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Sample records for kirchberg tirol austria

  1. HerzMobil Tirol network: rationale for and design of a collaborative heart failure disease management program in Austria.

    PubMed

    Von der Heidt, Andreas; Ammenwerth, Elske; Bauer, Karl; Fetz, Bettina; Fluckinger, Thomas; Gassner, Andrea; Grander, Willhelm; Gritsch, Walter; Haffner, Immaculata; Henle-Talirz, Gudrun; Hoschek, Stefan; Huter, Stephan; Kastner, Peter; Krestan, Susanne; Kufner, Peter; Modre-Osprian, Robert; Noebl, Josef; Radi, Momen; Raffeiner, Clemens; Welte, Stefan; Wiseman, Andreas; Poelzl, Gerhard

    2014-11-01

    Heart failure (HF) is approaching epidemic proportions worldwide and is the leading cause of hospitalization in the elderly population. High rates of readmission contribute substantially to excessive health care costs and highlight the fragmented nature of care available to HF patients. Disease management programs (DMPs) have been implemented to improve health outcomes, patient satisfaction, and quality of life, and to reduce health care costs. Telemonitoring systems appear to be effective in the vulnerable phase after discharge from hospital to prevent early readmissions. DMPs that emphasize comprehensive patient education and guideline-adjusted therapy have shown great promise to result in beneficial long-term effects. It can be speculated that combining core elements of the aforementioned programs may substantially improve long-term cost-effectiveness of patient management.We introduce a collaborative post-discharge HF disease management program (HerzMobil Tirol network) that incorporates physician-controlled telemonitoring and nurse-led care in a multidisciplinary network approach. PMID:25392254

  2. Austria.

    PubMed

    1983-08-01

    This discussion of Austria focuses on the following: geography, people, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Austria. As of July 1982, the population of Austria totaled 7.6 million with an annual growth rate of 0.1%. The infant mortality rate is 16/1000, and life expectancy is 73 years. Austria is primarily mountainous, and the climate is moderate. 99% of Austria's population are native German speakers. The only 2 significant minority groups are about 20,000 Slovenes in Carinthia and about 25,000 Croatians in Burgenland. The Austro-Hungarian Empire played a decisive role in central European history, partly because of its strategic position astride the southeast approaches to western Europe and the north-south routes between Germany and Italy. The president of Austria is directly elected to a 6-year term and may not serve more than 2 successive terms. As chief of state, the president's functions are largely representational. The chancellor (head of government) is either the leader of the party that wins the majority of seats in parliamentary elections and therefore can form a government or a coalition, or the leader of the party having the support of the president in the formation of a minority government. The chancellor selects the cabinet and, with its assistance, weilds actual power and is responsible to the Federal Assembly. The Federal Assembly (parliament) is composed of 2 houses--the National Council, or lower house, and the Federal Council, or upper house. Virtually all legislative authority is concentrated in the National Council. Since World War 2 Austria has enjoyed politcal stability. The 2 major parties that formed during the 1945-66 period have the support of about 90% of the electorate. Austria has a free enterprise economy in which the government plays an important role. More than half of the gross domestic product (GDP) comes from manufacturing and services. Austrian farms are small

  3. The Interreg IV Italia-Austria "SeismoSAT" project: connecting seismic data centers via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Lenhardt, W.; Rauch, M.; Živčić, M.; Steiner, R.; Fabris, P.; Bertoni, M.

    2014-06-01

    Since 2002 OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Udine (Italy), the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Vienna (Austria), and the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Ljubljana (Slovenia) are using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in real time, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps" (Bragato et al., 2004, 2010). The data exchange has proved to be effective and very useful in case of seismic events near the borders between Italy, Austria and Slovenia, where the poor single national seismic networks coverage precluded a correct localization, while the usage of common data from the integrated networks improves considerably the overall reliability of real time seismic monitoring of the area (Fig. 1). At the moment the data exchange between the seismic data centers relies on their internet connections: this however is not an ideal condition for civil protection purposes, since the reliability of standard internet connections is poor. For this reason in 2012 the Protezione Civile della Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in Bolzano (PCBZ, Italy), OGS, ZAMG subsidiary in Tirol (ZAMG Tirol) and ARSO joined in the Interreg IV Italia-Austria Project "SeismoSAT" (Progetto SeismoSAT, 2012) aimed in connecting the seismic data centers in real time via satellite. ARSO does not belong to the Interreg Italia-Austria region: for this reason ARSO joined the SeismoSAT project as an "associated partner", which, according to Interreg rules can not be funded. ARSO participation in the project is therefore at the beginning limited in benefiting only indirectly from improvement in the robustness of the data exchange between the other data centers, while eventually fully taking part in the project if other sources of funding will be available. The project is in a

  4. Erschließung eines Marmorkarstvorkommens als mitteltiefer Erdwärmesondenspeicher im Tuxertal, Tirol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sass, Ingo; Heldmann, Claus-Dieter; Lehr, Clemens

    2016-06-01

    Borehole heat exchangers can be economically beneficial for meeting heating and cooling demands of houses or buildings. In karst aquifers development of thermal storage and exchange systems may be problematic in terms of groundwater protection and storage design, due to possibly high groundwater velocities. The new development of the Hochstegen marble unit in the Tux Valley (Zillertal, Austria) was designed in two stages for the requested cooling and heating demands. An enhanced geothermal response test was completed using optical frequency domain reflectometry in an exploration drillhole. Additional studies focussing on local geology and hydrology were also conducted. Geothermal parameters obtained at precise depths allowed differentiating between conductive and convective heat flow and were correlated with the lithostratigraphically-conditioned karst characteristics. The borehole heat exchanger field was developed with nine 400 m deep dual U-shaped tube probes in 2013 for 1 GWh/a extraction and 400 MWh/a induction. Along with borehole geophysics and geothermal response tests, the study has provided relevant geothermal data for improving storage design and exploration.

  5. Erschließung eines Marmorkarstvorkommens als mitteltiefer Erdwärmesondenspeicher im Tuxertal, Tirol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sass, Ingo; Heldmann, Claus-Dieter; Lehr, Clemens

    2016-05-01

    Borehole heat exchangers can be economically beneficial for meeting heating and cooling demands of houses or buildings. In karst aquifers development of thermal storage and exchange systems may be problematic in terms of groundwater protection and storage design, due to possibly high groundwater velocities. The new development of the Hochstegen marble unit in the Tux Valley (Zillertal, Austria) was designed in two stages for the requested cooling and heating demands. An enhanced geothermal response test was completed using optical frequency domain reflectometry in an exploration drillhole. Additional studies focussing on local geology and hydrology were also conducted. Geothermal parameters obtained at precise depths allowed differentiating between conductive and convective heat flow and were correlated with the lithostratigraphically-conditioned karst characteristics. The borehole heat exchanger field was developed with nine 400 m deep dual U-shaped tube probes in 2013 for 1 GWh/a extraction and 400 MWh/a induction. Along with borehole geophysics and geothermal response tests, the study has provided relevant geothermal data for improving storage design and exploration.

  6. Irish Literature in Austria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faerber, Gerda

    After a brief description of some historical and cultural interchanges between Ireland and Austria, the paper examines Irish fiction that has been translated into German and Irish plays that have been performed in Vienna over the past 25 years. The paper also describes German translations of Irish children's fiction, including classics like…

  7. Tornado climatology of Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, A. M.

    After several decades of little work, a revised tornado climatology for Austria is presented. Tornadoes seldom form in the alpine areas, however, near the eastern flanks of the Alps, favourable conditions for tornado genesis are found. Whereas in the alpine regions less than 0.3 tornadoes per 10,000 km 2 a year touch down (averaged for provinces or major parts of a province), we can count 0.9 in the greater Graz area, 1.0 in the greater Linz area and 1.2 tornadoes per 10,000 km 2 a year in the greater Vienna area, suggesting the existence of so-called tornado alleys. As these regions are the most populated areas of Austria, there is a possible population bias in the dataset. The overall average for Austria is 0.3 tornadoes per 10,000 km 2 a year. The database consists of 89 tornadoes, one landspout and six waterspouts, with a total of 96 events. The seasonal peak is in July with a maximum probability of tornadoes in the late afternoon and early evening hours. Every fifth tornado occurs in the hour after 5 p.m. The maximum intensity determined for a tornado in Austria was T7 on the TORRO-Scale (F3 on the Fujita-Scale), the most common intensity is T2 on the TORRO-Scale (F1 on the Fujita-Scale).

  8. Secondary Education in Austria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aigner, Helmut

    This booklet provides a brief description of secondary education in Austria. The publication is part of a series that seeks to make the public aware of the education systems and traditions in all signatory states to the European Cultural Convention and to outline the essential problems these systems presently are facing. This short booklet…

  9. Structural evolution of an antiformal window: the Scheiblingkirchen Window (Eastern Alps, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willingshofer, Ernst; Neubauer, Franz

    2002-10-01

    The Scheiblingkirchen window, a Lower Austroalpine tectonic window at the eastern margin of the Eastern Alps (Austria) was formed during Late Cretaceous continent-continent collision. Structural investigations including structural mapping, microstructural studies and texture analysis revealed a decompression-related three-stage tectonic history of Lower Austroalpine units during the formation of the Scheiblingkirchen window. (1) Intra-Lower Austroalpine nappe stacking was by top-to-the-N out-of-sequence thrusting of the Kirchberg fold nappe over the Wechsel nappe under lower greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. The structural expression of the stacking event (D 1) comprises a penetrative foliation containing a N-S trending stretching lineation, isoclinal recumbent folds trending subparallel to the stretching lineation and ultramylonites. Quartz and calcite microstructures indicate that dynamic recrystallization processes accompanied deformation. Their commonly moderately developed lattice preferred orientation record dominant slip on the prism and rhomb planes parallel to < a>. (2) Subsequent exhumation of previously stacked rocks is related to the formation of foliation-parallel mylonitic shear zones within an E-W extensional regime (D 2). Microstructures and textures suggest similar deformation temperatures during thrusting and extension. (3) A superimposed phase of NW-SE oriented horizontal shortening (D 3) was accommodated by large- and small-scale upright folding of the area around NE-SW trending axes and by backthrusting leading to the antiformal doming of the Scheiblingkirchen Window. Subsequent subvertical flattening resulting from the shortening phase led to the formation of NE-SW trending, outcrop-scale open recumbent folds. Low temperature deformation conditions as inferred from the low degree of recrystallization of quartz and calcite aggregates and the dominance of glide on the basal planes point to a cooling-related deformation event.

  10. History of biotechnology in Austria.

    PubMed

    Roehr, M

    2000-01-01

    Austria has contributed significantly to the progress of the biotechnologies in the past and is actively engaged in doing so today. This review describes the early history of biotechnology in Austria, beginning with the Vienna process of baker's yeast manufacture in 1846, up to the achievements of the 20th century, e.g. the submerged vinegar process, penicillin V, immune biotechnology, biomass as a renewable source of fermentation products (power alcohol, biogas, organic acids etc.), biopulping, biopolymers, biocatalysis, mammalian cell technology, nanotechnology of bacterial surface layers, and environmental biotechnology. PMID:11036693

  11. The impact of ancient mining on the environment of Schwaz (Tirol) evidenced by a multi-proxy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenlechner, E.; Hilber, M.; Lutz, J.; Kathrein, Y.; Unterkircher, A.; Oeggl, K.

    2009-04-01

    Changes in ancient cultural landscapes are seen as a product of predominantly agricultural activities, but there is another type of human impact which has left significant effects on past environments: Ore mining caused a huge demand on raw materials (water, timber) and the metallurgic process polluted the environment with heavy metals. Recent advances in pollen analysis enable a detailed reconstruction of past vegetation and its agricultural utilization, but the palaeoecology of mining is still poorly known, although its impact shaped the Alpine landscape for thousands of years. However, the difficulty of palynology in mining areas is that mining acitivities produce a similar pollen signal as agricultural activities do. Therefore, here we use a multi-proxy approach to evaluate the effects of historical mining on the vegetation by the combination of pollen, micro-charcoal and geochemical analyses validated by historical and archaeological data. The subject matter is a small fen "Kogelmoos" located within the prominent historical mining area of Schwaz in Tyrol, Austria. Detailed pollen, micro-charcoal and geochemical analyses of its deposits reflect significant changes in the vegetation, intensive fire activities and heavy metal pollution since the late mediaeval times. This palaeoecological record of land use is corroborated by historical data concerning settlement foundation with livestock farming and tillage as well as ore exploitation and smelting activities within the hydrological catchment of the fen. Finally this historical palaeoecological record of the impact of mining is used as a calibration set to evaluate ancient mining activities in this area. A synchronous increase of lead and micro-charcoal values, followed by an increase of pioneer tree species (Pinus, Larix) displays the beginning of ore exploitation in the area at the Neolithic/Bronze Age transition and persists until the beginning of the Iron Age. Archaeological investigations of the

  12. [Epidemiology of obesity in Austria].

    PubMed

    Dorner, Thomas E

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article was to compile all existing data regarding the prevalence of obesity in Austria in all age groups, and to perform additional analyses. Prevalence of obesity in the adult Austrian population varies between 8.3 and 19.9% in men, and 9.0 and 19.8% in women with increasing trends over time. Prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents in Austria varies between 3.1 and 9.0% in boys and between 2.2 and 7.3% in girls. Factors associated with obesity include higher age, lower educational level, profession, migration background, living in eastern parts of Austria, lack of social support, and psycho-social pressure. In women, socio-economic parameters are stronger associated with obesity compared to men. Obesity is associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, and low back pain, and deteriorated quality of live, in both sexes, and in men additionally with a history of heart attack, and in women additionally with anxiety/depression. PMID:26650060

  13. Palaeohydrology of a 3D-maze cave (Hermannshöhle, Lower Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schober, Andrea; Plan, Lukas

    2013-04-01

    The 4.4 km-long Hermannshöhle (located in Kirchberg/Wechsel, Lower Austria) is one of the largest caves in the Lower Austroalpine Unit. It is developed in an isolated block of carbonate marble, taking up only 140 x 160 m of ground area and 73 m of elevation difference. The cave is unusual in two respects: (a) its dense network of corridors is arranged in a three-dimensional maze and (b) the most outstanding macro- and micromorphologic features were caused by paragenesis. Speleothems are abundant throughout the cave comprising flowstones, dripstones, helictites, popcorn, calcite rafts, a shield, and moonmilk. Even though most passages are canyon-shaped, the cave shows exclusively phreatic features. Sediment fills are abundant as well, mostly covering the floor of passages to an unknown depth, containing mainly allochthonous material, i.e. schists and gneisses. Besides some vadose dripwater the cave is dry today. A conspicuous feature is the lack of a single water path and instead a maze with multiple flow paths formed. Another interesting feature is that one part of the cave developed below the nearby Ramsbach brook but is still dry. There are small ponors reported from the Ramsbach brook (which were observed during river regulation) indicating an actively draining karst system, which is not yet explored. The aim of this study was to enlighten the palaeohydrology of this cave using morphological and sedimentological observations as well as U/Th dating of speleothems. First results show that the palaeo-environment and the hydrologic setting of the Hermannshöhle were drastically different from today. Undersaturated water sourced from nearby non-karstic gneisses and schists gave rise to well-developed contact karst features. Surprisingly the palaeo flow direction deduced from indicators like scallops and sediment structures was opposite to the flow direction of the present nearby brooks (Rams- and Feistrizbach). Following pulses of clastic sediment input a distinct

  14. Republic of Austria. Country profile.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, L C

    1985-07-01

    A summary description of Austria's demographic situation, economic conditions, labor force characteristics, housing conditions, household characteristics, and marriage patterns is provided. Austria, the former center of the Hapsburg Empire, covers 32,375 square miles and is divided into 9 provinces, including Vienna, the federal capital. Austria's population increased from 6.9 million in 1950 to 7.6 million in 1980. Since 1980 it declined slightly and in 1985 it was estimated to be 7,487,000. Between 1961-81, the industrial, western region of the country grew more rapidly than the predominantly rural eastern section of the country. Vienna, the largest city in the country, experienced a decline in population size from 1.9 million to 1.5 million since 1923. Part of the decline was due to the annihilation of the city's Jewish population in 1938. Austria has a lower urban population (56%) than most other industrialized countries. This low rate reflects the availability of tourist related jobs in the rural areas. 98% of the population is Austrian, the official language is German, and most of the inhabitants are Roman Catholic. Due to the homogeneity of the population, the country has few religious and racial problems; however, a recent study indicated that about 1/2 of the population has anti-Semetic attitudes. Life expectancy is 69 years for men and 76 years for women. Austria's population is aging. Currently, 18% of the population is under 15 years of age, and 14% is 65 years of age or older. Births are expected to increase slightly until the end of the 1900s and then decline slightly. Austrians place a high value on children and family life. Between 1978-82 the marriage rate increased from 4.5/1000 to 4.8/1000, and the median age at marriage increased from 22.4-23.0 years for women and from 25.6-25.8 years for men. The number of divorces/year increased from 11,168-14.298 between 1976-82. Currently, there are 2,767,000 households, and the average household size is 2

  15. Radon mapping strategies in Austria.

    PubMed

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Wurm, G; Friedmann, H

    2015-11-01

    According to current European and international recommendations (e.g. by IAEA, WHO and European Union), countries shall identify high radon areas. In Austria, this task was initiated already in the early 1990s, which yielded the first Austrian Radon Potential Map. This map is still in use, updated with recent indoor radon data in 2012. The map is based on radon gas measurements in randomly selected dwellings, normalised to a standard situation. To meet the current (legal) requirements, uncertainties in the existing Austrian radon map should be reduced. A new indoor radon survey with a different sampling strategy was started, and possible mapping methods are studied and tested. In this paper, the methodology for the existing map as well as the planned strategies to improve this map is discussed. PMID:25911411

  16. Developments in biotechnological research in Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Kubicek, C.P.

    1996-12-01

    Austria is a small European country with a small number of universities and biotechnological industries, but with great efforts in the implementation of environmental consciousness and corresponding legal standards. This review attempts to describe the biotechnological landscape of Austria, thereby focusing on the highlights in research by industry, universities, and research laboratories, as published during 1990 to early 1995. These will include microbial metabolite (organic acids, antibiotics) and biopolymer (polyhydroxibutyrate, S-layers) production; enzyme (cellulases, hemicellulases, ligninases) technology and biocatalysis; environmental biotechnology; plant breeding and plant protection; mammalian cell products; fermenter design; and bioprocess engineering. 234 refs.

  17. AlpArray Austria - Illuminating the subsurface of Austria and understanding of Alpine geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Bokelmann, Götz; Bianchi, Irene; Apoloner, Maria-Theresia; AlpArray Working Group

    2015-04-01

    AlpArray Austria is a research project to study the geodynamics of the Eastern Alps and the subsurface of Austria with a large-scale mobile broadband seismological network. AlpArray Austria is part of the AlpArray project - a unique European transnational research initiative in which 64 research institutes from 17 countries join their expertise to advance our knowledge about the structure and evolution of the lithosphere beneath the entire Alpine area. AlpArray Austria is coordinated by the Department of Meteorology and Geophysics (IMGW) at the University of Vienna and funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF). During spring 2015 the deployment of 42 mobile broadband seismometers (and two permanent stations) will commence and by autumn 2015 Austria will be completely covered by a dense seismological network with an average station spacing of about 40 kilometers. The mobile network consisting of 27 Reftek 151 60s sensors (provided by IMGW) and 15 Trillium 120s instruments (provided by the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, DIAS, Ireland) will complement the permanent Austrian seismic network operated by the Austrian Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) that will also install the two permanent stations. AlpArray Austria will be continuously recording high-quality ground motion data for three years. Seismic data will be distributed through the European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA) and shared with the collaborating AlpArray institutes. AlpArray Austria will shed light on the detailed geological structure and geodynamical evolution of the Eastern Alps and the subsurface of Austria. Utilizing seismic analysis methods such as shear wave splitting, receiver functions and body wave dispersion the AlpArray Austria working group at IMGW will, together with the international partners, focus on seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle, the location of interfaces and tomography, to answer outstanding questions on slab geometry and subduction polarity under

  18. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Austria 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusche, Deborah; Radinger, Thomas; Busemeyer, Marius R.; Theisens, Henno

    2016-01-01

    This report for Austria forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school…

  19. Early Childhood Intervention and Inclusion in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretis, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses the situation of preschool children in Austria facing the need to implement the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability. Eligibility criteria for preventive preschool services and the necessary labeling of children as "disabled" or "at risk" are assessed as inhibiting factors within…

  20. The New Member States: Austria, Finland, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetschy, Janine; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Difficult Metamorphosis of the Social 'Models' of the Nordic Countries" (Goetschy); "Swedish Training System" (Ottersten); "Features of Vocational Education in Finland" (Kyro); "Boom in Apprenticeship Training in Finland" (Vartiainen); "Vocational Training in Austria" (Riemer); "Reforms in the Vocational Education and Training Systems of…

  1. Karstentwässerung im Kaisergebirge (Tirol, Österreich) - Abgrenzung hydrographischer Einzugsgebiete durch Kombination hydrogeologischer Untersuchungen mit Isotopenmethoden und hydrologischer Modellierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benischke, Ralf; Harum, Till; Reszler, Christian; Saccon, Pierpaolo; Ortner, Gerlinde; Ruch, Christophe

    2010-03-01

    Water resources investigations in karstic mountainous regions face the difficulty that the hydrological catchment boundaries are usually not identical with the orographic catchment boundaries. In this study an integrative method is presented that combines different sources of hydrogeological information and results of distributed water balance modelling to identify hydrological catchment boundaries and subsurface water ways in a karstic mountainous region. The different information comprises, in addition to meteorological and hydrographic data, region-wide point measurements of discharge, field surveys, isotope data, tracer tests, spring discharge data, soil and geological surveys and mapping, etc. The study was set-up in the Kaisergebirge mountain range in Tyrol/Austria, using the well known model MIKE SHE. Based on the additional information, the original model structure was adjusted to the specific situation in the karst, e.g. by introducing a bypass-flow within the unsaturated zone. The modelling results based on the orographic catchments were evaluated in terms of closure and—equally important—non-closure of the water balance. Spatial patterns of simulated hydrologic quantities are interpreted in light of the different sources of information. As a result, a regional map of surplus and deficit between observed and simulated runoff was drawn and combined with the additional information to form a general conceptual model of karst water flow directions and the location and altitude of the contributing recharge area in the high-alpine region. The results of the study provide a valuable basis for the assessment and protection of karst water resources for water supply.

  2. False-color composite of Oetztal, Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This image is a false-color composite of Oetztal, Austria located in the Central Alps centered at 46.8 degrees north latitude, 10.70 degrees east longitude, at the border between Switzerland (top), Italy (left) and Austria (right and bottom). The area shown is 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Inssbruck, Austria. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperature Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the Space Shuttle Endeavour on its 14th orbit. Approximately one quarter of this image is covered by glaciers, the largest of which, Gepatschferner, is visible as a triangular yellow patch in the center of the scene. The blue areas are lakes (Gepatsch dam at center right; Lake Muta at top right) and glacier ice. The yellow areas are slopes facing the radar and areas of dry snow. Purple corresponds to slopes facing away from the radar. Yellow in the valley bottom corresponds to tree covered areas. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43890.

  3. Magnetic fabric study of rock deformation during alpine tectonic evolution on a cross section through the Eastern Alps (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, K.; Scholger, R.; Pueyo, E. L.

    2010-05-01

    steeper NE or SW dipping k1-axis are present. In a previous paleomagnetic study of the same samples (Pueyo et al., 2002) both, primary and secondary remanent magnetization vectors were observed. No significant rotations were detected in the Flysh units. All samples from the Bajuvaric system show dominantly very low susceptibility values and isotropic fabrics and were therefore excluded from further investigations. Bajuvaric nappes hardly show any significant rotations based on paleomagnetic data (Pueyo et al., 2002). The nappes of the Tirolic and Juvavic systems have very low susceptibility values but they increase slightly towards the south. The shape of the anisotropy ellipsoid remains oblate (group A) in most cases and the degree of anisotropy is very weak. Also more prolate fabrics (group B) are present. Group A and B show a trend to shallow N or S dipping k1-axis in the North. Further in the south the k1-axis of group A tend to dip steeply NE. Shallow NE or SW dipping and slightly steeper NE or SW dipping oriented prolate susceptibility ellipsoids are dominant in group B. Tirolic and Juvavic units display clockwise rotation ranging between 30 and more than 100° (Pueyo et al., 2002), which was assigned to block rotation. Shallow E dipping and NNW dipping oblate susceptibility ellipsoids are dominant in the Basement. A general increase of the degree of rotation (Pueyo et al., 2002) as well as better defined susceptibility ellipsoids with mainly oblate fabrics towards the south can be observed. Six Tertiary deviatoric paleostress tensor groups are described by Peresson & Decker (1997). The new AMS data will be presented and correlated to the young tectonic history of the Eastern Alps. The study was funded by the Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW) in the frame of the Geophysics of the Earths Crust Programme. Peresson, H. and Decker, K., 1997. The Tertiary dynamics of the northern Eastern Alps (Austria): Changing palaeostresses in a collisional plate boundary

  4. Austria Declares Intent To Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    At a press conference today at the University of Vienna's Observatory, the Austrian Science Minister Johannes Hahn announced the decision by the Austrian Government to seek membership of ESO from 1 July this year. ESO PR Photo 11/08 ESO PR Photo 11/08 Announcing Austria's Intent to Join ESO Said Minister Hahn: "With membership of ESO, Austria's scientists will receive direct access to the world's leading infrastructure in astronomy. This strengthens Austria as a place for research and provides an opportunity for young researchers to continue their work from here. With this move, Austria takes an important step in the reinforcement of Europe's science and research infrastructure." The decision constitutes a major breakthrough for Austrian scientists who have argued for membership of ESO for many years. Seeking membership in ESO also marks a step towards the further development of the European Research and Innovation Area, an important element of Europe's so-called Lisbon Strategy. "ESO welcomes the Austrian bid to join our organisation. I salute the Austrian Government for taking this important step and look forward to working closely with our Austrian friends and colleagues in the years to come," commented the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. For Austrian astronomers, ESO membership means not only unrestricted access to ESO's world-leading observational facilities including the world's most advanced optical telescope, the Very Large Telescope, and full participation in the quasi-global ALMA project, but also the possibility to participate on a par with their European colleagues in the future projects of ESO, including the realisation of ESO's Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT), which is currently in the design phase. All these projects require some of the most advanced technologies in key areas such as optics, detectors, lightweight structures, etc. Austrian participation in ESO opens the door for Austrian industry and major research institutes of the

  5. Spatiotemporal analysis of snow trends in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Roland; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    This study presents the spatiotemporal analysis of Austrian snow observations. A set of consistent and reliable long-term time series of snow depth on a daily scale from selected meteorological sites across Austria is used. The time series were collected by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and the Hydrographical Central Bureau of Austria (HZB). The data cover a time period from the late nineteenth century until today. In the first part of the study spatiotemporal characteristics of seasonal snow depth observations were investigated by the method of principal component analysis (PCA). Furthermore, the spatial patterns of variability have been used for a regionalisation, identifying regions with similar conditions during the base period 1961 to 2010. The results show a clear separation of four major regions including various sub-regions. However, the regionalisation was limited due to sparse data coverage. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistical test had been used to assess the significance of trends in snow indices, e.g. snow depth, maximum snow depth, snow cover duration, at monthly and seasonal time scales. In order to remove the influence of the lag-1 serial correlation from the snow data, the trend-free pre-whitening approach was applied. In the monthly and seasonal time series during the period 1961-2010, negative trends in snow indices were significant at the 95% confidence level primarily at stations in the Western and Southern part of Austria. In addition, the correlation between snow observations and gridded HISTALP winter temperature and precipitation fields was investigated. The analysis has shown an increased temperature and decreased precipitation during the 1990s, yielding a pronounced reduction in snow depth and duration. As a matter of fact, the results indicate major shifts of the snow depth and snow cover duration around the 1970s and especially the 1990s, which are predominantly responsible for trends.

  6. Glacier recession in Iceland and Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Bayr, Klaus J.

    1992-01-01

    It has been possible to measure glacier recession on the basis of Landsat data, in conjunction with comparisons of the magnitude of recession of a glacier margin with in situ measurements at fixed points along the same margin. Attention is presently given to the cases of Vatnajokull ice cap, in Iceland, and the Pasterze Glacier, in Austria, on the basis of satellite data from 1973-1987 and 1984-1990, respectively. Indications of a trend toward negative mass balance are noted. Nevertheless, while most of the world's small glaciers have been receding, some are advancing either due to local climate or the tidewater glacier cycle.

  7. Glacier recession in Iceland and Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S. Jr.; Bayr, K.J. USGS, Reston, VA Keene State College, NH )

    1992-03-01

    It has been possible to measure glacier recession on the basis of Landsat data, in conjunction with comparisons of the magnitude of recession of a glacier margin with in situ measurements at fixed points along the same margin. Attention is presently given to the cases of Vatnajokull ice cap, in Iceland, and the Pasterze Glacier, in Austria, on the basis of satellite data from 1973-1987 and 1984-1990, respectively. Indications of a trend toward negative mass balance are noted. Nevertheless, while most of the world's small glaciers have been receding, some are advancing either due to local climate or the tidewater glacier cycle. 21 refs.

  8. Surveillance of Legionnaires' disease in Austria.

    PubMed

    Schmid, D; Wewalka, G; Allerberger, F

    2005-05-01

    Seven foreign cases of travel-associated Legionnaires' disease were associated with two neighbouring tourist villages in Austria between 1992 and 2004. The seven foreigners stayed in four hotels located in a geographical diameter of less than 10 km. Two cases were diagnosed in The Netherlands and five in the UK. The first case occurred in 1992, while the remaining cases clustered between August 2000 and April 2004. None of these cases was reported officially as part of a hotel-associated cluster, thereby highlighting several weaknesses of the infectious disease control systems involved. PMID:15819872

  9. eHealth Terminology Management in Austria.

    PubMed

    Seerainer, Carina; Sabutsch, Stefan W

    2016-01-01

    When it comes to establishing and operating a nationwide personal health record (PHR), effective and efficient terminology management including the development, administration, maintenance and publishing of terminologies is a precondition for semantic interoperability. In the Austrian national patient health record "ELGA" all relevant terminologies are provided and distributed by means of a CTS2-conformant terminology server. In the following article, issues and lessons learned from terminology management in a large-scale eHealth project are presented. Experience has proved the necessity of a national authority for medical terminology management in Austria. PMID:27577418

  10. Results on perfluorocarbon background concentrations in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piringer, Martin; Baumann, Kathrin; Rötzer, Harald; Riesing, Johann; Nodop, Katrin

    Results of Perfluorocarbon background concentrations in Austria are presented, which were taken at the beginning of 1994 in preparation for the European Tracer Experiment ETEX. Two very different weather regimes, a mild westerly current and a continental spell with easterly air flow, were chosen to comprise a variety of weather situations. The concentrations obtained are generally higher than those from prior experiments, but there is no systematic dependence on meteorological parameters; slightly higher values have been obtained during easterly flow for all components measured.

  11. Statistics about torrents in Lower Austria, status from May 2015.

    PubMed

    Lepuschitz, Ehrenfried

    2015-09-01

    This data presents analyzed data exports of Austrian torrent and avalanche cadaster (TAC) in May 2015. The TAC is developed by Austrian Service for Torrent and Avalanche Control. Data are viewed from different aspects and combinations geographically in the area of Lower Austria, a province of Austria. PMID:26401518

  12. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Austria.

    PubMed

    Hainfellner, J A; Jellinger, K; Diringer, H; Guentchev, M; Kleinert, R; Pilz, P; Maier, H; Budka, H

    1996-08-01

    Between 1969 and 30 September 1995, 79 Austrian patients had Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) diagnosed neuropathologically by necropsy or biopsy. The annual incidence has significantly increased in recent years (average 0.18 per million in 1969-85, and 0.67 per million in 1986-94; estimate for 1995: 1.5 per million). Also, the percentage of patients with CJD over 70 years at death increased significantly until 1989 but is since in decline. There is no regional clustering, familial occurrence, or recognised iatrogenic risk. One patient had a 10 year history of intramuscular injection of purified bovine RNA preparation (Regeneresen) from various organs including the brian. The ages at death are symmetrically distributed around the median of 64 years. The median duration of disease is four months. Most patients (76%) died within six months of onset. Retrospectively, 86% of patients fulfilled clinical criteria of probable or possible CJD. Neuropathology showed the classic triad of spongiform change, astrogliosis, and neuronal loss in most cases. Two cases did not show unequivocal tissue alterations, but anti-PrP immunocytochemistry detected PrP deposits also in these cases. It is concluded that the recent rise in incidence of CJD in Austria most likely reflects increased awareness and diagnosis of CJD rather than a real increase. As bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has not been reported in Austria, the data do not support a link between a rise in incidence of sporadic CJD and BSE. PMID:8708680

  13. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    PubMed

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction. PMID:26479843

  14. Austria`s efforts to control CO{sub 2}-emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Hackl, A.E.

    1997-12-31

    In the National Energy Report of 1990 the Austrian Government expressed its intention to meet the Toronto-target by the year 2005. This statement is also part of the National Energy Reports of 1993 and 1996 including a list of measures to reduce CO{sub 2}-emissions proper for Austrian conditions. By becoming member of the European Union in 1995 Austria automatically is in duty to contribute to the target of stabilizing the CO{sub 2}-emissions of the European Union as a whole in 2000 on basis of 1990. Furthermore, all nine provincial governments of Austria and nearly all of its cities have signed the Climate Alliance which means to reach a 50% reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions in these areas in the year 2010 calculated on the level of emissions in 1988. In Austria, the main strategies to control CO{sub 2}-emissions reflect the fact that about 70% of electricity generation is based on hydropower, furthermore that about 12 % of the demand on primary energy is covered by biomass. An overview will be given over measures and legal framework already in force or in preparation and those advised for implementation. Some of these measures have been calculated concerning their potential for reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions, however, only for a few ones a point of time is given at which the target should be met. On basis of the present situation Austria has good chances to meet the stabilization target of the European Union. Chances to meet the Toronto target however are - similar to other industrialized countries - not very realistic.

  15. Virus meningo-encephalitis in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Verlinde, J. D.; van Tongeren, H. A. E.; Pattyn, S. R.; Rosenzweig, A.

    1955-01-01

    Two virus strains were isolated from the central nervous systems of two fatal human cases during an epidemic of encephalomyelitis in Austria. Monkeys, mice, and chick embryos proved susceptible; rabbits and guinea-pigs were refractory. The experimental disease in monkeys was characterized by acute meningo-encephalomyelitis, which was localized particularly in the grey matter of the brain stem, the cerebellum, the medulla, and the anterior horns of the spinal cord. The virus produced discrete lesions on the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In monkeys, viraemia was demonstrated for a period of at least 6-8 days before the development of the clinical illness. The virus was shown to be closely related to that of Russian spring-summer encephalitis. Neutralizing and complement-fixing antibodies could be demonstrated in patients' sera. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12 PMID:14378999

  16. Space Radar Image of Oetzal, Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image is a false-color composite of Oetzal, Austria located in the Central Alps centered at 46.8 degrees north latitude, 10.70 degrees east longitude, at the border between Switzerland (top), Italy (left) and Austria (right and bottom). The area shown is 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Innsbruck, Austria. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 14th orbit. Oetztal is a SIR-C/X-SAR hydrology supersite. Approximately one quarter of this image is covered by glaciers, the largest of which, Gepatschferner, is visible as a triangular yellow patch in the center of the scene. The summits of the main peaks reach elevations between 3,500 and 3,768 meters (11,500 and 12,362 feet) above sea level. The tongues of the glaciers are descending from elevated plateaus down into narrow valleys which were formed during the last ice age. This color image was produced in C-band using multi-polarization information (red=CHV, green=CVV,blue=CVV/CHV). The blue areas are lakes (Gepatsch dam at center right; Lake Muta at top right) and glacier ice. The yellow areas are slopes facing the radar and areas of dry snow. Purple corresponds to slopes facing away from the radar. Yellow in the valley bottom corresponds to tree covered areas. There is 30 to 50 centimeters (12 to 20 inches) of dry, fresh snow on the glaciers, and about 10 centimeters (4 inches) in the valley at the city of Vent, Austria (center). At these data were taken, the weather was cold, with snow and thick fog. The entire area would appear white to an optical sensor because it is all covered under a winter snowpack. Researchers are interested in Oetztal because knowing how glaciers shrink and grow over time is an important indication of climatic change. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE). The radars illuminate Earth with

  17. Elemental composition of game meat from Austria.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Kathrin; Kitzer, Roland; Goessler, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Concentrations of 26 elements (B, Na, Mg, P, S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, Hg, Pb, U) in wild game meat from Austria were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. All investigated animals were culled during the hunting season 2012/2013, including 10 chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), 9 hare (Lepus europaeus), 10 pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), 10 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 12 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 10 wild boar (Sus scrofa). In 19 out of 61 meat samples lead concentrations were higher than 0.1 mg/kg, the maximum limit in meat as set by the European Commission (Regulation EC No 1881/2006), which is most likely caused by ammunition residues. Especially, pellet shot animals and chamois show a high risk for lead contamination. Despite ammunition residues all investigated muscle samples show no further health risk with respect to metal contamination. PMID:26886253

  18. Evaluation of groundwater droughts in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Johannes Christoph; Birk, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Droughts are abnormally dry periods that affect various aspects of human life on earth, ranging from negative impacts on agriculture or industry, to being the cause for conflict and loss of human life. The changing climate reinforces the importance of investigations into this phenomenon. Various methods to analyze and classify droughts have been developed. These include drought indices such as the Standard Precipitation Index SPI, the Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI or the Crop Moisture Index CMI. These and other indices consider meteorological parameters and/or their effects on soil moisture. A depletion of soil moisture triggered by low precipitation and high evapotranspiration may also cause reduced groundwater recharge and thus decreasing groundwater levels and reduced groundwater flow to springs, streams, and wetlands. However, the existing indices were generally not designed to address such drought effects on groundwater. Thus, a Standardized Groundwater level Index has recently been proposed by Bloomfied and Marchant (2013). Yet, to our knowledge, this approach has only been applied to consolidated aquifers in the UK. This work analyzes time series of groundwater levels from various, mostly unconsolidated aquifers in Austria in order to characterize the effects of droughts on aquifers in different hydrogeologic and climatic settings as well as under different usage scenarios. In particular, comparisons are made between the water rich Alpine parts of Austria, and the dryer parts situated in the East. The time series of groundwater levels are compared to other data, such as meteorological time series and written weather records about generally accepted phenomena, such as the 2003 European drought and heat wave. Thus, valuable insight is gained into the propagation of meteorological droughts through the soil and the aquifer in different types of hydrogeologic and climatic settings, which provides a prerequisite for the assessment of the aquifers' drought

  19. National survey of women in physics in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkmann, C.; Rodriguez, A.; Brodacz, I.; Dilaver, N.; Suárez, A.; Ayala, P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports very generally on changes in the situation of women in physics in Austria since 2008 and more specifically on a national web-based survey that was distributed among physicists in Austria. It was aimed at understanding why few women are motivated to study physics and to follow an academic path. Family responsibilities— among others—seem to have a deep impact on women's careers. In Austria, initiatives to support women in scientific careers are quite well known throughout the physics community, and a high percentage of women responding to the survey said they had participated in at least one of them.

  20. Genome research in Austria--a program of the future.

    PubMed

    Pasterk, Markus G

    2002-11-01

    Genome research is a central area both for progress in scientific findings in life sciences and for the innovative capacity in medical science, and the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. The research findings obtained by interdisciplinary cooperation are of paramount epistemological importance. They will establish a new understanding of biology. In this context, there will be revolutionary opportunities for new medical therapies, for instance, or for keeping plants and animals healthy. Austria will participate in this science and innovation field and will use the resulting opportunities for scientific and economic development as well as for overall social prosperity. For this purpose, [corrected] Austria has developed the 'Austrian Genome Research Programme', a 'programme of the future' for Austria. This program will be based on the good foundations that genome research has already established in Austria. PMID:12437484

  1. [Suicides in Austria: update on present state and recent trends].

    PubMed

    Kapusta, Nestor; Sonneck, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    Suicide rates exceed fatal traffic accidents two-fold in Austria but have been decreasing since 1987. Against common perceptions, approximately 75 % of all suicides in Austria are commited by men each year and while suicide attempts are more common in adolescents, completed suicides increase with age. Studies show that suicide rates are more common in rural than in urban areas and are associated with socio-economic factors. Nationwide prevention efforts should keep these epidemiological aspects in mind. PMID:23055303

  2. Genetic Variation of Bordetella pertussis in Austria.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Birgit; Melzer, Helen; Freymüller, Georg; Stumvoll, Sabine; Rendi-Wagner, Pamela; Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Repa, Andreas; Mooi, Frits R; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Mittermayer, Helmut; Kessler, Harald H; Stanek, Gerold; Steinborn, Ralf; Duchêne, Michael; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    In Austria, vaccination coverage against Bordetella pertussis infections during infancy is estimated at around 90%. Within the last years, however, the number of pertussis cases has increased steadily, not only in children but also in adolescents and adults, indicating both insufficient herd immunity and vaccine coverage. Waning immunity in the host and/or adaptation of the bacterium to the immunised hosts could contribute to the observed re-emergence of pertussis. In this study we therefore addressed the genetic variability in B. pertussis strains from several Austrian cities. Between the years 2002 and 2008, 110 samples were collected from Vienna (n = 32), Linz (n = 63) and Graz (n = 15) by nasopharyngeal swabs. DNA was extracted from the swabs, and bacterial sequence polymorphisms were examined by MLVA (multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis) (n = 77), by PCR amplification and conventional Sanger sequencing of the polymorphic regions of the prn (pertactin) gene (n = 110), and by amplification refractory mutation system quantitative PCR (ARMS-qPCR) (n = 110) to directly address polymorphisms in the genes encoding two pertussis toxin subunits (ptxA and ptxB), a fimbrial adhesin (fimD), tracheal colonisation factor (tcfA), and the virulence sensor protein (bvgS). Finally, the ptxP promoter region was screened by ARMS-qPCR for the presence of the ptxP3 allele, which has been associated with elevated production of pertussis toxin. The MLVA analysis revealed the highest level of polymorphisms with an absence of MLVA Type 29, which is found outside Austria. Only Prn subtypes Prn1/7, Prn2 and Prn3 were found with a predominance of the non-vaccine type Prn2. The analysis of the ptxA, ptxB, fimD, tcfA and bvgS polymorphisms showed a genotype mixed between the vaccine strain Tohama I and a clinical isolate from 2006 (L517). The major part of the samples (93%) displayed the ptxP3 allele. The consequences for the vaccination strategy are discussed. PMID

  3. Twenty Years of Acanthamoeba Diagnostics in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Walochnik, Julia; Scheikl, Ute; Haller-Schober, Eva-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoebae are the causative agents of an often seriously progressing keratitis (AK) occurring predominantly in contact lens wearers and can cause several disseminating infections potentially resulting in granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) in the immunocompromised host. Our institution is the Austrian reference laboratory for Acanthamoeba diagnostics and the aim of this study was to give an overview of proven cases of Acanthamoeba infections in Austria during the past 20 yr. All samples of patients with suspected AK or GAE were screened for Acanthamoeba spp. by culture and/or PCR and the detected amoebae were genotyped. Altogether, 154 cases of AK and three cases of GAE were diagnosed. Age of the AK patients ranged from 8 to 82 yr (mean 37.8) and 58% of the patients were female. Approximately 89% of the AK patients were contact lens wearers, almost all cases were unilateral and 19% of the patients required a keratoplasty. Age of the GAE patients ranged from 2 to 25 yr (mean 14.7), all were HIV-negative, but two were severely immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. The predominant genotype in the AK cases was T4, other genotypes found were T3, T5, T6, T10 and T11. The three GAE cases involved genotypes T2, T4 and T5. PMID:25047131

  4. Serpentinite slices within a tectonic zone at the base of the Juvavic nappe system in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria): characterization and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Katharina; Schuster, Ralf; Wagreich, Michael; Koller, Friedrich; Wimmer-Frey, Ingeborg

    2014-05-01

    The investigated serpentinites are present in an ENE-WSW orientated tectonic zone at the base of Juvavic nappes (Northern Calcareous Alps), situated at the eastern margin of the Eastern Alps (Lower Austria). They form small tectonically squeezed slices, which are embedded in Permotriassic schists and Middle to Upper Triassic limestones. These serpentinites play an important, but not yet understood role in reconstructing Neotethys evolution, Alpine Orogeny and the correlation of Dinarides and Alps. The largest serpentinite body near to Unterhöflein is 400 to 100 meters in size and was investigated by mineralogical (XRD) and petrological/geochemical (XRF) methods. The primary mineral composition is olivine + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + chrome spinel. Pseudomorphs of pyroxenes are visible macroscopically, but almost all primary minerals are replaced by serpentine minerals. Former olivine is converted to chrysotile minerals, which show typical reticulate textures, orthopyroxene turned into lizardite pseudomorphs and chrome spinel is almost completely altered to magnetite. Major contents of chrysotile-α, chrysotile-γ and lizardite and minor antigorite, as well as secondary minerals like talc, chlorite and hydrogrossular were identified with XRD. Results from whole rock geochemistry indicate harzburgitic precursor rocks for the serpentinites. According to the low antigorite content, the rocks have only a weak metamorphic imprint and therefore an obduction rather than a subduction history is likely. This leads to the assumption that these serpentinites possibly originate from the Neotethys and not from the Penninic oceanic realm. Further, the tectonic position of the serpentinite slices is in close vicinity to sediments of the Meliata unit which also occur between Juvavic and underlying Tirolic nappe system (Mandl & Ondrejickova, 1993). Additionally, remnants from ophiolite nappes are found reworked into the surrounding Upper Cretaceous Gosau Group. In the latter

  5. Space Radar Image of Oetzal, Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a digital elevation model that was geometrically coded directly onto an X-band seasonal change image of the Oetztal supersite in Austria. The image is centered at 46.82 degrees north latitude and 10.79 degrees east longitude. This image is located in the Central Alps at the border between Switzerland, Italy and Austria, 50 kilometers (31 miles) southwest of Innsbruck. It was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994 and on October 5, 1994. It was produced by combining data from these two different data sets. Data obtained in April is green; data obtained in October appears in red and blue, and was used as an enhancement based on the ratio of the two data sets. Areas with a decrease in backscatter from April to October appear in light blue (cyan), such as the large Gepatschferner glacier seen at the left of the image center, and most of the other glaciers in this view. A light blue hue is also visible at the east border of the dark blue Lake Reschensee at the upper left side. This shows a significant rise in the water level. Magenta represents areas with an increase of backscatter from April 10 to October 5. Yellow indicates areas with high radar signal response during both passes, such as the mountain slopes facing the radar. Low radar backscatter signals refer to smooth surface (lakes) or radar grazing areas to radar shadow areas, seen in the southeast slopes. The area is approximately 29 kilometers by 21 kilometers (18 miles by 13.5 miles). The summit of the main peaks reaches elevations of 3,500 to 3,768 meters (xx feet to xx feet)above sea level. The test site's core area is the glacier region of Venter Valley, which is one of the most intensively studied areas for glacier research in the world. Research in Venter Valley (below center)includes studies of glacier dynamics, glacier-climate regions, snowpack conditions and glacier hydrology. About 25 percent of the core test

  6. Characterization of HIV Transmission in South-East Austria

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Harald H.; Haas, Bernhard; Stelzl, Evelyn; Weninger, Karin; Little, Susan J.; Mehta, Sanjay R.

    2016-01-01

    To gain deeper insight into the epidemiology of HIV-1 transmission in South-East Austria we performed a retrospective analysis of 259 HIV-1 partial pol sequences obtained from unique individuals newly diagnosed with HIV infection in South-East Austria from 2008 through 2014. After quality filtering, putative transmission linkages were inferred when two sequences were ≤1.5% genetically different. Multiple linkages were resolved into putative transmission clusters. Further phylogenetic analyses were performed using BEAST v1.8.1. Finally, we investigated putative links between the 259 sequences from South-East Austria and all publicly available HIV polymerase sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV sequence database. We found that 45.6% (118/259) of the sampled sequences were genetically linked with at least one other sequence from South-East Austria forming putative transmission clusters. Clustering individuals were more likely to be men who have sex with men (MSM; p<0.001), infected with subtype B (p<0.001) or subtype F (p = 0.02). Among clustered males who reported only heterosexual (HSX) sex as an HIV risk, 47% clustered closely with MSM (either as pairs or within larger MSM clusters). One hundred and seven of the 259 sequences (41.3%) from South-East Austria had at least one putative inferred linkage with sequences from a total of 69 other countries. In conclusion, analysis of HIV-1 sequences from newly diagnosed individuals residing in South-East Austria revealed a high degree of national and international clustering mainly within MSM. Interestingly, we found that a high number of heterosexual males clustered within MSM networks, suggesting either linkage between risk groups or misrepresentation of sexual risk behaviors by subjects. PMID:26967154

  7. Isotopic composition of sulfate accumulations, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Halas, Stanislaw; Bojar, Hans-Peter; Trembaczowski, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    The Eastern Alps are characterised by the presence of three main tectonic units, such as the Lower, Middle and Upper Austroalpine, which overlie the Penninicum (Tollmann, 1977). The Upper Austroalpine unit consists of the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) overlying the Greywacke zone and corresponding to the Graz Paleozoic, Murau Paleozoic and the Gurktal Nappe. Evaporitic rocks are lacking in the later ones. The Northern Calcareous Alps are a detached fold and thrust belt. The sedimentation started in the Late Carboniferous or Early Permian, the age of the youngest sediments being Eocene. The NCA are divided into the Bajuvaric, Tirolic and Juvavic nappe complexes. The evaporitic Haselgebirge Formation occurs in connection with the Juvavic nappe complex at the base of the Tirolic units (Leitner et al., 2013). The Haselgebirge Formation consists mainly of salt, shales, gypsum and anhydrite and includes the oldest sediments of the NCA. The age of the Haselgebirge Formation, established by using spors and geochronological data, is Permian to Lower Triassic. For the Northern Calcareous Alps, the mineralogy of sulphate accumulations consists mainly of gypsum and anhydrite and subordonates of carbonates. The carbonates as magnesite, dolomite and calcite can be found either as singular crystals or as small accumulations within the hosting gypsum. Sulfides (sphalerite, galena, pyrite), sulfarsenides (enargite, baumhauerite) and native sulphur enrichments are known from several deposits (Kirchner, 1987; Postl, 1990). The investigated samples were selected from various gypsum and halite rich deposits of the Northern Calcareous Alps. A total of over 20 samples were investigated, and both oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition were determined for anhydrite, gyps, polyhalite, blödite and langbeinite. The sulfur isotopic values vary between 10.1 to 14 ‰ (CDT), with three values higher than 14 ‰. The Oxygen isotopic values show a range from 9 to 23 ‰ (SMOW). The sulfur

  8. [Prospects for the development of fertility in Austria].

    PubMed

    Nebenfuhr, E

    1992-01-01

    "In Austria, as in most other European countries, after the sharp decline of the mid-60s fertility has stabilized well under replacement level. In the course of the changing structure of family formation and the pluralization of life-styles, the relationship between fertility and nuptiality has turned into a mutual one. Nuptiality is not always the determinant of fertility; it may also be the dependent variable.... Empirical evidence for the last few years suggests that fertility in Austria--and in most other European countries--will stay at a modest level for the coming decades." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12286941

  9. 78 FR 43226 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Register of February 27, 2013 (78 FR 13379). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on May 23, 2013, and... COMMISSION Xanthan Gum From Austria and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... with material injury by reason of imports from China of xanthan gum provided for in subheading...

  10. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  11. Nosocomial Outbreak of Parechovirus 3 Infection among Newborns, Austria, 2014.

    PubMed

    Strenger, Volker; Diedrich, Sabine; Boettcher, Sindy; Richter, Susanne; Maritschnegg, Peter; Gangl, Dietmar; Fuchs, Simone; Grangl, Gernot; Resch, Bernhard; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2016-09-01

    In 2014, sepsis-like illness affected 9 full-term newborns in 1 hospital in Austria. Although results of initial microbiological testing were negative, electron microscopy identified picornavirus. Archived serum samples and feces obtained after discharge were positive by PCR for human parechovirus 3. This infection should be included in differential diagnoses of sepsis-like illness in newborns. PMID:27532333

  12. Nosocomial Outbreak of Parechovirus 3 Infection among Newborns, Austria, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Diedrich, Sabine; Boettcher, Sindy; Richter, Susanne; Maritschnegg, Peter; Gangl, Dietmar; Fuchs, Simone; Grangl, Gernot; Resch, Bernhard; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, sepsis-like illness affected 9 full-term newborns in 1 hospital in Austria. Although results of initial microbiological testing were negative, electron microscopy identified picornavirus. Archived serum samples and feces obtained after discharge were positive by PCR for human parechovirus 3. This infection should be included in differential diagnoses of sepsis-like illness in newborns. PMID:27532333

  13. The Distribution of Accommodation Rates in St. Anton, Austria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eysberg, Cees D.

    1984-01-01

    For use in college geography courses which teach spatial analysis, this case study investigated whether hotel rates in the ski resort of St. Anton, Austria, are affected by the hotel's proximity to ski lifts and apres ski establishments. Results showed that tourists are sensitive to distance; spatial behavior is predictable. (RM)

  14. "Crafts and Technology" and "Technical Education" in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, Josef

    2009-01-01

    In Austria, the syllabus for "Technisches Werken/Crafts and Technology" for all types of school in general education was issued more than 30 years ago. The authors believed that it might lay the foundations for technical literacy. The paper is about how the situation of the subject and, with it, technical education has developed since then in…

  15. First genetic evidence of leprosy in early medieval Austria.

    PubMed

    Gausterer, Christian; Stein, Christina; Teschler-Nicola, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Leprosy used to be a widespread, dreaded disease in Europe during the middle ages, and it still remains an important health problem in some parts of the world today. Herein, we present data on the earliest 'Austrian' (an adult female from the early medieval period) proven to have suffered from leprosy. Manifestations of the disease were first identified during a systematic screening of pathological changes in skeletons recovered from an archaeological site in Pottenbrunn (Lower Austria). In the present study, DNA extracts from selected cranial and postcranial bone samples were investigated using polymerase chain reaction primers specific to the Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) repetitive element (RLEP). M. leprae traces were detected in extracts from nasal and palatine bones. Sequence analysis of informative polymorphic sites supports previous reports indicating that European M. leprae strains fall into single nucleotide polymorphism group 3. In summary, these findings put Austria on the map of confirmed leprosy cases in ancient Europe. PMID:25007893

  16. Efficiency, ownership, and financing of hospitals: the case of Austria.

    PubMed

    Czypionka, Thomas; Kraus, Markus; Mayer, Susanne; Röhrling, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    While standard economic theory posits that privately owned hospitals are more efficient than their public counterparts, no clear conclusion can yet be drawn for Austria in this regard. As previous Austrian efficiency studies rely on data from the 1990s only and are based on small hospital samples, the generalizability of these results is questionable. To examine the impact of ownership type on efficiency, we apply a Data Envelopment Analysis which extends the existing literature in two respects: first, it evaluates the efficiency of the Austrian acute care sector, using data on 128 public and private non-profit hospitals from the year 2010; second, it additionally focusses on the inpatient sector alone, thus increasing the comparability between hospitals. Overall, the results show that in Austria, private non-profit hospitals outperform public hospitals in terms of technical efficiency. A multiple regression analysis confirms the significant association between efficiency and ownership type. This conclusive result contrasts some international evidence and can most likely be attributed to differences in financial incentives for public and private non-profit hospitals in Austria. Therefore, by drawing on the example of the Austrian acute care hospital sector and existing literature on the German acute care hospital sector, we also discuss the impact of hospital financing systems and their incentives on efficiency. This paper thus also aims at providing a proof of principle, pointing out the importance of the respective market conditions when internationally comparing hospital efficiency by ownership type. PMID:24338279

  17. Differences in urbanization degree and consequences on the diversity of conventional vs. rapidly mutating Y-STRs in five municipalities from a small region of the Tyrolean Alps in Austria.

