, aliquots will be analyzed by capillary GCMS both before and after hydrolysis with 6N hydrochloric acid. Establishment of the presence of amino acids would then lead to the next logical step which would be the use of chiral stationary gas chromatography phases to determine the enatiomeic composition of the amino acids present, and thus potentially establish their biotic or abiotic origin. Confirmational analyses for amino acids would include ion-exchange and reversed-phase liquid chromatographic analysis. For analyses of the returned Mars samples for nucleobases and nucleosides, affinity and reversed-phase liquid chromatography would be utilized. This technology coupled with scanning UV detection for identification, presents a powerful tool for nucleobase and nucleoside analysis. Mass spectrometric analysis of these compounds would confirm their presence in samples returned form Mars.

  19. Relaxed enantioselectivity of human mitochondrial thymidine kinase and chemotherapeutic uses of L-nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed Central

    Verri, A; Priori, G; Spadari, S; Tondelli, L; Focher, F

    1997-01-01

    Our discovery that Herpes virus thymidine kinase (TK) and cellular deoxycytidine kinase lack enantioselectivity, being able to phosphorylate both D- and L-enantiomers of the substrate, suggested the use of unnatural L-nucleoside analogues as antiviral drugs (Herpes, hepatitis and immunodeficiency viruses). Several L-nucleoside analogues have displayed a short-term cytotoxicity much lower than their corresponding D-counterpart. Since the delayed cytotoxicity of a drug often depends on its effects on mitochondrial metabolism, we have investigated the degree of enantioselectivity of human mitochondrial thymidine kinase (mt-TK). We demonstrate that mt-TK does not show an absolute enantioselectivity, being able to recognize, although with lower efficiency, the L-enantiomers of thymidine, deoxycytidine and modified deoxyuridines, such as (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. Interestingly, the reported negative co-operativity of mt-TK phosphorylating beta-D-2'-deoxythymidine (D-Thd), disappears when the deoxyribose moiety has the inverted configuration, resulting in the preferential phosphorylation of d-Thd even in the presence of high concentrations of the L-enantiomer. This, coupled with the higher Km for beta-L-2'-deoxythymidine (L-Thd), makes mt-TK resistant to high concentrations of L-Thd and L-Thd analogues, minimizing the mitochondria-dependent delayed cytotoxicity that might be caused by the administration of L-nucleoside analogues as antivirals. PMID:9359870

  20. Effect of dietary nucleosides on growth and maturation of the developing gut in the rat.

    PubMed

    Uauy, R; Stringel, G; Thomas, R; Quan, R

    1990-05-01

    Dietary nucleoside (DN) as a precursor for nucleic acid synthesis may be important for rapidly dividing cells, since gut epithelial cells have limited capacity for de novo purine and pyrimidine synthesis. We evaluated in a controlled blinded study the effect of added nucleosides, 0.8% by weight, given for 2 weeks, on gut growth and maturation in 20 weanling rats. Mucosal protein and DNA in the proximal intestinal segment were 50% and 77% higher, respectively, in the DN-supplemented group (n = 10; p less than 0.05). Villus height based on cell count was 25% greater in the DN group (p less than 0.05). Maltase activity was significantly greater in proximal, middle, and distal intestinal segments, and the largest increase, 87%, was seen in the proximal gut mucosa. The maltase/lactase ratio was also higher in this segment. Increases in sucrase were less prominent. Lactase was minimally affected. The pattern of change in disaccharidase activity suggests that DN may enhance gut growth and maturation of the intestine in the weanling rat, the effects being more pronounced in the proximal segment. Diets free of nucleosides and nitrogenous bases may have adverse effects on the gut. PMID:2358983

  1. An unusual UMP C-5 methylase in nucleoside antibiotic polyoxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenqing; Li, Yan; Li, Jie; Wu, Lian; Li, Yan; Wang, Renxiao; Deng, Zixin; Zhou, Jiahai

    2016-09-01

    Polyoxin is a group of structurally-related peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics bearing C-5 modifications on the nucleoside skeleton. Although the structural diversity and bioactivity preference of polyoxin are, to some extent, affected by such modifications, the biosynthetic logic for their occurence remains obscure. Here we report the identification of PolB in polyoxin pathway as an unusual UMP C-5 methylase with thymidylate synthase activity which is responsible for the C-5 methylation of the nucleoside skeleton. To probe its molecular mechanism, we determined the crystal structures of PolB alone and in complexes with 5-Br UMP and 5-Br dUMP at 2.15 Å, 1.76 Å and 2.28 Å resolutions, respectively. Loop 1 (residues 117-131), Loop 2 (residues 192-201) and the substrate recognition peptide (residues 94-102) of PolB exhibit considerable conformational flexibility and adopt distinct structures upon binding to different substrate analogs. Consistent with the structural findings, a PolB homolog that harbors an identical function from Streptomyces viridochromogenes DSM 40736 was identified. The discovery of UMP C5-methylase opens the way to rational pathway engineering for polyoxin component optimization, and will also enrich the toolbox for natural nucleotide chemistry. PMID:27412636

  2. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of phosphorodiamidate prodrugs of antiviral and anticancer nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    McGuigan, Christopher; Bourdin, Claire; Derudas, Marco; Hamon, Nadège; Hinsinger, Karen; Kandil, Sahar; Madela, Karolina; Meneghesso, Silvia; Pertusati, Fabrizio; Serpi, Michaela; Slusarczyk, Magdalena; Chamberlain, Stanley; Kolykhalov, Alexander; Vernachio, John; Vanpouille, Christophe; Introini, Andrea; Margolis, Leonid; Balzarini, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We herein report the application of the phosphorodiamidate phosphate prodrug approach to a series of thirteen nucleoside analogs with antiviral or anticancer activity. Twenty-five symmetrical phosphorodiamidates were synthesized, bearing esterified l-Alanine (and in one case d-alanine) in the prodrug moiety, each as single stereoisomer. The presence of an achiral phosphorus represents a potential advantage over the phosphoramidate ProTide approach, where diastereoisomeric mixtures are routinely obtained, and different biological profiles may be expected from the diastereoisomers. Optimization of the synthetic pathway allowed us to identify two general methods depending on the particular nucleoside analogs. All the compounds were biologically evaluated in antiviral and anticancer assays and several showed improvement of activity compared to their parent nucleosides, as in the case of ddA, d4T, abacavir and acyclovir against HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. The biological results were supported by metabolism studies with carboxypeptidase Y monitored by 31P NMR to investigate their bioactivation. This work further validates the phosphorodiamidate approach as a monophosphate prodrug motif with broad application in the antiviral and anticancer fields. PMID:24177359

  3. Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudret, Robin; Parks, Jerry M; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. How- ever, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum me- chanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3) N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nu- cleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic prop- erties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nu- cleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach. 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4772182

  4. In-Gene Quantification of O(6)-Methylguanine with Elongated Nucleoside Analogues on Gold Nanoprobes.

    PubMed

    Trantakis, Ioannis A; Nilforoushan, Arman; Dahlmann, Heidi A; Stäuble, Celine K; Sturla, Shana J

    2016-07-13

    Exposure of DNA to chemicals can result in the formation of DNA adducts, a molecular initiating event in genotoxin-induced carcinogenesis. O(6)-Methylguanine (O(6)-MeG) is a highly mutagenic DNA adduct that forms in human genomic DNA upon reaction with methylating agents of dietary, environmental, or endogenous origin. In this work, we report the design and synthesis of novel non-natural nucleoside analogues 1'-β-[1-naphtho[2,3-d]imidazol-2(3H)-one)]-2'-deoxy-d-ribofuranose and 1'-β-[1-naphtho[2,3-d]imidazole]-2'-deoxy-d-ribofuranose and their use for quantifying O(6)-MeG within mutational hotspots of the human KRAS gene. The novel nucleoside analogues were incorporated into oligonucleotides conjugated to gold nanoparticles to comprise a DNA hybridization probe system for detecting O(6)-MeG in a sequence-specific manner on the basis of colorimetric readout of the nanoparticles. The concept described herein is unique in utilizing new nucleoside analogues with elongated hydrophobic surfaces to successfully measure in-gene abundance of O(6)-MeG in mixtures with competing unmodified DNA. PMID:27314828

  5. Structural and functional characterization of a noncanonical nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphatase from Thermotoga maritima

    PubMed Central

    Awwad, Khaldeyah; Desai, Anna; Smith, Clyde; Sommerhalter, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima has a noncanonical nucleoside triphosphatase that catalyzes the conversion of inosine triphosphate (ITP), deoxyinosine triphosphate (dITP) and xanthosine triphosphate (XTP) into inosine monophosphate (IMP), deoxyinosine monophosphate (IMP) and xanthosine monophosphate (XMP), respectively. The k cat/K m values determined at 323 and 353 K fall between 1.31 × 104 and 7.80 × 104  M −1 s−1. ITP and dITP are slightly preferred over XTP. Activity towards canonical nucleoside triphosphates (ATP and GTP) was not detected. The enzyme has an absolute requirement for Mg2+ as a cofactor and has a preference for alkaline conditions. A protein X-ray structure of the enzyme with bound IMP was obtained at 2.15 Å resolution. The active site houses a well conserved network of residues that are critical for substrate recognition and catalysis. The crystal structure shows a tetramer with two possible dimer interfaces. One of these interfaces strongly resembles the dimer interface that is found in the structures of other noncanonical nucleoside pyrophosphatases from human (human ITPase) and archaea (Mj0226 and PhNTPase). PMID:23385455

  6. A novel nucleoside hydrolase from Lactobacillus buchneri LBK78 catalyzing hydrolysis of 2'-O-methylribonucleosides.

    PubMed

    Mitsukawa, Yuuki; Hibi, Makoto; Matsutani, Narihiro; Horinouchi, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Satomi; Ogawa, Jun

    2016-08-01

    2'-O-Methylribonucleosides (2'-OMe-NRs) are promising raw materials for nucleic acid drugs because of their high thermal stability and nuclease tolerance. In the course of microbial screening for metabolic activity toward 2'-OMe-NRs, Lactobacillus buchneri LBK78 was found to decompose 2'-O-methyluridine (2'-OMe-UR). The enzyme responsible was partially purified from L. buchneri LBK78 cells by a four-step purification procedure, and identified as a novel nucleoside hydrolase. This enzyme, LbNH, belongs to the nucleoside hydrolase superfamily, and formed a homotetrameric structure composed of subunits with a molecular mass around 34 kDa. LbNH hydrolyzed 2'-OMe-UR to 2'-O-methylribose and uracil, and the kinetic constants were Km of 0.040 mM, kcat of 0.49 s(-1), and kcat/Km of 12 mM(-1) s(-1). In a substrate specificity analysis, LbNH preferred ribonucleosides and 2'-OMe-NRs as its hydrolytic substrates, but reacted weakly with 2'-deoxyribonucleosides. In a phylogenetic analysis, LbNH showed a close relationship with purine-specific nucleoside hydrolases from trypanosomes. PMID:27180876

  7. Nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase from psychrophilic bacterium Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus--preparation of an immobilized biocatalyst for the enzymatic synthesis of therapeutic nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Fresco-Taboada, Alba; Serra, Immacolata; Fernández-Lucas, Jesús; Acebal, Carmen; Arroyo, Miguel; Terreni, Marco; de la Mata, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase (NDT) from the psychrophilic bacterium Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus CECT 4074 has been cloned and produced for the first time. A preliminary characterization of the recombinant protein indicates that the enzyme is an NDT type II since it catalyzes the transfer of 2'-deoxyribose between purines and pyrimidines. The enzyme (BpNDT) displays a high activity and stability in a broad range of pH and temperature. In addition, different approaches for the immobilization of BpNDT onto several supports have been studied in order to prepare a suitable biocatalyst for the one-step industrial enzymatic synthesis of different therapeutic nucleosides. Best results were obtained by adsorbing the enzyme on PEI-functionalized agarose and subsequent cross-linking with aldehyde-dextran (20 kDa and 70% oxidation degree). The immobilized enzyme could be recycled for at least 30 consecutive cycles in the synthesis of 2'-deoxyadenosine from 2'-deoxyuridine and adenine at 37 °C and pH 8.0, with a 25% loss of activity. High conversion yield of trifluridine (64.4%) was achieved in 2 h when 20 mM of 2'-deoxyuridine and 10 mM 5-trifluorothymine were employed in the transglycosylation reaction catalyzed by immobilized BpNDT at 37 °C and pH 7.5. PMID:25090115

  8. Na+-dependent nucleoside transport in liver: two different isoforms from the same gene family are expressed in liver cells.

    PubMed

    Felipe, A; Valdes, R; Santo, B; Lloberas, J; Casado, J; Pastor-Anglada, M

    1998-03-01

    Hepatocytes show a Na+-dependent nucleoside transport activity that is kinetically heterogeneous and consistent with the expression of at least two independent concentrative Na+-coupled nucleoside transport systems (Mercader et al. Biochem. J. 317, 835-842, 1996). So far, only a single nucleoside carrier-related cDNA (SPNT) has been isolated from liver cells (Che et al. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 13596-13599, 1995). This cDNA presumably encodes a plasma membrane protein responsible for Na+-dependent purine nucleoside transport activity. Thus, the liver must express, at least, a second nucleoside transporter which should be pyrimidine-preferring. Homology cloning using RT-PCR revealed that a second isoform is indeed present in liver. This second isoform turned out to be identical to the 'epithelial-specific isoform' called cNT1, which shows in fact high specificity for pyrimidine nucleosides. Although cNT1 mRNA is present at lower amounts than SPNT mRNA, the amounts of cNT1 protein, when measured using isoform-specific polyclonal antibodies, were even higher than the SPNT protein levels. Moreover, partially purified basolateral plasma membrane vesicles from liver were enriched in the SPNT but not in the cNT1 protein, which suggests that the subcellular localization of these carrier proteins is different. SPNT and cNT1 protein amounts in crude membrane extracts from 6 h-regenerating rat livers are higher than in the preparations from sham-operated controls (3.5- and 2-fold, respectively). These results suggest that liver parenchymal cells express at least two different isoforms of concentrative nucleoside carriers, the cNT1 and SPNT proteins, which show differential regulation and subcellular localization. PMID:9480921

  9. Na+-dependent nucleoside transport in liver: two different isoforms from the same gene family are expressed in liver cells.

    PubMed Central

    Felipe, A; Valdes, R; Santo, B; Lloberas, J; Casado, J; Pastor-Anglada, M

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocytes show a Na+-dependent nucleoside transport activity that is kinetically heterogeneous and consistent with the expression of at least two independent concentrative Na+-coupled nucleoside transport systems (Mercader et al. Biochem. J. 317, 835-842, 1996). So far, only a single nucleoside carrier-related cDNA (SPNT) has been isolated from liver cells (Che et al. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 13596-13599, 1995). This cDNA presumably encodes a plasma membrane protein responsible for Na+-dependent purine nucleoside transport activity. Thus, the liver must express, at least, a second nucleoside transporter which should be pyrimidine-preferring. Homology cloning using RT-PCR revealed that a second isoform is indeed present in liver. This second isoform turned out to be identical to the 'epithelial-specific isoform' called cNT1, which shows in fact high specificity for pyrimidine nucleosides. Although cNT1 mRNA is present at lower amounts than SPNT mRNA, the amounts of cNT1 protein, when measured using isoform-specific polyclonal antibodies, were even higher than the SPNT protein levels. Moreover, partially purified basolateral plasma membrane vesicles from liver were enriched in the SPNT but not in the cNT1 protein, which suggests that the subcellular localization of these carrier proteins is different. SPNT and cNT1 protein amounts in crude membrane extracts from 6 h-regenerating rat livers are higher than in the preparations from sham-operated controls (3.5- and 2-fold, respectively). These results suggest that liver parenchymal cells express at least two different isoforms of concentrative nucleoside carriers, the cNT1 and SPNT proteins, which show differential regulation and subcellular localization. PMID:9480921

  10. Molecular cloning, functional expression and chromosomal localization of a cDNA encoding a human Na+/nucleoside cotransporter (hCNT2) selective for purine nucleosides and uridine.

    PubMed

    Ritzel, M W; Yao, S Y; Ng, A M; Mackey, J R; Cass, C E; Young, J D

    1998-01-01

    Two Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporters implicated in adenosine and uridine transport in mammalian cells are distinguished functionally on the basis of substrate specificity: CNT1 is selective for pyrimidine nucleosides but also transports adenosine; CNT2 (also termed SPNT) is selective for purine nucleosides but also transports uridine. Both proteins belong to a gene family that includes the NupC proton/nucleoside symporter of E. coli. cDNAs encoding members of the CNT family have been isolated from rat tissues (jejunum, brain, liver; rCNT1 and rCNT2/SPNT) and, most recently, human kidney (hCNT1 and hSPNT1). Here, the molecular cloning and functional characterization of a CNT2/SPNT-type transporter from human small intestine are described. The encoded 658-residue protein (hCNT2 in the nomenclature) had the same predicted amino acid sequence as human kidney hSPNT1, except for a polymorphism at residue 75 (Arg substituted by Ser), and was 83 and 72% identical to rCNT2 and hCNT1, respectively. Sequence differences between hCNT2 and rCNT2 were greatest at the N-terminus. In Xenopus oocytes, recombinant hCNT2 exhibited the functional characteristics of a Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporter with selectivity for adenosine, other purine nucleosides and uridine (adenosine and uridine K(m) app values 8 and 40 microM, respectively). hCNT2 transcripts were found in kidney and small intestine but, unlike rCNT2, were not detected in liver. Deoxyadenosine, which undergoes net renal secretion in humans, was less readily transported than adenosine. hCNT2 also mediated small, but significant, fluxes of the antiviral purine nucleoside analogue 2',3'-dideoxyinosine. hCNT2 is, therefore potentially involved in both the intestinal absorption and renal handling of purine nucleosides (including adenosine), uridine and purine nucleoside drugs. The gene encoding hCNT2 was mapped to chromosome 15q15. PMID:10087507

  11. The chemoenzymatic synthesis of clofarabine and related 2'-deoxyfluoroarabinosyl nucleosides: the electronic and stereochemical factors determining substrate recognition by E. coli nucleoside phosphorylases.

    PubMed

    Fateev, Ilja V; Antonov, Konstantin V; Konstantinova, Irina D; Muravyova, Tatyana I; Seela, Frank; Esipov, Roman S; Miroshnikov, Anatoly I; Mikhailopulo, Igor A

    2014-01-01

    Two approaches to the synthesis of 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine (1, clofarabine) were studied. The first approach consists in the chemical synthesis of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-α-D-arabinofuranose-1-phosphate (12a, (2F)Ara-1P) via three step conversion of 1,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-α-D-arabinofuranose (9) into the phosphate 12a without isolation of intermediary products. Condensation of 12a with 2-chloroadenine catalyzed by the recombinant E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) resulted in the formation of clofarabine in 67% yield. The reaction was also studied with a number of purine bases (2-aminoadenine and hypoxanthine), their analogues (5-aza-7-deazaguanine and 8-aza-7-deazahypoxanthine) and thymine. The results were compared with those of a similar reaction with α-D-arabinofuranose-1-phosphate (13a, Ara-1P). Differences of the reactivity of various substrates were analyzed by ab initio calculations in terms of the electronic structure (natural purines vs analogues) and stereochemical features ((2F)Ara-1P vs Ara-1P) of the studied compounds to determine the substrate recognition by E. coli nucleoside phosphorylases. The second approach starts with the cascade one-pot enzymatic transformation of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-arabinose into the phosphate 12a, followed by its condensation with 2-chloroadenine thereby affording clofarabine in ca. 48% yield in 24 h. The following recombinant E. coli enzymes catalyze the sequential conversion of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-arabinose into the phosphate 12a: ribokinase (2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-arabinofuranose-5-phosphate), phosphopentomutase (PPN; no 1,6-diphosphates of D-hexoses as co-factors required) (12a), and finally PNP. The substrate activities of D-arabinose, D-ribose and D-xylose in the similar cascade syntheses of the relevant 2-chloroadenine nucleosides were studied and compared with the activities of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-arabinose. As expected, D-ribose exhibited the best substrate activity

  12. Conformationally rigid nucleoside probes help understand the role of sugar pucker and nucleobase orientation in the thrombin-binding aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Saneyoshi, Hisao; Mazzini, Stefania; Aviñó, Anna; Portella, Guillem; González, Carlos; Orozco, Modesto; Marquez, Víctor E.; Eritja, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    Modified thrombin-binding aptamers carrying 2′-deoxyguanine (dG) residues with locked North- or South-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane pseudosugars were synthesized. Individual 2′-deoxyguanosines at positions dG5, dG10, dG14 and dG15 of the aptamer were replaced by these analogues where the North/anti and South/syn conformational states were confined. It was found that the global structure of the DNA aptamer was, for the most part, very accommodating. The substitution at positions 5, 10 and 14 with a locked South/syn-dG nucleoside produced aptamers with the same stability and global structure as the innate, unmodified one. Replacing position 15 with the same South/syn-dG nucleoside induced a strong destabilization of the aptamer, while the antipodal North/anti-dG nucleoside was less destabilizing. Remarkably, the insertion of a North/anti-dG nucleoside at position 14, where both pseudosugar conformation and glycosyl torsion angle are opposite with respect to the native structure, led to the complete disruption of the G-tetraplex structure as detected by NMR and confirmed by extensive molecular dynamics simulations. We conclude that conformationally locked bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane nucleosides appear to be excellent tools for studying the role of key conformational parameters that are critical for the formation of a stable, antiparallel G-tetrad DNA structures. PMID:19620215

  13. Investigation of the active site and the conformational stability of nucleoside diphosphate kinase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Tepper, A D; Dammann, H; Bominaar, A A; Véron, M

    1994-12-23

    Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase (EC 2.7.4.6) catalyzes phosphate exchange between nucleoside triphosphates and nucleoside diphosphates. Its 17 kDa subunits are highly conserved throughout evolution in both sequence and tertiary structure. Using site-directed mutagenesis we investigated the function of 8 amino acids (Lys16, Tyr56, Arg92, Thr98, Arg109, Asn119, Ser124, and Glu133) that are totally conserved among all nucleoside diphosphate kinases known to date. The mutant proteins all show decreased specific activity and support roles for these residues in catalysis, substrate binding, or both, as was previously proposed on the basis of the x-ray structure (Moréra, S., Lascu, I., Dumas, C., LeBras, G., Briozzo, P., Véron, M., and Janin, J. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 459-467). Furthermore, residues Lys16, Arg109, and Asn 119 were identified to play important roles in conformational stability or subunit interactions. We show that Lys16 and Asn119 form a rigid structure that is important for enzymatic function and that Arg109, known to interact with the phosphate moiety of the substrate, also plays an important role in subunit association. The dual roles of Lys16, Arg109, and Asn119 in both substrate binding and subunit assembly provide further evidence for a functional coupling between catalytic activity and quaternary structure in nucleoside diphosphate kinase. PMID:7798215

  14. The halo-substituent effect on Pseudomonas cepacia lipase-mediated regioselective acylation of nucleosides: A comparative investigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Yu; Bi, Yan-Hong; Yang, Rong-Ling; Duan, Zhang-Qun; Nie, Ling-Hong; Li, Xiang-Qian; Zong, Min-Hua; Wu, Jie

    2015-10-20

    In this work, comparative experiments were explored to investigate the substrate specificity of Pseudomonas cepacia lipase in regioselective acylation of nucleosides carrying various substituents (such as the H, F, Cl, Br, I) at 2'- and 5-positions. Experimental data indicated that the catalytic performance of the enzyme depended very much on the halo-substituents in nucleosides. The increased bulk of 2'-substituents in ribose moiety of the nucleoside might contribute to the improved 3'-regioselectivity (90-98%, nucleosides a-d) in enzymatic decanoylation, while the enhancement of regioselectivity (93-99%) in 3'-O-acylated nucleosides e-h could be attributable to the increasing hydrophobicity of the halogen atoms at 5-positions. With regard to the chain-length selectivity, P. cepacia lipase displayed the highest 3'-regioselectivity toward the longer chain (C14) as compared to shorter (C6 and C10) ones. The position, orientation and property of the substituent, specific structure of the lipase's active site, and acyl structure could account for the diverse results. PMID:26325198

  15. Suppression of RNA recognition by Toll-like receptors: the impact of nucleoside modification and the evolutionary origin of RNA.

    PubMed

    Karikó, Katalin; Buckstein, Michael; Ni, Houping; Weissman, Drew

    2005-08-01

    DNA and RNA stimulate the mammalian innate immune system through activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). DNA containing methylated CpG motifs, however, is not stimulatory. Selected nucleosides in naturally occurring RNA are also methylated or otherwise modified, but the immunomodulatory effects of these alterations remain untested. We show that RNA signals through human TLR3, TLR7, and TLR8, but incorporation of modified nucleosides m5C, m6A, m5U, s2U, or pseudouridine ablates activity. Dendritic cells (DCs) exposed to such modified RNA express significantly less cytokines and activation markers than those treated with unmodified RNA. DCs and TLR-expressing cells are potently activated by bacterial and mitochondrial RNA, but not by mammalian total RNA, which is abundant in modified nucleosides. We conclude that nucleoside modifications suppress the potential of RNA to activate DCs. The innate immune system may therefore detect RNA lacking nucleoside modification as a means of selectively responding to bacteria or necrotic tissue. PMID:16111635

  16. FUN26 (function unknown now 26) protein from saccharomyces cerevisiae is a broad selectivity, high affinity, nucleoside and nucleobase transporter.

    PubMed

    Boswell-Casteel, Rebba C; Johnson, Jennifer M; Duggan, Kelli D; Roe-Žurž, Zygy; Schmitz, Hannah; Burleson, Carter; Hays, Franklin A

    2014-08-29

    Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) are polytopic integral membrane proteins that transport nucleosides and, to a lesser extent, nucleobases across cell membranes. ENTs modulate efficacy for a range of human therapeutics and function in a diffusion-controlled bidirectional manner. A detailed understanding of ENT function at the molecular level has remained elusive. FUN26 (function unknown now 26) is a putative ENT homolog from S. cerevisiae that is expressed in vacuole membranes. In the present system, proteoliposome studies of purified FUN26 demonstrate robust nucleoside and nucleobase uptake into the luminal volume for a broad range of substrates. This transport activity is sensitive to nucleoside modifications in the C(2')- and C(5')-positions on the ribose sugar and is not stimulated by a membrane pH differential. [(3)H]Adenine nucleobase transport efficiency is increased ∼4-fold relative to nucleosides tested with no observed [(3)H]adenosine or [(3)H]UTP transport. FUN26 mutational studies identified residues that disrupt (G463A or G216A) or modulate (F249I or L390A) transporter function. These results demonstrate that FUN26 has a unique substrate transport profile relative to known ENT family members and that a purified ENT can be reconstituted in proteoliposomes for functional characterization in a defined system. PMID:25035431

  17. FUN26 (Function Unknown Now 26) Protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is a Broad Selectivity, High Affinity, Nucleoside and Nucleobase Transporter*

    PubMed Central

    Boswell-Casteel, Rebba C.; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Duggan, Kelli D.; Roe-Žurž, Zygy; Schmitz, Hannah; Burleson, Carter; Hays, Franklin A.

    2014-01-01

    Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) are polytopic integral membrane proteins that transport nucleosides and, to a lesser extent, nucleobases across cell membranes. ENTs modulate efficacy for a range of human therapeutics and function in a diffusion-controlled bidirectional manner. A detailed understanding of ENT function at the molecular level has remained elusive. FUN26 (function unknown now 26) is a putative ENT homolog from S. cerevisiae that is expressed in vacuole membranes. In the present system, proteoliposome studies of purified FUN26 demonstrate robust nucleoside and nucleobase uptake into the luminal volume for a broad range of substrates. This transport activity is sensitive to nucleoside modifications in the C(2′)- and C(5′)-positions on the ribose sugar and is not stimulated by a membrane pH differential. [3H]Adenine nucleobase transport efficiency is increased ∼4-fold relative to nucleosides tested with no observed [3H]adenosine or [3H]UTP transport. FUN26 mutational studies identified residues that disrupt (G463A or G216A) or modulate (F249I or L390A) transporter function. These results demonstrate that FUN26 has a unique substrate transport profile relative to known ENT family members and that a purified ENT can be reconstituted in proteoliposomes for functional characterization in a defined system. PMID:25035431

  18. Crucial roles of thymidine kinase 1 and deoxyUTPase in incorporating the antineoplastic nucleosides trifluridine and 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine into DNA.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kazuki; Yokogawa, Tatsushi; Ueno, Hiroyuki; Oguchi, Kei; Kazuno, Hiromi; Ishida, Keiji; Tanaka, Nozomu; Osada, Akiko; Yamada, Yukari; Okabe, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Trifluridine (FTD) and 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (FdUrd), a derivative of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), are antitumor agents that inhibit thymidylate synthase activity and their nucleotides are incorporated into DNA. However, it is evident that several differences occur in the underlying antitumor mechanisms associated with these nucleoside analogues. Recently, TAS-102 (composed of FTD and tipiracil hydrochloride, TPI) was shown to prolong the survival of patients with colorectal cancer who received a median of 2 prior therapies, including 5-FU. TAS-102 was recently approved for clinical use in Japan. These data suggest that the antitumor activities of TAS-102 and 5-FU proceed via different mechanisms. Thus, we analyzed their properties in terms of thymidine salvage pathway utilization, involving membrane transporters, a nucleoside kinase, a nucleotide-dephosphorylating enzyme, and DNA polymerase α. FTD incorporated into DNA with higher efficiency than FdUrd did. Both FTD and FdUrd were transported into cells by ENT1 and ENT2 and were phosphorylated by thymidine kinase 1, which showed a higher catalytic activity for FTD than for FdUrd. deoxyUTPase (DUT) did not recognize dTTP and FTD-triphosphate (F3dTTP), whereas deoxyuridine-triphosphate (dUTP) and FdUrd-triphosphate (FdUTP) were efficiently degraded by DUT. DNA polymerase α incorporated both F3dTTP and FdUTP into DNA at sites aligned with adenine on the opposite strand. FTD-treated cells showed differing nuclear morphologies compared to FdUrd-treated cells. These findings indicate that FTD and FdUrd are incorporated into DNA with different efficiencies due to differences in the substrate specificities of TK1 and DUT, causing abundant FTD incorporation into DNA. PMID:25901475

  19. Crucial roles of thymidine kinase 1 and deoxyUTPase in incorporating the antineoplastic nucleosides trifluridine and 2′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine into DNA

    PubMed Central

    SAKAMOTO, KAZUKI; YOKOGAWA, TATSUSHI; UENO, HIROYUKI; OGUCHI, KEI; KAZUNO, HIROMI; ISHIDA, KEIJI; TANAKA, NOZOMU; OSADA, AKIKO; YAMADA, YUKARI; OKABE, HIROYUKI; MATSUO, KENICHI

    2015-01-01

    Trifluridine (FTD) and 2′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (FdUrd), a derivative of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), are antitumor agents that inhibit thymidylate synthase activity and their nucleotides are incorporated into DNA. However, it is evident that several differences occur in the underlying antitumor mechanisms associated with these nucleoside analogues. Recently, TAS-102 (composed of FTD and tipiracil hydrochloride, TPI) was shown to prolong the survival of patients with colorectal cancer who received a median of 2 prior therapies, including 5-FU. TAS-102 was recently approved for clinical use in Japan. These data suggest that the antitumor activities of TAS-102 and 5-FU proceed via different mechanisms. Thus, we analyzed their properties in terms of thymidine salvage pathway utilization, involving membrane transporters, a nucleoside kinase, a nucleotide-dephosphorylating enzyme, and DNA polymerase α. FTD incorporated into DNA with higher efficiency than FdUrd did. Both FTD and FdUrd were transported into cells by ENT1 and ENT2 and were phosphorylated by thymidine kinase 1, which showed a higher catalytic activity for FTD than for FdUrd. deoxyUTPase (DUT) did not recognize dTTP and FTD-triphosphate (F3dTTP), whereas deoxyuridine-triphosphate (dUTP) and FdUrd-triphosphate (FdUTP) were efficiently degraded by DUT. DNA polymerase α incorporated both F3dTTP and FdUTP into DNA at sites aligned with adenine on the opposite strand. FTD-treated cells showed differing nuclear morphologies compared to FdUrd-treated cells. These findings indicate that FTD and FdUrd are incorporated into DNA with different efficiencies due to differences in the substrate specificities of TK1 and DUT, causing abundant FTD incorporation into DNA. PMID:25901475

  20. A new strategy to construct acyclic nucleosides via Ag(I)-catalyzed addition of pronucleophiles to 9-allenyl-9H-purines.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Xie, Ming-Sheng; Qu, Gui-Rong; Niu, Hong-Ying; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2014-02-01

    A new strategy to construct acyclic nucleosides with diverse side chains was developed. With Ag(I) salts as catalysts, the hydrocarboxylation, hydroamination, and hydrocarbonation reactions proceeded well, affording acyclic nucleosides in good yields (41 examples, 60-98% yields). Meanwhile, these reactions exhibited high chemoselectivities and E-selectivities. PMID:24437554

  1. Quantification of the 2-deoxyribonolactone and nucleoside 5’-aldehyde products of 2-deoxyribose oxidation in DNA and cells by isotope-dilution gas chromatography mass spectrometry: Differential effects of γ-radiation and Fe2+-EDTA

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wan; Chen, Bingzi; Wang, Lianrong; Taghizadeh, Koli; Demott, Michael S.; Dedon, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The oxidation of 2-deoxyribose in DNA has emerged as a critical determinant of the cellular toxicity of oxidative damage to DNA, with oxidation of each carbon producing a unique spectrum of electrophilic products. We have developed and validated an isotope-dilution gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the rigorous quantification of two major 2-deoxyribose oxidation products: the 2-deoxyribonolactone abasic site of 1’-oxidation and the nucleoside 5’-aldehyde of 5’-oxidation chemistry. The method entails elimination of these products as 5-methylene-2(5H)-furanone (5MF) and furfural, respectively, followed by derivatization with pentafluorophenylhydrazine (PFPH), addition of isotopically labeled PFPH derivatives as internal standards, extraction of the derivatives, and quantification by GC-MS analysis. The precision and accuracy of the method were validated with oligodeoxynucleotides containing the 2-deoxyribonolactone and nucleoside 5’-aldehyde lesions. Further, the well defined 2-deoxyribose oxidation chemistry of the enediyne antibiotics, neocarzinostatin and calicheamicin γ1I, was exploited in control studies, with neocarzinostatin producing 10 2-deoxyribonolactone and 300 nucleoside 5’-aldehyde per 106 nt per µM in accord with its established minor 1’- and major 5’-oxidation chemistry. Calicheamicin unexpectedly caused 1’-oxidation at a low level of 10 2-deoxyribonolactone per 106 nt per µM in addition to the expected predominance of 5’-oxidation at 560 nucleoside 5’-aldehyde per 106 nt per µM. The two hydroxyl radical-mediated DNA oxidants, γ-radiation and Fe2+-EDTA, produced nucleoside 5’-aldehyde at a frequency of 57 per 106 nt per Gy (G-value 74 nmol/J) and 3.5 per 106 nt per µM, respectively, which amounted to 40% and 35%, respectively, of total 2-deoxyribose oxidation as measured by a plasmid nicking assay. However, γ-radiation and Fe2+-EDTA produced different proportions of 2-deoxyribonolactone at 7

  2. Quantification of the 2-deoxyribonolactone and nucleoside 5'-aldehyde products of 2-deoxyribose oxidation in DNA and cells by isotope-dilution gas chromatography mass spectrometry: differential effects of gamma-radiation and Fe2+-EDTA.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wan; Chen, Bingzi; Wang, Lianrong; Taghizadeh, Koli; Demott, Michael S; Dedon, Peter C

    2010-05-01

    The oxidation of 2-deoxyribose in DNA has emerged as a critical determinant of the cellular toxicity of oxidative damage to DNA, with oxidation of each carbon producing a unique spectrum of electrophilic products. We have developed and validated an isotope-dilution gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the rigorous quantification of two major 2-deoxyribose oxidation products: the 2-deoxyribonolactone abasic site of 1'-oxidation and the nucleoside 5'-aldehyde of 5'-oxidation chemistry. The method entails elimination of these products as 5-methylene-2(5H)-furanone (5MF) and furfural, respectively, followed by derivatization with pentafluorophenylhydrazine (PFPH), addition of isotopically labeled PFPH derivatives as internal standards, extraction of the derivatives, and quantification by GC-MS analysis. The precision and accuracy of the method were validated with oligodeoxynucleotides containing the 2-deoxyribonolactone and nucleoside 5'-aldehyde lesions. Further, the well-defined 2-deoxyribose oxidation chemistry of the enediyne antibiotics, neocarzinostatin and calicheamicin gamma(1)(I), was exploited in control studies, with neocarzinostatin producing 10 2-deoxyribonolactone and 300 nucleoside 5'-aldehyde per 10(6) nt per microM in accord with its established minor 1'- and major 5'-oxidation chemistry. Calicheamicin unexpectedly caused 1'-oxidation at a low level of 10 2-deoxyribonolactone per 10(6) nt per microM in addition to the expected predominance of 5'-oxidation at 560 nucleoside 5'-aldehyde per 10(6) nt per microM. The two hydroxyl radical-mediated DNA oxidants, gamma-radiation and Fe(2+)-EDTA, produced nucleoside 5'-aldehyde at a frequency of 57 per 10(6) nt per Gy (G-value 74 nmol/J) and 3.5 per 10(6) nt per microM, respectively, which amounted to 40% and 35%, respectively, of total 2-deoxyribose oxidation as measured by a plasmid nicking assay. However, gamma-radiation and Fe(2+)-EDTA produced different proportions of 2

  3. Synthesis of novel fluorocarbocyclic nucleosides and nucleotides as potential inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus

    SciTech Connect

    Hilpert, H.

    1989-01-01

    3[prime]-Azido-3[prime]-deoxythymidine (AZT) and 2[prime], 3[prime]-dideoxycytidine (DDC) are potent in vivo inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus. Due to their short half-life in the body and undesired side-effects compounds with improved bioavailability were designed. A feature of these analogues was the replacement of the heterocyclic oxygen atom by an isosteric CHF-group thus stabilizing the labile glycosidic bond against metabolic breakdown. A versatile and short synthesis, starting from ketone, serves to construct the highly functionalized and protected key intermediates. These ([alpha]- and [beta]-fluoro epimeric) intermediates were elaborated to eight fluorocarbocyclic nucleoside analogues linked with a thymine base, an adenine base, and a guanine base. An attempt was made to prepare analogues of the potent HIV inhibitor carbovir c. The unexpected oxidation of the double bond of compound d, instead of the desired Baeyer-Villiger ring-expansion, meant that the synthetic scheme was redundant. A second total synthesis involves the preparation of the three fluorocarbocyclic phosphonates. These analogues possess additionally a P-C linkage which should markedly enhance the stability of the side chain. To perform enzyme inhibition tests, three analogues were chemically activated to the biologically active triphosphates. Inhibition tests on HIV associated reverse transcriptase confirmed the high activity of one of the AZT triphosphates. The fluorocarbocyclic counterpart was two orders of magnitude less active. A fluorocarbocyclic phosphonate was twice as active as the AZT triphosphate. Neither the eight nucleoside analogues nor the three phosphonates displayed significant activity against HIV infected cells. Crystallographic data of two fluorocarbocyclic nucleosides, two potent HIV inhibitors, and some 20 examples of 2[prime]-deoxyribonucleosides have been compared.

  4. The Crystal Structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Uridine Phosphorylase Reveals a Distinct Subfamily of Nucleoside Phosphorylases

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Timothy H.; Christoffersen, S.; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Piskur, Jure; Serra, I.; Terreni, M.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2011-09-20

    Uridine phosphorylase (UP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine or 2'-deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate or 2'-deoxyribose 1-phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase I superfamily whose members show diverse specificity for nucleoside substrates. Phylogenetic analysis shows Streptococcus pyogenes uridine phosphorylase (SpUP) is found in a distinct branch of the pyrimidine subfamily of nucleoside phosphorylases. To further characterize SpUP, we determined the crystal structure in complex with the products, ribose 1-phosphate and uracil, at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution. Like Escherichia coli UP (EcUP), the biological unit of SpUP is a hexamer with an ?/? monomeric fold. A novel feature of the active site is the presence of His169, which structurally aligns with Arg168 of the EcUP structure. A second active site residue, Lys162, is not present in previously determined UP structures and interacts with O2 of uracil. Biochemical studies of wild-type SpUP showed that its substrate specificity is similar to that of EcUP, while EcUP is {approx}7-fold more efficient than SpUP. Biochemical studies of SpUP mutants showed that mutations of His169 reduced activity, while mutation of Lys162 abolished all activity, suggesting that the negative charge in the transition state resides mostly on uracil O2. This is in contrast to EcUP for which transition state stabilization occurs mostly at O4.

  5. Tissue distribution of concentrative and equilibrative nucleoside transporters in male and female rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Chen, Chuan; Klaassen, Curtis

    2004-12-01

    Concentrative nucleoside transporters (Cnts) and equilibrative nucleoside transporters (Ents) have essential physiological functions and are important in disposition of anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogs. Information on tissue distribution of Cnts and Ents in rodents is sparse. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the distribution of Cnt1-3 and Ent1-3 transcripts in 19 tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice of both genders. These six transcripts were quantified using the branched DNA signal amplification assay. Cnt1 transcripts were highest in small intestine, followed by kidney and testes, with similar expression in both species. Cnt2 mRNA was expressed highest in the small intestine of both rats and mice, intermediate in liver of rats but not in mice, and lower in thymus and spleen of both species. Cnt3 mRNA has marked species differences, with the highest expression in lung of rats but uterus of mice. Ent1 mRNA was most highly expressed in testes and lung of both species. Ent1 mRNA was highly expressed in liver and pituitary of mice, but not in rats. Ent2 mRNA was highly expressed in testes and brain of both species. Ent3 mRNA was highest in kidney, followed by testes, in both species. Significant gender differences were observed in kidney (mouse) and heart (rat). These studies demonstrate that in general, tissue distribution of Cnt and Ent is similar in rats and mice. However, a few important species and gender differences do exist, which could be responsible for related differences in efficacy and toxicity of substrates for these transporters. PMID:15371301

  6. Enantioselective Supramolecular Carriers for Nucleoside Drugs. A Thermodynamic and Kinetic Gas Phase Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraschetti, Caterina; Filippi, Antonello; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Villani, Claudio; Roselli, Graziella; Mortera, Stefano Levi; Speranza, Maurizio

    2012-10-01

    The enantioselective interactions between chiral tetra-amidic receptors and nucleosides have been investigated by the ESI-IT-MS and ESI-FT-ICR-MS methodologies. Configurational effects on the CID fragmentation of diastereomeric [ M H 2 •H•A] + aggregates (A = 2'-deoxycytidine dC, citarabine ( ara-C) were found to be mostly offset by isotope effect in [ S X 2 •H•A] + (X = H, D) differently from the results obtained on the analogues (A = cytidine C and gemcitabine G). This result points the involvement of two different nucleoside/tetraamide isoforms. The structural differences of the [ M H 2 •H•A] + (A = C and G) complexes vs. the [ M H 2 •H•A] + ( dC and ara-C) ones is fully confirmed by the kinetics of their uptake of the 2-aminobutane enantiomers, measured by FT-ICR mass spectrometry. Indeed, uptake of the 2-aminobutane enantiomers by [ M H n •H•A] + (n = 1,2; A = dC and ara-C) complexes is reversible, while that by [ M H n •H•A] + (n = 1,2; A = C and G) is not. The most encouraging result concerning the measured fragmentation and kinetic differences between C and ara-C, that are just epimers, indicates the possibility to subtly modulate the non-covalent drug/receptor interactions, through the electronic properties of the 2'-substituent on the nucleoside furanose ring, and furthermore on its three-dimensional position.

  7. Thermodynamics and kinetics of inhibitor binding to human equilibrative nucleoside transporter subtype-1.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Shahid; Ashok, Yashwanth; Nanekar, Rahul; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka

    2015-12-15

    Many nucleoside transport inhibitors are in clinical use as anti-cancer, vasodilator and cardioprotective drugs. However, little is known about the binding energetics of these inhibitors to nucleoside transporters (NTs) due to their low endogenous expression levels and difficulties in the biophysical characterization of purified protein with ligands. Here, we present kinetics and thermodynamic analyses of inhibitor binding to the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (hENT1), also known as SLC29A1. Using a radioligand binding assay, we obtained equilibrium binding and kinetic rate constants of well-known NT inhibitors--[(3)H]nitrobenzylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside ([(3)H]NBMPR), dilazep, and dipyridamole--and the native permeant, adenosine, to hENT1. We observed that the equilibrium binding affinities for all inhibitors decreased whereas, the kinetic rate constants increased with increasing temperature. Furthermore, we found that binding is enthalpy driven and thus, an exothermic reaction, implying that the transporter does not discriminate between its inhibitors and substrates thermodynamically. This predominantly enthalpy-driven binding by four chemically distinct ligands suggests that the transporter may not tolerate diversity in the type of interactions that lead to high affinity binding. Consistent with this, the measured activation energy of [(3)H]NBMPR association was relatively large (20 kcal mol(-1)) suggesting a conformational change upon inhibitor binding. For all three inhibitors the enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) contributions to the reaction energetics were determined by van't Hoff analysis to be roughly similar (25-75% ΔG°). Gains in enthalpy with increasing polar surface area of inhibitors suggest that the binding is favored by electrostatic or polar interactions between the ligands and the transporter. PMID:26428002

  8. Enantioselective supramolecular carriers for nucleoside drugs. A thermodynamic and kinetic gas phase investigation.

    PubMed

    Fraschetti, Caterina; Filippi, Antonello; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Villani, Claudio; Roselli, Graziella; Mortera, Stefano Levi; Speranza, Maurizio

    2012-10-01

    The enantioselective interactions between chiral tetra-amidic receptors and nucleosides have been investigated by the ESI-IT-MS and ESI-FT-ICR-MS methodologies. Configurational effects on the CID fragmentation of diastereomeric [M(H)(2)•H•A](+) aggregates (A = 2'-deoxycytidine dC, citarabine (ara-C) were found to be mostly offset by isotope effect in [S(X)(2)•H•A](+) (X = H, D) differently from the results obtained on the analogues (A = cytidine C and gemcitabine G). This result points the involvement of two different nucleoside/tetraamide isoforms. The structural differences of the [M(H)(2)•H•A](+) (A = C and G) complexes vs. the [M(H)(2)•H•A](+) (dC and ara-C) ones is fully confirmed by the kinetics of their uptake of the 2-aminobutane enantiomers, measured by FT-ICR mass spectrometry. Indeed, uptake of the 2-aminobutane enantiomers by [M(H)(n)•H•A](+) (n = 1,2; A = dC and ara-C) complexes is reversible, while that by [M(H)(n)•H•A](+) (n = 1,2; A = C and G) is not. The most encouraging result concerning the measured fragmentation and kinetic differences between C and ara-C, that are just epimers, indicates the possibility to subtly modulate the non-covalent drug/receptor interactions, through the electronic properties of the 2'-substituent on the nucleoside furanose ring, and furthermore on its three-dimensional position. PMID:22864826

  9. Human UMP-CMP kinase 2, a novel nucleoside monophosphate kinase localized in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunjian; Johansson, Magnus; Karlsson, Anna

    2008-01-18

    Enzyme deficiency in the salvage pathway of deoxyribonucleotide synthesis in mitochondria can cause mtDNA depletion syndromes. We have identified a human mitochondrial UMP-CMP kinase (UMP-CMPK, cytidylate kinase; EC 2.7.4.14), designated as UMP-CMP kinase 2 (UMP-CMPK2). The C-terminal domain of this 449-amino acid protein contains all consensus motifs of a nucleoside monophosphate kinase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that UMP-CMPK2 belonged to a novel nucleoside monophosphate kinase family, which was closer to thymidylate kinase than to cytosolic UMP-CMP kinase. Subcellular localization with green fluorescent protein fusion proteins illustrated that UMP-CMPK2 was localized in the mitochondria of HeLa cells and that the mitochondrial targeting signal was included in the N-terminal 22 amino acids. The enzyme was able to phosphorylate dUMP, dCMP, CMP, and UMP with ATP as phosphate donor, but the kinetic properties were different compared with the cytosolic UMP-CMPK. Its efficacy to convert dUMP was highest, followed by dCMP, whereas CMP and UMP were the poorest substrates. It also phosphorylated the monophosphate forms of the nucleoside analogs ddC, dFdC, araC, BVDU, and FdUrd, which suggests that UMP-CMPK2 may be involved in mtDNA depletion caused by long term treatment with ddC or other pyrimidine analogs. UMP-CMPK2 mRNA expression was exclusively detected in chronic myelogenous leukemia K-562 and lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 among eight studied cancer cell lines. Particular high expression in leukemia cells, dominant expression in bone marrow, and tight correlation with macrophage activation and inflammatory response suggest that UMP-CMPK2 may have other functions in addition to the supply of substrates for mtDNA synthesis. PMID:17999954

  10. An intersubunit disulfide bridge stabilizes the tetrameric nucleoside diphosphate kinase of Aquifex aeolicus.

    PubMed

    Boissier, Fanny; Georgescauld, Florian; Moynié, Lucile; Dupuy, Jean-William; Sarger, Claude; Podar, Mircea; Lascu, Ioan; Giraud, Marie-France; Dautant, Alain

    2012-06-01

    The nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk) catalyzes the reversible transfer of the γ-phosphate from nucleoside triphosphate to nucleoside diphosphate. Ndks form hexamers or two types of tetramers made of the same building block, namely, the common dimer. The secondary interfaces of the Type I tetramer found in Myxococcus xanthus Ndk and of the Type II found in Escherichia coli Ndk involve the opposite sides of subunits. Up to now, the few available structures of Ndk from thermophiles were hexameric. Here, we determined the X-ray structures of four crystal forms of the Ndk from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus (Aa-Ndk). Aa-Ndk displays numerous features of thermostable proteins and is made of the common dimer but it is a tetramer of Type I. Indeed, the insertion of three residues in a surface-exposed spiral loop, named the Kpn-loop, leads to the formation of a two-turn α-helix that prevents both hexamer and Type II tetramer assembly. Moreover, the side chain of the cysteine at position 133, which is not present in other Ndk sequences, adopts two alternate conformations. Through the secondary interface, each one forms a disulfide bridge with the equivalent Cys133 from the neighboring subunit. This disulfide bridge was progressively broken during X-ray data collection by radiation damage. Such crosslinks counterbalance the weakness of the common-dimer interface. A 40% decrease of the kinase activity at 60°C after reduction and alkylation of the protein corroborates the structural relevance of the disulfide bridge on the tetramer assembly and enzymatic function. PMID:22467275

  11. Identification of a nucleoside triphosphate binding site on calf thymus RNA polymerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, E.; McGuire, P.M.

    1986-01-14

    A nucleoside triphosphate binding site on calf thymus RNA polymerase II was identified by using photoaffinity analogues of adenosine 5'-triphosphate and guanosine 5'-triphosphate. Both radiolabeled 8-azidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate (8-N3ATP) and radiolabeled 8-azidoguanosine 5'-triphosphate (8-N3GTP) bound to a single polypeptide of this enzyme. This polypeptide has a molecular mass of 37 kilodaltons and an isoelectric point of 5.4. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was necessary for photolabeling to occur. In addition, no labeling occurred when the probe was prephotolyzed or when the enzyme was inactivated. Furthermore, photolabeling of the enzyme could be decreased by preincubation with natural substrates. To provide evidence that the radiolabeled polypeptide forms a part of the domain of the nucleoside triphosphate binding site, experiments were performed using unlabeled 8-N3ATP. Although this unlabeled analogue was not a substrate for RNA polymerase II, it photoinactivated the enzyme in the presence of UV irradiation, and it inhibited transcription elongation by the enzyme in a competitive manner in the absence of UV irradiation. As in the case with photolabeling, photoinactivation by 8-N3ATP could be decreased by natural substrates; in both cases, purine ribonucleoside triphosphates were more efficient than pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates. Furthermore, photoinactivation was saturable at about the same concentration as the inhibition constant for 8-N3ATP. Collectively, these results provide evidence that the radiolabeled polypeptide in calf thymus RNA polymerase II is an essential component for activity and suggest that this polypeptide may be part of this enzyme's purine ribonucleoside triphosphate binding site.

  12. Cellular Uptake of Decitabine by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters in HCT116 Cells.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kumiko; Hosokawa, Mika; Iwakawa, Seigo

    2015-01-01

    DNA hypermethylation, an epigenetic change that silences gene expression without altering nucleotide sequences, plays a critical role in the formation and progression of colorectal cancers as well as in the acquisition of drug resistance. Decitabine (DAC), a DNA methyltransferase 1 inhibitor of nucleoside analogues, has been shown to restore gene expression silenced by hypermethylation. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying both uridine and DAC uptake were examined in the human colon cancer cell line HCT116. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that ENT1 mRNA was the most abundant among the nucleoside transporters examined in HCT116 cells. The ENT1 protein was detected in the membrane fraction, as determined by Western blotting. The uptake of uridine or DAC was time- and concentration-dependent, but also Na(+)-independent. The uptake of these agents was inhibited by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBMPR), an inhibitor of equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs), and was also decreased in cells treated with ENT1 small interfering RNA. The uptake of both uridine and DAC was inhibited by uridine, cytidine, adenosine, or inosine, while that of DAC was also inhibited by thymidine. The expression of MAGEA1 mRNA, the DNA of which was methylated in HCT116 cells, was increased by DAC treatment, and this increment was attenuated by concomitant treatment with NBMPR. The IC50 value of DAC was also increased in the presence of NBMPR. These results suggest that DAC is mainly taken up by ENT1 and that this uptake is one of the key determinants of the activity of DAC in HCT116 cells. PMID:26235575

  13. The identification and characterization of non-coding and coding RNAs and their modified nucleosides by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kirk W; Limbach, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of ribonucleic acids (RNA) by mass spectrometry has been a valuable analytical approach for more than 25 years. In fact, mass spectrometry has become a method of choice for the analysis of modified nucleosides from RNA isolated out of biological samples. This review summarizes recent progress that has been made in both nucleoside and oligonucleotide mass spectral analysis. Applications of mass spectrometry in the identification, characterization and quantification of modified nucleosides are discussed. At the oligonucleotide level, advances in modern mass spectrometry approaches combined with the standard RNA modification mapping protocol enable the characterization of RNAs of varying lengths ranging from low molecular weight short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to the extremely large 23 S rRNAs. New variations and improvements to this protocol are reviewed, including top-down strategies, as these developments now enable qualitative and quantitative measurements of RNA modification patterns in a variety of biological systems. PMID:25616408

  14. Comparison of Transition Metal-Mediated Oxidation Reactions of Guanine in Nucleoside and Single-Stranded Oligodeoxynucleotide Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Ghude, Pranjali; Schallenberger, Mark A.; Fleming, Aaron M.; Muller, James G.; Burrows, Cynthia J.