    PubMed

    Niederstätter, Harald; Berger, Burkhard; Kayser, Manfred; Parson, Walther

    2016-09-01

    In this study we set out to test at a micro-geographic scale for the potential effects of differences in urbanization degree on Y-chromosomal diversity and the paternal lineage differentiation of "conventional" and rapidly-mutating (RM) Y-STR markers. To avoid systematic underrepresentation of common lineages, 551 male samples were collected under a sampling regime allowing for the inclusion of paternal relatives. All participants came from a small, topographically highly structured, yet culturally homogeneous settlement area in the Tyrolean Alps of Austria, a region that is characterized by a longstanding coexistence of communities differing considerably in size and connection. The study participants reported provenance in one of the three rural villages Alpbach, Brandenberg, and Wildschönau - all being separated by topographical barriers from each other - or in one of the two more urban-like and better connected municipalities Kitzbühel and St. Johann in Tirol. When compared with the sample pools from the two larger communities, the three small villages showed distinctly higher rates of self-reported patrilocality since the paternal grandfather (85-95% vs. ∼42%), and featured evidence for a considerably higher proportion of close and cryptic paternal relationships among the study participants. We observed marked differences in the Y-SNP haplogroup frequency spectra and statistically significant Y-STR-based FST distances among the municipality samples, suggesting population sub-structuring along municipality borders. While for the two larger settlements a widely used "core" set of 17 conventional Y-STRs (Yfiler) provided reasonably high lineage resolution (Ĥ: 0.99515±0.00256, 0.99739±0.00224), a markedly reduced haplotype diversity was seen in samples from the rural villages (Ĥ: 0.96126±0.00701-0.98515±0.00278). This difference largely diminished when instead using a set of 13 RM Y-STRs (Ĥ: 0.99180±0.00380-0.99922±0.00187, for all groups). Most

  18. Occurrence of Isospora suis in Germany, Switzerland and Austria.

    PubMed

    Mundt, H-C; Cohnen, A; Daugschies, A; Joachim, A; Prosl, H; Schmäschke, R; Westphal, B

    2005-03-01

    Nationwide surveys for the occurrence of Isospora suis were carried out in Germany, Austria and Switzerland including a questionnaire regarding herd size, health status and management practices and a coccidiosis sampling kit for pooled faecal samples from litters of suckling piglets. A total of 184 veterinary practices participated in the survey and returned 1745 samples (331 kits) from 324 farms in the north (n = 98), south (n = 84), centre/east (n = 42) and west (n = 10) of Germany, Austria (n = 61) and Switzerland (n = 29) with larger farms in north and centre/east (average number of sows: 270 and 500) and smaller ones in the south (95), Austria (60) and Switzerland (43). Larger farms tended to have better hygienic standards (slatted floors, disinfection of the farrowing units). The majority of the participating farms (93.5%) reported problems with diarrhoea in piglets at 2-3 weeks of age, significantly associated (P < 0.001) with uneven weaning weights (94.9%). Toltrazuril (5%; Baycox) was used only rarely; however, in these farms unevenness of weaning weights was less frequently observed (P = 0.011). A 76.2% of the farms were positive for I. suis (samples contained mostly low or moderate oocyst numbers), especially in the south (P < 0.001). Oocysts were more frequently found in samples from farms with reported diarrhoea (P = 0.011), uneven weight gain (P = 0.019) or in herds of small size (P < 0.001). Disinfection, floor type or treatment with toltrazuril did not affect the frequency of observation of oocysts. PMID:15752269

  19. Smoking and lung cancer: current trends in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Caroline A.; Waldhör, Thomas; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Hackl, Monika; Vutuc, Christian; Haidinger, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Despite a recent decline in smoking behavior in many European countries, lung cancer rates remain high, especially in Central and Eastern Europe. This paper aims to describe trends in smoking behavior and lung cancer incidence and mortality, including histopathological classification of lung cancer, in a Central European country: Austria. Methods Using data from the Austrian Central Cancer Registry, we calculated age-standardized incidence, histopathology-specific incidence, and age-standardized and birth cohort-specific mortality rates for all lung cancer cases in Austria. Using national survey data, we estimated prevalence of smoking in the Austrian population. Our analysis covers the time period from 1970 to 2009. Results In 2009, lung cancer incidence rates were 41.3/100,000 and 18.5/100,000 and mortality rates were 36.3/100,000 and14.5/100,000, for males and females, respectively. Male lung cancer rates declined but increased steadily in females over the past three decades. In 2009, the most common histological type is adenocarcinoma, which reflects a shift from predominantly squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma in the mid 1980s. In 2009, 27 % of men and 19 % of women were smokers, which represent a rise of smoking rates in women, especially in younger women, and a decline in the men. Conclusions While in Austrian men the lung cancer rates, in accordance with their decreasing prevalence of smoking, declined over the past 30 years, the increasing smoking prevalence and lung cancer rates in women remain a public health concern. Antismoking laws and public health initiatives to curtail smoking habits are needed in Austria, especially targeting younger women. PMID:22815002

  20. Multiple Infections of Rodents with Zoonotic Pathogens in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sabrina; Essbauer, Sandra S.; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Poppert, Sven; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Klempa, Boris; Henning, Klaus; Schares, Gereon; Groschup, Martin H.; Spitzenberger, Friederike; Richter, Dania; Heckel, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Rodents are important reservoirs for a large number of zoonotic pathogens. We examined the occurrence of 11 viral, bacterial, and parasitic agents in rodent populations in Austria, including three different hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox virus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Toxoplasma gondii. In 2008, 110 rodents of four species (40 Clethrionomys glareolus, 29 Apodemus flavicollis, 26 Apodemus sylvaticus, and 15 Microtus arvalis) were trapped at two rural sites in Lower Austria. Chest cavity fluid and samples of lung, spleen, kidney, liver, brain, and ear pinna skin were collected. We screened selected tissue samples for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, Leptospira, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella spp., C. burnetii, and T. gondii by RT-PCR/PCR and detected nucleic acids of Tula hantavirus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia afzelii, Rickettsia spp., and different Bartonella species. Serological investigations were performed for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, and Rickettsia spp. Here, Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus-, Tula hantavirus-, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-, orthopox virus-, and rickettsia-specific antibodies were demonstrated. Puumala hantavirus, C. burnetii, and T. gondii were neither detected by RT-PCR/PCR nor by serological methods. In addition, multiple infections with up to three pathogens were shown in nine animals of three rodent species from different trapping sites. In conclusion, these results show that rodents in Austria may host multiple zoonotic pathogens. Our observation raises important questions regarding the interactions of different pathogens in the host, the countermeasures of the host's immune system, the impact of the host–pathogen interaction on the fitness of the host, and the spread of infectious agents among wild rodents and from those to other animals or humans. PMID

  1. Short Rotation Coppice in Austria - Management and Producticivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochbichler, E.; Hofmann, H.; Bellos, N.; Zeitlinger, C.; Liebhard, P.

    2012-04-01

    In Austria energy wood production in short rotation coppice systems (SRC) becomes increasingly important to meet the demands of the growing bio-energy sector. In order to successfully develop the SRC market, the achievement of high and constant yields in SRC management is just as important as a reliable harvesting technology, which facilitates the production of high quality wood chips. Yield models and site-specific knowledge about productivity are needed with respect to clones, site factors and management alternatives. Therefore in the years 2007 and 2008 experimental plots (Marchfeld; 16 poplar clones and 19 willow clones) and a network of demonstration plots (different regions in Lower Austria; 7 poplar clones, 4 willow clones) were established. Single shoot surveys and biomass functions in combination with stand inventories form the general basis for estimating yield and productivity. They also help to optimize yield and rotation length by taking the maximum harvestable tree diameter into account, which is determined by harvesting techniques. For optimizing the yield estimation of SRC stands, preliminary clone specific yield functions for poplar and willow clones were developed. These specific yield functions were based on common yield estimation functions with respect to the newly used clones (e.g. faster growth, lower wood density), using a regression analytical approach. Standard stand surveys were carried out in autumn 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. We were able to show a high variety in biomass production of poplar and willow clones on the specific site. For the first and second rotation cycle the mean productivity of poplar clones was within a range of 4 - 12 t/y/ha and for willow clones within a range of 3 - 17 t/y/ha. These results were compared with the productivity of older experimental plots in Austria. Based on the preliminary results of productivity of poplar and willow clones for various site factors and management alternatives (planting design

  2. Impact of climate change on groundwater resources in Southern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reszler, C.; Harum, T.; Poltnig, W.; Saccon, P.; Reichl, P.; Ruch, C.; Kopeinig, C.; Freundl, G.; Schlamberger, J.; Zessar, H.; Suette, G.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater is the most important source for drinking water in Austria. In some parts of Southern Austria water resources already are very vulnerable to unfavourable climate conditions. This paper summarizes case studies of estimating the impact of climate change on groundwater recharge and groundwater flow in Southern Austria in the frame of the ETC-Alpine Space project ALP-WATER-SCARCE. In several pilot regions a distributed hydrological model was set up to simulate groundwater recharge and groundwater flow for a period of 10 to 30 years. The pilot sites range from mountainous catchments with steep hillslopes to Alpine valleys and flatlands with pore aquifers. In the model period comprehensive land data and meteorological data were used, and the models were calibrated to available stream gauge data. Additional low flow monitoring in the frame of the project also allowed for a more detailed regional analysis in some catchments. The simulations were firstly used to extend runoff and groundwater recharge depths on an annual basis up to 200 years into the past by regression analysis with long time meteorological parameters (HISTALP). The historical view shows that groundwater flow and recharge in most of the pilot regions decreased since the beginning of the 20th century, which is mainly the effect of climate change. Changes of land use are of minor relevance in most of the regions. Second, by the calibrated model scenarios were simulated to quantify the impact of a possible future change in the climatic conditions on water resources. The scenarios were generated by altering the model input by a "Delta-Change", under consideration of the historical development. These scenarios can be interpreted as "what if"-scenarios to quantify the sensitivity of the hydrological systems on these climatic variables. The results are compared with actual and projected water uses as a basis for regional water resources management.

  3. Energy-efficient Renovation of a Real Estate in AUSTRIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korjenic, Azra; Vašková, Anna

    2015-11-01

    An action have cities worldwide, due to urbanization. More than 70 percent of people in Europe live in cities, where 70 percent of the energy consumed. Without adequate measures, a rapidly growing city is at risk in by overloading the infrastructure, threats to water, energy, pollution, logistical bottlenecks and lack of housing. This paper describes an energy-efficient renovation or expansion planning a real estate in Vorarlberg, Austria. The settlement was analysed in more detail here, it involves the city Dornbirn- part Shor. The study investigated how to extend this settlement energy efficient and what feed for factors in the assessment.

  4. Uncertainty contributions to low-flow projections in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parajka, Juraj; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Blöschl, Günter; Haslinger, Klaus; Hepp, Gerold; Laaha, Gregor; Schöner, Wolfgang; Trautvetter, Helene; Viglione, Alberto; Zessner, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of the paper is to understand the contributions to the uncertainty in low-flow projections resulting from hydrological model uncertainty and climate projection uncertainty. Model uncertainty is quantified by different parameterisations of a conceptual semi-distributed hydrologic model (TUWmodel) using 11 objective functions in three different decades (1976-1986, 1987-1997, 1998-2008), which allows for disentangling the effect of the objective function-related uncertainty and temporal stability of model parameters. Climate projection uncertainty is quantified by four future climate scenarios (ECHAM5-A1B, A2, B1 and HADCM3-A1B) using a delta change approach. The approach is tested for 262 basins in Austria. The results indicate that the seasonality of the low-flow regime is an important factor affecting the performance of model calibration in the reference period and the uncertainty of Q95 low-flow projections in the future period. In Austria, the range of simulated Q95 in the reference period is larger in basins with a summer low-flow regime than in basins with a winter low-flow regime. The accuracy of simulated Q95 may result in a range of up to 60 % depending on the decade used for calibration. The low-flow projections of Q95 show an increase of low flows in the Alps, typically in the range of 10-30 % and a decrease in the south-eastern part of Austria mostly in the range -5 to -20 % for the climate change projected for the future period 2021-2050, relative the reference period 1978-2007. The change in seasonality varies between scenarios, but there is a tendency for earlier low flows in the northern Alps and later low flows in eastern Austria. The total uncertainty of Q95 projections is the largest in basins with a winter low-flow regime and, in some basins the range of Q95 projections exceeds 60 %. In basins with summer low flows, the total uncertainty is mostly less than 20 %. The ANOVA assessment of the relative contribution of the three

  5. Holocaust Education in Austria: A (Hi)story of Complexity and Ambivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastel, Heribert; Matzka, Christian; Miklas, Helene

    2010-01-01

    In Austria, activities for teaching about and remembering the Holocaust have concentrated mainly on National Socialism and its atrocities. Austria's history of political anti-Semitism goes back to the 19th century, however, and has been widely and publicly acknowledged. It has always been linked to nationalistic tendencies that are still present…

  6. 77 FR 65361 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Austria and the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 77 FR 39210... Determination Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). This notice... International Trade Administration Xanthan Gum From Austria and the People's Republic of China: Postponement...

  7. In situ gamma-spectrometry intercomparison exercise in Salzburg, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettner, H.; Andrasi, A.; Hubmer, A. K.; Lovranich, E.; Steger, F.; Zombori, P.

    1996-02-01

    In situ gamma-spectrometry has become a useful method of assessing the nuclide concentrations of man-made and natural gamma-emitters in the soil. For the quality assurance of the measurements, periodically conducted intercomparison exercises are essential. Therefore exercises were organized in different European countries since 1990, the last one was conducted in Salzburg, Austria in September 1994. The participation of 27 measurement teams from all over Europe emphasizes the importance of the intercomparison. Salzburg was selected because the Province of Salzburg, Austria was among the most heavily contaminated regions outside the former USSR by the Chernobyl fallout. Two different typical sites were selected for the measurements: Site 1 was inside the urban area of Salzburg on intensively used grassland which had not been tilled since the deposition of the fallout. This site is representative for intensively used agricultural regions in the Province of Salzburg. Site 2 was in the mountainous regions of the Hohe Tauern at an elevated altitude of 1600 m, representing the agricultural soil- and contamination conditions of the Alpine regions in the Tauern. The two sites differ significantly in terms of soil characteristics, a crucial parameter for the evaluation of in situ gamma-spectra. The participants used different approaches for the evaluation of the gamma-spectra in terms of considering the depth distribution. In the paper the results from the 24 European teams are presented.

  8. Predictors of participation in preventive health examinations in Austria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preventive health check-ups in Austria are offered free of charge to all insured adults (98% of the population) and focus on early detection of chronic diseases, primary prevention, and health counseling. The study aims to explore predictors of compliance with the recommended interval of preventive health check-up performance. Methods Source of data was the Austrian Health Interview Survey 2006/07 (15,474 subjects). Participation in a preventive health examination during the last three years was used as dependent variable. Socio-demographic and health-related characteristics were used as independent variables in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Results show that 41.6% of men and 41.8% of women had attended a preventive health check-up within the last three years. In multivariate analysis, subjects ≥40 years, with higher education, higher income or born in Austria were significantly more likely to attend a preventive health check-up. Furthermore, a chronic disease was associated with a higher attendance rate (OR: 1.21; CI: 1.07-1.36 in men; OR: 1.19; CI: 1.06-1.33 in women). Conclusions Attendance rates for health check-ups in the general Austrian population are comparatively high but not equally distributed among subgroups. Health check-ups must increase among people at a young age, with a lower socio-economic status, migration background and in good health. PMID:24308610

  9. Towards high resolution soil property maps for Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schürz, Christoph; Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Schulz, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Soil hydraulic properties, such as soil texture, soil water retention characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, or soil depth are important inputs for hydrologic catchment modelling. However, the availability of such data in Austria is often insufficient to fulfill requirements of well-established hydrological models. Either, soil data is available in sufficient spatial resolution but only covers a small extent of the considered area, or the data is comprehensive but rather coarse in its spatial resolution. Furthermore, the level of detail and quality of the data differs between the available data sets. In order to generate a comprehensive soil data set for whole Austria that includes main soil physical properties, as well as soil depth and organic carbon content in a high spatial resolution (10x10 to 100x100m²) several available soil data bases are merged and harmonized. Starting point is a high resolution soil texture map that only covers agricultural areas and is available due to Austrian land appraisal. Soil physical properties for those areas are derived by applying pedotransfer functions (e.g. Saxton and Rawls, 2006) resulting in expectation values and quantiles of the respective property for each soil texture class. For agricultural areas where no texture information is available, the most likely soil texture is assigned applying a Bayesian network approach incorporating information such as elevation, soil slope, soil type, or hydro-geology at different spatial scales. Soil data for forested areas, that cover a large extent of the state territory, are rather sparse in Austria. For such areas a similar approach as for agricultural areas is applied by using a Bayesian network for prediction of the soil texture. Additionally, information to various soil parameters taken from literature is incorporated. For areas that are covered by land use different to agriculture or forestry, such as bare rock surfaces, or wetland areas, solely literature information is used

  10. eParticipation for Adolescent Citizens (in Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, Noella; Hoechtl, Johann; Parycek, Peter

    In Austria, two recent eParticipation projects focused on adolescent citizens. The first project, “mitmachen.at - move your future” was to provide initial experiences with an eParticipation tool. The second project, “Jugend2help”, applied the lessons learned from the “mitmachen.at” project to improve the Austrian public administration web portal for adolescent citizens. In both projects, the results indicate that web portals and eParticpation seems to suit the adolescents’ information and communication needs. Involving the users is central to the development of an eParticipation process or platform so that the users’ specific characteristics (age, skills), needs and interests are included appropriately. The target users’ characteristics are also important for developing a marketing strategy which is able to reach them. Other issues which must also be considered in eParticipation are accessibility, inclusion and possibly gender.

  11. Molecular genetic investigations on Austria's patron saint Leopold III

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christiane Maria; Bodner, Martin; Niederstätter, Harald; Niederwieser, Daniela; Huber, Gabriela; Hatzer-Grubwieser, Petra; Holubar, Karl; Parson, Walther

    2013-01-01

    The successful marriage policy of margrave Leopold III increased the importance of the House of Babenberg in late medieval Austria (12th century). Historical documentation is inconclusive in providing evidence whether or not his eldest son Adalbert derived from an earlier relationship or from the marriage with King Henry IV's daughter Agnes of Waiblingen, with whom Leopold is considered to have had 17 children. As a matter of fact Adalbert was ignored in the line of succession in favor of a younger brother, Leopold IV, which has led to long term historical discussions. Human remains attributed to these individuals were subjected to DNA analysis. Autosomal, Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA analyses brought successful results, which suggested that Leopold III, Agnes and Adalbert were related in parent–son constellation, in contrast to historical considerations. A possible mix-up of Adalbert's remains with those of his younger brother Ernst could not be confirmed by DNA analysis. PMID:23142176

  12. Molecular genetic investigations on Austria's patron saint Leopold III.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christiane Maria; Bodner, Martin; Niederstätter, Harald; Niederwieser, Daniela; Huber, Gabriela; Hatzer-Grubwieser, Petra; Holubar, Karl; Parson, Walther

    2013-02-01

    The successful marriage policy of margrave Leopold III increased the importance of the House of Babenberg in late medieval Austria (12th century). Historical documentation is inconclusive in providing evidence whether or not his eldest son Adalbert derived from an earlier relationship or from the marriage with King Henry IV's daughter Agnes of Waiblingen, with whom Leopold is considered to have had 17 children. As a matter of fact Adalbert was ignored in the line of succession in favor of a younger brother, Leopold IV, which has led to long term historical discussions. Human remains attributed to these individuals were subjected to DNA analysis. Autosomal, Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA analyses brought successful results, which suggested that Leopold III, Agnes and Adalbert were related in parent-son constellation, in contrast to historical considerations. A possible mix-up of Adalbert's remains with those of his younger brother Ernst could not be confirmed by DNA analysis. PMID:23142176

  13. Formaldehyde--study of indoor air pollution in Austria.

    PubMed

    Koeck, M; Pichler-Semmelrock, F P; Schlacher, R

    1997-09-01

    As part of a long-term study of indoor air pollution, formaldehyde concentrations were determined in 792 apartments following complaints by inhabitants. Measurements were carried out using Draeger tubes as well as the acetyl acetone method. In 157 apartments, HCHO concentrations of more than 0.1 ppm, exceeding the recommended standard values for indoor air concentrations, were determined. The concentrations determined tended to decrease over time. As far as they were caused by furnishings, they were limited to the spaces where these furnishings were installed. In older-style prefabricated houses with foam-filled particle-board wall systems, concentrations of more than 1.0 ppm were determined. In spite of legal regulations governing the release of formaldehyde from substances, preparations and products containing formaldehyde which have been in existence in Austria since 1990, this substance must still be considered as a possible factor of indoor pollution in causing feelings of ill-health. PMID:9386898

  14. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  15. Supporting phosphorus management in Austria: Potential, priorities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Zoboli, Ottavia; Zessner, Matthias; Rechberger, Helmut

    2016-09-15

    Protecting water bodies from eutrophication, ensuring long-term food security and shifting to a circular economy represent compelling objectives to phosphorus management strategies. This study determines how and to which extent the management of phosphorus in Austria can be optimized. A detailed national model, obtained for the year 2013 through Material Flow Analysis, represents the reference situation. Applicability and limitations are discussed for a range of actions aimed at reducing consumption, increasing recycling, and lowering emissions. The potential contribution of each field of action is quantified and compared using three indicators: Import dependency, Consumption of fossil-P fertilizers and Emissions to water bodies. Further, the uncertainty of this assessment is characterized and priorities for the upgrade of data collection are identified. Moreover, all the potential gains discussed in the article are applied to the reference situation to generate an ideal target model. The results show that in Austria a large scope for phosphorus stewardship exists. Strategies based exclusively either on recycling or on the decline of P consumption hold a similar potential to reduce import dependency by 50% each. An enhanced P recycling from meat and bone meal, sewage sludge and compost could replace the current use of fossil-P fertilizers by 70%. The target model, i.e. the maximum that could be achieved taking into account trade-offs between different actions, is characterized by an extremely low import dependency of 0.23kgPcap(-1)y(-1) (2.2kgPcap(-1)y(-1) in 2013), by a 28% decline of emissions to water bodies and by null consumption of fossil-P fertilizers. This case study shows the added value of using Material Flow Analysis as a basis to design sound management strategies. The systemic approach inherent to it allows performing a proper comparative assessment of different actions, identifying priorities, and visualizing a target model. PMID:27177138

  16. Reactor instrumentation renewal of the TRIGA reactor Vienna, Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Boeck, H.; Weiss, H.; Hood, W.E.; Hyde, W.K.

    1992-07-01

    The TRIGA Mark-II reactor at the Atominstitut in Vienna, Austria is replacing its twenty-four year old instrumentation system with a microprocessor based control system supplied by General Atomics. Ageing components, new governmental safety requirements and a need for state of the art instrumentation for training students has spurred the demand for new reactor instrumentation. In Austria a government appointed expert is assigned the responsibility of reviewing the proposed installation and verifying all safety aspects. After a positive review, final assembly and checkout of the instrumentation system may commence. The instrumentation system consists of three basic modules: the control system console, the data acquisition console and the NH-1000 wide range channel. Digital communications greatly reduce interwiring requirements. Hardwired safety channels are independent of computer control, thus, the instrumentation system in no way relies on any computer intervention for safety function. In addition, both the CSC and DAC computers are continuously monitored for proper operation via watchdog circuits which are capable of shutting down the reactor in the event of computer malfunction. Safety channels include two interlocked NMP-1000 multi-range linear channels for steady state mode, an NPP-1000 linear safety channel for pulse mode and a set of three independent fuel temperature monitoring channels. The microprocessor controlled wide range NM- 1000 digital neutron monitor (fission chamber based) functions as a startup/operational channel, and provides all power level related Interlocks. The Atominstitut TRIGA reactor is configured for four modes of operation: manual mode, automatic mode (servo control), pulsing mode and square wave mode. Control of the standard control rods is via stepping motor control rod drives, which offers the operator the choice of which control rods are operated by the servo system in automatic and square wave model. (author)

  17. Public Perception of Cancer Care in Poland and Austria

    PubMed Central

    Jȩdrzejewski, Mariusz; Thallinger, Christiane; Mrozik, Magda; Kornek, Gabriela; Zielinski, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background. We compared the public perception of cancer care in Poland and Austria. Both countries are members of the European Union (EU) but reflect two extremes in health-related per capita spending. Recently, the EUROCARE-5 study reported on very discrepant cancer outcomes between the two countries. Methods. A one-time survey was conducted to compare the public perception of cancer treatment in Poland and Austria. In total, 3,649 subjects, representing the general population, cancer patients, and cancer patients’ family members, were surveyed. Results. In both countries, cancer was considered the most challenging problem of the health care system, and health care was indicated as the most important issue influencing political election decisions. Polish compared with Austrian cancer patients gave a significantly lower positive assessment of overall cancer treatment efficacy and detection methods. Cancer cure rates estimated by Polish and Austrian citizens were 29% and 44%, respectively. The majority of all citizens interviewed thought that cancer patients should have access to all available registered cancer drugs. However, only 18% of Poles versus 62% of Austrians agreed with the notion that the available cancer treatment in their countries is of a standard comparable to that of other EU countries. Consequently, 24% of Poles and 7% of Austrians identified financial status, age, gender, and residence as factors influencing the availability of cancer treatments. Conclusion. In both countries, cancer is considered the most challenging problem of the health care system, and health care issues may strongly influence decisions for political elections. Vast differences in the two populations’ perceptions of cancer care reflect actual cancer outcomes and the national per capita spending on health-related issues. PMID:25520325

  18. Management of Disused Sealed Sources in Austria - 12147

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Helmut

    2012-07-01

    The use of sealed radiation sources is regulated by the Austrian Radiation Protection Act and the General Radiation Protection Ordinance. The Austrian radiation protection legislation requires minimisation of radioactive waste. The preferred radioactive waste management option concerning sealed sources, both spent and disused, is the return to the manufacturer. If this is not possible a reuse by a third party is encouraged. According to this requirement, disused sealed sources shall, as far as possible, be stored on the site of the licence holder until a new owner is found. If this is not possible, disused sealed sources shall be transported to Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, which is a recognised storage facility for radioactive waste in Austria, for temporary storage pending reuse. Sources, which cannot be reused, are declared as radioactive waste. Since Austria is a Member State of the European Union, the Council Directive 122/2003/Euratom on High Activity Sealed Sources and Orphan Sources is applied. This directive defines high activity sealed sources on the basis of their total activity. The possession of such sources is subject to certain obligations. Therefore it is in the interest of the owner to return disused sources as soon as possible to the manufacturer or to deliver them to Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf. In case of the loss and finding of an 'orphan' source the competent authority secures, recovers and stores the source at the cost of the owner of the source with recourse. In line with the directive the licensee of a High Activity Sealed Source has to notify the main data concerning this source to the Central Source Register which is maintained by the Federal Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management for all radioactive sources. This register was put into operation in 2006. (authors)

  19. Filicide in Austria and Finland - A register-based study on all filicide cases in Austria and Finland 1995-2005

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Filicide is the tragic crime of murdering one's own child. Previous research has found that the offending parents are commonly depressed and that suicide is often associated as an actual act or an intention. Yet, filicide is an underreported crime and previous studies have been strained with methodological problems. No comprehensive international studies on filicide have been presented in the literature until now. Methods This was a descriptive, comprehensive, register-based study of all filicides in Austria and Finland during 1995-2005. Filicide-suicide cases were also included. Results Most of the perpetrators were the biological mothers; in Austria 72%, in Finland 52%. Suicide followed filicide either as an attempt or a fulfilled act in 32% and 54% of the cases in Austria and Finland, respectively. Psychotic mood disorders were diagnosed for 10% of the living perpetrators in Austria, and 12% in Finland. Non-psychotic depression was diagnosed in 9% of surviving perpetrators in Austria, 35% in Finland. Conclusion The data from the two countries demonstrated that filicide is such a multifaceted and rare phenomenon that national data from individual countries seldom offer sufficient scope for its thorough study. Further analyses are needed to produce a complete picture of filicide. PMID:19930581

  20. The automated/computerized TLD-personnel monitoring system in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duftschmid, K. E.

    1980-09-01

    The paper discusses the layout and operation details of the automated TLD system used in Austria for several years to monitor some 13000 radiation workers per month. Dosimetric properties, handling and computer software are described.

  1. Sustainable energy development in Austria until 2020: Insights from applying the integrated model "e3.at"

    PubMed

    Stocker, Andrea; Großmann, Anett; Madlener, Reinhard; Wolter, Marc Ingo

    2011-10-01

    This paper reports on the Austrian research project "Renewable energy in Austria: Modeling possible development trends until 2020". The project investigated possible economic and ecological effects of a substantially increased use of renewable energy sources in Austria. Together with stakeholders and experts, three different scenarios were defined, specifying possible development trends for renewable energy in Austria. The scenarios were simulated for the period 2006-2020, using the integrated environment-energy-economy model "e3.at". The modeling results indicate that increasing the share of renewable energy sources in total energy use is an important but insufficient step towards achieving a sustainable energy system in Austria. A substantial increase in energy efficiency and a reduction of residential energy consumption also form important cornerstones of a sustainable energy policy. PMID:21976785

  2. e-Government Readiness, Strategy and Two Different User Groups - in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, Noella; Hoechtl, Johann; Parycek, Peter

    This paper offers a description of the e-Government Strategy in Austria and its e-Government readiness, and looks at how two different user groups are experiencing e-Government in Austria. Studies conducted show that adolescent citizens are more optimistic and enthusiastic about the possibilities offered whilst the municipalities are more skeptical. The Austrian e-Government strategy, the decisionmakers and IT solution providers must understand the needs of all stakeholders and provide viable solutions accordingly.

  3. Evaluation of the operational Air-Quality forecast model for Austria ALARO-CAMx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandorfer, Claudia; Hirtl, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    The Air-Quality model for Austria (AQA) is operated at ZAMG by order of the regional governments of Vienna, Lower Austria, and Burgenland since 2005. The emphasis of this modeling system is on predicting ozone peaks in the North-east Austrian flatlands. The modeling system is currently a combination of the meteorological model ALARO and the photochemical dispersion model CAMx. Two modeling domains are used with the highest resolution (5 km) in the alpine region. Various extensions with external data sources have been conducted in the past to improve the daily forecasts of the model, e.g. data assimilation of O3- and PM10-observations from the Austrian measurement network (with optimum interpolation method technique), MACC-II boundary conditions; combination of high resolved emission inventories for Austria with TNO and EMEP data. The biogenic emissions are provided by the SMOKE model. The model runs 2 times per day for a period of 48 hours. ZAMG provides daily forecasts of O3, PM10 and NO2 to the regional governments of Austria. The evaluation of these forecasts is done for January to September 2015, with the main focus on the summer peaks of ozone. The measurements of the Air-Quality stations are compared with the punctual forecasts at the sites of the stations and the area forecasts for every province of Austria. Several heat waves occurred between June and September 2015 (new temperature records for St. Pölten and Linz). During these periods the information threshold for ozone has been exceeded 19 times, mostly in the Eastern regions of Austria. Values above the alert threshold have been measured at some stations in Lower Austria and Vienna at the beginning of July. For the evaluation, the results for the periods with exceedances in Eastern Austria will be discussed in detail.

  4. Structural shifts in the employment of foreign workers in Austria.

    PubMed

    Biffl, G

    1985-03-01

    The full economic importance of immigration becomes clear only when one examines the concentration of immigrant workers in certain industries and occupations, and this is done in the case of Austria to show the degree of segmentation of the labor market between indigenous and foreign labor. In the course of the 1960s the employment of foreign labor gained importance in Austria. As a consequence, bilateral agreements with the major recruiting countries were made, e.g., with Spain in 1962 and 1969, with Turkey in 1964, and with Yugoslavia in 1966. The reason for the increasing demand for foreign labor was the short supply of indigenous labor due to increasing participation rates and strong economic growth. The demand-pull for foreign labor gained momentum with the onset of the economic boom in 1970, so that by the end of 1973 the number of foreign workers had doubled in comparison to 1970. The 226,800 foreign workers accounted for 8.7% of total employment. The 1974-75 recession and the weak economic development ever since resulted in a decreasing demand for labor. At the same time, the supply of indigenous labor increased as a consequence of a demographic effect and because of increasing participation rates of women. From 1981 to the present, foreign employment decreased again due to the unusually long period of economic stagnation. During 1983, 145,300 foreign workers were engaged, i.e., 5.3% of total employment. The structure for foreign employment now differs greatly from that in the 1960s. The share of women in foreign employment has increased steadily from some 20% in the early 1960s to 31% in 1973 and 40% in 1983 -- a value comparable to the Austrian female share in employment. The reduction of foreign employment since 1973 affected, above all, Yugoslav men. the share of Yugoslavs in foreign employment decreased from 196,300 or 79% in 1973 to 92,200 or 61.7% in 1983. With the duration of foreign employment rising, the disribution of foreign labor over economic

  5. Structural evolution of Alpine salt deposits, Austria and Bavaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Ch.; Neubauer, F.; Genser, H.; Borojevic Sostaric, S.

    2009-04-01

    Structural evolution of Alpine salt deposits, Austria and Bavaria Alpine salt deposits consist of a tectonic melange of rocksalt and shale called haselgebirge representing the Haselgebirge Formation of Permian to Early Triassic age and mainly exposed within the central and eastern Northern Calcareous Alps. The initial evaporitic sediments were transformed into a breccia (protocataclasite, mylonite) during Alpine orogeny. Residual rocks of shale, anhydrite, polyhalite, sandstone and limestone float as isolated bodies in the haselgebirge matrix. Field investigations of foliation, halite mineral lineation, fold axis, veins and the overall present slickensides in shale revealed an individual history for all investigated mines (Dürrnberg, Berchtesgaden, Altaussee, in part Hallstatt). Ar-Ar dating of various micostructural types of polyhalite yield several preliminary age groups: 235 Ma, 180 Ma, and 110 Ma. Fluid inclusion measurements on anhydrite together with vitrinite reflectance data showed that temperatures of 140-180 °C were reached in Berchtesgaden and around 250° C in Altaussee. Microstructural analysis of anhydrite reveals strong stretching structures with lobate grain boundaries and the fomation of large anhydrite crystals in polyhalite (locally called muriazite). Rock salt and Haselgebirge samples were gamma-irradiated to intensify contrasts in thin section analysis. No primary structures like fluid inclusion bands or chevrons were found. The oldest visible parts are innner cores of large residual grains. All other types of grains suffered grain size reduction during the subsequent deformation. Using subgrain piezometry, high differential stresses of around 5 MPa formed the present microstructure. The Alpine rock salt deposits suffered a complex deformation history. A first peak was the formation of polyhalite veins, 235 Ma ago. The overburden was around 800 m (Rantitsch & Russegger, 2005) and first differentiation of the sea floor occurred (Mandl, 1984

  6. Assessing reference evapotranspiration in a subhumid climate in NE Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolz, Reinhard; Eitzinger, Josef; Cepuder, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Computing reference evapotranspiration and multiplying it with a specific crop coefficient as recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is the most widely accepted approach to estimate plant water requirements. The standardized form of the well-known FAO Penman-Monteith equation, published by the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE-EWRI), is recommended as a standard procedure for calculating reference evapotranspiration. Applied and validated under different climatic conditions it generally achieved good results compared to other methods. However, several studies documented deviations between measured and calculated reference evapotranspiration depending on local environmental conditions. Consequently, it seems advisable to evaluate the model under local environmental conditions. Evapotranspiration was determined at a subhumid site in Austria (48°12'N, 16°34'E; 157 m asl) using a large weighing lysimeter operated at (limited) reference conditions and compared with calculations according to ASCE-EWRI. The lysimeter had an inner diameter of 1.9 m and a hemispherical bottom with a maximum depth of 2.5 m. Seepage water was measured at a free draining outlet using a tipping bucket. Lysimeter mass changes were sensed by a weighing facility with an accuracy of ±0.1 mm. Both rainfall and evapotranspiration were determined directly from lysimeter data using a simple water balance equation. Meteorological data for the ASCE-EWRI model were obtained from a weather station of the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Austria (ZAMG). The study period was from 2005 to 2010, analyses were based upon daily time steps. Daily calculated reference evapotranspiration was generally overestimated at small values, whereas it was rather underestimated when evapotranspiration was large, which is supported also by other studies. In the given case, advection of sensible heat proved

  7. Low pressure granulites from the Bohemian Massif, Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorger, Dominik; Daghighi, Donia; Simic, Katica; Pichler, Ruth; Schwaiger, Christian; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Linner, Manfred; Iglseder, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Low pressure granulite facies rocks are commonly found in the Bohemian Massif in Upper Austria. They belong to the Moldanubian Unit and were metamorphosed during the last stage of the Variscan orogeny. The investigated granulites from the Donau valley (west of Linz), Lichtenberg (northwest of Linz), Sauwald (south of the river Danube) and Bad Leonfelden zone comprise mainly migmatic paragneisses. Most of these rocks underwent high degrees of melting forming meta- and diatexites (''Perlgneise)''. Al-rich metapelites with partly cm-sized garnet porphyroblasts, which are suitable for precise PT and PT-path determinations, can be found in some localities of this unit. In this study samples taken along the Danube valley between Linz and Wilhering, from Lichtenberg and from Bad Leonfelden (north of Linz) were sampled and investigated petrographically in detail. Since garnets are rare and usually consumed by cordierite, a sample with large garnets was investigated in detail. A chemical zoning profile across the c. 1cm large garnet displayed elevated Ca contents (Xgrs=0.06) in the central part which decreased discontinuously towards the rim to Xgrs=0.02. Almandine, pyrope and spessartine components do not show any pronounced zoning pattern. Most of the smaller garnet grains in other samples are also homogeneous in composition with a slight Xalm increase and Xprp decrease at the rims, typical for retrograde diffusional zoning. The cordierite-garnet-sillimanite-granulites as well as some mafic granulites were used for geothermobarometry. Metamorphic conditions of around 770°C to 850°C and 0.5-0.6 GPa could be obtained, which are similar to the values obtained by Tropper et al. (2006). P. Tropper I. Deibl F. Finger R. Kaindl (2006). P-T-t evolution of spinel-cordierite-garnet gneisses from the Sauwald Zone (Southern Bohemian Massif, Upper Austria): is there evidence for two independent late-Variscan low-P / high-T events in the Moldanubian Unit? Int J Earth Sci (Geol

  8. Effects of The 1999-guidelines For Hazard Zoning In Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höller, P.

    Hazard Zoning in Austria has a long tradition. While the first maps already were developed at the end of the 1960s the legal regulations followed in 1976. These regulations defined that hazard maps have to be elaborated for each community on a basis of avalanche occurences over a period of 150 years (return period); the Red Zone includes areas which are endangered by avalanches to such an extent that their permanent use for settlements infrastructures and traffic facilities is not possible. TheYellow Zone covers areas with a reduced danger of avalanches; buildings and infrastructures are allowed to be built in the Yellow Zone but they must be protected by special architectural designing. As a result of the avalanches in 1999 (Galtür, Valzur) new guidelines were proposed by the Ministry of Agriculture. These guidelines provide new design criteria for hazard maps in Austria. While the old decree determined 25 kPa for the Red Zone and 2 kPa for the Yellow Zone, the modified guidelines have extended it to 10 kPa, respectively 1 kPa. However, the new design criteria will result in an increase of existing hazard zones (especially the Red Zones). To get an idea about the effects of the new guidelines a simple calculation was used. Taking into account the velocity at the Red Zone (vR) and theYellow Zone (vY) we can write the following equation v2R/aR = v 2 Y /(aR ­ a), where a is the distance between the Red and Yellow Zone and aR is the distance from the calculated point of furthest reach of the debris to the Red Zone. Thus aR is 1.087a. The distance from the point of furthest reach of the debris to the Red Zone according to the new guidelines (aRnew) was calculated in the same way. With aRnew = 0.435a it was possible to calculate the value x (which is the distance from the actual Red Zone to the New Red Zone). Analysing some different hazard maps it can be found, that the distance between the existing Red and Yellow Zones (a) is between 30 m (small avalanches) and 200

  9. Transboundary Groundwater Body Karavanke/Karawanken Between Austria and Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brencic, M.; Poltnig, W.

    2009-04-01

    Large part of the border region between Republic of Slovenia and Republic of Austria is represented by high east west extended mountainous ridge of Karavanke/Karawanken. It is a range extending along the Slovenian-Austrian border for almost 150 km. Its terrain consists of long and prominent ridges, whose slopes steeply fall to the northern and southern side. Ridges are interrupted by long, deep and narrow valleys. The highest peaks reach over 2000 m above sea level. In the entire range prominent ridges with mountain meadows and forests prevail. The area is scarcely populated, the main economic activities are grazing and forestry, in some places tourism is also developing, especially winter sports centres. Karavanke/Karawanken lies on the contact between two continental plates, the large European plate in the north and the smaller Adriatic plate in the south. When the Adriatic plate was thrusted over the European one towards the north, the collision resulted in the folding of sediments previously deposited in the space between the plates. The contact of both plates caused large lateral displacements, causing the rocks of both plates to fold and fault and then extend along the contact. This is the area of Periadriatic lineament, dividing Karavanke/Karawanken range into their north and south part. Periadriatic lineament is large stripe slip tectonic structure along which on the northern side rocks were extruded to the east and on the southern side to the west. Along the lineament metamorphic (e.g. biotitic and feldsparic para-gneis, amfibolites) and magmatic (e.g. diabaz, granite and tonalite) rocks of various ages are present. Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks cover large part of the mountain ridge. The oldest are Silurian and Ordovician limestone on the northern border followed by Devonian ridge limestones. They are covered by molasse sedimentation in Carbon and shallow marine and river predominantly clastic sedimentation in Perm. The most abundant and with numerous

  10. Genetic diversity of pestivirus isolates in cattle from Western Austria.

    PubMed

    Hornberg, Andrea; Fernández, Sandra Revilla; Vogl, Claus; Vilcek, Stefan; Matt, Monika; Fink, Maria; Köfer, Josef; Schöpf, Karl

    2009-03-30

    The genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates in infected cattle from Tyrol and Vorarlberg (Austria) was investigated. Blood samples were collected within the compulsory Austrian BVDV control programme during 2005 and 2006. The 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and partially the N-terminal autoprotease (N(pro)) were amplified by one-step reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the PCR products were subsequently sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis based on 5'-UTR and N(pro) sequences demonstrated that almost all isolates (307/310) were of the BVDV-1 genotype. They were clustered into eight different subtypes, here listed by their frequency of occurrence: BVDV-1h (143), BVDV-1f (79), BVDV-1b (41), BVDV-1d (28), BVDV-1e (6), BVDV-1a (4), BVDV-1g (3) and BVDV1-k (3). Two pestivirus isolates were typed as BVDV-2 and one isolate as BDV closely related to Gifhorn strain (BDV-3). Correlation among isolates could only be observed at the farm level, i.e., within a herd. However, no correlation between the genetic and geographical distances could be observed above the farm level. Because of the wide distribution of certain BVDV-1 subtypes and the low prevalence of herd-specific strains, a determination of tracing routes of infection was not possible. Furthermore, recombination events were not detected. PMID:19019571

  11. Temporal and Spatial Melanoma Trends in Austria: An Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-01

    Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence (1990–2010) and mortality (1970–2011) data. As expected, incidence rates increased with altitude (about 2% per 10 m) and year (about 2%). Additionally, melanoma incidence rates were about 50% higher in urban than in rural districts. In contrast, mortality rates decreased with altitude (for males: 0.4% per 10 m, for women: 0.7% per 10 m, respectively). The observed discrepancy between incidence and mortality data could partly be explained by melanoma diagnosis at earlier tumor stage in districts with higher altitude. Possible reasons for this finding include higher awareness of patients, better diagnostic performance of medical professionals working at higher altitudes, or slower tumor growth due to protective effects of sun light-associated vitamin D synthesis. PMID:24398911

  12. Mortality after hip fracture in Austria 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Brozek, Wolfgang; Reichardt, Berthold; Kimberger, Oliver; Zwerina, Jochen; Dimai, Hans Peter; Kritsch, Daniela; Klaushofer, Klaus; Zwettler, Elisabeth

    2014-09-01

    Osteoporosis-related hip fractures represent a substantial cause of mortality and morbidity in industrialized countries like Austria. Identification of groups at high risk for mortality after hip fracture is crucial for health policy decisions. To determine in-hospital, long-term, and excess mortality after osteoporosis-related hip fracture in Austrian patients, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of pseudonymized invoice data from Austrian social insurance authorities covering roughly 98 % of the entire population. The data set included 31,668 subjects aged 50 years and above sustaining a hip fracture between July 2008 and December 2010 with follow-up until June 2011, and an age-, gender-, and regionally matched control population without hip fractures (56,320 subjects). Kaplan-Meier and Cox hazard regression analyses served to determine unadjusted and adjusted mortality rates: Unadjusted all-cause 1-year mortality amounted to 20.2 % (95 % CI: 19.7-20.7 %). Males had significantly higher long-term, in-hospital, and excess mortality rates than females, but younger males exhibited lower excess mortality than their female counterparts. Advanced age correlated with increased long-term and in-hospital mortality, but lower excess mortality. Excess mortality, particularly in males, was highest in the first 6 months after hip fracture, but remained statistically significantly elevated throughout the observation period of 3 years. Longer hospital stay per fracture was correlated with mortality reduction in older patients and in patients with more subsequent fractures. In conclusion, more efforts are needed to identify causes and effectively prevent excess mortality especially in male osteoporosis patients. PMID:24989776

  13. Assessing management effects on Oak forests in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Sishir; Pietsch, Stephan A.; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    Historic land use as well as silvicultural management practices have changed the structures and species composition of central European forests. Such changes have effects on the growth of forests and contribute to global warming. As insufficient information on historic forest management is available it is hard to explain the effect of management on forests growth and its possible consequences to the environment. In this situation, the BIOME-BGC model, which integrates the main physical, biological and physiological processes based on current understanding of ecophysiology is an option for assessing the management effects through tracking the cycling of energy, water, carbon and nutrients within a given ecosystems. Such models are increasingly employed to simulate current and future forest dynamics. This study first compares observed standing tree volume, carbon and nitrogen content in soil in the high forests and coppice with standards stands of Oak forests in Austria. Biome BGC is then used to assess the effects of management on forest growth and to explain the differences with measured parameters. Close positive correlations and unbiased results and statistically insignificant differences between predicted and observed volumes indicates the application of the model as a diagnostic tool to assess management effects in oak forests. The observed data in 2006 and 2009 was further compared with the results of respective model runs. Further analysis on simulated data shows that thinning leads to an increase in growth efficiency (GE), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and water use efficiency (WUE), and to a decrease in the radiation use efficiency (RUE) in both forests. Among all studied growth parameters, only the difference in the NUE was statistically significant. This indicates that the difference in the yield of forests is mainly governed by the NUE difference in stands due to thinning. The coppice with standards system produces an equal amount of net primary

  14. Late Pleistocene oscillations of the Drau Glacier (southern Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnitschar, Christina; Reitner, Jürgen; Draganits, Erich

    2016-04-01

    The Drau Glacier was the largest Pleistocene glacier in the southeastern part of the Alps and significantly shaped the landscape in this region. The study area is located at the termination of the Drau Glacier in the southern part of Austria (Carinthia). The investigation aims to decipher glacial dynamics during the Late Pleistocene glacial advance, stabilisation and final recession of this glacier based on geological/geomorphological mapping, interpretation of airborne laser scan (ALS) topographic data and lithostratigraphic investigations of glacial and periglacial sediments. Special emphasis is laid on the reconstruction of the maximum extent of the glaciation (LGM). Based on previous mapping by Bobek (1959) and Ucik (1996-1998) more details have been gained for the paleogeographic reconstruction based on glacial and non-glacial erosion and accumulation features. These include traces of pre-Upper Pleistocene glaciation, drumlins, terminal moraines and kettle holes. Paleogeographic reconstruction was done with correlation of different outcrops based on lithostratigraphy and ALS topography. Sequences of gravel related to glacial advance covered by till, followed by periglacial sediments allowed detailed reconstruction of the glacial sequence in this area and the complex succession of various extents of the Drau Glacier. References Bobek, Hans. 1959: Der Eisrückgang im östlichen Klagenfurter Becken. In: Mitteilungen der österreichischen geographischen Gesellschaft, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1996: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 141, S. 340, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1997: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 141, S. 325-326, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1998: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 142, S. 333-334, Wien.

  15. Seismic precursory signals from a rockfall at Rappenlochschlucht, Vorarlberg, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaderer, U.; Walter, M.; Joswig1, M.

    2012-04-01

    On May 10, 2011 at 10:48 UTC a rockfall happened at Rappenlochschlucht, Vorarlberg, Austria. The rockfall with 15.000 m3 volume destroyed a massive bridge but luckily did not cause any fatalities in this famous, heavily frequented touristic spot. Our institute operated a seismic network in 5 km distance at the Heumös slope dedicated to record very small slide quakes caused by the creeping slope. The network was tuned to extreme sensitivity, and thus monitored the rockfall as well. We found two types of seismic signals shortly before and during the rockfall that we could not observe at that region in the remaining two and half years of network operation. Type one was a minute-lasting sequence of broadband pulses caused by the stochastic hits of single rockfall blocks against subsurface during the entire period of sliding. This signal resembles the audible, acoustic noise of avalanches in our lower-frequent passband of measured mechanical vibrations. Thus we called this type 'avalanche'. Two small avalanche events were identified in the last five hours before the final rockfall. The second type exhibits an impulsive onset and a subsequent decay to lower frequencies. This signature is caused by a single fracture process where the instantaneously released energy reaches the observation site in a well-defined sequence of different wave types and travel paths with decreasing propagation speed. These fracture processes or nano-earthquakes could be located close to the rockfall, and the energy release could be described by a local magnitude -0.5 to 0.4 indicating an activated fault length of some ten meter in rock. We thus called this type 'fracture', and could identify twelve fracture signals before final failure. Further hints for the precursory character of these signals will be discussed, as well as a search for potential trigger indications.

  16. Flashiness of mountain streams in Slovakia and Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holko, Ladislav; Parajka, Juraj; Kostka, Zdeno; Škoda, Peter; Blöschl, Günter

    2011-08-01

    SummaryThis article evaluates the spatial and temporal changes in streamflow flashiness in 122 mountain catchments in Slovakia and Austria. The flashiness is quantified by the Richards-Baker flashiness index ( FI), which is the ratio of absolute day-to-day fluctuations of streamflow relative to total flow in a year. The analysis is based on daily streamflow data from the period 1976 to 2005. The results show that the average day-to-day fluctuations of streamflow vary from 6% to 43%, depending on the catchment. The spatial pattern of the FI reflects the variations in the main geological units and generally shows a trend of decreasing flashiness with increasing size of the catchment. Statistically significant temporal trends in flashiness are found in 7 Slovak and 22 Austrian catchments. Most of these trends are related to anthropogenic effects, while, in a few catchments, the change in annual flashiness appears to be caused by changes in precipitation seasonality. A multivariate statistical analysis of FI indicates negative correlations with catchment area, mean catchment elevation, percents of forest cover, agricultural land and Quaternary geology. Positive correlations are found between FI and Tertiary and Calcareous geologies. Extrapolating the regression models beyond the observed range of catchment attributes used in the estimation leads to significant prediction errors. In order to better interpret the FI values, a statistically significant relationship was found between the FI and the frequency of peak flows exceeding the long-term mean as well as between the FI and the 5% quantile of daily streamflow.

  17. Incidence, prevalence and geographic distribution of human alveolar echinococcosis in Austria from 1854 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Auer, H; Aspöck, H

    1991-01-01

    Since the second half of the last century it has been known that Austria--like southern Germany, eastern France and Switzerland--is a part of the Central European area of distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis (Em), the causative organism of alveolar echinococcosis (AE). Up until October 1990, 128 human AE cases were documented in Austria; personal, anamnestic and clinical data on the majority of these patients are available. Based on these data, epidemiological parameters (incidence, prevalence, geographic distribution, sex and age distribution, occupation) were evaluated so as to obtain information on the past and recent history of alveolar echinococcosis in Austria. The (retrospective) study led to the following results and conclusions: (a) the (documented) incidence (presently two cases/year) of AE in Austria is rather low; (b) the main endemic Em areas are situated in the western (Tyrol, Vorarlberg) and southern (Carinthia) provinces; (c) a new focus could be detected in Lower Austria (outside the Alps); (d) the sex ratio (M:F) of AE patients was 1.3:1; (e) the average age of men and women at the time of diagnosis was 44 and 47 years, respectively; (f) 98% of Austrian AE patients exhibited Em lesions in the liver; and (g) greater than 50% of AE patients were (or had been) farmers. PMID:1891451

  18. Multifractal analysis of the 137Cs fallout pattern in Austria resulting from the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Pausch, G; Bossew, P; Hofmann, W; Steger, F

    1998-06-01

    The cumulative deposition of the 137Cs fallout in Austria resulting from the passage of the Chernobyl cloud has been investigated by applying correlation dimension and hyperbolic frequency distribution methods. For the analysis, a total of 1,881 deposition values were used, which were collected by the Federal Environmental Agency of Austria and the Federal Ministry of Health, representing all available measurements of 137Cs in soil made in Austria after the Chernobyl accident. From these data a hyperbolic exponent for the frequency distribution of 4.0 and a set of fractal correlation dimensions, which decrease from 1.426 +/- 0.022 (for the whole network) to 0.706 +/- 0.047 (for 137Cs values > or = 100 kBq m(-2)), were derived, thus confirming that the fallout pattern can be described as a multifractal. PMID:9600299

  19. Subnational responsibilities for healthcare and Austria's rejection of the EU's patients' rights directive.

    PubMed

    Kostera, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    In 2011, Member States and the European Parliament brought into force a Directive on the application of patients' rights in cross-border healthcare within the EU. Austria voted against this directive even though its national legislation was already in line with the rulings of the European Court of Justice which had triggered the negotiations on the directive. Why then, in the absence of any legal constraints on adapting to it, did Austria vote against the directive? The article argues that it was the federal structure of financing hospital infrastructure and the subnational level's influence on national position building which led to the rejection of the directive. The article retraces the process of position building by analyzing the interaction between the national and the subnational levels and concludes that Austria's position mirrors the national struggle between both levels of government over control of the hospital sector. PMID:23602349

  20. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria, and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (...

  1. Susceptibility to mountain hazards in Austria - paradigms of vulnerability revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven

    2010-05-01

    The concept of vulnerability is pillared by multiple disciplinary theories underpinning either a technical or a social origin of the concept and resulting in a range of paradigms for either a qualitative or quantitative assessment of vulnerability. However, efforts to reduce susceptibility to hazards and to create disaster-resilient communities require intersections among these theories, since human activity cannot be seen independently from the environmental setting. Acknowledging different roots of disciplinary paradigms, issues determining structural, economic, institutional and social vulnerability are discussed with respect to mountain hazards in Austria. The underlying idea of taking such an integrative viewpoint was the cognition that human action in mountain environments affects the state of vulnerability, and the state of vulnerability in turn shapes the possibilities of human action. It is argued that structural vulnerability as originator results in considerable economic vulnerability, generated by the institutional settings of dealing with natural hazards and shaped by the overall societal framework. Hence, the vulnerability of a specific location and within a considered point of time is triggered by the hazardous event and the related physical susceptibility of structures, such as buildings located on a torrent fan. Depending on the specific institutional settings, economic vulnerability of individuals or of the society results, above all with respect to imperfect loss compensation mechanisms in the areas under investigation. While this potential for harm can be addressed as social vulnerability, the concept of institutional vulnerability has been developed with respect to the overall political settings of governmental risk management. As a result, the concept of vulnerability, as being used in natural sciences, can be extended by integration of possible reasons why such physical susceptibility of structures exists, and by integration of compensation

  2. Seismic monitoring of rockfalls at Spitz quarry (NÖ, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Puy Papí Isaba, María; Brückl, Ewald; Roncat, Andreas; Schweigl, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    In the recent past, significant rockfalls, which pose a danger to persons, railways and roads, occurred in the quarry of Spitz (NÖ-Austria). An existing seismic warning system did not fulfill the expected efficiency and reliability standards since the ratio of well-detected events to undetected events or false alarms was not satisfactory. Our aim was to analyze how a seismic warning system must be designed in order to overcome these deficiencies. A small-scale seismic network was deployed in the Spitz quarry to evaluate the possibility of improving the early-warning rockfall monitoring network by means of seismic observations. A new methodology based on seismic methods, which enables the detection and location of rockfalls above a critical size, was developed. In order to perform this task, a small-scale (200x200 m2) passive seismic network comprised of 7 monitoring seismic stations acquiring data in continuous mode was established in the quarry of Spitz so that it covered the rockfall hazard area. On the 2nd of October 2015, an induced rockfall experiment was performed. It began at 09:00 a.m (local time, 07:00 UTC) and lasted about 1.5 hours. The entire data set was analyzed using the pSysmon software. In order to locate the impact point of the rock falls, we used a procedure based on the back-projection of the maximum resultant amplitude recorded at each station of the network within a time window to every grid-point covering the whole area of interest. In order to verify the performance of the employed algorithm for detection and localization, we performed man-induced rock falls. We also used a terrestrial laser scanner and a camera, not only to draw the rockfall block trajectories, but also to determine the volume of rock lost or gained in the different areas of the quarry. This allowed us to relate the lost mass with the strength of the collision (Pseudo-magnitude) of the rockfall, and draw and rebuild their associated trajectory. The location test performed

  3. Geoconservation mapping using digital geomorphological maps in Vorarlberg, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seijmonsbergen, A. C.; De Jong, M. G. G.; de Graaff, L. W. S.; Anders, N. S.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphological inventories are being made in the State of Vorarlberg (Austria) since the mid-1950s by the University of Amsterdam. Starting as an academic training fieldwork for undergraduate geomorphology students, PhD students and staff members soon recognized the research potential of the unique alpine landscape. In particular, landforms and deposits of the ice-marginal environment and pollen records preserved in peat provide valuable proxies for climate reconstruction and give detailed insight in the former growth and decay of the Rhine glacier network and of local glaciers, and assist in reconstructing landscape development in general. A project was started in 2007 to prepare community wide inventory maps of potential geoconservation areas, based on digital geomorphological mapping in a Geographical Information System (GIS). A stepwise protocol was designed for the identification of potential geoconservation areas in the landscape, comprising: 1. Preparing digital geomorphological maps, using a morphogenetic classification scheme 2. Assigning values for selected geoconservation assessment criteria to types of geomorphological features 3. Ranking the criteria assessment values into three categories of potential geoconservation value, and 4. Storing, visualizing and describing the geoconservation data. Four major traits are used in the weighting and ranking protocol (steps 2 and 3): scientific relevance, frequency of occurrence, disturbance, and environmental vulnerability. The process of assigning values and of ranking the landforms and deposits has been automated in GIS. For the evaluation of disturbance we use digital infrastructure layers in GIS which can be intersected with the potential geoconservation areas to determine the level of disturbance. The proposed method is demonstrated for the municipality of Lech, a well-known winter skiing resort. To illustrate the loss of high-rank potential geoconservation areas due to human influence over the last 50

  4. Stalagmites from Spannagel cave (Austria) and holocene climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollweiler, N.; Mangini, A.; Spötl, C.; Scholz, D.; Mühlinghaus, C.