    2011-01-01

    As the most readily oxidized of DNA’s four natural bases, guanine is a prime target for attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and transition metal-mediated oxidants. The oxidation products of a modified guanosine nucleoside and of a single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide, 5′-d(TTTTTTTGTTTTTTT)-3′ have been studied using oxidants that include CoII, NiII, and IrIV compounds as well as photochemically generated oxidants such as sulphate radical, electron-transfer agents (riboflavin) and singlet oxygen. The oxidized lesions formed include spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), guanidinohydantoin (Gh), imidazolone (Iz), oxazolone (Z) and 5-carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantion (2-Ih) nucleosides with a high degree of dependence on the exact oxidation system employed. Interestingly, a nickel(II) macrocyclic complex in conjunction with KHSO5 leads to the recently reported 2-Ih heterocycle as the major product in both the nucleoside and oligonucleotide contexts. PMID:21516189

  15. Immunocytochemical demonstration of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter rENT1 in rat sinoatrial node.

    PubMed

    Musa, H; Dobrzynski, H; Berry, Z; Abidi, F; Cass, C E; Young, J D; Baldwin, S A; Boyett, M R

    2002-03-01

    Adenosine exerts multiple receptor-mediated effects in the heart, including a negative chronotropic effect on the sinoatrial node. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter rENT1 in rat sinoatrial node and atrial muscle. Immunocytochemistry and/or immunoblotting revealed abundant expression of this protein in plasma membranes of sinoatrial node and in atrial and ventricular cells. Because rENT1-mediated transport is likely to regulate the local concentrations of adenosine in the sinoatrial node and other parts of the heart, it represents a potential pharmacological target that might be exploited to ameliorate ischemic damage during heart surgery. PMID:11850433

  16. Syntheses of Isoxazoline-Carbocyclic Nucleosides and Their Antiviral Evaluation: A Standard Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Quadrelli, Paolo; Vazquez Martinez, Naiara; Scrocchi, Roberto; Corsaro, Antonino; Pistarà, Venerando

    2014-01-01

    The current synthesis of racemic purine and pyrimidine isoxazoline-carbocyclic nucleosides is reported, detailing the key-steps for standard and reliable preparations. Improved yields were obtained by the proper tuning of the single synthetic steps, opening the way for the preparation of a variety of novel compounds. Some of the obtained compounds were also evaluated against a wide variety of DNA and RNA viruses including HIV. No specific antiviral activity was observed in the cases at hand. Novel compounds were prepared for future biological tests. PMID:25544956

  17. SELECTIVE INHIBITION OF THE WEST NILE VIRUS METHYLTRANSFERASE BY NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Lihui; Jones, Susan A.; Banavali, Nilesh; Kass, Jorden; Li, Zhong; Zhang, Jing; Kramer, Laura D.; Ghosh, Arun K.; Li, Hongmin

    2012-01-01

    The flavivirus methyltransferase (MTase) sequentially methylates the N7 and 2’-O positions of the viral RNA cap (GpppA-RNA→m7GpppA-RNA→m7GpppAm-RNA), using S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. We report here the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of novel nucleoside analogs. Two of these compounds can effectively and competitively inhibit the WNV MTase with IC50 values in micromolar range and, more importantly, do not inhibit human MTase. The compounds can also suppress the WNV replication in cell culture. PMID:23267828

  18. Substituted indoles as HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: a patent evaluation (WO2015044928).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Gao, Ping; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2016-05-01

    The invention described in this patent (WO2015044928) is related to compounds based on the substituted indole scaffold, their synthetic process and application to inhibit HIV-1 replication as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Some of the newly claimed compounds presented improved potency against wild-type (WT) HIV-1 strain in comparison to previously disclosed indole-based NNRTIs and were also shown to be effective against common resistant HIV-1 strains. In light of their novel structural characteristics, simple synthetic route and improved anti-HIV activity, these compounds deserve further study as promising NNRTIs. PMID:26742549

  19. Synthesis and anticancer activities of novel 8-azapurine carbocyclic nucleoside hydrazones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yeming; Yan, Hong; Ma, Chao; Lu, Dan

    2015-10-15

    A series of novel 8-azapurine carbocyclic nucleoside hydrazones were synthesized through a useful procedure starting from amino alcohol and pyrimido dichloride. All the products were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and HRMS spectral analysis and the stereochemical structure of key intermediate was also confirmed by a single crystal X-ray diffraction crystallographic analysis. Moreover, the anticancer activities were evaluated in vitro against human liver cancer Huh-7 cell line and human breast cancer A549 cell line. PMID:26364944

  20. Human cytomegalovirus resistance to deoxyribosylindole nucleosides maps to a transversion mutation in the terminase subunit-encoding gene UL89.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Brian G; Phan, Quang; Hall, Ellie D; Breitenbach, Julie M; Borysko, Katherine Z; Kamil, Jeremy P; Townsend, Leroy B; Drach, John C

    2015-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can cause severe illnesses, including encephalopathy and mental retardation, in immunocompromised and immunologically immature patients. Current pharmacotherapies for treating systemic HCMV infections include ganciclovir, cidofovir, and foscarnet. However, long-term administration of these agents can result in serious adverse effects (myelosuppression and/or nephrotoxicity) and the development of viral strains with reduced susceptibility to drugs. The deoxyribosylindole (indole) nucleosides demonstrate a 20-fold greater activity in vitro (the drug concentration at which 50% of the number of plaques was reduced with the presence of drug compared to the number in the absence of drug [EC50] = 0.34 μM) than ganciclovir (EC50 = 7.4 μM) without any observed increase in cytotoxicity. Based on structural similarity to the benzimidazole nucleosides, we hypothesize that the indole nucleosides target the HCMV terminase, an enzyme responsible for packaging viral DNA into capsids and cleaving the DNA into genome-length units. To test this hypothesis, an indole nucleoside-resistant HCMV strain was isolated, the open reading frames of the genes that encode the viral terminase were sequenced, and a G766C mutation in exon 1 of UL89 was identified; this mutation resulted in an E256Q change in the amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein. An HCMV wild-type strain, engineered with this mutation to confirm resistance, demonstrated an 18-fold decrease in susceptibility to the indole nucleosides (EC50 = 3.1 ± 0.7 μM) compared to that of wild-type virus (EC50 = 0.17 ± 0.04 μM). Interestingly, this mutation did not confer resistance to the benzimidazole nucleosides (EC50 for wild-type HCMV = 0.25 ± 0.04 μM, EC50 for HCMV pUL89 E256Q = 0.23 ± 0.04 μM). We conclude, therefore, that the G766C mutation that results in the E256Q substitution is unique for indole nucleoside resistance and distinct from previously discovered substitutions

  1. Synthesis and Anti-HCV Activity of 4-Methoxy-7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d] Pyrimidine Carbocyclic Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Anandarajan; Toyama, Masaaki; Baba, Masanori; Sharon, Ashoke; Bal, Chandralata

    2016-06-01

    The present study includes the exploration of new possible nucleoside mimetics based on 4-methoxy-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine carbocyclic nucleosides (4a-g), which were synthesized by 10-15 synthetic steps and characterized adequately. We report the anti-HCV activities and cytotoxicities of 4a-g. Compound 4a was analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction which showed some puckering in the cyclopentene ring with a 2'-endo conformation and anti-base disposition (χ = -125.7°). PMID:27152477

  2. Broad-spectrum antiviral and cytocidal activity of cyclopentenylcytosine, a carbocyclic nucleoside targeted at CTP synthetase.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, E; Murase, J; Marquez, V E

    1991-06-15

    Cyclopentenylcytosine (Ce-Cyd) is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent active against DNA viruses [herpes (cytomegalo), pox (vaccinia)], (+)RNA viruses [picorna (polio, Coxsackie, rhino), toga (Sindbis, Semliki forest), corona], (-)RNA viruses [orthomyxo (influenza), paramyxo (parainfluenza, measles), arena (Junin, Tacaribe), rhabdo (vesicular stomatitis)] and (+/-)RNA viruses (reo). Ce-Cyd is a more potent antiviral agent than its saturated counterpart, cyclopentylcytosine (carbodine, C-Cyd). Ce-Cyd also has potent cytocidal activity against a number of tumor cell lines. The putative target enzyme for both the antiviral and antitumor action of Ce-Cyd is assumed to be the CTP synthetase that converts UTP to CTP. In keeping with this hypothesis was the finding that the antiviral and cytocidal effects of Ce-Cyd are readily reversed by Cyd and, to a lesser extent, Urd, but not by other nucleosides such as dThd or dCyd. In contrast, pyrazofurin and 6-azauridine, two nucleoside analogues that are assumed to interfere with OMP decarboxylase, another enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotides, potentiate the cytocidal activity of Ce-Cyd. Ce-Cyd should be further pursued, as such and in combination with OMP decarboxylase inhibitors, for its therapeutic potential in the treatment of both viral and neoplastic diseases. PMID:1710119

  3. Docking and small angle X-ray scattering studies of purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Filgueira de Azevedo, Walter; dos Santos, Giovanni César; dos Santos, Denis Marangoni; Olivieri, Johnny Rizzieri; Canduri, Fernanda; Silva, Rafael Guimarães; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Renard, Gaby; da Fonseca, Isabel Osório; Mendes, Maria Anita; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Santos, Diógenes Santiago

    2003-10-01

    Docking simulations have been used to assess protein complexes with some success. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a well-established technique to investigate protein spatial configuration. This work describes the integration of geometric docking with SAXS to investigate the quaternary structure of recombinant human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP). This enzyme catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of N-ribosidic bonds of purine nucleosides and deoxynucleosides. A genetic deficiency due to mutations in the gene encoding for PNP causes gradual decrease in T-cell immunity. Inappropriate activation of T-cells has been implicated in several clinically relevant human conditions such as transplant rejection, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and T-cell lymphomas. PNP is therefore a target for inhibitor development aiming at T-cell immune response modulation and has been submitted to extensive structure-based drug design. The present analysis confirms the trimeric structure observed in the crystal. The potential application of the present procedure to other systems is discussed. PMID:13679062

  4. Three-Enzyme Cascade Bioreactor for Rapid Digestion of Genomic DNA into Single Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Yin, Junfa; Xu, Tian; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Hailin

    2016-08-01

    Structure-based DNA modification analysis provides accurate and important information on genomic DNA changes from epigenetic modifications to various DNA lesions. However, genomic DNA strands are often required to be efficiently digested into single nucleosides. It is an arduous task because of the involvement of multiple enzymes with different catalytic acitivities. Here we constructed a three-enzyme cascade capillary monolithic bioreactor that consists of immobilized deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I), snake venom phosphodiesterase (SVP), and alkaline phosphatase (ALPase). By the use of this cascade capillary bioreactor, genomic DNA can be efficiently digested into single nucleosides with an increasing rate of ∼20 folds. The improvement is mainly attributed to dramatically increase enzymatic capacity and activity. With a designed macro-porous structure, genomic DNA of 5-30 Kb (∼1.6-10 million Daltons) can be directly passed through the bioreactor simply by hand pushing or a low-pressure microinjection pump. By coupling with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we further developed a sensitive assay for detection of an oxidative stress biomarker 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in DNA. The proposed three-enzyme cascade bioreactor is also potentially applicable for fast identification and quantitative detection of other lesions and modifications in genomic DNA. PMID:27416319

  5. Parameterization of AZT-A widely used nucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Alexandra T. P.; Fernandes, Pedro A.; Ramos, Maria J.

    Seven nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors are currently used in the clinical treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These substrate analogues block DNA synthesis by the viral enzyme RT. However, the emergence of resistant variants of RT allied to their long-term toxicity requires the design of new and better RT inhibitors, with long-term in vivo efficacy. In this work we used density functional theory (DFT) calculations to develop a set of molecular mechanics (MM) parameters committed to the AMBER force field for one of the most used in the clinic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): zidovudine (AZT). These parameters were tested by comparing the optimized geometries of AZT at both the DFT and MM levels of theory. The ability of the new parameters to reproduce the torsional energy of the azide group was also verified by scanning the surface in MM with the new parameters and comparing the results with the same potential energy surface (PES) at the DFT level. Finally, the parameters were validated through classical MD simulations of AZT in aqueous environment.

  6. The Nucleoside Analog D-carba T Blocks HIV-1 Reverse Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Paul L.; Vu, B. Christie; Ambrose, Zandrea; Julias, John G.; Warnecke, Svenja; Liao, Chenzhong; Meier, Chris; Marquez, Victor E.; Hughes, Stephen H.

    2009-01-01

    A major pathway for HIV-1 resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) involves reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations that enhance ATP-dependent pyrophosphorolysis, which excises NRTIs from the end of viral DNA. We analyzed novel NRTIs for their ability to inhibit DNA synthesis of excision-proficient HIV-1 RT mutants. D-carba T is a carbocyclic nucleoside that has a 3′ hydroxyl on the pseudosugar. The 3′ hydroxyl group allows RT to incorporate additional dNTPs, which should protect D-carba TMP from excision. D-carba T can be converted to the triphosphate form by host cell kinases with moderate efficiency. D-carba T-TP is efficiently incorporated by HIV-1 RT; however, the next dNTP is added slowly to a D-carba TMP at the primer terminus. D-carba T effectively inhibits viral vectors that replicate using NRTI-resistant HIV-1 RTs, and there is no obvious toxicity in cultured cells. NRTIs based on the carbocyclic pseudosugar may offer an effective approach for the treatment of HIV-1 infections. PMID:19678643

  7. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: a review on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability

    PubMed Central

    Usach, Iris; Melis, Virginia; Peris, José-Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 non-nucleoside and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are key drugs of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the clinical management of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)/HIV infection. Discussion First-generation NNRTIs, nevirapine (NVP), delavirdine (DLV) and efavirenz (EFV) are drugs with a low genetic barrier and poor resistance profile, which has led to the development of new generations of NNRTIs. Second-generation NNRTIs, etravirine (ETR) and rilpivirine (RPV) have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and European Union, and the next generation of drugs is currently being clinically developed. This review describes recent clinical data, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability of commercialized NNRTIs, including the effects of sex, race and age differences on pharmacokinetics and safety. Moreover, it summarizes the characteristics of next-generation NNRTIs: lersivirine, GSK 2248761, RDEA806, BILR 355 BS, calanolide A, MK-4965, MK-1439 and MK-6186. Conclusions This review presents a wide description of NNRTIs, providing useful information for researchers interested in this field, both in clinical use and in research. PMID:24008177

  8. Structural determinants of the 5'-methylthioinosine specificity of Plasmodium purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Teraya M; Ting, Li-Min; Zhan, Chenyang; Shi, Wuxian; Zheng, Renjian; Almo, Steven C; Kim, Kami

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium parasites rely upon purine salvage for survival. Plasmodium purine nucleoside phosphorylase is part of the streamlined Plasmodium purine salvage pathway that leads to the phosphorylysis of both purines and 5'-methylthiopurines, byproducts of polyamine synthesis. We have explored structural features in Plasmodium falciparum purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PfPNP) that affect efficiency of catalysis as well as those that make it suitable for dual specificity. We used site directed mutagenesis to identify residues critical for PfPNP catalytic activity as well as critical residues within a hydrophobic pocket required for accommodation of the 5'-methylthio group. Kinetic analysis data shows that several mutants had disrupted binding of the 5'-methylthio group while retaining activity for inosine. A triple PfPNP mutant that mimics Toxoplasma gondii PNP had significant loss of 5'-methylthio activity with retention of inosine activity. Crystallographic investigation of the triple mutant PfPNP with Tyr160Phe, Val66Ile, andVal73Ile in complex with the transition state inhibitor immucillin H reveals fewer hydrogen bond interactions for the inhibitor in the hydrophobic pocket. PMID:24416224

  9. Methylated nucleosides in tRNA and tRNA methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    To date, more than 90 modified nucleosides have been found in tRNA and the biosynthetic pathways of the majority of tRNA modifications include a methylation step(s). Recent studies of the biosynthetic pathways have demonstrated that the availability of methyl group donors for the methylation in tRNA is important for correct and efficient protein synthesis. In this review, I focus on the methylated nucleosides and tRNA methyltransferases. The primary functions of tRNA methylations are linked to the different steps of protein synthesis, such as the stabilization of tRNA structure, reinforcement of the codon-anticodon interaction, regulation of wobble base pairing, and prevention of frameshift errors. However, beyond these basic functions, recent studies have demonstrated that tRNA methylations are also involved in the RNA quality control system and regulation of tRNA localization in the cell. In a thermophilic eubacterium, tRNA modifications and the modification enzymes form a network that responses to temperature changes. Furthermore, several modifications are involved in genetic diseases, infections, and the immune response. Moreover, structural, biochemical, and bioinformatics studies of tRNA methyltransferases have been clarifying the details of tRNA methyltransferases and have enabled these enzymes to be classified. In the final section, the evolution of modification enzymes is discussed. PMID:24904644

  10. The type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter regulates anxiety-like behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Rinaldo, L.; Lim, S.-J.; Young, H.; Messing, R. O.; Choi, D.-S.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of adenosine receptors in the brain reduces anxiety-like behavior in animals and humans. Because nucleoside transporters regulate adenosine levels, we used mice lacking the type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1) to investigate whether ENT1 contributes to anxiety-like behavior. The ENT1 null mice spent more time in the center of an open field compared with wild-type littermates. In the elevated plus maze, ENT1 null mice entered more frequently into and spent more time exploring the open arms. The ENT1 null mice also spent more time exploring the light side of a light–dark box compared with wild-type mice. Microinjection of an ENT1-specific antagonist, nitrobenzylthioinosine (nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside), into the amygdala of C57BL/6J mice reduced anxiety-like behavior in the open field and elevated plus maze. These findings show that amygdala ENT1 modulates anxiety-like behavior. The ENT1 may be a drug target for the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:17376149

  11. Detection of RNA nucleoside modifications with the uridine-specific ribonuclease MC1 from Momordica charantia.

    PubMed

    Addepalli, Balasubrahmanym; Lesner, Nicholas P; Limbach, Patrick A

    2015-10-01

    A codon-optimized recombinant ribonuclease, MC1 is characterized for its uridine-specific cleavage ability to map nucleoside modifications in RNA. The published MC1 amino acid sequence, as noted in a previous study, was used as a template to construct a synthetic gene with a natural codon bias favoring expression in Escherichia coli. Following optimization of various expression conditions, the active recombinant ribonuclease was successfully purified as a C-terminal His-tag fusion protein from E. coli [Rosetta 2(DE3)] cells. The isolated protein was tested for its ribonuclease activity against oligoribonucleotides and commercially available E. coli tRNA(Tyr I). Analysis of MC1 digestion products by ion-pairing reverse phase liquid-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (IP-RP-LC-MS) revealed enzymatic cleavage of RNA at the 5'-termini of uridine and pseudouridine, but cleavage was absent if the uridine was chemically modified or preceded by a nucleoside with a bulky modification. Furthermore, the utility of this enzyme to generate complementary digestion products to other common endonucleases, such as RNase T1, which enables the unambiguous mapping of modified residues in RNA is demonstrated. PMID:26221047

  12. Reversible photoswitching of RNA hybridization at room temperature with an azobenzene C-nucleoside.

    PubMed

    Goldau, Thomas; Murayama, Keiji; Brieke, Clara; Steinwand, Sabrina; Mondal, Padmabati; Biswas, Mithun; Burghardt, Irene; Wachtveitl, Josef; Asanuma, Hiroyuki; Heckel, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Photoregulation of RNA remains a challenging task as the introduction of a photoswitch entails changes in the shape and the stability of the duplex that strongly depend on the chosen linker strategy. Herein, the influence of a novel nucleosidic linker moiety on the photoregulation efficiency of azobenzene is investigated. To this purpose, two azobenzene C-nucleosides were stereoselectively synthesized, characterized, and incorporated into RNA oligonucleotides. Spectroscopic characterization revealed a reversible and fast switching process, even at 20 °C, and a high thermal stability of the respective cis isomers. The photoregulation efficiency of RNA duplexes upon trans-to-cis isomerization was investigated by using melting point studies and compared with the known D-threoninol-based azobenzene system, revealing a photoswitching amplitude of the new residues exceeding 90 % even at room temperature. Structural changes in the duplexes upon photoisomerization were investigated by using MM/MD calculations. The excellent photoswitching performance at room temperature and the high thermal stability make these new azobenzene residues promising candidates for in-vivo and nanoarchitecture photoregulation applications of RNA. PMID:25537843

  13. Stable expression of a recombinant sodium-dependent, pyrimidine-selective nucleoside transporter (CNT1) in a transport-deficient mouse leukemia cell line.

    PubMed

    Crawford, C R; Cass, C E; Young, J D; Belt, J A

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies of nucleoside transport in mammalian cells have identified two types of activities: the equilibrative nucleoside transporters and concentrative, Na+-nucleoside cotransporters. Characterization of the concentrative nucleoside transporters has been hampered by the presence in most cells and tissues of multiple transporters with overlapping permeant specificities. With the recent cloning of cDNAs encoding rat and human members of the concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) family, it is now possible to study the concentrative transporters in isolation by use of functional expression systems. We report here the isolation of a nucleoside transport-deficient subline of L1210 mouse leukemia (L1210/DNC3) that is a suitable recipient for stable expression of cloned nucleoside transporter cDNAs. We have used L1210/DNC3 as the recipient in gene transfer studies to develop a stable cell line (L1210/DU5) that produces the recombinant concentrative nucleoside transporter with selectivity for pyrimidine nucleosides (CNT1) that was initially identified in rat intestine (Q.Q. Huang, S.Y. Yao, M.W. Ritzel, A.R.P. Paterson, C.E. Cass, and J.D. Young. 1994. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 17,757-17,760). L1210/DU5 was used to examine the permeant selectivity of recombinant rat CNT1 by comparing a series of nucleoside analogs with respect to (i) inhibition of inward fluxes of [3H]thymidine, (ii) initial rates of transport of 3H-analog, and (iii) cytotoxicity to L1210/DU5 versus the parental transport-deficient cell line. By all three criteria, recombinant CNT1 transported 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-fluorouridine well and cytosine arabinoside poorly. Although some purine nucleosides (2'-deoxyadenosinedeoxyadeno-2'-deoxyadenosine, 7-deazaadenosine) were potent inhibitors of CNT1, they were poor permeants when uptake was measured directly by analysis of isotopic fluxes or indirectly by comparison of cytotoxicity ratios. We conclude that comparison of analog cytotoxicity to L

  14. Synthesis and anti-DNA viral activities in vitro of certain 2,4-disubstituted-7-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)pyrrolo[2,3-d d pyrimidine nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, B K; Ojwang, J O; Rando, R F; Huffman, J H; Revankar, G R

    1995-09-29

    Several novel 2,4-disubstituted-7-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D- arabinofuranosyl)pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines have been synthesized and evaluated for their anti-human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV), and anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activities in vitro. These nucleosides were prepared starting from 2-amino-4-chloro-7-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro- 3,5-di-O-benzoyl-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (3), which in turn was synthesized by direct glycosylation of the sodium salt of 2-amino-4-chloropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (1) with 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-3,5-di-O-benzoyl-alpha-D-arabinofuranosyl bromide (2). Displacement of the 4-chloro group of 3 with OH, NH2, NHOH, SH, and SeH nucleophiles furnished the corresponding nucleosides 6-8, 12, and 14, respectively. The 3'-deoxygenation of 2-amino-4-chloro-7- (2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (4) and subsequent amination gave 2,4-diamino-2',3'-dideoxy derivative 19. Catalytic hydrogenation of 3 followed by debenzoylation afforded 2-aminopyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine nucleoside 23. Among the compounds evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of HCMV (strain AD169) in MRC-5 cells using a plaque reduction assay, only 7 was significantly active in vitro with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3.7 micrograms/mL (TI > 125), whereas the IC50 value of ganciclovir (DHPG) was 3.2 micrograms/mL. Strain D16 of HCMV was more resistant to 7 (IC50 11 micrograms/mL) than the AD169 strain. When 7 was tested in combination with DHPG, the resultant anti-HCMV activity was found to be moderately synergistic with no evidence of antagonism. Nucleoside 7 also reduced episomal HBV replication in human hepatoblastoma 2.2.15 cells with an IC50 of 0.7 micrograms/mL (TI > 143). Development of cells harboring HBV which had become resistant to the drug was not observed with 7. Compound 7 also exhibited significant activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (IC50 of 4.1 and 6.3 micrograms

  15. Downregulation of deoxycytidine kinase in cytarabine-resistant mantle cell lymphoma cells confers cross-resistance to nucleoside analogs gemcitabine, fludarabine and cladribine, but not to other classes of anti-lymphoma agents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with poor prognosis. Implementation of high-dose cytarabine (araC) into induction therapy became standard-of-care for all newly diagnosed younger MCL patients. However, many patients relapse even after araC-based regimen. Molecular mechanisms responsible for araC resistance in MCL are unknown and optimal treatment strategy for relapsed/refractory MCL patients remains elusive. Methods Five araC-resistant (R) clones were derived by long-term culture of five MCL cell lines (CTRL) with increasing doses of araC up to 50 microM. Illumina BeadChip and 2-DE proteomic analysis were used to identify gene and protein expression changes associated with araC resistance in MCL. In vitro cytotoxicity assays and experimental therapy of MCL xenografts in immunodeficient mice were used to analyze their relative responsiveness to a set of clinically used anti-MCL drugs. Primary MCL samples were obtained from patients at diagnosis and after failure of araC-based therapies. Results Marked downregulation of deoxycytidine-kinase (DCK) mRNA and protein expression was identified as the single most important molecular event associated with araC-resistance in all tested MCL cell lines and in 50% primary MCL samples. All R clones were highly (20-1000x) cross-resistant to all tested nucleoside analogs including gemcitabine, fludarabine and cladribine. In vitro sensitivity of R clones to other classes of clinically used anti-MCL agents including genotoxic drugs (cisplatin, doxorubicin, bendamustine) and targeted agents (bortezomib, temsirolimus, rituximab) remained unaffected, or was even increased (ibrutinib). Experimental therapy of immunodeficient mice confirmed the anticipated loss of anti-tumor activity (as determined by overall survival) of the nucleoside analogs gemcitabine and fludarabine in mice transplanted with R clone compared to mice transplanted with CTRL cells, while the anti

  16. Stimulation of phospholipase D in rabbit platelet membranes by nucleoside triphosphates and by phosphocreatine: roles of membrane-bound GDP, nucleoside diphosphate kinase and creatine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Fan, X T; Sherwood, J L; Haslam, R J

    1994-01-01

    Previous work has shown that guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) and GTP stimulate phospholipase D (PLD) in rabbit platelet membranes and that these effects are greatly enhanced by pretreatment of platelets with phorbol esters that activate protein kinase C [Van der Meulen and Haslam (1990), Biochem. J. 271, 693-700]. In the present study, the effects of Mg2+, various nucleoside triphosphates and phosphocreatine (PCr) were investigated. Platelet membranes containing phospholipids labelled with [3H]glycerol were assayed for PLD in the presence of an optimal Mg2+ concentration (10 mM) by measuring [3H]phosphatidylethanol formation in incubations that included 300 mM ethanol. In membranes from phorbolester-treated platelets, the same maximal increases in PLD activity (5-fold) were seen with 1 microM GTP[S]), and 100 microM GTP. Addition of adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (ATP[S]), ITP, XTP, UTP and CTP had similar stimulatory effects, but only at > or = 1 mM. In contrast, ATP had a biphasic action, causing a maximal (2-fold) stimulation at 10 microM and smaller effects at higher concentrations; the inhibitory component of the action of ATP was blocked by 2 microM staurosporine. Guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate decreased the stimulatory effects of ATP and ATP[S]. UDP, which can inhibit nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK), decreased the activation of PLD by ATP[S], ATP, XTP, CTP and to a lesser extent ITP, but had no effect on the actions of GTP[S] and GTP. Rabbit platelet membranes contained NDPK and addition of [gamma-32P]ATP led to the formation of [32P]GTP in amounts sufficient to explain most or all of the activation of PLD; UDP prevented GTP formation. PCr (0.04-1 mM) also stimulated membrane PLD activity, an effect that was dependent on endogenous membrane-bound creatine kinase (CK). UDP and guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate each inhibited this effect of PCr. The results show that in rabbit platelet membranes, CK, NDPK and the GTP

  17. Exploring the role of the α-carboxyphosphonate moiety in the HIV-RT activity of α-carboxy nucleoside phosphonates

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Nicholas D.; Maguire, Nuala M.; Ford, Alan; Das, Kalyan; Arnold, Edward; Balzarini, Jan; Maguire, Anita R.

    2016-01-01

    As α-carboxy nucleoside phosphonates (α-CNPs) have demonstrated a novel mode of action of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibition, structurally related derivatives were synthesized, namely the malonate 2, the unsaturated and saturated bisphosphonates 3 and 4, respectively and the amide 5. These compounds were evaluated for inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in cell-free assays. The importance of the α-carboxy phosphonoacetic acid moiety for achieving reverse transcriptase inhibition, without the need for prior phosphorylation, was confirmed. The malonate derivative 2 was less active by two orders of magnitude than the original α-CNPs, while displaying the same pattern of kinetic behavior; interestingly the activity resides in the “L”-enantiomer of 2, as seen with the earlier series of α-CNPs. A crystal structure with an RT/DNA complex at 2.95 Å resolution revealed the binding of the “L”-enantiomer of 2, at the polymerase active site with a weaker metal ion chelation environment compared to 1a (T-α-CNP) which may explain the lower inhibitory activity of 2. PMID:26813581

  18. Identification of a nucleoside/nucleobase transporter from Plasmodium falciparum, a novel target for anti-malarial chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, M D; Hyde, R J; Yao, S Y; McRobert, L; Cass, C E; Young, J D; McConkey, G A; Baldwin, S A

    2000-01-01

    Plasmodium, the aetiologic agent of malaria, cannot synthesize purines de novo, and hence depends upon salvage from the host. Here we describe the molecular cloning and functional expression in Xenopus oocytes of the first purine transporter to be identified in this parasite. This 422-residue protein, which we designate PfENT1, is predicted to contain 11 membrane-spanning segments and is a distantly related member of the widely distributed eukaryotic protein family the equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs). However, it differs profoundly at the sequence and functional levels from its homologous counterparts in the human host. The parasite protein exhibits a broad substrate specificity for natural nucleosides, but transports the purine nucleoside adenosine with a considerably higher apparent affinity (K(m) 0.32+/-0.05 mM) than the pyrimidine nucleoside uridine (K(m) 3.5+/-1.1 mM). It also efficiently transports nucleobases such as adenine (K(m) 0.32+/-0.10 mM) and hypoxanthine (K(m) 0.41+/-0.1 mM), and anti-viral 3'-deoxynucleoside analogues. Moreover, it is not sensitive to classical inhibitors of mammalian ENTs, including NBMPR [6-[(4-nitrobenzyl)thio]-9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurine, or nitrobenzylthioinosine] and the coronary vasoactive drugs, dipyridamole, dilazep and draflazine. These unique properties suggest that PfENT1 might be a viable target for the development of novel anti-malarial drugs. PMID:10861212

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of thymidine kinase 1-targeting carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues for boron neutron capture therapy of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Hitesh K.; Khalil, Ahmed; Ishita, Keisuke; Yang, Weilian; Nakkula, Robin J.; Wu, Lai-Chu; Ali, Tehane; Tiwari, Rohit; Byun, Youngjoo; Barth, Rolf F.; Tjarks, Werner

    2015-01-01

    A library of sixteen 2nd generation amino- and amido-substituted carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues, designed as substrates and inhibitors of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) for potential use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer, was synthesized and evaluated in enzyme kinetic-, enzyme inhibition-, metabolomic-, and biodistribution studies. One of these 2nd generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues (YB18A [3]), having an amino group directly attached to a meta-carborane cage tethered via ethylene spacer to the 3-position of thymidine, was approximately 3–4 times superior as a substrate and inhibitor of hTK1 than N5-2OH (2), a 1st generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogue. Both 2 and 3 appeared to be 5′-monophosphorylated in TK1(+) RG2 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution studies in rats bearing intracerebral RG2 glioma resulted in selective tumor uptake of 3 with an intratumoral concentration that was approximately 4 times higher than that of 2. The obtained results significantly advance the understanding of the binding interactions between TK1 and carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues and will profoundly impact future design strategies for these agents. PMID:26087030

  20. Effect of fluoxetine and pergolide on expression of nucleoside transporters and nucleic-related enzymes in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Katsuhito; Konishi, Hiroki

    2014-04-01

    Nucleoside transporter (NT) and nucleic-related enzyme (NRE) play key roles in the physiology of nucleosides and the pharmacology of its analogs in mammals. In this study, we examined the effect of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and pergolide, a dopamine D receptor agonist, on the expression of NTs and NREs in mouse brain. It was confirmed by the detection of corresponding mRNAs that three equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1-3) isoforms, concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 (CNT2), CNT3, adenosine kinase (AK), and apyrase, but not CNT1, were expressed in brain tissue. Based on an assessment by mRNA determination, the cerebral expression of CNT2 was found to be increased by administration of fluoxetine and pergolide to mice. Furthermore, pergolide increased the expression of ENT2. However, fluoxetine and pergolide had no significant effect on the expression of mRNA for other NTs, AK, and apyrase. Therefore, we concluded that the expression of several NT isoforms, but not NREs, in mouse brain was affected by treatment with fluoxetine and pergolide. PMID:23130601

  1. Variability of gemcitabine accumulation and its relationship to expression of nucleoside transporters in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Koo

    2012-05-01

    The concentrative nucleoside transporter CNT1 and equilibrated nucleoside transporter ENT1 mediate the cellular uptake of naturally occurring pyrimidine and purine nucleosides and many structurally diverse anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogs, thereby regulating drug responses or toxicity at the target site. The objectives of this study were to analyze interindividual variations in the cellular accumulation of gemcitabine and to examine the correlation between the uptake of gemcitabine and expression levels of CNT1 and ENT1 transporters. Gemcitabine was a substrate for both CNT1 and ENT1 with higher affinity to CNT1 than to ENT1. The difference in gemcitabine uptake was 4.8-fold in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 10 subjects. Among these, the CNT1- and ENT1-mediated uptake of gemcitabine was 14.3- and 16.5-folds, respectively. CNT1-mediated gemcitabine uptake showed a higher correlation with the CNT1 expression level than did ENT1-mediated uptake with ENT1 expression level. In conclusion, CNT1 seemed to be a major contributing factor to gemcitabine uptake in PBMCs and showed 14.3-fold inter-individual variations. However, ENT1-mediated uptake of gemcitabine might compensate for the total uptake of gemcitabine; therefore, the variation in the apparent accumulation of gemcitabine was smaller than that of the individual transporters. PMID:22644860

  2. Role of the transporter regulator protein (RS1) in the modulation of concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs) in epithelia.

    PubMed

    Errasti-Murugarren, Ekaitz; Fernández-Calotti, Paula; Veyhl-Wichmann, Mayke; Diepold, Maximilian; Pinilla-Macua, Itziar; Pérez-Torras, Sandra; Kipp, Helmut; Koepsell, Hermann; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal

    2012-07-01

    SLC28 genes encode three plasma membrane transporter proteins, human concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT)1, CNT2, and CNT3, all of which are implicated in the uptake of natural nucleosides and a variety of nucleoside analogs used in the chemotherapy of cancer and viral and inflammatory diseases. Mechanisms determining their trafficking toward the plasma membrane are not well known, although this might eventually become a target for therapeutic intervention. The transporter regulator RS1, which was initially identified as a short-term, post-transcriptional regulator of the high-affinity, Na(+)-coupled, glucose transporter sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 1, was evaluated in this study as a candidate for coordinate regulation of membrane insertion of human CNT-type proteins. With a combination of studies with mammalian cells, Xenopus laevis oocytes, and RS1-null mice, evidence that RS1 down-regulates the localization and activity at the plasma membrane of the three members of this protein family (CNT1, CNT2, and CNT3) is provided, which indicates the biochemical basis for coordinate regulation of nucleoside uptake ability in epithelia and probably in other RS1-expressing cell types. PMID:22492015

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of thymidine kinase 1-targeting carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs for boron neutron capture therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Hitesh K; Khalil, Ahmed; Ishita, Keisuke; Yang, Weilian; Nakkula, Robin J; Wu, Lai-Chu; Ali, Tehane; Tiwari, Rohit; Byun, Youngjoo; Barth, Rolf F; Tjarks, Werner

    2015-07-15

    A library of sixteen 2nd generation amino- and amido-substituted carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs, designed as substrates and inhibitors of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) for potential use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer, was synthesized and evaluated in enzyme kinetic-, enzyme inhibition-, metabolomic-, and biodistribution studies. One of these 2nd generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs (YB18A [3]), having an amino group directly attached to a meta-carborane cage tethered via ethylene spacer to the 3-position of thymidine, was approximately 3-4 times superior as a substrate and inhibitor of hTK1 than N5-2OH (2), a 1st generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analog. Both 2 and 3 appeared to be 5'-monophosphorylated in TK1(+) RG2 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution studies in rats bearing intracerebral RG2 glioma resulted in selective tumor uptake of 3 with an intratumoral concentration that was approximately 4 times higher than that of 2. The obtained results significantly advance the understanding of the binding interactions between TK1 and carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs and will profoundly impact future design strategies for these agents. PMID:26087030

  4. Synthesis of conformationally locked L-deoxythreosyl phosphonate nucleosides built on a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane template.

    PubMed

    Saneyoshi, Hisao; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Marquez, Victor E

    2010-11-19

    Two conformationally locked versions of l-deoxythreosyl phosphonate nucleosides (2 and 3) were synthesized to investigate the preference of HIV reverse transcriptase for a conformation displaying either a fully diaxial or fully diequatorial disposition of substituents. Synthesis of the enantiomeric 4-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-2-ol carbocyclic nucleoside precursors (diaxially disposed) proceeded straightforwardly from commercially available (1R,4S)-4-hydroxy-2-cyclopent-2-enyl-1-yl acetate employing a hydroxyl-directed Simmons-Smith cyclopropanation that culminated with a Mitsunobu coupling of the purine base. For the more complicated 1-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-ol carbocyclic nucleoside precursors (diequatorially disposed), the obligatory linear approach required the syntheses of key 1-aminobicyclo[3.1.0.]hexan-3-yl benzoate precursors that were assembled via the amide variant of the Kulinkovich reaction involving the intramolecular cyclopropanation of a substituted δ-vinylamide. Completion of the purine ring was achieved by conventional approaches but with much improved yields through the use of a microwave reactor. The syntheses of the phosphonates and the corresponding diphosphates were achieved by conventional means. None of the diphosphates, which were supposed to act as nucleoside triphosphate mimics, could compete with dATP even when present in a 10-fold excess. PMID:20964394

  5. Selective Non-nucleoside Inhibitors of Human DNA Methyltransferases Active in Cancer Including in Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are important enzymes involved in epigenetic control of gene expression and represent valuable targets in cancer chemotherapy. A number of nucleoside DNMT inhibitors (DNMTi) have been studied in cancer, including in cancer stem cells, and two of them (azacytidine and decitabine) have been approved for treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. However, only a few non-nucleoside DNMTi have been identified so far, and even fewer have been validated in cancer. Through a process of hit-to-lead optimization, we report here the discovery of compound 5 as a potent non-nucleoside DNMTi that is also selective toward other AdoMet-dependent protein methyltransferases. Compound 5 was potent at single-digit micromolar concentrations against a panel of cancer cells and was less toxic in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than two other compounds tested. In mouse medulloblastoma stem cells, 5 inhibited cell growth, whereas related compound 2 showed high cell differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, 2 and 5 are the first non-nucleoside DNMTi tested in a cancer stem cell line. PMID:24387159

  6. Targeted Delivery of Deoxycytidine Kinase to Her2-Positive Cells Enhances the Efficacy of the Nucleoside Analog Fludarabine

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Brian K.; Lavie, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxic drugs, such as nucleoside analogs and toxins, commonly suffer from off-target effects. One approach to mitigate this problem is to deliver the cytotoxic drug selectively to the intended site. While for toxins this can be achieved by conjugating the cell-killing moiety to a targeting moiety, it is not an option for nucleoside analogs, which rely on intracellular enzymes to convert them to their active triphosphorylated form. To overcome this limitation, and achieve site-targeted activation of nucleoside analogs, we fused the coding region of a prodrug-activating enzyme, deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), to affinity reagents that bind to the Her2 cell surface protein. We evaluated dCK fusions to an anti-Her2 affibody and Designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARPin) for their ability to kill cancer cells by promoting the activation of the nucleoside analog fludarabine. Cell staining and flow cytometry experiments with three Her2 positive cancer cell lines (BT-474-JB, JIMT-1 and SK-OV-3) indicate dCK fusions binding and cellular internalization. In contrast, these reagents bind only weakly to the Her2 negative cell line, MCF-7. Cell proliferation assays indicate that SK-OV-3 and BT-474-JB cell lines exhibit significantly reduced proliferation rates when treated with targeting-module fused dCK and fludarabine, compared to fludarabine alone. These findings demonstrate that we have succeeded in delivering active dCK into the Her2-positive cells, thereby increasing the activation of fludarabine, which ultimately reduces the dose of nucleoside analog needed for cell killing. This strategy may help establish the therapeutic index required to differentiate between healthy tissues and cancer cells. PMID:27280468

  7. Expression and hepatobiliary transport characteristics of the concentrative and equilibrative nucleoside transporters in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, Rajgopal; Endres, Christopher J.; Whittington, Dale; LeCluyse, Edward; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Tse, Chung-Ming; Unadkat, Jashvant D.

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported that both the concentrative (hCNT) and equilibrative (hENT) nucleoside transporters are expressed in the human liver (21). Here we report a study that investigated the expression of these transporters (transcripts and proteins) and their role in the hepatobiliary transport of nucleosides/nucleoside drugs using sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes. In the hepatic tissue, the rank order of the mRNA expression of the transporters was hCNT1 ≈ hENT1 > hENT2 ≈ hCNT2 > hCNT3. In sandwich-cultured hepatocytes, the mRNA expression of hCNT2 and hENT2 was comparable to that in hepatic tissue, whereas the expression of corresponding transporters in the two-dimensional hepatocyte cultures was lower. Colocalization studies demonstrated predominant localization of these transporters at the sinusoidal membrane and of hENT1, hCNT1, and hCNT2 at the canalicular membrane. In the sandwich-cultured hepatocytes, ENTs were the major contributors to the transport of thymidine (hENT1, 63%; hENT2, 23%) or guanosine (hENT1, 53%; hENT2, 24%) into the hepatocytes followed by hCNT1 (10%) for thymidine or hCNT2 (23%) for guanosine. Although ribavirin was predominately transported (89%) into the hepatocytes by hENT1, fialuridine (FIAU) was transported by both hENT1 (30%) and hCNTs (61%). The extensively metabolized natural nucleosides were not effluxed into the bile, whereas significant biliary-efflux was observed of FIAU (19%), ribavirin (30%), and formycin B (35%). We conclude that the hepatic activity of hENT1 and hCNT1/2 transporters will determine the in vivo hepatic distribution and therefore the efficacy and/or toxicity of nucleoside drugs used to treat hepatic diseases. PMID:18635603

  8. Assays To Detect the Formation of Triphosphates of Unnatural Nucleotides: Application to Escherichia coli Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Mariko F; Shaw, Ryan W; Moses, Jennifer D; Kim, Hyo-Joong; Kim, Myong-Jung; Kim, Myong-Sang; Hoshika, Shuichi; Karalkar, Nilesh; Benner, Steven A

    2016-03-18

    One frontier in synthetic biology seeks to move artificially expanded genetic information systems (AEGIS) into natural living cells and to arrange the metabolism of those cells to allow them to replicate plasmids built from these unnatural genetic systems. In addition to requiring polymerases that replicate AEGIS oligonucleotides, such cells require metabolic pathways that biosynthesize the triphosphates of AEGIS nucleosides, the substrates for those polymerases. Such pathways generally require nucleoside and nucleotide kinases to phosphorylate AEGIS nucleosides and nucleotides on the path to these triphosphates. Thus, constructing such pathways focuses on engineering natural nucleoside and nucleotide kinases, which often do not accept the unnatural AEGIS biosynthetic intermediates. This, in turn, requires assays that allow the enzyme engineer to follow the kinase reaction, assays that are easily confused by ATPase and other spurious activities that might arise through "site-directed damage" of the natural kinases being engineered. This article introduces three assays that can detect the formation of both natural and unnatural deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, assessing their value as polymerase substrates at the same time as monitoring the progress of kinase engineering. Here, we focus on two complementary AEGIS nucleoside diphosphates, 6-amino-5-nitro-3-(1'-β-D-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl)-2(1H)-pyridone and 2-amino-8-(1'-β-D-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl)-imidazo[1,2-a]-1,3,5-triazin-4(8H)-one. These assays provide new ways to detect the formation of unnatural deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in vitro and to confirm their incorporation into DNA. Thus, these assays can be used with other unnatural nucleotides. PMID:26829203

  9. Targeting the Plasmodium vivax equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (PvENT1) for antimalarial drug development.

    PubMed

    Deniskin, Roman; Frame, I J; Sosa, Yvett; Akabas, Myles H

    2016-04-01

    Infection with Plasmodium falciparum and vivax cause most cases of malaria. Emerging resistance to current antimalarial medications makes new drug development imperative. Ideally a new antimalarial drug should treat both falciparum and vivax malaria. Because malaria parasites are purine auxotrophic, they rely on purines imported from the host erythrocyte via Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters (ENTs). Thus, the purine import transporters represent a potential target for antimalarial drug development. For falciparum parasites the primary purine transporter is the P. falciparum Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter Type 1 (PfENT1). Recently we identified potent PfENT1 inhibitors with nanomolar IC50 values using a robust, yeast-based high throughput screening assay. In the current work we characterized the Plasmodium vivax ENT1 (PvENT1) homologue and its sensitivity to the PfENT1 inhibitors. We expressed a yeast codon-optimized PvENT1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PvENT1-expressing yeast imported both purines ([(3)H]adenosine) and pyrimidines ([(3)H]uridine), whereas wild type (fui1Δ) yeast did not. Based on radiolabel substrate uptake inhibition experiments, inosine had the lowest IC50 (3.8 μM), compared to guanosine (14.9 μM) and adenosine (142 μM). For pyrimidines, thymidine had an IC50 of 183 μM (vs. cytidine and uridine; mM range). IC50 values were higher for nucleobases compared to the corresponding nucleosides; hypoxanthine had a 25-fold higher IC50 than inosine. The archetypal human ENT1 inhibitor 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) had no effect on PvENT1, whereas dipyridamole inhibited PvENT1, albeit with a 40 μM IC50, a 1000-fold less sensitive than human ENT1 (hENT1). The PfENT1 inhibitors blocked transport activity of PvENT1 and the five known naturally occurring non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with similar IC50 values. Thus, the PfENT1 inhibitors also target PvENT1. This implies that development of novel antimalarial

  10. Targeting the Plasmodium vivax equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (PvENT1) for antimalarial drug development

    PubMed Central

    Deniskin, Roman; Frame, I.J.; Sosa, Yvett; Akabas, Myles H.

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Plasmodium falciparum and vivax cause most cases of malaria. Emerging resistance to current antimalarial medications makes new drug development imperative. Ideally a new antimalarial drug should treat both falciparum and vivax malaria. Because malaria parasites are purine auxotrophic, they rely on purines imported from the host erythrocyte via Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters (ENTs). Thus, the purine import transporters represent a potential target for antimalarial drug development. For falciparum parasites the primary purine transporter is the P. falciparum Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter Type 1 (PfENT1). Recently we identified potent PfENT1 inhibitors with nanomolar IC50 values using a robust, yeast-based high throughput screening assay. In the current work we characterized the Plasmodium vivax ENT1 (PvENT1) homologue and its sensitivity to the PfENT1 inhibitors. We expressed a yeast codon-optimized PvENT1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PvENT1-expressing yeast imported both purines ([3H]adenosine) and pyrimidines ([3H]uridine), whereas wild type (fui1Δ) yeast did not. Based on radiolabel substrate uptake inhibition experiments, inosine had the lowest IC50 (3.8 μM), compared to guanosine (14.9 μM) and adenosine (142 μM). For pyrimidines, thymidine had an IC50 of 183 μM (vs. cytidine and uridine; mM range). IC50 values were higher for nucleobases compared to the corresponding nucleosides; hypoxanthine had a 25-fold higher IC50 than inosine. The archetypal human ENT1 inhibitor 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) had no effect on PvENT1, whereas dipyridamole inhibited PvENT1, albeit with a 40 μM IC50, a 1000-fold less sensitive than human ENT1 (hENT1). The PfENT1 inhibitors blocked transport activity of PvENT1 and the five known naturally occurring non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with similar IC50 values. Thus, the PfENT1 inhibitors also target PvENT1. This implies that development of novel antimalarial drugs

  11. Complexation Constants of Ubiquinone,0 and Ubiquinone,10 with Nucleosides and Nucleic Acid Bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahawi, Kassim Y.; Shanshal, Muthana

    2008-02-01

    UV spectrophotometric measurements were done on mixtures of the ubiquinones Ub,0 and Ub,10 in their monomeric form (c < 10-5 mol/l) with the nucleosides; adenosine, cytidine, 2'-desoxyadenosine, 2'-desoxy-quanosine, guanosine and thymidine, as well as the nucleic acid bases; adenine, cytosine, hypoxanthine, thymine and uracil. Applying the Liptay method, it was found that both ubiquinones form 1 : 1 interaction complexes with the nucleic acid components. The complexation constants were found in the order of 105 mol-1. The calculated ΔG values were negative (˜-7.0 kcal/mol), suggesting a favoured hydrogen bridge formation. This is confirmed by the positive change of the entropy ΔS. The complexation enthalpies ΔH for all complexes are negative, suggesting exothermal interactions.