    2009-04-01

    The Spannagel cave is located around 2,500 m asl at the end of the Tux Valley in Tyrol (Austria) close to the Hintertux glacier. While the area above the cave is ice free at present, it was covered by ice during past glacials as well as during colder periods of Interglacials. Presently, the temperature inside the cave is between 1.8° and 2.0° C. We used the d18O time-series of three stalagmites which grew in small distance from each other. This speleothem record is not influenced by effects of kinetic isotope fractionation due to the low temperatures in the cave. The stalagmites were precisely dated with the U/Th-method. The combined record (COMNISPA, Vollweiler et al. 2006) shows substantial variability within the last 9 kyr with features like the Holocene Climatic Optimum between 7.5 and 6.5 kyr, the Mediaeval Warm Period between 1.2 and 0.7 kyr and the Roman Warm Period between 2.25 and 1.7 kyr. In contrast, periods of lower temperatures are visible between 7.9 and 7.5, 5.9 and 5.1, 3.5 and 3 kyr, and during the LIA between 600 and 150 yr. The period between 5.9 and 5.1 kyr has equivalence in many records from various regions in both hemispheres corresponding to global cooling. It also includes the time of the Alpine Iceman at 5.3 kyr. The timing of the climatic variations revealed by COMNISPA agrees approximately with that shown by other Alpine archives. Joerin et al. (2006) dated wood and peat samples which were released by melting Swiss Alpine glaciers located between Engadin and Valais. Both the d18O maxima and minima recorded in COMNISPA clearly have counterparts in the glacier recession record. Comparisons of COMNISPA with other archives have shown that our stalagmite curve does not only record local climate but also the history of European climate. The extremely high correlation to the Hematite Stained Grain record of Bond et al. (2001) suggests that COMNISPA is a good archive for climate in the North Atlantic region (Mangini et al. 2007). In addition

  5. Intended long-term permafrost monitoring in Austria: Observations from eight years (2006-2014) of ground temperature monitoring in the Tauern Range, Central Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Lintschnig, Michèle

    2015-04-01

    At present permafrost monitoring in Austria is carried out by several institutions at some 20 sites in the Austrian Alps. However, so far this monitoring is not coordinated and institutionalised in terms of monitoring strategy, organization, data management and funding. Within the currently running permAT project such an institutionalization is in progress. Permafrost in the Austrian mountains is rather warm and hence sensitive to present climate change. Consequently permafrost conditions and changes are of increasing importance also for the public. Therefore, it is evident that a coordinated and institutionalised long-term monitoring of ground temperature in Austria is essential for permafrost understanding and people's safety. In this contribution we present up to eight years of field data from nine different study sites in Austria. All sites are located in the highest mountain range in Austria, the Tauern Range (maximum elevation 3798 m asl) covering some 9000 km² of the national territory. The nine different study sites are located between latitude 46°55' to 47°22' and longitude 12°44' to 14°41'. Altogether 57 ground temperature monitoring sites have been installed in 2006 and 2007 at the nine study sites using one- (at 23 sites) and three-channel (at 34 sites) miniature temperature dataloggers produced by GeoPrecision, Germany. Therefore, more than 120 ground temperature data series are available from between the ground surface to maximum depths of 2.75 m. The 57 monitoring sites range from 1922 to 3002 m asl in elevation and consider flat terrain as well as step rock walls. All slope aspects are adequately considered. Relevant research questions we intend to address in this contribution include (a) general ground thermal conditions in 2006-2014, (b) the influence of different substrates and aspects on ground temperatures, (c) potential permafrost occurrence, (d) changes or stable conditions during the observation period, (e) regional pattern, and (f

  6. Skilled Voices?: Reflections on Political Participation and Education in Austria. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Florian; Rosenberger, Sieglinde

    2007-01-01

    This study, part of OECD/CERI's project on Measuring the Social Outcomes of Learning, investigates the relationship between educational attainment and political participation in Austria. First, a model based on various theoretical considerations is introduced. This incorporates direct educational effects as well as indirect effects that occur…

  7. The QIBB Quality Initiative of the Vocational Training System in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    The QIBB quality initiative was specifically developed for the vocational training system in Austria. The quality system is distinctive in that it includes both objectives and survey instruments designed to address the specific concerns of vocational training. There are general quality concepts and instruments that are common to all schools and…

  8. Modularisation of Vocational Training in Germany, Austria and Switzerland: Parallels and Disparities in a Modernisation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilz, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the modularisation of initial vocational training (including apprenticeships) as a modernisation strategy in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Training systems are similarly structured in these three countries with the apprenticeship system at their heart, and the three national philosophies of education and training are…

  9. 78 FR 33354 - Xanthan Gum From Austria: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 78 FR 2251 (January 10... Preliminary Determination, 78 FR at 2254. However, because May 25, 2013, falls on a non-business day, the... Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). \\4\\ See id. On March 12, 2013, JBL Austria...

  10. The Rise of Work-Based Academic Education in Austria, Germany and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Austria, Germany and Switzerland are renowned for their extensive systems of collective vocational skill formation, which, however, have developed largely in separation from higher education. This divide has become increasingly contested as a result of a variety of socioeconomic factors that have led to an increasing demand for higher level…

  11. Analysis of E-Inclusion Projects in Russia, Austria and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaves, Bjorn; Plattfaut, Ralf; Gorbacheva, Elena; Vages, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The issue of digital divide is widely discussed in research as well as in practice. Today, especially senior citizens are excluded from the merits of using information and communication technologies (ICT). This paper aims to study municipal projects for an inclusive information society in Russia, Austria, and Switzerland.…

  12. First report of Rickettsia raoultii in field collected Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from Austria.

    PubMed

    Duscher, Georg G; Hodžić, Adnan; Weiler, Martin; Vaux, Alexander G C; Rudolf, Ivo; Sixl, Wolfdieter; Medlock, Jolyon M; Versteirt, Veerle; Hubálek, Zdenek

    2016-07-01

    In a set of pooled field collected Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, Rickettsia raoultii, the causative agent of Tick-borne lymphadenopathy/Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy, was found for the first time in Austria. The coordinates of the positive locations for tick and pathogen abundance are given and shown in a map. PMID:26976704

  13. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the valley ‘Ochsental’ (Eastern Alps, Vorarlberg, Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter Othmar; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    A list of 100 lichen species and 4 lichenicolous fungi from the valley ‘Ochsental’ is presented. Lecidea laboriosa is new to Austria. Lecanora swartzii, Orphniospora moriopsis, Protothelenella corrosa and the lichenicolous fungus Cercidospora stereocaulorum are new to the province of Vorarlberg. PMID:26869748

  14. Research on Language Teaching and Learning in Austria (2004-2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Puffer, Christiane; Faistauer, Renate; Vetter, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This overview of six years of research on language learning and teaching in Austria covers a period of dynamic development in the field. While all the studies reviewed here illustrate research driven by a combination of local and global concerns and theoretical frameworks, some specific clusters of research interest emerge. The first of these…

  15. Economic Literacy in the United States, Germany, and Austria: Results of Cross National Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumm, Volker; Beck, Klaus

    Designed to assess the economic literacy of high school students in Austria, Germany, and the United States, this research study involved the administration of an economic literacy test and gathering data on attitudes toward economics, on intelligence, and on moral maturity. The main focus of the research was a comparison between 11th and 12th…

  16. Teaching Practices and Beliefs about Inclusion of General and Special Needs Teachers in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Susanne; Holzinger, Andrea; Krammer, Mathias; Gebhardt, Markus; Hessels, Marco G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Self-reports of primary and secondary school teachers who teach in general and special education classrooms in Austria were examined in terms of their engagement in teamwork (between special and general education teachers), instructional methods that they use, factors that positively influence inclusive education, and their needs for training. The…

  17. Second-Generation Turkish Youth in Europe: Explaining the Academic Disadvantage in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the role of students' home and school variables in producing the achievement gap between second-generation Turkish students and their native peers in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Using the data from PISA 2006, this study supports past findings that both home and school resources affect the educational outcomes of…

  18. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe: Austria 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Michael; Schad, Anke; Nagel, Tanja

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Austria's arts and cultural education. The Austrian arts curriculum is organised as separate subjects. It includes music, visual arts and crafts (divided into two separate subjects: technical crafts and textile arts). The Austrian curriculum refers to "Bildungs- und Lehraufgaben", i.e. educational and teaching tasks. This…

  19. [Social politics and health--Germany and Austria at the time of the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Sablik, K

    1989-04-01

    The article contributes to the development of health-welfare in Austria in the first third of the 20th century. The various relations to such activities of health protection in Germany and the efforts and merits of the Vienna physician, anatomist and social politician Julius Tandler (1869-1936) are accentuated. PMID:2662652

  20. More than a Culture Capsule: Teaching Switzerland and Austria in the German Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabisch, Peter Karl

    2012-01-01

    This essay offers some direction for greater integration of Austria and Switzerland into every level of the German language and culture curriculum. By excavating a number of now nearly forgotten intercultural connections between these alpine countries and the U.S., it is possible to present a more complete and complex picture of German-speaking…

  1. Observations of "Love Talks:" A Successful Community-Supported Sexuality Education Program in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilgen, Julie Mapes; Kapella, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    Sexuality education integrated into math, economics, and computer science classes? Parents participating with teachers and students in working groups to plan sex ed programs in public schools? Eight- to ten-year-olds publishing their own book "Don't Talk to Us about the Stork"? Does this sound utopian? Actually, it is a reality in Austria and…

  2. The Relationships between Paranormal Belief, Creationism, Intelligent Design and Evolution at Secondary Schools in Vienna (Austria)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eder, Erich; Turic, Katharina; Milasowszky, Norbert; Van Adzin, Katherine; Hergovich, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the first to investigate the relationships between a multiple set of paranormal beliefs and the acceptance of evolution, creationism, and intelligent design, respectively, in Europe. Using a questionnaire, 2,129 students at secondary schools in Vienna (Austria) answered the 26 statements of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale…

  3. Monitoring of Qualifications and Employment in Austria: An Empirical Approach Based on the Labour Force Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassnigg, Lorenz; Vogtenhuber, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The empirical approach referred to in this article describes the relationship between education and training (ET) supply and employment in Austria; the use of the new ISCED (International Standard Classification of Education) fields of study variable makes this approach applicable abroad. The purpose is to explore a system that produces timely…

  4. Informal Assessment of Competences in the Context of Science Standards in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffl, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Science standards have been a topic in educational research in Austria for about ten years now. Starting in 2005, competency structure models have been developed for junior and senior classes of different school types. After evaluating these models, prototypic tasks were created to point out the meaning of the models to teachers. At the moment,…

  5. Sustainable energy development in Austria until 2020: Insights from applying the integrated model “e3.at”

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, Andrea; Großmann, Anett; Madlener, Reinhard; Wolter, Marc Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the Austrian research project “Renewable energy in Austria: Modeling possible development trends until 2020”. The project investigated possible economic and ecological effects of a substantially increased use of renewable energy sources in Austria. Together with stakeholders and experts, three different scenarios were defined, specifying possible development trends for renewable energy in Austria. The scenarios were simulated for the period 2006–2020, using the integrated environment–energy–economy model “e3.at”. The modeling results indicate that increasing the share of renewable energy sources in total energy use is an important but insufficient step towards achieving a sustainable energy system in Austria. A substantial increase in energy efficiency and a reduction of residential energy consumption also form important cornerstones of a sustainable energy policy. PMID:21976785

  6. Economic comparison of the monitoring programmes for bluetongue vectors in Austria and Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Pinior, B.; Brugger, K.; Köfer, J.; Schwermer, H.; Stockreiter, S.; Loitsch, A.; Rubel, F.

    2015-01-01

    With the bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) outbreak in 2006, vector monitoring programmes (according to EU regulation 1266/2007) were implemented by European countries to obtain information on the spatial distribution of vectors and the vector-free period. This study investigates the vector monitoring programmes in Austria and Switzerland by performing a retrospective cost analysis for the period 2006–2010. Two types of costs were distinguished: costs financed directly via the national bluetongue programmes and costs contributed in-kind by the responsible institutions and agricultural holdings. The total net costs of the monitoring programme in Austria amounted to €1,415,000, whereby in Switzerland the costs were valued at €94,000. Both countries followed the legislation complying with requirements, but differed in regard to sampling frequency, number of trap sites and sampling strategy. Furthermore, the surface area of Austria is twice the area of Switzerland although the number of ruminants is almost the same in both countries. Thus, for comparison, the costs were normalised with regard to the sampling frequency and the number of trap sites. Resulting costs per trap sample comprised €164 for Austria and €48 for Switzerland. In both countries, around 50 per cent of the total costs can be attributed to payments in-kind. The benefit of this study is twofold: first, veterinary authorities may use the results to improve the economic efficiency of future vector monitoring programmes. Second, the analysis of the payment in-kind contribution is of great importance to public authorities as it makes the available resources visible and demonstrates how they have been used. PMID:25841165

  7. The relationship between extreme precipitation events and landslides distributions in 2009 in Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzensteiner, H.; Bell, R.; Petschko, H.; Glade, T.

    2012-04-01

    The prediction and forecast of widespread landsliding for a given triggering event is an open research question. Numerous studies tried to link spatial rainfall and landslide distributions. This study focuses on analysing the relationship between intensive precipitation and rainfall-triggered shallow landslides in the year 2009 in Lower Austria. Landslide distributions were gained from the building ground register, which is maintained by the Geological Survey of Lower Austria. It contains detailed information of landslides, which were registered due to damage reports. Spatially distributed rainfall estimates were extracted from INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) precipitation analysis, which is a combination of station data interpolation and radar data in a spatial resolution of 1km developed by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), Vienna, Austria. The importance of the data source is shown by comparing rainfall data based on reference gauges, spatial interpolation and INCA-analysis for a certain storm period. INCA precipitation data can detect precipitating cells that do not hit a station but might trigger a landslide, which is an advantage over the application of reference stations for the definition of rainfall thresholds. Empirical thresholds at regional scale were determined based on rainfall-intensity and duration in the year 2009 and landslide information. These thresholds are dependent on the criteria which separate the landslide triggering and non-triggering precipitation events from each other. Different approaches for defining thresholds alter the shape of the threshold as well. A temporarily threshold I=8,8263*D^(-0.672) for extreme rainfall events in summer in Lower Austria was defined. A verification of the threshold with similar events of other years as well as following analyses based on a larger landslide database are in progress.

  8. Etisus evamuellerae, a new xanthid crab (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Middle Miocene of Austria and Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, M.; van Bakel, B.W.M.; Guinot, D.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of several carapaces, a new species of xanthid crab, Etisus evamuellerae, is described from the Middle Miocene of the Vienna (Austria) and Great Hungarian basins. It differs from the coeval xanthids, Xantho moldavicus and Pilodius vulgaris, in having a distinctly protruding front and comparatively longer carapace. Contrary to those two species, the new one makes up for just a small percentage in the decapod crustacean assemblages studied. PMID:25983383

  9. The high alpine bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of the Zillertal Alps, Austria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bees from the Zemmgrund area in the Zillertal Alps (Austria, Tyrol) were collected and determined to investigate the species composition of the area. A total of 61 specimens were collected over a two year period; they represent 24 species from 8 genera. Building on these records, the first commented checklist for the area is presented, with notes on habitats and visited flowers. PMID:25057253

  10. The Interreg IV Italia-Austria "SeismoSAT" Project: connecting Seismic Data Centers via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Rauch, Markus; Zivcic, Mladen; Steiner, Rudolf; Fabris, Paolo; Bertoni, Michele

    2013-04-01

    Since 2002 the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - OGS in Udine (Italy), the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Vienna (Austria), and the Agencija Republike Slovenije za okolje (ARSO) in Ljubljana (Slovenija) are using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in real time, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". The data exchange has proved to be effective and very useful in case of seismic events near the borders between Italy, Austria and Slovenia, where the poor single national seismic networks coverage precluded a correct localization, while the usage of common data from the integrated networks improves considerably the overall reliability of real time seismic monitoring of the area. At the moment the data exchange between the seismic data centers relies on internet: this however is not an ideal condition for civil protection purposes, since internet reliability is poor. For this reason in 2012 the Protezione Civile della Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in Bolzano (Italy) joined OGS, ZAMG and ARSO in the Interreg IV Italia-Austria Project "SeismoSAT" aimed in connecting the seismic data centers in real time via satellite. The general schema of the project, including first data bandwith estimates and a possible architecture will be illustrated.

  11. Mitigating mountain hazards in Austria - legislation, risk transfer, and awareness building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holub, M.; Fuchs, S.

    2009-04-01

    Embedded in the overall concept of integral risk management, mitigating mountain hazards is pillared by land use regulations, risk transfer, and information. In this paper aspects on legislation related to natural hazards in Austria are summarised, with a particular focus on spatial planning activities and hazard mapping, and possible adaptations focussing on enhanced resilience are outlined. Furthermore, the system of risk transfer is discussed, highlighting the importance of creating incentives for risk-aware behaviour, above all with respect to individual precaution and insurance solutions. Therefore, the issue of creating awareness through information is essential, which is presented subsequently. The study results in recommendations of how administrative units on different federal and local levels could increase the enforcement of regulations related to the minimisation of natural hazard risk. Moreover, the nexus to risk transfer mechanisms is provided, focusing on the current compensation system in Austria and some possible adjustments in order to provide economic incentives for (private) investments in mitigation measures, i.e. local structural protection. These incentives should be supported by delivering information on hazard and risk target-oriented to any stakeholder involved. Therefore, coping strategies have to be adjusted and the interaction between prevention and precaution has to be highlighted. The paper closes with recommendations of how these efforts could be achieved, with a particular focus on the situation in the Republic of Austria.

  12. Health-promoting residential aged care: a pilot project in Austria.

    PubMed

    Krajic, Karl; Cichocki, Martin; Quehenberger, Viktoria

    2015-09-01

    Long-term care for the aged is an area that has not been in the focus of health promotion so far. The paper describes context, concept and project plan of a 2-year pilot project of comprehensive health-promoting setting development in residential aged care in Austria, and provides an overview over main experiences and results. Austria's most relevant health promotion agencies, a specialized scientific institute and Austria's largest provider of aged care acted as partners. The project aimed at developing elements of a comprehensive approach, but also providing evidence for the effectiveness of health promotion. Therefore, the project combined an organizational development approach with a scientific, randomized controlled study on mobility enhancement for residents. A comprehensive settings approach turned out acceptable for the main stakeholders of aged care (owners and management, staff, residents and residents' relatives). Strategy development, based on a systematic needs assessment, found staff health to be of special interest for the organization (ergonomics, workability over life course), and residents' relatives, got more attention. The mobility study was able to achieve positive results on occupational performance, concerning quality-of-life indicators and reached also formerly inactive groups. After the end of the project, health promotion is still on the agenda of the organization; further developments will be monitored. Good support from the policy level and well-established networking between the aged care provider, health promotion agencies and a network for health promotion in health care seems to have been an important resource for success. PMID:24682545

  13. Overcoming fragmentation in health care: chronic care in Austria, Germany and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Ellen; Knai, Cécile; Hofmarcher, Maria; Conklin, Annalijn; Erler, Antje; Elissen, Arianne; Flamm, Maria; Fullerton, Brigit; Sönnichsen, Andreas; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M

    2012-01-01

    The growing recognition of care fragmentation is causing many countries to explore new approaches to healthcare delivery that can bridge the boundaries between professions, providers and institutions and so better support the rising number of people with chronic health problems. This paper examines the role of the regulatory, funding and organisational context for the development and implementation of approaches to chronic care, using examples from Austria, Germany and the Netherlands. We find that the three countries have implemented a range of policies and approaches to achieve better coordination within and across the primary and secondary care interface and so better meet the needs of patients with chronic conditions. This has involved changes to the regulatory framework to support more coordinated approaches to care (Austria, Germany), coupled with financial incentives (Austria, Germany) or changes in payment systems (the Netherlands). What is common to the three countries is the comparative 'novelty' of policies and approaches aimed at fostering coordinated care; however, the evidence of their impact remains unclear. PMID:22221931

  14. The potential of geological storage of CO2 in Austria: a techno-economic assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüstle, Anna Katharina; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Bottig, Magdalena; Piessens, Kris; Ramirez, Andrea; Swenner, Rudy

    2014-05-01

    An impressive two-third or about 40GWh/y of electricity in Austria is produced from renewable energy sources, in particular hydro energy. For the remaining part the country depends on fossil fuels, which together with iron & steel production form the most CO2 intensive industries in Austria with a combined emission of just over 20Mt/y. According to the IEA, CO2 capture and geological storage (CCS) can reduce the global CO2 emission until 2050 by 17%. A correct assessment of CCS needs to start with the storage potential. Prior to this study, only general estimates of the theoretical capacity of Austrian reservoirs were available, thus, up until now, the realistic potential for CCS technology has not been assessed. Both for policy and industry, an assessment of the matched capacity is required, which is the capacity that actually will be used in CCS projects. This hurdle can be taken by applying a recently developed methodology (Welkenhuysen et al., 2013). This policy support system (PSS) consists of two parts, PSS Explorer and PSS III simulator. In brief, the methodology is based on expert judgements of potential reservoirs. These assessments can provide the best available data, including the expert's experience and possibly confidential data, without disclosing specific data. The geo-techno-economic calculation scheme PSS Explorer uses the expert input to calculate for each individual reservoir an assessment of the practical capacity (as probability density functions), in function of an acceptable price for storage. This practical capacity can then be used by the techno-economic PSS III simulator to perform advanced source-sink matching until 2050 and thus provide the matched reservoir capacity. The analysed reservoirs are 7 active or abandoned oil and gas reservoirs in Austria. The simulation of the electricity and iron & steel sector of Austria resulted in the estimation of the geological storage potential, taking into account geological, technological and

  15. Three decades of pleural cancer and mesothelioma registration in Austria where asbestos cement was invented.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Manfred; Vutuc, Christian

    2003-03-01

    Recently, a new mesothelioma epidemic was predicted from observations made in Western Europe. From early observations in Austria the lower increase in cases of mesothelioma compared with neighbor countries had been related to different uses of asbestos. In order to test this hypothesis, incidence and mortality of pleural cancer [International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-8/9 163] were analyzed for three decades and supplemented by data from a cohort study in the factory that had been the largest consumer of asbestos imported to Austria and from all Austrian occupational diseases registered between 1990 and 2001. In men, mortality rates (based on 15 to 45 deaths/year) were lowest in 1980-1989, but similar in 1970-1979 and 1990-2001. No increase in younger-birth cohorts was detected. Incidence rates (based on 13 to 44 cases/year) increased (36%) non-significantly ( P=0.14). In women, a significant decrease in mortality and incidence rates ( P<0.01) was observed from 1970. Rates from work-related mesothelioma (based on only 0-7 men and 0-4 women/year) must be interpreted with caution. In the cohort of 2,816 asbestos cement workers 26 pleural mesotheliomas were registered from 1990 through mid-1999. Six of these cases (three male and three female) had not been registered as an occupational disease, but all of these cases had been encoded under ICD 163 in mortality statistics. One female cohort member registered as having asbestosis according to the death certificate had died from mesothelioma according to the statistics of occupational diseases. We conclude that no epidemic of mesothelioma due to past asbestos exposure is to be expected in Austria. PMID:12733090

  16. What's left? - Investigations on soil cover of conservation tillage methods in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Thomas; Hösl, Rosemarie; Strauss, Peter

    2014-05-01

    One of the most accepted and a practicable method to prevent soil from erosion is conservation tillage. If conservation tillage practices are performed in a proper way soil is protected from wind and water erosion. This study deals with the effectivity of conservation tillage practices under real field conditions. Therefore we i) carried out rainfall simulation experiments employing conservation tillage practices which had been proposed by farmers to test whether actual conservation tillage practices would be effective, ii) did an observation of mean soil cover on arable land after seeding in Lower and Upper Austria for field sites where conservation tillage was funded. Rainfall simulation experiments were carried out in the years 2011 and 2012 for various conservation tillage treatments consisting of different mulching and no tillage techniques. To evaluate results on surface runoff and erosion we additionally measured soil cover, bulk densities and surface roughness of the experimental plots. Soil cover estimation of the arable land in Lower and Upper Austria which is funded for conservation tillage practices was done in 2012 and 2013. Altogether on 146 randomly chosen field sites soil cover was estimated by using an object-based image analysis method. Results reveal that the effectiveness of conservation tillage was depending on the existence of a sufficient soil cover. However, under conditions of actual farm practices, a sufficient soil cover was not obtained for mulching treatments in 2011 and only partially in 2012. Therefore, mulching treatments partially gained even higher surface runoff and soil loss rates than conventional tillage practices. Due to their high soil cover, soil loss and surface runoff of no tillage treatments were very small as compared to all other tested treatments. The results of the soil cover estimation in Lower and Upper Austria show that under practicable land use a mean soil cover of 12 percent can be reached, what's rather low in

  17. Modelling informally collected quantities of bulky waste and reusable items in Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Ramusch, R. Pertl, A.; Scherhaufer, S.; Schmied, E.; Obersteiner, G.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Informal collectors from Hungary collect bulky waste and reusable items in Austria. • Two methodologies were applied to estimate the informally collected quantities. • Both approaches lead to an estimation of roughly 100,000 t p.a. informally collected. • The formal Austrian system collects 72 kg/cap/yr of bulky waste, WEE & scrap metal. • Informal collection amounts to approx. 12 kg/cap/yr. - Abstract: Disparities in earnings between Western and Eastern European countries are the reason for a well-established informal sector actively involved in collection and transboundary shipment activities from Austria to Hungary. The preferred objects are reusable items and wastes within the categories bulky waste, WEEE and metals, intended to be sold on flea markets. Despite leading to a loss of recyclable resources for Austrian waste management, these informal activities may contribute to the extension of the lifetime of certain goods when they are reused in Hungary; nevertheless they are discussed rather controversially. The aim of this paper is to provide objective data on the quantities informally collected and transhipped. The unique activities of informal collectors required the development and implementation of a new set of methodologies. The concept of triangulation was used to verify results obtained by field visits, interviews and a traffic counting campaign. Both approaches lead to an estimation of approx. 100,000 t per year of reusable items informally collected in Austria. This means that in addition to the approx. 72 kg/cap/yr formally collected bulky waste, bulky waste wood, household scrap (excluding packaging) and WEEE, up to a further 12 kg/cap/yr might, in the case that informal collection is abandoned, end up as waste or in the second-hand sector.

  18. A new solar radiation model for research and applications in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olefs, Dr.; Schoener, Dr.

    2012-04-01

    The operational model STRAHLGRID calculates 10 minute values of direct and diffuse solar radiation as well as sunshine duration on a 1x1km grid for the national territory of Austria in near realtime. The model accounts for atmospheric turbidity, cloudiness, terrain shading, multiple and terrain reflections and ground albedo feedbacks. To reproduce temporal changes of atmospheric turbidity at best, we use precipitable water (water vapour transmittance) and visibility fields (aerosol transmittance) from the ZAMG operational nowcasting model INCA at same spatial resolution as well as a cloud raster. The latter combines measured sunshine fraction at 249 automatic weather stations (TAWES) with cloud type from MSG-2 satellite data and is therefore directly relevant for solar radiation. It is updated every 15 minutes. To account for multiple reflections, the ground albedo is taken from daily available MODIS imagery. Terrain data (elevation, aspect, slope, ground and sky view factor) is taken from a 100x100m DEM extracted at every 10th grid cell. To validate the model, quality controlled global solar radiation and sunshine duration data from 232 automatic weather stations in Austria as well as direct and diffuse solar radiation data of 5 operational suntracking systems are used. At ZAMG, the model is operationally used to assist the legal task of a national climate monitoring in Austria, to perform data quality control, to provide input and verification data for modeling tasks on different temporal and spatial scales (e.g. energy balance, regional climate modeling, weather forecasting) and to derive products related to solar energy applications (longterm means and forecasts). In future, the model will be used as an important part of a planned national operational snow cover model. The model data is freely available for academic and research use.

  19. The influence of the post-Chernobyl fallout on birth defects and abortion rates in Austria.

    PubMed

    Haeusler, M C; Berghold, A; Schoell, W; Hofer, P; Schaffer, M

    1992-10-01

    Researchers analyzed data on 66,743 births which occurred between 1985-1989 in the Styria region in southern Austria to determine whether radioactive fallout from the meltdown of the nuclear reaction at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, USSR in may 1986 affected the birth defect and abortion rates in this area of Austria. There were 1695 birth defect cases. Of the birth defects which occurred during embryogenesis, most occurred 14-49 days postconception (group 2; n=630). The researchers did not note a short-term effect of the fallout in group 2 or the other groups (relative risk= 0.75, 0.73 for group 1, and 0.93 for group 2). Baseline birth defect rates (per 1000 births) for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2.5, 8.5, and 1,8 respectively. The only sizable increase occurred in group 2 at years 2 and 3 (10.6 and 10.3, respectively). More reported minor congenital defect cases accounted for this increase due to the newly established data base in the Department of Pediatric Cardiology at the University of Graz. Thus the increase was an artifact and not a true increase. Abortion rates varied from 10% to 14% and did not increase significantly after Chernobyl. Counseling frequency at abortion clinics fluctuated greatly (117-205) both before and after Chernobyl and the changes were not significant. These results indicated that the low dosage of radiation did not have a detectable biologic effect in terms of birth defects and abortions. The researchers addressed the difficulties with measuring teratologic potential of low dose radiation. They also highlighted the need for accurate categorizing of birth defects, adequate baseline data, and very reliable registries. Future research on possible environmental disasters which affect Austria can use these data as baseline data. PMID:1415387

  20. Daily temperature grids for Austria since 1961—concept, creation and applicability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiebl, Johann; Frei, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Current interest into past climate change and its potential role for changes in the environment call for spatially distributed climate datasets of high temporal resolution and extending over several decades. To foster such research, we present a new gridded dataset of daily minimum and maximum temperature covering Austria at 1-km resolution and extending back till 1961 at daily time resolution. To account for the complex and highly variable thermal distributions in this high-mountain region, we adapt and employ a recently published interpolation method that estimates nonlinear temperature profiles with altitude and accounts for the non-Euclidean spatial representativity of station measurements. The spatial analysis builds upon 150 station series in and around Austria (homogenised where available), all of which extend over or were gap-filled to cover the entire study period. The restriction to (almost) complete records shall avoid long-term inconsistencies from changes in the station network. Systematic leave-one-out cross-validation reveals interpolation errors (mean absolute error) of about 1 °C. Errors are relatively larger for minimum compared to maximum temperatures, for the interior of the Alps compared to the flatland and for winter compared to summer. Visual comparisons suggest that valley-scale inversions and föhn are more realistically captured in the new compared to existing datasets. The usefulness of the presented dataset (SPARTACUS) is illustrated in preliminary analyses of long-term trends in climate impact indices. These reveal spatially variable and eventually considerable changes in the thermal climate in Austria.

  1. Human impact on the geomorphic evolution of the HOAL catchment, Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Kraushaar, Sabine; Strauss, Peter; Fuchs, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of human settlement extensive land cover and land use changes have induced significant geomorphic landscape changes as water and sediment dynamics have been transformed. The presented project focuses on the reconstruction of Holocene geomorphic landscape evolution and the assessment of recent geomorphic processes in the Northern foothills of the Eastern Alps in Austria - an area intensively agriculturally used since the middle ages and often overlooked in its geomorphic evolution. The study area is a small catchment (ca. 66 ha) which is located in the western part of Lower Austria comprising a land use history as well as environmental settings typical for wide regions across the Northern foothills of the Eastern Alps in Austria. The catchment elevation ranges from 268 to 323 m a.s.l. and has a mean slope angle of 8%. The climate in this region can be characterized as humid. The lithology mainly consists of Tertiary marly to sandy deposits which are superimposed by Quaternary sediments (e.g. loesses). Dominant soil types are Cambisols, Luvisols, and Planosols. Furthermore, the catchment is used as a Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) implemented for the long-term research of water-related flow and transport processes in the landscape (http://hoal.hydrology.at). The main objective of this research project is to reconstruct Holocene landscape evolution by analyzing physical parameters of sediment cores taken from colluvial and alluvial sediment archives with additional 14C and OSL dating as well as by the measurement of truncated and covered standardized Luvisol profiles. First results will be presented at the EGU General Assembly 2016.

  2. Unregulated access to health-care services is associated with overutilization—lessons from Austria

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The Austrian health-care system is characterized by free provider choice and uncontrolled access to all levels of care. Using primary data, the ECOHCARE study shows that hospitalization rates for the secondary and tertiary care levels in Austria are both 4.4 times higher than those reported from the USA using a similar methodology. At the same time, essential functions of the primary care sector are weak. We propose that regulating access to secondary and tertiary care and restricting free provider choice to the primary care level would both reverse over utilization and strengthen the primary care sector. PMID:25417940

  3. “Saving lives”: Adapting and adopting Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Katharina T.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination against the sexually transmitted Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a necessary agent for the development of cervical cancer, has triggered much debate. In Austria, HPV policy turned from “lagging behind” in 2008 into “Europe's frontrunner” by 2013. Drawing on qualitative research, the article shows how the vaccine was transformed and made “good enough” over the course of five years. By means of tinkering and shifting storylines, policy officials and experts disassociated the vaccine from gender, vaccine manufacturers, and youth sexuality. Ultimately, the HPV vaccine functioned to strengthen the national immunization program. To this end, preventing an effective problematization of the extant screening program was essential. PMID:26921834

  4. A Sunken Ship of the Desert at the River Danube in Tulln, Austria

    PubMed Central

    Galik, Alfred; Mohandesan, Elmira; Forstenpointner, Gerhard; Scholz, Ute Maria; Ruiz, Emily; Krenn, Martin; Burger, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Rescue excavations recovered a skeleton that resurrect the contemporary dramatic history of Austria in the 17th century as troops besieged Vienna in the second Osmanic-Habsburg war. Unique for Central Europe is the evidence of a completely preserved camel skeleton uncovered in a large refuse pit. The male individual of slender stature indicates a few but characteristic pathological changes revealing not a beast of burden but probably a valuable riding animal. Anatomical and morphometrical analyses suggest a hybrid confirmed by the ancient DNA analyses resulting in the presence of a dromedary in the maternal and a Bactrian camel in the paternal line. PMID:25831121

  5. Composition of the essential oil of wild grown caraway in meadows of the Vienna region (Austria).

    PubMed

    Chizzola, Remigius

    2014-04-01

    The essential oil compositions of the different plant parts of wild growing caraway (Carum carvi, Apiaceae) were analyzed by GC/MS and GC/FID. The plants came from two meadows in the Vienna region, Austria. The oils from young fruits had a high proportion of limonene (61-83%), and those from inflorescences limonene (39-62%) and germacrene D (23-41%). The carvone contents of fruits, inflorescences and leaves varied greatly. Leaves and stems, low in volatiles, were dominated by germacrene D and germacrene A. Therefore, wild caraway appears as a valuable aromatic herb in meadows. PMID:24868889

  6. Influence of weak motion data to magnitude dependence of PGA prediction model in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Data recorded by the STS2-sensors at the Austrian Seismic Network were differentiated and used to derive the PGA prediction model for Austria (Jia and Lenhardt, 2010). Before using it to our hazard assessment and real time shakemap, it is necessary to validate this model and obtain a deep understanding about it. In this paper, influence of weak motion data to the magnitude dependence of our prediction model was studied. In addition, spatial PGA residuals between the measurements and predictions were investigated as well. There are 127 earthquakes with a magnitude between 3 and 5.4 that were used to derive the PGA prediction model published in 2011. Unfortunately, 90% of used PGA measurements were made for the events with a magnitude smaller than 4. Only ten quakes among them have a magnitude larger than 4, which is the important magnitude range that needs our attention and hazard assessment. In this investigation, 127 earthquakes were divided into two groups: the first group only includes events with a magnitude smaller than 4, while the second group contains quakes with a magnitude larger than 4. By using the same modeling for estimating PGA attenuation in 2011, coefficients of the model were inverted from the measurements in two groups and compared to the one based on the complete data set. It was found that the group with the weak quakes returned results that only have small differences to the one from all 127 events, while the group with strong quakes (ml> 4) gave greater magnitude dependence than the model published in 2011. The distance coefficients stayed nearly unchanged for all three inversions. As the second step, spatial PGA residuals between the measurements and the predictions from our model were investigated. As explained in Jia and Lenhardt (2013), there are some differences in the site amplifications between the West- and the East-Austria. For a fair comparison, residuals were normalized for each station before the investigation. Then normalized

  7. A sunken ship of the desert at the river Danube in Tulln, Austria.

    PubMed

    Galik, Alfred; Mohandesan, Elmira; Forstenpointner, Gerhard; Scholz, Ute Maria; Ruiz, Emily; Krenn, Martin; Burger, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Rescue excavations recovered a skeleton that resurrect the contemporary dramatic history of Austria in the 17th century as troops besieged Vienna in the second Osmanic-Habsburg war. Unique for Central Europe is the evidence of a completely preserved camel skeleton uncovered in a large refuse pit. The male individual of slender stature indicates a few but characteristic pathological changes revealing not a beast of burden but probably a valuable riding animal. Anatomical and morphometrical analyses suggest a hybrid confirmed by the ancient DNA analyses resulting in the presence of a dromedary in the maternal and a Bactrian camel in the paternal line. PMID:25831121

  8. A probable case of congenital syphilis from pre-Columbian Austria.

    PubMed

    Gaul, Johanna Sophia; Grossschmidt, Karl; Gusenbauer, Christian; Kanz, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the skeletal remains of a subadult from an archeological site in Austria. Radiocarbon dating and archeological attribution indicate that this individual is of pre-Columbian origin. Most of the skeleton was recovered, and only the teeth and the orbital roofs show changes. Dental defects such as the mulberry molar and a tapered, fang-like canine suggest a diagnosis of congenital syphilis. This is the first probable case of congenital syphilis from pre-Columbian Central Europe. Our findings contribute to the pre-Columbian theory, offering counter evidence to the assumption that syphilis was carried from Columbus' crew from the New to the Old World. PMID:26482430

  9. Geophysical measurements and monitoring on the Pechgraben Landslide in Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, Birgit; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Gruber, Stefanie; Hoyer, Stefan; Supper, Robert; Schattauer, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    In January 2013, after an intense rainfall of about 400 mm, the historic slope movement northwest of the village of Pechgraben (municipality Großraming, Upper Austria) started to move. Already in early March the landslide with an area of about 7 hectares came to a halt. After the long-lasting rainfall (200mm) from June 1st to 3rd 2013 the Pechgraben landslide was reactivated with an extent of about 80 ha on June 6th. This landslide is therefore the largest in Austria since the last 5 years. Several million cubic meters of loose material was moving towards the settlement area. Already one day later, on June 7th, 2013, emergency measures began immediately. The Geological Survey of Austria (GBA), the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Mountain Risk Engineering (IAN), and the consultant engineering office Moser/Jaritz as well as the local fire brigade and the federal armed forces supported the Torrent and Avalanche Control with their remediation measures. In addition to the emergency measures, which consisted mainly of water diversion and material removal, a comprehensive monitoring system (GPS, inclinometer, geoelectric monitoring, airborne laserscan and aerial photogrammetry, etc.) has been created in order to document the development of the slope movement and to be able to take further measures if necessary. The geophysical part undertaken by the Geological Survey of Austria consisted of an airborne geophysical survey (EM, magnetics, gamma radiation) as well as several geoelectric profiles to understand the geology and mechanism of the landslide. To monitor the movement, we set up 5 different geoelectrical monitoring profiles, permanent inclinometers, photo monitoring, piezometers, as well as soil humidity and precipitation sensors. Hübl, J., Schraml, K., Lindner, G., Tartarotti, T., Gruber, H., Gasperl, W., Supper, R., Jochum, B., Ottowitz, D., Gruber, S., Marschallinger, R., Moser, G. (2015): Synthesebericht der H

  10. A giant termite from the Late Miocene of Styria, Austria (Isoptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Michael S.; Gross, Martin

    2009-02-01

    A giant termite is described and figured from the Late Miocene of the Styrian Basin in southeastern Austria. Gyatermes styriensis gen. n. et sp. n. is represented by a relatively complete forewing, with basal scale. The fossil approximates in size the largest of all termites today and is the largest fossil termite on record. The presence of this species in the Late Miocene fauna of Europe indicates that climatic conditions were appropriate for the persistence of species and colonies requiring relatively stable, warm conditions. The genus is primitive in overall features but shares some similarity with the dampwood termites.

  11. [Asbestos concentrations in drinking water. Asbestos cement pipes and geogenic sources in Austria].

    PubMed

    Neuberger, M; Frank, W; Golob, P; Warbichler, P

    1996-03-01

    Sources of asbestos in drinking water may be natural deposits or the use of asbestos cement for water distribution. 50 water samples were selected in Austria to detect fibre contamination from either geology or asbestos cement by comparison with control areas and by comparison of raw and treated water. Standardized EPA/BGA methodology with transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and selected area electron diffraction was used to quantify concentrations of different sized amphibole and chrysotile fibres. In 10 areas with asbestos deposits and in 14 areas with use of asbestos cement pipes asbestos concentrations in drinking water were low and not significantly different from 6 control areas (median 32,000 total asbestos fibres per litre). The relative highest concentration was found in an area with natural deposits at the source of the water supply (190,000 per litre). In areas without natural deposits the increase of asbestos concentrations from origin to consumer of water was not significant and unrelated to water aggressiveness, age and length of asbestos cement pipes. This could be mainly due to the fact that in areas with aggressive water asbestos cement pipes have been coated in Austria. A sample from a cistern, however, showed considerable asbestos contamination and raises concern about the use of surface water for room air humidification. PMID:9376056

  12. How has Radical Right Support Transformed Established Political Conflicts? The Case of Austria

    PubMed Central

    Aichholzer, Julian; Kritzinger, Sylvia; Wagner, Markus; Zeglovits, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In many European party systems, the radical right has challenged established patterns of political competition. This article studies the consequences of this by using the case of the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) and data from Austria’s first national election study (AUTNES). It is found that the FPÖ has weakened Austria’s previously highly stable system of socio-structural and ideological divisions as expressed by the two mainstream parties, the People’s Party and the Social Democrats. In socio-structural terms, the FPÖ has undermined the Social Democrats’ support base. In ideological terms, FPÖ voters have distinct views on newer issues such as immigration, European integration and dissatisfaction with the political system, but its supporters’ views on Austria’s traditional conflicts surrounding the economy and social and religious values cannot explain the party’s success. These findings further our understanding of the transformation of political conflicts not just in Austria, but in Western Europe in general. PMID:26770003

  13. Modelling informally collected quantities of bulky waste and reusable items in Austria.

    PubMed

    Ramusch, R; Pertl, A; Scherhaufer, S; Schmied, E; Obersteiner, G

    2015-10-01

    Disparities in earnings between Western and Eastern European countries are the reason for a well-established informal sector actively involved in collection and transboundary shipment activities from Austria to Hungary. The preferred objects are reusable items and wastes within the categories bulky waste, WEEE and metals, intended to be sold on flea markets. Despite leading to a loss of recyclable resources for Austrian waste management, these informal activities may contribute to the extension of the lifetime of certain goods when they are reused in Hungary; nevertheless they are discussed rather controversially. The aim of this paper is to provide objective data on the quantities informally collected and transhipped. The unique activities of informal collectors required the development and implementation of a new set of methodologies. The concept of triangulation was used to verify results obtained by field visits, interviews and a traffic counting campaign. Both approaches lead to an estimation of approx. 100,000 t per year of reusable items informally collected in Austria. This means that in addition to the approx. 72 kg/cap/yr formally collected bulky waste, bulky waste wood, household scrap (excluding packaging) and WEEE, up to a further 12 kg/cap/yr might, in the case that informal collection is abandoned, end up as waste or in the second-hand sector. PMID:26209344

  14. Assessing the completeness of historical earthquake records in Austria and surrounding Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Asma; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Hintersberger, Esther; Decker, Kurt

    2010-05-01

    Completeness of earthquake catalogues is a necessary condition for seismic hazard assessment since they are the base for the determination of a and b values of the Gutenberg-Richter relation. A new composite catalogue for Austria has been created based on data from four different catalogues of earthquakes in Austria (ZAMG, 2009; ACORN, 2004; Van Gils & Leydecker, 1991; Shebalin et al., 1998) including for the first time also data from surrounding regions such as the Vienna Basin outside Austria and a buffer region 100km outside the boundary of the Austria and Vienna basin. The used earthquake catalogues cover different record length with a first entry in 1048 AD. A reliable estimate of the a and b parameters of the Gutenberg-Richter Relation from this newly compiled dataset can be only given, if the new catalogue is checked for completeness. We determined the completeness intensity (Ic) and the completeness periods for the composite catalogue following the method described by Stepp (1972). This method supposes that the earthquake occurrences are Poisson-distributed and investigates (i) the minimum observation interval required to reach reliable estimates of mean recurrence periods, (ii) the time interval for which the catalogues may be regarded complete. Both intervals are functions of the intensity class. Ic is the smallest intensity above which every earthquake was recorded for a given time interval. The completeness period is the time interval in which the catalogue is complete for a given intensity range. As most of the catalogue's records are pre-instrumental data, this completeness check was performed on intensity data avoiding ambiguities arising from intensity-magnitude conversion. In a second step, we repeated the completeness check, but this time based on magnitudes in order to determine the influences of various magnitude conversions. For pre-instrumental events, we converted intensities into magnitudes using published intensity-magnitude conversion

  15. Ten years trends (1984-1993) in the precipitation chemistry in central Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puxbaum, H.; Simeonov, V.; Kalina, M. F.

    Since 1984, wet precipitation samples have been collected from five sampling sites in the eastern Alpine region of Austria. The chemical analysis performed included pH, NH 4+, Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Cl -, NO 3- SO 42- and precipitation amount. These data were used to determine the 10 years (1984-1993) trends in precipitation chemistry and deposition for all major ions. The statistical data treatment by the use of least-squares linear regression revealed a significant decrease of sulfate and hydrogen ion concentrations and depositions at all sites in consideration (above 65% for hydrogen ion and over 33% for sulfate concentration and 40% for hydrogen and 36% for sulfate deposition). An effort is made to explain the acidity decrease not only by the parallel decrease of sulfate concentration but by the participation of the other constituents of the wet precipitation events. It has been found that when the hydrogen ion concentration decrease is stronger than that of sulfate ion concentrations a compensation mainly by ammonium ion concentration increase is achieved. On the contrary, when the hydrogen ion concentration decrease is weaker than sulfate concentration decrease, a calcium ion concentration decrease is present for the sites in consideration. The results obtained indicate that the precipitation chemistry in Central Austria follows the global trends of controlled reduction of atmospheric acidity.

  16. High prevalence of Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) in foxes from western Austria.

    PubMed

    Hodžić, Adnan; Bruckschwaiger, Pia; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2016-08-01

    Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) is a canine trichuroid nematode affecting the upper respiratory airways (i.e., nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses) of dogs, foxes, and wolves. In the past few years, reports in dogs and wild canids have increased from across Europe, but data on its occurrence and distribution in Austria is scanty. A total of 47 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the two westernmost provinces (Tyrol and Vorarlberg) of Austria were therefore examined for the presence of E. boehmi at necropsy. Eggs and adult nematodes were identified morphologically and molecularly (cox1) as E. boehmi. These nematodes were found in 26 (78.8 %) and 13 (92.9 %) foxes from Tyrol and Vorarlberg, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 83.0 % (39/47). The prevalence rate of infection recorded in this study is among the highest in Europe. These results suggest that foxes may represent an important source of infection for dogs and other canids, but further studies are needed to elucidate the transmission dynamics. PMID:27230019

  17. Molecular taxonomy and biodiversity of rock fungal communities in an urban environment (Vienna, Austria).

    PubMed

    Sterflinger, K; Prillinger, H

    2001-12-01

    The diversity of fungal communities on three different historical monuments in the city of Vienna (Austria) was analyzed and compared to the fungal diversity of microfungi on rock in the original quarry located in a rural area (Zogelsdorf, Austria). The fungal strains isolated were characterized by morphology and the complete rock fungal community was identified based on molecular data, that is, by sequencing parts of the small ribosomal subunit (18S) and internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1). The genera Coniothyrium, Epicoccum and Phoma were found to be dominant on monument and rock surfaces. Additionally, black yeasts such as Exophiala species and microcolonial fungi like Sarcinomyces and Coniosporium which hitherto were regarded as typical rock inhabitants in semi-arid environments are frequently found on all rock surfaces in Vienna. The biodiversity of the fungi in the urban environment was much higher than on the same rock type in a rural environment, this difference can be attributed to the elevated organic pollution in the city. PMID:11827213

  18. One decade of scientific studies of snow management on Austria's glacier ski resorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Andrea; Helfricht, Kay

    2016-04-01

    After the extremely warm summer of 2003, when melt affected Austria's glaciers up to the highest elevations, a scientific study on artificial modification of mass balance was initiated. It examined the effects of glacier covers and water injection, but also various grooming methods and snow accumulations based on monitoring and modelling of snow and energy balance. The results showed that covering the glacier was the most effective and cheapest method, saving about 70% of glacier melt in places. But covers are restricted to a small portion of the area, as they require high maintenance. In recent years, snow production and snow accumulation by wind drift have gained more and more importance, not only modifying glacier mass balance, but also guaranteeing an early season start. Initially about 35 ha of the glacier area (<10% of the ski resort area and less than one per mille of the total glacier area in Austria) were covered and later the area was reduced as snow production possibilities increased. Snow depots are often used as fun parks for snow boarders. Glacier covers are not primarily used for keeping snow for early season start on ski tracks, but to maintain the surface, especially close to cable car infrastructure, at a constant elevation and slope. Despite glacier dynamics, glacier surfaces with snow management show reduced decrease of surface elevation , both on piste and along lift tracks.

  19. [Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and TBE-vaccination in Austria: Update 2014].

    PubMed

    Kunze, Ursula; Böhm, Gabriela

    2015-07-01

    TBE is a public health problem well under control in Austria because of a mass vaccination programme. There have been 50-100 registered cases per year for many years, the vaccination rate of the population is currently 85 %. Special attention has to be given to the "older" generation 40 plus as this is the segment of the population where the majority of cases are observed annually. In comparison of the counties, Tyrol and Upper Austria finished first and second after a long time when Styria and Carynthia had observed most of the cases. For TBE applies the same as for Tetanus, namely the principle of disease control or disease elimination: The virus cannot be eliminated and vaccination provides individual protection. The both available TBE vaccines have proven to be very effective with an effectivity of 96-99 %, also when given irregular vaccinations the protection rate is still very high (>90 %). More than 4000 prevented cases between 2000 and 2011 prove this impressively. PMID:26055812

  20. Isotope evidence to link a suspect with a pipe bomb multimurder in Austria 1995.

    PubMed

    Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Horacek, Micha; Tesch, Roland

    2011-01-01

    A bomb attempt in Oberwart, Austria, on February 4, 1995, was the culmination of several pipe and letter bomb attempts mainly in Austria. The pipe bomb had been mounted on a self-made gypsum (plaster of Paris) pedestal and exploded when touched, killing four persons. With a level of 200 tritium units (TU), the water extracted from the gypsum pedestal was unusually enriched in tritium (³H) compared to an environmental level of about 20 TU at that time. Investigation of the ³H content of air moisture in the living room of an arrested suspect showed values of about 1000 TU (normally, 50 TU is not exceeded). Additionally, water used as sealing liquid in a glass with nitroglycerine found in the living room was also significantly enriched in ³H (>400 TU). The living room therefore offered the high ³H level environment necessary to lead to elevated ³H concentrations in the gypsum pedestal. PMID:21198616

  1. Implementation of landslide susceptibility maps in Lower Austria as part of risk governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Rainer; Petschko, Helene; Bauer, Christian; Glade, Thomas; Granica, Klaus; Heiss, Gerhard; Leopold, Philip; Pomaroli, Gilbert; Proske, Herwig; Schweigl, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    Landslides frequently cause damage to agricultural land and infrastructure in Lower Austria - a province of Austria. Also settlements and people are threatened by landslides. To reduce landslide risks and to prevent the establishment of new settlements in highly landslide prone areas, the project "MoNOE" (Method development for landslide susceptibility modeling in Lower Austria) was set up by the provincial government. The main aim of the project is the development of methods to model rock fall and slide susceptibility for an area of approx. 15,900 km2 and to implement the resulting susceptibility maps into the spatial planning strategies of the state. Right from the beginning of the project a close cooperation between the involved scientists and the stakeholders from the Geological Survey of Lower Austria and the Department of Spatial Planning and Regional Policy of Lower Austria was established to ensure that method development and final susceptibility maps meet exactly the needs and demands of the stakeholders. This posed huge challenges, together with its realization in the large study area and a (heterogeneous) complex geological situation,. Limitations were given by restricted data availability (e.g. for geology or landslide inventories) in such a large study area. Rock fall susceptibility was modeled by a combined approach of determining rock fall release areas by empirical slope thresholds (dependent on geology) followed by empirical run-out modeling. Slide susceptibility was modeled based on the statistical approaches of weights of evidence (WofE) and generalized additive models (GAM) by two different research groups. Huge efforts were spent on the validation of all susceptibility models. In a later stage of the project we found that the best scientific maps are not necessarily the best maps to be implemented in spatial planning strategies. Thus, in close cooperation with the stakeholders, decisions had to be taken to find the best resolution of the maps

  2. Increase of genetic diversity and clonal replacement of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in South-East Austria

    PubMed Central

    Zarfel, Gernot; Luxner, Josefa; Folli, Bettina; Leitner, Eva; Feierl, Gebhard; Kittinger, Clemens; Grisold, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Spa-typing and microarray techniques were used to study epidemiological changes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in South-East Austria. The population structure of 327 MRSA isolated between 2002 and 2012 was investigated. MRSA was assigned to 58 different spa types and 14 different MLST CC (multilocus sequence type clonal complexes); in particular, between 2007 and 2012, an increasing diversity in MRSA clones could be observed. The most abundant clonal complex was CC5. On the respective SCCmec cassettes, the CC5 isolates differed clearly within this decade and CC5/SCCmecI, the South German MRSA, predominant in 2002, was replaced by CC5/SCCmecII, the Rhine-Hesse MRSA in 2012. Whereas in many European countries MLST CC22-MRSA (EMRSA 15, the Barnim epidemic MRSA) is predominant, this clone occurred in Austria nearly 10 years later than in neighbouring countries. CC45, the Berlin EMRSA, epidemic in Germany, was only sporadically found in South-East Austria. The Irish ST8-MRSA-II represented by spa-type t190 was frequently found in 2002 and 2007, but disappeared in 2012. Our results demonstrate clonal replacement of MRSA clones within the last years in Austria. Ongoing surveillance is warranted for detection of changes within the MRSA population. PMID:27231237

  3. Attitudes toward Physical Education: A Study of High School Students from Four Countries-Austria, Czech Republic, England, and USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelzer, Jiri; Ernest, James M.; Fenster, Mark J.; Langford, George

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude toward physical education of 1107 high school students from four countries, Czech Republic, Austria, England, and the United States. Survey data were gathered and measured using the Adams Scale survey instrument (Adams, 1963). While the data revealed individual differences, the overall sample indicated a…

  4. Increase of genetic diversity and clonal replacement of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in South-East Austria.

    PubMed

    Zarfel, Gernot; Luxner, Josefa; Folli, Bettina; Leitner, Eva; Feierl, Gebhard; Kittinger, Clemens; Grisold, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Spa-typing and microarray techniques were used to study epidemiological changes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in South-East Austria. The population structure of 327 MRSA isolated between 2002 and 2012 was investigated. MRSA was assigned to 58 different spa types and 14 different MLST CC (multilocus sequence type clonal complexes); in particular, between 2007 and 2012, an increasing diversity in MRSA clones could be observed. The most abundant clonal complex was CC5. On the respective SCCmec cassettes, the CC5 isolates differed clearly within this decade and CC5/SCCmecI, the South German MRSA, predominant in 2002, was replaced by CC5/SCCmecII, the Rhine-Hesse MRSA in 2012. Whereas in many European countries MLST CC22-MRSA (EMRSA 15, the Barnim epidemic MRSA) is predominant, this clone occurred in Austria nearly 10 years later than in neighbouring countries. CC45, the Berlin EMRSA, epidemic in Germany, was only sporadically found in South-East Austria. The Irish ST8-MRSA-II represented by spa-type t190 was frequently found in 2002 and 2007, but disappeared in 2012. Our results demonstrate clonal replacement of MRSA clones within the last years in Austria. Ongoing surveillance is warranted for detection of changes within the MRSA population. PMID:27231237

  5. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  6. Emotional Problems and Victimisation among Youth with National and International Migration Experience Living in Austria and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmeier, Dagmar; Dogan, Aysun

    2012-01-01

    Young people with international migration experiences constitute an increasing proportion of the population in many European countries. In Austria, a substantial proportion of these international migrants come from Turkey. In Turkey, many adolescents are national migrants, having moved from the eastern part to the western part of the country. This…

  7. Global effects of national biomass production and consumption: Austria's embodied HANPP related to agricultural biomass in the year 2000

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Helmut; Kastner, Thomas; Schaffartzik, Anke; Ludwiczek, Nikolaus; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Global trade of biomass-related products is growing exponentially, resulting in increasing ‘teleconnections’ between producing and consuming regions. Sustainable management of the earth's lands requires indicators to monitor these connections across regions and scales. The ‘embodied human appropriation of NPP’ (eHANPP) allows one to consistently attribute the HANPP resulting from production chains to consumers. HANPP is the sum of land-use induced NPP changes and biomass harvest. We present the first national-level assessment of embodied HANPP related to agriculture based on a calculation using bilateral trade matrices. The dataset allows (1) the tracing of the biomass-based products consumed in Austria in the year 2000 to their countries of origin and quantifying the HANPP caused in production, and (2) the assigning of the national-level HANPP on Austria's territory to the consumers of the products on the national level. The dataset is constructed along a consistent system boundary between society and ecosystems and can be used to assess Austria's physical trade balance in terms of eHANPP. Austria's eHANPP-trade balance is slightly negative (imports are larger than exports); import and export flows are large in relation to national HANPP. Our findings show how the eHANPP approach can be used for quantifying and mapping the teleconnections related to a nation's biomass metabolism. PMID:23576842

  8. Spatial sensitivity of grassland yields to weather variations in Austria and its implications for the future☆

    PubMed Central

    Neuwirth, Christian; Hofer, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural production fulfills economic, ecological and structural functions. Despite technological advances, agricultural production remains sensitive to climate variations. In central Europe, climate change is predicted to bring more rainfall in winter, less rainfall in summer, and increased drought risk among other effects. Grassland agriculture, which is the dominant land use in Alpine regions, may be significantly affected by these climatic changes in the future. Motivated by this issue, the susceptibility of grassland yields to weather variations in Austria is empirical evaluated as a case study. The major objective of this study is to derive spatially distributed indications for climate change exposure by assessing the impacts of weather variations on past yield. It is assumed that reduced water supply during summer constitutes a threat to grassland productivity in regions that are warmer and drier already today. On the contrary, increased spring temperatures may improve grassland productivity in cooler regions like Alpine valleys, since the earlier snow melt leads to an extension of the growth period. Regression analyses are used for evaluating the relation between yearly yields and spring temperatures or water supply in summer, respectively. Water supply is thereby expressed by aggregated precipitation sums and the Climatic Water Balance (CWB). Input data are a meteorological time series as well as yearly yields available for 25 years between 1970 and 2010 and 99 districts in Austria. Yearly yields show a significant (P < 0.05) and positive dependency on water supply in summer for the eastern Austrian lowlands. The combination of temperature in spring and CWB in summer is only significant for six districts in the east of Austria. The positive impact of higher spring temperatures could not be verified. Generally, the regression coefficients are not very high, which indicates that temperature and water supply do not fully describe grassland productivity

  9. Temporal and spatial trends of chemical composition of wet deposition samples collected in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, Elisabeth; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Lohninger, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Triggered by the occurrence of acid rain a sampling network for the collection of wet deposition samples was initiated in Austria in the early 1980s. Now the data set covers a time period of slightly more than 30 years for the stations being operable since the beginning. Sampling of rain water and snow was and is performed with Wet and Dry Only Samplers (WADOS) on a daily basis. Chemical analysis of rain water and snow samples comprised anions (chloride, nitrate, sulfate) and cations (sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium and magnesium) as well as pH and electrical conductivity. Here we evaluate and discuss temporal trends of both, ion concentrations and wet deposition data for twelve sampling stations, which were operable for most of the observation period of 30 years. As expected concentrations and wet deposition loads of sulfate and acidity decreased significantly during the last three decades - which is also reflected by a strong decrease of sulfur emissions in Austria and neighboring countries. Regarding nitrate the decrease of concentrations and wet deposition loads is less pronounced. Again this is in accordance with changes in emission data. In case of ammonium even less stations showed a significant decrease of annual average concentrations and depositions. Reasons for that might be twofold. On one hand emissions of ammonia did not decrease as strongly as e.g. sulfur emissions. Furthermore local sources will be more dominant and can influence the year to year variability. Seasonality of ion concentrations and deposition loads were investigated using Fourier analysis. Sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and also precipitation amount showed characteristic seasonal patterns for most of the sites and for concentrations as well as deposition loads. However the maxima in ion concentrations and deposition loads were observed during different times of the year. Concentrations of basic cations and chloride, on the contrary, hardly showed any seasonality. However, as

  10. Antibiotic resistance in primary care in Austria - a systematic review of scientific and grey literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. Methods A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Results Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Conclusion Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are

  11. Recording of direct health traits in Austria--experience report with emphasis on aspects of availability for breeding purposes.