  12. Diversity-oriented synthesis of acyclic nucleosides via ring-opening of vinyl cyclopropanes with purines.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hong-Ying; Du, Cong; Xie, Ming-Sheng; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Qian; Qu, Gui-Rong; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2015-02-25

    The diversity-oriented synthesis of acyclic nucleosides has been achieved via ring-opening of vinyl cyclopropanes with purines. With Pd2(dba)3·CHCl3 as a catalyst, the 1,5-ring-opening reaction proceeded well and afforded N9 adducts as the major form, in which the C=C bonds in the side chain were exclusively E-form. In the presence of AlCl3, the 1,3-ring-opening reaction occurred smoothly, giving N9 adducts as the dominate products. Meanwhile, when MgI2 was used as the catalyst, the 1,3-ring-opening reaction also worked well to form N7 adducts. PMID:25572827

  13. New nucleoside/nucleotide backbone options: a review of recent studies.

    PubMed

    Ruane, Peter J; DeJesus, Edwin

    2004-09-01

    The nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI/NtRTI) class continues to serve as an important component of the standard of care for HIV infection. Combinations of dual NRTIs/NtRTIs with protease inhibitors (PIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) remain the most commonly used regimens in clinical practice. In recent years, clinical outcomes data on previously novel NRTI/NtRTI backbone combinations have provided clinicians with new options to address potency, tolerability, and convenience of antiretroviral therapy. However, the tolerability, drug-drug interactions, and resistance profiles of specific regimens using new NRTI/NtRTI combinations must be weighed against the needs and preferences of individual patients. This review summarizes recent efficacy and safety data on emerging NRTI/NtRTI combination backbones, including tenofovir DF (TDF) with lamivudine (3TC), abacavir with 3TC, didanosine (ddI) with 3TC, ddI with emtricitabine (FTC), and TDF with FTC. PMID:15319666

  14. Antimalarial activity of prodrugs of N-branched acyclic nucleoside phosphonate inhibitors of 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Hocková, Dana; Janeba, Zlatko; Naesens, Lieve; Edstein, Michael D; Chavchich, Marina; Keough, Dianne T; Guddat, Luke W

    2015-09-01

    Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) that contain a 6-oxopurine base are good inhibitors of the human and Plasmodium falciparum 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferases (PRTs), key enzymes of the purine salvage pathway. Chemical modifications, based on the crystal structures of several inhibitors in complex with the human PRTase, led to the design of a new class of inhibitors--the aza-ANPs. Because of the negative charges of the phosphonic acid moiety, their ability to cross cell membranes is, however, limited. Thus, phosphoramidate prodrugs of the aza-ANPs were prepared to improve permeability. These prodrugs arrest parasitemia with IC50 values in the micromolar range against Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocyte cultures (both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant Pf strains). The prodrugs exhibit low cytotoxicity in several human cell lines. Thus, they fulfill two essential criteria to qualify them as promising antimalarial drug leads. PMID:26275679

  15. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus NDK: preliminary crystallographic analysis of the first viral nucleoside diphosphate kinase

    PubMed Central

    Jeudy, Sandra; Coutard, Bruno; Lebrun, Régine; Abergel, Chantal

    2005-01-01

    The complete sequence of the largest known double-stranded DNA virus, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, has recently been determined [Raoult et al. (2004 ▶), Science, 306, 1344–1350] and revealed numerous genes not expected to be found in a virus. A comprehensive structural and functional study of these gene products was initiated [Abergel et al. (2005 ▶), Acta Cryst. F61, 212–215] both to better understand their role in the virus physiology and to obtain some clues to the origin of DNA viruses. Here, the preliminary crystallographic analysis of the viral nucleoside diphosphate kinase protein is reported. The crystal belongs to the cubic space group P213, with unit-cell parameter 99.425 Å. The self-rotation function confirms that there are two monomers per asymmetric unit related by a twofold non-crystallographic axis and that the unit cell thus contains four biological entities. PMID:16511098

  16. The ligand binding mechanism to purine nucleoside phosphorylase elucidated via molecular dynamics and machine learning

    PubMed Central

    Decherchi, Sergio; Berteotti, Anna; Bottegoni, Giovanni; Rocchia, Walter; Cavalli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The study of biomolecular interactions between a drug and its biological target is of paramount importance for the design of novel bioactive compounds. In this paper, we report on the use of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and machine learning to study the binding mechanism of a transition state analogue (DADMe–immucillin-H) to the purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) enzyme. Microsecond-long MD simulations allow us to observe several binding events, following different dynamical routes and reaching diverse binding configurations. These simulations are used to estimate kinetic and thermodynamic quantities, such as kon and binding free energy, obtaining a good agreement with available experimental data. In addition, we advance a hypothesis for the slow-onset inhibition mechanism of DADMe–immucillin-H against PNP. Combining extensive MD simulations with machine learning algorithms could therefore be a fruitful approach for capturing key aspects of drug–target recognition and binding. PMID:25625196

  17. Mass Modulation of Protein Dynamics Associated with Barrier Crossing in Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Dimitri; Ge, Xiaoxia; Schramm, Vern L.; Schwartz, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    The role of protein dynamics on different time scales in enzyme catalysis remains an area of active debate. The connection between enzyme dynamics on the femtosecond time scale and transition state formation has been demonstrated in human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) through the study of a mass-altered enzyme. Isotopic substitution in human PNP (heavy PNP) decreased the rate of on-enzyme chemistry but did not alter either the transition state structure or steady-state kinetic parameters. Here we investigate the underlying atomic motions associated with altered barrier crossing probability for heavy PNP. Transition path sampling was employed to illuminate the molecular differences between barrier crossing in light and heavy enzymes. The mass effect is apparent in promoting vibrations that polarize the N-ribosidic bond, and that promote the stability of the purine leaving group. These motions facilitate barrier crossing. PMID:24496053

  18. Evaluation of capillary chromatographic supports for immobilized human purine nucleoside phosphorylase in frontal affinity chromatography studies.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Marcela Cristina; Temporini, Caterina; Calleri, Enrica; Bruni, Giovanna; Ducati, Rodrigo Gay; Santos, Diógenes Santiago; Cardoso, Carmen Lucia; Cass, Quezia Bezerra; Massolini, Gabriella

    2014-04-18

    The aim of this work was to optimize the preparation of a capillary human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (HsPNP) immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) for characterization and affinity screening studies of new inhibitors by frontal affinity chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (FAC-MS). For this purpose two monolithic supports, a Chromolith Speed Rod (0.1mm I.D.×5cm) and a methacrylate-based monolithic epoxy polymeric capillary column (0.25mm I.D.×5cm) with epoxy reactive groups were considered and compared to an IMER previously developed using an open fused silica capillary. Each HsPNP-IMER was characterized in terms of catalytic activity using Inosine as standard substrate. Furthermore, they were also explored for affinity ranking experiments. Kd determination was carried out with the based fused silica HsPNP-IMER and the results are herein discussed. PMID:24630982

  19. Discovery, characterization, and lead optimization of 7-azaindole non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Richard A; Lu, Xiao; Detorio, Mervi; Montero, Catherine; Hammond, Emily T; Ehteshami, Maryam; Domaoal, Robert A; Nettles, James H; Feraud, Michel; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2016-08-15

    A library of 585 compounds built off a 7-azaindole core was evaluated for anti-HIV-1 activity, and ten hits emerged with submicromolar potency and therapeutic index >100. Of these, three were identified as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors and were assayed against relevant resistant mutants. Lead compound 8 inhibited RT with submicromolar potency (IC50=0.73μM) and also maintained some activity against the clinically important RT mutants K103N and Y181C (IC50=9.2, 3.5μM) in cell-free assays. Free energy perturbation guided lead optimization resulted in the development of a compound with a two-fold increase in potency against RT (IC50=0.36μM). These data highlight the discovery of a unique scaffold with the potential to move forward as next-generation anti-HIV-1 agents. PMID:27390064

  20. Recent clinical experience with famciclovir--a "third generation" nucleoside prodrug.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Arun; Tyring, Stephen K; Beutner, Karl; Rauser, Michael

    2004-09-01

    The herpesviruses continue to produce considerable morbidity in man. Once infected with herpes simplex (HSV), the virus remains dormant within the nervous system and may reactivate if provoked by stress, trauma and/or other factors. To date, there is no cure, but antiviral medication can reduce duration and severity of symptoms and prophylaxis can suppress recurrent episodes of disease. The second-generation guanosine nucleosides, acyclovir and penciclovir, are effective inhibitors with low toxicity; both, however, have relatively low oral bioavailability. Subsequently, the orally bioavailable prodrugs valaciclovir and famciclovir have been introduced. These compounds offer high oral bioavailabilty and deliver acyclovir and penciclovir, respectively, to the target cells by means of more convenient dosing schedules. This short review points to recent experience with famciclovir in the management of HSV and varicella-zoster virus. PMID:15535046

  1. Meteorite-catalyzed syntheses of nucleosides and of other prebiotic compounds from formamide under proton irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Saladino, Raffaele; Carota, Eleonora; Botta, Giorgia; Kapralov, Mikhail; Timoshenko, Gennady N.; Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Krasavin, Eugene; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Liquid formamide has been irradiated by high-energy proton beams in the presence of powdered meteorites, and the products of the catalyzed resulting syntheses were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Relative to the controls (no radiation, or no formamide, or no catalyst), an extremely rich, variegate, and prebiotically relevant panel of compounds was observed. The meteorites tested were representative of the four major classes: iron, stony iron, chondrites, and achondrites. The products obtained were amino acids, carboxylic acids, nucleobases, sugars, and, most notably, four nucleosides: cytidine, uridine, adenosine, and thymidine. In accordance with theoretical studies, the detection of HCN oligomers suggests the occurrence of mechanisms based on the generation of radical cyanide species (CN·) for the synthesis of nucleobases. Given that many of the compounds obtained are key components of extant organisms, these observations contribute to outline plausible exogenous high-energy–based prebiotic scenarios and their possible boundary conditions, as discussed. PMID:25870268

  2. Meteorite-catalyzed syntheses of nucleosides and of other prebiotic compounds from formamide under proton irradiation.

    PubMed

    Saladino, Raffaele; Carota, Eleonora; Botta, Giorgia; Kapralov, Mikhail; Timoshenko, Gennady N; Rozanov, Alexei Y; Krasavin, Eugene; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2015-05-26

    Liquid formamide has been irradiated by high-energy proton beams in the presence of powdered meteorites, and the products of the catalyzed resulting syntheses were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Relative to the controls (no radiation, or no formamide, or no catalyst), an extremely rich, variegate, and prebiotically relevant panel of compounds was observed. The meteorites tested were representative of the four major classes: iron, stony iron, chondrites, and achondrites. The products obtained were amino acids, carboxylic acids, nucleobases, sugars, and, most notably, four nucleosides: cytidine, uridine, adenosine, and thymidine. In accordance with theoretical studies, the detection of HCN oligomers suggests the occurrence of mechanisms based on the generation of radical cyanide species (CN·) for the synthesis of nucleobases. Given that many of the compounds obtained are key components of extant organisms, these observations contribute to outline plausible exogenous high-energy-based prebiotic scenarios and their possible boundary conditions, as discussed. PMID:25870268

  3. Structural basis for selective inhibition of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Schistosoma mansoni: kinetic and structural studies.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Marcelo S; Postigo, Matheus P; Pereira, Humberto M; Oliva, Glaucius; Andricopulo, Adriano D

    2010-02-15

    Selectivity plays a crucial role in the design of enzyme inhibitors as novel antiparasitic agents, particularly in cases where the target enzyme is also present in the human host. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Schistosoma mansoni (SmPNP) is an attractive target for the discovery of potential antischistosomal agents. In the present work, kinetic studies were carried out in order to determine the inhibitory potency, mode of action and enzyme selectivity of a series of inhibitors of SmPNP. In addition, crystallographic studies provided important structural insights for rational inhibitor design, revealing consistent structural differences in the binding mode of the inhibitors in the active sites of the SmPNP and human PNP (HsPNP) structures. The molecular information gathered in this work should be useful for future medicinal chemistry efforts in the design of new inhibitors of SmPNP having increased affinity and selectivity. PMID:20129792

  4. Complex self-assembly of pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine nucleoside supramolecular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hang; Guo, Xiurong; He, Shiliang; Zeng, Xin; Zhou, Xinglong; Zhang, Chaoliang; Hu, Jing; Wu, Xiaohua; Xing, Zhihua; Chu, Liangyin; He, Yang; Chen, Qianming

    2014-01-01

    Supramolecular self-assembly is not only one of the chemical roots of biological structure but is also drawing attention in different industrial fields. Here we study the mechanism of the formation of a complex flower-shaped supramolecular structure of pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine nucleosides by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray analysis. Upon removing the hydroxyl group of sugars, different flower-shaped superstructures can be produced. These works demonstrate that complex self-assembly can indeed be attained through hierarchical non-covalent interactions of single molecules. Furthermore, chimerical structures built from molecular recognition by these monomers indicate their potential in other fields if combined with other chemical entities.

  5. Versatile synthesis of oxime-containing acyclic nucleoside phosphonates--synthetic solutions and antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Solyev, Pavel N; Jasko, Maxim V; Kleymenova, Alla A; Kukhanova, Marina K; Kochetkov, Sergey N

    2015-11-28

    New oxime-containing acyclic nucleoside phosphonates 9-{2-[(phosphonomethyl)oximino]ethyl}adenine (1), -guanine (2) and 9-{2-[(phosphonomethyl)oximino]propyl}adenine (3) with wide spectrum activity against different types of viruses were synthesized. The key intermediate, diethyl aminooxymethylphosphonate, was obtained by the Mitsunobu reaction. Modified conditions for the by-product separation (without chromatography and distillation) allowed us to obtain 85% yield of the aminooxy intermediate. The impact of DBU and Cs2CO3 on the N(9)/N(7) product ratio for adenine and guanine alkylation was studied. A convenient procedure for aminooxy group detection was found. The synthesized phosphonates were tested and they appeared to display moderate activity against different types of viruses (HIV, herpes viruses in cell cultures, and hepatitis C virus in the replicon system) without toxicity up to 1000 μM. PMID:26383895

  6. 4'-Substituted pyrimidine nucleosides lacking 5'-hydroxyl function as potential anti-HCV agents.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Neeraj; Vedi, Satish; Liang, Chao; Yang, Fang; Agrawal, Babita; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major health problems worldwide. If left untreated, it leads to liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and death. Herein, we report synthesis and anti-HCV activity of a new class of pyrimidine nucleosides possessing a 4'-carboxymethyl (9-16, 21 and 23) or 4'-carboxamide function (17-19 and 24). Among these, 10-12 (EC50=33.1-42.4 μM), 14 and 21 (EC50=43.4-59.5 μM) exhibited potent activity in HCV-1a replicon cells without any toxicity to parent Huh-7 cells (CC50=>829-1055 μM). The anti-HCV activities demonstrated by this unusual class of compounds were superior to that of ribavirin (EC50=81.9 μM). Further, the most active analog, 12, was found to interact synergistically with ribavirin to inhibit HCV RNA replication. PMID:24485784

  7. Characterization of nucleoside triphosphatase activity in isolated pea nuclei and its photoreversible regulation by light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. R.; Roux, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    A nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) present in highly purified preparations of pea nuclei was partially characterized. The activity of this enzyme was stimulated by divalent cations (Mg2+ = Mn2+ > Ca2+), but was not affected by the monovalent cations, Na+ and K+. The Mg(2+)-dependent activity was further stimulated by concentrations of Ca2+ in the low micromolar range. It could catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP, GTP, UTP, and CTP, all with a pH optimum of 7.5. The nuclear NTPase activity was not inhibited by vanadate, oligomycin, or nitrate, but was inhibited by relatively low concentrations of quercetin and the calmodulin inhibitor, compound 48/80. The NTPase was stimulated more than 50% by red light, and this effect was reversed by subsequent irradiation with far-red light. The photoreversibility of the stimulation indicated that the photoreceptor for this response was phytochrome, an important regulator of photomorphogenesis and gene expression in plants.

  8. The Limits of Template-Directed Synthesis with Nucleoside-5'-Phosphoro(2-Methyl) Imidazolides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Aubrey R., Jr.; Orgel, Leslie E.; Wu, Taifeng

    1993-01-01

    In earlier work we have shown that C-rich templates containing isolated A, T or G residues and short oligo(G) sequences can be copied effectively using nucleoside-5'-phosphoro(2-methyl)imidazolides as substrates. We now show that isolated A or T residues within an oligo(G) sequence are a complete block to copying and that an isolated C residue is copied inefficiently. Replication is possible only if there are two complementary oligonucleotides each of which acts as a template to facilitate the synthesis of the other. We emphasize the severity of the problems that need to be overcome to make possible non-enzymatic replication in homogeneous aqueous solution. We conclude that an efficient catalyst was involved in the origin of polynucleotide replication.

  9. Content variations of triterpenic acid, nucleoside, nucleobase, and sugar in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during ripening.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Wang, Hanqing; Zhao, Yunan

    2015-01-15

    Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit is widely consumed as food and traditional Chinese medicine in Asian countries due to its potential effects for human health. To facilitate selection of the maturity stage providing optimum health benefits, jujube fruits were analysed at six stages of growth (S1-6) for triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and sugars by UHPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-ELSD methods. The content levels of most triterpenic acids and sugars increased with ripening, and reached the highest at S5 and S6, respectively. The accumulation of the cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) was mainly in the later stage of ripening (S5-6). Therefore, if taking triterpenic acids as the major quality indicator, S5 should be the ideal time to harvest jujube fruit, and the full ripen stage (S6) maybe the best choice when taking sugars and cyclic nucleotides as the most important components. PMID:25149013

  10. Identification of the vaccinia virus gene encoding nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase I, a DNA-dependent ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Broyles, S S; Moss, B

    1987-01-01

    Vaccinia virus encapsidates a DNA-dependent ATPase known as nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase I (NPH I). A bacteriophage lambda gt11 expression library of poxvirus DNA was screened with antibodies specific for NPH I. Positive clones were used to probe restriction fragments of vaccinia virus genomic DNA to locate the NPH I gene. The identity of the open reading frame (ORF) was confirmed by placing it downstream of a bacteriophage T7 promoter, transcribing the ORF in vitro, and translating the RNA in a reticulocyte lysate. A polypeptide of the correct molecular weight, which was recognized by anti-NPH I antibody, was synthesized. Inspection of the deduced amino acid sequence of the NPH I ORF revealed consensus ATP-binding sites. Images PMID:2437324

  11. Reactions of β-Propiolactone with Nucleobase Analogues, Nucleosides, and Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Uittenbogaard, Joost P.; Zomer, Bert; Hoogerhout, Peter; Metz, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    β-Propiolactone is often applied for inactivation of viruses and preparation of viral vaccines. However, the exact nature of the reactions of β-propiolactone with viral components is largely unknown. The purpose of the current study was to elucidate the chemical modifications occurring on nucleotides and amino acid residues caused by β-propiolactone. Therefore, a set of nucleobase analogues was treated with β-propiolactone, and reaction products were identified and quantified. NMR revealed at least one modification in either deoxyguanosine, deoxyadenosine, or cytidine after treatment with β-propiolactone. However, no reaction products were found from thymidine and uracil. The most reactive sides of the nucleobase analogues and nucleosides were identified by NMR. Furthermore, a series of synthetic peptides was used to determine the conversion of reactive amino acid residues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. β-Propiolactone was shown to react with nine different amino acid residues. The most reactive residues are cysteine, methionine, and histidine and, to a lesser degree, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, tyrosine, lysine, serine, and threonine. Remarkably, cystine residues (disulfide groups) do not react with β-propiolactone. In addition, no reaction was observed for β-propiolactone with asparagine, glutamine, and tryptophan residues. β-Propiolactone modifies proteins to a larger extent than expected from current literature. In conclusion, the study determined the reactivity of β-propiolactone with nucleobase analogues, nucleosides, and amino acid residues and elucidated the chemical structures of the reaction products. The study provides detailed knowledge on the chemistry of β-propiolactone inactivation of viruses. PMID:21868382

  12. Arginine kinase shows nucleoside diphosphate kinase-like activity toward deoxythymidine diphosphate.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Hernandez-Flores, Jose M; Lugo-Sanchez, Maria E; Sugich-Miranda, Rocio; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D

    2016-06-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) (ATP: L-arginine phosphotransferase, E.C. 2.7.3.3) catalyzes the reversible transfer of ATP γ-phosphate group to L-arginine to synthetize phospho-arginine as a high-energy storage. Previous studies suggest additional roles for AK in cellular processes. Since AK is found only in invertebrates and it is homologous to creatine kinase from vertebrates, the objective of this work was to demonstrate nucleoside diphosphate kinase-like activity for shrimp AK. For this, AK from marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvAK) was purified and its activity was assayed for phosphorylation of TDP using ATP as phosphate donor. Moreover, by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) the phosphate transfer reaction was followed. Also, LvAK tryptophan fluorescence emission changes were detected by dTDP titration, suggesting that the hydrophobic environment of Trp 221, which is located in the top of the active site, is perturbed upon dTDP binding. The kinetic constants for both substrates Arg and dTDP were calculated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Besides, docking calculations suggested that dTDP could bind LvAK in the same cavity where ATP bind, and LvAK basic residues (Arg124, 126 and 309) stabilize the dTDP phosphate groups and the pyrimidine base interact with His284 and Ser122. These results suggest that LvAK bind and phosphorylate dTDP being ATP the phosphate donor, thus describing a novel alternate nucleoside diphosphate kinase-like activity for this enzyme. PMID:27072556

  13. Galectin-4 interacts with the drug transporter human concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 to regulate its function.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Calotti, Paula; Casulleras, Olga; Antolin, María; Guarner, Francisco; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal

    2016-02-01

    The intracellular N-terminal domain of the nucleoside and drug transporter human concentrative nucleoside transporter (hCNT)3 was used as bait in a glutathione S-transferase pull-down approach, to identify hCNT3 protein partners, using human colon homogenates as a prey source. Galectin (Gal)-4 was identified as a potential hCNT3 partner in the colon. The biochemical validation of the Gal-4-hCNT3 interaction was verified by targeted pull-down assays and coimmunoprecipitation experiments in HT-29 cells, which endogenously express hCNT3 and Gal-4. Furthermore, Gal-4 was shown to colocalize with hCNT3 in HT-29 cells. The biologic significance of this interaction was obtained from experiments in which Gal-4 was knocked down, showing that this protein is a regulator of hCNT3 trafficking and retention at the cell membrane, reducing its plasma membrane location by 70%. Conversely, the addition of Gal-4 increased hCNT3 location at the plasma membrane by 77%, thereby demonstrating that this lectin modulates hCNT3 function in colonic cells. The integrity of this partnership may be clinically relevant, because hCNT3 may be responsible for the translocation of thiopurines, such as 6-mercaptopurine, a front-line treatment in inflammatory bowel disease. The expression of Gal-4 and hCNT3 proteins is not impaired in inflamed colon from patients with Crohn's disease, thereby anticipating the integrity of this system for drug targeting. PMID:26481311

  14. Substrate and Inhibitor Specificity of the Plasmodium berghei Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter Type 1.

    PubMed

    Arora, Avish; Deniskin, Roman; Sosa, Yvett; Nishtala, Sita Nirupama; Henrich, Philipp P; Kumar, T R Santha; Fidock, David A; Akabas, Myles H

    2016-06-01

    Malaria is a critical public health issue in the tropical world, causing extensive morbidity and mortality. Infection by unicellular, obligate intracellular Plasmodium parasites causes malaria. The emergence of resistance to current antimalarial drugs necessitates the development of novel therapeutics. A potential novel drug target is the purine import transporter. Because Plasmodium parasites are purine auxotrophic, they must import purines from their host to fulfill metabolic requirements. They import purines via equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) homologs. Recently, we used a yeast-based high-throughput screen to identify inhibitors of the P. falciparum ENT1 (PfENT1) that kill P. falciparum parasites in culture. P. berghei infection of mice is an animal model for human malaria. Because P. berghei ENT1 (PbENT1) shares only 60% amino acid sequence identity with PfENT1, we sought to characterize PbENT1 and its sensitivity to our PfENT1 inhibitors. We expressed PbENT1 in purine auxotrophic yeast and used radiolabeled substrate uptake to characterize its function. We showed that PbENT1 transports both purines and pyrimidines. It preferred nucleosides compared with nucleobases. Inosine (IC50 = 3.7 µM) and guanosine (IC50 = 21.3 µM) had the highest affinities. Our recently discovered PfENT1 inhibitors were equally effective against both PbENT1- and PfENT1-mediated purine uptake. The PfENT1 inhibitors are at least 10-fold more potent against PfENT1 than human hENT1. They kill P. berghei parasites in 24-hour ex vivo culture. Thus, the P. berghei murine malaria model may be useful to evaluate the efficacy of PfENT1 inhibitors in vivo and their therapeutic potential for treatment of malaria. PMID:27048953

  15. Chutes and Ladders in Hepatitis C Nucleoside Drug Development§

    PubMed Central

    Coats, Steven J.; Garnier-Amblard, Ethel C.; Amblard, Franck; Ehteshami, Maryam; Amiralaei, Sheida; Zhang, Hongwang; Zhou, Longhu; Boucle, Sebastien R. L.; Lu, Xiao; Bondada, Lavanya; Shelton, Jadd R.; Li, Hao; Liu, Peng; Li, Chengwei; Cho, Jong Hyun; Chavre, Satish N.; Zhou, Shaoman; Mathew, Judy; Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2014-01-01

    Chutes and Ladders is an exciting up-and-down-again game in which players race to be the first to the top of the board. Along the way, they will find ladders to help them advance, and chutes that will cause them to move backwards. The development of nucleoside analogs for clinical treatment of hepatitis C presents a similar scenario in which taking shortcuts may help quickly advance a program, but there is always a tremendous risk of being sent backwards as one competes for the finish line. In recent years the treatment options for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have expand due to the development of a replicon based in vitro evaluation system, allowing for the identification of multiple drugable viral targets along with a concerted and substantial drug discovery effort. Three major drug targets have reached clinical study for chronic HCV infection: the NS3/4A serine protease, the large phosphoprotein NS5A, and the NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Recently, two oral HCV protease inhibitors were approved by the FDA and were the first direct acting anti-HCV agents to result from the substantial research in this area. There are currently many new chemical entities from several different target classes that are being evaluated worldwide in clinical trials for their effectiveness at achieving a sustained virologic response (SVR) (Pham et al., 2004; Radkowski et al., 2005). Clearly the goal is to develop therapies leading to a cure that are safe, widely accessible and available, and effective against all HCV genotypes (GT), and all stages of the disease. Nucleoside analogs that target the HCV NS5B polymerase that have reached human clinical trials is the focus of this review as they have demonstrated significant advantages in the clinic with broader activity against the various HCV GT and a higher barrier to the development of resistant viruses when compared to all other classes of HCV inhibitors. PMID:24275341

  16. Ab Initio Inverstagation of the Excited States of Nucleobases and Nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Péter G.; Fogarasi, Géza; Watson, Thomas; Perera, Ajith; Lotrich, Victor; Bartlett, Rod J.