    PubMed

    Egger-Danner, C; Fuerst-Waltl, B; Obritzhauser, W; Fuerst, C; Schwarzenbacher, H; Grassauer, B; Mayerhofer, M; Koeck, A

    2012-05-01

    A project to establish an Austria-wide health-monitoring system for cattle was launched in 2006. Veterinary diagnostic data subject to documentation by law [Law on the Control of Veterinary Medicinal Products (Tierarzneimittelkontrollgesetz)] are standardized, validated, and recorded in a central database. This Austria-wide project is a collaboration among agricultural and veterinary organizations as well as universities, and is also supported by the Austrian government. In addition to providing information for herd management and preventive measures, further objectives of the project include estimating breeding values for health traits and monitoring the overall health status of Austria's cattle. To ensure a high level of participation from farmers and veterinarians, data security issues are extremely important. Valid data are the prerequisite for the efficient use of health records. The challenge hereby is to distinguish between farms with low frequencies of diseases and incomplete documentation and recording. Measures were undertaken to establish a routine monitoring system for direct health traits. A routine genetic evaluation for direct health traits as part of the joint breeding value estimation program between Germany and Austria was introduced for Fleckvieh in December 2010, based on diagnostic data from 5,428 farms with 147,764 Fleckvieh cows. In 2010 to 2011, the reporting of direct health traits as a compulsory part of performance recording and the breeding program was introduced as well. The overall challenge is the availability of sufficient valid direct health data for reliable breeding values. Practical experience gained in Austria in setting up a health registration system, focusing mainly on the availability of direct health data for breeding purposes with its successes and difficulties, is described. PMID:22541507

  12. [Xenophobia in Austria? Attitudes toward migration, foreign population, and the state's policy on foreigners].

    PubMed

    Holzer, W; Munz, R

    1995-01-01

    "At present some 700,000 foreigners (almost 9% of the total population) are living in Austria, about 280,000 of which are in the labor market. A representative sample of Austrians between 20 and 54 years [of age] were asked about their attitudes toward foreign population and migration policy." The findings indicate that various degrees of higher tolerance were correlated with being young, male, urban, living in a province with a high foreign population, and high socioeconomic status. "Stepping up the integration of the foreign population...is supported by a minority of Austrians only; as for the education of the children of immigrants, the Austrian attitude is a more generous one." (EXCERPT) PMID:12321137

  13. Geographically predominant genotypes of Aspergillus terreus species complex in Austria: s microsatellite typing study.

    PubMed

    Lackner, M; Coassin, S; Haun, M; Binder, U; Kronenberg, F; Haas, H; Jank, M; Maurer, E; Meis, J F; Hagen, F; Lass-Flörl, C

    2016-03-01

    Aspergillus terreus species complex is recognized as a frequent agent of invasive aspergillosis in Tyrol. The reason for this specific epidemiological situation is unclear. Aspergillus terreus strains isolated from environmental and clinical sources were genotyped using a novel panel of short tandem repeats and were evaluated for virulence. Three major endemic genotypes collected from the Inn region and its side valleys were found to cause the majority of invasive A. terreus infections. All of these genotypes were of the same mating type, which suggests that a mating barrier is present between these geographically well-adapted strains which is found to persist for at least 11 years. The three major genotypes were prevalent in both human infections and the environment. No major differences in virulence were observed using Galleria mellonella as model. Our data suggest a specific environmental exposure being responsible for the high incidence of A. terreus infections in Innsbruck, the Inn valley and side valleys (Tyrol, Austria). PMID:26577144

  14. Performance validation of the ExoMars 2018 WISDOM GPR in ice caves, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorizon, S.; Ciarletti, V.; Plettemeier, D.; Benedix, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    The WISDOM (Water Ice Subsurface Deposits Observations on Mars) Ground Penetrating Radar has been selected to be part of the ExoMars 2018 exobiological rover mission. A prototype has been tested during the Mars Simulation organized by the Austrian Space Forum in Alpine ice caves in Dachstein, Austria. This campaign provided the opportunity to validate methods developed to process WISDOM's data in a well-documented environment and to retrieve geometrical and quantitative information about the 3D structure and the electromagnetic properties of the subsurface. We estimate the ice thickness in different locations inside the ice caves, and show that this ice is formed of fine strata with different properties. Data analysis allows reconstructing the bedrock in a 3D environment where a complete survey was performed.

  15. The Salcher landslide observatory: a new long-term monitoring site in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canli, Ekrem; Engels, Alexander; Glade, Thomas; Schweigl, Joachim; Bertagnoli, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Landslides pose a significant hazard in the federal district of Lower Austria. The Geological Survey of Lower Austria is responsible for detailed site investigations as well as the planning and installation of protective measures. The most landslide prone area in Lower Austria is within the Rhenodanubian Flyschzone whose materials consist of alterations of fine grained layers (clayey shales, silty shales, marls) and sandstones. It exhibits over 6200 landslides within an area of approx. 1300 km². For areas susceptible to landsliding, protection works are not feasible or simply too costly. Therefore, monitoring systems have been installed in the past, most of them, however, are not operated automatically and require field visits for data readouts. Thus, it is difficult to establish any relation between initiating and controlling factors to gain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying process mechanism that is essential for any early warning applications. In this presentation, we present the design and first results of an automated landslide monitoring system in Gresten (Lower Austria). The deep-seated, slow moving Salcher landslide extends over approx. 8000 m² and is situated adjacent to residential buildings and infrastructure. This monitoring setup is designed to run for at least a decade to account for investigations of long term sliding dynamics and pattern. Historically the Salcher landslide has shown shorter phases with accelerated movements followed by longer phases with barely any movements. Those periods of inactivity commonly exceed regular project durations, thus it is important to cover longer periods. Such slope dynamics can be investigated throughout many parts in the world, thus this monitoring might allow to understand better also landslides with infrequent movement patterns. The monitoring setup consists of surface as well as subsurface installations. All installations are connected to permanent power supply, are taking the respective

  16. West Nile Virus Positive Blood Donation and Subsequent Entomological Investigation, Austria, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Seidel, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Christof; Dimmel, Katharina; Kolodziejek, Michael; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdenek; Allerberger, Franz; Nowotny, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The detection of West Nile virus (WNV) nucleic acid in a blood donation from Vienna, Austria, as well as in Culex pipiens pupae and egg rafts, sampled close to the donor’s residence, is reported. Complete genomic sequences of the human- and mosquito-derived viruses were established, genetically compared and phylogenetically analyzed. The viruses were not identical, but closely related to each other and to recent Czech and Italian isolates, indicating co-circulation of related WNV strains within a confined geographic area. The detection of WNV in a blood donation originating from an area with low WNV prevalence in humans (only three serologically diagnosed cases between 2008 and 2014) is surprising and emphasizes the importance of WNV nucleic acid testing of blood donations even in such areas, along with active mosquito surveillance programs. PMID:25961567

  17. A historical case of amelogenesis imperfecta: Giovanna of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany (1547-1578).

    PubMed

    Giuffra, Valentina; Panetta, Daniele; Salvadori, Piero A; Fornaciari, Gino

    2014-02-01

    The skeletal remains of Giovanna of Austria (1547-1578), daughter of the Emperor Ferdinand I of Habsburg (1503-1564) and first wife of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Francesco I (1541-1587), exhumed from the Basilica of San Lorenzo in Florence, were submitted to paleopathological study. Examination of the dentition, which was in a good state of preservation, showed maxillary retrognathism, together with a caries lesion, moderate periodontal disease, malposition of the upper second premolars and tooth wear. Furthermore, several horizontal grooves were observed in both the buccal and the lingual crown surfaces of almost all teeth, especially the anterior ones. The orthopantomogram showed hypomineralized enamel and alveolar bone loss. Two third-molar teeth were investigated using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis, revealing highly irregular enamel caps with reduced average thickness. The observed features suggest a diagnosis of hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta, a developmental condition affecting enamel formation. PMID:24405030

  18. Exchangeable Cations in the Soils of Quercus Dominated Forests in Northeastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shuai; Bruckman, Viktor J.; Glatzel, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    In northeastern Austria there is a growing interest in increased utilisation of forest biomass for energy. This study focuses on soil properties and nutrient pool characteristics in deciduous forests in order to provide advice for forest management. We (i) quantified selected exchangeable cations in the soils of our study area and (ii) identified the effects of stand age, soil type, soil depth and soil pH on exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Nine permanent Quercus petraea dominated plots on sandy, clayey cambisols and calcic chernozem were selected for our study. From each plot 18 soil samples were collected in a systematic grid by means of a soil corer with 70 mm diameter to a maximum depth of 60 cm. Soil pH, exchangeable mineral elements K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Al, and Fe were determined in five geometric soil horizons. Statistical analysis showed that (i) forest age did not influence the exchangeable K content of the sandy soils; (ii) the exchangeable K content decreased with increasing stand age in clayey cambisols; (iii) exchangeable K, Na and Mg were higher in calcic chernozems and clayey cambisols (iv) exchangeable Fe was significantly higher in sandy forest soils except in the 60-80 years old stand; (v) exchangeable Fe was below detection limit in calcic chernozem soils. A comparison of exchangeable cations revealed that (i) Ca is the key element of base cations (ii) the content of base cations is strongly significantly higher in calcic chernozem soils (iii) calcic chernozem soils have the highest CEC. CEC ranged from 38 to 190 μmol/g in the entire research area. Base cations, acid cations and CEC differ with soil depth as followed (i) in sandy and clayey cambisols, CEC had a minimum in 20 cm depth and then increased with soil depth to 50 cm; (ii) CEC decreased steadily with soil depth in calcic chernozems. As expected, CEC is significantly positively correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.661, P<0.01) with the pH of the soil. The

  19. Dirofilaria in Humans, Dogs, and Vectors in Austria (1978–2014)—From Imported Pathogens to the Endemicity of Dirofilaria repens

    PubMed Central

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Auer, Herbert; Leschnik, Michael; Silbermayr, Katja; Duscher, Georg; Joachim, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Background Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis are filarioid helminths with domestic and wild canids as main hosts and mosquitoes as vectors. Both species are known to cause zoonotic diseases, primarily pulmonary (D. immitis), ocular (D. repens), and subcutaneous (D. repens) dirofilariosis. Both D. immitis and D. repens are known as invasive species, and their distribution seems associated with climate change. Until very recently, both species were known to be nonendemic in Austria. Methodology and Principal Findings Metadata on introduced and possibly autochthonous cases of infection with Dirofilaria sp. in dogs and humans in Austria are analysed, together with analyses of mosquito populations from Austria in ongoing studies. In Austria, most cases of Dirofilaria sp. in humans (30 cases of D. repens—six ocular and 24 subcutaneous) and dogs (approximately 50 cases—both D. immitis and D. repens) were most likely imported. However, occasionally infections with D. repens were discussed to be autochthonous (one human case and seven in dogs). The introduction of D. repens to Austria was confirmed very recently, as the parasite was detected in Burgenland (eastern Austria) for the first time in mosquito vectors during a surveillance program. For D. immitis, this could not be confirmed yet, but data from Germany suggest that the successful establishment of this nematode species in Austria is a credible scenario for the near future. Conclusions The first findings of D. repens in mosquito vectors indicate that D. repens presumably invaded in eastern Austria. Climate analyses from central Europe indicate that D. immitis also has the capacity to establish itself in the lowland regions of Austria, given that both canid and culicid hosts are present. PMID:27196049

  20. Soil organic matter change - analysis on a regional scale of Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruendling, Ralf; Franko, Uwe; Sedy, Katrin; Freudenschuß, Alexandra; Spiegel, Adelheid; Formayer, Herbert

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important resource in agriculture. It influences soil fertility, erosion processes and prevents soil degradation. However, SOM is strongly affected by climate change, soil conditions and management alterations. The presented study analyzes SOM changes in Austria on a regional scale in the "Marchfeld" and the "Muehlviertel". For quantification these SOM changes the model CCB (Candy Carbon Balance) was used. Based on a 1 square kilometer raster, the impact of specific site conditions on SOM are determined to characterize the study areas. Used as a main indicator for these conditions is the biologic active time (BAT). BAT describes the biologic activity for carbon cycling in top soils depending on soil and climatic conditions. High values of BAT indicate fast SOM reproduction rates. Hence, BAT changes over last years signpost the risk of SOM loss and can be used as an on-farm decision tool. The change of risks of SOM loss due to climate change is assessed by model results. Therefore, three climate scenarios are used to compute reproduction rates of SOM. "High risk-regions" can be identified for policy consulting. Different climate scenarios can help to develop best case and worst case results. First results show that the region "Marchfeld" had a higher change in BAT during last 2 decades comparing to the "Muehlviertel". A higher risk of SOM loosing is evident. Nevertheless, future scenarios predict a higher change of BAT for the "Muehlviertel". Apparently, the sensitivity of "Marchfeld" sites regard to climate change has been higher in the past and most BAT changes took place until now. With this method an evaluation of farm management in regard to SOM reproduction and recommendation of crop rotations for the future are possible. In conclusion, the aim of the project is a tool box for farmers and policy makers to evaluate present and future agricultural management. An examination of additional regions in Austria is planned.

  1. Seismic monitoring of soft-rock landslides: New case study at Pechgraben mudslide - Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vouillamoz, Naomi; Santoyo, Juan Carlos; Ottowitz, David; Jochum, Birgit; Pfeiler, Stefan; Supper, Robert; Joswig, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Creeping soft-rock landslides trigger various seismic signals which relate to key dynamics of the slope instability. A new seismic monitoring study is carried out at Pechgraben - Upper Austria, where a clay-shale rich mudslide was reactivated in summer 2013 after heavy rainfalls. The well geophysical instrumentation of the Pechgraben mudslide by the Geological Survey of Austria (LAMOND network including permanent ERT, GPS, piezometers, soil temperature/humidity and photomonitoring) is expected as a better basis for joint interpretation of seismic source processes. Seismic data are acquired by small-aperture (< 30 m) sparse seismic arrays. Potential events are recognized by frequency-time signatures in sonograms, where sonograms are spectrograms featuring a frequency-dependant noise adaptation that enhance the display of weak signal energy down to the noise threshold. Further signal evaluation follows an interactive scheme where semi-automated beam forming method enables for approximate source location. Three seismic arrays where deployed at Pechgraben in October 2015 for an eight days feasibility study. About 200 seismic signals potentially triggered by the landslide were manually picked on night-time measurements. Target signals occur in tremor-like sequences and have duration within 1 - 8 seconds. Local magnitudes are calibrated down to ML -1.5 (Wood-Anderson amplitude ≈ 0.1 μm in 100 m distance). Observed waveforms display high degree of similarity with seismic signals catalogued at other soft-rock landslides suggesting that a general typology of seismic source processes could be established for creeping soft-rock instabilities with potential further implications in landslide mitigation and forecasting.

  2. Endoparasites of the fallow deer (Dama dama) of the Antheringer Au in Salzburg, Austria.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Steffen; Visser, Martin; Jekel, Ilse; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2014-04-01

    Although the annual harvest of fallow deer increased markedly in Austria in the past two decades, only little is known about the parasites of fallow deer in Austria. To add current faunistic knowledge on the endoparasites of fallow deer in the country, viscera from six adult males and one male fawn from the game preserve Antheringer Au, Salzburg, were examined in 2009-2010 using standard techniques, and spleen samples were screened for DNA of tick-borne pathogens (polymerase chain reaction). Infections with sarcocysts (Sarcocystis spp.) and gastrointestinal nematodes (range: 379-1,294 worms) were demonstrated in all deer; four and three bucks had Dictyocaulus eckerti (range: two to seven worms) and Varestrongylus sagittatus lungworms, respectively; Fasciola hepatica (9 and 18 flukes) were isolated from the liver of two bucks, and DNA of Babesia capreoli was isolated from the spleen of one buck. In addition, Eimeria sordida oocysts were identified in the faeces of the fawn that harboured also one Setaria sp., presumably Setaria altaica, in its mesentery. Fifteen species (morphs for the ostertagians) of gastrointestinal nematodes were identified: Ostertagia leptospicularis, Ostertagia drozdzi/Skrjabinagia ryjikovi, Spiculopteragia asymmetrica, Spiculopteragia boehmi/Rinadia mathevossiani, Trichostrongylus askivali, Trichostrongylus capricola, Cooperia pectinata, Nematodirus battus, Nematodirus roscidus, Capillaria bovis, Oesophagostomum sikae, Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichuris globulosa. Two and four bucks had high individual burdens of more than 500 and more than 1,000 worms, respectively. As the nematode counts of the five bucks harvested during the mating season were associated with unusual high faecal egg counts, and four of the bucks had Dictyocaulus lungworms in addition, these findings may suggest a reduced resistance to parasites related with high levels of androgens and experience of stress during rut. PMID:24535173

  3. Patterns of globalized reproduction: Egg cells regulation in Israel and Austria.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Carmel; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Since the successful introduction of in vitro fertilization in 1978, medically assisted reproduction (MAR) has proliferated in multiple clinical innovations. Consequently, egg cells have become an object of demand for both infertility treatment and stem cell research, and this raises complex legal, ethical, social and economic issues.In this paper we compare how the procurement and use of human egg cells is regulated in two countries: Israel and Austria. Israel is known for its scientific leadership, generous public funding, high utilization and liberal regulation of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Austria lies at the other extreme of the regulatory spectrum in terms of restrictions on reproductive interventions.In both countries, however, there is a constant increase in the use of the technology, and recent legal developments make egg cells more accessible. Also, in both countries the scarcity of egg cells in concert with the rising demand for donations has led to the emergence of cross-border markets and global 'reproductive tourism' practices. In Israel, in particular, a scandal known as the 'eggs affair' was followed by regulation that allowed egg cell donations from outside the country under certain conditions.Cross-border markets are developed by medical entrepreneurs, driven by global economic gaps, made possible by trans-national regulatory lacunae and find expression as consumer demand. The transnational practice of egg cell donations indicates the emergence of a global public health issue, but there is a general lack of medical and epidemiological data on its efficacy and safety. We conclude that there is need for harmonisation of domestic laws and formulation of new instruments for international governance. PMID:22913734

  4. Posterior archaeomagnetic dating for the early Medieval site Thunau am Kamp, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepp, Elisabeth; Lanos, Philippe; Obenaus, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The early medieval site Thunau am Kamp consists of a hill fort and a settlement with large burial ground at the bank of river Kamp. All these features are under archaeological investigation since many years. The settlement comprises many pit houses, some with stratigraphic order. Every pit house was equipped with at least one cupola oven and/or a hearth or fireplace. Sometimes the entire cupola was preserved. The site was occupied during the 9th and 10th AD according to potshards which seem to indicate two phases: In the older phase ovens were placed in the corner of the houses while during the younger phase they are found in the middle of the wall. In order to increase the archaeomagnetic data base 14 ovens have been sampled. They fill the temporal gap in the data base for Austria around 900 AD. Laboratory treatment included alternation field and thermal demagnetisations as well as rock magnetic experiments. The baked clay with was formed from a loess sediment has preserved stable directions. Apart from one exception the mean characteristic remanent magnetization directions are concentrated around 900 AD on the early medieval part of the directional archaeomagnetic reference curve of Austria (Schnepp & Lanos, GJI, 2006). Using this curve archaeomagnetic dating with RenDate provides ages between 800 and 1100 AD which are in agreement with archaeological dating. In one case archaeomagnetic dating is even more precise. Together with the archaeological age estimates and stratigraphic information the new data have been included into the database of the Austrian curve. It has been recalculated using a new version of RenCurve. The new data confine the curve and its error band considerably in the time interval 800 to 1100 AD. The curve calibration process also provides a probability density distribution for each structure which allows for posterior dating. This refines temporal errors considerably. Usefulness of such an approach and archaeological implications will be

  5. Determining water and nitrogen balances for beneficial management practices using lysimeters at Wagna test site (Austria).

    PubMed

    Klammler, Gernot; Fank, Johann

    2014-11-15

    The shallow Murtal aquifer south of Graz, Austria, provides easily withdrawable groundwater, which is supplied as drinking water without any chemical treatment. The aquifer is also used intensively by agriculture. Common agricultural management practices are the main source for diffuse nitrogen leaching and high groundwater nitrate concentrations. To safeguard the coexisting use of these two important resources, lysimeters are operated at the agricultural test site Wagna, Austria, and the influence of two beneficial management practices--low nitrogen input and organic farming--on nitrogen leaching towards groundwater is investigated. The technical lysimeter design as presented here consists of: (1) high-resolution weighing cells, (2) a suction controlled lower boundary condition for sucking off seepage water, thus emulating undisturbed field conditions, (3) comparative soil temperature, water content and matrix potential measurements inside and outside the lysimeter at different depths, (4) an installation of the lysimeters directly into test plots and (5) a removable upper lysimeter ring enabling machinery soil tillage. Our results indicate that oasis effects or fringe effects of the lysimeter cylinder on unsaturated water flow did not occur. Another lysimeter cultivated with lawn is operated for observing grass-reference evapotranspiration, which resulted in good agreement with calculated grass-reference evapotranspiration according to the FAO-Penman-Monteith method. We conclude that lysimeters installed at Wagna test site did not show any fringe effects and, thus, are appropriate tools for measuring water balance elements and nitrogen leaching of arable and grass land at point scale. Furthermore, our results for the period of 2005 to 2011 show that beneficial management practices reduced nitrate leaching and, hence, may allow for a sustainable coexistence of drinking water supply and agriculture in the Murtal aquifer. PMID:24982000

  6. A non-foodborne norovirus outbreak among school children during a skiing holiday, Austria, 2007.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hung-Wei; Schmid, Daniela; Schwarz, Karin; Pichler, Anna-Margaretha; Klein, Heidelinde; König, Christoph; de Martin, Alfred; Allerberger, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Norovirus is increasingly recognized as a leading cause of outbreaks of foodborne disease. We report on an outbreak in Austria that reached a total of 176 cases, affecting pupils and teachers from four schools on a skiing holiday in a youth hostel in the province of Salzburg in December 2007. A questionnaire was sent to the four schools in order to obtain data from persons attending the school trip on disease status, clinical onset, duration of illness and hospitalization. A cohort study was undertaken to identify the sources of infection. The school trip attendees were interviewed by questionnaire or face-to-face on their exposure to food items from the menu provided by the hostel owner. Of the 284 school holiday-makers, 176 fitted the definition of an outbreak case (attack rate 61.9%). A total of 264 persons on the ski holiday participated in the cohort study (response rate 93%). The day-by-day food-specific analyses did not find any food items served on any of five days (December 8-12) of the holiday to be associated with infection risk. The day-specific risk analyses revealed Monday December 10 (RR: 9.04; 95% CI: 6.02-13.6; P < 0.001) and Tuesday December 11 (RR: 3.37; 95% CI: 2.56-4.43; P < 0.001) as the two most risky days for having being exposed to norovirus. According to the epidemiological investigation, airborne transmission of norovirus originating from the first vomiting case most probably initiated this outbreak; foodborne genesis was excluded. During recent years, norovirus has become increasingly established as the most important causative agent of epidemic gastroenteritis in holiday-makers all over Europe. Tourism is one of the primary industries in Austria. Timely involvement of the relevant public health authorities is essential in any outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis, irrespective of its genesis. PMID:19280137

  7. Cardiac rehabilitation in Austria: long term health-related quality of life outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The goal of cardiac rehabilitation programs is not only to prolong life but also to improve physical functioning, symptoms, well-being, and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The aim of this study was to document the long-term effect of a 1-month inpatient cardiac rehabilitation intervention on HRQL in Austria. Methods Patients (N = 487, 64.7% male, age 60.9 ± 12.5 SD years) after myocardial infarction, with or without percutaneous interventions, coronary artery bypass grafting or valve surgery underwent inpatient cardiac rehabilitation and were included in this long-term observational study (two years follow-up). HRQL was measured with both the MacNew Heart Disease Quality of Life Instrument [MacNew] and EuroQoL-5D [EQ-5D]. Results All MacNew scale scores improved significantly (p < 0.001) and exceeded the minimal important difference (0.5 MacNew points) by the end of rehabilitation. Although all MacNew scale scores deteriorated significantly over the two year follow-up period (p < .001), all MacNew scale scores still remained significantly higher than the pre-rehabilitation values. The mean improvement after two years in the MacNew social scale exceeded the minimal important difference while MacNew scale scores greater than the minimal important difference were reported by 40-49% of the patients. Two years after rehabilitation the mean improvement in the EQ-5D Visual Analogue Scale score was not significant with no significant change in the proportion of patients reporting problems at this time. Conclusion These findings provide a first indication that two years following inpatient cardiac rehabilitation in Austria, the long-term improvements in HRQL are statistically significant and clinically relevant for almost 50% of the patients. Future controlled randomized trials comparing different cardiac rehabilitation programs are needed. PMID:19995445

  8. Patterns of globalized reproduction: Egg cells regulation in Israel and Austria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Since the successful introduction of in vitro fertilization in 1978, medically assisted reproduction (MAR) has proliferated in multiple clinical innovations. Consequently, egg cells have become an object of demand for both infertility treatment and stem cell research, and this raises complex legal, ethical, social and economic issues. In this paper we compare how the procurement and use of human egg cells is regulated in two countries: Israel and Austria. Israel is known for its scientific leadership, generous public funding, high utilization and liberal regulation of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Austria lies at the other extreme of the regulatory spectrum in terms of restrictions on reproductive interventions. In both countries, however, there is a constant increase in the use of the technology, and recent legal developments make egg cells more accessible. Also, in both countries the scarcity of egg cells in concert with the rising demand for donations has led to the emergence of cross-border markets and global 'reproductive tourism' practices. In Israel, in particular, a scandal known as the 'eggs affair' was followed by regulation that allowed egg cell donations from outside the country under certain conditions. Cross-border markets are developed by medical entrepreneurs, driven by global economic gaps, made possible by trans-national regulatory lacunae and find expression as consumer demand. The transnational practice of egg cell donations indicates the emergence of a global public health issue, but there is a general lack of medical and epidemiological data on its efficacy and safety. We conclude that there is need for harmonisation of domestic laws and formulation of new instruments for international governance. PMID:22913734

  9. Implementing the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) in Austria: Flood Risk Management Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhold, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    he Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (EFD) aims at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods in the Community. This task is to be achieved based on three process steps (1) preliminary flood risk assessment (finalised by the end of 2011), (2) flood hazard maps and flood risk maps (due 2013) and (3) flood risk management plans (due 2015). Currently, an interdisciplinary national working group is defining the methodological framework for flood risk management plans in Austria supported by a constant exchange with international bodies and experts. Referring to the EFD the components of the flood risk management plan are (excerpt): 1. conclusions of the preliminary flood risk assessment 2. flood hazard maps and flood risk maps and the conclusions that can be drawn from those maps 3. a description of the appropriate objectives of flood risk management 4. a summary of measures and their prioritisation aiming to achieve the appropriate objectives of flood risk management The poster refers to some of the major challenges in this process, such as the legal provisions, coordination of administrative units, definition of public relations, etc. The implementation of the EFD requires the harmonisation of legal instruments of various disciplines (e.g. water management, spatial planning, civil protection) enabling a coordinated - and ideally binding - practice of flood risk management. This process is highly influenced by the administrative organisation in Austria - federal, provincial and municipality level. The Austrian approach meets this organisational framework by structuring the development of the flood risk management plan into 3 time-steps: (a) federal blueprint, (b) provincial editing and (c) federal finishing as well as reporting to the European Commission. Each time

  10. [Challenges in the implementation of electronic health care records and patient cards in Austria].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, K P; Auer, C M

    2009-03-01

    Patient-centered, interinstitutional digital documentation and communication in the Austrian health care system is a primary goal of Austria health politics. The implementation of the eCard in the year 2005 was a very important step towards digitalization of the Austria health system. The main responsibility of the Ministry of Health (MoH) is coordinating the implementation of the eHealth infrastructure based on international standards. The Austrian electronic health care record (ELGA) should include all relevant multimedia medical and health-related data of a uniquely identified person. A selection of "relevant" documents must be made. The implementation of ELGA will take place in modules. Because of the importance of the federal states and their role in health care, a special commission was set up to represent the most important stakeholders. Thereby they are included in the decision-making process. This is important with regard to the future use of many already existing information systems and for further investments. The most important steps until now were the implementation of a working group for ELGA as an association of the national health commission in the year 2006 and the implementation of a feasibility study as well as a cost-benefit analysis. Data protection and security are considered very important factors and, with respect to these, the roles for health care providers will be defined. To achieve high acceptance from the public and especially from health care providers, it is important to inform them about the benefits of eHealth. PMID:19259636

  11. UV-radiation in the past: Reconstruction and long-term changes in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzimustafic, J.; Simic, S.; Fitzka, M.

    2013-05-01

    Series of daily erythemal UV-dose are reconstructed for the last 30 years of the 20th century in Austria and its changes during that period with respect to observed changes in total ozone and cloud cover discussed. The reconstruction method is based on the relationship between long-term global radiation and sunshine duration records and existing measurements of erythemal UV at several locations. Through comparison with different data sources efforts are made to assure high data quality for all input parameters. The results for reconstructed daily sums show high correlations (0.95-0.99) with observed values compared on a yearly and seasonal basis throughout the overlapping period 1998-2010. Assessed from the reconstructed data, long-term variability of erythemal UV daily dose for two time periods has been quantified (1977-1995, 1996-2010). Special emphasis is put on the investigation of changes in UV due to observed trends in clouds and sunshine duration in the Austrian Alpine regions during the last decades. The earlier period shows significant changes between +4.1 %/dec and +6.9 %/dec at six stations in Austria, mainly due to significant decreases in total ozone column of up to -3.7 %/dec. Positive significant trends of around +2%/dec are found in cloud and aerosol modification factors at most of stations along with observed positive trends in sunshine duration, being statistically significant at eastern and southern stations. In spite of ozone layer recovery since the mid 1990s, the latter period does not reveal any statistically significant changes in erythemal UV irradiation.

  12. Holistic assessment of a landfill mining pilot project in Austria: Methodology and application.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Robert; Baumgartner, Rupert J; Vorbach, Stefan; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Ragossnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Basic technical and economic examinations of Austrian mass waste landfills, concerning the recovery of secondary raw materials, have been carried out by the 'LAMIS - Landfill Mining Austria' pilot project for the first time in Austria. A main focus of the research - the subject of this article - was the first devotion of a pilot landfill to an integrated ecological and economic assessment so that its feasibility could be verified before a landfill mining project commenced. A Styrian mass waste landfill had been chosen for this purpose that had been put into operation in 1979 and received mechanically-biologically pre-treated municipal waste till 2012. The whole assessment procedure was divided into preliminary and main assessment phases to evaluate the general suitability of a landfill mining project with little financial and human resource expense. A portfolio chart, based on a questionnaire, was created for the preliminary assessment that, as a result, has provided a recommendation for subsequent investigation - the main assessment phase. In this case, specific economic criteria were assessed by net present value calculation, while ecological or socio-economic criteria were rated by utility analysis, transferring the result into a utility-net present value chart. In the case of the examined pilot landfill, assessing the landfill mining project produced a higher utility but a lower net present value than a landfill leaving-in for aftercare. Since no clearly preferable scenario could be identified this way, a cost-revenue analysis was carried out in addition that determined a dimensionless ratio: the 'utility - net present value quotient' of both scenarios. Comparing this quotient showed unmistakably that in the overall assessment, 'leaving the landfill in aftercare' was preferable to a 'landfill mining project' in that specific case. PMID:27170192

  13. Dementia service centres in Austria: A comprehensive support and early detection model for persons with dementia and their caregivers – theoretical foundations and model description

    PubMed Central

    Span, Edith; Reisberg, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Despite the highly developed social services in Austria, the County of Upper Austria, one of the nine counties of Austria had only very limited specialized services for persons with dementia and their caregivers in 2001. Support groups existed in which the desire for more specialized services was voiced. In response to this situation, funding was received to develop a new structure for early disease detection and long term support for both the person with dementia and their caregivers. This article describes the development of the model of the Dementia Service Centres (DSCs) and the successes and difficulties encountered in the process of implementing the model in six different rural regions of Upper Austria. The DSC was described in the First Austrian Dementia Report as one of the potential service models for the future. PMID:24339114

  14. UAV-based Natural Hazard Management in High-Alpine Terrain - Case Studies from Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotier, Bernadette; Adams, Marc; Lechner, Veronika

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have become a standard tool for geodata collection, as they allow conducting on-demand mapping missions in a flexible, cost-effective manner at an unprecedented level of detail. Easy-to-use, high-performance image matching software make it possible to process the collected aerial images to orthophotos and 3D-terrain models. Such up-to-date geodata have proven to be an important asset in natural hazard management: Processes like debris flows, avalanches, landslides, fluvial erosion and rock-fall can be detected and quantified; damages can be documented and evaluated. In the Alps, these processes mostly originate in remote areas, which are difficult and hazardous to access, thus presenting a challenging task for RPAS data collection. In particular, the problems include finding suitable landing and piloting-places, dealing with bad or no GPS-signals and the installation of ground control points (GCP) for georeferencing. At the BFW, RPAS have been used since 2012 to aid natural hazard management of various processes, of which three case studies are presented below. The first case study deals with the results from an attempt to employ UAV-based multi-spectral remote sensing to monitor the state of natural hazard protection forests. Images in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) band were collected using modified low-cost cameras, combined with different optical filters. Several UAV-flights were performed in the 72 ha large study site in 2014, which lies in the Wattental, Tyrol (Austria) between 1700 and 2050 m a.s.l., where the main tree species are stone pine and mountain pine. The matched aerial images were analysed using different UAV-specific vitality indices, evaluating both single- and dual-camera UAV-missions. To calculate the mass balance of a debris flow in the Tyrolean Halltal (Austria), an RPAS flight was conducted in autumn 2012. The extreme alpine environment was challenging for both the mission and the evaluation of the aerial

  15. Macro-scale assessment of areas sensitive to changes in flood magnitudes for Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrnegger, Mathew; Apperl, Benjamin; Senoner, Tobias; Nachtnebel, Hans-Peter

    2014-05-01

    This contribution presents a GIS-based method for the identification of areas sensitive to changes in flood magnitudes on the basis of existing flood maps and topographic features of flood plains. The approach enables the identification of flood prone river sections for large areas, as no additional hydrodynamic simulations are necessary or available. In our case an area of ~ 84.000 km2, including about 26.000 km of rivers and streams, is analysed. Even though the results of climate models are uncertain regarding the prediction of future changes in frequency and magnitude of floods, the recent accumulation of extreme flood events in parts of Austria makes it inevitable to account for possible changes in runoff characteristics. Therefore, an enhanced impact assessment of these changes and the identification of flood sensitive areas is necessary. The existing HORA data set (Natural Hazard Overview & Risk Assessment Austria) indicates flood plains for recurrence intervals of 30, 100 and 200 years for the entire area of Austria under current climate conditions. A variable climate change allowance is applied to the corresponding discharges of the 200 years return period data set (HQ200), with the aim of generating modified runoff values of equal recurrence intervals for all flood values (HQcc). This procedure guarantees a consistent data set, based on the underlying Gumbel flood statistics of the original data set. The HORA-data sets includes points with the information on discharge and water depth for the existing recurrence intervals. Based on the simplifying assumption of (1) a rectangular cross section, (2) the water depth for the HQ200 discharge value and (3) the modified HQcc value, a new water depth (hcc) and the change in water depth (Δh) can be calculated for these locations. Changes in water depth are aggregated for municipalities by calculating a weighted mean depth change, using discharge as the weighting value. Based on the derived water depth changes, the

  16. The Atlas of Natural Hazards and Risks of Austria: first results for fluvial and pluvial floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergili, Martin; Tader, Andreas; Glade, Thomas; Neuhold, Clemens; Stiefelmeyer, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    Incoherent societal adaptation to natural processes results in significant losses every year. A better knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of hazards and risks, and of particular hot spots in a given region or period, is essential for reducing adverse impacts. Commonly, different hazard and risk estimations are performed within individual approaches based on tailor-made concepts. This works well as long as specific cases are considered. The advantage of such a procedure is that each individual hazard and risk is addressed in the best possible manner. The drawback, however, consists in the fact that the results differ significantly in terms of quality and accuracy and therefore cannot be compared. Hence, there is a need to develop a strategy and concept which uses similar data sources of equivalent quality in order to adequately analyze the different natural hazards and risks at broader scales. The present study is aiming to develop such a platform. The project Risk:ATlas focuses on the design of an atlas visualizing the most relevant natural hazards and, in particular, possible consequences for the entire territory of Austria. Available as a web-based tool and as a printed atlas, it is seen as a key tool to improve the basis for risk reduction, risk adaptation and risk transfer. The atlas is founded on those data sets available for the entire territory of Austria at a consistent resolution and quality. A 1 m resolution DEM and the official cadastre and building register represent the core, further data sets are employed according to the requirements for each natural hazard and risk. In this contribution, the methodology and the preliminary results for fluvial and pluvial floods and their consequences to buildings for three selected test areas in different types of landscapes (rural, urban and mountainous) are presented. Flooding depths expected for annualities of 30, 100 and 300 are derived from existing data sets for fluvial floods and are computed

  17. Smoking prevalence, readiness to quit and smoking cessation in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria

    PubMed Central

    Degen, Olaf; Arbter, Peter; Hartmann, Peter; Mayr, Christoph; Buhk, Thomas; Schalk, Horst; Brath, Helmut; Ernst Dorner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Due to the interaction between smoking and the virus and the antiretroviral therapy, the excess health hazard due to smoking is higher in HIV+ patients than in the general population. International studies suggest a higher prevalence of smoking in HIV+ subjects compared to the general population. It was the aim of the study to assess prevalence of smoking, to analyze determinants of smoking, and to evaluate readiness to quit in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria. Material and Methods Consecutive patients with positive tested HIV status, smokers and non-smokers, who are treated in seven different HIV care centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependency (FTND), and stages of change by a standardized readiness to quit questionnaire. Self-reported smoking status was objectified by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Smokers who wanted to quit were offered a structured smoking cessation programme, and those who did not want to quit received a 1-minute consultation. After six months, the smoking status of all included subjects was reassessed. Results A total of 447 patients were included; the response rate was 92%. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, lower age, male sex, lower educational level, and smoking of the partner were significantly associated with the smoking status. According to the FTND, 25.3% showed a low (0–2 points), 27.6 a moderate (3–4 points) and 47.1% a high (5–10 points) dependency. Regarding stages of change, 15.4% of the smokers were in the stadium precontemplation, 48.4 in contemplation, 15.4 in preparation and 10.0 in the stadium action. 11.0% were not assignable in any stadium. Higher education level and lower grade of dependency were significantly associated with the wish to quit smoking. Six months after the baseline examination, smoking cessation visits (at least one session) was

  18. Object-based glacier mapping in the Hohe Tauern Mountains of Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey Robson, Benjamin; Hölbling, Daniel; Nuth, Christopher; Olaf Dahl, Svein

    2015-04-01

    Up-to-date and frequent glacier outlines are a necessity for many applications within glaciology. While multispectral band ratios are a comparatively robust method for automatically classifying clean ice on a pixel-based level, semi- or fully automated glacier inventories are complicated by spectral similarities between classes such as debris-covered glacier ice and the surrounding bedrock and moraines, or between clean ice and turbid pro-glacial water. Most glacier inventories therefore require a great deal of manual correction. Here, we present a glacier inventory of the Hohe Tauern Mountains in the Central Eastern Alps in Austria. Numerous glaciers, including the Pasterze Glacier, which is the longest glacier in the Eastern Alps, shape this mountainous region. The mapping of glaciers is based on object-based image analysis (OBIA) using both high resolution (HR) satellite imagery from Landsat 8 and a digital elevation model (DEM) derived from Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data. We automatically classify clean ice, debris-covered ice and glacial lakes. Image objects are created by applying the multiresolution segmentation algorithm implemented in the eCognition (Trimble) software. The resulting image objects are classified using a combination of various features, whereby a focus was put on the selection of robust features that are ideally applicable for mapping large areas, for example spectral indices such as the Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Snow and Ice Index (NDSI), Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI), Land and Water Mask (LWK) and a ratio of the SWIR and NIR spectral bands. The ability of OBIA to incorporate optical and elevation data and to individually address data-specific characteristics helps differentiate debris-covered ice from surrounding features not only by using spectral properties but also based on morphological and topographic parameters, while the inclusion of rulesets relying on contextuality, size

  19. Exploring hydrological uncertainties and thresholds of a drought vulnerable region in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohmann, Clara; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Birk, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    In the region of South-Eastern Styria, Austria, a strong increase of summer temperature over the last decades was recognized by Kabas et. al. (Meteorol. Z./ 20 (3), 277-289, 2011). With climate change the temperature will further increase, so that the possibility for more frequent droughts in summer will rise. This leads to the question if, for example, a steppe climate similar to that in the neighboring Hungarian Pussta can evolve in this region. Drastic climatic changes will be accompanied by strong changes in the hydrological balance. Since the region is strongly influenced by agriculture and other non-climatic factors as well, these human impacts on the water cycle must be considered. The Wegener Center, University of Graz is studying the Raab catchment in South-Eastern Styria, Austria, as an example of a small catchment of the climate-sensitive southern Alpine foothills. The available data indicate that the region is vulnerable to droughts in summer, signalled by a strong temperature increase over the recent decades and a tendency of precipitation decrease. The main goals of this study are to explore how the water balance in the region is going to change in the future, what the most significant uncertainties are and where there might be thresholds towards drastic changes. In this poster we report on the first steps, which is to build up a hydrological model for the Styrian Raab valley based on the Water balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) of ETH Zurich, Switzerland. Within the calibration the focus is on low flow conditions in summer. Given that the model shows good results for the well observed recent decades, a sensitivity analysis for changes in specific (control) parameters of the surface water balance is conducted. This will include anomalies of temperature and precipitation, water use for irrigation, and others. This enables to explore how warmer temperatures or changes in irrigation and crops affect the catchment. Model analyses do not only focus on flow

  20. Seismogenic-driven hydroplastic deformation of soft sediments (Hirlatzhöhle, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Martina Lan; Grasemann, Bernhard; Plan, Lukas; Gier, Susanne

    2015-04-01

    Deformed Quaternary cave sediments, which are well protected from both the erosional processes occurring at the Earth's surface and anthropogenic activities, provide a detailed archive of paleoseismic events, as well as an opportunity to assess potential regional seismic hazards. Hirlatz Cave, which lies about 2 km SW of Hallstatt, in the Salzkammergut area of Upper Austria, formed in a Triassic carbonate platform in the Dachstein Nappe, part of the Northern Calcareous Alps. With an overall length of 101 km, this is the third largest cave system in Austria. The present study focuses on an approximately 6.8 m long x 3 m high outcrop of Quaternary deposits that lie 2.8 km southeast of the cave entrance, in the so-called Lehmklamm. The succession comprises alternating packages of (a) pale grey sediments 3-25 mm thick and (b) finely laminated (1-2 mm) alternations of grey and lighter and darker brown sediments in layers 10-34 mm thick. X-ray diffraction analyses of the unconsolidated, finely laminated clay-sized sediments show a varve-like layering of brighter, carbonate and quartz-rich, and darker, clay mineral-rich layers of fluvio-lacustrine deposits. Heavy mineral analyses indicate an amphibolite facies source area that underwent a greenschist facies overprint. This indicates that the crystalline Central Alps lying to the south of the cave was likely the source. The succession contains abundant millimetre to centimetre-sized seismogenically-induced flame and fishtail structures, domino-boudins and syn-slumping structures such as folds and faults (normal and thrust faults) with flanking structures. Geometric analogues that are 2-3 orders of magnitudes larger have been described close to the Dead Sea Fault (e.g. Alsop et. al., 2011). Quantitative techniques, such as the reconstruction of the aspect ratios of boudins, the fault system polarity, the variation coefficient of faults and kinematic balancing have been used to interpret the structures. This suggests that (i

  1. How well do budburst models perform in Germany, Austria, UK and Finland?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Cecilia; Jönsson, Anna Maria

    2014-05-01

    The phenology of trees affects the productivity of forests making phenological representation an important component of ecosystem models. The response to cues in temperature and day length varies among provenances, with the differences among provenances not fully understood. We evaluated the accuracy of eleven budburst models for birch and Norway spruce in Germany, United Kingdom (UK), Austria and Finland; covering gradients in latitude, altitude and continentality. The models were not able to accurately predict the timing of budburst, especially in the Alps. Early budburst were in general predicted too early and late budburst predicted too late, hence were budburst predicted too early in UK and too late in Austria. Models to be used in climate change assessments should be able to capture extreme events since budburst that today are considered very early could become the norm in a warmer climate. Our results imply that the models accuracy varied with spring temperatures and along geographical gradients. Model complexity was in this study assumed to represent the models level of plant physiological realism. All phenological models contain empirical components, and the model performance is therefore to some degree dependent on the calibration data, and cannot be considered truly process-based. The more complex models were in general less able to capture the variation in budburst and their performance was more dependent on the calibration data. Four different calibration schemes were employed; models predicted budburst of birch more accurately when fitted with one site in Germany, while the models performed better for Norway spruce when fitted with multiple sites in Germany. Among the two best performing models were an empirical model based on spring temperatures and the Alternating model based on growing degree days with a dynamic forcing requirement. However, both models could be considered unsuitable for climate change impact assessments. The empirical model is for

  2. What happens after and during deglaciation? Some insight from observations at the largest glacier in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Avian, Michael; Lieb, Gerhard K.; Kaufmann, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    Pasterze Glacier is the largest glacier in Austria and the Eastern Alps. The glacier is located at the foot of Mt. Großglockner (3798 m a.s.l.), the highest peak in Austria, and is accessible rather easily by a high alpine road ending above the main glacier tongue. At present, the glacier covers an area of about 17 km2, has a length of 8.3 km, a maximum ice thickness of about 190 m and is characterized by two unequally sized glacier tongues. The main glacier tongue is c.4 km long and heavily covered by debris. Since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) at around AD 1850 this glacier receded by 2.1 km. During the last c.160 years the main glacier tongue lowered by some 250 m on average. The glacier surface flow velocity decreased substantially, i.e. for example by 32% between the time periods 2003-2006 and 2006-2009. Glacier recession revealed large areas of previously ice-buried bedrock as well as minerogenic and biogenic sediments. In this contribution we present a compendium of research results based on several projects related to pure proglacial but also paraglacial processes and landforms in the vicinity of the present glacier. We will discuss (a) rock slope adjustment processes and its causes influencing for instance the supraglacial debris cover of the main glacier tongue substantially, (b) landform dynamics in the outwash plain and adjacent slopes close to the present glacier terminus, (c) the role of dead-ice for the proglacial landsystem, (d) formation and rapid enlargement of rock outcrops within the ice-fall, and (e) related natural hazard aspects. A further aspect discussed here - which is rather particular for Pasterze Glacier - is the (e) biogenic material (peat lumps and wood fragments) which has been found in recently deglaciated terrain. This material provides valuable insight into past ecological, glaciological and climatological conditions. Further rapid back- and downwasting of this glacier is very likely due to lack of ice replenishment. The

  3. Structural assessment and multi-parameter monitoring - an application to the Salcher landslide (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, Alexander; Canli, Ekrem; Thiebes, Benni; Glade, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Landslides pose a serious threat to many communities in Austria. The region of Lower Austria is underlayed, amongst others, by the lithological units of the Flysch Zone and the Gresten Klippenbelt. Both are particularly affected by landslides and the majority of episodic occurrences are bound to these two units. The active Salcher landslide is situated at the western border of the municipality of Gresten and is embedded in the geologic transition zone of the respective lithological units. The landslide is a reactivated and deep seated complex landslide that endangers buildings, parts of a road and lifelines such as power and optical fiber lines, fresh and sewage water supplies. Its varying movement rates are in the order of a few centimeters per year and consequently are classified as slow to extremely slow. Despite biannual geodetic surveys, little is known about the dynamic behavior including the triggering and controlling factors and its internal structure. Surface and subsurface investigations were therefore carried out on that landslide. With the intention to detect morphological surface changes, comparative geomorphologic mapping and terrestrial laser scanning was performed. Additionally, surface kinematical information was acquired by historical documents and GNSS measurements. The detailed present soil-physical conditions and their relation to current dynamics were investigated by six drill cores and three inclinometer installations. Soil specimens were obtained by percussion drilling. Particle size distribution, and water and carbonate content were subsequently analyzed in the laboratory. In addition, dynamic probing was performed at 13 sites across the landslide body and resistance values were compared to textural findings. The soil specimens show a heterogeneous texture and large variations in carbonate and water content. Soil wedges, originating from local displacements, were determined in two drill cores. Very high water content and resulting plastic

  4. A Cluster of Deep Crustal Seismicity in the Northern Alpine Foreland of Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerner, Andreas; Grasemann, Bernhard; Lenhardt, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Within ten days of August 2008 a cluster of nine earthquakes was detected by the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie & Geodynamik (ZAMG) and other institutions in adjacent countries in the northwestern region of Austria, which until then was unremarkable in terms of its naturally occurring seismicity. At that time, the events with estimated magnitudes between ≈2.0 and 3.8, were located at depths of about 10-20 km in the general vicinity of Braunau (≈13.5° E) between the Bohemian Massif and the Eastern Alps, in an area of elevated geothermal heatflow (80-90 mW/m^2) with active geothermal energy production. A relocation of these events with NonLinLoc (Probabilistic Non-Linear Location algorithm) and HypoDD (Double-Difference location scheme) using a 3D-velocity model (Δx,y,z=1 km) of Austria revealed a very dense clustering of these events, and resulted in anomalously deep foci within 10 km of the Moho. Coherent focal mechanisms with T-axes striking NE-SW were determined for the strongest of the events through both, waveform-inversion (gCAP) and P-wave onset polarities (HASH). Further, the waveforms of all events exhibit high similarity (corr. of > 80%), as is typically observed in conjunction with densely clustered seismicity. Using a crosscorrelation technique (Subspace Detection Algorithm) we found previously undetected, weaker events during that time span associated with the same cluster. Similarly deep, lower crustal seismicity in the northern Alpine foreland has previously been observed and investigated in the Swiss part of the Central Alps west of 10° E, where the deepest events have been found to closely follow the Moho of the subducting European lithosphere. With the cluster of events reported on in this study apparently being singular in time and space, and in the absence of additional events observed at comparable depths in the wider region, we at this point do not infer any conclusive information as to the reasons of the observed seismicity. In light

  5. AQA-PM: Extension of the Air-Quality model for Austria with satellite based Particulate Matter estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirtl, M.; Mantovani, S.; Krüger, B. C.; Triebnig, G.

    2012-04-01

    Air quality is a key element for the well-being and quality of life of European citizens. Air pollution measurements and modeling tools are essential for assessment of air quality according to EU legislation. The responsibilities of ZAMG as the national weather service of Austria include the support of the federal states and the public in questions connected to the protection of the environment in the frame of advisory and counseling services as well as expert opinions. The Air Quality model for Austria (AQA) is operated at ZAMG in cooperation with the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences in Vienna (BOKU) by order of the regional governments since 2005. AQA conducts daily forecasts of gaseous and particulate (PM10) air pollutants over Austria. In the frame of the project AQA-PM (funded by FFG), satellite measurements of the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) and ground-based PM10-measurements are combined to highly-resolved initial fields using assimilation techniques. It is expected that the assimilation of satellite measurements will significantly improve the quality of AQA. Currently no observations are considered in the modeling system. At the current stage of the project, different datasets have been collected (ground measurements, satellite measurements, fine resolved regional emission inventories) and are analyzed and prepared for further processing. This contribution gives an overview of the project working plan and the upcoming developments. The goal of this project is to improve the PM10-forecasts for Austria with the integration of satellite based measurements and to provide a comprehensive product-platform.

  6. AQA-PM: Extension of the Air-Quality Model For Austria with Satellite based Particulate Matter Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirtl, Marcus; Mantovani, Simone; Krüger, Bernd C.; Triebnig, Gerhard; Flandorfer, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Air quality is a key element for the well-being and quality of life of European citizens. Air pollution measurements and modeling tools are essential for assessment of air quality according to EU legislation. The responsibilities of ZAMG as the national weather service of Austria include the support of the federal states and the public in questions connected to the protection of the environment in the frame of advisory and counseling services as well as expert opinions. The Air Quality model for Austria (AQA) is operated at ZAMG in cooperation with the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna (BOKU) by order of the regional governments since 2005. AQA conducts daily forecasts of gaseous and particulate (PM10) air pollutants over Austria. In the frame of the project AQA-PM (funded by FFG), satellite measurements of the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) and ground-based PM10-measurements are combined to highly-resolved initial fields using regression- and assimilation techniques. For the model simulations WRF/Chem is used with a resolution of 3 km over the alpine region. Interfaces have been developed to account for the different measurements as input data. The available local emission inventories provided by the different Austrian regional governments were harmonized and used for the model simulations. An episode in February 2010 is chosen for the model evaluation. During that month exceedances of PM10-thresholds occurred at many measurement stations of the Austrian network. Different model runs (only model/only ground stations assimilated/satellite and ground stations assimilated) are compared to the respective measurements. The goal of this project is to improve the PM10-forecasts for Austria with the integration of satellite based measurements and to provide a comprehensive product-platform.

  7. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage.

    PubMed

    Verma, S K; Ajzenberg, D; Rivera-Sanchez, A; Su, C; Dubey, J P

    2015-06-01

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (MS) markers. By PCR-RFLP typing, 7 isolates from Portugal chickens were identified as type II (ToxoDB #1 or #3), 4 were type III (ToxoDB #2) and the remaining 4 isolates have unique genotype pattern were designated as ToxoDB #254. One mouse virulent isolate from a bovine fetus (Bos taurus) in Portugal was type I (ToxoDB #10) at all loci and designated as TgCowPr1. All 67 isolates from Austria and 7 from Israel were type II (ToxoDB #1 or #3). By MS typing, many additional genetic variations were revealed among the type II and type III isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that isolates from the same geographical locations tend to cluster together, and there is little overlapping of genotypes among different locations. This study demonstrated that the MS markers can provide higher discriminatory power to reveal association of genotypes with geographical locations. Future studies of the type II strains in Europe by these MS markers will be useful to reveal transmission patterns of the parasite. PMID:25677825

  8. Long-term changes in CO2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia—Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures

    PubMed Central

    Gingrich, Simone; Kušková, Petra; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830–2000. The drivers of CO2 emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920–2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO2 emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO2 throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO2 emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO2 emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO2 emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian “eco-efficiency” nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO2 emissions to a sustainable level. PMID:21461052

  9. Modelling of a Tracer experiment (Bromide) at the lysimeter Wagna/Austria with MIKE-SHE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reszler, Christian; Fank, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Data of a tracer experiment with Bromide at one of the three lysimeters in Wagna/Austria are used to test the unsaturated zone solute transport model in MIKE-SHE. On April 4th, 2005 50 mg/l of Bromide were applied on the lysimeter operated with conventional farming. At this time the lysimeter was covered with bare soil until the start of the cultivation of pumpkin one month later. Concentrations at the lysimeter bottom (180 cm depth) were measured and, after break-through, plant uptake was measured to quantify mass recovery. The model using the Richards-Van Genuchten-Mualem approach is setup by comprehensive data of vegetation and soil hydraulic properties available at the lysimeter. Water movement simulation in the unsaturated zone is tested against measured seepage rates at the lysimeter bottom and soil water contents in different soil depths in a period of five years. A sensitivity study shows that, particularly in the quaternary gravel zone two different parameter sets are necessary to represent the different dynamics of water content and seepage. With both two sets the general dynamics of the tracer experiment are simulated well. However, the early rapid rise of the measured concentrations could not be represented by either parameter set, which indicates a complex pore system consisting of different flow paths in the gravel zone, e.g., a system of matrix flow and macro-pore flow.

  10. Gravity Variations Induced by Changing Snowpack Observed at Conrad Observatory (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ressl, Hans; Dorninger, Manfred; Meurers, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological processes are usually associated with mass transport. This induces gravity variations observed by superconducting gravimeter (SG) masking the pure geodynamical signal. The present study focusses specifically on gravity variations due to snow accumulation and melting. Measurements of the gravity signal are taken from the SG GWR C025 located at the Conrad Observatory (Austria) in an underground laboratory at about 1000m altitude. In snow rich winters a snowpack of one meter in depth or even more can be observed at this location. Snow height is measured at three different locations to get an idea of its variability. At one place additionally the weight of the snow pack is determined which allows to calculate the snow water equivalent. Gravitational signals are rather different for the accumulation and ablation phase, not only due to the different time scales of these processes but also due to the complex way path of melting water entering the ground beneath of the SG. Two methods, rainfall admittance function and Bouguer reduction, are used to account for the effect of the snow pack. Both have their strengths and weaknesses. They work better for short-term mass transports than for long lasting ones because in the latter case interference with signals of other environmental processes gets more prominent. A few case studies including both accumulation and ablation of snow on different time scales will be discussed.

  11. Medical universities in Austria: impact of curriculum modernization on medical education

    PubMed Central

    Lischka, Martin

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade medical education in Austria has seen more changes than in the whole of the previous century, with a complete overhaul of the structure of undergraduate curricula. Curricula now are organized in thematic, integrated modules, students have early patient encounters, the number of examinations has been drastically reduced, objective examinations have been introduced throughout the entire course as has skills training, and quality management is assured. As a consequence of the judgement of the European Court in 2005 against discrimination and in favour of equal treatment of EU citizens, free enrolment was abandoned and admission tests were introduced. In postgraduate training, licensing examinations are now obligatory. Crucial results from the point of view of students as well as with regard to the supply of manpower to the health care system are a sharp decrease in the formerly extremely long mean duration of study programmes and a sharp fall in drop-out rates. The now fully autonomous medical universities have the opportunity to intensify collaboration and to embark on a process of continuous renewal. Structural reform of undergraduate and postgraduate curricula will eventually ensure full equality of Austrian and other European medical qualifications. PMID:21818199

  12. Radon emanation from giant landslides of Koefels (Tyrol, Austria) and Langtang Himal (Nepal)

    SciTech Connect

    Purtscheller, F.; Pirchl, T.; Sieder, G.

    1995-07-01

    The identification of extremely high indoor radon concentrations in the village Umhausen (Tyrol, Austria) initiated a scientific program to get information about the source and distribution of this noble gas. The high concentrations can not be related to U anomalies or large-scale fault zones. The nearby giant landslide of Koefels, with its highly fractured and crushed orthogneisses, are the only possible source of radon, despite the fact that the U and Ra content of the rocks is by no means exceptional. The reasons for the high emanation rates from the landslide are discussed and compared to results gained from a similar examination of the giant landslide of Langtang Himal (Nepal). The exceptional geologic situation in both cases, as well as the spatial distribution of different concentration levels, indicate that both landslides must be considered as the production sites of radon. Independent of the U and Ra contents of the rocks, the most important factors producing high emanation rates are the production of a high active surface area in circulation pathways for Rn-enriched soil air by brittle deformation due to the impact of the landslidemass. 37 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Enteric protozoa of cats and their zoonotic potential-a field study from Austria.

    PubMed

    Hinney, Barbara; Ederer, Christina; Stengl, Carina; Wilding, Katrin; Štrkolcová, Gabriela; Harl, Josef; Flechl, Eva; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2015-05-01

    Domestic cats can be infected with a variety of enteric protozoa. Genotyping of protozoan species, especially Giardia as the most common, can improve assessment of their relevance as zoonotic agents. For an overview on the occurrence of feline enteric protozoa, 298 faecal samples of cats from private households, catteries and animal shelters in Austria were collected. All samples were examined by flotation and using a rapid test for Giardia (FASTest). For the detection of Tritrichomonas blagburni, freshly voided faeces (n = 40) were processed using a commercial culturing system (InPouch TF-Feline). Genotyping was done at the β-giardin gene loci (each sample) and triosephosphate isomerase gene loci (positive samples) for Giardia and at the 18S rRNA gene (positive samples) for Cryptosporidium. Thirty-seven samples (12.4%) were positive for Giardia by flotation and/or using a rapid test. Cryptosporidium was present in 1.7%, Cystoisospora in 4.0%, Sarcocystis in 0.3% and T. blagburni in 2.5% of the samples. Genotyping revealed Giardia cati, the potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium felis. Most of the infected cats had no diarrhoea. Cats from shelters were significantly more often infected than owned cats (p = 0.01). When comparing Giardia detection methods, the rapid test had a higher sensitivity than flotation. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results were mostly independent from the other two tests. PMID:25762189

  14. Hydrogeological properties of fault zones in a karstified carbonate aquifer (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, H.; Schröckenfuchs, T. C.; Decker, K.

    2016-08-01

    This study presents a comparative, field-based hydrogeological characterization of exhumed, inactive fault zones in low-porosity Triassic dolostones and limestones of the Hochschwab massif, a carbonate unit of high economic importance supplying 60 % of the drinking water of Austria's capital, Vienna. Cataclastic rocks and sheared, strongly cemented breccias form low-permeability (<1 mD) domains along faults. Fractured rocks with fracture densities varying by a factor of 10 and fracture porosities varying by a factor of 3, and dilation breccias with average porosities >3 % and permeabilities >1,000 mD form high-permeability domains. With respect to fault-zone architecture and rock content, which is demonstrated to be different for dolostone and limestone, four types of faults are presented. Faults with single-stranded minor fault cores, faults with single-stranded permeable fault cores, and faults with multiple-stranded fault cores are seen as conduits. Faults with single-stranded impermeable fault cores are seen as conduit-barrier systems. Karstic carbonate dissolution occurs along fault cores in limestones and, to a lesser degree, dolostones and creates superposed high-permeability conduits. On a regional scale, faults of a particular deformation event have to be viewed as forming a network of flow conduits directing recharge more or less rapidly towards the water table and the springs. Sections of impermeable fault cores only very locally have the potential to create barriers.

  15. Selenium levels in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and controls in lower Austria.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, I; Hartmann, T; Brustbauer, R; Minear, G; Dam, K

    2014-09-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases; genetic as well as environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. The thyroid is the organ with the highest selenium content per unit weight. Selenium status appears to have an impact on the development of thyroid pathologies. We investigated a possible difference of selenium serum levels as a marker of nutritional selenium supply between patients with AIT in central Lower Austria and a matched group of healthy persons living in the same region. Selenium serum levels in the patients with AIT were 98.0 ± 15.6 μg/l. A significant difference to the matched group of normal persons, whose selenium serum levels were 103.2 ± 12.4 μg/l, could not be detected by the t-test (p>0.05). We considered the serum selenium levels to be indicators of selenium supply (by alimentation). A serum level of 120-160 μg/l of selenium represents the normal range. According to this, most patients and control persons showed mild to moderate selenium deficiency (80-120 μg/l selenium). Although our data present slightly higher selenium levels in normal persons than in patients with AIT, this weak and statistically insignificant trend is not sufficient to support the conclusion of a link between inadequate selenium supply and autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:24977659

  16. An integrated assessment of options for rural wastewater management in Austria.

    PubMed

    Starkl, M; Ornetzeder, M; Binner, E; Holubar, P; Pollak, M; Dorninger, M; Mascher, F; Fuerhacker, M; Haberl, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a recently finished, interdisciplinary project on rural wastewater management in Austria. The objective of the project was to study alternative wastewater management options based on separation of the wastewater into its constituent parts, and to compare them with conventional ones. Thereby, a feasibility study of both conventional and alternative options for wastewater management in six model regions was carried out. Life cycle costs and social acceptance were analysed by using a case study-based assessment approach. However, hygienic and environmental risks were evaluated on a more general level. In order to complement the findings, a survey on urine separation system users in the Solar City of Linz was conducted. Based on these assessments and empirical findings, the paper concludes that options using a full separation of all wastewater fractions should be considered with care. Options based on a separation of only grey water and black water or in the liquid/solid phase can offer ecological and financial advantages over conventional options. Further, options combining wastewater management and regional biogas plants were identified as an interesting solution. However, legal constraints restrict this option currently. PMID:17881843

  17. Deformation bands evolving from dilation to cementation bands in a hydrocarbon reservoir (Vienna Basin, Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Exner, Ulrike; Kaiser, Jasmin; Gier, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    In this study we analyzed five core samples from a hydrocarbon reservoir, the Matzen Field in the Vienna Basin (Austria). Deformation bands occur as single bands or as strands of several bands. In contrast to most published examples of deformation bands in terrigeneous sandstones, the reduction of porosity is predominantly caused by the precipitation of Fe-rich dolomite cement within the bands, and only subordinately by cataclasis of detrital grains. The chemical composition of this dolomite cement (10–12 wt% FeO) differs from detrital dolomite grains in the host rock (<2 wt% FeO). This observation in combination with stable isotope data suggests that the cement is not derived from the detrital grains, but precipitated from a fluid from an external, non-meteoric source. After an initial increase of porosity by dilation, disaggregation and fragmentation of detrital grains, a Fe-rich carbonate fluid crystallized within the bands, thereby reducing the porosity relative to the host sediment. The retention of pyrite cement by these cementation bands as well as the different degree of oil staining on either side of the bands demonstrate that these cementation bands act as effective barriers to the migration of fluids and should be considered in reservoir models. PMID:26321782

  18. Landfill mining in Austria: foundations for an integrated ecological and economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Robert; Baumgartner, Rupert J; Sarc, Renato; Ragossnig, Arne; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Eisenberger, Martin; Budischowsky, Andreas; Pomberger, Roland

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, basic technical and economic studies for landfill mining are being carried out in Austria on the basis of a pilot project. An important goal of these studies is the collection of elementary data as the basis for an integrated ecological and economic assessment of landfill mining projects with regard to their feasibility. For this purpose, economic, ecological, technical, organizational, as well as political and legal influencing factors are identified and extensively studied in the article. An important aspect is the mutual influence of the factors on each other, as this can significantly affect the development of an integrated assessment system. In addition to the influencing factors, the definition of the spatial and temporal system boundaries is crucial for further investigations. Among others, the quality and quantity of recovered waste materials, temporal fluctuations or developments in prices of secondary raw material and fuels attainable in the markets, and time and duration of dumping, play a crucial role. Based on the investigations, the spatial system boundary is defined in as much as all the necessary process steps, from landfill mining, preparing and sorting to providing a marketable material/product by the landfill operator, are taken into account. No general accepted definition can be made for the temporal system boundary because the different time-related influencing factors necessitate an individual project-specific determination and adaptation to the facts of the on-site landfill mining project. PMID:25012302

  19. Lead concentrations in teeth from people living in Kosovo and Austria.

    PubMed

    Kamberi, Blerim; Kqiku, Lumnije; Hoxha, Veton; Dragusha, Edmond

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare lead concentrations in 86 human permanent teeth extracted from residents of three different geographical regions. The study included 31 permanent teeth from residents of Mitrovica (Kosovo), 32 from Klina (Kosovo) and 23 from Graz (Austria). The concentrations of lead were measured using Agilent 7500c inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) (Agilent, Waldbronn, Germany). The comparisons between groups were based on the geographic area, age and gender. The highest lead level was found in teeth extracted from Mitrovica residents (22.3 mg/kg), followed by Klina (3.2 mg/kg), and Graz (1.7 mg/kg). Lead levels in teeth from Mitrovica residents are significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than in other two groups, possibly due to environmental contamination with lead. Overall results in this study support the concept that tooth lead level may present an important indicator in evaluating environmental exposure of human population to heavy metals. PMID:21667533

  20. Triassic-Jurassic organic carbon isotope stratigraphy of key sections in the western Tethys realm (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, Micha; Kürschner, Wolfram M.; Krystyn, Leopold

    2009-05-01

    The late Triassic period is recognized as one of the five major mass extinctions in the fossil record. All these important intervals in earth history are associated with excursions in C-isotope records thought to have been caused by perturbations in the global carbon cycle. The nature and causes of C-isotopic events across the Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) transition however, are poorly understood. We present several new high resolution organic C-isotope records from the Eiberg Basin, Austria, including the proposed Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Jurassic. The Triassic-Jurassic boundary interval in these records is characterized by the initial and main negative organic carbon isotope excursions (CIE) of up to 8‰. The initial and main CIEs are biostratigraphically constrained by first and last occurrences of boundary defining macro- and microfossils (e.g. ammonites). High resolution C-isotope records appear to be an excellent correlation proxy for this period in the Eiberg Basin. Pyrolysis analysis demonstrates increased Hydrogen Index (HI) values for organic matter coinciding with the initial CIE. Terrestrial organic matter influx and mass occurrences of green algae remains may have influenced the C-isotope composition of the sedimentary organic matter. This may have contributed to the extreme amplitude of the initial CIE in the Eiberg Basin.

  1. [Nosology and epidemiology of human toxocarosis--the recent situation in Austria].

    PubMed

    Auer, Herbert; Aspöck, Horst

    2004-01-01

    Toxocara canis and T. cati are not only ubiquitously distributed parasites of dogs, foxes and cats, but may also infest humans, causing a great variety of symptoms and sometimes also severe diseases: the visceral larva migrans syndrome, the ocular larva migrans syndrome, covert toxocarosis, common toxocarosis, neurological toxocarosis, and some other clinical pictures (asthma bronchiale, epilepsy, rheumatoid arthritis) are considered to be induced by Toxocara species. Both Toxocara species are also widely distributed in Austrian dog, fox and cat populations; seroepidemiological studies carried out in Austria revealed seroprevalence rates of 3.7% among the normal human population and up to 44% among persons particularly exposed to those parasites (i.e. veterinarians, farmers). Although many Toxocara infestations do not cause severe clinical manifestations, a few dozens of toxocarosis patients have been registered every year during the last years; in reality, however, we have to assume that several hundreds of patients suffer from toxocarosis. This paper tries to give a synoptic overview of the nosology of this (still) largely almost unknown helminthozoonosis, moreover it summarizes the most important epidemiologic parameters, and presents the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities available today. PMID:15683037

  2. Current diagnostics and treatment of the cubital tunnel syndrome in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Kristina; Diehm, Jens; Fassola, Isabella; Al khaled, Nesrin; Doll, Dietrich; Dunda, Sebastian E.; Krapohl, Björn Dirk

    2016-01-01

    According to the vote of the Austrian Society for Surgery of the Hand (ÖGH) an investigation to collect data on the current state of the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome was initiated. Over one year a total of 875 patients with cubital tunnel syndrome were operated in Austria, this means an incidence of this nerve entrapment of 0.011%. Most of the operations were done by trauma surgeons (287; 33%). For diagnosis most of the centers rely on clinical symptoms, electroneurophysiology, and elbow X-ray. 40% of the institutions regard conservative therapy as useless and not indicated. If conservative treatment modalities are applied, physiotherapy (97%), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication (77%), and glucocorticoid injections (30%) are primarily used. In case of simple nerve entrapment most of the surgeons (72%) prefer simple nerve decompression. If there is additional pathology subcutaneous cubital nerve transposition is recommended (62%). Endoscopic techniques are only use by 3% of the surgeons. In the postoperative care, physiotherapy is favored in 51%, whereas 24% do not judge any postoperative care as beneficial. The three most often encountered complications were incomplete remission, scar contracture and hypertrophy, and postoperative bleeding. PMID:26816669

  3. Hydrogeological properties of fault zones in a karstified carbonate aquifer (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, H.; Schröckenfuchs, T. C.; Decker, K.

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a comparative, field-based hydrogeological characterization of exhumed, inactive fault zones in low-porosity Triassic dolostones and limestones of the Hochschwab massif, a carbonate unit of high economic importance supplying 60 % of the drinking water of Austria's capital, Vienna. Cataclastic rocks and sheared, strongly cemented breccias form low-permeability (<1 mD) domains along faults. Fractured rocks with fracture densities varying by a factor of 10 and fracture porosities varying by a factor of 3, and dilation breccias with average porosities >3 % and permeabilities >1,000 mD form high-permeability domains. With respect to fault-zone architecture and rock content, which is demonstrated to be different for dolostone and limestone, four types of faults are presented. Faults with single-stranded minor fault cores, faults with single-stranded permeable fault cores, and faults with multiple-stranded fault cores are seen as conduits. Faults with single-stranded impermeable fault cores are seen as conduit-barrier systems. Karstic carbonate dissolution occurs along fault cores in limestones and, to a lesser degree, dolostones and creates superposed high-permeability conduits. On a regional scale, faults of a particular deformation event have to be viewed as forming a network of flow conduits directing recharge more or less rapidly towards the water table and the springs. Sections of impermeable fault cores only very locally have the potential to create barriers.

  4. Analysis of the 2002 flood in Austria - facts, conclusions and mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formayer, H.; Habersack, H.; Holzmann, H.; Moser, A.; Seibert, P.

    2003-04-01

    In August 2002 Austria was affected - like other European countries e.g. Germany, Czech Republic or Romania - by an extreme flood event, which occurred in Central Europe and brought rainfall of extraordinary extent and flood recurrence intervals from several years to more than 1000 years. Losses of human life and livestock and damages of infrastructure, buildings, public and private properties rose the public awareness and the demand for improvement of future flood mitigation measures. The Centre of Natural Hazards and Risk Management of the BOKU-University for Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna startet as a first initiative with a summary and review of all reports and documents upon the regional impact of the event. The summary includes the description of the meteorological boundary conditions, the flood generation and their frequencies. A broad range of disciplinary aspects like river engineering, river ecology, vegetation and biology, soil science and soil mechanics, rural and urban planning were involved. The inventory and interpretation of the damages forms a base for assessment of shortcomings and requirements for a successful flood protection strategy for the future. The holistic approach will result in improved regional water management plans and assists in the development of a sustainable, catchment based flood mitigation strategy. Besides the review of the event the presentation will comment on some lacks and shortcomings in the collected data base and will give hints for future demands in online monitoring requirements, on establishment and improvement of forecasting tools and of the information transfer to the emergency services.

  5. Integrative Laser Medicine and High-Tech Acupuncture at the Medical University of Graz, Austria, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Litscher, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    At the moment, modernization of acupuncture has a high priority. On the traditional side, acupuncture has only recently been awarded the status of Intangible Cultural Heritage by the UNESCO. On the innovative side, high-tech acupuncture is a registered trademark in Austria. Acupuncture has been used for medical treatment for thousands of years. A large number of empirical data are available but the technical quantification of effects was not possible up to now. Using electroacupuncture, needle, or laser stimulation and modern biomedical techniques, it was possible for the first time to quantify changes in biological activities caused by acupuncture. This paper which serves as introduction for the special issue “High-Tech Acupuncture and Integrative Laser Medicine” of the present journal, focuses on the latest innovative aspects that underline the further enhancement and development of acupuncture. Special emphasis is given to new methodological and technical investigations, for example, results obtained from all kinds of acupuncture innovations (e.g., teleacupuncture) and integrative laser medicine. PMID:22570669

  6. Detailed hydrogeological analysis of a deep-seated rockslide at the Gepatsch reservoir (Klasgarten, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauhal, Thomas; Loew, Simon; Holzmann, Michael; Zangerl, Christian

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogeology of the deep-seated, slowly creeping Klasgarten rockslide in Austria is investigated in this study based on detailed surface and subsurface field data, laboratory analyses, and analytical and numerical simulations. Field data are derived from several deep exploration and monitoring boreholes, an exploration drift located within the rockslide, and geological and geomorphological mapping. Particular attention is given to the pore pressure measurements and their temporal and spatial variability. These pore pressure variations are controlled by a thin layer of clayey fault gouge (representing the basal shear zone of the rockslide), a high-permeability rockslide mass, and moderately fractured paragneissic bedrock. Variably saturated equivalent-continuum hydraulic conductivities and storage properties are derived from packer tests, laboratory tests and optical televiewer images. These data sets are used for two-dimensional numerical groundwater models to study the flow-field and pore-pressure variations caused by the reservoir water-level fluctuations, the transient groundwater infiltration from snowmelt and precipitation along the slope, and the exploration drift. The strongest pressure transients in the rockslide are caused by reservoir level fluctuations and not the natural groundwater recharge, even at substantial distances from the reservoir. The response times are very short and only a minor distance-dependent attenuation is observed. The results of this study are essential to analyse the hydromechanical control of the deformation behaviour of rockslides adjacent to hydropower reservoirs. Further, it helps to understand how the formation of a rockslide can change the original bedrock aquifer.

  7. Mating systems of snowbed plant species of the northeastern Calcareous Alps of Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffknecht, Susanne; Dullinger, Stefan; Grabherr, Georg; Hülber, Karl

    2007-03-01

    Predicted climate warming will likely reduce the area and increase the fragmentation of alpine snowbed habitats. The ability of snowbed plants to cope with such fragmentation will, among other things, depend on their reproductive strategy. With respect to the mating system, as a key component of reproductive strategies, the environmental conditions in arctic and alpine snowbeds have been hypothesized to select for high selfing ability due to short growing seasons and unpredictable pollinator service. In this study we evaluate whether the mating system strategies of seven typical snowbed forbs of the northeastern Calcareous Alps in Austria are in line with this hypothesis. Field-pollination experiments were conducted in order to study the effects of pollinator exclusion (bagging; all study species), emasculation and manual self- and cross-pollination (subset of study species) on seed set. Additionally, data on floral traits associated with the reproductive system such as anther and ovule numbers and pollen:ovule ratios were collected. Results demonstrate that selfing is not uncommon but by no means obligatory for snowbed plants: the study species display a wide range of mating system types, from predominately outcrossing to predominately selfing. The different reproductive strategies of regional snowbed plants are discussed in relation to their ability to cope with climate warming induced habitat fragmentation.

  8. Direct observation of strain localization along the differentially exhumed SEMP fault system, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, E.; Dolan, J. F.; Hacker, B. R.; Ratschbacher, L.; Sammis, C. G.; Seward, G.; Cole, J.

    2009-12-01

    Structural analysis of key outcrops from ~5 to ~25 km exhumation depth along the Salzach-Ennstal-Mariazell-Puchberg (SEMP) fault-zone in Austria reveal highly localized deformation in the seismogenic crust down through the brittle-ductile transition (BDT), widening into a 2-km-wide mylonite at mid-crustal levels. Specifically, grain-size distribution analysis of brittley-deformed dolomite exhumed from the seismogenic crust reveals that strain progressively localized into a 10-m-wide fault core. Microstructural analysis of marbles and greywackes exhumed from the BDT shows off-fault ductile deformation only accommodated a minor portion of the displacement along the SEMP, with most of the strain localized along the contact between these two units. Similar analysis of gneisses and amphibolite-facies metasediments exhumed from just below the BDT shows that at this depth, the majority of displacement is focused into a 100-m-wide ductile shear zone, with further evidence for strain localization along grain boundaries, creating throughgoing shear zones at the grain-scale. At deeper exhumation levels (Rosenberg and Schneider, 2008), the SEMP is a 1-2-km-wide mylonite zone that extends to depths of at least 25 km. Collectively, these data indicate that slip along the SEMP was highly localized from throughout the seismogenic crust downward into at least the mid-crust.

  9. ["Paternity leave"? Retrospective view on a delayed reform of maternity leave in Austria].

    PubMed

    Munz, R

    1984-01-01

    Only 1 of 3 Austrian fathers involves himself daily in child rearing, and the younger the children, the less likely he is to be involved. Austria is among those European countries with the greatest pregnancy benefits. New mothers may take up to 1 year of paid maternity leave without fear of losing their jobs. This article uses 1982 Institute of Demography survey data to determine support for similar paternity leave for fathers. In the last few years, both Social Democrat and Conservative women have worked for this leave, although the movement has also found opposition by women in trade unions, as well as from conservative groups. Survey results show that 46% of married Austrian women, under age 40, favor paternity leave; 1 or 4 women can imagine their husbands taking such leave. Among husbands, 34% favored the leave option, and 1 of 4 could imagine taking the leave for a least part of the baby's first year. The study attempts to identify those husbands most likely to take advantage of paternity leave. At present, most men will not choose to stay with their children at the expense of earnings reduction. Compensation reforms for both mothers and fathers must first occur before men and women in a position to make real decisions on maternity and paternity leave. PMID:12339587

  10. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Duscher, Georg G.; Leschnik, Michael; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Austria's mammalian wildlife comprises a large variety of species, acting and interacting in different ways as reservoir and intermediate and definitive hosts for different pathogens that can be transmitted to pets and/or humans. Foxes and other wild canids are responsible for maintaining zoonotic agents, e.g. Echinococcus multilocularis, as well as pet-relevant pathogens, e.g. Hepatozoon canis. Together with the canids, and less commonly felids, rodents play a major role as intermediate and paratenic hosts. They carry viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), bacteria including Borrelia spp., protozoa such as Toxoplasma gondii, and helminths such as Toxocara canis. The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain. PMID:25830102

  11. The Relationships Between Paranormal Belief, Creationism, Intelligent Design and Evolution at Secondary Schools in Vienna (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Erich; Turic, Katharina; Milasowszky, Norbert; van Adzin, Katherine; Hergovich, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    The present study is the first to investigate the relationships between a multiple set of paranormal beliefs and the acceptance of evolution, creationism, and intelligent design, respectively, in Europe. Using a questionnaire, 2,129 students at secondary schools in Vienna (Austria) answered the 26 statements of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (R-PBS) and three statements about naturalistic evolution, creationism and intelligent design (ID). The investigated Austrian students showed an average R-PBS score of 82.08, more than 50% of them agreed with naturalistic evolution, 28% with creationism, and more than a third agreed with ID, the latter two closely correlated with each other. Females generally showed higher belief scores in the paranormal, creationism and ID. The agreement with naturalistic evolution correlated negatively with religious belief, but not with other paranormal beliefs, whereas the two non-scientific alternatives to evolution significantly correlated with both traditional and paranormal beliefs. Religious belief showed a significant positive correlation with other paranormal beliefs. All subscales of paranormal belief decreased during the eight grades of secondary school, as did acceptance of creationism and ID. However, the acceptance of naturalistic evolution did not correlate with age or grade. Possible reasons and implications for science education and the biology curriculum at Austrian secondary schools are discussed.

  12. Dynamic material flow modeling: an effort to calibrate and validate aluminum stocks and flows in Austria.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Hanno; Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; Fellner, Johann

    2015-05-01

    A calibrated and validated dynamic material flow model of Austrian aluminum (Al) stocks and flows between 1964 and 2012 was developed. Calibration and extensive plausibility testing was performed to illustrate how the quality of dynamic material flow analysis can be improved on the basis of the consideration of independent bottom-up estimates. According to the model, total Austrian in-use Al stocks reached a level of 360 kg/capita in 2012, with buildings (45%) and transport applications (32%) being the major in-use stocks. Old scrap generation (including export of end-of-life vehicles) amounted to 12.5 kg/capita in 2012, still being on the increase, while Al final demand has remained rather constant at around 25 kg/capita in the past few years. The application of global sensitivity analysis showed that only small parts of the total variance of old scrap generation could be explained by the variation of single parameters, emphasizing the need for comprehensive sensitivity analysis tools accounting for interaction between parameters and time-delay effects in dynamic material flow models. Overall, it was possible to generate a detailed understanding of the evolution of Al stocks and flows in Austria, including plausibility evaluations of the results. Such models constitute a reliable basis for evaluating future recycling potentials, in particular with respect to application-specific qualities of current and future national Al scrap generation and utilization. PMID:25851493

  13. Current diagnostics and treatment of the cubital tunnel syndrome in Austria.

    PubMed

    Harder, Kristina; Diehm, Jens; Fassola, Isabella; Al Khaled, Nesrin; Doll, Dietrich; Dunda, Sebastian E; Krapohl, Björn Dirk

    2016-01-01

    According to the vote of the Austrian Society for Surgery of the Hand (ÖGH) an investigation to collect data on the current state of the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome was initiated. Over one year a total of 875 patients with cubital tunnel syndrome were operated in Austria, this means an incidence of this nerve entrapment of 0.011%. Most of the operations were done by trauma surgeons (287; 33%). For diagnosis most of the centers rely on clinical symptoms, electroneurophysiology, and elbow X-ray. 40% of the institutions regard conservative therapy as useless and not indicated. If conservative treatment modalities are applied, physiotherapy (97%), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication (77%), and glucocorticoid injections (30%) are primarily used. In case of simple nerve entrapment most of the surgeons (72%) prefer simple nerve decompression. If there is additional pathology subcutaneous cubital nerve transposition is recommended (62%). Endoscopic techniques are only use by 3% of the surgeons. In the postoperative care, physiotherapy is favored in 51%, whereas 24% do not judge any postoperative care as beneficial. The three most often encountered complications were incomplete remission, scar contracture and hypertrophy, and postoperative bleeding. PMID:26816669

  14. Mechanical and mineralogical modifications of petrophysical parameters by deformation bands in a hydrocarbon reservoir (Matzen, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Jasmin; Exner, Ulrike; Gier, Susanne; Hujer, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    In porous sedimentary rocks, fault zones are frequently accompanied by deformation bands. These structures are tabular zones of displacement, where grain rotation and in some cases grain fracturing result in a significant reduction in porosity. Core samples were analyzed close to large normal faults from the most productive hydrocarbon reservoir in the Vienna Basin (Austria), the Matzen oil field. The Badenian terrigeneous sandstones contain predominately quartz, feldspar and dolomite as sub-rounded, detrial grains and are weakly cemented by chlorite and kaolinite. Deformation bands occur as single bands of ca. 1-3 mm thickness and negligible displacement, as well as strands of several bands with up to 2 cm thickness and displacement of 1-2 cm. A dramatic porosity reduction can already be recognized macroscopically. In some samples, the corresponding reduction in permeability is highlighted by different degree of oil staining on either side of the bands. The mineralogical composition of the deformation bands compared to the host rock does not indicate any preferential cementation or diagenetic growth of clay minerals or calcite. Instead, clay minerals are slightly enriched in the host sediment. These observations suggest that the formation of deformation bands predates the cementation in the Matzen sands. Thus, we speculate that the porosity reduction is predominately caused by cataclastic grain size reduction. Identification of the grain scale processes of porosity and permeability reduction, in combination with the analysis of the spatial distribution and orientation of the deformation bands may provide valuable information on the reservoir properties and fluid migration paths.

  15. Parascolymia (Scleractinia: Lobophylliidae) in the Central Paratethys Sea (Vienna Basin, Austria) and its possible biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Markus; Wiedl, Thomas; Piller, Werner E

    2015-01-01

    Palaeobiogeographical and palaeodiversity patterns of scleractinian reef corals are generally biased due to uncertain taxonomy and a loss of taxonomic characters through dissolution and recrystallization of the skeletal aragonite in shallow marine limestones. Herein, we describe a fossil lobophylliid coral in mouldic preservation from the early middle Miocene Leitha Limestone of the Central Paratethys Sea (Vienna Basin, Austria). By using grey-scale image inversion and silicone rubber casts for the visualization of the original skeletal anatomy and the detection of distinct micromorphological characters (i.e. shape of septal teeth, granulation of septocostae) Parascolymia bracherti has been identified as a new species in spite of the dissolved skeleton. In the recent era, Parascolymia like all Lobophylliidae is restricted to the Indo-Pacific region, where it is represented by a single species. The new species proves the genus also in the Miocene Mediterranean reef coral province. A review of the spatio-temporal relationships of fossil corals related to Parascolymia indicates that the genus was probably rooted in the Eastern Atlantic‒Western Tethys region during the Paleocene to Eocene and reached the Indo-Pacific region not before the Oligocene. The revealed palaeobiogeographical pattern shows an obvious congruence with that of Acropora and tridacnine bivalves reflecting a gradual equatorwards retreat of the marine biodiversity center parallel to the Cenozoic climate deterioration. PMID:26201071

  16. Parascolymia (Scleractinia: Lobophylliidae) in the Central Paratethys Sea (Vienna Basin, Austria) and its possible biogeographic implications

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Markus; Wiedl, Thomas; Piller, Werner E.

    2015-01-01

    Palaeobiogeographical and palaeodiversity patterns of scleractinian reef corals are generally biased due to uncertain taxonomy and a loss of taxonomic characters through dissolution and recrystallization of the skeletal aragonite in shallow marine limestones. Herein, we describe a fossil lobophylliid coral in mouldic preservation from the early middle Miocene Leitha Limestone of the Central Paratethys Sea (Vienna Basin, Austria). By using grey-scale image inversion and silicone rubber casts for the visualization of the original skeletal anatomy and the detection of distinct micromorphological characters (i.e. shape of septal teeth, granulation of septocostae) Parascolymia bracherti has been identified as a new species in spite of the dissolved skeleton. In the recent era, Parascolymia like all Lobophylliidae is restricted to the Indo-Pacific region, where it is represented by a single species. The new species proves the genus also in the Miocene Mediterranean reef coral province. A review of the spatio-temporal relationships of fossil corals related to Parascolymia indicates that the genus was probably rooted in the Eastern Atlantic‒Western Tethys region during the Paleocene to Eocene and reached the Indo-Pacific region not before the Oligocene. The revealed palaeobiogeographical pattern shows an obvious congruence with that of Acropora and tridacnine bivalves reflecting a gradual equatorwards retreat of the marine biodiversity center parallel to the Cenozoic climate deterioration. PMID:26201071

  17. Transitional Care and Adherence of Adolescents and Young Adults After Kidney Transplantation in Germany and Austria

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Martin; Prüfe, Jenny; Oldhafer, Martina; Bethe, Dirk; Dierks, Marie-Luise; Müther, Silvia; Thumfart, Julia; Hoppe, Bernd; Büscher, Anja; Rascher, Wolfgang; Hansen, Matthias; Pohl, Martin; Kemper, Markus J.; Drube, Jens; Rieger, Susanne; John, Ulrike; Taylan, Christina; Dittrich, Katalin; Hollenbach, Sabine; Klaus, Günter; Fehrenbach, Henry; Kranz, Birgitta; Montoya, Carmen; Lange-Sperandio, Bärbel; Ruckenbrodt, Bettina; Billing, Heiko; Staude, Hagen; Heindl-Rusai, Krisztina; Brunkhorst, Reinhard; Pape, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Transition from child to adult-oriented care is widely regarded a challenging period for young people with kidney transplants and is associated with a high risk of graft failure. We analyzed the existing transition structures in Germany and Austria using a questionnaire and retrospective data of 119 patients transferred in 2011 to 2012. Most centers (73%) confirmed agreements on the transition procedure. Patients’ age at transfer was subject to regulation in 73% (18 years). Median age at transition was 18.3 years (16.5–36.7). Median serum creatinine increased from 123 to 132 μmol/L over the 12 month observation period before transfer (P = 0.002). A total of 25/119 patients showed increased creatinine ≥20% just before transfer. Biopsy proven rejection was found in 10/119 patients. Three patients lost their graft due to chronic graft nephropathy. Mean coefficient of variation (CoV%) of immunosuppression levels was 0.20 ± 0.1. Increased creatinine levels ≥20% just before transfer were less frequently seen in patients with CoV < 0.20 (P = 0.007). The majority of pediatric nephrology centers have internal agreements on transitional care. More than half of the patients had CoV of immunosuppression trough levels consistent with good adherence. Although, 20% of the patients showed increase in serum creatinine close to transfer. PMID:26632907

  18. Two Gravettian human deciduous teeth from Grub/Kranawetberg, lower Austria.

    PubMed

    Teschler-Nicola, M E; Antl-Weiser, W; Prossinger, H

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present two heavily eroded tooth fragments found in Grub/Kranawetberg, a Gravettian excavation site near Stillfried, Lower Austria. Both fragments were found during wet screening of sediment taken from an area near a hearth. Overall, the cultural layer yielded a large number of stone tools and flakes as well as bony points and over sixty bone beads and bone bead fragments. They point to an absolute date of 24,400 to 25,400 BP. We present a description of the tooth fragments and identify them as remains of an early modern human. One of the fragments is a deciduous right first lower molar (84) and the other a deciduous left lateral upper incisor (62). Due to their characteristic shape and size, as well as the degree of attrition, both teeth could have belonged to one single individual--a possibility consistent with their position in the stratigraphic column. The incisor could be compared for its metrical dimensions to the few other contemporaneous Upper Palaeolithic findings showing an insignificantly smaller dimension in mesio-distal and bucco-lingual dimensions. Although the remains are limited they increase our very small sample of deciduous teeth for this time period, which is essential for a better understanding of possible evolutionary trends from the Upper Palaeolithic to the Mesolithic. PMID:15216668

  19. Sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) close to the water table: Examples from southern France, Austria, and Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Audra, Philippe; Madonia, Giuliana; Vattano, Marco; Plan, Lukas; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Bigot, Jean-Yves; Anoux, Catherine; Nobécourt, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Caves formed by rising sulfuric waters have been described from all over the world in a wide variety of climate settings, from arid regions to mid-latitude and alpine areas. H2S is generally formed at depth by reduction of sulfates in the presence of hydrocarbons and is transported in solution through the deep aquifers. In tectonically disturbed areas major fractures eventually allow these H2S-bearing fluids to rise to the surface where oxidation processes can become active producing sulfuric acid. This extremely strong acid reacts with the carbonate bedrock creating caves, some of which are among the largest and most spectacular in the world. Production of sulfuric acid mostly occurs at or close to the water table but also in subaerial conditions in moisture films and droplets in the cave environment. These caves are generated at or immediately above the water table, where condensation-corrosion processes are dominant, creating a set of characteristic meso- and micromorphologies. Due to their close connection to the base level, these caves can also precisely record past hydrological and geomorphological settings. Certain authigenic cave minerals, produced during the sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) phase, allow determination of the exact timing of speleogenesis. This paper deals with the morphological, geochemical and mineralogical description of four very typical sulfuric acid water table caves in Europe: the Grotte du Chat in the southern French Alps, the Acqua Fitusa Cave in Sicily (Italy), and the Bad Deutsch Altenburg and Kraushöhle caves in Austria.

  20. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria.

    PubMed

    Duscher, Georg G; Leschnik, Michael; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2015-04-01

    Austria's mammalian wildlife comprises a large variety of species, acting and interacting in different ways as reservoir and intermediate and definitive hosts for different pathogens that can be transmitted to pets and/or humans. Foxes and other wild canids are responsible for maintaining zoonotic agents, e.g. Echinococcus multilocularis, as well as pet-relevant pathogens, e.g. Hepatozoon canis. Together with the canids, and less commonly felids, rodents play a major role as intermediate and paratenic hosts. They carry viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), bacteria including Borrelia spp., protozoa such as Toxoplasma gondii, and helminths such as Toxocara canis. The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain. PMID:25830102

  1. European Seismic Risk Model Covering Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Germany and Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Nyst, M.; Onur, T.; Seneviratna, P.; Baca, A.; Sorby, A.

    2006-12-01

    A seismic risk model for Europe has been developed to assisted insurers and reinsurers in assessing their financial risk posed by earthquakes. This model was covers Italy and several countries in central Europe including Switzerland, Austria, Germany and Belgium. This presentation summarizes the methodology and data within the model and includes a discussion of the key results from the hazard and risk perspectives. The earthquake, risk-model framework has four components. First, the stochastic event set is determined, as well as its associated event probabilities. A ground-motion model including geotechnical data is added to complete the seismic hazard model. To determine risk, regional building vulnerability curves and a financial model are incorporated. An insurer property exposure database was developed to determine the insured seismic risk in these countries. Using this model, examination of resulting hazard maps (200, 475, 1000 and 2500 years) and of city-level, hazard-curves gives insight to the key drivers of risk across the region. Hazard de-aggregation allow for examination of key drivers of risk in terms of seismic sources, event magnitude and events types. Examination of loss costs for residential and commercial (short and mid-rise) structures gives insight into the risk perspective for these various lines of business. Finally, incorporation of the insurer property exposure allows for an examination of the insured risk across the region and between exposure concentrations including Rome, Zurich, Munich, Vienna and Brussels.

  2. On the connection of permafrost and debris flow activity in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Thomas; Kaitna, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Debris flows represent a severe hazard in alpine regions and typically result from a critical combination of relief energy, water, and sediment. Hence, besides water-related trigger conditions, the availability of abundant sediment is a major control on debris flows activity in alpine regions. Increasing temperatures due to global warming are expected to affect periglacial regions and by that the distribution of alpine permafrost and the depth of the active layer, which in turn might lead to increased debris flow activity and increased interference with human interests. In this contribution we assess the importance of permafrost on documented debris flows in the past by connecting the modeled permafrost distribution with a large database of historic debris flows in Austria. The permafrost distribution is estimated based on a published model approach and mainly depends of altitude, relief, and exposition. The database of debris flows includes more than 4000 debris flow events in around 1900 watersheds. We find that 27 % of watersheds experiencing debris flow activity have a modeled permafrost area smaller than 5 % of total area. Around 7 % of the debris flow prone watersheds have an area larger than 5 %. Interestingly, our first results indicate that watersheds without permafrost experience significantly less, but more intense debris flow events than watersheds with modeled permafrost occurrence. Our study aims to contribute to a better understanding of geomorphic activity and the impact of climate change in alpine environments.

  3. [Autopsies in Switzerland, Germany and Austria: considerations about legal facts and the current situation].

    PubMed

    Tag, B

    2011-11-01

    Significant reasons militate for the implementation of clinical autopsies: On the part of physicians and nurses, there is quality assurance, establishment of legal certainty regarding possible accusations of medical errors and development of treatment methods. On the part of patients and their relatives, there is consolation and relief in cases of unexpected death, insight into genetic dispositions and insurance law concerns, to name only a few. However, a continuing decrease of clinical autopsies can be observed in Switzerland, Germany and Austria. The thesis asserting that the often required informed consent of the deceased during his/her lifetime or of close relatives is a crucial reason for this decrease needs to be called into question due to recent studies. Mainsprings are rather structural reasons, such as the often deficient communication with the patient or close relatives, economic reasons, namely the frequently insufficient remuneration for the clinical autopsy, organizational causes, in particular the repeatedly encountered suboptimal collaboration between the individual departments and the pathology department, the high administrative effort and probably the decreasing appreciation of the clinical autopsy. PMID:21805100

  4. Determinants of soil organic carbon pools in oak stands in northeastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Hochbichler, Eduard; Yan, Shuai; Glatzel, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    Recently deciduous forests in northeastern Austria received increased attention as potential sources of biomass for energetic utilisation. There are still substantial deficits in the knowledge on carbon pools, -sequestration and -dynamics at these forest sites. The aim of our study was therefore to identify the main determinants which control soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in differently managed Quercus petraea dominated stands. We used the chronosequence approach to test the influence of stand age and management on the SOC pool. Soil samples were systematically collected from 14 plots by means of a 70mm hand auger to a depth of max. 60cm and separated into five geometric horizons. Narrow O-layers and signs of active bioturbation on most sites suggest rapid carbon mineralisation. Carbon pools of the aboveground biomass, the O horizon as well as fine and coarse roots and decay were determined. Soils in our study are cambisols derived from fossil alluvial deposits and loess and calcic chernozems derived from loess. Total soil carbon was determined by means of dry combustion and subtraction of soil inorganic carbon (SIC, by means of the Scheibler-method) if present. Mean SOC contents ranged from 5.3 kg.m-2 to10.4 kg.m-2 in the entire study area. The highest contents were found in calcic chernozem sites (7.2-10.4 kg.m-2) followed by loamy cambisol (6.1-6.8 kg.m-2) and sandy cambisol sites (5.3-6.9 kg.m-2). Among three chronosequence sets, we found strong positive correlations with total nitrogen (Pearson correlation coefficients of +0.91 to +0.93, p<0.01) and medium strong positive correlations with fine root content (+0.27 to +0.42, p<0.01). In both cases, stronger correlations were observed at cambisol sites. Further medium correlations were found between SOC and decay (+0.23 to +0.42, p<0.01), but no influence of the soil type was observed. As expected, SOC contents decreased significantly with increasing soil depth. Tighter C/N ratios in deeper horizons suggest

  5. Mapping the kinematics of the Blaubach landslide (Austria) using digital photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, V.; Lieb, G. K.

    2003-04-01

    The Blaubach landslide (12°08'E, 47°12'N, northern margin of the Hohe Tauern range, Austria) is located in the upper part of the catchment area of the Blaubach torrent. The latter follows an important Eastern Alpine fault. The area of interest is built of tectonically fractured rock favoring fluvial erosion, debris flows, and other types of mass movements triggered by widespread deep reaching gravitational slope deformations. The Blaubach landslide is characterized by high surface movement and a front with several secondary slides, which are free of vegetation and provide high quantities of material to the torrent below. This natural hazard has induced the construction of protective measures such as retaining walls in the torrent bed since 1950. However, as of yet no numerical data have been available concerning the surface kinematics of the landslide, such as flow/creep velocity, surface height change, or volumetric change. The Austrian Forest Engineering Service of Torrent and Avalanche Control therefore launched a project related to these questions. One task was to reconstruct the morphodynamics of the landslide area using historical multi-temporal aerial photographs. Aerial photographs at various image scales between 1:9,300 and 1:45,800 of 11 different data acquisition periods between 1953 and 1999 were acquired from the Austrian Federal Office of Surveying and Mapping. The photographs were scanned using the UltraScan 5000 of Vexcel Imaging Austria in order to facilitate digital photogrammetry. A special software package ADVM (Automatic Displacement Vector Measurement), originally developed at the Institute of Geodesy for monitoring debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers, was used to automatically derive three-dimensional displacement vectors, both area-wide and dense, based on advanced image matching techniques. The digital photogrammetric method applied is based on quasi-orthophotos. This approach supports the fusion of multi-temporal aerial photographs

  6. Mapping of near surface fold structures with GPR and ERT near Steinbrunn (Northern Burgenland, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutzer, Ingrid; Chwatal, Werner; Häusler, Hermann; Scheibz, Jürgen; Steirer, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    . Therefore we assume that the mapped fold shape structures underlie almost the entire investigation area of about one square kilometre in size. Considering the very shallow facies of the Upper Pannonian deposits and compared to fold structures documented in the neighbouring coal mine of Neufeld (Häusler, 2012b), the geophysical investigations of these buckling structures support the hypothesis of a tectonic origin. Exner, U., Draganits, E., Grasemann, B., 2009. Folding in Miocene, unconsolidated clastic sediments (Vienna basin, Austria) - gravitational versus tectonic forces, Trabajos de Geología, Universidad de Oviedo, 29, 269-272, Oviedo. Grundtner, M.-L., Harzhauser, M., Mandic, O., Draganits, E., Gier, S., Exner, U., Wagreich, M., 2009. Zur Sedimentologie der Sandgrube Steinbrunn (Pannonium, Österreich), Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 149, 441-451, Wien. Häusler, H., 2012a. Contribution to the discussion of folded Pannonian strata in the Southern Vienna Basin, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-5201, EGU General Assembly 2012, Vienna. Häusler, H., 2012b. Folded Pannonian beds along the Austroalpine frame of the southern Vienna Basin, PANGEO Austria 2012 (10th anniversary), 15.-20. Sept. 2012, Abstracts, 55-56, Salzburg.

  7. Landslide monitoring and early warning systems in Lower Austria - current situation and new developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiebes, Benni; Glade, Thomas; Schweigl, Joachim; Jäger, Stefan; Canli, Ekrem

    2014-05-01

    Landslides represent significant hazards in the mountainous areas of Austria. The Regional Geological Surveys are responsible to inform and protect the population, and to mitigate damage to infrastructure. Efforts of the Regional Geological Survey of Lower Austria include detailed site investigations, the planning and installation of protective structures (e.g. rock fall nets) as well as preventive measures such as regional scale landslide susceptibility assessments. For potentially endangered areas, where protection works are not feasible or would simply be too costly, monitoring systems have been installed. However, these systems are dominantly not automatic and require regular field visits to take measurements. Therefore, it is difficult to establish any relation between initiating and controlling factors, thus to fully understand the underlying process mechanism which is essential for any early warning system. Consequently, the implementation of new state-of-the-art monitoring and early warning systems has been started. In this presentation, the design of four landslide monitoring and early warning systems is introduced. The investigated landslide process types include a deep-seated landslide, a rock fall site, a complex earth flow, and a debris flow catchment. The monitoring equipment was chosen depending on the landslide processes and their activity. It aims to allow for a detailed investigation of process mechanisms in relation to its triggers and for reliable prediction of future landslide activities. The deep-seated landslide will be investigated by manual and automatic inclinometers to get detailed insights into subsurface displacements. In addition, TDR sensors and a weather station will be employed to get a better understanding on the influence of rainfall on sub-surface hydrology. For the rockfall site, a wireless sensor network will be installed to get real-time information on acceleration and inclination of potentially unstable blocks. The movement

  8. Hydraulic properties and inner structure of a relict rock glacier in the Eastern Alps, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauritsch, Marcus; Winkler, Gerfried; Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Birk, Steffen

    2013-04-01

    Water economic studies in 1990s documented the importance of the springs draining relict rock glaciers for water supply and human consumption as well as for the ecosystem in alpine catchments in the Niederen Tauern Range, Austria. Recent studies confirm the hydrologic importance and show that in the easternmost subunit, the Seckauer Tauern Range, more than 40% of the area above 2000 m a.s.l. and up to 20% of the area above 1500 m a.s.l. drain through relict rock glaciers. Thus, the hydraulic properties of these alpine aquifers are considered to be important controls on the hydrology of these areas. Nevertheless their hydraulic properties and their inner structure are still poorly understood. Our hydrogeological research is carried out at the Schöneben Rock Glacier, located in Seckauer Tauern Range, Austria. This rock glacier is presumably relict although patches of permafrost might exist particularly in the upper part of the landform. The rock glacier covers an area of 0.11 km² and drains a total catchment of 0.76 km² with a maximum elevation of 2282 m a.s.l.. The rock glacier consists predominantly of gneissic sediments (mainly coarse-grained, blocky at the surface) and extends from 1720 to 1905 m a.s.l.. Discharge of the rock glacier spring is recorded since 2002. Electrical conductivity and water temperature used as natural tracers are continuously monitored since 2008. Furthermore, a tracer test with simultaneous injection of the fluorescent dyes naphthionate and fluoresceine at two injection points (one close to the front and one close to the rooting zone of the rock glacier) was performed. Recession analysis of the spring hydrograph reveals similarities to the flow dynamics of karst springs. The results exhibit on the one hand a slow base flow recession indicating a high storage capacity and on the other hand sharp discharge peaks immediately after rainfall events referring to a high hydraulic conductivity. Applying different analytic runoff models, the

  9. Multi-parameter monitoring of a slow moving landslide in Gresten (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canli, Ekrem; Thiebes, Benni; Engels, Alexander; Glade, Thomas; Schweigl, Joachim; Bertagnoli, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Landslides pose a major threat around the world, to both human life and infrastructure. This may be an even bigger issue in the near future, as an increased landslide activity is commonly listed as an expected impact of human-induced climate change, together with an increasing population growth and the further demand of living space. This requires sound and appropriate means of monitoring slopes prone to landsliding. Monitoring systems for investigating kinematic aspects of landslides aid in analyzing, interpreting, and ultimately understanding its spatio-temporal movement behavior. Landslides around the world greatly differ in terms of typology, movement patterns and geometry, thus, making it difficult to establish a one-fits-all monitoring solution. The linkage between multiple systems with automated instrumentation has often demonstrated the benefits of continuous surveillance in terms of predicting and early warning forthcoming landslide movements. Within this presentation, we introduce a recently established long-term monitoring site on the active Salcher landslide that makes use of an innovative multi-parameter system. The investigated landslide is situated in the municipality of Gresten (Austria) and extends over approx. 8000 m². This slow moving, deep-seated landslide is geologically located in the Gresten Klippenbelt (Helvetic Zone). The characteristic lithofacies are the Gresten Beds of Early Jurassic age that is covered by a sequence of marly and silty beds with intercalated sandy limestones. Together with the adjacent Flyschzone, this area exhibits one of the highest landslide susceptibility within Austria. The monitoring setup consists both of surface and subsurface systems. Surface measurements on multiple locations are performed with highly sensitive sensor networks that measure surface inclination and acceleration. These are wirelessly connected with each other, highly flexible and constructed with a high longevity, yet still at a high measurement

  10. A three-dimensional study of fault zone architecture: Results from the SEMP fault system, Austria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, E. K.; Dolan, J. F.; Sammis, C. G.; Hacker, B.; Cole, J.; Ratschbacher, L.

    2008-12-01

    One of the most exciting frontiers in earthquake science is the linkage between the internal structure and mechanical behavior of fault zones. Little is known about how fault-zone structure varies as a function of depth, yet such understanding is vital if we are to understand the mechanical instabilities that control the nucleation and propagation of seismic ruptures. This has led us to the Salzach-Ennstal-Mariazell-Puchberg [SEMP] fault system in Austria, a major left-lateral strike-slip fault that has accommodated ~ 60 km of displacement during Oligo-Miocene time. Differential exhumation of the SEMP has resulted in a fault zone that reveals a continuum of structural levels along strike. This provides us with a unique opportunity to directly observe how fault-zone properties change with depth, from near-surface levels, down through the seismogenic crust, across the brittle-ductile transition, and into the uppermost part of the lower crust in western Austria. Here we present results from four key outcrops and discuss the mechanical implications of these new data. Our brittle outcrop at Gstatterboden has been exhumed from at least 4 km depth. Here the SEMP juxtaposes limestone of the Wettersteinkalk on the south against Rauwacken dolomite to the north. Faulting has produced extremely asymmetric damage, extensively shattering and shearing the dolomite while leaving the limestone largely intact. Measurements of outcrop-scale faults and fractures in the dolomite, combined with analysis of grain-size-distributions, suggest that strain has progressively localized to a zone ~ 10 m wide. These findings are compared to those from two outcrops (Kitzlochklamm and Liechtensteinklamm) that bracket the brittle-ductile transition, exhumed from depths of = 10 km. Here, the SEMP juxtaposes Greywacke Zone rocks on the north against carbonate mylonites of the Klammkalk to the south. We calculate the strain gradient in the ductile Klammkalk rocks by analyzing the lattice preferred

  11. Currents and radiated E-fields of upward initiated lightning from the Gaisberg Tower in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diendorfer, Gerhard; Zhou, Helin; Pichler, Hannes; Thottappillil, Rajeev; Mair, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Parameters of upward initiated lightning from tall objects are gaining increasing interest in recent years. This is a result of the installation of tall objects (wind turbines, radio towers, etc.) experiencing a high number of lightning flashes. Lightning current waveforms of flashes initiated from the Gaisberg Tower (GBT) in Austria are continuously measured since 1998. On average this radio tower (tower height 100 m) located on a small mountain (1287 m ASL) next to the city of Salzburg triggers about 60-70 flashes per year. More than 50% of the triggered flashes occurred during cold season (similar to so-called winter lightning in Japan) and more or less independent of the overall thunderstorm activity in Austria. Up to now, more than 800 flashes have been recorded by employing a 0.25 mΩ shunt at the tower top. Compared to inductive sensors, with their limited lower bandwidth, a shunt allows correct measurement of the slowly varying, low amplitude initial continuing current (ICC). ICCs are lasting for several hundreds of milliseconds and they are the main contributors to the transferred charge by a flash. Maximum transferred charge in a single flash was 783 C and this negative flash was recorded during cold season on October15th, 2012. Contrary to observations in winter lightning in Japan, where upward initiated flashes with very large charge transfer are predominantly bipolar, at the GBT 7 out of the 10 flashes exceeding a charge transfer of 300 C were negative, 2 were positive and 1 bipolar. Most of the flashes (93%) triggered by the GBT are of negative polarity, initiated by a positive upward propagating leader. But also positive (4%) and bipolar (3%) flashes are observed at the GBT. In case of negative lightning flashes, 45% of current records exhibit an ICC only, 23% of flashes has pulses of peak current exceeding 2 kA superimposed on the ICC, and return strokes following the ICC after a period of "no current" is observed in 32% of the events. Median peak

  12. Survey of electromagnetic field exposure in bedrooms of residences in lower Austria.

    PubMed

    Tomitsch, Johannes; Dechant, Engelbert; Frank, Wilhelm

    2010-04-01

    Previous investigations of exposure to electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic fields (EMF) in households were either about electricity supply EMFs or radio frequency EMFs (RF-EMFs). We report results from spot measurements at the bedside that comprise electrostatic fields, extremely low-frequency electric fields (ELF-EFs), extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs), and RF-EMFs. Measurements were taken in 226 households throughout Lower Austria. In addition, effects of simple reduction measures (e.g., removal of clock radios or increasing their distance from the bed, turning off Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunication (DECT) telephone base stations) were assessed. All measurements were well below International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guideline levels. Average night-time ELF-MFs (long-term measurement from 10 pm to 6 am, geometric mean over households) above 100 nT were obtained in 2.3%, and RF-EMFs above 1000 microW/m(2) in 7.1% of households. Highest ELF-EFs were primarily due to lamps beside the bed (max = 166 V/m), and highest ELF-MFs because of transformers of devices (max = 1030 nT) or high current of power lines (max = 380 nT). The highest values of RF-EMFs were caused by DECT telephone base stations (max = 28979 microW/m(2)) and mobile phone base stations (max = 4872 microW/m(2)). Simple reduction measures resulted in an average decrease of 23 nT for ELF-MFs, 23 V/m for ELF-EFs, and 246 microW/m(2) for RF-EMFs. A small but statistically significant correlation between ELF-MF exposure and overall RF-EMF levels of R = 0.16 (P = 0.008) was computed that was independent of type (flat, single family) and location (urban, rural) of houses. PMID:19780092

  13. Evaluating MODIS satellite versus terrestrial data driven productivity estimates in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petritsch, R.; Boisvenue, C.; Pietsch, S. A.; Hasenauer, H.; Running, S. W.