    2011-06-01

    Most living bodies are exposed to sunlight, essential life sustaining processes are using this natural radiation. Sunlight has, however, several components (has a broad "spectrum") and in particular the invisible component (UV, ultraviolet) is harmful for living organisms. Scientists around the word are busy to understand what happens in the cell when it is exposed to light: it seems that the building blocks of cells and in particular those carrying the genetic information (DNA and RNA) are highly protected against this exposition. Our research focuses on the spectral properties of the building blocks of DNA and RNA, the so called nucleobases and nucleosides, in order to understand this mechanism. Due to improvement in computer technology both at hardware and software side we are now able to use the most accurate methods of ab initio quantum chemistry to investigate the spectroscopic properties of these building blocks. These calculations provide direct information on the properties of these molecules but also provide important benchmarks for cheaper methods which can be used for even larger systems. We have calculated the excited state properties for the nucleobases (cytosine, guanine and adenine), their complexes with water and with each other (Watson-Crick base pairs and stacks) as well as corresponding nucleosides at the EOM-CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory and try to answer the following questions: (1) how the order of excited states varies in different nucleobases; (2) how hydration influences the excitation energy and order of excited states; (3) is there any effect of the sugar substituent; (4) how do close lying other bases change the spectrum. The calculations involve over hundred correlated electrons and up to thousand basis functions. Such calculations are now routinely available with the recently developed ACESIII code and can make use of hundreds or even several thousand of processors. V. Lotrich, N. Flocke, M. Ponton, A. Yau, A. Perera, E. Deumens

  17. Nucleoside transport in human colonic epithelial cell lines: evidence for two Na+-independent transport systems in T84 and Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ward, J L; Tse, C M

    1999-06-01

    RT-PCR of RNA isolated from monolayers of the human colonic epithelial cell lines T84 and Caco-2 demonstrated the presence of mRNA for the two cloned Na+-independent equilibrative nucleoside transporters, ENT1 and ENT2, but not for the cloned Na+-dependent concentrative nucleoside transporters, CNT1 and CNT2. Uptake of [3H]uridine by cell monolayers in balanced Na+-containing and Na+-free media confirmed the presence of only Na+-independent nucleoside transport mechanisms. This uptake was decreased by 70-75% in the presence of 1 microM nitrobenzylthioinosine, a concentration that completely inhibits ENT1, and was completely blocked by the addition of 10 microM dipyridamole, a concentration that inhibits both ENT1 and ENT2. These findings indicate the presence in T84 and Caco-2 cells of two functional Na+-independent equilibrative nucleoside transporters, ENT1 and ENT2. PMID:10366666

  18. Method for site-specific detection of m6A nucleoside presence in RNA based on high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Golovina, Anna Y; Dzama, Margarita M; Petriukov, Kirill S; Zatsepin, Timofei S; Sergiev, Petr V; Bogdanov, Alexey A; Dontsova, Olga A

    2014-02-01

    Chemical landscape of natural RNA species is decorated with the large number of modified nucleosides. Some of those could easily be detected by reverse transcription, while others permit only high-performance liquid chromatography or mass-spectrometry detection. Presence of m(6)A nucleoside at a particular position of long RNA molecule is challenging to observe. Here we report an easy and high-throughput method for detection of m(6)A nucleosides in RNA based on high-resolution melting analysis. The method relies on the previous knowledge of the modified nucleoside position at a particular place of RNA and allows rapid screening for conditions or genes necessary for formation of that modification. PMID:24265225

  19. Kinetico-Mechanistic Studies of Nucleoside and Nucleotide Substitution Reactions of Co(III) Complexes of Fully Alkylated Cyclen.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Manuel; Vázquez, Marta

    2015-05-18

    The solution chemistry of complex [Co{(Me)2(μ-ET)cyclen}(H2O)2](3+) containing a fully substituted tetraammine ligand designed for the avoidance of base-conjugated substitution mechanisms in the 6-8 pH range has been studied. The study should shed some light on the possible involvement of such Co(III) skeleton in inert interactions with biomolecules. The reactivity and speciation of the complex has been found similar to that of the parent cyclen derivative with the presence of mono- and bis-hydroxo-bridged species; at pH < 7.1, all reactivity has been found to be related to the aqua/hydroxo monomeric complexes. Under these pH conditions, the substitution reactions of the aqua/hydroxo ligands by chloride, inorganic phosphate, thymidine, cytidine 5'-monophosphate (5'-CMP), and thymidine-5'-monophosphate (5'-TMP) have been studied at varying conditions; ionic strength has been kept at 1.0 NaClO4 due to the high concentration of 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) or N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) used to ensure buffering. Except for chloride, the process occurs neatly in a one or two step process, showing dissociatively activated substitution mechanisms, having in general large ΔH(⧧), positive ΔS(⧧), and values of ΔV(⧧) close to those corresponding to the liberation of an aqua ligand to the reaction medium. The actuation of noticeable encounter-complex formation equilibrium constants has been found to be the determinant for the reactions with nucleosides and nucleotides, a clear indication of the relevance of hydrogen-bonding interactions in the reactivity of these molecules, even in this highly ionic strength medium. For the substitution of the active aqua/hydroxo ligands with 5'-TMP, the first substitution reaction produces an Nthymine-bound 5'-TMP complex that evolves to a bis-5'-TMP with an Nthymine,Ophosphate-bonding structure. The formation of outer-sphere complexes between the dangling phosphate group of the Nthymine

  20. Silicon(IV) phthalocyanines substituted axially with different nucleoside moieties. Effects of nucleoside type on the photosensitizing efficiencies and in vitro photodynamic activities.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bi-Yuan; Shen, Xiao-Min; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Cai, Yi-Bin; Ke, Mei-Rong; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2016-06-01

    A series of new silicon(IV) phthalocyanines (SiPcs) di-substituted axially with different nucleoside moieties have been synthesized and evaluated for their singlet oxygen quantum yields (ΦΔ) and in vitro photodynamic activities. The adenosine-substituted SiPc shows a lower photosensitizing efficiency (ΦΔ=0.35) than the uridine- and cytidine-substituted analogs (ΦΔ=0.42-0.44), while the guanosine-substituted SiPc exhibits a weakest singlet oxygen generation efficiency with a ΦΔ value down to 0.03. On the other hand, replacing axial adenosines with chloro-modified adenosines and purines can result in the increase of photogenerating singlet oxygen efficiencies of SiPcs. The formed SiPcs 1 and 2, which contain monochloro-modified adenosines and dichloro-modified purines respectively, appear as efficient photosensitizers with ΦΔ of 0.42-0.44. Both compounds 1 and 2 present high photocytotoxicities against HepG2 and BGC823 cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 9nM to 33nM. The photocytotoxicities of these two compounds are remarkably higher than the well-known anticancer photosensitizer, chlorin e6 (IC50=752nM against HepG2 cells) in the same condition. As revealed by confocal microscopy, for both cell lines, compound 1 can essentially bind to mitochondria, while compound 2 is just partially localized in mitochondria. In addition, the two compounds induce cell death of HepG2 cells likely through apoptosis. PMID:27085051

  1. Cross-linked polymeric nanogel formulations of 5'-triphosphates of nucleoside analogues: role of the cellular membrane in drug release.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Serguei V; Kohli, Ekta; Zeman, Arin D

    2005-01-01

    Activation of cytotoxic nucleoside analogues in vivo depends primarily on their cell-specific phosphorylation. Anticancer chemotherapy using nucleoside analogues may be significantly enhanced by intracellular administration of active phosphorylated drugs. However, the cellular transport of anionic compounds is very ineffective and restricted by many drug efflux transporters. Recently developed cationic nanogel carriers can encapsulate large amounts of nucleoside 5'-triphosphates that form polyionic complexes with protonated amino groups on the polyethylenimine backbone of the nanogels. In this paper, the 5'-triphosphate of an antiviral nucleoside analogue, 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT), was efficiently synthesized and its complexes with nanogels were obtained and evaluated as potential cytotoxic drug formulations for treatment of human breast carcinoma cells. A selective phosphorylating reagent, tris-imidazolylphosphate, was used to convert AZT into the nucleoside analogue 5'-triphosphate using a one-pot procedure. The corresponding 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate (AZTTP) was isolated with high yield (75%). Nanogels encapsulated up to 30% of AZTTP by weight by mixing solutions of the carrier and the drug. The AZTTP/nanogel formulation showed enhanced cytotoxicity in two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, demonstrating IC50 values 130-200 times lower than those values for AZT alone. The exact mechanism of drug release from nanogels remains unclear. One mechanism could involve interaction with negatively charged counterions. A high affinity of nanogels to isolated cellular membranes has been observed, especially for nanogels made of amphiphilic block copolymer, Pluronic P85. Cellular trafficking of nanogel particles, contrasted by polyethylenimine-coordinated copper(II) ions, was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which revealed membranotropic properties of nanogels. A substantial release of encapsulated drug was

  2. Concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hCNT1) promotes phenotypic changes relevant to tumor biology in a translocation-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Torras, S; Vidal-Pla, A; Cano-Soldado, P; Huber-Ruano, I; Mazo, A; Pastor-Anglada, M

    2013-01-01

    Nucleoside transporters (NTs) mediate the uptake of nucleosides and nucleobases across the plasma membrane, mostly for salvage purposes. The canonical NTs belong to two gene families, SLC29 and SLC28. The former encode equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins (ENTs), which mediate the facilitative diffusion of natural nucleosides with broad selectivity, whereas the latter encode concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs), which are sodium-coupled and show high affinity for substrates with variable selectivity. These proteins are expressed in most cell types, exhibiting apparent functional redundancy. This might indicate that CNTs have specific roles in the physiology of the cell beyond nucleoside salvage. Here, we addressed this possibility using adenoviral vectors to restore tumor cell expression of hCNT1 or a polymorphic variant (hCNT1S546P) lacking nucleoside translocation ability. We found that hCNT1 restoration in pancreatic cancer cells significantly altered cell-cycle progression and phosphorylation status of key signal-transducing kinases, promoted poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase hyperactivation and cell death and reduced cell migration. Importantly, the translocation-defective transporter triggered these same effects on cell physiology. Moreover, this study also shows that restoration of hCNT1 expression is able to reduce tumor growth in a mouse model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. These data predict a novel role for a NT protein, hCNT1, which appears to be independent of its role as mediator of nucleoside uptake by cells. Thereby, hCNT1 fits the profile of a transceptor in a substrate translocation-independent manner and is likely to be relevant to tumor biology. PMID:23722537

  3. A straightforward entry to chiral carbocyclic nucleoside analogues via the enantioselective [3+2] cycloaddition of α-nucleobase substituted acrylates.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming-Sheng; Wang, Yong; Li, Jian-Ping; Du, Cong; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Hao, Er-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Ming; Qu, Gui-Rong; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2015-08-11

    A straightforward entry to chiral carbocyclic nucleoside analogues has been realized via the enantioselective [3+2] cycloaddition of α-nucleobase substituted acrylates to vinyl cyclopropanes for the first time. With Pd2(dba)3-L5 as the catalyst, carbocyclic purine, uracil, and thymine nucleoside analogues with quaternary stereocenters were obtained in excellent yields (up to 99% yield) and good enantioselectivities (up to 92% ee). PMID:26145719

  4. L-Aspartic and l-glutamic acid ester-based ProTides of anticancer nucleosides: Synthesis and antitumoral evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ling-Jie; De Jonghe, Steven; Daelemans, Dirk; Herdewijn, Piet

    2016-05-01

    A series of novel aryloxyphosphoramidate nucleoside prodrugs based on l-aspartic acid and l-glutamic acid as amino acid motif has been synthesized and evaluated for antitumoral activity. Depending on the cancer cell line studied and on the nature of the parent nucleoside compound (gemcitabine, 5-iodo-2'-deoxy-uridine, floxuridine or brivudin), the corresponding ProTides are endowed with an improved or decreased cytotoxic activity. PMID:27032331

  5. Structure-based optimization and derivatization of 2-substituted quinolone-based non-nucleoside HCV NS5B inhibitors with submicromolar cellular replicon potency.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Shen, Jian; Peng, Run-Ze; Wang, Gui-Feng; Zuo, Jian-Ping; Long, Ya-Qiu

    2016-06-15

    HCV NS5B polymerase is an attractive and validated target for anti-HCV therapy. Starting from our previously identified 2-aryl quinolones as novel non-nucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitors, structure-based optimization furnished 2-alkyl-N-benzyl quinolones with improved antiviral potency by employing privileged fragment hybridization strategy. The N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2-(methoxymethyl)quinolone derivative 5f proved to be the best compound of this series, exhibiting a selective sub-micromolar antiviral effect (EC50=0.4μM, SI=10.8) in Huh7.5.1 cells carrying a HCV genotype 2a. Considering the undesirable pharmacokinetic property of the highly substituted quinolones, a novel chemotype of 1,6-naphthyridine-4,5-diones were evolved via scaffold hopping, affording brand new structure HCV inhibitors with compound 6h (EC50 (gt2a)=2.5μM, SI=7.2) as a promising hit. Molecular modeling studies suggest that both of 2-alkyl quinolones and 1,6-naphthyridine-4,5-diones function as HCV NS5B thumb pocket II inhibitors. PMID:27133482

  6. An efficient synthesis of 3-fluoro-5-thio-xylofuranosyl nucleosides of thymine, uracil, and 5-fluorouracil as potential antitumor or/and antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Tsoukala, Evangelia; Agelis, George; Dolinsek, Jan; Botić, Tanja; Cencic, Avrelija; Komiotis, Dimitri

    2007-05-01

    1,2:5,6-Di-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-glucofuranose by the sequence of mild oxidation, reduction, fluorination, periodate oxidation, borohydride reduction, and sulfonylation gave 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-1,2-O-isopropylidene-5-O-p-toluenesulfonyl-alpha-D-xylofuranose (5). Tosylate 5 was converted to thioacetate derivative 6, which after acetolysis gave 1,2-di-O-acetyl-5-S-acetyl-3-deoxy-3-fluoro-5-thio-D-xylofuranose (7). Condensation of 7 with silylated thymine, uracil, and 5-fluorouracil afforded nucleosides 1-(5-S-acetyl-3-deoxy-3-fluoro-5-thio-beta-D-xylofuranosyl) thymine (8), 1-(5-S-acetyl-3-deoxy-3-fluoro-5-thio-beta-D-xylofuranosyl) uracil (9), and 1-(5-S-acetyl-3-deoxy-3-fluoro-5-thio-beta-D-xylofuranosyl) 5-fluorouracil (10). Compounds 8, 9, and 10 are biologically active against rotavirus infection and the growth of tumor cells. PMID:17337193

  7. Synthesis, structure-activity relationship and molecular docking of cyclohexenone based analogous as potent non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazar, Muhammad Faizan; Abdullah, Muhammad Imran; Badshah, Amir; Mahmood, Asif; Rana, Usman Ali; Khan, Salah Ud-Din

    2015-04-01

    The chalcones core in compounds is advantageously chosen effective synthons, which offer exciting perspectives in biological and pharmacological research. The present study reports the successful development of eight new cyclohexenone based anti-reverse transcriptase analogous using rational drug design synthesis principles. These new cyclohexenone derivatives (CDs) were synthesized by following a convenient route of Robinson annulation, and the molecular structure of these CDs were later confirmed by various analytical techniques such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All the synthesized compounds were screened theoretically and experimentally against reverse transcriptase (RT) and found potentially active reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors. Of the compounds studied, the compound 2FC4 showed high interaction with RT at non-nucleoside binding site, contributing high free binding energy (ΔG -8.01 Kcal) and IC50 (0.207 μg/ml), respectively. Further results revealed that the compounds bearing more halogen groups, with additional hydrophobic character, offered superior anti-reverse transcriptase activity as compared to rest of compounds. It is anticipate that the present study would be very useful for the selection of potential reverse transcriptase inhibitors featuring inclusive pharmacological profiles.

  8. The major nucleoside triphosphatase in pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei and in rat liver nuclei share common epitopes also present in nuclear lamins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, C. G.; Dauwalder, M.; Clawson, G. A.; Hatem, C. L.; Roux, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    The major nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) activities in mammalian and pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei are associated with enzymes that are very similar both biochemically and immunochemically. The major NTPase from rat liver nuclei appears to be a 46-kD enzyme that represents the N-terminal portion of lamins A and C, two lamina proteins that apparently arise from the same gene by alternate splicing. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) G2, raised to human lamin C, both immunoprecipitates the major (47 kD) NTPase in pea nuclei and recognizes it in western blot analyses. A polyclonal antibody preparation raised to the 47-kD pea NTPase (pc480) reacts with the same lamin bands that are recognized by MAb G2 in mammalian nuclei. The pc480 antibodies also bind to the same lamin-like bands in pea nuclear envelope-matrix preparations that are recognized by G2 and three other MAbs known to bind to mammalian lamins. In immunofluorescence assays, pc480 and anti-lamin antibodies stain both cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens in plant cells, with slightly enhanced staining along the periphery of the nuclei. These results indicate that the pea and rat liver NTPases are structurally similar and that, in pea nuclei as in rat liver nuclei, the major NTPase is probably derived from a lamin precursor by proteolysis.

  9. The σ-hole phenomenon of halogen atoms forms the structural basis of the strong inhibitory potency of C5 halogen substituted glucopyranosyl nucleosides towards glycogen phosphorylase b.

    PubMed

    Kantsadi, Anastasia L; Hayes, Joseph M; Manta, Stella; Skamnaki, Vicky T; Kiritsis, Christos; Psarra, Anna-Maria G; Koutsogiannis, Zissis; Dimopoulou, Athina; Theofanous, Stavroula; Nikoleousakos, Nikolaos; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Kontou, Maria; Papadopoulos, George; Zographos, Spyros E; Komiotis, Dimitris; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2012-04-01

    C5 halogen substituted glucopyranosyl nucleosides (1-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-5-X-uracil; X=Cl, Br, I) have been discovered as some of the most potent active site inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase (GP), with respective K(i) values of 1.02, 3.27, and 1.94 μM. The ability of the halogen atom to form intermolecular electrostatic interactions through the σ-hole phenomenon rather than through steric effects alone forms the structural basis of their improved inhibitory potential relative to the unsubstituted 1-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)uracil (K(i) =12.39 μM), as revealed by X-ray crystallography and modeling calculations exploiting quantum mechanics methods. Good agreement was obtained between kinetics results and relative binding affinities calculated by QM/MM-PBSA methodology for various substitutions at C5. Ex vivo experiments demonstrated that the most potent derivative (X=Cl) toward purified GP has no cytotoxicity and moderate inhibitory potency at the cellular level. In accordance, ADMET property predictions were performed, and suggest decreased polar surface areas as a potential means of improving activity in the cell. PMID:22267166

  10. Primary structure and functional expression of a cDNA encoding the bile canalicular, purine-specific Na(+)-nucleoside cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Che, M; Ortiz, D F; Arias, I M

    1995-06-01

    We previously characterized a purine-specific Na(+)-nucleoside cotransport system in bile canalicular membrane. The function of this transport system may be related to conserving nucleosides and preventing cholestasis. We report here the isolation of a cDNA encoding a Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporter from rat liver using an expression cloning strategy. The substrate specificities and kinetic characteristics of the cloned cotransporter are consistent with the properties of the Na(+)-dependent, purine-selective nucleoside transporter in bile canalicular membranes. The nucleotide sequence predicts a protein of 659 amino acids (72 kDa) with 14 putative membrane-spanning domains. Northern blot analysis showed that the transcripts are present in liver and several other tissues. Data base searches indicate significant sequence similarity to the pyrimidine-selective nucleoside transporter (cNT1) of rat jejunum. Although these two subtypes of Na(+)-nucleoside cotransporter have different substrate specificities and tissue localizations, they are members of a single gene family. PMID:7775409

  11. Nonenantioselectivity Property of Human Deoxycytidine Kinase Explained by Structures of the Enzyme in Complex with [subscript L]- and [subscript D]-Nucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Sabini, Elisabetta; Hazra, Saugata; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2008-07-31

    Biological molecules are predominantly enantioselective. Yet currently two nucleoside analogue prodrugs (3TC and FTC) with opposite chirality compared to physiological nucleosides are clinically approved for the treatment of HIV infections. These prodrugs require conversion to their triphosphorylated forms to achieve pharmacological activity. The first step in the activation of these agents is catalyzed by human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). This enzyme possesses the ability to phosphorylate nucleosides of the unnatural L-chirality. To understand the molecular basis for the nonenantioselectivity of dCK, we solved the crystal structures of the enzyme in complex with the L-enantiomer and of its physiological substrate deoxycytidine and with the L-nucleoside analogue FTC. These were compared to a structure solved with D-dC. Our results highlight structural adjustments imposed on the L-nucleosides and properties of the enzyme endowing it with the ability to phosphorylate substrates with nonphysiological chirality. This work reveals the molecular basis for the activation of L-nucleosides by dCK.

  12. Concentrative nucleoside transporter (rCNT1) is targeted to the apical membrane through the hepatic transcytotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Duflot, Sylvie; Calvo, Maria; Casado, F Javier; Enrich, Carlos; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal

    2002-11-15

    The Na+-dependent nucleoside transporter CNT1 has been identified in a caveolin-enriched plasma membrane fraction (CEF), in transcytotic endosomes, and in canalicular membranes isolated from quiescent rat liver in which the transporter appears to be biologically active. CNT1 was also detected, albeit in small amounts, in the early/sorting endosomes. Plasma membrane preparations enriched in basolateral markers showed Na+-dependent nucleoside transport activity that is mostly, if not exclusively, accounted for by CNT2, a transporter protein which was not detected in CEF nor in the endosomal fractions. These data are consistent with different localization and trafficking pathways of the two isoforms in hepatocytes. CNT1 is the first transporter which is reported to follow the transcytotic pathway to be inserted on the apical side of liver parenchymal cells. PMID:12441131

  13. Direct high-spatial-resolution SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry) imaging of labeled nucleosides in human chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallegot, Philippe; Girod, C.; LeBeau, M. M.; Levi-Setti, Riccardo

    1991-03-01

    Using a scanning ion microprobe we analyzed the distribution of labelled thymidine along human chromosomes. Two labels have been used: bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU which contains one bromine atom per molecule) and 14C-thymidine (which contains either one or ten 14C atoms per molecule). Both types of labelled nucleosides can be detected with our insirument. Best results are obtained when using the uniformly labelled thymidine (U-14C-thymidine) and adding up in a KONTRON IBAS image processing system the sequential analytical maps acquired from the sample at mass 28 (14C14N ions). The distribution of thymidine is heterogeneous along the chromosomes and a banding pattern can be observed on the pictures (SIMS-bands). The spatial resolution obtained with our scanning ion microprobe (the University of Chicago Scanning Ion Microprobe: UC-SIM) surpasses the one of autoradiography which is the common direct method of localization of labelled nucleosides. 1.

  14. Internalization of nucleoside phosphates into live cells by complex formation with different CPPs and JBS-nucleoducin.

    PubMed

    Mussbach, Franziska; Pietrucha, Regina; Schaefer, Buerk; Reissmann, Siegmund

    2011-01-01

    Nucleoside phosphates can bind to many functional proteins like G-proteins or other GTP-binding proteins in signal transduction or translation processes. Till now internalization of nucleoside phosphates into live cells remains a challenge. We study the internalization of a fluorescent-labelled deoxyuridine triphosphate into HeLa cells and other adhesion and suspension cells. We use different cell-penetrating peptides and a cocktail suitable for formation of non-covalent complexes with the nucleotide. Internalization is observed by fluorescence microscopy, and the uptake efficiency is quantitatively estimated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The applied concentrations of CPPs and the cocktail were checked on cell viability (MTT test) and membrane integrity (bioluminescence test with peptidyl-luciferin), indicating that the CPPs and the complexes with the nucleotide are cytotoxic above certain concentrations. These concentrations depend on CPP and cell type and are the limiting factors for the cargo uptake. PMID:21053144

  15. Nucleoside azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions under solvothermal conditions or using copper vials in a ball mill.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Andrew J; Ravalico, Francesco; McColgan-Bannon, Kegan I S; Eguaogie, Olga; Elliott, P Alain; Shannon, Matthew R; Bermejo, Iris A; Dwyer, Angus; Maginty, Amanda B; Mack, James; Vyle, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    Novel nucleoside analogues containing photoswitchable moieties were prepared using 'click' cycloaddition reactions between 5'-azido-5'-deoxythymidine and mono- or bis-N-propargylamide-substituted azobenzenes. In solution, high to quantitative yields were achieved using 5 mol% Cu(I) in the presence of a stabilizing ligand. 'Click' reactions using the monopropargylamides were also effected in the absence of added cuprous salts by the application of liquid assisted grinding (LAG) in metallic copper reaction vials. Specifically, high speed vibration ball milling (HSVBM) using a 3/32″ (2.38 mm) diameter copper ball (62 mg) at 60 Hz overnight in the presence of ethyl acetate lead to complete consumption of the 5'-azido nucleoside with clean conversion to the corresponding 1,3-triazole. PMID:25874944

  16. New 3'-O-aromatic acyl-5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine derivatives as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Szymańska-Michalak, Agnieszka; Wawrzyniak, Dariusz; Framski, Grzegorz; Kujda, Marta; Zgoła, Paulina; Stawinski, Jacek; Barciszewski, Jan; Boryski, Jerzy; Kraszewski, Adam

    2016-06-10

    New aromatic and aliphatic 3'-O-acyl-5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as candidates for prodrugs against various cancer cell lines. As the most promising candidate for antimalignant therapeutics was found a dual-acting acyl derivative 7h, which apparently released not only the known anticancer nucleoside, 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdU), but also an additional active metabolite, acetylsalicylic acid, reinforcing thus therapeutic effect of FdU. Promising therapeutic indices showed also some aromatic dicarboxylic acids derivatives decorated with FdU esters (11 and 12). PMID:26994842

  17. Pharmacological Reversal of Histone Methylation Presensitizes Pancreatic Cancer Cells to Nucleoside Drugs: In Vitro Optimization and Novel Nanoparticle Delivery Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Sau Wai; Bhutia, Yangzom D.; Davis, Franklin; Cho, Jong Hyun; Zastre, Jason; Dhar, Shanta; Chu, Chung K.; Govindarajan, Rajgopal

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the potential of an investigational histone methylation reversal agent, 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), in improving the chemosensitivity of pancreatic cancer to nucleoside analogs (i.e., gemcitabine). DZNep brought delayed but selective cytotoxicity to pancreatic cancer cells without affecting normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial (HPDE) cells. Co-exposure of DZNep and gemcitabine induced cytotoxic additivity or synergism in both well- and poorly-differentiated pancreatic cell lines by increased apoptosis. In contrast, DZNep exerted antagonism with gemcitabine against HPDE cells with significant reduction in cytotoxicity compared with the gemcitabine-alone regimen. DZNep marginally depended on purine nucleoside transporters for its cytotoxicity, but the transport dependence was circumvented by acyl derivatization. Drug exposure studies revealed that a short priming with DZNep followed by gemcitabine treatment rather than co-treatment of both agents to produce a maximal chemosensitization response in both gemcitabine-sensitive and gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. DZNep rapidly and reversibly decreased trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 but increased trimethylation of lysine 9 in an EZH2- and JMJD1A/2C-dependent manner, respectively. However, DZNep potentiation of nucleoside analog chemosensitization was found to be temporally coupled to trimethylation changes in lysine 27 and not lysine 9. Polymeric nanoparticles engineered to chronologically release DZNep followed by gemcitabine produced pronounced chemosensitization and dose-lowering effects. Together, our results identify that an optimized DZNep exposure can presensitize pancreatic cancer cells to anticancer nucleoside analogs through the reversal of histone methylation, emphasizing the promising clinical utilities of epigenetic reversal agents in future pancreatic cancer combination therapies. PMID:23940717

  18. Testing nucleoside analogues as inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis spore germination in vitro and in macrophage cell culture.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Zadkiel; Lee, Kyungae; Abel-Santos, Ernesto

    2010-12-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, has a dormant stage in its life cycle known as the endospore. When conditions become favorable, spores germinate and transform into vegetative bacteria. In inhalational anthrax, the most fatal manifestation of the disease, spores enter the organism through the respiratory tract and germinate in phagosomes of alveolar macrophages. Germinated cells can then produce toxins and establish infection. Thus, germination is a crucial step for the initiation of pathogenesis. B. anthracis spore germination is activated by a wide variety of amino acids and purine nucleosides. Inosine and l-alanine are the two most potent nutrient germinants in vitro. Recent studies have shown that germination can be hindered by isomers or structural analogues of germinants. 6-Thioguanosine (6-TG), a guanosine analogue, is able to inhibit germination and prevent B. anthracis toxin-mediated necrosis in murine macrophages. In this study, we screened 46 different nucleoside analogues as activators or inhibitors of B. anthracis spore germination in vitro. These compounds were also tested for their ability to protect the macrophage cell line J774a.1 from B. anthracis cytotoxicity. Structure-activity relationship analysis of activators and inhibitors clarified the binding mechanisms of nucleosides to B. anthracis spores. In contrast, no structure-activity relationships were apparent for compounds that protected macrophages from B. anthracis-mediated killing. However, multiple inhibitors additively protected macrophages from B. anthracis. PMID:20921305

  19. Binding of nickel /II/ to 5-prime-nucleoside monophosphates and related compounds. [role in origin of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orenberg, J. B.; Kjos, K. M.; Winkler, R.; Link, J.; Lawless, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    The interactions of Ni(II) cation with a representative suite of purine bases and the respective nucleosides and nucleotides have been studied by ultraviolet difference spectroscopy. Apparent association constants were determined for each system at pH 7.0, using computer linear regression coupled with an iteration technique. The specificity of binding of Ni(2+) for the purine nucleotides studied at pH 7.0 was 5-prime-GMP greater than 5-prime-AMP; a similar ordering was also found for the respective nucleosides and bases. In this study binding was not observed for the suite of pyramidines used, although an Ni(2+) -cytidine complex has been observed (Fiskin and Beer, 1965). It was also found that Ni(2+) bound more strongly to the purine 5-prime-nucleotides than to the respective nucleosides and bases. These trends are explained in terms of metal-ligand bonds and available bonding positions on the ligands. A role for metal-ion-nucleotide types of complexes is suggested in the processes that might have given rise to the origin of life.

  20. Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters 1 and 4: Which One Is a Better Target for Cardioprotection Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury?