    2009-04-01

    Sensors, such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite, are developed for monitoring global and/or regional ecosystem fluxes like net primary production (NPP). Although these systems should allow us to assess carbon sequestration issues, forest management impacts, etc., relatively little is known about the consistency and accuracy in the resulting satellite driven estimates versus production estimates driven from ground data. In this study we compare the following NPP estimation methods: (i) NPP estimates as derived from MODIS and available on the internet; (ii) estimates resulting from the off-line version of the MODIS algorithm; (iii) estimates using regional meteorological data within the offline algorithm; (iv) NPP estimates from a species specific biogeochemical ecosystem model adopted for Alpine conditions; and (v) NPP estimates calculated from individual tree measurements. Single tree measurements were available from 624 forested sites across Austria but only the data from 165 sample plots included all the necessary information for performing the comparison on plot level. To ensure independence of satellite-driven and ground-based predictions, only latitude and longitude for each site were used to obtain MODIS estimates. Along with the comparison of the different methods, we discuss problems like the differing dates of field campaigns (<1999) and acquisition of satellite images (2000-2005) or incompatible productivity definitions within the methods and come up with a framework for combining terrestrial and satellite data based productivity estimates. On average MODIS estimates agreed well with the output of the models self-initialization (spin-up) and biomass increment calculated from tree measurements is not significantly different from model results; however, correlation between satellite-derived versus terrestrial estimates are relatively poor. Considering the different scales as they are 9km² from MODIS and

  14. Cosmic Ray Neutron Probe Soil Water Measurements over Complex Terrain in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreugdenhil, Mariette; Weltin, Georg; Kheng Heng, Lee; Wahbi, Ammar; Oismueller, Markus; Dercon, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    The importance of surface soil water (rooting zone) has become evident with climate change affecting rainfall patterns and crop production. The use of Cosmic Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP) for measuring surface soil water has become increasingly popular. The advantage of CRNP is that it is a non-invasive technique for measuring soil water content at an area-wide scale, in contrast to more conventional, techniques which measure mainly at field scale (point level). The CRNP integrates over a circular area of ca. 600 meters in diameter, to a depth of 70 cm, giving an average value for soil water content. Cosmic radiation interacting with the Earth's atmosphere continuously generates neutrons. At Earth's surface, these neutrons interact with surface water, and are slowed down. At sub-micrometer geometrics, these neutrons affect semiconductor devices, so they can be counted, slow and fast ones separately. From the difference in numbers between fast and slow neutrons, soil water content is calculated. As first in Austria, a CRNP (CRS 1000/B model) consisting of two neutron counters (one tuned for slow, the other one for fast neutrons), data logger and an Iridium modem, has been installed at Petzenkirchen research station of the Doctoral Programme for Water Resource Systems (TU Vienna) at 48.14 latitude and 15.17 longitude, 100 km west of Vienna, in late autumn 2013. The research station is located in an undulating agricultural landscape, characterized by heavy Cambisols and Planosols, and winter wheat and barley as main crops in winter, and maize and sunflower in summer. In addition, an in-situ soil moisture network consisting of 32 stations of Time Domain Transmissivity (TDT) sensors measuring soil water at 4 depths (0.05, 0.10,0.20 and 0.50 m) over an area of 64 ha has been established. This TDT network is currently being used to validate the use of the innovative CRNP technique. First results will be shown at the EGU 2014.

  15. The Early Mediaeval manorial estate of Gars/Thunau, Lower Austria: An enclave of endemic tuberculosis?

    PubMed

    Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Novotny, Friederike; Spannagl-Steiner, Michaela; Stadler, Peter; Prohaska, Thomas; Irrgeher, Johanna; Zitek, Andreas; Däubl, Barbara; Haring, Elisabeth; Rumpelmayr, Kerstin; Wild, Eva Maria

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, an increasing number of studies have aimed to shed light on the origin and spread of tuberculosis in past human populations. Here we present the results of a systematic palaeodemographic and palaeopathological survey of the Early Mediaeval population of Gars/Thunau (Lower Austria), which - at this stage - includes 373 individuals recovered at two archaeological sub-sites: a fortified settlement (including a necropolis) at the top of a hill - probably reserved for social and military elites; and a large riverine settlement at the foot of the hill, a so-called 'suburbium', where burials and an area of 'industrial' character were discovered. We recorded a great number of pathological alterations and a variety of 'classical' features of tuberculosis, such as vertebral destructions (Pott's disease) and joint destructions, and other pathological (unspecific) features probably linked with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (e.g. new bone formation at the inner surface of the ribs, endocranial alterations in the form of 'pits', and new bone formation at the cranial base). We hypothesize that the two contemporaneous (∼900-1000 AD) populations of Gars/Thunau differed not only in their social affiliation/condition, but also in the type and frequencies of their population-density-related infectious diseases (in particular tuberculosis). Moreover, we investigated the molecular genetic evidence of the causative organism in a few selected immatures exhibiting pathological changes at the inner wall of the cranium and discuss these findings in regard to the macroscopic features observed. Finally, we analysed carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of both populations and strontium isotope ratios of the hill-top inhabitants in order to reconstruct certain aspects of diet and mobility to test our hypothesis concerning the specific social and/or military character of the site. PMID:25857936

  16. Clostridium difficile ribotypes in Austria: a multicenter, hospital-based survey.

    PubMed

    Indra, Alexander; Schmid, Daniela; Huhulescu, Steliana; Simons, Erica; Hell, Markus; Stickler, Karl; Allerberger, Franz

    2015-08-01

    A prospective, noninterventional survey was conducted among Clostridium difficile positive patients identified in the time period of July until October 2012 in 18 hospitals distributed across all nine Austrian provinces. Participating hospitals were asked to send stool samples or isolates from ten successive patients with C.difficile infection to the National Clostridium difficile Reference Laboratory at the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety for PCR-ribotyping and in vitro susceptibility testing. A total of 171 eligible patients were identified, including 73 patients with toxin-positive stool specimens and 98 patients from which C. difficile isolates were provided. Of the 159 patients with known age, 127 (74.3%) were 65 years or older, the median age was 76 years (range: 9-97 years), and the male to female ratio 2.2. Among these patients, 73% had health care-associated and 20% community-acquired C. difficile infection (indeterminable 7%). The all-cause, 30-day mortality was 8.8% (15/171). Stool samples yielded 46 different PCR-ribotypes, of which ribotypes 027 (20%), 014 (15.8%), 053 (10.5%), 078 (5.3%), and 002 (4.7%) were the five most prevalent. Ribotype 027 was found only in the provinces Vienna, Burgenland, and Lower Austria. Severe outcome of C. difficile infection was found to be associated with ribotype 053 (prevalence ratio: 3.04; 95% CI: 1.24, 7.44), not with the so-called hypervirulent ribotypes 027 and 078. All 027 and 053 isolates exhibited in vitro resistance against moxifloxacin. Fluoroquinolone use in the health care setting must be considered as a factor favoring the spread of these fluoroquinolone resistant C. difficile clones. PMID:26156942

  17. Wherefrom and whereabouts of an alien: the American liver fluke Fascioloides magna in Austria: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sattmann, Helmut; Hörweg, Christoph; Gaub, Larissa; Feix, Anna Sophia; Haider, Michaela; Walochnik, Julia; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Prosl, Heinrich

    2014-04-01

    The giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna, an invasive species originating from North America, was recorded in Austria in the wild for the first time in 2000. Since then, various data concerning the epidemiology in snail intermediate hosts and cervid final hosts have been reported. Galba truncatula acts as snail intermediate host, and red deer, roe deer and fallow deer act as final hosts. G. truncatula is abundant throughout the region, especially along muddy shores of slow-flowing branches of the river system. Prevalence in deer (20-100 %) is much higher than in snails (0.03-0.2 %). Despite medical treatment of parts of the deer population, the parasite has successfully established itself on both sides of the Danube floodplain environments southeast of Vienna. Genetic analysis revealed that the infection of Austrian deer populations apparently originated from foci in the Czech Republic or from populations of Danube tributaries. Areas adjacent southwards, which will soon be joined through wildlife crossings, have not yet evidenced F. magna. Nonetheless, these environments are inhabited by host snails and deer and therefore constitute suitable habitats for F. magna. Invading alien parasites not only threaten native individual hosts but also influence host populations, thus potentially also modifying parasite communities and interactions. The host range of F. magna includes a variety of potential hosts, notably other Lymnaeidae as potential intermediate hosts and various ungulates, including sheep and cattle, as final hosts. Because eradication after medical treatment was unsuccessful, and due to the risk of further spread of the parasite into unaffected regions, enhanced control strategies need to be developed. We recommend assessment of introduction pathways and dispersal, continuous monitoring of host abundance and distribution and the prevalence of flukes in intermediate and final hosts, as well as coordinated and concerted actions with neighbouring countries

  18. Towards a sediment budget estimation of the Gepatschferner glacier (Tyrol, Austria) - Approaches and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Matthias; Baewert, Henning; Morche, David

    2015-04-01

    Sediment production, storage and transport in glacial systems are spatially and temporally variable. Due to the ongoing global warming an accelerated glacial retreat is expected, leading to an exposure of unconsolidated sediments. Additionally, a higher sediment production from destabilised rock walls caused by permafrost degradation and glacial debuttressing is expected. At least those paraglacial processes become more important in alpine catchments in the near future. But, there is still a knowledge gap on the quantification of sediment transporting processes in those regions. The research questions we are focussing on are part of the PROSA project ("High-resolution measurements of morphodynamics in rapidly changing Proglacial Systems of the Alps") and are investigated at the Gepatschferner glacier. The Gepatschferner is located in the Eastern European Alps at the south end of the Kaunertal valley. It is the second largest glacier in Austria (15.7 km², 2012). The Gepatschferner is drained by the Fagge River. In this presentation we will focus on two main components of the sediment budget of the Gepatschferner: the input to and the output from the glacier system. The sediment input from the surrounding rockwalls to the glacier is observed by comparing multi-temporal airborne LiDAR DEMs (2006, July 2012, September 2012) to determine sediment delivery by rockfall. In 2012 a gauging station was installed at the Fagge River in front of the glacier outlet in oreder to determine the glacio-fluvial output of sediment from the glacier system. During the ablation periods from 2012 to 2014 the water level was recorded. At different stages the discharge was measured and a reliable stage-discharge relation could be established. That relation was used in combination with the recorded stage for the computation of the hydrograph in each season. Additionally, the solid sediment output was estimated using the discharge data as well as suspended sediment concentration from several

  19. Temporal variability of the non-steady contribution from glaciers to water discharge in western Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrecht, Astrid; Mayer, Christoph

    2009-10-01

    SummaryA long series of negative glacier mass balance years during the last decades influenced the run-off characteristics of glacierized catchments in the Austrian Alps. For balanced conditions, run-off from catchments containing glaciers shows increased values for warm and dry periods, but the annual sum generally equals the total basin precipitation. In contrast, the recent series of negative glacier mass balances reduced the storage volume of the glaciers, providing additional water in the rivers for many years. The existing Austrian Glacier Inventories allowed the determination of very accurate glacier volume changes between 1969 and 1998. These data were used to calculate the excess discharge for two catchment basins in western Austria (one unaffected by hydro power management, one with hydropower management) for the time period between the inventories which then was compared to the accumulated river run-off from the individual basins. The inter-annual distribution of the total excess could be determined by using existing mass balance series from several glaciers in the different basins as scaling functions. In addition, a degree-day approach was used to provide information about the role of above-average glacial melt water on a monthly basis. Considering different gauging stations along the rivers, it was found that the amount of excess discharge during the entire period was in the range of 1.5-9% of the total discharge, depending on the relative degree of glacier coverage (4-40%). For summer months only, this fraction increases to 3-12%. In individual months, however, the relative importance of excess melt can reach more than 25% in a highly glacier covered catchment (40%), but it can also contribute up to 20% for catchments with a glacier coverage of 8-15%.

  20. A quantitative look on northwestern Tethyan foraminiferal assemblages, Campanian Nierental Formation, Austria.

    PubMed

    Wolfgring, Erik; Wagreich, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Deposits spanning the Radotruncana calcarata Taxon Range Zone at the Postalm section, Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria) are examined quantitatively for foraminiferal assemblages, especially the planktonic group. This study focuses on establishing a high resolution record spanning an 800 ka long stratigraphic interval from the active continental margin of the Penninic Ocean. The Postalm section displays reddish limestone- marl alternations representing precession cycles. For this study, 26 samples were taken bed by bed to allow a "per-precession-cycle" resolution (i.e., a minimum sample distance of ∼20 ka). Samples from limestones as well as from marls were examined for foraminiferal assemblages. Data suggest a typical, open marine Campanian foraminiferal community. The >63 µm fraction is dominated by opportunist taxa, i.e., members of Muricohedbergella and biserial planktic foraminifera. Archaeoglobigerina and "Globigerinelloides" appear frequently and benthic foraminifera are very sparsely found. The share of globotruncanids, representing more complex morphotypes amongst planktonic foraminifera, is recorded with 5-10%. The state of preservation of foraminifera from the Postalm section is moderate to poor. Differences between samples from marls and samples from limestone are evident, but do not reveal evidence that there was an influence on the postdepositional microfossil communities. However, data from microfossils showing moderate to bad preservation can still offer valuable insight into the palaeoenvironment and biostratigraphy. Information gathered on the composition of the planktonic foraminiferal assemblage confirms a low-to-mid-latitude setting for the Postalm section. As well resolved records of Late Cretaceous foraminifera assemblages are rare, the examination of the Radotruncana calcarata Taxon Range Zone provides some insights into variations and short term changes during the very short period of 800 ka. PMID:26989610

  1. A quantitative look on northwestern Tethyan foraminiferal assemblages, Campanian Nierental Formation, Austria

    PubMed Central

    Wagreich, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Deposits spanning the Radotruncana calcarata Taxon Range Zone at the Postalm section, Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria) are examined quantitatively for foraminiferal assemblages, especially the planktonic group. This study focuses on establishing a high resolution record spanning an 800 ka long stratigraphic interval from the active continental margin of the Penninic Ocean. The Postalm section displays reddish limestone- marl alternations representing precession cycles. For this study, 26 samples were taken bed by bed to allow a “per-precession-cycle” resolution (i.e., a minimum sample distance of ∼20 ka). Samples from limestones as well as from marls were examined for foraminiferal assemblages. Data suggest a typical, open marine Campanian foraminiferal community. The >63 µm fraction is dominated by opportunist taxa, i.e., members of Muricohedbergella and biserial planktic foraminifera. Archaeoglobigerina and “Globigerinelloides” appear frequently and benthic foraminifera are very sparsely found. The share of globotruncanids, representing more complex morphotypes amongst planktonic foraminifera, is recorded with 5–10%. The state of preservation of foraminifera from the Postalm section is moderate to poor. Differences between samples from marls and samples from limestone are evident, but do not reveal evidence that there was an influence on the postdepositional microfossil communities. However, data from microfossils showing moderate to bad preservation can still offer valuable insight into the palaeoenvironment and biostratigraphy. Information gathered on the composition of the planktonic foraminiferal assemblage confirms a low-to-mid-latitude setting for the Postalm section. As well resolved records of Late Cretaceous foraminifera assemblages are rare, the examination of the Radotruncana calcarata Taxon Range Zone provides some insights into variations and short term changes during the very short period of 800 ka. PMID:26989610

  2. The first case of Demodex gatoi in Austria, detected with fecal flotation.

    PubMed

    Silbermayr, Katja; Joachim, Anja; Litschauer, Barbara; Panakova, Lucia; Sastre, Natalia; Ferrer, Lluis; Horvath-Ungerboeck, Christa

    2013-08-01

    Feline demodicosis is a rare parasitic condition caused by three different species of mites (Demodex cati, Demodex gatoi, and an unnamed species). D. gatoi inhabits the superficial skin layer (stratum corneum) and is easily transmitted between individual cats. A 2-year-old female spayed Cornish Rex was presented with alopecia and pruritus. The dermatological examination revealed bilateral alopecia and excoriations on trunk, limbs, and belly. The second cat in the household, a 3-year-old female spayed Thai, showed no clinical signs. Superficial and deep skin scrapings were performed and cellophane tapes applied, and living D. gatoi mites could be detected in both cats. Oral ivermectin (0.25 mg/kg every other day) was subscribed. Feces were collected from both cats and fecal flotation with sugar and zinc solutions performed. When compared to skin scrapings and cellophane tapes, D. gatoi was detected more frequently and in higher numbers in fecal samples. Our findings suggest that D. gatoi can be efficiently diagnosed with coproscopy, particularly in asymptomatic carrier animals. DNA was extracted from the flotation liquid, and a PCR protocol for the species verification was designed. A fragment targeting a 325-bp DNA fragment of the D. gatoi mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene was amplified with a 100% similarity to the D. gatoi entry in GenBank® (GI 421920216). We report the first finding of D. gatoi in Austria and propose fecal flotation as a valuable tool for mite detection. Fecal flotation liquid is suitable for DNA extraction and PCR-based species verification of D. gatoi. PMID:23681192

  3. [Health economics of early summer meningoencephalitis in Austria. Effects of a vaccination campaign 1981 to 1990].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, B

    1993-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) was until the early 1980s among the most frequent causes of viral induced central-nervous infectious diseases in Austria. Since 1981 the vaccination was forced by intensive media campaigns. Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the media campaigns and to evaluate them under health economic criteria. The number of hospitalized TBE-cases declines from 1981 to 1990, the linear trend shows a reduction from 427 to 109. If the linear trend from 1971 to 1980 would have continued the respective number in 1990 would have been 585 cases. Thus the model shows that from 1981 to 1990 more than 50% or 2,690 out of 5,368 possible cases are prohibited, from 1991 to 2000 based on the 1990 vaccination rate approximately 85% or 500 cases annually. In the age group 7 to 14 years the proportion of protected exposed is almost 97%. The loss of quality of life is higher than represented by the inpatient statistics. Many of the TBE victims have chronic impairments, mainly due to paresis and depression. Based on the 1990 cost data economic benefits for the social insurance companies in the decade 1981 to 1990 are AS 147 millions for inpatient care, respectively AS 108 millions for loss of productivity and AS 77 millions for early retirement, resulting in total benefits of AS 331 millions. The estimated benefits for 1991 to 2000 based on 1990 cost data are AS 270 millions for inpatient care, AS 200 millions for loss of productivity, and AS 368 for early retirement (total AS 828 millions). PMID:8147001

  4. Natural organic matter and iron export from the Tanner Moor, Austria

    PubMed Central

    Jirsa, Franz; Neubauer, Elisabeth; Kittinger, Richard; Hofmann, Thilo; Krachler, Regina; von der Kammer, Frank; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2013-01-01

    Samples from a pristine raised peat bog runoff in Austria, the Tannermoor creek, were analysed for their iron linked to natural organic matter (NOM) content. Dissolved organic carbon < 0.45 μm (DOC) was 41–64 mg L−1, iron 4.4–5.5 mg L−1. Samples were analysed applying asymmetric field flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) coupled to UV–vis absorption, fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The samples showed an iron peak associated with the NOM peak, one sample exhibiting a second peak of iron independent from the NOM peak. As highland peat bogs with similar climatic conditions and vegetation to the Tanner Moor are found throughout the world, including areas adjacent to the sea, we examined the behaviour of NOM and iron in samples brought to euhaline (35‰) conditions with artificial sea salt. The enhanced ionic strength reduced NOM by 53% and iron by 82%. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of the samples at sea-like salinity revealed two major fractions of NOM associated with different iron concentrations. The larger one, eluting sharply after the upper exclusion limits of 4000–5000 g mol−1, seems to be most important for iron chelating. The results outline the global importance of sub-mountainous and mountainous raised peat bogs as a source of iron chelators to the marine environment at sites where such peat bogs release their run-offs into the sea. PMID:23805012

  5. Sedimentary organic matter characterization of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary GSSP at Kuhjoch (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, M.; Veld, H.; Kürschner, W. M.

    2010-03-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary interval coincides with enhanced extinction rates in the marine realm and pronounced changes in terrestrial ecosystems on the continents. It is further marked by distinct negative excursions in the δ13C org and δ13C carb signature that may represent strong perturbations of the global carbon cycle. We present integrated geochemical, stable-isotope and palynological data from the Kuhjoch section, the Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Jurassic (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria). We show that the initial carbon isotope excursion (CIE), coinciding with the marine extinction interval and the formation of black shales in the western Tethys Eiberg Basin, is marked by only minor changes in kerogen type, which is mainly of terrestrial origin. Increased Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations of 9% at the first half of the initial CIE coincide with Hydrogen Index (HI) values of over 600 mg HC/g TOC. The high correlation (with R2 = 0.93) between HI values and terrestrial Cheirolepidiaceaen conifer pollen suggests a terrestrial source for the hydrogen enriched organic compounds. The lack of major changes in source of the sedimentary organic matter suggests that changes in the δ13C org composition are genuine and represent true disturbances of the global C-cycle. The sudden decrease in total inorganic carbon (TIC) concentrations likely represents the onset of a biocalcification crisis. It coincides with a 4.5‰ negative shift in δ13C org values and possibly corresponds to the onset of CAMP related volcanic activity. The second half of the initial CIE is marked by the dramatic increase of green algae remains in the sediment. The simultaneous increase of the C org/N tot ratio suggests increased marine primary production at the final stage of black shale formation.

  6. Integrated assessment of fluvial and pluvial flood hazards in the city of Salzburg, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breinl, Korbinian

    2014-05-01

    Urban flooding can have various sources including floods from a river ('fluvial flooding'), from heavy rainfall usually from convective storms ('pluvial flooding') or from high tides ('storm surge'). Although awareness of pluvial flooding in the scientific community and among policymakers has been increasing, the term 'flooding' is still often seen as a phenomenon explicitly related to a river. Previous research primarily focused on fluvial flooding, with only very recent literature dealing with pluvial flooding. As a result, there are established methods to assess the hazards from fluvial floods, and a smaller number focusing on pluvial floods. Much less work has been conducted on integrated flood hazard assessment taking into account various types of flood hazards. In this work, an integrative, probabilistic modelling framework was developed to assess the urban flood hazard from fluvial and pluvial flooding in the city of Salzburg (Austria). The framework consists of a stochastic multi-site weather generator, which provides input for the hydrological model HBV. In the city of Salzburg, a kNN algorithm converts the simulated mean discharge into peak discharge as well as daily into sub-daily precipitation. The time series generated in this way make the identification of fluvial events (peak discharge) and pluvial events (sub-daily precipitation) possible. The kNN algorithm inherently considers weather situations to ensure a reasonable disaggregation of daily precipitation. Critical thresholds of pluvial flood events are empirically derived from damage data provided by a local insurer as well as action plans from the local fire service. The modelling framework is then applied to examine the probability of the two single flood hazards, as well as the probability of simultaneous pluvial-fluvial flood events.

  7. Intracultural variation of knowledge about wild plant uses in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Leading scholars in ethnobiology and ethnomedicine continuously stress the need for moving beyond the bare description of local knowledge and to additionally analyse and theorise about the characteristics and dynamics of human interactions with plants and related local knowledge. Analyses of the variation of local knowledge are thereby perceived as minimal standard. In this study we investigate the distribution and variation of wild plant knowledge in five domains: food, drinks, human medicine, veterinary medicine and customs. We assess relations between the wild plant knowledge of informants and their socio-demographic as well as geographic background. Method Research was conducted in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal, Austria. Structured questionnaires were used to inquire wild plant knowledge from 433 informants with varying socio-demographic and geographic background. Children assisted in the data collection. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and generalized linear models. Results and discussion A majority of respondents is familiar with wild plant uses, however to varying degrees. Knowledge variations depend on the socio-demographic and geographic background of the informants as well as on the domains of knowledge under investigation: women, older informants and homegardeners report more human medicinal applications and applications in drinks than men, younger informants and non-homegardeners; farmers know a greater variety of veterinary medicinal applications than non-farmers; the place of residence relates significantly to food and veterinary uses. Customs are difficult to investigate in standardized matrices. The household-related distribution of work and the general socio-cultural context are especially helpful in order to explain intracultural variation of knowledge in the Grosses Walsertal. Conclusions Research on the intracultural variation of local knowledge exposes cultural characteristics and highlights the cultural

  8. Improved Detection of Local Earthquakes in the Vienna Basin (Austria), using Subspace Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apoloner, Maria-Theresia; Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    The Vienna Basin in Eastern Austria is densely populated and highly-developed; it is also a region of low to moderate seismicity, yet the seismological network coverage is relatively sparse. This demands improving our capability of earthquake detection by testing new methods, enlarging the existing local earthquake catalogue. This contributes to imaging tectonic fault zones for better understanding seismic hazard, also through improved earthquake statistics (b-value, magnitude of completeness). Detection of low-magnitude earthquakes or events for which the highest amplitudes slightly exceed the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), may be possible by using standard methods like the short-term over long-term average (STA/LTA). However, due to sparse network coverage and high background noise, such a technique may not detect all potentially recoverable events. Yet, earthquakes originating from the same source region and relatively close to each other, should be characterized by similarity in seismic waveforms, at a given station. Therefore, waveform similarity can be exploited by using specific techniques such as correlation-template based (also known as matched filtering) or subspace detection methods (based on the subspace theory). Matching techniques basically require a reference or template event, usually characterized by high waveform coherence in the array receivers, and high SNR, which is cross-correlated with the continuous data. Instead, subspace detection methods overcome in principle the necessity of defining template events as single events, but use a subspace extracted from multiple events. This approach theoretically should be more robust in detecting signals that exhibit a strong variability (e.g. because of source or magnitude). In this study we scan the continuous data recorded in the Vienna Basin with a subspace detector to identify additional events. This will allow us to estimate the increase of the seismicity rate in the local earthquake catalogue

  9. The copper spoil heap Knappenberg, Austria, as a model for metal habitats - Vegetation, substrate and contamination.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Weiss, Yasmin S; Sassmann, Stefan; Steinhauser, Georg; Hofhansl, Florian; Baumann, Nils; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-09-01

    Historic mining in the Eastern Alps has left us with a legacy of numerous spoil heaps hosting specific, metal tolerant vegetation. Such habitats are characterized by elevated concentrations of toxic elements but also by high irradiation, a poorly developed substrate or extreme pH of the soil. This study investigates the distribution of vascular plants, mosses and lichens on a copper spoil heap on the ore bearing Knappenberg formed by Prebichl Layers and Werfener Schist in Lower Austria. It serves as a model for discriminating between various ecological traits and their effects on vegetation. Five distinct clusters were distinguished: (1) The bare, metal rich Central Spoil Heap was only colonised by highly resistant specialists. (2) The Northern and (3) Southern Peripheries contained less copper; the contrasting vegetation was best explained by the different microclimate. (4) A forest over acidic bedrock hosted a vegetation overlapping with the periphery of the spoil heap. (5) A forest over calcareous bedrock was similar to the spoil heap with regard to pH and humus content but hosted a vegetation differing strongly to all other habitats. Among the multiple toxic elements at the spoil heap, only Cu seems to exert a crucial influence on the vegetation pattern. Besides metal concentrations, irradiation, humidity, humus, pH and grain size distribution are important for the establishment of a metal tolerant vegetation. The difference between the species poor Northern and the diverse Southern Periphery can be explained by the microclimate rather than by the substrate. All plant species penetrating from the forest into the periphery of the spoil heap originate from the acidic but not from the calcareous bedrock. PMID:27185350

  10. E-health approach to link-up actors in the health care system of Austria.

    PubMed

    Schabetsberger, Thomas; Ammenwerth, Elske; Breu, Ruth; Hoerbst, Alexander; Goebel, Georg; Penz, Robert; Schindelwig, Klaus; Toth, Herlinde; Vogl, Raimund; Wozak, Florian

    2006-01-01

    "Electronic health services are important" the EU commission stated in the E-Health action plan. By these means access to health care can be improved and the quality and effect of the offered medical services can be increased. By introducing the e-card in Austria, an overall link-up of nearly all health service providers of the external sector (e.g. family doctors) was achieved. In 2005 the Austrian E-Health Initiative (EHI) of the Austrian Federal Ministry for Health and Women mapped out a strategy to organise the development of the health system towards an integrated patient-centred. Hereby the electronic health record (EHR) plays a decisive role. The aim of this study is to analyse requirements for a virtual, cross-institutional and patient-centred electronic health record from the point of view of the exemplary main actors (Doctor and Patient), to define conditions, and then to evaluate the thus derived, specific concept of implementation. Aside from the two main actors regarding medical acts, namely the institution treating a patient (e.g. doctor, paramedic or nurse) and the patient receiving treatment, a row of other actors could be identified. Group assessment techniques with representatives of these actors resulted in an overview of required functions of an EHR. As a proof-of-concept an information system architecture conformable to the IHE XDS architecture for cross enterprise document sharing is currently being constructed and evaluated in the course of a pilot-project. If the core architecture fulfils the expectations, then a further extension to other hospitals and resident doctors, and subsequently also to the other actors of the health system, is planned. Since both legal and socio-technical requirements are presently not yet entirely met, and since there are also deficits from a methodical viewpoint, a complete implementation and widespread introduction will be a long term goal. PMID:17108555

  11. Project GeoWSN: High precision but low-cost GNSS landslide monitoring in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Daniel; Brandstätter, Michael; Kühtreiber, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    At present, GNSS monitoring of landslides is an accepted and approved method to detect movements of slopes at risk in the sub-centimetre level. However, high-precision geodetic GNSS-receivers are expensive, therefore this monitoring method is not widely applied. Recently low-cost GNSS-receivers are conquering the geodetic market and are well suited for a cost effective and yet precise GNSS-monitoring. During the project GeoWSN, which was funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG), an applicable low-cost monitoring system was developed at Graz University of Technology. The system is based on a so-called Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consisting of low-cost GNSS-receivers, temperature and humidity sensors and inertial measurement units. Additionally energy-harvesting technologies and power-saving algorithms provide that the system is energy- autarkic. For real-time applications, a communication link between the sensor nodes is implemented. The relative positioning method RTK (Real Time Kinematic) is applied to reach the highest possible accuracy. The GeoWSN sensor nodes enable the detection of possible movements in the real-time processed positions of the sensor nodes. To ensure a real-time evaluation and interpretation of the data, the current status of the slope can be acquired by a local warning centre. Therefore, affected people can be warned within a short latency. Several test-scenarios have shown the acceptance of the system at the warning centre of Styria, Austria. This contribution should give an overview of the main idea of a low-cost warning system and results of the project GeoWSN.

  12. Classification of isolates from locations in Austria and Yellowstone National Park as Geobacillus tepidamans sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Schäffer, Christina; Franck, William L; Scheberl, Andrea; Kosma, Paul; McDermott, Timothy R; Messner, Paul

    2004-11-01

    Two moderately thermophilic, Gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria were isolated from different geographical locations and sources; strain GS5-97(T) from a beet sugar factory in Leopoldsdorf, Lower Austria, and strain YNP10 from a geothermally heated soil, Yellowstone National Park, USA. The sequences of their 16S rRNA genes were found to be 99.8% identical, and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed that strains GS5-97(T) and YNP10 share 89.9 mol% similarity to each other, but only 34.3 and 39.2 mol% similarity, respectively, to Geobacillus caldoxylosilyticus DSM 12041(T), which is their closest related type strain. A polyphasic analysis showed that these two isolates were more similar to each other than to other characterized geobacilli. Their DNA G+C content was 43.2 and 42.4 mol%, respectively, and they were identical with respect to many phenotypic features (e.g. T(opt) 55 degrees C; pH(opt) 7.0). Both strains clearly displayed best growth when cultured aerobically. They differed slightly in their cellular fatty acid profiles and polar lipid pattern, and genotypically they could also be distinguished based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints and internal transcribed spacer analysis. Freeze-etching experiments revealed oblique surface layer (S-layer) lattices in both strains, and biochemical analyses of the purified S-layer proteins indicated the occurrence of glycosylation. Based on the properties of these organisms relative to those currently documented for the genus Geobacillus and for the various sister genera in the Bacillus radiation, a novel species is proposed, Geobacillus tepidamans sp. nov., with GS5-97(T) (=ATCC BAA-942(T)=DSM 16325(T)) as the type strain. Strain YNP10 has been deposited in the American Type Culture Collection as ATCC BAA-943. PMID:15545484

  13. Biodeterioration Risk Threatens the 3100 Year Old Staircase of Hallstatt (Austria): Possible Involvement of Halophilic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Dalnodar, Dennis; Voitl, Christian; Reschreiter, Hans; Sterflinger, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Background The prosperity of Hallstatt (Salzkammergut region, Austria) is based on the richness of salt in the surrounding mountains and salt mining, which is documented as far back as 1500 years B.C. Substantial archaeological evidence of Bronze and Iron Age salt mining has been discovered, with a wooden staircase (1108 B.C.) being one of the most impressive and well preserved finds. However, after its discovery, fungal mycelia have been observed on the surface of the staircase, most probably due to airborne contamination after its find. Objective As a basis for the further preservation of this valuable object, the active micro-flora was examined to investigate the presence of potentially biodegradative microorganisms. Results Most of the strains isolated from the staircase showed to be halotolerant and halophilic microorganisms, due to the saline environment of the mine. Results derived from culture-dependent assays revealed a high fungal diversity, including both halotolerant and halophilic fungi, the most dominant strains being members of the genus Phialosimplex (synonym: Aspergillus). Additionally, some typical cellulose degraders, namely Stachybotrys sp. and Cladosporium sp. were detected. Numerous bacterial strains were isolated and identified as members of 12 different genera, most of them being moderately halophilic species. The most dominant isolates affiliated with species of the genera Halovibrio and Marinococcus. Halophilic archaea were also isolated and identified as species of the genera Halococcus and Halorubrum. Molecular analyses complemented the cultivation assays, enabling the identification of some uncultivable archaea of the genera Halolamina, Haloplanus and Halobacterium. Results derived from fungi and bacteria supported those obtained by cultivation methods, exhibiting the same dominant members in the communities. Conclusion The results clearly showed the presence of some cellulose degraders that may become active if the requirements for

  14. Variability of solid load in the proglacial Fagge River, Tyrol (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baewert, Henning; Weber, Martin; Faust, Matthias; Morche, David

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers can strongly affect sediment dynamics in high-mountain basins. They receive clastic material from rock walls by gravitational processes of various magnitudes (rock slides to rockfalls) or by subglacial erosion and transport sediments downvalley like a conveyor belt. At the glacier tongue the meltwater with its accompanying river load enters the proglacial system. Fine material is moving in suspension leading to turbid meltwater. The coarse fraction of the meltwater load is rolling or sliding as bedload on the proglacial channel bed. As glaciers are vulnerable to and thus indicators of climate change the sediment transfer systems in Alpine glacier basins will respond as well. Since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) around 1850 glacier in the European Alps have been melting down and their front lines have been retreating. Where the glacier ice is gone large amounts unconsolidated sediments are deposited (moraines, glaciofluvial deposits) and can easily be reworked during subsequent rain storms or snowmelt. As a consequence it is of great concern whether more solid load (higher sediment availability) or less solid load (trapping effect of proglacial lakes) is transported in proglacial rivers in the near future. Due to glacier retreat the amount of unconsolidated, sparsely vegetated sediments, which are prone to rapid remobilization, is increasing. Because more of these sediments are available for fluvial sediment transport, it is generally assumed that glacier retreat leads to an increase in sediment discharge from proglacial zones. The main objective of this study is to present a budget of the fluvial sediment transport within the proglacial Fagge River for the observation period 2012 - 2014. This quantification of solid sediment transport is needed for further investigations on the way to a holistic sediment budget for the whole glaciated catchment of the Gepatschferner in Tyrol/Austria.

  15. The rare earth element potential of kaolin deposits in the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, S.; Frimmel, H. E.; Pašava, J.

    2014-12-01

    Four kaolin deposits in the Bohemian Massif were studied in order to assess the potential for the recovery of rare earth elements (REE) as by-products from the residue after extraction and refining of the raw kaolin. The behaviour of REE + Y during kaolinitization was found to be largely a function of pre-alteration mineralogy. In the examples studied, i.e. granite-derived deposits of Kriechbaum (Austria) and Božičany, and arkose-derived deposits of Kaznějov and Podbořany (all Czech Republic), the REE + Y are predominantly hosted by monazite which has remained unaffected by kaolinitization. The overall REE + Y content of the variably kaolinitized rocks is strongly dependent on their genesis. While ion adsorption plays only a minor role in the concentration of REE + Y in the studied kaolinitized rocks, the processing and refining of the raw kaolin leads to residues that are enriched in REE + Y by a factor of up to 40. The use of a magnetic separator and a hydrocyclone in the processing of the raw material can yield REE + Y contents of as much as 0.77 wt%. Although this value compares well with the REE + Y concentration in some potentially economic REE + Y projects elsewhere, the overall tonnage of the (REE + Y)-enriched residue is by far not sufficient to consider economic extraction of REE + Y as by-product. Our results are most probably applicable also to other kaolin deposits derived from the weathering of Hercynian basement granites elsewhere (e.g. in Saxonia and Bavaria, Germany). Overall, the potential for REE + Y production as by-product from kaolin mining has to be regarded as minimal.

  16. Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2014-02-01

    The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects. PMID:24410208

  17. Elucidation of enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus outbreaks in Austria by complementary epidemiological and microbiological investigations, 2013.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Daniela; Rademacher, Corinna; Kanitz, Elisabeth Eva; Frenzel, Elrike; Simons, Erica; Allerberger, Franz; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-09-01

    Identifying Bacillus cereus as the causative agent of a foodborne outbreak still poses a challenge. We report on the epidemiological and microbiological investigation of three outbreaks of food poisoning (A, B, and C) in Austria in 2013. A total of 44% among 32 hotel guests (A), 22% among 63 employees (B) and 29% among 362 residents of a rehab clinic (C) fell sick immediately after meal consumption. B. cereus isolated from left overs or retained samples from related foods were characterized by toxin gene profiling, and molecular typing using panC sequencing and M13-PCR typing (in outbreak A and C). We identified two B. cereus strains in outbreak A, and six B. cereus strains, each in outbreak B and C; we also found Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxins in outbreak A. The panC sequence based phylogenetic affiliation of the B. cereus strains, together with findings of the retrospective cohort analyses, helped determining their etiological role. Consumption of a mashed potatoes dish in outbreak A (RR: ∞), a pancake strips soup in outbreak B (RR 13.0; 95% CI 1.8-93.0) and for outbreak C of a fruit salad (RR 1.50; 95% CI 1.09-2.00), deer ragout (RR: 1.99; 95% CI 1.23-3.22) and a cranberry/pear (RR 2.46; 95% CI 1.50-4.03)were associated with increased risk of falling sick. An enterotoxigenic strain affiliated to the phylogenetic group with the highest risk of food poisoning was isolated from the crème spinach and the strawberry buttermilk, and also from the stool samples of the one B. cereus positive outbreak case-patient, who ate both. Our investigation of three food poisoning outbreaks illustrates the added value of a combined approach by using epidemiological, microbiological and genotyping methods in identifying the likely outbreak sources and the etiological B. cereus strains. PMID:27257745

  18. Reducing flood vulnerability and risk under changing socio-economic conditions - A qualitative case study in Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Reiss, Julia; Achleitner, Stefan; Plörer, Manuel; Hofer, Michael; Weingraber, Felix

    2013-04-01

    Within the last decades severe flooding events occurred in many parts of Europe. Especially in 2002, Upper Austria was seriously affected. Beside the natural variability of precipitation events the increase of losses is strongly connected with socio-economic developments. Especially the increase of settlement areas and the specific values of such modern settlement areas in flood prone areas induced this increase of losses. The presented case study was initiated to analyse different consequences of the currently observed socio-economic trend and further socio-economic projections within the watershed of the so-called Ottnanger Redl in Upper Austria, a watershed which was affected by the event in 2002. The temporal dimension of this change in damage potential is analysed for the 1990s, current conditions and future scenarios (Statistics Austria). Beside the socio-economic development the common structural vulnerability but also the positive effect of legislation and standards concerning flood-adapted constructions are considered. The hydrological-hydraulic is realized based on a scaled scenario approach. Therefore, documented precipitation events at rain gauges are considered for precipitation run-off simulations. To include further events the gauged events are scalled in their intensity. The hydrological loads of these scenarios are considered within different 2D hydraulic simulations; representation of past, current and future settlement structure. Based on the current settlement structure and its transfer in an asset value database, the past structure of the 1990s is reconstructed with remote sensing methods. The future structure (different pragmatic scenarios) in contrast is estimated on the basis of the current situation, socio-economic projections of Statistics Austria, land-use planes and local development concepts of the individual communities and in cooperation with the Regional Government of Upper Austria. The monetary evaluation is conducted with

  19. Growth response to a changing environment-Impacts of tropospheric ozone dose on photosynthesis of Norway spruce forests in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Pietsch, Stephan; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant, although plants have active defense strategies (e.g. antioxidants), the cumulative ozone dose may lead to chronic damages to plant tissues. Ozone enters into plants through stomata and reacts with other chemicals to create toxic compounds. This affects plant photosynthesis and may reduce CO2 fixation, and consequently growth. Open top cambers (OTC) are usually used to study the effects of elevated ozone levels on photosynthesis; whereas field studies with on site occurring ozone levels are rare. A recent modelling study on Norway spruce stands in Austria exhibited trends in model errors indicating that an increase in ozone dose leads to a reduction in volume increment. This study aims to explore how different ozone doses affect photosynthesis under field conditions and may translate into growth response for 12 stands of Norway spruce, distributed along an ozone concentration gradient across Austria. A LI-6400xt photosynthesis system was utilized to collect physiological parameters including net photosynthesis, stomata conductance, internal CO2 concentration, transpiration, etc. Chlorophyll fluorescence data was collected by using a PEA chlorophyll fluorescence meter, and chlorophyll content was measured. Morphological characteristics and soil samples were also analyzed. Ozone dose to leaf tissue was calculated from external ozone concentration, the conductance of the stomata to ozone, the leaf area index and the time span of the day when ozone uptake takes place. Our results confirm that increasing cumulative ozone dose reduces maximum assimilation rate and carboxylation efficiency under field conditions. Our final goal is to quantify how far this ozone induced reduction in assimilation power ultimately translates into a growth reduction of Norway spruce in Austria.

  20. Incorporation of public hospitals: a "silver bullet" against overcapacity, managerial bottlenecks and resource constraints? Case studies from Austria and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Armin H; Haslinger, Reinhard R; Hofmarcher, Maria M; Jesse, Maris; Palu, Toomas

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach for incorporating public hospitals by contrasting the experience from an "old" EU country (Austria) with a new EU member state (Estonia). In the EU (including the new member states) hospital overcapacity is a serious problem, from a technical, fiscal and political perspective. Few countries have succeeded in establishing an appropriate framework for resource management and for guaranteeing long-term financial viability of their hospital network. Many countries are in search of effective policies for improved hospital management and more cost-effective resource use in the health sector. Over the past decade, experiences in Austria and Estonia have emerged as innovative examples which may provide lessons for other EU countries and beyond. This paper describes the evolution of public hospitals from public budgetary units and public management to incorporated autonomous organizations under private corporate law, resulting in a contractual relationship between (public) owners and private hospital management. Outdated and inefficient public sector structures were replaced by more agile corporate management. The arrangement allows for investments, operating costs and budgeting according to strategic business goals as opposed to political "fiat". Shielding hospitals from local political influence is an important aspect of this concept. Horizontal integration through networking of public hospitals and introducing private management helps create a new corporate culture, allowing for more flexibility to achieve efficiencies through downsizing and economies of scale. Based on contracts the new balance between ownership and managerial functions create strong incentives for a more business-like, results-oriented and consumer-friendly management. This was achieved both in Austria and Estonia in a politically sensitive way, adopting a long-term vision and by protecting the interests of hospital owners and staff. PMID:16919838

  1. 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery (ISCN 2013) Salzburg/ Austria | November 28th - 29th, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Brainin, M; Muresanu, D; Slavoaca, D

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery was held on the 28th and 29th of November, 2013, in Salzburg, one of the most beautiful cities in Austria, which is well known for its rich cultural heritage, world-famous music and beautiful surrounding landscapes. The aim of the conference was to discuss the progress in the field of neurorecovery. The conference brought together internationally renowned scientists and clinicians, who described the clinical and therapeutic relevance of translational research and its applications in neurorehabilitation. PMID:25713602

  2. Modelling site-specific N2O emission factors from Austrian agricultural soils for targeted mitigation measures (NitroAustria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amon, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Foldal, Cecilie; Schiefer, Jasmin; Kitzler, Barbara; Schwarzl, Bettina; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Sedy, Katrin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Results from a previous project "FarmClim" highlight that the IPCC default emission factor is not able to reflect region specific N2O emissions from Austrian arable soils. The methodology is limited in identifying hot spots and hot moments of N2O emissions. When estimations are based on default emission factors no recommendations can be given on optimisation measures that would lead to a reduction of soil N2O emissions. The better the knowledge is about Nitrogen and Carbon budgets in Austrian agricultural managed soils the better the situation can be reflected in the Austrian GHG emission inventory calculations. Therefore national and regionally modelled emission factors should improve the evidence for national deviation from the IPCC default emission factors and reduce the uncertainties. The overall aim of NitroAustria is to identify the drivers for N2O emissions on a regional basis taking different soil types, climate, and agricultural management into account. We use the LandscapeDNDC model to update the N2O emission factors for N fertilizer and animal manure applied to soils. Key regions in Austria were selected and region specific N2O emissions calculated. The model runs at sub-daily time steps and uses data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, radiation, and wind speed as meteorological drivers. Further input data are used to reflect agricultural management practices, e.g., planting/harvesting, tillage, fertilizer application, irrigation and information on soil and vegetation properties for site characterization and model initialization. While at site scale, arable management data (crop cultivation, rotations, timings etc.) is obtained by experimental data from field trials or observations, at regional scale such data need to be generated using region specific proxy data such as land use and management statistics, crop cultivations and yields, crop rotations, fertilizer sales, manure resulting from livestock units etc. The farming

  3. Sedimentary facies and progradational style of a Pleistocene talus-slope succession, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Diethard

    2010-05-01

    In mountain ranges, talus slopes are ubiquitous and typically represent the highest deposystem. The style of talus buildup from a low-dipping, immature slope to a high and steep, geomorphically mature slope, however, to date was not documented. Near Innsbruck city (Austria) a lithified talus-slope succession records progradation and downlap via talus-associated alluvial fans along its toe-of-slope. The considered succession ('Hötting Breccia' Auct.) probably accumulated during the terminal Riss-Würm interglacial to early Würmian, and became lithified before the Last Glacial Maximum. The Hötting Breccia consists of alluvial-fan deposits which, in turn, are locally downlapped by a succession deposited from aggrading to prograding talus slopes. Up-hill, the fossil talus slopes pinch out in onlap onto former rock cliffs. In the eastern part of outcrop, talus buildup is well-exposed along the flanks of a canyon; there, facies and depositional geometries record: (a) a basal, low-dipping alluvial-fan interval that accumulated near the toe-of-cliff, overlain and downlapped by (b) a steeper-dipping talus-slope succession. In the steep-dipping (25-35°), proximal slope segment hundreds of meters in length, the talus succession consists mainly of: (i) clast-supported breccias of cohesive debris flows, intercalated with (ii) openwork breccias from grain flows and particle creep. Progradation of the steep-dipping segment of talus slopes took place via shingling of alluvial-fan depositional units along the toe-of-slope; the fan depounits linked the progradation of the steep-dipping, proximal talus-slope segment with the lower-dipping substrate ahead of the slopes. The change from alluvial-fan deposition along the toe of initially high cliffs towards climbing onlap and progradation of talus slopes occurred when a slope segment dipping with the mean angle of residual shear of talus material had formed at the apex of the fan. Because the free cliff face supplying talus

  4. Sedimentary facies and progradational style of a Pleistocene talus-slope succession, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Diethard

    2010-07-01

    In mountain ranges, talus slopes are ubiquitous and typically represent the highest deposystem. The style of talus buildup from a low-dipping, immature slope to a high and steep, geomorphically mature slope, however, to date was not documented. Near Innsbruck city (Austria) a lithified talus-slope succession records progradation and downlap via talus-associated alluvial fans along its toe-of-slope; the fans linked progradation of the steep-dipping talus-slope segment over a lower-dipping substrate. The considered succession ('Hötting Breccia' Auct.) probably accumulated during the terminal Riss-Würm interglacial to early Würmian, and became lithified before the Last Glacial Maximum. The Hötting Breccia consists of alluvial-fan deposits which, in turn, are locally downlapped by a succession of aggrading to prograding talus slopes. Up-hill, the fossil talus slopes pinch out in onlap onto former rock cliffs. In the eastern part of outcrop, talus buildup is well-exposed along the flanks of a canyon; there, facies and depositional geometries record: (a) a basal, low-dipping alluvial-fan interval that accumulated near the toe-of-cliff, overlain and downlapped by (b) a steeper-dipping talus-slope succession. In the steep-dipping (25-35°), proximal talus-slope segment hundreds of meters in length, the talus successions consist mainly of: (i) clast-supported breccias of cohesive debris flows, intercalated with (ii) openwork breccias from grain flows and particle creep. Progradation of the steep-dipping segment of talus slopes took place via shingling of alluvial-fan depounits along the toe-of-slope. The fans linked the progradation of the steep-dipping, proximal talus-slope segment with the lower-dipping substrate ahead of the talus slope. The change from alluvial-fan deposition along the toe of initially high cliffs towards climbing onlap and progradation of talus slopes occurred when a slope segment dipping with the mean angle of residual shear of talus material had

  5. Inferring thresholds in karst aquifers from spring responses: the example of the Lurbach karst system (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birk, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas; Mayaud, Cyril

    2014-05-01

    Threshold behavior in hydrological systems generally involves a qualitative change of a single process, the system response or the functioning of the system. Different types of thresholds and their underlying controls are examined using the example of the Lurbach karst system (Austria). This karst system receives concentrated allogenic recharge from the sinking stream Lurbach, which under low-flow conditions only resurges at the Hammerbach spring. Under medium- to high-flow conditions, however, an overflow toward another spring, the Schmelzbach outlet occurs. The overflow probably is activated when a conduit pathway connecting the two sub-catchments is flooded at a given threshold water level. Unfortunately, the value of this threshold cannot be determined, as information about water levels within this karst system are scarce due to the lack of observation wells and the inaccessibility of relevant cave sections. Yet a corresponding threshold discharge of the Hammerbach spring can be inferred from tracer test results. Interestingly, a tracer test conducted in 2008 suggests that the overflow is activated at a discharge lower than that inferred from tracer tests reported earlier (Wagner et al., EGU2011-7962). In order to better understand this suspected change in the discharge threshold, the physicochemical responses of the Hammerbach spring were analyzed. Applying the concept of process time scales (Birk and Wagner, EGU2013-11365) to the Hammerbach spring suggests that the threshold travel time controlling the response of the spring water temperature was changed in the time period from 2006 to 2009 relative to the years before. At the same time, the Hammerbach spring hydrograph appears to have changed. For instance, the flow duration curve and the master recession curves for the time period from 2006 to 2009 are found to be markedly different from those of earlier time periods. All of these observations can be consistently explained by a reduction of the conduit

  6. The division of labor for society's reproduction: on the concentration of childbearing and rearing in Austria.

    PubMed

    Lutz, W; Vaupel, J

    1987-01-01

    The division of labor or concentration of fertility among certain portions of the Austrian population, as well as male-female distribution of child care, are computed by Lorenz curves. This method generates fractiles or percentiles, conveniently expressed here as the "have-halves", or the proportion of women that have half of the children. Data from the German census of 1939, which accounted for family size among 64 occupational groups, showed an abrupt fall in fertility from 1905, beginning with professors and doctors and spreading to other occupations, and a consequent increased concentration of fertility among smaller numbers of couples. Two 1% micro-censuses taken in Austria in 1976 and 1981 revealed that the baby-boom generation had a far less concentrated distribution of children. This was especially apparent in comparison with the war generation, with its characteristicly high degree of childlessness. The 1961-1965 marriage cohort showed the highest fertility of the century. The percentage of women who had half the children rose among baby boom couples to 28%, with more universal marriage and a trend toward the 2-child family. Recent data were also differentiated by province and by women's education. Concentration was least in Vienna where 0, 1 and 2-child families predominate. University trained women showed a polarity of high childlessness and large families. The trend with today's lower fertility is for increasing concentration: 38% have all children and 12.3% have half the children. The article ends with a detailed discussion of men's share of the actual childcare, a factor tending to further concentrate childrearing in the hands of a few women. Men do far less childcare than mothers, and within those hours they spend more time on playing with than on feeding or cleaning children. The larger the family, the higher the percentage of fathers that do no childcare at all. It is expected that fertility concentrations will fall as more families have 1 or 2

  7. The Control of Invasive Knotweed Species (Fallopia sp.). Research Experiences from Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, Walter; Schmidt, Christina; Eitler, Manuela; Natascha, Steinbauer

    2013-04-01

    The alien plant species Fallopia japonica (Japanese Knotweed), Fallopia sachalinensis (Sakhalin Knotweed) and the clonal knotweed hybrid Fallopia × bohemica are invasive plant species which spread out within Europe. They often form dense stands along Rivers and have negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and also threaten the stability of river banks. Due to their life form, vitality and their enormous ability to regenerate themselves, they are extremely hard to fight. The control measurements against Fallopia species are therefore complicated and often do not have the desired results. Our research tried two approaches to deal with these invasive plant species. The first approach was the use of soil bioengineering techniques which have considerable potential for the management of Fallopia. In our study at the river Schwechat (Lower Austria) we tested two soil bioengineering methods for the control of Fallopia. The first method was the use of living brush mattresses with willows (Salix sp.) to fight the growth of Fallopia species. Within a second method a black liner was used in combination with willow cuttings. After cutting the Fallopia stands the liner was applied to the river bank and fixed with living willow cutting to the surface. The two areas were compared to untreated river bank areas. At several points of time we compared the aboveground response (number of shoots, basal shoot diameters, plant heights, number of stems, aboveground biomass). Additionally the aboveground plant parameters of the willows were measured. In a second approach it was tested if Fallopia can be suppressed or even exterminated if they are submerged for longer time periods. For the experiments Fallopia rhizomes were planted in plastic containers. After a certain growing period, the plants were cut and documented quantitatively by the measurements of shoot lengths, shoot diameters and aboveground biomass. After the first harvest the containers were flooded with

  8. Outbreak of Clostridium difficile 027 infection in Vienna, Austria 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Indra, A; Huhulescu, S; Fiedler, A; Kernbichler, S; Blaschitz, M; Allerberger, F

    2009-04-30

    From November 2008 to 15 April 2009, 36 isolates of CD027 identified in Austria, all originating from four hospitals in Vienna. All isolates were positive for toxin A, toxin B and the binary toxin, and showed a characteristic 18 bp deletion in the tcdC gene. Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic spore-forming bacterium. Some strains may cause diarrhoea due to formation of toxins. Symptomatic C. difficile infection (CDI) is primarily linked with hospital admission and antibiotic treatment, although antibiotic exposure is neither necessary nor sufficient for CDI [1,2]. In Belgium, for instance, one third of CDI cases reported in the hospital surveillance system are not hospital-associated [3]. Symptoms range from mild diarrhoea to serious manifestations such as pseudomembranous colitis, toxic megacolon or perforation of the colon. C. difficile challenges hygiene standards as it is forms spores. The risk of infection rises with increasing age, underlying disease and immunodeficiency [4]. In recent years, a particularly virulent strain, ribotype 027 (CD027), has emerged in a number of countries, particularly in connection with hospital outbreaks, but also in community-acquired diarrhoea cases [5]. The risk of serious disease and death associated with CD027 exceeds that of other C. difficile strains. The classical CD027 is characterised - among other things - by an increased production of toxins A and B, production of a binary toxin and resistance to newer fluoroquinolones such as moxifloxacin. The first three Austrian cases of CD027 occurred in 2006 and in March 2008 [6,7]. Since August 2006, the Austrian National Reference Centre for C. difficile has ribotyped approximately 2,700 human C. difficile isolates received from all nine Austrian provinces. In recent months, a drastic increase in CD027 cases has been noted, all originating from four hospitals in Vienna. From November 2008 to 15 April 2009, 36 isolates of CD027 were received at the National Reference Centre

  9. Quantifying ecosystem service trade-offs: the case of an urban floodplain in Vienna, Austria.

    PubMed

    Sanon, Samai; Hein, Thomas; Douven, Wim; Winkler, Peter

    2012-11-30

    Wetland ecosystems provide multiple functions and services for the well-being of humans. In urban environments, planning and decision making about wetland restoration inevitably involves conflicting objectives, trade-offs, uncertainties and conflicting value judgments. This study applied trade-off and multi criteria decision analysis to analyze and quantify the explicit trade-offs between the stakeholder's objectives related to management options for the restoration of an urban floodplain, the Lobau, in Vienna, Austria. The Lobau has been disconnected from the main channel of the Danube River through flood protection schemes 130 years ago that have reduced the hydraulic exchange processes. Urban expansion has also changed the adjacent areas and led to increased numbers of visitors, which hampers the maximum potential for ecosystem development and exerts additional pressure on the sensitive habitats in the national park area. The study showed that increased hydraulic connectivity would benefit several stakeholders that preferred the ecological development of the floodplain habitats. However, multiple uses including fishery, agriculture and recreation, exploring the maximum potential in line with national park regulations, were also possible under the increased hydraulic connectivity options. The largest trade-offs were quantified to be at 0.50 score between the ecological condition of the aquatic habitats and the drinking water production and 0.49 score between the ecological condition of the terrestrial habitats and the drinking water production. At this point, the drinking water production was traded-off with 0.40 score, while the ecological condition of the aquatic habitats and the ecological condition of the terrestrial habitats were traded off with 0.30 and 0.23 score, respectively. The majority of the stakeholders involved preferred the management options that increased the hydraulic connectivity compared with the current situation which was not preferred by

  10. UAV-based remote sensing of the Heumoes landslide, Austria Vorarlberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niethammer, U.; Joswig, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Heumoes landslide, is located in the eastern Vorarlberg Alps, Austria, 10 km southeast of Dornbirn. The extension of the landslide is about 2000 m in west to east direction and about 500 m at its widest extent in north to south direction. It occurs between an elevation of 940 m in the east and 1360 m in the west, slope angles of more than 60 % can be observed as well as almost flat areas. Its total volume is estimated to be 9.400.000 cubic meters and its average velocities amount to some centimeter per year. Surface signatures or 'photolineations' of creeping landslides, e.g. fractures and rupture lines in sediments and street pavings, and vegetation contrasts by changes of water table in shallow vegetation in principle can be resolved by remote sensing. The necessary ground cell resolution of few centimeters, however, generally can't be achieved by routine areal or satellite imagery. The fast technological progress of unmanned areal vehicles (UAV) and the reduced payload by miniaturized optical cameras now allow for UAV remote sensing applications that are below the high financial limits of military intelligence. Even with 'low-cost' equipment, the necessary centimeter-scale ground cell resolution can be achieved by adapting the flight altitude to some ten to one hundred meters. Operated by scientists experienced in remote-control flight models, UAV remote sensing can now be performed routinely, and campaign-wise after any significant event of, e.g., heavy rainfall, or partial mudflow. We have investigated a concept of UAV-borne remote sensing based on motorized gliders, and four-propeller helicopters or 'quad-rotors'. Several missions were flown over the Heumoes landslide. Between 2006 and 2008 three series UAV-borne photographs of the Heumoes landslide were taken and could be combined to orto-mosaics of the slope area within few centimeters ground cell resolution. We will present the concept of our low cost quad-rotor UAV system and first results of the

  11. Hybrid geomorphological maps as the basis for assessing geoconservation potential in Lech, Vorarlberg (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seijmonsbergen, Harry; de Jong, Mat; Anders, Niels; de Graaff, Leo; Cammeraat, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Geoconservation potential is, in our approach, closely linked to the spatial distribution of geomorphological sites and thus, geomorphological inventories. Detailed geomorphological maps are translated, using a standardized workflow, into polygonal maps showing the potential geoconservation value of landforms. A new development is to semi-automatically extract in a GIS geomorphological information from high resolution topographical data, such as LiDAR, and combine this with conventional data types (e.g. airphotos, geological maps) into geomorphological maps. Such hybrid digital geomorphological maps are also easily translated into digital information layers which show the geoconservation potential in an area. We present a protocol for digital geomorphological mapping illustrated with an example for the municipality of Lech in Vorarlberg (Austria). The protocol consists of 5 steps: 1. data preparation, 2. generating training and validation samples, 3. parameterization, 4. feature extraction, and 5. assessing classification accuracy. The resulting semi-automated digital geomorphological map is then further validated, in two ways. Firstly, the map is manually checked with the help of a series of digital datasets (e.g. airphotos) in a digital 3D environment, such as ArcScene. The second validation is field visit, which preferably occurs in parallel to the digital evaluation, so that updates are quickly achieved. The final digital and coded geomorphological information layer is converted into a potential geoconservation map by weighting and ranking the landforms based on four criteria: scientific relevance, frequency of occurrence, disturbance, and environmental vulnerability. The criteria with predefined scores for the various landform types are stored in a separate GIS attribute table, which is joined to the attribute table of the hybrid geomorphological information layer in an automated procedure. The results of the assessment can be displayed as the potential

  12. Subsurface temporal variation of radon at the Conrad Geophysical Observatory, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Roman; Steinitz, Gideon; Piatibratova, Oksana

    2015-04-01

    The Conrad Observatory (COBS) housed the national geophysical observatory of Austria and is located 50 km south west of Vienna within the carbonate sequence of the "Wettersteinkalk". Parameters monitored at the facility comprise environmental data, seismic signals, gravity, geomagnetic components and also natural gamma rays. A subsurface tunnel, 150 meters long and oriented E-W is driven into the calcareous sequence at a depth of 50 meters. The tunnel is lined with a concrete carapace, ~20 cm thick. The tunnel observatory is separated from the external atmosphere by 3 tight doors, resulting in a stable temperature of 6.85±0.04°C. A gamma detector (3×3", NaI, SCA) is used measure the variation of the gamma radiation from radon in the air of the tunnel, at a resolution of 1 minute, which is accumulated to form a 15-minute count rate. The sensor is placed on a concrete block at 135 meters. Several SSNTD measurements in the tunnel indicated radon level in the level of 1.5 kBq/m^3. The background gamma radiation, due probably mainly to sources in the concrete is in the order to 2×105 counts (per 15-minutes). A long term variation of radon is reflected as an annual radon signal with large amplitude (2×105 counts) and a maximum in summer. Small to large (2×105 counts) non periodic multi-day signals lasting from two to several tens of days are superimposed. Daily periodic signals of much lower amplitude are observed, with amplitudes generally up to 4×104 counts. The amplitude of the non-periodic multi-day is coupled to amplitude of the annual signal, and the amplitude of the periodic daily signal is modulated by the multi-day variation. The source of the radon in the air of the tunnel is from the concrete lining the floor and walls of the tunnel. The variation patterns and their systematic characteristics cannot be ascribed to local variations of pressure and temperature (stable). These limitations indicate that other driver(s), external to the tunnel, are forcing

  13. Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal

  14. Total Petroleum Systems of the North Carpathian Province of Poland, Ukraine, Czech Republic, and Austria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Three total petroleum systems were identified in the North Carpathian Province (4047) that includes parts of Poland, Ukraine, Austria, and the Czech Republic. They are the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System, the Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, and the Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System. The Foreland Basin Assessment Unit of the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System is wholly contained within the shallow sedimentary rocks of Neogene molasse in the Carpathian foredeep. The biogenic gas is generated locally as the result of bacterial activity on dispersed organic matter. Migration is also believed to be local, and gas is believed to be trapped in shallow stratigraphic traps. The Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, which includes the Deformed Belt Assessment Unit, is structurally complex, and source rocks, reservoirs, and seals are juxtaposed in such a way that a single stratigraphic section is insufficient to describe the geology. The Menilite Shale, an organic-rich rock widespread throughout the Carpathian region, is the main hydrocarbon source rock. Other Jurassic to Cretaceous formations also contribute to oil and gas in the overthrust zone in Poland and Ukraine but in smaller amounts, because those formations are more localized than the Menilite Shale. The Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System is defined on the basis of the suspected source rock for two oil or gas fields in western Poland. The Paleozoic Reservoirs Assessment Unit encompasses Devonian organic-rich shale believed to be a source of deep gas within the total petroleum system. East of this field is a Paleozoic oil accumulation whose source is uncertain; however, it possesses geochemical similarities to oil generated by Upper Carboniferous coals. The undiscovered resources in the North Carpathian Province are, at the mean, 4.61 trillion cubic feet of gas and 359 million barrels of oil. Many favorable parts of the province have been

  15. 10Be surface exposure dating of rock glaciers in Larstigtal, Tyrol, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy-Ochs, S.; Kerschner, H.; Maisch, M.; Christl, M.; Kubik, P. W.; Schluchter, C.

    2009-04-01

    In the context of Lateglacial and Holocene climate change research, rock glaciers (creeping mountain permafrost) also play an important role. They are phenomena of discontinuous alpine permafrost and as such good indicators for the mean annual air temperature for the period they are active. We have 10Be surface exposure dated boulders from two relict rock glaciers in Larstigtal, Austria. This is the type area for a postulated mid-Holocene cold period called the Larstig oscillation. The period of activity was suggested to be of similar age as the mid-Holocene Frosnitz advance of glaciers in the Venediger Mountains farther to the east (Patzelt and Bortenschlager, 1973). For rock glaciers of this size to be active at 2200 m a.s.l. in Larstig valley would have required a significant drop in temperatures, thus a marked mid-Holocene cold pulse, for at least several centuries at around 7.0 ka. In contrast, our exposure dates show that the rock glaciers stabilized during the early Preboreal (Ivy-Ochs et al., submitted). We see no distinct pattern with respect to exposure age and boulder location on the rock glaciers. This implies that for our site the blocks did not acquire inherited 10Be during exposure in the free rock face, in the talus at the base of the slope, or during transport on the rock glaciers. Our data point to final stabilization of the Larstigtal rock glaciers in the earliest Holocene and not in the middle Holocene. Combined with data from other archives (Nicolussi et al., 2005), there appears to have been no time window in the middle Holocene long enough for rock glaciers of the size and at the elevation of the Larstig site to have formed. Ivy-Ochs, S., Kerschner, H., Maisch, M., Christl, M., Kubik, P.W., Schlüchter, C., Latest Pleistocene and Holocene glacier variations in the European Alps. Quaternary Science Reviews (submitted). Nicolussi, K., Kaufmann, M., Patzelt, G., van der Plicht, J., Thurner, A., 2005. Holocene tree-line variability in the Kauner

  16. Spatiotemporal patterns of high-mountain lakes and related hazards in western Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmer, Adam; Merkl, Sarah; Mergili, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Climate-induced environmental changes are triggering the dynamic evolution of high-mountain lakes worldwide, a phenomenon that has to be monitored in terms of lake outburst hazards. We analyzed the spatial distribution and recent temporal development of high-mountain lakes in a study area of 6139 km2, covering the central European Alps over most of the province of Tyrol and part of the province of Salzburg in western Austria. We identified 1024 natural lakes. While eight lakes are ice-dammed, one-third of all lakes are located in the immediate vicinity of recent glacier tongues, half of them impounded by moraines, half by bedrock. Two-thirds of all lakes are apparently related to LIA or earlier glaciations. One landslide-dammed lake was identified in the study area. The evolution of nine selected (pro)glacial lakes was analyzed in detail, using multitemporal remotely sensed images and field reconnaissance. Considerable glacier retreat led to significant lake growth at four localities, two lakes experienced stagnant or slightly negative areal trends, one lake experienced a more significant negative areal trend, and two lakes drained completely during the investigation period. We further (i) analyzed the susceptibility of selected lakes to glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), using two different methods; (ii) identified potential triggers and mechanisms of GLOFs; (iii) calculated possible flood magnitudes for predefined flood scenarios for a subset of the lakes; and (iv) delineated potentially impacted areas. We distinguished three phases of development of bedrock-dammed lakes: (a) a proglacial, (b) a glacier-detached, and (c) a nonglacial phase. The dynamics - and also the susceptibility of a lake to GLOFs - decrease substantially from (a) to (c). Lakes in the stages (a) and (b) are less prominent in our study area, compared to other glacierized high-mountain regions, leading us to the conclusion that (i) the current threat to the population by GLOFs is lower but

  17. A reference section for the Santonian-Campanian boundary: The Postalm section, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagreich, Michael; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Wolfgring, Erik

    2015-04-01

    The base of the Campanian, the longest stage of the Late Cretaceous, is still not defined by a suitable GSSP. Furthermore, no consensus exists about the boundary criterion: ammonites suffer from bioprovincialism; the LAD of the crinoid Marsupites testudinarius was proposed as the primary fossil marker, but the marker is mainly a chalk facies fossil, which is rare to absent in pelagic low-latitudes and absent in oceanic sections; or a boundary defined by magnetostratigraphy, i.e. the base of Chron C33r after the Long Cretaceous Normal chron. The Postalm section in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Salzburg, Austria) provides a Santonian to Maastrichtian succession of neritic to bathyal sediments. The Santonian-Campanian boundary interval comprises a deepening succession from a sandy conglomerate with a hardground on top, overlain by grey to yellowish shelf marls grading into red marly limestones. The base of the Campanian can be defined by magnetostratigraphy, i.e. the reversal from Chron C34n (the Long Cretaceous Normal Polarity-Chron) to C33r. An interval of ca. 80 cm of undetermined magnetostratigraphy between clearly normal and clearly reversed polarities is present. We define the base of the Campanian arbitrarily at the midpoint of this undetermined interval. A 1 m thick interval of unusual high magnetic susceptibility values is present at the end of chron C34n (latest Santonian). Nannofossil biostratigraphy shows the first occurrence of Broinsonia parca parca (base of CC18a/UC14a) at the undetermined boundary interval. Ceratolithoides cf. verbeekii starts 1.60 m above the boundary, in the lower part of Chron 33r. Planktic foraminiferal biostratigraphy indicates the elevata-asymetrica concurrent range zone due to the presence of Globotruncanita elevata elevata, Dicarinella asymetrica, and Marginotruncana spp. at the base of the section. Dicarinella asymetrica has its last occurrence in the section ca. 40 cm below the magnetostratigraphic boundary. Large

  18. Lakes as components in the greenhouse gas balance - regional implications as exemplified for Lake Neusiedl (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, Gerhard; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Anna-Maria

    2013-04-01

    Inland surface waters and associated wetlands must not be neglected when global greenhouse gas emissions are balanced. Natural lakes, rivers and hydroelectric reservoirs are parts of the surface water system where outgassing of CO2 or CH4 enhances the carbon flux to the atmosphere. For lakes, the carbon emission estimates vary over several orders of magnitude, depending on the age of the lake, depth, area, volume, temperature, input of organic carbon and residence time. Nitrogen input into lakes may be caused by wet atmospheric deposition, by surface runoff from agricultural areas and by wastewater inputs into the tributaries. In most cases, denitrification of nitrate is the dominating source of N2O; only in the case of high ammonium loads and oxygen availability nitrification and subsequent denitrification to N2O and N2 play a major role. Focusing on Lake Neusiedl (Austria) as case study, this study aims at illuminating the regional role of a shallow steppe lake as greenhouse gas emitter and at analyzing the local physico-chemical conditions affecting the emission of CO2, CH4 and N2O. The uniqueness of this lake with regard to its shallowness, salinity and sediment depth required the performance of separate measurement campaigns instead of applying general lake greenhouse gas flux rates. For the period of 9 months (based on 6 observation episodes in spring, summer, and autumn), the greenhouse gas emissions of the lake consisted of about 75700 t CO2, 1006 t CH4, and 18 t N2O. Presumably because of significant sulphate concentrations in the lake water (0.3-0.4 g/l) and high pH (8.5-9) the C emissions were not dominated by CH4 but by CO2. Approximately one third of the methane and carbon dioxide emissions originated in the pelagic zone and two thirds in the reed belt whereas nitrous oxide emissions were similar in these two zones. An estimate of ebullitive emissions resulted in additional 1765 t CH4 that predominantly originated in or near the reed belt from spring

  19. Climate impacts on water balance of a shallow steppe lake in Eastern Austria (Lake Neusiedl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, Gerhard; Züger, Johann; Knoflacher, Markus; Kinner, Paul; Soja, Anna-Maria

    2013-02-01

    SummaryLake Neusiedl, the largest lake in Austria, is especially sensitive to climate variations due to its extreme shallowness and a small catchment area. Historical records indicate that large variations of the lake area have occurred naturally (0% to >150% of present) but contemporary touristic uses of the lake require a largely constant water level. This dependence increases the regional economic vulnerability. Water balance of the lake as influenced by weather conditions was studied in detail. 79% of water input was due to precipitation, whereas more than 90% of water output was caused by evapotranspiration. Long-term observation of annual and seasonal precipitation sums, starting in 1865, revealed a slow downward trend of 15 years moving averages by 6 ± 1 mm/decade, masked by large interannual variations of the original data (s.d.: ±120 mm). Multidecadal oscillation indices (AMO, NAO, MOI) were tested against patterns of precipitation, air temperature and hydrological parameters of Lake Neusiedl. The clearest relation was observed between air temperature and North Atlantic oscillation index (p < 0.0001). Water level and volume of Lake Neusiedl are very sensitive to precipitation changes with after effects of individual years lasting up to 2 years. Summer precipitation is more important for lake water amount than the other seasons. The major surface water input to Lake Neusiedl is coming from River Wulka. Its annual discharge (15 years moving averages) showed a variable, moderately decreasing trend for the period 1961-2010 by -1.2 ± 0.6 × 106 m3/decade. Waste water treatment plants contributed up to 68% of monthly flow of River Wulka into the lake. Precipitation of the current and the previous year, and in some months also temperature influenced Wulka's flow significantly. Evaporative losses from the lake and its reed belt were shown to increase over the last 33 years (+48 ± 11 mm/decade); as main drivers decreasing relative air humidity and increasing

  20. Widespread evidences of hoarfrost formation at a rock glacier in the Seckauer Tauern, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, A.; Winkler, G.; Pauritsch, M.

    2012-04-01

    The mechanism of deep reversible air circulation (the so called "chimney effect" or "wind tube") is known to be a process of ground overcooling in the lower and deeper parts of porous sediments and related landforms such as scree slopes or intact and relict rock glaciers. Warm air outflow emerging from relatively small voids within these mostly coarse-grained sediment bodies is sometimes noticeable. However, easier to identify are associated phenomena such as snowmelt windows, snow cover depressions and hoarfrost formations. Generally, these indications for warm air outflow are found at the upper part of scree slopes or the rooting zone of rock glaciers. Here we present widespread field evidences of hoarfrost from the pseudo-relict Schöneben Rock Glacier in the Seckauer Tauern Range, Austria located at E14°40'26'' and N47°22'31''. Herewith, a pseudo-relict rock glacier is defined as an intermediate rock glacier type between a relict and a climatic-inactive rock glacier, hence a relict rock glacier with locally isolated patches of permafrost. The rock glacier covers an area of about 0.11km2, ranges from ca. 1720 to 1905 m a.s.l., and consists predominantly of coarse-grained gneissic sediments with blocks up to a size of several cubic metres at the surface. In particular the lower part and some ridges in the central and upper part are covered by dwarf pines (pinus mugo) mirroring the flow structure of the previously active rock glacier. Isolated permafrost occurs presumably at the rooting zone of the rock glacier as indicated by evidences from a neighbouring rock glacier in a comparable setting. Field observations in November 2011 showed widespread occurrences of hoarfrost crystals growing around the funnel edge indicating the sublimation of vapour from warm funnels. Such hoarfrost sites were found at more than 50 single locations distributed over the entire rock glacier from the tongue to the rooting zone generally. The occurrence of hoarfrost can get classified

  1. Orogenic-type copper-gold-arsenic-(bismuth) mineralization at Flatschach (Eastern Alps), Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raith, Johann G.; Leitner, Thomas; Paar, Werner H.

    2015-10-01

    Structurally controlled Cu-Au mineralization in the historic Flatschach mining district (Styria, Austria) occurs in a NE-SW to NNE-WSW oriented vein system as multiple steep-dipping calcite-(dolomite)-quartz veins in amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks (banded gneisses/amphibolites, orthogneisses, metagranitoids) of the poly-metamorphosed Austroalpine Silvretta-Seckau nappe. Vein formation postdated ductile deformation events and Eoalpine (Late Cretaceous) peak metamorphism but predated Early to Middle Miocene sediment deposition in the Fohnsdorf pull-apart basin; coal-bearing sediments cover the metamorphic basement plus the mineralized veins at the northern edge of the basin. Three gold-bearing ore stages consist of a stage 1 primary hydrothermal (mesothermal?) ore assemblage dominated by chalcopyrite, pyrite and arsenopyrite. Associated minor minerals include alloclasite, enargite, bornite, sphalerite, galena, bismuth and matildite. Gold in this stage is spatially associated with chalcopyrite occurring as inclusions, along re-healed micro-fractures or along grain boundaries of chalcopyrite with pyrite or arsenopyrite. Sericite-carbonate alteration is developed around the veins. Stage 2 ore minerals formed by the replacement of stage 1 sulfides and include digenite, anilite, "blue-remaining covellite" (spionkopite, yarrowite), bismuth, and the rare copper arsenides domeykite and koutekite. Gold in stage 2 is angular to rounded in shape and occurs primarily in the carbonate (calcite, Fe-dolomite) gangue and less commonly together with digenite, domeykite/koutekite and bismuth. Stage 3 is a strongly oxidized assemblage that includes hematite, cuprite, and various secondary Cu- and Fe-hydroxides and -carbonates. It formed during supergene weathering. Stage 1 and 2 gold consists mostly of electrum (gold fineness 640-860; mean = 725; n = 46), and rare near pure gold (fineness 930-940; n = 6). Gold in stage 3 is Ag-rich electrum (fineness 350-490, n = 12), and has a

  2. Paragonite in marbles from the Tauern Window, Austria: Compositional and thermobaric controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droop, G. T. R.

    2013-03-01

    Paragonite coexists with phengite, chlorite, zoisite, tremolite and quartz in dolomitic marbles from near Döllach in the Sonnblick area of the SE Tauern Window, Austria, prompting an investigation into the petrogenetic significance of paragonite in carbonate rocks. Thermodynamic calculations on pure-end-member reactions indicate that the assemblages paragonite + CaCO3 + quartz and paragonite + dolomite + quartz are stable over wide ranges of X(CO2) and have P-T stability fields almost as wide as that of paragonite + quartz. P-T pseudosection calculations spanning 0.35-1.4 GPa and 400-590 °C in the model system Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-TiO2-H2O-CO2 yield wide fields for paragonite-bearing assemblages in the Döllach paragonite-marbles at low X(CO2). The bulk compositions of these rocks are characterised by high values of molar Na/(Na + K) and Al/(Na + K) and these parameters are influential in stabilising paragonite-bearing assemblages in marbles. A large proportion of published limestone and dolostone whole-rock compositions would be capable of supporting paragonite at P-T conditions within the greenschist, blueschist or epidote-amphibolite facies. Paragonite is probably much more common in low- and medium-grade marbles than the rarity of reports of its occurrence suggest. Apart from zoisite, the hydrous silicates in the Döllach marbles are characterised by modest fluorine contents, with XF values of coexisting minerals decreasing in the order Tr > Phe > Pa ≈ Chl. Calcite-dolomite thermometry and pseudosection calculations indicate peak-metamorphic conditions for the Döllach marbles of T = 510 ± 20 °C, P > 0.77 GPa and X(CO2) < 0.065. The P-T data agree with previous estimates for the area.

  3. Infill and mire evolution of a typical kettle hole: young ages at great depths (Jackenmoos, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, Joachim; Salcher, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    Kettle holes are very common features in proglacial environments. Myriads of small, often circular shaped lakes are indicative of dead ice slowly melting out after the collapse of glaciers and subsequent burial of glaciofluvial sediments. Many of these lakes transformed into mires during the Postglacial and the Holocene. Still, little is known about the mechanisms leading to mire formation in such environments. We aim to analyse the shape and the postglacial history of infilling and peat accumulation of a typical dead ice kettle using 2D resistivity surveying, core-drilling, 14C dating and palynologic analyses. The kettle hole mire is located within a small kame delta deposit just south of the LGM extend of the Salzach Piedmont glacier (Austria/Germany). Today, the mire is a spot of exceptional high biodiversity and under protection. Sediment core samples extracted in the deepest (c. 10-14 m) and central part of the kettle directly overly lacustrine fine sediments and yielded young ages covering the subatlantic period only. Young ages are in agreement with palynologic results comprising e.g. pollen of secale (rye) and juglans (walnut). However, these deposits are situated beneath a massive water body (10 m), only covered by a thin floating mat. A second, more distally situated drill core indicates the thinning of this water body at the expense of peat deposits covering the Late Glacial to Middle Holocene. Multiple 2D resistivity data support drilling information and enabled us to reconstruct the shape of the basin. The transition from lacustrine sediments to the water body above is characterised by a sharp increase in resistivity. Furthermore, the resistivity pattern within the entire kettle indicates an increase towards the centre, most probably as a result of the changing nutrient content. The postglacial evolution of the mire is in agreement with the concept of "floating mat terrestrialisation", representing a horizontal growth of the floating mat from the edges

  4. Toxicity assessment of wastewaters, river waters, and sediments in Austria using cost-effective microbiotests.

    PubMed

    Latif, Muna; Licek, Elisabeth

    2004-08-01

    The toxicity and chemical quality of surface water and sediment in the River Traun in Austria were studied because of recurrent fish mortality in some alpine rivers over the last few years. The analyses were carried out on samples collected during winter and summer upstream and downstream of two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and on effluents taken at the points of discharge of these two plants. Toxicity tests were performed on 20 samples of surface water, effluent, and sediment pore water. The test battery was composed of microbiotests with protozoans (Protoxkit F), microalgae (Algaltoxkit F), crustaceans (Daphtoxkit F magna and Thamnotoxkit F), and a higher plant (seed germination and root elongation assay on cress). Direct contact tests were performed on whole sediment with crustaceans (Ostracodtoxkit F). The physical-chemical characteristics of the surface water, effluent, and sediment pore water samples analyzed were conductivity, total hardness, pH, O(2), BOD(5), TOC, DOC, AOX, NH(4), NH(3), NO(2), PO(4)--P, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn. The toxicity data were expressed as percentage mortality or percentage inhibition, depending on the effect criterion of the respective assay. None of the water samples collected upstream and downstream of the WWTPs showed any significant (short-term) toxicity in either winter or in summer, but the effluents of the first municipal wastewater treatment plant were toxic to some of the test biota. All the sediment pore water samples induced serious inhibition of root growth of cress, and several pore waters were toxic to other test biota as well, particularly at the outlets of the WWTPs. The toxic character of some sediments was confirmed by direct contact tests with the ostracod crustacean. The chemical analyses did not reveal particularly high concentrations of any chemical that is very toxic. As a result no direct causal relationship could be established between the detected toxic effects and the chemical composition of

  5. Deformation mechanism and age constraints of fault zones bordering the Leithagebirge (SE Vienna Basin, Austria).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkmen, C.; Grasemann, B.; Exner, U.

    2009-04-01

    In this study we combine remote sensing, structural field mapping and microstructural investigations in order to quantitatively describe a fault zone, which facilitated the exhumation of the Leithagebirge. The Leithagebirge is a horst/ridge, which is located at the southeastern margin of the Vienna Basin (Eastern Austria). The mountains form a SW-NE elongated topographic ridge of 34 km length and 9 km width, bordered by major faults against the sediments of the Vienna Basin in the W, the Eisenstadt Basin in the S and the Pannonian Basin in the E. The elevation of the ridge ranges between 118 m to 484 m (Sonnenberg), rising abruptly from the surrounding, extremely low-relief areas. The lithologies of the Leithagebirge comprise mainly Palaeozoic gneisses and mica schists (i.e Variscan metamorphic basement), which are overlain by Permo-Triassic sediments of the Lower Austroalpine realm. The rocks have been strongly deformed and metamorphosed during the Eoalpine orogeny. The metamorphic rocks of the Leithagebirge are overlain by Badenian to Sarmatian sediments dominated by the fossil-rich (Corallineceae) calcarenites (i.e. Leithakalk). Because the outcrop situation is generally very poor, this work focuses on a quarry (Schraufstaedter) near Wimpassing at the SW margin of the Leithagebirge. In this quarry the metamorphic Permo-Triassic sediments consisting of ductily deformed quartzites and marble mylonites are exceptionally well exposed. The white quartzites record a weak stretching lineation and deformed by dynamic recrystallization mechanism (mainly basal glide and subgrain rotation). Locally a quartzite conglomerate with cm-long oblate deformed components can be recognized. The quartzites form N-S striking several 10-100 m long lenses, which are tectonically juxtaposed within fined grained marbles, which record a mylonitic foliation with a roughly NW-SE striking stretching lineation. The whole sequence suffered a strong cataclastic overprint as part of a several 100

  6. Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. Methods Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV) was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. Results Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups), mushrooms (used in diverse ways) and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products) or as a jam). Conclusions Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and makes comparisons

  7. Relating temperature, snow height and glacier characteristics to streamflow trends in Western Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormann, Christoph; Morin, Efrat; Renner, Maik; Francke, Till; Bronstert, Axel

    2014-05-01

    The results of streamflow trend studies are often characterised by mostly insignificant trends. This applies especially for trends of annually averaged runoff: In our study region, Western Austria, we found that there is a trend gradient from high-altitude to low-altitude stations, i.e. a pattern of mostly positive annual trends at higher stations and negative ones at lower stations. At mid-altitudes, trends are mostly insignificant. The trends were most probably caused by the following two main processes: On the one hand, melting glaciers produce excess runoff at high-altitude watersheds. On the other hand, increasing evapotranspiration results in decreasing trends at low-altitude watersheds. However, these patterns are masked at mid-altitudes because the resulting positive and negative trends balance each other. To verify these theories, we attributed the detected trends to specific causes. For this purpose, we analysed trends on a daily basis, as the causes for these changes might be restricted to a smaller temporal scale than the annual one. The daily trends were assessed by calculating 30-day moving average subsets and then estimating significance and magnitude. This allowed for the explicit pointing out of the exact days of year (DOY) when certain streamflow trends emerge and then relating them to the according DOYs of trends and annual cycles of other observed variables, e.g. the DOYs when snow height trends occur or the DOY when temperature crosses the freezing point in spring. Concerning trends caused by increased glacial melt, we applied correlation analyses between glacier area and trend magnitudes during the corresponding DOYs. As a result, the positive trends in spring were attributed to an earlier and more intense snow melt. The ones that follow in late spring at upper stations could be related to increased glacial melt. The negative trends in summertime that turn up earlier at low-altitude stations and later at high-altitude stations are most

  8. Statistical significant changes in ground thermal conditions of alpine Austria during the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Longer data series (e.g. >10 a) of ground temperatures in alpine regions are helpful to improve the understanding regarding the effects of present climate change on distribution and thermal characteristics of seasonal frost- and permafrost-affected areas. Beginning in 2004 - and more intensively since 2006 - a permafrost and seasonal frost monitoring network was established in Central and Eastern Austria by the University of Graz. This network consists of c.60 ground temperature (surface and near-surface) monitoring sites which are located at 1922-3002 m a.s.l., at latitude 46°55'-47°22'N and at longitude 12°44'-14°41'E. These data allow conclusions about general ground thermal conditions, potential permafrost occurrence, trend during the observation period, and regional pattern of changes. Calculations and analyses of several different temperature-related parameters were accomplished. At an annual scale a region-wide statistical significant warming during the observation period was revealed by e.g. an increase in mean annual temperature values (mean, maximum) or the significant lowering of the surface frost number (F+). At a seasonal scale no significant trend of any temperature-related parameter was in most cases revealed for spring (MAM) and autumn (SON). Winter (DJF) shows only a weak warming. In contrast, the summer (JJA) season reveals in general a significant warming as confirmed by several different temperature-related parameters such as e.g. mean seasonal temperature, number of thawing degree days, number of freezing degree days, or days without night frost. On a monthly basis August shows the statistically most robust and strongest warming of all months, although regional differences occur. Despite the fact that the general ground temperature warming during the last decade is confirmed by the field data in the study region, complications in trend analyses arise by temperature anomalies (e.g. warm winter 2006/07) or substantial variations in the winter

  9. Small-scale seismogenic soft sediment deformation (Hirlatzhöhle, Upper Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Martina Lan; Grasemann, Bernhard; Plan, Lukas; Gier, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    The Hirlatz Cave lies in the Dachstein Massif about 2 km SW of Hallstatt, in the Upper Austrian Salzkammergut. With a length of 101 km, this karst cave, located in the Dachstein nappe (Northern Calcareous Alps), is the second largest known cave system in Austria. Within the cave, in the so-called Lehmklamm, located 2.8 km southeast of the cave entrance, laminated (mm-scale) Quaternary clay-sized sediments with interbedded fine-grained sandy layers are preserved. In these layers, numerous soft sediment deformation structures are preserved in many layers. The unconsolidated sediments show rhythmic layering of brighter, carbonate and quartz rich, and darker, more clay mineral rich horizontal varve-like layers, that are assumed to be fluvio-lacustrine deposits. The present study focuses on a very detailed documentation of an approximately 6.8 x 3 m vertical outcrop that was cut by a small brook. Centimeter to millimeter sized water escape structures (intruded cusps and flame structures), folds (detachment folds, fault bend folds) and faults (normal faults, fault propagation folds, bookshelf faults) are described. Because of the geometric analogy to seismogenic structures which have been described at two orders of magnitude larger scales from areas close to the Dead Sea Fault, we suggest that the formation of the investigated soft-sediment structures was also triggered by seismic events. The structures were mainly formed by three different mechanism: (i) North directed gravitational gliding near the sediment surface; (ii) Liquefaction resulting in a density discontinuity and decreasing in shear strength within in the stratified layers; (iii) Extensional faulting that cut through the stratified layers. Observations of coarsening upwards into sandy layers on the top of the outcrop and current ripple indicate a north-directed flow under phreatic conditions, which is opposite to the present flow direction of the vadose water in the cave. The fact that deformation and

  10. 26Al/10Be burial ages for a Pleistocene terrace in the Vienna Basin, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braumann, S.; Fiebig, M.; Neuhuber, S.; Schaefer, J. M.; Haeuselmann, P.; Schwartz, R.; Finkel, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Vienna Basin in the northeastern part of Austria between the Eastern Alps and the West Carpathians is a pull-apart basin crossed by the Danube river. The structure is filled with marine and terrestrial sediments showing thicknesses of up to 6 km. An increase in glacial melt water discharges, typically linked to high productivity of Alpine glaciers, had an essential impact on the formation of the investigated terrace. The scale of erosion and sediment transport translates to deposition rates in the foreland and is influenced by the magnitude of melt water discharges in Alpine catchment areas. Variations in layer characteristics (i.e. grain size, sorting, thickness) are an indicator for glacial pulses. Burial dates of ten quartz pebbles originating from the Gaenserndorfer terrace, situated in the northeastern part of the basin, set time dependent constraints on the required hydrological regime for mobilization, transport and sedimentation of bedloads and allow relating the deposition of glacial sediments to past glacial periods. But the geomorphic evolution of the Vienna Basin was not only determined by sedimentation processes. A number of irregularities manifest that tectonics affected the area as well: Terrace tilts are dipping against the slope of the Danube and offsets of some decameters between sediment layers showing the same facies, but located several kilometers apart from each other, could be identified. An extensive Miocene fault system was partly reactivated during the Middle Pleistocene and could have caused the formation of these discontinuities. It is of great interest to discriminate impacts on the area due to deposition from morphological elements formed by seismic events. The preliminary burial ages afford for putting the sampled terrace segment into a coherent geochronological context and provide a dataset to compare ages of the Gaenserndofer terrace to ages of sediment layers at other locations within the basin in order to either validate or

  11. Seroprevalence and Incidence of hepatitis E in Blood Donors in Upper Austria

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Carina; Hofmann, Martina; Danzer, Martin; Hofer, Katja; Kaar, Jennifer; Gabriel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent years various studies showed, that hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a growing public health problem in many developed countries. Therefore, HEV infections might bear a transmission risk by blood transfusions. The clinical relevance still requires further investigations. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of acute HEV infections in Upper Austrian blood donors as well as a risk estimation of this transfusion-related infection. Methods and Findings A total of 58,915 blood donors were tested for HEV RNA using a commercial HEV RT-PCR Kit. 7 of these donors (0.01%) were PCR-positive with normal laboratory parameters in absence of clinical signs of hepatitis. Viral load determined by quantitative real-time PCR showed a HEV nucleic acid concentration of 2,217 293,635 IU/ml. At follow-up testing (2–11 weeks after donation) all blood donors had negative HEV RNA results. Additionally, genotyping was performed by amplification and sequencing of the ORF1 or ORF2 region of the HEV genome. All HEV RNA positive donor samples revealed a genotype 3 isolate. For the antibody screening, anti-HEV IgM and IgG were detected by ELISA. Follow up serological testing revealed that no donor was seropositive for HEV IgM or IgG antibodies at time of donation. Moreover, we verified the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in 1,203 of the HEV RNA negative tested blood donors. Overall 13.55% showed positive results for anti-HEV IgG. Conclusions In the presented study, we investigated HEV infections in blood donations of Upper Austria over 1 year. We concluded that 1 out of 8,416 blood donations is HEV RNA positive. Seroprevalence of anti HEV IgG results in an age-related increase of 13.55%. Therefore, based on this data, we recommend HEV-PCR screening to prevent transmission of hepatitis E virus by transfusion. PMID:25751574

  12. Comparing physically-based and statistical landslide susceptibility model outputs - a case study from Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canli, Ekrem; Thiebes, Benni; Petschko, Helene; Glade, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    By now there is a broad consensus that due to human-induced global change the frequency and magnitude of heavy precipitation events is expected to increase in certain parts of the world. Given the fact, that rainfall serves as the most common triggering agent for landslide initiation, also an increased landside activity can be expected there. Landslide occurrence is a globally spread phenomenon that clearly needs to be handled. The present and well known problems in modelling landslide susceptibility and hazard give uncertain results in the prediction. This includes the lack of a universal applicable modelling solution for adequately assessing landslide susceptibility (which can be seen as the relative indication of the spatial probability of landslide initiation). Generally speaking, there are three major approaches for performing landslide susceptibility analysis: heuristic, statistical and deterministic models, all with different assumptions, its distinctive data requirements and differently interpretable outcomes. Still, detailed comparison of resulting landslide susceptibility maps are rare. In this presentation, the susceptibility modelling outputs of a deterministic model (Stability INdex MAPping - SINMAP) and a statistical modelling approach (generalized additive model - GAM) are compared. SINMAP is an infinite slope stability model which requires parameterization of soil mechanical parameters. Modelling with the generalized additive model, which represents a non-linear extension of a generalized linear model, requires a high quality landslide inventory that serves as the dependent variable in the statistical approach. Both methods rely on topographical data derived from the DTM. The comparison has been carried out in a study area located in the district of Waidhofen/Ybbs in Lower Austria. For the whole district (ca. 132 km²), 1063 landslides have been mapped and partially used within the analysis and the validation of the model outputs. The respective

  13. Drowning of algal mounds: records from the Upper Carboniferous Lower Pseudoschwagerina Limestone, Carnic Alps, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samankassou, Elias

    1999-09-01

    Anthracoporella algal mounds, up to 22 m thick, occur within the cyclic sequences of the Lower Pseudoschwagerina Limestone (uppermost Carboniferous), Carnic Alps (Austria). Their depositional environment lay between the wave base and the base of the photic zone. The algal mounds are overlain by dark, well-bedded, cherty wackestones and packstones. The cherty limestones contain cephalopods, thick-shelled brachiopods, and sponge spicules and lack Anthracoporella in growth position. They are typical deeper-water sediments, deposited below the photic zone. This sequence records drowning episodes; the shallow-water algal mounds were drowned by relative rise of sea level as sea-bottom production shut down below the photic zone. The sedimentological and paleontological evidence of drowning are supported by geochemical data of two measured sections. The mean sulfur content of the well-oxygenated algal limestones is 0.02% for both sections; the TOC values are 0.17% for the section AI and 0.10% for the section AR. The S contents of the cherty limestones are approximately twice as high with values of 0.48 and 0.05% for the respective sections. TOC values of the cherty limestones are also significantly higher, with 0.30 and 0.51% contents for the respective sections. The cherty limestones document the termination of the mounds and the demise of reef-building algae in each cycle. This interval is therefore termed `shroud facies'. The rapid sea-level rise reported is a further proof for high-magnitude sea-level fluctuations in intervals of glacio-eustasy. The documented drowning mode is novel through the definable interval of drowning, the repeated events during a short time interval, the full record of pre-, syn-, and post-drowning deposits, and the unequivocal attribution to glacio-eustatic sea-level rise. This mode seems to be characteristic of an icehouse period and clearly differs from the drowning mode in greenhouse periods which is often gradual, lacks an unequivocal

  14. The Alpine nappe stack in western Austria: a crustal-scale cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomella, Hannah; Ortner, Hugo; Zerlauth, Michael; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    Based on an N-S-oriented crustal-scale cross section running east of the Rhine Valley in Vorarlberg, western Austria, we address the Alpine nappe stack and discuss the boundary between Central and Eastern Alps. For our cross section, we used surface geology, drillings and reinterpreted seismic lines, together with published sections. The general architecture of the examined area can be described as a typical foreland fold-and-thrust belt, comprising the tectonic units of the Subalpine Molasse, (Ultra-)Helvetic, Penninic and Austroalpine nappes. These units overthrusted the autochthonous Molasse along the south-dipping listric Alpine basal thrust. The European Basement, together with its autochthonous cover, dips gently towards the south and is dissected by normal faults and trough structures. The seismic data clearly show an offset not only of the top of the European Basement, but also of the Mesozoic cover and the Lower Marine Molasse. This indicates an activity of the structures as normal faults after the sedimentation of the Lower Marine Molasse. The Subalpine Molasse is multiply stacked, forming a triangle zone at the boundary with the foreland Molasse. The shortening within the Subalpine Molasse amounts to approximately 45 km (~67 %), as deduced from our cross section with the Lower Marine Molasse as a reference. The hinterland-dipping duplex structure of the Helvetic nappes is deduced from surface and borehole data. There are at least two Helvetic nappes needed to fill the available space between the Molasse below and the Northpenninic above. This is in line with the westerly located NRP20-East transect (Schmid et al., Tectonics 15(5):1047-1048, 1996; Schmid et al., The TRANSMED Atlas: the Mediterranean Region from Crust to Mantle, 2004), where the two Helvetic nappes are separated by the Säntis thrust. Yet in contrast to the Helvetic nappes in the NRP20-East transect, both of our Helvetic nappes comprise Cretaceous and Jurassic strata. This change is

  15. Hydrogeological impact of fault zones on a fractured carbonate aquifer, Semmering (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayaud, Cyril; Winkler, Gerfried; Reichl, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Fault zones are the result of tectonic processes and are geometrical features frequently encountered in carbonate aquifer systems. They can hamper the fluid migration (hydrogeological barriers), propagate the movement of fluid (draining conduits) or be a combination of both processes. Numerical modelling of fractured carbonate aquifer systems is strongly bound on the knowledge of a profound conceptual model including geological and tectonic settings such as fault zones. In further consequence, numerical models can be used to evaluate the conceptual model and its introduced approximations. The study was conducted in a fractured carbonate aquifer built up by permomesozoic dolo/limestones of the Semmering-Wechsel complex in the Eastern Alps (Austria). The aquifer has an assumed thickness of about 200 m and dips to the north. It is covered by a thin quartzite layer and a very low permeable layer of quartz-phyllite having a thickness of up to several hundred meters. The carbonate layer crops out only in the southern part of the investigation area, where it receives autogenic recharge. The geological complexity affects some uncertainties related to the extent of the model area, which was determined to be about 15 km². Three vertical fault zones cross the area approximately in a N-S direction. The test site includes an infrastructural pilot tunnel gallery of 4.3 km length with two pumping stations, respectively active since August 1997 and June 1998. The total pumping rate is about 90 l/s and the drawdown data were analysed analytically, providing a hydraulic conductivity of about 5E-05 m/s for the carbonate layer. About 120 m drawdown between the initial situation and situation with pumping is reported by piezometers. This led to the drying up of one spring located at the southern border of the carbonates. A continuum approach using MODFLOW-2005 was applied to reproduce numerically the observed aquifer behaviour and investigate the impact of the three fault zones. First

  16. Echinocandin resistance and population structure of invasive Candida glabrata isolates from two university hospitals in Germany and Austria.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Ulrike; Schmidt, Dirk; Willinger, Birgit; Steinmann, Eike; Buer, Jan; Rath, Peter-Michael; Steinmann, Joerg

    2016-05-01

    Echinocandin resistance in Candida glabrata is emerging and is associated with the presence of FKS mutations. In this study, we analysed the antifungal susceptibility, presence of FKS mutations and clonality of C. glabrata blood culture isolates from two hospitals in Germany and Austria. Susceptibility testing of 64 C. glabrata bloodstream isolates from two university hospitals was performed with broth microdilution method according to EUCAST. In addition, all isolates were screened for FKS mutations. Molecular fingerprinting was performed by microsatellite PCR with three separate primer pairs and semiautomated repetitive sequenced-based PCR (rep-PCR). One C. glabrata isolate from Germany (1.5%) was echinocandin resistant, with a corresponding mutation in FKS2 gene hot spot 1. The discriminatory power of microsatellite PCR was higher than that of rep-PCR (Simpson Index of 0.94 vs. 0.88); microsatellite PCR created 31 separate genotypes, whereas rep-PCR created 17. Predominant genotypes or clusters of isolates from Germany and Austria were present, with no epidemiological evidence of nosocomial transmissions. Although we found a low incidence of echinocandin resistance in C. glabrata in our settings, further surveillance projects in central Europe are warranted for monitoring future epidemiological trends. The genetic population structure of C. glabrata demonstrates overrepresented geographical clusters. PMID:26806376

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Smoking and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV in Austria and Germany.

    PubMed

    Brath, Helmut; Grabovac, Igor; Schalk, Horst; Degen, Olaf; Dorner, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of smoking in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in Germany and Austria and their readiness to quit. A total of 447 consecutive patients with confirmed positive HIV status who were treated in different outpatient HIV centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence and stages of change were assessed by standardized questionnaires, and this was confirmed by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (for each year of life OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.92-1.00) and tertiary education level (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.15-0.79) were associated with a lower chance, and occasional (OR = 3.75; 95% CI 1.74-8.07) and daily smoking of the partner (OR 8.78; 95% CI 4.49-17.17) were significantly associated with a higher chance of smoking. Moderate (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.30-9.05) and higher nicotine dependency level (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.46-7.94), were significantly associated with higher chance, and older age (for each year of life OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91-0.99), with lower chance for readiness to quit smoking. Those results may be used to address preventive measures to quit smoking aimed at PLWHIV and the importance of addressing smoking habits. PMID:26919722

  18. Implementation Interventions Used in Nursing Homes and Hospitals: A Descriptive, Comparative Study between Austria, Germany, and The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Breimaier, Helga E.; Halfens, Ruud J. G.; Wilborn, Doris; Meesterberends, Esther; Haase Nielsen, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Translating guidelines into nursing practice remains a considerable challenge. Until now, little attention has been paid to which interventions are used in practice to implement guidelines on changing clinical nursing practice. This cross-sectional study determined the current ranges and rates of implementation-related interventions in Austria, Germany, and The Netherlands and explored possible differences between these countries. An online questionnaire based on the conceptual framework of implementation interventions (professional, organizational, financial, and regulatory) from the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) data collection checklist was used to gather data from nursing homes and hospitals. Provision of written materials is the most frequently used professional implementation intervention (85%), whereas changes in the patient record system rank foremost among organisational interventions (78%). Financial incentives for nurses are rarely used. More interventions were used in Austria and Germany than in The Netherlands (20.3/20.2/17.3). Professional interventions are used more frequently in Germany and financial interventions more frequently in The Netherlands. Implementation efforts focus mainly on professional and organisational interventions. Nurse managers and other responsible personnel should direct their focus to a broader array of implementation interventions using the four different categories of EPOC's conceptual framework. PMID:23956875

  19. Universal vaccination with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Austria: impact on virus circulation, public health and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Bresse, Xavier; Goergen, Christoph; Prager, Bernhard; Joura, Elmar

    2014-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer acknowledges that HPV is a human carcinogen affecting both sexes. This study aimed to evaluate the public health impact of universal HPV vaccination in Austria, to assess its cost-effectiveness and to estimate the HPV prevalence reduction over time. Vaccinating 65% of 9-year-old boys and girls in Austria would result in a 70% decrease in HPV infections in both males and females, hereby avoiding 9500 cases of genital warts annually and 431 HPV 16/18-related cancers in males and females. This strategy would be cost effective with base case analysis of €26,701/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained for cervical cancer only, €15,820/QALY also including vaginal/vulvar cancers and genital warts, and €10,033/QALY also considering anal, oropharyngeal and penile cancers, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ranging from €2500 to €21,000/QALY in sensitivity analyses. HPV circulation would be controlled hereby preventing subsequent HPV-related cancers. PMID:24450951

  20. Gratkorn - A new late Middle Miocene vertebrate fauna from Styria (Late Sarmatian, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, M.; Böhme, M.; Prieto, J.

    2009-04-01

    still under investigation. We are especially grateful to Gudrun Daxner-Höck, Ursula Göhlich (both Natural History Museum Vienna) and Getrud Rössner (University of Munich) for their comments to the rodents, ruminants, proboscidians and bird remains. References Böhme, M., Ilg, A., Winklhofer, M. 2008. Late Miocene "washhouse" climate in Europe.- Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 275: 393-401. Gross, M., 2008. A limnic ostracod fauna from the surroundings of the Central Paratethys (Late Middle Miocene/Early Late Miocene; Styrian Basin; Austria).- Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 264/3-4: 263-276. Harzhauser, M., Gross, M. & Binder, H., 2008. Biostratigraphy of Middle Miocene (Sarmatian) wetland systems in an Eastern Alpine intramontane basin (Gratkorn Basin, Austria): the terrestrial gastropod approach.- Geologica Carpathica, 59/1: 45-58.

  1. Stable isotopic composition of cryptocrystalline magnesite from deposits in Turkey and Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horkel, K.; Ebner, F.; Spötl, Ch

    2009-04-01

    Cryptocrystalline magnesite (CM) occurs all over the world predominantly in ultramafic rocks and within those mainly in ophiolite zones. The mineralization forms either veins and networks, which are strictly controlled by regional fault tectonics (Kraubath-type), or nodules and layers, which occur in sediments above the ophiolite close to the paleosurface (Bela Stena type). These types are well established and named after their type deposits in Austria and Serbia, respectively (Pohl, 1990; Prochaska, 2000; Wilson & Ebner, 2006). Stable isotopic studies of CM showed that in comparison to sparry magnesite CM has lower δ13C values (-18‰ to -6‰) and more constant δ18O values (+22‰ to +29‰) (Kralik et al., 1989). Furthermore, it was observed that the Kraubath-type and Bela Stena-type CM differ in their isotopic composition in that the latter is characterised by higher δ13C (-1‰ to +4‰) and δ18O values (+26‰ to +36‰) (Jurković & Pamić, 2003). The formation of CM is still a subject of debate. The δ18O values suggests formation temperatures below 80°C (Kralik et al., 1989; Ece et al., 2005). The C isotope data indicate that the C was either derived from the atmosphere or by decarboxylation of organic-rich sediments (Zedef et al. 2000). Our research addresses the following major questions: (a) What are the reasons for the difference in stable isotopic composition between the Kraubath and the Bela Stena-type? (b) Is it possible to distinguish different types of mineralizations within a deposit using stable isotope data and can this information be applied as a tool for CM exploration? (c) Do the individual isotopic patterns of the individual deposits reflect different conditions for formation or later (post-mineralization) alteration events? Our investigations were concentrated on the type locality in Kraubath (Austria) as well as on some currently operating deposits in the magnesite districts of Eskişehir and Tavşanlı (western Anatolia/ Turkey

  2. Paleo-Ice flow and overdeepenings in an Alpine setting: Examples from the Tyrolian Alps (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitner, J. M.; Gruber, W.

    2009-04-01

    surveys, a model of the LGM ice flow, its variation and its effect on glacial erosion is developed. On the one hand the effect of topography on ice dynamics in terms of promoting ice build-up as well as restricting erosion is evident. For the tributary valleys, on the other hand, the biggest amount of glacial erosion most probably occurred during the phase of ice build-up. However, seismic data, especially seismic stratigraphy (Reitner et al., 2007), shows the limitations of paleo-glaciological models derived from the youngest sequence, in this case the LGM sequence, for explaining sedimentary remnants of older glaciations. According to our example shifts of, and changes in, the amount of glacial erosion in tributary valleys may best be explained by changes in the onset of ice transfluences during ice build-up. Hence, a step-by-step lowering of passes and cols (water divides) during pleniglacial conditions had a profound impact on the ice dynamics of the following glaciation and, thus, on the occurrence of overdeepenings. Our model for a dynamic evolution of morphology presents an inverse relationship between the shaping of the surface and the subsurface and may only hold for a restricted area. However, this non-static view on glacier constellation and its change through time can explain the occurrence of unexpected overdeepenings or changes in erratic clast content elsewhere in dissected, formerly glaciated, Alpine landscapes. References: Husen, D. van, 2000. Geological Processes during the Quaternary.- Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 92 (1999), 135-156, Wien. Reitner, J.M., Gruber, W., Römer, A., Bieber, G., Schmid, C., 2007. Complex Pleistocene stratigraphy and structure within an inneralpine setting: The basin of Hopfgarten (Northern Tyrol/Austria).- Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 9, 09369, 2007, SRef-ID: 1607-7962/gra/EGU2007-A-09369, European Geosciences Union.

  3. The Freyenstein Shear Zone - Implications for exhumation of the South Bohemian Batholith (Moldanubian Superunit, Strudengau, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesmeier, Gerit; Iglseder, Christoph; Konstantin, Petrakakis

    2016-04-01

    The Moldanubian superunit is part of the internal zone of the Variscan Orogen in Europe and borders on the Saxothuringian and Sudetes zones in the north. In the south, it is blanketed by the Alpine foreland molasse. Tectonically it is subdivided into the Moldanubian Nappes (MN), the South Bohemian Batholith (SBB) and the Bavarian Nappes. This work describes the ~ 500 m thick Freyenstein shear zone, which is located at the southern border of the Bohemian Massif north and south of the Danube near Freyenstein (Strudengau, Lower Austria). The area is built up by granites of Weinsberg-type, which are interlayered by numerous dikes and paragneisses of the Ostrong nappe system. These dikes include medium grained granites and finegrained granites (Mauthausen-type granites), which form huge intrusions. In addition, smaller intrusions of dark, finegrained diorites und aplitic dikes are observed. These rocks are affected by the Freyenstein shear zone und ductily deformed. Highly deformed pegmatoides containing white mica crystals up to one cm cut through the deformed rocks and form the last dike generation. The Freyenstein shear zone is a NE-SW striking shear zone at the eastern edge of the SBB. The mylonitic foliation is dipping to the SE with angles around 60°. Shear-sense criteria like clast geometries, SĆ structures as well as microstructures show normal faulting top to S/SW with steep (ca. 50°) angles. The Freyenstein shear zone records a polyphase history of deformation and crystallization: In a first phase, mylonitized mineral assemblages in deformed granitoides can be observed, which consist of pre- to syntectonic muscovite-porphyroclasts and biotite as well as dynamically recrystallized potassium feldspar, plagioclase and quartz. The muscovite porphyroclasts often form mica fishes and show top to S/SW directed shear-sense. The lack of syntectonic chlorite crystals points to metamorphic conditions of lower amphibolite-facies > than 450° C. In a later stage fluid

  4. Grainstones and cementstone mounds: The Trogkofel summit section (Lower Permian, Carnic Alps, Austria).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffhauser, M.; Sanders, D.; Krainer, K.