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui; Leung, George P H

    2015-06-01

    The cardioprotective effects of adenosine and adenosine receptor agonists have been studied extensively. However, their therapeutic outcomes in ischemic heart disease are limited by systemic side effects such as hypotension, bradycardia, and sedation. Equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) inhibitors may be an alternative. By reducing the uptake of extracellular adenosine, ENT1 inhibitors potentiate the cardioprotective effect of endogenous adenosine. They have fewer systemic side effects because they selectively increase the extracellular adenosine levels in ischemic tissues undergoing accelerated adenosine formation. Nonetheless, long-term inhibition of ENT1 may adversely affect tissues that have low capacity for de novo nucleotide biosynthesis. ENT1 inhibitors may also affect the cellular transport, and hence the efficacy, of anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogs used in chemotherapy. It has been proposed that ENT4 may also contribute to the regulation of extracellular adenosine in the heart, especially under the acidotic conditions associated with ischemia. Like ENT1 inhibitors, ENT4 inhibitors should work specifically on ischemic tissues. Theoretically, ENT4 inhibitors do not affect tissues that rely on ENT1 for de novo nucleotide synthesis. They also have no interaction with anticancer and antiviral nucleosides. Development of specific ENT4 inhibitors may open a new avenue in research on ischemic heart disease therapy. PMID:26070128

  1. Lack of the nucleoside transporter ENT1 results in the Augustine-null blood type and ectopic mineralization.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Geoff; Ballif, Bryan A; Helias, Virginie; Saison, Carole; Grimsley, Shane; Mannessier, Lucienne; Hustinx, Hein; Lee, Edmond; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Peyrard, Thierry; Arnaud, Lionel

    2015-06-01

    The Augustine-negative alias At(a-) blood type, which seems to be restricted to people of African ancestry, was identified half a century ago but remains one of the last blood types with no known genetic basis. Here we report that a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in SLC29A1 (rs45458701) is responsible for the At(a-) blood type. The resulting p.Glu391Lys variation in the last extracellular loop of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1; also called SLC29a1) is known not to alter its ability to transport nucleosides and nucleoside analog drugs. Furthermore, we identified 3 individuals of European ancestry who are homozygous for a null mutation in SLC29A1 (c.589+1G>C) and thus have the Augustine-null blood type. These individuals lacking ENT1 exhibit periarticular and ectopic mineralization, which confirms an important role for ENT1/SLC29A1 in human bone homeostasis as recently suggested by the skeletal phenotype of aging Slc29a1(-/-) mice. Our results establish Augustine as a new blood group system and place SLC29A1 as a new candidate gene for idiopathic disorders characterized with ectopic calcification/mineralization. PMID:25896650

  2. Synthesis of Conformationally North-Locked Pyrimidine Nucleosides Built on an Oxa-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Ludek, Olaf R.; Marquez, Victor E.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with a known 3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane scaffold (I), the relocation of the fused cyclopropane ring bond and the shifting of the oxygen atom to an alternative location engendered a new 2-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane template (II) that mimics more closely the tetrahydrofuran ring of conventional nucleosides. The synthesis of this new class of locked nucleosides involved a novel approach that required the isocyanate II (B = NCO) with a hydroxyl-protected scaffold as a pivotal intermediate that was obtained in eleven steps from a known dihydrofuran precursor. The completion of the nucleobases was successfully achieved by quenching the isocyanate with the lithium salts of the corresponding acrylic amides that led to the uracil and thymidine precursors in a single step. Ring closure of these intermediates led to the target, locked nucleosides. The anti-HIV activity of 29 (uridine analogue), 31 (thymidine analogue), and 34 (cytidine analogue) was explored in human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells or modified HOS cells (HOS-313) expressing the herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK). Only the cytidine analogue showed moderate activity in HOS-313 cells, which means that the compounds are not good substrates for the cellular kinases. PMID:22026578

  3. Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters 1 and 4: Which One Is a Better Target for Cardioprotection Against Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The cardioprotective effects of adenosine and adenosine receptor agonists have been studied extensively. However, their therapeutic outcomes in ischemic heart disease are limited by systemic side effects such as hypotension, bradycardia, and sedation. Equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) inhibitors may be an alternative. By reducing the uptake of extracellular adenosine, ENT1 inhibitors potentiate the cardioprotective effect of endogenous adenosine. They have fewer systemic side effects because they selectively increase the extracellular adenosine levels in ischemic tissues undergoing accelerated adenosine formation. Nonetheless, long-term inhibition of ENT1 may adversely affect tissues that have low capacity for de novo nucleotide biosynthesis. ENT1 inhibitors may also affect the cellular transport, and hence the efficacy, of anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogs used in chemotherapy. It has been proposed that ENT4 may also contribute to the regulation of extracellular adenosine in the heart, especially under the acidotic conditions associated with ischemia. Like ENT1 inhibitors, ENT4 inhibitors should work specifically on ischemic tissues. Theoretically, ENT4 inhibitors do not affect tissues that rely on ENT1 for de novo nucleotide synthesis. They also have no interaction with anticancer and antiviral nucleosides. Development of specific ENT4 inhibitors may open a new avenue in research on ischemic heart disease therapy. PMID:26070128

  4. Nucleoside transporter subtype expression and function in rat skeletal muscle microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Archer, Richard G E; Pitelka, Václav; Hammond, James R

    2004-09-01

    1. Microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) form a barrier between circulating metabolites, such as adenosine, and the surrounding tissue. We hypothesize that MVECs have a high capacity for the accumulation of nucleosides, such that inhibition of the endothelial nucleoside transporters (NT) would profoundly affect the actions of adenosine in the microvasculature. 2. We assessed the binding of [(3)H]nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR), a specific probe for the inhibitor-sensitive subtype of equilibrative NT (es), and the uptake of [(3)H]formycin B (FB), by MVECs isolated from rat skeletal muscle. The cellular expression of equilibrative (ENT1, ENT2, ENT3) and concentrative (CNT1, CNT2, CNT3) NT subtypes was also determined using both qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques. 3. In the absence of Na(+), MVECs accumulated [(3)H]FB with a V(max) of 21+/-1 pmol microl(-1) s(-1). This uptake was mediated equally by es (K(m) 260+/-70 microm) and ei (equilibrative inhibitor-insensitive; K(m) 130+/-20 microm) NTs. 4. A minor component of Na(+)-dependent cif (concentrative inhibitor-insensitive FB transporter)/CNT2-mediated [(3)H]FB uptake (V(i) 0.008+/-0.005 pmol microl(-1) s(-1) at 10 microm) was also observed at room temperature upon inhibition of ENTs with dipyridamole (2,6-bis(diethanolamino)-4,8-dipiperidinopyrimido-[5,4-d]pyrimidine)/NBMPR. 5. MVECs had 122,000 high-affinity (K(d) 0.10 nm) [(3)H]NBMPR binding sites (representing es transporters) per cell. A lower-affinity [(3)H]NBMPR binding component (K(d) 4.8 nm) was also observed that may be related to intracellular es-like proteins. 6. Rat skeletal muscle MVECs express es/ENT1, ei/ENT2, and cif/CNT2 transporters with characteristics typical of rat tissues. This primary cell culture model will enable future studies on factors influencing NT subtype expression, and the consequent effect on adenosine bioactivity, in the microvasculature. PMID:15289294

  5. Nucleoside transporter subtype expression and function in rat skeletal muscle microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Richard G E; Pitelka, Václav; Hammond, James R

    2004-01-01

    Microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) form a barrier between circulating metabolites, such as adenosine, and the surrounding tissue. We hypothesize that MVECs have a high capacity for the accumulation of nucleosides, such that inhibition of the endothelial nucleoside transporters (NT) would profoundly affect the actions of adenosine in the microvasculature. We assessed the binding of [3H]nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR), a specific probe for the inhibitor-sensitive subtype of equilibrative NT (es), and the uptake of [3H]formycin B (FB), by MVECs isolated from rat skeletal muscle. The cellular expression of equilibrative (ENT1, ENT2, ENT3) and concentrative (CNT1, CNT2, CNT3) NT subtypes was also determined using both qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques. In the absence of Na+, MVECs accumulated [3H]FB with a Vmax of 21±1 pmol μl−1 s−1. This uptake was mediated equally by es (Km 260±70 μM) and ei (equilibrative inhibitor-insensitive; Km 130±20 μM) NTs. A minor component of Na+-dependent cif (concentrative inhibitor-insensitive FB transporter)/CNT2-mediated [3H]FB uptake (Vi 0.008±0.005 pmol μl−1 s−1 at 10 μM) was also observed at room temperature upon inhibition of ENTs with dipyridamole (2,6-bis(diethanolamino)-4,8-dipiperidinopyrimido-[5,4-d]pyrimidine)/NBMPR. MVECs had 122,000 high-affinity (Kd 0.10 nM) [3H]NBMPR binding sites (representing es transporters) per cell. A lower-affinity [3H]NBMPR binding component (Kd 4.8 nM) was also observed that may be related to intracellular es-like proteins. Rat skeletal muscle MVECs express es/ENT1, ei/ENT2, and cif/CNT2 transporters with characteristics typical of rat tissues. This primary cell culture model will enable future studies on factors influencing NT subtype expression, and the consequent effect on adenosine bioactivity, in the microvasculature. PMID:15289294

  6. Inhibition of Mycoplasma pneumoniae growth by FDA-approved anticancer and antiviral nucleoside and nucleobase analogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mpn) is a human pathogen that causes acute and chronic respiratory diseases and has been linked to many extrapulmonary diseases. Due to the lack of cell wall, Mpn is resistant to antibiotics targeting cell wall synthesis such as penicillin. During the last 10 years macrolide-resistant Mpn strains have been frequently reported in Asian countries and have been spreading to Europe and the United States. Therefore, new antibiotics are needed. In this study, 30 FDA-approved anticancer or antiviral drugs were screened for inhibitory effects on Mpn growth and selected analogs were further characterized by inhibition of target enzymes and metabolism of radiolabeled substrates. Results Sixteen drugs showed varying inhibitory effects and seven showed strong inhibition of Mpn growth. The anticancer drug 6-thioguanine had a MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration required to cause 90% of growth inhibition) value of 0.20 μg ml-1, whereas trifluorothymidine, gemcitabine and dipyridamole had MIC values of approximately 2 μg ml-1. In wild type Mpn culture the presence of 6-thioguanine and dipyridamole strongly inhibited the uptake and metabolism of hypoxanthine and guanine while gemcitabine inhibited the uptake and metabolism of all nucleobases and thymidine. Trifluorothymidine and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, however, stimulated the uptake and incorporation of radiolabeled thymidine and this stimulation was due to induction of thymidine kinase activity. Furthermore, Mpn hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) was cloned, expressed, and characterized. The 6-thioguanine, but not other purine analogs, strongly inhibited HPRT, which may in part explain the observed growth inhibition. Trifluorothymidine and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine were shown to be good substrates and inhibitors for thymidine kinase from human and Mycoplasma sources. Conclusion We have shown that several anticancer and antiviral nucleoside and nucleobase analogs are potent

  7. Electron attachment induced proton transfer in a DNA nucleoside pair: 2'-deoxyguanosine-2'-deoxycytidine.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiande; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2007-10-21

    To elucidate electron attachment induced damage in the DNA double helix, electron attachment to the 2'-deoxyribonucleoside pair dG:dC has been studied with the reliably calibrated B3LYP/DZP++ theoretical approach. The exploration of the potential energy surface of the neutral and anionic dG:dC pairs predicts a positive electron affinity for dG:dC [0.83 eV for adiabatic electron affinity (EAad) and 0.16 eV for vertical electron affinity (VEA)]. The substantial increases in the electron affinity of dG:dC (by 0.50 eV for EAad and 0.23 eV for VEA) compared to those of the dC nucleoside suggest that electron attachment to DNA double helices should be energetically favored with respect to the single strands. Most importantly, electron attachment to the dC moiety in the dG:dC pair is found to be able to trigger the proton transfer in the dG:dC- pair, surprisingly resulting in the lower energy distonic anionic complex d(G-H)-:d(C+H).. The negative charge for the latter system is located on the base of dC in the dG:dC- pair, while it is transferred to d(G-H) in d(G-H)-:d(C+H)., accompanied by the proton transfer from N1(dG) to N3(dC). The low energy barrier (2.4 kcal/mol) for proton transfer from dG to dC- suggests that the distonic d(G-H)-:d(C+H). pair should be one of the important intermediates in the process of electron attachment to DNA double helices. The formation of the neutral nucleoside radical d(C+H). is predicted to be the direct result of electron attachment to the DNA double helices. Since the neutral radical d(C+H). nucleotide is the key element in the formation of this DNA lesion, electron attachment might be one of the important factors that trigger the formation of abasic sites in DNA double helices. PMID:17949223

  8. Expression and purification of an engineered, yeast-expressed Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase with immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Hudspeth, Elissa M; Wang, Qian; Seid, Christopher A; Hammond, Molly; Wei, Junfei; Liu, Zhuyun; Zhan, Bin; Pollet, Jeroen; Heffernan, Michael J; McAtee, C Patrick; Engler, David A; Matsunami, Risë K; Strych, Ulrich; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    Leishmania donovani is the major cause of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), now recognized as the parasitic disease with the highest level of mortality second only to malaria. No human vaccine is currently available. A 36 kDa L. donovani nucleoside hydrolase (LdNH36) surface protein has been previously identified as a potential vaccine candidate antigen. Here we present data on the expression of LdNH36 in Pichia pastoris and its purification at the 20 L scale to establish suitability for future pilot scale manufacturing. To improve efficiency of process development and ensure reproducibility, 4 N-linked glycosylation sites shown to contribute to heterogeneous high-mannose glycosylation were mutated to glutamine residues. The mutant LdNH36 (LdNH36-dg2) was expressed and purified to homogeneity. Size exclusion chromatography and light scattering demonstrated that LdNH36-dg2 existed as a tetramer in solution, similar to the wild-type recombinant L. major nucleoside hydrolase. The amino acid mutations do not affect the tetrameric interface as confirmed by theoretical modeling, and the mutated amino acids are located outside the major immunogenic domain. Immunogenic properties of the LdNH36-dg2 recombinant protein were evaluated in BALB/c mice using formulations that included a synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, together with a microparticle delivery platform (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)). Mice exhibited high levels of IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibodies that were reactive to both LdNH36-dg2 and LdNH36 wild-type. While the point mutations did affect the hydrolase activity of the enzyme, the IgG antibodies elicited by LdNH36-dg2 were shown to inhibit the hydrolase activity of the wild-type LdNH36. The results indicate that LdNH36-dg2 as expressed in and purified from P. pastoris is suitable for further scale-up, manufacturing, and testing in support of future first-in-humans phase 1 clinical trials. PMID:26839079

  9. Determination of nucleosides in Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum by high performance liquid chromatography method

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Masood Shah; Parveen, Rabea; Mishra, Kshipra; Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nucleosides are supportive in the regulation and modulation of various physiological processes in body, they acts as precursors in nucleic acid synthesis, enhance immune response, help in absorption of iron and influence the metabolism of fatty acids. Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum are well-known for its use in traditional medicine of China, Nepal and India. They are rich in nucleosides such as adenine, adenosine, cordycepin, etc. Hence, a simple, economic and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical method was proposed for determination of adenine and adenosine for the quality control of plants. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic experiments were conducted on YL9100 HPLC system (South Korea). Reversed-phase chromatography was performed on a C18 column with methanol and dihydrogen phosphate as the mobile phase in isocratic elution method at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 254 nm, which gives a sharp peak of adenine and adenosine at a retention time of 6.53 ± 0.02 min and 12.41 ± 0.02, respectively. Results and Discussion: Linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed a good linear relationship between response and concentration in the range of 25–200 µg/mL for adenosine and 100–800 µg/mL for adenine with regression coefficient of 0.999 and 0.996, respectively. The adenine was found 0.16% and 0.71% w/w in G. lucidum and in C. sinensis, respectively, and adenosine was found to be 0.14% w/w in G. lucidum whereas absent in C. sinensis. Conclusion: The developed HPLC method for the quantification of adenosine and adenine can be used for the quality control and standardization of crude drug and for the different herbal formulations, in which adenine and adenosine are present as major constituents. The wide linearity range, sensitivity, accuracy, and simple mobile phase imply the method is suitable for routine quantification of adenosine and adenine with high precision and

  10. Leishmania donovani Nucleoside Hydrolase Terminal Domains in Cross-Protective Immunotherapy Against Leishmania amazonensis Murine Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nico, Dirlei; Gomes, Daniele Crespo; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Iam; Morrot, Alexandre; Palatnik, Marcos; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Nucleoside hydrolases of the Leishmania genus are vital enzymes for the replication of the DNA and conserved phylogenetic markers of the parasites. Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase (NH36) induced a main CD4+ T cell driven protective response against L. chagasi infection in mice which is directed against its C-terminal domain. In this study, we used the three recombinant domains of NH36: N-terminal domain (F1, amino acids 1–103), central domain (F2 aminoacids 104–198), and C-terminal domain (F3 amino acids 199–314) in combination with saponin and assayed their immunotherapeutic effect on Balb/c mice previously infected with L. amazonensis. We identified that the F1 and F3 peptides determined strong cross-immunotherapeutic effects, reducing the size of footpad lesions to 48 and 64%, and the parasite load in footpads to 82.6 and 81%, respectively. The F3 peptide induced the strongest anti-NH36 antibody response and intradermal response (IDR) against L. amazonenis and a high secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α with reduced levels of IL-10. The F1 vaccine, induced similar increases of IgG2b antibodies and IFN-γ and TNF-α levels, but no IDR and no reduction of IL-10. The multiparameter flow cytometry analysis was used to assess the immune response after immunotherapy and disclosed that the degree of the immunotherapeutic effect is predicted by the frequencies of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IL-2 or TNF-α or both. Total frequencies and frequencies of double-cytokine CD4 T cell producers were enhanced by F1 and F3 vaccines. Collectively, our multifunctional analysis disclosed that immunotherapeutic protection improved as the CD4 responses progressed from 1+ to 2+, in the case of the F1 and F3 vaccines, and as the CD8 responses changed qualitatively from 1+ to 3+, mainly in the case of the F1 vaccine, providing new correlates of immunotherapeutic protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice based on T-helper TH1 and CD8+ mediated immune responses

  11. Inhibition and structure of Trichomonas vaginalis purine nucleoside phosphorylase with picomolar transition state analogues.

    PubMed

    Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes; Wing, Corin; Ghanem, Mahmoud; Deng, Hua; Wu, Peng; Gupta, Arti; Tyler, Peter C; Evans, Gary B; Furneaux, Richard H; Almo, Steven C; Wang, Ching C; Schramm, Vern L

    2007-01-23

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan purine auxotroph possessing a unique purine salvage pathway consisting of a bacterial type purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and a purine nucleoside kinase. Thus, T. vaginalis PNP (TvPNP) functions in the reverse direction relative to the PNPs in other organisms. Immucillin-A (ImmA) and DADMe-Immucillin-A (DADMe-ImmA) are transition state mimics of adenosine with geometric and electrostatic features that resemble early and late transition states of adenosine at the transition state stabilized by TvPNP. ImmA demonstrates slow-onset tight-binding inhibition with TvPNP, to give an equilibrium dissociation constant of 87 pM, an inhibitor release half-time of 17.2 min, and a Km/Kd ratio of 70,100. DADMe-ImmA resembles a late ribooxacarbenium ion transition state for TvPNP to give a dissociation constant of 30 pM, an inhibitor release half-time of 64 min, and a Km/Kd ratio of 203,300. The tight binding of DADMe-ImmA supports a late SN1 transition state. Despite their tight binding to TvPNP, ImmA and DADMe-ImmA are weak inhibitors of human and P. falciparum PNPs. The crystal structures of the TvPNP x ImmA x PO4 and TvPNP x DADMe-ImmA x PO4 ternary complexes differ from previous structures with substrate analogues. The tight binding with DADMe-ImmA is in part due to a 2.7 A ionic interaction between a PO4 oxygen and the N1' cation of the hydroxypyrrolidine and is weaker in the TvPNP x ImmA x PO4 structure at 3.5 A. However, the TvPNP x ImmA x PO4 structure includes hydrogen bonds between the 2'-hydroxyl and the protein that are not present in TvPNP x DADMe-ImmA x PO4. These structures explain why DADMe-ImmA binds tighter than ImmA. Immucillin-H is a 12 nM inhibitor of TvPNP but a 56 pM inhibitor of human PNP. And this difference is explained by isotope-edited difference infrared spectroscopy with [6-18O]ImmH to establish that O6 is the keto tautomer in TvPNP x ImmH x PO4, causing an unfavorable leaving-group interaction

  12. Synthesis and biological investigations of 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleosides coupled to a dihydropyridine/pyridinium salt redox chemical delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Wang, L; Wiebe, L I; Knaus, E E

    2001-11-01

    The syntheses, antiviral activities, and partition coefficients (P) of 3'-O-(1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl-3-carbonyl)-coupled nucleosides are described. These novel compounds were designed in an effort to enhance the lipophilicity, and thereby the delivery to the CNS, without compromising the anti-HSV-1 activity of the parental nucleosides. We have previously reported the synthesis of 3'-O-(1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl-3- carbonyl) analogs of 5-iodo-(5), 5-vinyl-(6), and (E)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridines (7). We now report the synthesis of 5-iodo-3'-O-(1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl-3- carbonyl)-5'-O-acetyl-2'-deoxyuridine (15) and 3'-O-(1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl-3-carbonyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (17). Quarternization of the 3'-O-(3-pyridylcarbonyl) compounds (10,12) using iodomethane afforded the corresponding 1-methyl pyridinium salts (13,14) which were reduced with sodium dithionite to yield the corresponding 3'-O-1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl-3-carbonyl compounds (15,16). The deprotection of 3'-O-(1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl- 3-carbonyl)-5'-O-t-butyldimethylsilyl-2'-deoxyuridine (16) with Bu4N+F- afforded 3'-O-(1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl-3-carbonyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (17). Compounds 5-7 and 15 were evaluated for their antiviral activity in vitro against HSV-1, HSV-2, HCMV, and VZV, and were found to retain anti-HSV-1, HSV-2 and VZV activity as compared to their parental nucleosides (1-3). In addition, the cellular toxicity of 3'-O-(1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl-3-carbonyl)-coupled compounds (5-7 and 15) was found to be lower than the parent nucleosides. The lipophilicity of compounds (5-7,15,17) are enhanced substantially, compared to the parent nucleosides, as indicated by an increase in corresponding P values (1-octanol-water) upon replacement of the C-3' hydroxyl by 1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl-3-carbonyl moiety. PMID:11822172

  13. Interferon-gamma regulates nucleoside transport systems in macrophages through signal transduction and activator of transduction factor 1 (STAT1)-dependent and -independent signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Soler, Concepció; Felipe, Antonio; García-Manteiga, José; Serra, Maria; Guillén-Gómez, Elena; Casado, F Javier; MacLeod, Carol; Modolell, Manuel; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Celada, Antonio

    2003-11-01

    The expressions of CNT and ENT (concentrative and equilibrative nucleoside transporters) in macrophages are differentially regulated by IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). This cytokine controls gene expression through STAT1-dependent and/or -independent pathways (where STAT1 stands for signal transduction and activator of transcription 1). In the present study, the role of STAT1 in the response of nucleoside transporters to IFN-gamma was studied using macrophages from STAT1 knockout mice. IFN-gamma triggered an inhibition of ENT1-related nucleoside transport activity through STAT1-dependent mechanisms. Such inhibition of macrophage growth and ENT1 activity by IFN-gamma is required for DNA synthesis. Interestingly, IFN-gamma led to an induction of the CNT1- and CNT2-related nucleoside transport activities independent of STAT1, thus ensuring the supply of extracellular nucleosides for the STAT1-independent RNA synthesis. IFN-gamma up-regulated CNT2 mRNA and CNT1 protein levels and down-regulated ENT1 mRNA in both wild-type and STAT1 knockout macrophages. This is consistent with a STAT1-independent, long-term-mediated, probably transcription-dependent, regulation of nucleoside transporter genes. Moreover, STAT1-dependent post-transcriptional mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of ENT1 activity. Although nitric oxide is involved in the regulation of ENT1 activity in B-cells at a post-transcriptional level, our results show that STAT1-dependent induction of nitric oxide by IFN-gamma is not implicated in the regulation of ENT1 activity in macrophages. Our results indicate that both STAT1-dependent and -independent pathways are involved in the regulation of nucleoside transporters by IFN-gamma in macrophages. PMID:12868960

  14. ESI-MS Characterization of a Novel Pyrrole-Inosine Nucleoside that Interacts with Guanine Bases

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Sarah E.; Sherman, Courtney L.; Jayawickramarajah, Janarthanan; Lawrence, Candace M.; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    Based on binding studies undertaken by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, a synthetic pyrrole-inosine nucleoside, 1, capable of forming an extended three-point Hoogsteen-type hydrogen-bonding interaction with guanine, is shown to form specific complexes with two different quadruplex DNA structures [dTG4T]4 and d(T2G4)4 as well as guanine rich duplex DNA. The binding interactions of two other analogs were evaluated in order to unravel the structural features that contribute to specific DNA recognition. The importance of the Hoogsteen interactions was confirmed through the absence of specific binding when the pyrrole NH hydrogen-bonding site was blocked or removed. While 2, with a large blocking group, was not found to interact with virtually any form of DNA, 3, with the pyrrole functionality missing, was found to interact non-specifically with several types of DNA. The specific binding of 1 to guanine rich DNA emphasizes the necessity of careful ligand design for specific sequence recognition. PMID:18790136

  15. Mass Spectrometric Characterization of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Interactions with Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Thammaporn, Ratsupa; Ishii, Kentaro; Yagi-Utsumi, Maho; Uchiyama, Susumu; Hannongbua, Supa; Kato, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) have been developed for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV-1 RT binding to NNRTIs has been characterized by various biophysical techniques. However, these techniques are often hampered by the low water solubility of the inhibitors, such as the current promising diarylpyrimidine-based inhibitors rilpivirine and etravirine. Hence, a conventional and rapid method that requires small sample amounts is desirable for studying NNRTIs with low water solubility. Here we successfully applied a recently developed mass spectrometric technique under non-denaturing conditions to characterize the interactions between the heterodimeric HIV-1 RT enzyme and NNRTIs with different inhibitory activities. Our data demonstrate that mass spectrometry serves as a semi-quantitative indicator of NNRTI binding affinity for HIV-1 RT using low and small amounts of samples, offering a new high-throughput screening tool for identifying novel RT inhibitors as anti-HIV drugs. PMID:26934936

  16. Transgene Expression of Drosophila melanogaster Nucleoside Kinase Reverses Mitochondrial Thymidine Kinase 2 Deficiency*♦

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Shuba; Zhou, Xiaoshan; Paredes, João A.; Kuiper, Raoul V.; Curbo, Sophie; Karlsson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    A strategy to reverse the symptoms of thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) deficiency in a mouse model was investigated. The nucleoside kinase from Drosophila melanogaster (Dm-dNK) was expressed in TK2-deficient mice that have been shown to present with a severe phenotype caused by mitochondrial DNA depletion. The Dm-dNK+/− transgenic mice were shown to be able to rescue the TK2-deficient mice. The Dm-dNK+/−TK2−/− mice were normal as judged by growth and behavior during the observation time of 6 months. The Dm-dNK-expressing mice showed a substantial increase in thymidine-phosphorylating activity in investigated tissues. The Dm-dNK expression also resulted in highly elevated dTTP pools. The dTTP pool alterations did not cause specific mitochondrial DNA mutations or deletions when 6-month-old mice were analyzed. The mitochondrial DNA was also detected at normal levels. In conclusion, the Dm-dNK+/−TK2−/− mouse model illustrates how dTMP synthesized in the cell nucleus can compensate for loss of intramitochondrial dTMP synthesis in differentiated tissue. The data presented open new possibilities to treat the severe symptoms of TK2 deficiency. PMID:23288848

  17. Synthesis of nucleoside 3'-(S-alkyl phosphorothioates) and their use as substrates for nucleases.

    PubMed

    Saba, D; Dekker, C A

    1981-09-15

    The synthesis of cytidine, uridine, guanosine, and adenosine 3'-(S-methyl phosphorothioates) by treatment of the 2',5'-di-O-(4-methoxytetrahydropyran-4-yl)ribonucleosides with 2-(methylthio 4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxide is described. These nucleotide analogues are stable compounds both in the solid state and the neutral aqueous solution. All four of these compounds are degraded by RNase T2 to the parent nucleotides and methanethiol. In addition, cytidine and uridine 3'-(S-methyl phosphorothioates) are substrates for bovine pancreatic ribonuclease and guanosine 3'-(S-methyl phosphorothioate) is a substrate for RNase T1 and RNase U1. When used in conjunction with a chromophore-producing reagent, nucleoside 3'-(S-methyl phosphorothioates) provide a means for direct kinetic measurement of ribonuclease activity over a wide pH range (pH 2-9). The reactivities of these substrates with ribonucleases are compared to the reactivities of other synthetic substrates as well as a number of natural substrates. The utility of ribonucleoside 3'-(S-methyl phosphorothioates) as substrates for the assay of ribonucleases is discussed. PMID:6271188

  18. Nucleoside diphosphate regulation of overall rates of protein biosynthesis acting at the level of initiation.

    PubMed

    Hucul, J A; Henshaw, E C; Young, D A

    1985-12-15

    A sensitive assay method developed to examine the effects of subtle, physiologically relevant, changes in the levels of adenine and guanine mono-, di-, and triphosphorylated nucleotides specifically on the initiation of protein synthesis is described. Initiation rates are quantified by measuring the amount of protein synthesis resulting from the run-off of ribosomes which have initiated during defined intervals in a modified in vitro protein-synthesizing system developed from Ehrlich ascites tumor cell lysates (Henshaw, E.C., and Panniers, R. (1983) Methods Enzymol. 101, 616-629). The modifications include the attenuation of the ATP-regenerating system so that the relative nucleotide levels more nearly reflect actual intracellular conditions. With this system the rate of initiation is highly sensitive to changes in the ADP:ATP and GDP:GTP ratios, but indifferent to the absolute levels of either diphosphate. While the tight coupling of these two ratios by endogenous nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity prevents the independent manipulation of either ratio, the data do eliminate both AMP and GMP per se as inhibitory species. The close agreement of our data calculated in terms of energy charge to previously published results on overall rates of protein synthesis in rat thymocytes (Mendelsohn, S.K., Nordeen, S.K., and Young, D.A. (1977) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 79, 53-60) continues to suggest a physiologically relevant regulatory influence of subtle changes in nucleotides acting at the level of the initiation reaction. PMID:2999123

  19. Highly ordered graphene-isolated silver nanodot arrays as SERS substrate for detection of urinary nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shicai; Jiang, Shouzhen; Hu, Guodong; Wei, Jie; Wang, Li; Zhang, Junye; Li, Qiuju

    2015-11-01

    An efficient surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate has been developed based on highly ordered arrays of graphene-isolated Ag nanodot (G/AgND) arrays. By combining the plasmonic activity of AgND arrays and unique physical/chemical properties of graphene, the G/AgND arrays show high performance in terms of sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio and reproducibility. The SERS signals of R6G are clearly detected even at very low concentration of 10-11M. The maximum deviations of SERS intensities from 20 positions of the SERS substrate are less than 5%. The G/AgND arrays were employed for detection of human urinary nucleosides. The diagnostic algorithms based on principal component analysis achieved a diagnostic sensitivity of 91.1% and specificity of 93.3% for separating cancer from normal samples. This work demonstrates that G/AgND arrays used in Raman spectroscopy could be developed as a smart and promising system for detection and screening of cancers.

  20. Cladribine and Fludarabine Nucleoside Change the Levels of CD Antigens on B-Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, Carlos; Mactier, Swetlana; Mulligan, Stephen P.; Belov, Larissa; Huang, Pauline; Christopherson, Richard I.

    2010-01-01

    The purine analogs, fludarabine nucleoside (FdA), and cladribine (CdA) (1 μM, 24 hours), significantly changed the levels of some surface antigens on the human B-cell lines MEC2 and Raji. Changes in the surface proteins were identified using a Cluster of Differentiation (CD) antibody microarray that captures live cells and confirmed by flow cytometry. For Raji cells, CdA up-regulated CD10, CD54, CD80, and CD86, with repression of CD22, while FdA up-regulated CD20, CD54, CD80, CD86 and CD95. For MEC2 cells, CdA up-regulated CD11a, CD20, CD43, CD45, CD52, CD54, CD62L, CD80, CD86, and CD95, but FdA had no effect. Up-regulation of particular CD antigens induced on a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder by a purine analog could provide targets for therapeutic antibodies with synergistic cell killing. PMID:22084681

  1. Purine nucleoside metabolism in the erythrocytes of patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency and severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, R P; Crabtree, G W; Parks, R E; Nelson, J A; Keightley, R; Parkman, R; Rosen, F S; Stern, R C; Polmar, S H

    1976-01-01

    Deficiency of erythrocytic and lymphocytic adenosine deaminase (ADA) occurs in some patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID). SCID with ADA deficiency is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. ADA is markedly reduced or undetectable in affected patients (homozygotes), and approximately one-half normal levels are found in individuals heterozygous for ADA deficiency. The metabolism of purine nucleosides was studied in erythrocytes from normal individuals, four ADA-deficiency patients, and two heterozygous individuals. ADA deficiency in intake erythrocytes was confirmed by a very sensitive ammonia-liberation technique. Erythrocytic ADA activity in three heterozygous individuals (0.07,0.08, and 0.14 mumolar units/ml of packed cells) was between that of the four normal controls (0.20-0.37 mumol/ml) and the ADA-deficient patients (no activity). In vitro, adenosine was incorporated principally into IMP in the heterozygous and normal individuals but into the adenosine nucleotides in the ADa-deficient patients. Coformycin (3-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-6,7,8-trihydroimidazo[4,5-4] [1,3] diazepin-8 (R)-ol), a potent inhibitor of ADA, made possible incorporation of adenosine nucleotides in the ADA-deficient patients... PMID:947948

  2. Amphiphilic cationic nanogels as brain-targeted carriers for activated nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Warren, G; Makarov, E; Lu, Y; Senanayake, T; Rivera, K; Gorantla, S; Poluektova, LY; Vinogradov, SV

    2015-01-01

    Progress in AIDS treatment shifted emphasis towards limiting adverse effects of antiviral drugs while improving the treatment of hard-to-reach viral reservoirs. Many therapeutic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) have a limited access to the central nervous system (CNS). Increased NRTI levels induced various complications during the therapy, including neurotoxicity, due to the NRTI toxicity to mitochondria. Here, we describe an innovative design of biodegradable cationic cholesterol-ε-polylysine nanogel carriers for delivery of triphosphorylated NRTIs that demonstrated high anti-HIV activity along with low neurotoxicity, warranting minimal side effects following systemic administration. Efficient CNS targeting was achieved by nanogel modification with brain-specific peptide vectors. Novel dual and triple-drug nanoformulations, analogous to therapeutic NRTI cocktails, displayed equal or higher antiviral activity in HIV-infected macrophages compared to free drugs. Our results suggest potential alternative approach to HIV-1 treatment focused on the effective nanodrug delivery to viral reservoirs in the CNS and reduced neurotoxicity. PMID:25559020

  3. Intersubunit ionic interactions stabilize the nucleoside diphosphate kinase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Georgescauld, Florian; Moynié, Lucile; Habersetzer, Johann; Cervoni, Laura; Mocan, Iulia; Borza, Tudor; Harris, Pernile; Dautant, Alain; Lascu, Ioan

    2013-01-01

    Most nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are hexamers. The C-terminal tail interacting with the neighboring subunits is crucial for hexamer stability. In the NDPK from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) this tail is missing. The quaternary structure of Mt-NDPK is essential for full enzymatic activity and for protein stability to thermal and chemical denaturation. We identified the intersubunit salt bridge Arg(80)-Asp(93) as essential for hexamer stability, compensating for the decreased intersubunit contact area. Breaking the salt bridge by the mutation D93N dramatically decreased protein thermal stability. The mutation also decreased stability to denaturation by urea and guanidinium. The D93N mutant was still hexameric and retained full activity. When exposed to low concentrations of urea it dissociated into folded monomers followed by unfolding while dissociation and unfolding of the wild type simultaneously occur at higher urea concentrations. The dissociation step was not observed in guanidine hydrochloride, suggesting that low concentration of salt may stabilize the hexamer. Indeed, guanidinium and many other salts stabilized the hexamer with a half maximum effect of about 0.1 M, increasing protein thermostability. The crystal structure of the D93N mutant has been solved. PMID:23526954

  4. Intersubunit Ionic Interactions Stabilize the Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Georgescauld, Florian; Moynié, Lucile; Habersetzer, Johann; Cervoni, Laura; Mocan, Iulia; Borza, Tudor; Harris, Pernile; Dautant, Alain; Lascu, Ioan

    2013-01-01

    Most nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are hexamers. The C-terminal tail interacting with the neighboring subunits is crucial for hexamer stability. In the NDPK from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) this tail is missing. The quaternary structure of Mt-NDPK is essential for full enzymatic activity and for protein stability to thermal and chemical denaturation. We identified the intersubunit salt bridge Arg80-Asp93 as essential for hexamer stability, compensating for the decreased intersubunit contact area. Breaking the salt bridge by the mutation D93N dramatically decreased protein thermal stability. The mutation also decreased stability to denaturation by urea and guanidinium. The D93N mutant was still hexameric and retained full activity. When exposed to low concentrations of urea it dissociated into folded monomers followed by unfolding while dissociation and unfolding of the wild type simultaneously occur at higher urea concentrations. The dissociation step was not observed in guanidine hydrochloride, suggesting that low concentration of salt may stabilize the hexamer. Indeed, guanidinium and many other salts stabilized the hexamer with a half maximum effect of about 0.1 M, increasing protein thermostability. The crystal structure of the D93N mutant has been solved. PMID:23526954

  5. Mechanistic Insights into the Rate-Limiting Step in Purine-Specific Nucleoside Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanhao; Zhao, Yuan; Lu, Jianing; Wu, Ruibo; Cao, Zexing

    2015-07-14

    A full enzymatic catalysis cycle in the inosine-adenosine-guanosine specific nucleoside hydrolase (IAG-NH) was assumed to be comprised of four steps: substrate binding, chemical reaction, base release, and ribose release. Nevertheless, the mechanistic details for the rate-limiting step of the entire enzymatic reaction are still unknown, even though the ribose release was likely to be the most difficult stage. Based on state-of-the-art quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the ribose release process can be divided into two steps: "ribose dissociation" and "ribose release". The "ribose dissociation" includes "cleavage" and "exchange" stages, in which a metastable 6-fold intermediate will recover to an 8-fold coordination shell of Ca(2+) as observed in apo- IAG-NH. Extensive random acceleration molecular dynamics and MD simulations have been employed to verify plausible release channels, and the estimated barrier for the rate-determining step of the entire reaction is 13.0 kcal/mol, which is comparable to the experimental value of 16.7 kcal/mol. Moreover, the gating mechanism arising from loop1 and loop2, as well as key residues around the active pocket, has been found to play an important role in manipulating the ribose release. PMID:26575755

  6. The search for an identification of amino acids, nucleobases and nucleosides in samples returned from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, Charles W.; Ponnamperuma, Cyril; Kuo, Kenneth C.; Stalling, David L.; Zumwalt, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return mission will provide us with a unique source of material from our solar system; material which could advance our knowledge of the processes of chemical evolution. As has been pointed out, Mars geological investigations based on the Viking datasets have shown that primordial Mars was in many biologically important ways similar to the primordial Earth; the presence of surface liquid water, moderate surface temperatures, and atmosphere of carbon dioxide and nitrogen, and high geothermal heat flow. Indeed, it would seem that conditions on Earth and Mars were fundamentally similar during the first one billion years or so. As has been pointed out, Mars may well contain the best preserved record of the events that transpired on the early planets. Examination of that early record will involve searching for many things, from microfossils to isotopic abundance data. We propose an investigation of the returned Mars samples for biologically important organic compounds, with emphases on amino acids, the purine and pyrimidine bases, and nucleosides.

  7. Recognition of Nucleoside Monophosphate Substrates by Haemophilus influenzae Class C Acid Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD+ utilization pathway by dephosphorylating NMN to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases, which are nonspecific 5′-, 3′-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with NMN, 5′-AMP, 3′-AMP, and 2′-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, which explains the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, which is consistent with observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5′- and 3′-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme’s direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5′ substrates in an anti conformation and 3′ substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B and C acid phosphatases share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition. PMID:20934434

  8. Tunnel conductance of Watson-Crick nucleoside-base pairs from telegraph noise.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shuai; He, Jin; Lin, Lisha; Zhang, Peiming; Liang, Feng; Young, Michael; Huang, Shuo; Lindsay, Stuart

    2009-05-01

    The use of tunneling signals to sequence DNA is presently hampered by the small tunnel conductance of a junction spanning an entire DNA molecule. The design of a readout system that uses a shorter tunneling path requires knowledge of the absolute conductance across base pairs. We have exploited the stochastic switching of hydrogen-bonded DNA base-nucleoside pairs trapped in a tunnel junction to determine the conductance of individual molecular pairs. This conductance is found to be sensitive to the geometry of the junction, but a subset of the data appears to come from unstrained molecular pairs. The conductances determined from these pairs are within a factor of two of the predictions of density functional calculations. The experimental data reproduces the counterintuitive theoretical prediction that guanine-deoxycytidine pairs (3 H-bonds) have a smaller conductance than adenine-thymine pairs (2 H-bonds). A bimodal distribution of switching lifetimes shows that both H-bonds and molecule-metal contacts break. PMID:19420603

  9. Pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylation in developing seeds and germinating seedlings of wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Uridine- and thymidine-phosphorylating enzymes were measured in developing and germinating seeds of Triticum aestivum v. Arthur and T. aestivum v. Lemhi. Because crude extracts were to be used in the developmental study, characteristics of unpurified nucleoside phosphotransferase (NPTase) were examined. In the developmental study with two varieties of wheat, NPTase activity was found to be very low in all of the true seed tissues during seed maturation. Uridine-phosphorylating activity was due to primarily to uridine kinase. Thymidine phosphorylation was very low in all tissues throughout seed maturation, with a brief appearance by thymidine kinase in the developing embryo. In germinating seeds, uridine-phosphorylating activity was present from earliest stages of germination but showed a decrease in activity followed by a recovery after 48 hours inbibition. Experiments using ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)ATP indicated that uridine kinase was present during early germination but had disappeared by 96 hours. Uridine phosphorylation at later stages of germination was accomplished by NTPase. Thymidine phosphorylation did not begin until after 36 hours of germination and was the result of NPTase activity.

  10. Structural Insight into Activation Mechanism of Toxoplasma gondii Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolases by Disulfide Reduction*

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Ulrike; Zebisch, Matthias; Krauss, Michel; Sträter, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces two nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDase1 and -3). These tetrameric, cysteine-rich enzymes require activation by reductive cleavage of a hitherto unknown disulfide bond. Despite a 97% sequence identity, both isozymes differ largely in their ability to hydrolyze ATP and ADP. Here, we present crystal structures of inactive NTPDase3 as an apo form and in complex with the product AMP to resolutions of 2.0 and 2.2 Å, respectively. We find that the enzyme is present in an open conformation that precludes productive substrate binding and catalysis. The cysteine bridge 258–268 is identified to be responsible for locking of activity. Crystal structures of constitutively active variants of NTPDase1 and -3 generated by mutation of Cys258–Cys268 show that opening of the regulatory cysteine bridge induces a pronounced contraction of the whole tetramer. This is accompanied by a 12° domain closure motion resulting in the correct arrangement of all active site residues. A complex structure of activated NTPDase3 with a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog and the cofactor Mg2+ to a resolution of 2.85 Å indicates that catalytic differences between the NTPDases are primarily dictated by differences in positioning of the adenine base caused by substitution of Arg492 and Glu493 in NTPDase1 by glycines in NTPDase3. PMID:22130673

  11. Sinefungin, a Natural Nucleoside Analogue of S-Adenosylmethionine, Inhibits Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Growth

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seok-Won; Chae, Sung-Won

    2014-01-01

    Pneumococcal colonization and disease is often associated with biofilm formation, in which the bacteria exhibit elevated resistance both to antibiotics and to host defense systems, often resulting in infections that are persistent and difficult to treat. We evaluated the effect of sinefungin, a nucleoside analogue of S-adenosylmethionine, on pneumococcal in vitro biofilm formation and in vivo colonization. Sinefungin is bacteriostatic to pneumococci and significantly decreased biofilm growth and inhibited proliferation and structure of actively growing biofilms but did not alter growth or the matrix structure of established biofilms. Sinefungin significantly reduced pneumococcal colonization in rat middle ear. The quorum sensing molecule (autoinducer-2) production was significantly reduced by 92% in sinefungin treated samples. The luxS, pfs, and speE genes were downregulated in biofilms grown in the presence of sinefungin. This study shows that sinefungin inhibits pneumococcal biofilm growth in vitro and colonization in vivo, decreases AI-2 production, and downregulates luxS, pfs, and speE gene expressions. Therefore, the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) inhibitors could be used as lead compounds for the development of novel antibiofilm agents against pneumococci. PMID:25050323

  12. The Dipeptide Monoester Prodrugs of Floxuridine and Gemcitabine—Feasibility of Orally Administrable Nucleoside Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Bermejo, Blanca Borras; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2014-01-01

    Dipeptide monoester prodrugs of floxuridine and gemcitabine were synthesized. Their chemical stability in buffers, enzymatic stability in cell homogenates, permeability in mouse intestinal membrane along with drug concentration in mouse plasma, and anti-proliferative activity in cancer cells were determined and compared to their parent drugs. Floxuridine prodrug was more enzymatically stable than floxuridine and the degradation from prodrug to parent drug works as the rate-limiting step. On the other hand, gemcitabine prodrug was less enzymatically stable than gemcitabine. Those dipeptide monoester prodrugs exhibited 2.4- to 48.7-fold higher uptake than their parent drugs in Caco-2, Panc-1, and AsPC-1 cells. Floxuridine and gemcitabine prodrugs showed superior permeability in mouse jejunum to their parent drugs and exhibited the higher drug concentration in plasma after in situ mouse perfusion. Cell proliferation assays in ductal pancreatic cancer cells, AsPC-1 and Panc-1, indicated that dipeptide prodrugs of floxuridine and gemcitabine were more potent than their parent drugs. The enhanced potency of nucleoside analogs was attributed to their improved membrane permeability. The prodrug forms of 5′-l-phenylalanyl-l-tyrosyl-floxuridine and 5′-l-phenylalanyl-l-tyrosyl-gemcitabine appeared in mouse plasma after the permeation of intestinal membrane and the first-pass effect, suggesting their potential for the development of oral dosage form for anti-cancer agents. PMID:24473270

  13. Partial 13C isotopic enrichment of nucleoside monophosphates: useful reporters for NMR structural studies

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Anita I.; Mayer, Michael R.; Prestegard, James H.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the 13C isotopic labeling patterns of nucleoside monophosphates (NMPs) extracted from Escherichia coli grown in a mixture of C-1 and C-2 glucose is presented. By comparing our results to previous observations on amino acids grown in similar media, we have been able to rationalize the labeling pattern based on the well-known biochemistry of nucleotide biosynthesis. Except for a few notable absences of label (C4 in purines and C3′ in ribose) and one highly enriched site (C1′ in ribose), most carbons are randomly enriched at a low level (an average of 13%). These sparsely labeled NMPs give less complex NMR spectra than their fully isotopically labeled analogs due to the elimination of most 13C–13C scalar couplings. The spectral simplicity is particularly advantageous when working in ordered systems, as illustrated with guanosine diphosphate (GDP) bound to ADP ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) aligned in a liquid crystalline medium. In this system, the absence of scalar couplings and additional long-range dipolar couplings significantly enhances signal to noise and resolution. PMID:16254075

  14. Recognition of Nucleoside Monophosphate Substrates by Haemophilus influenzae Class C Acid Phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.

    2010-12-08

    The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD{sup +} utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs), which are nonspecific 5{prime},3{prime}-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with nicotinamide mononucleotide, 5{prime}-AMP, 3{prime}-AMP, and 2{prime}-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and the hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and the phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, explaining the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, consistent with an observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5{prime}-nucleotides and 3{prime}-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme's direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5{prime} substrates in an anti conformation and 3{prime} substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B acid phosphatases and CCAPs share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition.

  15. Recognition of nucleoside monophosphate substrates by Haemophilus influenzae class C acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P; Reilly, Thomas J; Calcutt, Michael J; Tanner, John J

    2010-12-10

    The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD(+) utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs), which are nonspecific 5',3'-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with nicotinamide mononucleotide, 5'-AMP, 3'-AMP, and 2'-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and the hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and the phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, explaining the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, consistent with an observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5'-nucleotides and 3'-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme's direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5' substrates in an anti conformation and 3' substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B acid phosphatases and CCAPs share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition. PMID:20934434

  16. Pharmacogenetics of nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-associated peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kallianpur, Asha R; Hulgan, Todd

    2009-04-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is an important complication of antiretroviral therapy. Nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-associated mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and nutritional factors are implicated in its pathogenesis. Pharmacogenetic and genomic studies investigating NRTI neurotoxicity have only recently become possible via the linkage of HIV clinical studies to large DNA repositories. Preliminary case-control studies using these resources suggest that host mitochondrial DNA haplogroup polymorphisms in the hemochromatosis gene and proinflammatory cytokine genes may influence the risk of peripheral neuropathy during antiretroviral therapy. These putative risk factors await confirmation in other HIV-infected populations but they have strong biological plausibility. Work to identify underlying mechanisms for these associations is ongoing. Large-scale studies incorporating clearly defined and validated methods of neuropathy assessment and the use of novel laboratory models of NRTI-associated neuropathy to clarify its pathophysiology are now needed. Such investigations may facilitate the development of more effective strategies to predict, prevent and ameliorate this debilitating treatment toxicity in diverse clinical settings. PMID:19374518

  17. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Schistosoma mansoni in complex with ribose-1-phosphate

    PubMed Central

    D’Muniz Pereira, Humberto; Oliva, Glaucius; Garratt, Richard Charles

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomes are blood flukes which cause schistosomiasis, a disease affecting approximately 200 million people worldwide. Along with several other important human parasites including trypanosomes and Plasmodium, schistosomes lack the de novo pathway for purine synthesis and depend exclusively on the salvage pathway for their purine requirements, making the latter an attractive target for drug development. Part of the pathway involves the conversion of inosine (or guanosine) into hypoxanthine (or guanine) together with ribose-1-phosphate (R1P) or vice versa. This inter-conversion is undertaken by the enzyme purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) which has been used as the basis for the development of novel anti-malarials, conceptually validating this approach. It has been suggested that, during the reverse reaction, R1P binding to the enzyme would occur only as a consequence of conformational changes induced by hypoxanthine, thus making a binary PNP–R1P complex unlikely. Contradictory to this statement, a crystal structure of just such a binary complex involving the Schistosoma mansoni enzyme has been successfully obtained. The ligand shows an intricate hydrogen-bonding network in the phosphate and ribose binding sites and adds a further chapter to our knowledge which could be of value in the future development of selective inhibitors. PMID:21169694

  18. Immobilized purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Schistosoma mansoni for specific inhibition studies.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Marcela Cristina; Cardoso, Carmen L; Cass, Quezia B

    2013-05-01

    The parasite Schistosoma mansoni (Sm) depends exclusively on the salvage pathway for its purine requirements. The enzyme purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is, therefore, a promising target for development of antischistosomal agents and an assay for screening of inhibitors. To enable this, immobilized SmPNP reactors were produced. By quantification of hypoxanthine by liquid chromatography, kinetic constants (K M) for the substrate inosine were determined for the free and immobilized enzyme as 110 ± 6.90 μmol L (-1) and 164 ± 13.4 μmol L (-1), respectively, indicating that immobilization did not affect enzyme activity. Furthermore, the enzyme retained 25 % of its activity after four months. Non-Michaelis kinetics for the phosphate substrate, and capacity for Pi-independent hydrolysis were also demonstrated, despite the low rate of enzymatic catalysis. Use of an SmPNP immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) for inhibitor-screening assays was demonstrated with a small library of 9-deazaguanine analogues. The method had high selectivity and specificity compared with screening by use of the free enzyme by the Kalckar method, and furnished results without the need for verification of the absence of false positives. PMID:23535739

  19. Tunnel Conductance of Watson-Crick Nucleoside-Base Pairs from Telegraph Noise

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shuai; He, Jin; Lin, Lisha; Zhang, Peiming; Liang, Feng; Young, Michael; Huang, Shuo; Lindsay, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The use of tunneling signals to sequence DNA is presently hampered by the small tunnel conductance of a junction spanning an entire DNA molecule. The design of a readout system that uses a shorter tunneling path requires knowledge of the absolute conductance across base-pairs. We have exploited the stochastic switching of hydrogen-bonded DNA base-nucleoside pairs trapped in a tunnel junction to determine the conductance of individual molecular pairs. This conductance is found to be sensitive to the geometry of the junction, but a subset of the data appears to come from unstrained molecular pairs. The conductances determined from these pairs are within a factor two of the predictions of density functional calculations. The experimental data reproduces the counterintuitive theoretical prediction that guanine-deoxycytidine pairs (3 H-bonds) have a smaller conductance than adenine-thymine pairs (2 H-bonds). A bimodal distribution of switching lifetimes shows that both H-bonds and molecule-metal contacts break. PMID:19420603

  20. Increase of salt dependence of halophilic nucleoside diphosphate kinase caused by a single amino acid substitution.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Hayashi, Tomoe; Yoshida, Chiho; Tokunaga, Masao

    2013-07-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (HsNDK) from an extremely halophilic archaea, Halobacterium salinarum, is composed of a homo hexamer, assembled as a trimer of basic dimeric units. It requires >2 M NaCl for refolding, although it does not require NaCl for stability or enzymatic activity below 30 °C. A HisN111L mutant with an N-terminal extension sequence containing hexa-His tag, in which Asn111 was replaced with Leu, was designed to be less stable between basic dimeric units. This mutant can lose between 6 and 12 hydrogen bonds between basic dimeric units in the hexamer structure. The HisN111L mutant had enhanced salt requirements for enzymatic activity and refolding even though the secondary structure of the HisN111L mutant was confirmed to be similar to the control, HisNDK, in low and high salt solutions using circular dichroism. We reported previously that G114R and D148C mutants, which had enhanced interactions between basic dimeric units, showed facilitated refolding and stabilization in low salt solution. The results of this study help to elucidate the process for engineering industrial enzymes by controlling subunit-subunit interactions through mutations. PMID:23609188