    2009-04-01

    In the Carnic Alps, Austria, an Artinskian succession 400 m thick of shallow-water bioclastic limestones and of mounds composed of ?Archaeolithophyllum, Archaeolithoporella and abundant fibrous cementstone (after former aragonite) records deposition along a "grainstone-dominated" platform margin. The section was taken along the route through the east-facing cliff of Trogkofel. The Trogkofel Limestone (Artinskian pro parte) is excellently exposed and preserved the most complete along this route, but no section has hitherto been logged. The total thickness of the Trogkofel Limestone probably is about 550 meters; the summit section comprises its upper 400 meters. The section consists mainly of shallow-water bioclastic limestones (grainstones, packstones, rudstones) intercalated with cementstone mounds. Both the bioclastic limestones and the mounds typically are thick-bedded to, more commonly, unbedded. Throughout the section, intervals a few tens of meters in thickness dominated by bioclastic limestones change vertically with intervals dominated by cementstone mounds. Up-section, no clear-cut trend with respect to prevalent facies, mean depositional water depth, and energy index is obvious. Furthermore, no lime-muddy, meter-scale peritidal cycles, and no teepee structures and no pisolite levels were identified; thin intervals of fenestral lime mudstones and/or of cryptmicrobially-laminated limestones are very rare. The bioclastic limestones commonly weather out unstratified, or show subhorizontal stratification or, more rarely, low-angle cross-stratification. In the upper 100 meters of section, grainstones to fine-grained rudstones rich in keystone vugs are prevalent. The cementstone mounds comprise intervals up to a few meters in thickness; the biogenic component is characterized by foliose crusts pertaining to ?Archaeolithophyllum hidensis and Archaeolithoporella, overgrown by Tubiphytes and fenestrate bryozoans. The ?Archaeolithophyllum-Archaeolithoporella crusts

  5. risk factor Inn (INNrisk) - transdisciplinary analysis of the 2005 flood in the province of Tyrol, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleewein, Klaus; Pfurtscheller, Clemens; Borsdorf, Axel

    2010-05-01

    The transdisciplinary project INNrisk, in collaboration with public risk and disaster management, investigates the severe floods of 22nd and 23rd of August, 2005, and their effects within the federal province of Tyrol. The inundation and accompanying processes (e.g. debris flows, log jams, underwashing of infrastructure) caused by the river Inn and its tributaries created a dangerous situation for Tyrol. The overall economic loss of direct assets is said to amount to ca. 500 million Euros. Climate change has basically been causing a statistical increase of damaging floods within the Alpine Space in recent decades while increasing vulnerability at the same time. The expansion of settlements is one factor in the threat to large numbers of people and growing economic losses. However, the disasters of the last decade provide an opportunity for analysing the flood process in terms of natural-science and geographical aspects as well as in terms of economic and statistical ones. This should lead to a better understanding of triggers and effects in those areas where humans are active and form the basis for mitigation and adaptation strategies. The results of such analyses represent valuable information for public risk and disaster management, particularly in presenting the effects on public and private households. The INNrisk project primarily aims to assess the framework conditions in systemic-legal terms and to analyse human actions during the floods in relation to various plans and the damage potentials resulting from them. The assessed losses depend to a great extent on the actions taken during the emergency and on flood operations by the public emergency management and local fire departments, which are in charge of floods and related processes in the case of Austria. Assessment will be carried out by analysing a database of series of human actions for the duration of the emergeny and increased risk. The project also strives to arrive at a macro- and mesoeconomic

  6. Permanent 3D laser scanning system for an active landslide in Gresten (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canli, Ekrem; Höfle, Bernhard; Hämmerle, Martin; Benni, Thiebes; Glade, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) have widely been used for high spatial resolution data acquisition of topographic features and geomorphic analyses. Existing applications encompass different landslides including rockfall, translational or rotational landslides, debris flow, but also coastal cliff erosion, braided river evolution or river bank erosion. The main advantages of TLS are (a) the high spatial sampling density of XYZ-measurements (e.g. 1 point every 2-3 mm at 10 m distance), particularly in comparison with the low data density monitoring techniques such as GNSS or total stations, (b) the millimeter accuracy and precision of the range measurement to centimeter accuracy of the final DEM, and (c) the highly dense area-wide scanning that enables to look through vegetation and to measure bare ground. One of its main constraints is the temporal resolution of acquired data due to labor costs and time requirements for field campaigns. Thus, repetition measurements are generally performed only episodically. However, for an increased scientific understanding of the processes as well as for early warning purposes, we present a novel permanent 3D monitoring setup to increase the temporal resolution of TLS measurements. This accounts for different potential monitoring deliverables such as volumetric calculations, spatio-temporal movement patterns, predictions and even alerting. This system was installed at the active Salcher landslide in Gresten (Austria) that is situated in the transition zone of the Gresten Klippenbelt (Helvetic) and the Flyschzone (Penninic). The characteristic lithofacies are the Gresten Beds of Early Jurassic age that are covered by a sequence of marly and silty beds with intercalated sandy limestones. Permanent data acquisition can be implemented into our workflow with any long-range TLS system offering fully automated capturing. We utilize an Optech ILRIS-3D scanner. The time interval between two scans is currently set to 24 hours, but can be

  7. Dating scheelite stages: A strontium, neodymium, lead approach from the Felbertal tungsten deposit, Central Alps, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Roland; Höll, Rudolf; Jagout, Emil; Schärer, Urs

    1997-12-01

    New Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and Pb-Pb isotope data of scheelites and their host rocks from the Felbertal scheelite deposit (Central Tauern Window, Eastern Alps, Austria) are presented. The oldest stage 1 scheelites are rarely preserved. They plot together with recrystallized stage 2 scheelite porphyroblasts on a Sm-Nd isochron of 581 ± 105 Ma. This Sm-Nd age is regarded as the time of the primary tungsten mineralization. Our interpretation is enhanced by a (within error limits) similar age of 517 ± 114 Ma derived from a 207Pb/ 206Pb scheelite isochron and a date of 517 ± 130 Ma obtained from two co-genetic relics (a clinopyroxene and a tschermakitic amphibole) within a metapyroxenite. The stage 2 scheelite blastesis was possibly triggered by an still unassured Ordovician "Caledonian" metamorphism and further promoted by a Carboniferous granitoid intrusion and a Variscan metamorphism without an isotopic reset. Both yellowish-fluorescent, Mo-bearing stage 1 and stage 2 scheelites were formed under oxidizing, alkaline conditions, which obviously did not promote REE fractionation and did not disturb the original Sm-Nd isotopic system. This evidently was not the case during younger remobilizations in Late Variscan and Alpine metamorphic times when stage 3 (319 ± 34 Ma) and stage 4 (29 ± 17 Ma) scheelites formed. Both stages consist of bluish-fluorescent, Mopoor to Mo-free scheelites that reveal significant REE depletion and fractionation, probably due to repeated corrosion and re-precipitation under more reducing neutral to slightly acidic conditions. The source and mechanism of deposition of the primary tungsten mineralization are deduced from five facts: (1) the radiogenic strontium isotopic data of stage 1 scheelites ( 87Sr/86Sr = 0.726-0.730 ) occurring together with normal crustal neodymium isotopic compositions ( ɛCHURt + 1 = -3.8 to -7.3), (2) unusually high U concentrations up to 74 ppm in stage 1 scheelites, (3) a sudden 87Sr increase between the formation of

  8. Assessing the accuracy of the Second Military Survey for the Doren Landslide (Vorarlberg, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámolyi, András.; Székely, Balázs; Biszak, Sándor

    2010-05-01

    Reconstruction of the early and long-term evolution of landslide areas is especially important for determining the proportion of anthropogenic influence on the evolution of the region affected by mass movements. The recent geologic and geomorphological setting of the prominent Doren landslide in Vorarlberg (Western Austria) has been studied extensively by various research groups and civil engineering companies. Civil aerial imaging of the area dates back to the 1950's. Modern monitoring techniques include aerial imaging as well as airborne and terrestrial laser scanning (LiDAR) providing us with almost yearly assessment of the changing geomorphology of the area. However, initiation of the landslide occurred most probably earlier than the application of these methods, since there is evidence that the landslide was already active in the 1930's. For studying the initial phase of landslide formation one possibility is to get back on information recorded on historic photographs or historic maps. In this case study we integrated topographic information from the map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire that was conducted in Vorarlberg during the years 1816-1821 (Kretschmer et al., 2004) into a comprehensive GIS. The region of interest around the Doren landslide was georeferenced using the method of Timár et al. (2006) refined by Molnár (2009) thus providing a geodetically correct positioning and the possibility of matching the topographic features from the historic map with features recognized in the LiDAR DTM. The landslide of Doren is clearly visible in the historic map. Additionally, prominent geomorphologic features such as morphological scarps, rills and gullies, mass movement lobes and the course of the Weißach rivulet can be matched. Not only the shape and character of these elements can be recognized and matched, but also the positional accuracy is adequate for geomorphological studies. Since the settlement structure is very stable in the

  9. Implications of mainshock-aftershocks interactions during the 2013 Ebreichsdorf sequence, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tary, Jean-Baptiste; Apoloner, Maria-Theresia; Bokelmann, Götz

    2015-04-01

    The Vienna basin is a pull-apart basin located at the contact between the Alpine arc and the Eurasian plate, with the Eastern Alps to the West, the Western Carpathian to the East, the Bohemian massif to the North, and the Pannonian basin to the South. The southern border of this basin, called the Vienna Basin Fault System (VBFS), is accommodating part of the extrusion of the Pannonian basin (~1-2 mm/yr) due to the convergence between the Adriatic microplate and the Eurasian plate. The VBFS is a sinistral strike-slip fault and one of the most active fault in Austria. Along the VBFS, the seismicity is mainly concentrated in separate clusters with a spacing of approximately 20 km. In 2000 and 2013, two sequences constituted by two main shocks and 20-30 aftershocks occurred in one of these clusters located close to Ebreichsdorf, approximately 30 km south of Vienna. We focus here on the sequence of 2013 whose earthquakes were relocated using the double-difference method. The two main shocks, with local magnitudes of 4.2 and very similar focal mechanisms (N63, sinistral strike-slip), seem to be almost collocated. The aftershocks are located mainly to the northwest and at shallower depths compared with the main shocks. In order to better understand the relationships between the two main shocks and their aftershocks, we use two simple models of Coulomb failure stress to investigate possible coseismic static stress transfer between the main shocks and the aftershocks: the constant apparent friction model and the isotropic poroelastic model. The Coulomb failure stress change at the location of most aftershocks is positive but under 0.01 MPa. Aftershock triggering due to coseismic static stress is then unlikely. On the other hand, two other mechanisms could drive this sequence i.e., rapid non-linear pore pressure diffusion along the fault plane or aseismic slip. Given inter-event distances and times of ~0.5-1 km and hours to days, respectively, a high hydraulic diffusivity of

  10. Spatial distribution and temporal development of high-mountain lakes in western Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkl, Sarah; Emmer, Adam; Mergili, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Glacierized high-mountain environments are characterized by active morphodynamics, favouring the rapid appearance and disappearance of lakes. On the one hand, such lakes indicate high-mountain environmental changes such as the retreat of glaciers. On the other hand, they are sometimes susceptible to sudden drainage, leading to glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) putting the downstream population at risk. Whilst high-mountain lakes have been intensively studied in the Himalayas, the Pamir, the Andes or the Western Alps, this is not the case for the Eastern Alps. A particular research gap, which is attacked with the present work, concerns the western part of Austria. We consider a study area of approx. 6,140 km², covering the central Alps over most of the province of Tyrol and part of the province of Salzburg. All lakes ≥250 m² located higher than 2000 m asl are mapped from high-resolution Google Earth imagery and orthophotos. The lakes are organized into seven classes: (i) ice-dammed; near-glacial (ii) moraine-dammed and (iii) bedrock-dammed; (iv) moraine-dammed and (v) bedrock-dammed distant to the recent glaciers; (vi) landslide-dammed; (vii) anthropogenic. The temporal development of selected lakes is investigated in detail, using aerial photographs dating back to the 1950s. 1045 lakes are identified in the study area. Only eight lakes are ice-dammed (i). One third of all lakes is located in the immediate vicinity of recent glacier tongues, half of them impounded by moraine (ii), half of them by bedrock (iii). Two thirds of all lakes are impounded by features (either moraines or bedrock) shaped by LIA or Pleistocenic glaciers at some distance to the present glacier tongues (iv and v). Only one landslide-dammed lake (vi) is identified in the study area, whilst 21 lakes are of anthropogenic origin (vii). 72% of all lakes are found at 2250-2750 m asl whilst less than 2% are found above 3000 m asl. The ratio of rock-dammed lakes increases with increasing

  11. Investigation of an alpine ice cave in Austria with the EXOMARS WISDOM GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletti, Valerie; Clifford, Stephen; Plettemeier, Dirk; Dorizon, Sophie; Statz, Christoph; Lustrement, Benjamin; Humeau, Olivier; Hassen-Khodja, Rafik; Galic, Alexandre; Cais, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    The WISDOM (Water Ice Subsurface Deposit Observations on Mars) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is among the instruments selected as part of ESA's 2018 ExoMars Rover mission, whose scientific objectives are to search for signs of past and present life and to investigate the planet's subsurface. Combined with the rover, the GPR will provide high resolution observations of the structure of the shallow subsurface and assist in the identification and location of sedimentary layers or massive ice deposits, where organic molecules are the most likely to be found and well-preserved. The resulting data sets will also be a valuable tool for determining the nature, location and extent of potential targets for drilling. WISDOM prototypes, representative of the final flight model, are currently being field tested in various Mars analogue and cold-climate environments. In April 2012, members of the WISDOM team brought two development prototypes to an Alpine ice cave in Dachstein, Austria, to field test the instrument and participate in the Mars Simulation organized by the Austrian Space Forum. The GPRs were tested on 3 different platforms including the radio-controlled "Magma White" Rover from ABM Space Education in Poland. Radar investigations were conducted in four different cave environments, measuring ice thickness, stratigraphy, fracture geometry, and basal topography. Data sets processed and analyzed prove to be in agreement with the shallow environment characteristics determined by direct observation and previously obtained with commercial GPRs. From a geoelectrical point of view, massive ice containing a small amount of impurities can be approximate as a rather homogeneous medium. A massive ice unit will appear on a radargram as an area with no noticeable signal return, due to the little backscattered signal. Ice is also a low conductivity medium which leads to a deep penetration of the electromagnetic waves. The radargrams obtained from WISDOM data are consistent with

  12. The Education of Migrants' Children (Vienna and Lower Austria). The CDCC's Project No. 7: "The Education and Cultural Development of Migrants."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittek, Franz

    The report presents the main observations and conclusions from a three-day visit by a group of experts from the Council for Cultural Cooperation CDCC Project No. 7 to Vienna and lower Austria to examine educational provisions for migrant children to enhance and accelerate their acquisition of German as a second language and to facilitate their…

  13. Competence and Human Resource Development in Multinational Companies in Three European Union Member States: A Comparative Analysis between Austria, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Kollinger, Iris; Warmerdam, John; Moerel, Hans; Konrad, John; Burell, Catherine; Guile, David

    A comparative analysis of human resources development and management in the subsidiaries of three multinational companies (Xerox, Glaxo Wellcome, and AXA Nordstern Colonia) was conducted in these three European Union (EU) member states: Austria, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Case studies were used, focusing on competence needs and…

  14. Survey of the State-of-the-Art and Likely Future Trends of University Management in Europe: Austria-Germany-the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Ignaz; Henning, Wolfgang

    The management of universities in Austria, Germany, and the Netherlands was studied as part of a 1979 survey of the present and future trends of university management in Europe. The survey addressed the organization of the university and its administration, the structure and process of decision-making, and the opinions of students, teachers, and…

  15. From Higher Education To Employment. Volume I: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Germany = De l'enseignement superieur a l'emploi. Volume I: Allemagne, Australie, Autriche, Belgique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume presents reports on the flows of graduates from higher education and on their entry into working life in Germany, Austria, Belgium, and Australia. Each paper is written according to detailed guidelines designed to assemble information from many sources, to reflect the state of the art, and to illustrate a variety of approaches,…

  16. Capturing socially motivated linguistic change: how the use of gender-fair language affects support for social initiatives in Austria and Poland.

    PubMed

    Formanowicz, Magdalena M; Cisłak, Aleksandra; Horvath, Lisa K; Sczesny, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Gender-fair language consists of the symmetric linguistic treatment of women and men instead of using masculine forms as generics. In this study, we examine how the use of gender-fair language affects readers' support for social initiatives in Poland and Austria. While gender-fair language is relatively novel in Poland, it is well established in Austria. This difference may lead to different perceptions of gender-fair usage in these speech communities. Two studies conducted in Poland investigate whether the evaluation of social initiatives (Study 1: quotas for women on election lists; Study 2: support for women students or students from countries troubled by war) is affected by how female proponents (lawyers, psychologists, sociologists, and academics) are referred to, with masculine forms (traditional) or with feminine forms (modern, gender-fair). Study 3 replicates Study 2 in Austria. Our results indicate that in Poland, gender-fair language has negative connotations and therefore, detrimental effects particularly when used in gender-related contexts. Conversely, in Austria, where gender-fair language has been implemented and used for some time, there are no such negative effects. This pattern of results may inform the discussion about formal policies regulating the use of gender-fair language. PMID:26582996

  17. Capturing socially motivated linguistic change: how the use of gender-fair language affects support for social initiatives in Austria and Poland

    PubMed Central

    Formanowicz, Magdalena M.; Cisłak, Aleksandra; Horvath, Lisa K.; Sczesny, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Gender-fair language consists of the symmetric linguistic treatment of women and men instead of using masculine forms as generics. In this study, we examine how the use of gender-fair language affects readers' support for social initiatives in Poland and Austria. While gender-fair language is relatively novel in Poland, it is well established in Austria. This difference may lead to different perceptions of gender-fair usage in these speech communities. Two studies conducted in Poland investigate whether the evaluation of social initiatives (Study 1: quotas for women on election lists; Study 2: support for women students or students from countries troubled by war) is affected by how female proponents (lawyers, psychologists, sociologists, and academics) are referred to, with masculine forms (traditional) or with feminine forms (modern, gender-fair). Study 3 replicates Study 2 in Austria. Our results indicate that in Poland, gender-fair language has negative connotations and therefore, detrimental effects particularly when used in gender-related contexts. Conversely, in Austria, where gender-fair language has been implemented and used for some time, there are no such negative effects. This pattern of results may inform the discussion about formal policies regulating the use of gender-fair language. PMID:26582996

  18. Education Matters: Continuity and Change in Attitudes to Education and Social Mobility among the Offspring of Turkish Guest Workers in the Netherlands and Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pásztor, Adél

    2014-01-01

    By comparing the educational situation of second-generation Turks in the Netherlands and Austria, the paper investigates the reasons behind the differential higher educational gains of the descendants of guest workers in the two countries. By relying on in-depth interviews with second-generation Turks, the paper illustrates how ethnic…

  19. Integrated study of geophysical and biological anomalies before earthquakes (seismic and non-seismic), in Austria and Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Wolfgang; Assef, Rizkita; Faber, Robert; Ferasyi, Reza

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes are commonly seen as unpredictable. Even when scientists believe an earthquake is likely, it is still hard to understand the indications observed, as well as their theoretical and practical implications. There is some controversy surrounding the concept of using animals as a precursor of earthquakes. Nonetheless, several institutes at University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, and Vienna University of Technology, both Vienna, Austria, and Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, as well as Terramath Indonesia, Buleleng, both Indonesia, cooperate in a long-term project, funded by Red Bull Media House, Salzburg, Austria, which aims at getting some decisive step forward from anecdotal to scientific evidence of those interdependencies, and show their possible use in forecasting seismic hazard on a short-term basis. Though no conclusive research has yet been published, an idea in this study is that even if animals do not respond to specific geophysical precursors and with enough notice to enable earthquake forecasting on that basis, they may at least enhance, in conjunction with other indications, the degree of certainty we can get of a prediction of an impending earthquake. In Indonesia, indeed, before the great earthquakes of 2004 and 2005, ominous geophysical as well as biological phenomena occurred (but were realized as precursors only in retrospect). Numerous comparable stories can be told from other times and regions. Nearly 2000 perceptible earthquakes (> M3.5) occur each year in Indonesia. Also, in 2007, the government has launched a program, focused on West Sumatra, for investigating earthquake precursors. Therefore, Indonesia is an excellent target area for a study concerning possible interconnections between geophysical and biological earthquake precursors. Geophysical and atmospheric measurements and behavioral observation of several animal species (elephant, domestic cattle, water buffalo, chicken, rat, catfish) are conducted in three areas

  20. Evaluation of the biomass potential for the production of lignocellulosic bioethanol from various agricultural residues in Austria and Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahr, Heike; Steindl, Daniel; Wimberger, Julia; Schürz, Daniel; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Due to the fact that the resources of fossil fuels are steadily decreasing, researchers have been trying to find alternatives over the past few years. As bioethanol of the first generation is based on potential food, its production has become an increasingly controversial topic. Therefore the focus of research currently is on the production of bioethanol of the second generation, which is made from cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials. However, for the production of bioethanol of the second generation the fibres have to be pre-treated. In this work the mass balances of various agricultural residues available in Austria were generated and examined in lab scale experiments for their bioethanol potential. The residues were pretreatment by means of state of the art technology (steam explosion), enzymatically hydrolysed and fermented with yeast to produce ethanol. Special attention was paid the mass balance of the overall process. Due to the pretreatment the proportion of cellulose increases with the duration of the pre-treatment, whereby the amount of hemicellulose decreases greatly. However, the total losses were increasing with the duration of the pre-treatment, and the losses largely consist of hemicellulose. The ethanol yield varied depending on the cellulose content of the substrates. So rye straw 200 °C 20 min reaches an ethanol yield of 169 kg/t, by far the largest yield. As result on the basis of the annual straw yield in Austria, approximately 210 000 t of bioethanol (266 million litres) could be produced from the straw of wheat (Triticum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa) and corn (Zea mays) as well as elephant grass (Miscanthus sinensis) using appropriate pre-treatment. So the greenhouse gas emissions produced by burning fossil fuels could be reduced significantly. About 1.8 million tons of motor gasoline are consumed in Austria every year. The needed quantity for a transition to E10 biofuels could thus be easily provided by bioethanol

  1. Rigorous noise test and calibration check of strong-motion instrumentation at the Conrad Observatory in Austria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, R.; Costa, G.; Lenhardt, W.; Horn, N.; Suhadolc, P.

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the European InterregIV Italy/Austria project: "HAREIA - Historical and Recent Earthquakes in Italy and Austria" the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and Mathematic and Geosciences Department of University of Trieste (DMG) are upgrading the transfrontier seismic network of South-Eastern Alps with new 12 accelerometric stations to enhance the strong motion instrument density near the Austria/Italy border. Various public institutions of the provinces Alto Adige (Bolzano Province), Veneto (ARPAV) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Regional Civil Defense) in Italy and in the Austrian province of Tyrol are involved in the project. The site selection was carried out to improve the present local network geometry thus meeting the needs of public Institutions in the involved regions. In Tyrol and Alto Adige some strategic buildings (hospitals and public buildings) have been selected, whereas in Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia the sites are in the free field, mainly located near villages. The instruments will be installed in an innovative box, designed by ZAMG, that provides electric and water isolation. The common choice regarding the instrument selection has been the new Kinemetrics Basalt ® accelerograph to guarantee homogeneity with the already installed instrumentation and compatibility with the software already in use at the different seismic institutions in the area. Prior to deployment the equipment was tested at the Conrad Observatory and a common set-up has been devised. The Conrad Observatory, seismically particularly quiet, permits to analyze both the sensor and the acquisition system noise. The instruments were connected to the network and the data sent in real-time to the ZAMG data center in Vienna and the DMG data center in Trieste. The data have been collected in the database and analyzed using signal processing modules PQLX and Matlab. The data analysis of the recordings at the ultra-quiet Conrad Observatory pointed out

  2. Vulnerability of Water Resources under Climate and Land Use Change: Evaluation of Present and Future Threats for Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachtnebel, Hans-Peter; Wesemann, Johannes; Herrnegger, Mathew; Senoner, Tobias; Schulz, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Climate and Land Use Change can have severe impacts on natural water resources needed for domestic, agricultural and industrial water use. In order to develop adaptation strategies, it is necessary to assess the present and future vulnerability of the water resources on the basis of water quantity, water quality and adaptive capacity indicators. Therefore a methodological framework was developed within the CC-Ware project and a detailed assessment was performed for Austria. The Water Exploitation Index (WEI) is introduced as a quantitative indicator. It is defined as the ratio between the water demand and the water availability. Water availability is assessed by a high resolution grid-based water balance model, utilizing the meteorological information from bias corrected regional climate models. The demand term can be divided into domestic, agricultural and industrial water demand and is assessed on the water supply association level. The Integrated Groundwater Pollution Load Index (GWPLI) represents an indicator for areas at risk regarding water quality, considering agricultural loads (nitrate pollution loads), potential erosion and potential risks from landfills. Except for the landfills, the information for the current situation is based on the CORINE Landcover data. Future changes were predicted utilizing the PRELUDE land use scenarios. Since vulnerability is also dependent on the adaptive capacity of a system, the Adaptive Capacity Index is introduced. The Adaptive Capacity Index thereby combines the Ecosystem Service Index (ESSI), which represents three water related ecosystem services (Water Provision, Water Quantity Regulation and Water Quality Regulation) and the regional economic capacity expressed by the gross value added. On the basis of these indices, the Overall Vulnerability of the water resources can be determined for the present and the future. For Austria the different indices were elaborated. Maps indicating areas of different levels of

  3. Managing Student Culture and Culture Shock: A Case from European Tirol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Martha C.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the anthropology field school or structured cultural-immersion experience held in the summer at a castle in German-speaking Italy. Students from the United States experience culture shock but usually learn new social and survival skills. (SLD)

  4. Project of Near-Real-Time Generation of ShakeMaps and a New Hazard Map in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yan; Weginger, Stefan; Horn, Nikolaus; Hausmann, Helmut; Lenhardt, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Target-orientated prevention and effective crisis management can reduce or avoid damage and save lives in case of a strong earthquake. To achieve this goal, a project for automatic generated ShakeMaps (maps of ground motion and shaking intensity) and updating the Austrian hazard map was started at ZAMG (Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik) in 2015. The first goal of the project is set for a near-real-time generation of ShakeMaps following strong earthquakes in Austria to provide rapid, accurate and official information to support the governmental crisis management. Using newly developed methods and software by SHARE (Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe) and GEM (Global Earthquake Model), which allows a transnational analysis at European level, a new generation of Austrian hazard maps will be ultimately calculated. More information and a status of our project will be given by this presentation.

  5. [The anorectic life of Empress Elisabeth of Austria (1837-1898). Slenderness cult of the Habsburg family].

    PubMed

    Vandereycken, W; Abatzi, T

    1996-07-01

    Empress Elisabeth of Austria (1837-1898), known for her beauty as well as for her opposition to the ceremonial court of the Austrian ruling family, suffered from a disease that has been termed typical for modern-day industrial nations. The biography of the Empress discloses information revealing symptoms of anorexia nervosa. Over a period of decades she developed strategies for weight reduction such as fasting rituals, gymnastics, hour-long horse-riding and forced marching. Numerous documents repeatedly describe her considerable fear of weight gain and the psychopathological changes specific for anorexia nervosa. Up to her death she succeeded in restricting to a minimum not only her body weight but also her social obligations. The documents on the life of Empress Elisabeth suggest that cultural, historical and psychodynamic factors play an important role in the genesis of this disorder. PMID:8927201

  6. Geomagnetic and Geoelectric Prospection on a Roman Iron Production Facility in Hüttenberg, Austria (Ferrum Noricum)

    PubMed Central

    Walach, Georg; Scholger, Robert; Cech, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Geophysical prospection has been applied in the Hüttenberg area (Carinthia, Austria), where important parts of the Roman iron production in the province of Noricum between the first century bc and the fourth century ad are located. A combination of geomagnetic, geoelectric and electromagnetic measurements at different scales yielded information about the extent of the industrial complex and the location of yet undiscovered subsurface monuments in the surrounding area of the Semlach-Eisner archaeological site. The vertical and lateral extension of a slag deposit from the smelting activities could be determined by means of geomagnetic mapping and multi-electrode geoelectric profiles. For the prediction of the continuation of walls in the subsurface outside the excavated area, the total horizontal derivative of the magnetic anomaly as well as geoelectric measurements were most suitable, whereas electromagnetic measurements were not successful owing to the high conductivity of widely spread pieces of slag. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24436629

  7. Salmonellosis outbreak due to Salmonella enteritidis phage type 14b resistant to nalidixic acid, Austria, September 2010.

    PubMed

    Hrivniaková, L; Schmid, D; Luckner-Hornischer, A; Lassnig, H; Kornschober, C; Angermayer, J; Allerberger, F

    2011-01-01

    We report on a salmonellosis-outbreak due to Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b resistant to nalidixic acid (S. Enteritidis PT14b Nx) among residents and employees of a student residence in Austria, September 2010. The outbreak was described and analysed by a retrospective cohort study, and microbiological environmental investigations were conducted to identify the outbreak source(s) and the reservoir of the outbreak strain. A total of 66 persons fulfilled the outbreak case definition including 14 laboratory-confirmed cases. Food specific cohort-analyses by day revealed that consumption of potato salad (RR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.35–2.01, p=0.001) and a cheese-sausage cold plate (RR: 2.24, 95%CI: 1.29–3.88, p=0.002) on 14 September was associated with being an outbreak case. We hypothesised that cross-contamination with S. Enteritidis PT14b Nx positive eggs had occurred during preparation of the potato salad and cold plate as a result of preparing in parallel egg-containing breaded cutlets on 14 September. A traced laying hen holding in eastern Austria was identified as the sole source of the consumable eggs in the student residence. By applying the legally mandated sampling method for epidemiological-related laying hen farms (one pooled dust sample à 150g, two paired boot swabs cultured separately), the outbreak strain could not be detected. Our findings, that legally required sampling methods for laying hen farms failed to detect the causative pathogen in a laying hen holding, despite an epidemiological link, underline the request stated by the European Food Safety Authority Panel on Biological Hazards for a more sensitive sampling plan in epidemiologically-associated laying hen flocks. PMID:21903036

  8. A qualitative study of cognitive-behavioral therapy for Iranian migrants with mild/moderate depression in Austria.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Atefeh; Renner, Walter; Juen, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for Iranian migrants suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) and living in Austria for an average of 14 years. The qualitative data were collected through interviews based on the Farsi version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). However, to obtain more information from the participants, they were asked to talk in more detail about their childhood and teenage years, reasons for immigration, their lifestyle before and after immigration, and their social activities. Interviews were conducted at four time points: preintervention, postintervention, 1-month follow-up, and 6-month follow-up. Patients who did not complete the interventions were interviewed on a voluntary basis to explain their reasons. Preintervention interviews were conducted to get some useful information about participant's' expectations of psychotherapy, especially group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT), and also to assess the reasons for depression from their own point of view. The postintervention interviews were conducted to examine the participants' psychological situations as well as the reasons for positive effects of interventions. The interviews on average lasted 50 minutes, and field notes were taken. The results of this study showed a reduction in depression symptoms after the interventions. However, the effect of treatment was not persistent. The findings suggest that the main reasons behind Iranian migrants' depression in Austria is related to their dysfunctional acculturation attitude. The effectiveness of GCBT for Iranian migrants with depression also may be related to their sociocultural background. PMID:27294588

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Smoking and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV in Austria and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Brath, Helmut; Grabovac, Igor; Schalk, Horst; Degen, Olaf; Dorner, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of smoking in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in Germany and Austria and their readiness to quit. A total of 447 consecutive patients with confirmed positive HIV status who were treated in different outpatient HIV centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence and stages of change were assessed by standardized questionnaires, and this was confirmed by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (for each year of life OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.92–1.00) and tertiary education level (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.15–0.79) were associated with a lower chance, and occasional (OR = 3.75; 95% CI 1.74–8.07) and daily smoking of the partner (OR 8.78; 95% CI 4.49–17.17) were significantly associated with a higher chance of smoking. Moderate (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.30–9.05) and higher nicotine dependency level (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.46–7.94), were significantly associated with higher chance, and older age (for each year of life OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91–0.99), with lower chance for readiness to quit smoking. Those results may be used to address preventive measures to quit smoking aimed at PLWHIV and the importance of addressing smoking habits. PMID:26919722

  10. Effects of acculturative stress on PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms among refugees resettled in Australia and Austria

    PubMed Central

    Kartal, Dzenana; Kiropoulos, Litza

    2016-01-01

    Background Research indicates that exposure to war-related traumatic events impacts on the mental health of refugees and leads to higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, stress associated with the migration process has also been shown to impact negatively on refugees' mental health, but the extent of these experiences is highly debatable as the relationships between traumatic events, migration, and mental health outcomes are complex and poorly understood. Objective This study aimed to examine the influence of trauma-related and post-migratory factors on symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety in two samples of Bosnian refugees that have resettled in two different host nations—Austria and Australia. Method Using multiple recruitment methods, 138 participants were recruited to complete self-report measures assessing acculturative stress, PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms. Results Hierarchical regressions indicated that after controlling for age, sex, and exposure to traumatic events, acculturative stress associated with post-migratory experiences predicted severity of PTSD and anxiety symptoms, while depressive symptoms were only predicted by exposure to traumatic events. This model, however, was only significant for Bosnian refugees resettled in Austria, as PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms were only predicted by traumatic exposure in the Bosnian refugees resettled in Australia. Conclusion These findings point toward the importance of assessing both psychological and social stressors when assessing mental health of refugees. Furthermore, these results draw attention to the influence of the host society on post-migratory adaptation and mental health of refugees. Further research is needed to replicate these findings among other refugee samples in other host nations. PMID:26886488

  11. Resilience, internalized stigma, self-esteem, and hopelessness among people with schizophrenia: Cultural comparison in Austria and Japan.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Alex; Mizuno, Yuya; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Kemmler, Georg; Suzuki, Takefumi; Pardeller, Silvia; Welte, Anna-Sophia; Sondermann, Catherine; Mimura, Masaru; Wartelsteiner, Fabienne; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    Resilience is becoming an important topic in people with schizophrenia since there is evidence that it increases the probability for long-term recovery. The current study investigated transcultural differences in resilience across schizophrenia patients from two different geographical regions, Austria and Japan. Another objective was to examine transcultural differences in internalized stigma, self-esteem, and hopelessness, which can be expected to be relevant in this context, as well as the interrelations between these subjective elements of recovery and symptom severity. To this end, patients from outpatient mental health services in Innsbruck, Austria (N=52) and Tokyo, Japan (N=60) as well as 137 healthy comparison subjects from both countries were included into this cross-sectional study. Notably, we detected a significant country effect with markedly lower resilience (F=74.4, p<0.001) and self-esteem scores (F=226.0, p<0.001) as well as higher hopelessness scores (F=37.4, p<0.001) among Japanese subjects in general. In addition, both Austrian and Japanese patients indicated significantly lower degrees of resilience (F=57.5, p<0.001), self-esteem (F=51.8, p<0.001), and hope (F=29.5, p<0.001) compared to healthy control subjects. The inter-correlations between subjective elements of recovery were comparable in size in the two patient samples, but the inter-correlations between these issues and residual symptoms of schizophrenia as objective domains of recovery were markedly higher in Austrian subjects. This suggests that schizophrenia patients from Western European and Japanese cultures may have different needs to achieve recovery. In conclusion, it will be critical to develop culture-specific psychosocial programs and to examine their feasibility and effectiveness among these patients. PMID:26805413

  12. The use of the Schmidt-hammer for dating paraglacial and glacial landforms in central Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rode, M.; Kranabeter, R.; Kellerer-Pirklbauer, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Schmidt-hammer is a portable instrument traditionally used for concrete stability testing by recording a rebound value (R-value) of a spring loaded bolt impacting a surface. This R-value is proportional to the compressive strength of the rock surface and gives a relative measure of the surface hardness. High R-values are indicative of a lower age and low R-values indicate a higher age. In this study, the Schmidt-hammer method was applied at different landforms at two study areas in Austria, at the Schöderkogel-Eisenhut area, Schladminger Mountains (12°02'E, 46°15'N; SA1) and at the Valentin Valley-Eiskar area in the Carnic Alps (12°54'E, 46°37'N; SA2). SA1 is dominated by mica schist whereas SA2 by different types of carbonatic rocks. At SA1, five relict rock glaciers and adjacent landforms (one Lateglacial moraine and deposits of a recent rock fall event) were studied. On each of the five rock glaciers, four to six locations close to the central flow line between the frontal ridge and the rooting zone were measured. At SA2, one rock glacier like landform, one moraine ridge dating from the Little Ice Age (LIA) in front of the Eiskar Glacier, supraglacial deposits of the same glacier and adjacent landforms (one Lateglacial moraine and deposits of a recent rock fall event) were examined. The results at SA1 show comparable results at all five rock glaciers with lowest values at the front and statistically significant higher values at the rooting zone. The difference between the highest and lowest mean R-value at study site 1 is 21.2 (24.4 vs. 45.6.). The differences between the highest and the lowest mean R-value at each of the five rock glaciers are 13.1 at the Gamskar Rock Glacier (28.1 vs. 41.2), 14.1 at the Eisenhut Rock Glacier (26.0 vs. 40.1), 13.6 at the Sulzkogel Rock Glacier (32.0 vs. 45.6), 15.2 at the Breitdach Rock Glacier (26.1 vs. 41.3) and 9.9 at the Schöderkogel Rock Glacier (24.4 vs. 34.3) indicating long formation periods if compared to

  13. Application of 2-D geoelectrical resistivity tomography for mountain permafrost detection in sporadic permafrost environments: Experiences from Eastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Mountain permafrost covers some 2000 km² of the Austrian Alps which is less than 2.5% of the national territory. Delineating the altitudinal lower limit of permafrost in the mountains of Austria is difficult due the complex topography, the rather sparseness of field verification data and the lack of long-term permafrost monitoring data. Such monitoring data should cover different slope aspects, different elevations, different substrates and different mountain regions of Austria. In this study it was attempted to delineate the lower limit of permafrost at two study sites in the Tauern Range, Austria, applying two-dimensional geoelectrical resistivity tomography (ERT). In addition, multi-annual ground temperature data collected by miniature temperature datalogger (MDT) were used to validate the results. At the study site Hochreichart (maximum elevation 2416 m asl), located in the Seckauer Tauern Range, 14 ERT profiles (lengths 48-196 m; electrode spacing 2, 2.5 or 4 m) were measured at elevations between 1805 and 2416 m asl. Measurements were carried out at two cirques (Reichart, Schöneben) and at the summit plateau of Hochreichart. Results at this site indicate that permafrost lenses are detectable at elevations down to c.1900 m asl at radiation-sheltered sites. Furthermore, at the summit plateau permafrost only occurs as rather small lenses. The ERT-based permafrost pattern is generally confirmed by the MTD data with negative mean annual ground temperature values at only a few monitoring sites. However, the possibility of air-filled cavities causing higher resistive zones faking permafrost existence cannot be excluded because coarse-grained sediments (i.e. relict rock glaciers and autochthonous block fields) are widespread at this study site. At the second study site Kögele Cirque (maximum elevation 3030 m asl) located in the Schober Mountains 12 ERT profiles (lengths 48 m; electrode spacing 2 m) were measured at elevations between 2631 and 2740 m asl. Spatially

  14. A golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Austria bearing Hepatozoon canis--import due to immigration into a non-endemic area?

    PubMed

    Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Richter, Barbara; Suchentrunk, Franz

    2013-02-01

    The protozoan Hepatozoon canis, which is transmitted via ingestion of infected ticks by canine hosts, is not endemic to mid-latitude regions in Europe. Its distribution is supposed to be linked to the occurrence of its primary tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A young male golden jackal (Canis aureus) found as road kill close to Vienna, Austria, was infected by this pathogen. Cloning and sequencing of the PCR product revealed 6 different haplotypes of H. canis. Based on the sequences, no clear relationship to the origin of infection could be traced. This is the first report of H. canis for Austria, and wild canines such as the currently found jackal may provide a source of natural spread of this parasite into non-endemic areas. This natural immigration of wild animals represents a way of pathogen introduction, which has to be considered in disease prevention in addition to human-made introduction due to animal import and export. PMID:23306030

  15. Antibacterial resistances in uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women: ECO·SENS II data from primary health care in Austria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) are a frequent reason for consultation of women in primary health care. To avoid therapy failure and development of resistances, the choice of an antibiotic should be based on the knowledge of recent local resistance data but these data are scarce for the Austrian primary health care sector. Within the context of the ECO·SENS II study it was the aim to obtain appropriate and relevant local resistance data and describe the changes in the resistance pattern in comparison to the ECO·SENS study. Methods 23 GPs from different parts of Austria participated in the study between July 2007 and November 2008. According to the defined inclusion- and exclusion criteria female patients with symptoms of an uncomplicated UTI were included and a midstream urine sample was collected. In case of significant bacteriuria susceptibility testing of E. coli against 14 antibiotics was performed. Descriptive statistical methods were used. Results In 313 patients included in the study, a total of 147 E. coli isolates (47%) were detected and tested. The resistance rates were in %: Mecillinam (0.0), nitrofurantoin (0.7), fosfomycin trometamol (0.7), gentamycin (1.4), cefotaxime (2.7), ceftazidime (2.7), Cephadroxil (4.1) and ciprofloxacin (4.1). Higher resistance rates were found in amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (8.9), nalidixic acid (9.6), trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (14.4), trimethoprim (15.8), sulphamethoxazole (21.2) and ampicillin (28.8). Additionally, the comparison of these results with the results of the ECO·SENS study demonstrated an increase in resistance rates of ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Conclusions The resistance data for E. coli in uncomplicated UTIs in women gained by this study are the most recent data for this disease in Austria at the moment. The increased resistance rates of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid should be respected when

  16. Fossil Atherospermataceae from lower Eocene sediments of Austria: Laurelia Juss. from the EECO section at Krappfeld in Carinthia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Christa-Ch.; Egger, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Laurelia Juss. (Atherospermataceae R. Br.) today is a disjunct genus in the southern hemisphere that inhabit temperate moist forests of South America and New Zealand. Unequivocal Atherospermataceae fossils are still rare and are known since the Upper Cretaceous from the southern hemisphere. Here, we present the first findings of Laurelia pollen in the northern hemisphere, preserved in EECO (Early Eocene Climate Optimum) sediments in southern Austria. The sediments of the Paleogene Holzer Formation rest with an erosional unconformity on Campanian rocks, is 8 m-thick and composed of soft red and green claystone, and coaly lenses rich in terrestrial palynomorphs. The pollen and spores were examined with LM and SEM and assigned to botanical families and genera. Overall, three different palynomorph-rich facies were identified: The first, at the base of the Holzer Formation, is characterized by abundant and diverse fern spores, various Arecaceae, Myricaceae, and Juglandaceae. The second is from the black transgressive shale and characterized by the co-occurrence of marine dinoflagellates and Normapolles, Nypa, palm pollen, and Avicennia. The third facies is dominated by wind pollinated triporate taxa (e.g., Normapolles, Myricaceae, Juglandaceae), monosulcate palm taxa and numerous fern spores. The Atherospermataceae pollen, which resembles most closely the genus Laurelia Juss., were encountered in low numbers in all three facies of the Holzer Formation, but previously misidentified. The reason lies in the aperture type: Atherospermataceae pollen are composed of two hemispherical halves that are separated by a complete ring-like aperture or an incomplete a ring-like aperture that acts as a zone of weakness so that the deposited fossil pollen, tend to fall apart. Most fossil Laurelia pollen in the Krappfeld are preserved as rolled up individual halves and look like boat-shaped sulcate pollen grains of monocots or basal angiosperms; preservation of complete grains is rare

  17. Statement of the AGO Kommission Ovar, AGO Study Group, NOGGO, AGO Austria and AGO Switzerland Regarding the Use of Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harter, P.; du Bois, A.; Mahner, S.; Pfisterer, J.; Ortmann, O.; Marth, C.; Fink, D.; Hilpert, F.; Wagner, U.; Sehouli, J.

    2016-01-01

    The AGO Kommission Ovar already published a statement in 2013, warning about the uncritical use of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) outside controlled studies. This statement has now been updated after the most recent literature was reviewed by AGO Kommission Ovar, the AGO Study Group, NOGGO, AGO Austria and AGO Switzerland. The authors conclude that HIPEC remains experimental. Its use is not recommended and should be rejected outside of prospective controlled trials. PMID:26941446

  18. Hepatitis A Outbreak in Europe: Imported Frozen Berry Mix Suspected to be the Source of At least One Infection in Austria in 2013.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, J J; Schemmerer, M; Oberkofler, H; Kerschner, H; Sinha, P; Koidl, C; Allerberger, F

    2014-12-01

    We tested 19 sera from Austrian patients with acute hepatitis A. A serum from a 48-year-old female patient yielded HAV-nucleic acid that showed 99.7% homology to the HAV-sequence obtained from samples taken during the current outbreak in several European countries, which is associated with consumption of frozen berries. So far, Austria was considered not to be affected by this hepatitis A outbreak. PMID:25183415

  19. Upgraded biogas from municipal solid waste for natural gas substitution and CO2 reduction--a case study of Austria, Italy, and Spain.

    PubMed

    Starr, Katherine; Villalba, Gara; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Biogas is rich in methane and can be further purified through biogas upgrading technologies, presenting a viable alternative to natural gas. Landfills and anaerobic digestors treating municipal solid waste are a large source of such biogas. They therefore offer an attractive opportunity to tap into this potential source of natural gas while at the same time minimizing the global warming impact resulting from methane emissions in waste management schemes (WMS) and fossil fuel consumption reduction. This study looks at the current municipal solid waste flows of Spain, Italy, and Austria over one year (2009), in order to determine how much biogas is generated. Then it examines how much natural gas could be substituted by using four different biogas upgrading technologies. Based on current waste generation rates, exploratory but realistic WMS were created for each country in order to maximize biogas production and potential for natural gas substitution. It was found that the potential substitution of natural gas by biogas resulting from the current WMS seems rather insignificant: 0.2% for Austria, 0.6% for Italy and 0.3% for Spain. However, if the WMS is redesigned to maximize biogas production, these figures can increase to 0.7% for Austria, 1% for Italy and 2% for Spain. Furthermore, the potential CO2 reduction as a consequence of capturing the biogas and replacing fossil fuel can result in up to a 93% reduction of the annual national waste greenhouse gas emissions of Spain and Italy. PMID:25655352

  20. [Management of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH): algorithm of the interdisciplinary D-A-CH consensus group PPH (Germany - Austria - Switzerland)].

    PubMed

    Schlembach, D; Mörtl, M G; Girard, T; Arzt, W; Beinder, E; Brezinka, C; Chalubinski, K; Fries, D; Gogarten, W; Hackelöer, B-J; Helmer, H; Henrich, W; Hösli, I; Husslein, P; Kainer, F; Lang, U; Pfanner, G; Rath, W; Schleussner, E; Steiner, H; Surbek, D; Zimmermann, R

    2014-03-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is one of the main causes of maternal deaths even in industrialized countries. It represents an emergency situation which necessitates a rapid decision and in particular an exact diagnosis and root cause analysis in order to initiate the correct therapeutic measures in an interdisciplinary cooperation. In addition to established guidelines, the benefits of standardized therapy algorithms have been demonstrated. A therapy algorithm for the obstetric emergency of postpartum hemorrhage in the German language is not yet available. The establishment of an international (Germany, Austria and Switzerland D-A-CH) "treatment algorithm for postpartum hemorrhage" was an interdisciplinary project based on the guidelines of the corresponding specialist societies (anesthesia and intensive care medicine and obstetrics) in the three countries as well as comparable international algorithms for therapy of PPH.The obstetrics and anesthesiology personnel must possess sufficient expertise for emergency situations despite lower case numbers. The rarity of occurrence for individual patients and the life-threatening situation necessitate a structured approach according to predetermined treatment algorithms. This can then be carried out according to the established algorithm. Furthermore, this algorithm presents the opportunity to train for emergency situations in an interdisciplinary team. PMID:24584885

  1. Glacier retreat and associated sediment dynamics in proglacial areas: a case study from the Silvretta Alps, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felbauer, Lucia; Pöppl, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Global warming results in an ongoing retreat of glaciers in the Alps, leaving behind large amounts of easily erodible sediments. In addition, the debuttressing of rock-walls and the decay of permafrost in the high mountain regions facilitates mass movements of potential disastrous consequences, such as rock falls, landslides and debris flows. Therefore, it is highly important to quantify the amount of sediments that are supplied from the different compartments and to investigate how glacial retreat influences sediment dynamics in proglacial areas. In the presented work glacier retreat and associated sediment dynamics were investigated in the Kromer valley (Silvretta Alps, Austria) by analyzing remote sensing data. Glacial retreat from the period of 1950 to 2012 was documented by interpreting aerial photographs. By digitizing the different stages of the glaciers for six time frames, changes in glacier area and length were mapped and quantified. In order to identify, characterize and quantify sediment dynamics in the proglacial areas a high resolution DEM of difference (DoD) between 2007 and 2012 was created and analyzed, further differentiating between different zones (e.g. valley bottom, hillslope) and types of geomorphic processes (e.g. fluvial, gravitational). First results will be presented at the EGU General Assembly 2016.

  2. Enabling eParticipation of the Youth in the Public Debate on Legislation in Austria: A Critical Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Sabrina; Neuroth, Christoph; Schefbeck, Günther; Wimmer, Maria A.

    Legislation formation is an area of democracy, in which participation of target groups (citizens, companies, interest groups, experts) plays a crucial role. With the emergence of the Internet and the growing maturity of more recent technologies a new potential emerged for supporting participation in the legislation process. The use of ICT does, however, not automatically enhance the participation in democratic processes and may even impose new [technically based] barriers. Therefore, software development of legislative eParticipation applications should carefully investigate and bear in mind the specific targeted users. It is not feasible to just provide the necessary ICT and the legislative documents in order to start a consultation, especially with young citizens. When introducing not only a new tool but even a new procedure, the whole process needs to be planned in detail and accompanied by an expert team. In this respect, the paper at hand describes the implementation of a pilot within the LEX-IS project that aimed to facilitate and enable participation of the youth in the public debate on legislation in Austria. The subject of online discussion via the platform was a ministerial draft bill and the formulation of a comment statement based on the previous discussions to be uploaded on the Austrian Parliament’s platform. The paper introduces the evaluation methodology and the results of the pilot regarding the use of the argumentation support system, participation of the youth and potential impact on the Austrian legislature. Finally, concluding remarks are provided.

  3. In situ hybridization and sequence analysis reveal an association of Plasmodium spp. with mortalities in wild passerine birds in Austria.

    PubMed

    Dinhopl, Nora; Nedorost, Nora; Mostegl, Meike M; Weissenbacher-Lang, Christiane; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2015-04-01

    Native European passerine birds are frequently clinically inapparent carriers of haemosporidian parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Clinical disease and death are only exceptionally reported. In the present study, tissue samples of 233 wild passerine birds found dead in Eastern Austria were examined by in situ hybridization (ISH) and partial cytochrome B gene sequence analysis for the presence, abundance and taxonomic assignment of Plasmodium spp. In 34 cases (14.6%), ISH yielded a positive result with large numbers of developmental stages in different cell types of the spleen, liver, brain and lung. The abundance of the tissue stages, which was comparable to fatal cases of avian malaria in penguins, suggested a major contribution to the cause of death. Genetic analysis revealed infections with representatives of three different valid species of Plasmodium, Plasmodium elongatum, Plasmodium lutzi and Plasmodium vaughani. Genetically identical parasite lineages had been found in a previous study in penguins kept in the Vienna zoo, providing evidence for the role of wild birds as reservoir hosts. Further, this study provides evidence that several species of Plasmodium are able to abundantly proliferate in endemic wild birds ultimately resulting in mortalities. PMID:25636246

  4. Estimated health impact of a shift from light fuel to residential wood-burning in Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Haluza, Daniela; Kaiser, August; Moshammer, Hanns; Flandorfer, Claudia; Kundi, Michael; Neuberger, Manfred

    2012-07-01

    The dependency on carbon-based fossil energy and growing awareness of climate change issues has induced ambitious policy initiatives to promote renewable energy sources for indoor heating. Combustion of regionally available material such as wood is considered a carbon-neutral alternative for oil and gas, but unregulated revival of wood stoves may cause detrimental health effects. For the prognosis of the health impact of air pollution due to the use of wood stoves, Upper Austria served for a case study. On the basis of recent measurements of particulate matter <10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and nitrous gases (NO(x)), we compared the air pollution attributable to present energy mix (termed scenario 1) with two alternatives: For scenario 2, we assumed replacement of light fuel oil by either fossil gas or biomass, and for scenario 3, replacement of light fuel oil by biomass only. Compared with the current exposure from scenario 1, the increased annual mean PM10 levels are estimated to lead to 101 (95% CI 56;146) and 174 (95% CI 92;257) additional deaths among 1.4 million inhabitants per year for scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Without adequate strategies for reducing the emissions of domestic heating facilities, replacement of fossil energy sources could lead to an increased health risk. PMID:22569207

  5. Volcaniclastic events in coral reef and seagrass environments: evidence for disturbance and recovery (Middle Miocene, Styrian Basin, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, M.; Piller, W. E.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic disturbances and ecosystem recovery at sites of neritic carbonate production are rarely documented, neither in the recent nor past geological record. Herein, we present a Middle Miocene (ca 14.5 Ma) shallow-marine carbonate record from the Styrian Basin (Austria) that shows recurrent breakdowns of the carbonate producers (i.e., coralline red algae and zooxanthellate corals) in response to ashfalls from nearby volcanic island sources. These volcanic events are preserved as distinct marl layers with idiomorphic biotite crystals and volcaniclasts that mantle the former seafloor topography. The pyroclastic sediments suffocated the carbonate producers in coral reef and seagrass environments. A subsequent turbid, eutrophic phase caused by the redistribution, suspension, and dissolution of volcaniclastics is characterized by the spreading of suspension-feeding biota, coralline algae, and the larger benthic foraminifer Planostegina. During this stage, rapidly consolidated pyroclastic deposits acted as hard grounds for attached-living bivalves. The fact that the facies below and above the studied ashbeds are almost identical suggests that volcaniclastic events had no long-lasting effects on the structure of the carbonate-producing benthic communities. Although Miocene shallow-water carbonate systems of the circum-Mediterranean region are well known and situated in one of the geodynamically most active regions worldwide, this study is the first that exams the impact of volcanic sedimentation events on shallow marine ecosystems.

  6. Driving under the influence of drugs and alcohol in Salzburg and Upper Austria during the years 2003-2007.

    PubMed

    Keller, Thomas; Keller, Andrea; Tutsch-Bauer, Edith; Monticelli, Fabio

    2009-04-01

    Until 2002 in Austria a blood sample could not be drawn due to regulations stipulated by the Austrian constitution. During the years 2003-2007 alcohol, pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs were analyzed in 1167 blood samples from cases of suspected and drugged drivers. In accordance with the findings of the EU-project Rosita, a wide variety of illicit drugs and medications could be found in blood samples of the drivers where cannabis (50%), opiates (20%), amphetamines (18%), cocaine (15%) and benzodiazepines (20%) were those with the highest prevalence. To enable police and medical officers to identify drivers under the influence of cannabis, a newly developed urinary road-site-test system, Check 24 (Protzek GmbH, Germany), with two different cut-off values for THCCOOH-glucuronide was used. So far, it was not possible to draw any conclusions from a cannabinoid positive urine sample to the actual influence of a driver due to the previous consumption of cannabis. Using this test a better differentiation between recent and temporal earlier consumption was possible. In addition to using the Check 24 system the technology of pupillography (AMTech GmbH, Germany) was applied in cases of drugged driving. For the first time the authors were able to predict the presence of at least one central nervous active substance in the blood of a drugged driver. PMID:19282219

  7. A multi-annual landslide inventory for the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility - Two test cases in Vorarlberg, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieher, Thomas; Perzl, Frank; Rössel, Monika; Rutzinger, Martin; Meißl, Gertraud; Markart, Gerhard; Geitner, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Geomorphological landslide inventories provide crucial input data for any study on the assessment of landslide susceptibility, hazard or risk. Several approaches for assessing landslide susceptibility have been proposed to identify areas particularly vulnerable to this natural hazard. What they have in common is the need for data of observed landslides. Therefore the first step of any study on landslide susceptibility is usually the compilation of a geomorphological landslide inventory using a geographical information system. Recent research has proved the feasibility of orthophoto interpretation for the preparation of an inventory aimed at the delineation of landslides with the use of distinctive signs in the imagery data. In this study a multi-annual landslide inventory focusing on shallow landslides (i.e. translational soil slides of 0-2 m in depth) was compiled for two study areas in Vorarlberg (Austria) from the interpretation of nine orthophoto series. In addition, derivatives of two generations of airborne laser scanning data aided the mapping procedure. Landslide scar areas were delineated on the basis of a high-resolution differential digital terrain model. The derivation of landslide volumes, depths and depth-to-length ratios are discussed. Results show that most mapped landslides meet the definition of a shallow landslide. The inventory therefore provides the data basis for the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility and allows for the application of various modelling techniques.

  8. Development of the Damage Potential resulting from Avalanche Risks, Case Study Galtür (Tyrol, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiler, M.

    2003-04-01

    Reports on catastrophes with high damage caused by natural hazards seem to have increased in number recently. A new trend in dealing with these natural processes leads to the integration of risk into natural hazards evaluations and approaches of integral risk management. The risk resulting from natural hazards can be derived from the combination of parameters of physical processes (intensity and recurrence probability) and damage potential (probability of presence and expected damage value). Natural hazard research focuses mainly on the examination, modelling and estimation of individual geomorphological processes as well as on future developments caused by climate change. Even though damage potential has been taken into account more frequently, quantifying statements are still missing. Due to the changes of the socio-economic structures in mountain regions (urban sprawl, population growth, increased mobility and tourism) these studies are mandatory. This study presents a conceptual method that records the damage potential (probability of physical presence, evaluation of buildings) and shows the development of the damage potential resulting from avalanches since 1950. The study area is the community of Galtür, Austria. 36 percent of the existing buildings are found in officially declared avalanche hazard zones. The majority of these buildings are either agricultural or accommodation facilities. Additionally, the effects of physical planning and/or technical measures on the spatial development of the potential damage are illustrated. The results serve to improve risk determination and point out an unnoticed increase of damage potential and risk in apparently safe settlement areas.

  9. The Water Framework Directive: Can more information be extracted from groundwater data? A case study of Seewinkel, Burgenland, eastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatvani, István Gábor; Magyar, Norbert; Zessner, Matthias; Kovács, József; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2014-06-01

    Water protection is one of the most important goals in environmental protection. The Clean Water Act in the USA and the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in Europe are the legal frameworks to facilitate the achievement of this goal. The question is raised of whether more information can be extracted from WFD-related groundwater data. To answer it, a methodology has been developed that is easy to use and could be implemented into official practice. A case study is presented in which the groundwater data of a sodic area in Austria (Seewinkel) is assessed. Eighteen parameters in groundwater sampled from 23 wells (1991-2011) were analyzed. With basic statistics, trend-, cluster-, Wilks' λ and spatial sampling density analysis, local phosphorus and boron phenomena were described, along with the determining role of sulphate, groundwater flow, and the oxygen gradient in the area. As a final step, the spatial sampling density was determined. Regarding the current set of parameters, all the sampling sites are necessary and only in the case of certain parameters (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, NO3 -, pH) could one sampling site be abandoned. The methodology applied brings a new perspective to exploring groundwater data collected according to the requirements of the WFD.

  10. Airborne geophysical mapping as an innovative methodology for landslide investigation: evaluation of results from the Gschliefgraben landslide, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supper, R.; Baroň, I.; Ottowitz, D.; Motschka, K.; Gruber, S.; Winkler, E.; Jochum, B.; Römer, A.

    2013-05-01

    In September 2009, a complex airborne geophysical survey was performed in the large landslide affected area of the Gschliefgraben valley, Upper Austria, in order to evaluate the usability of this method for landslide detection and mapping. An evaluation of the results, including different remote sensing and ground based methods, proved that airborne geophysics, especially the airborne electromagnetic method, has a high potential for landslide investigation. This is due to its sensitivity to fluid and clay content and porosity, which are parameters showing characteristic values in landslide prone structures. Resistivity distributions in different depth levels as well as depth-slices along selected profiles are presented and compared with ground geoelectrical profiles for the test area of Gschliefgraben. Further interesting results can be derived from the radiometric survey, whereas the naturally occurring radioisotopes 40K and 232Th, as well as the man-made nuclide 137Cs have been considered. While the content of potassium and thorium in the shallow subsurface layer is expressively related to the lithological composition, the distribution of caesium is mainly determined by mass wasting processes.

  11. Airborne geophysical mapping as an innovative methodology for landslide investigation: evaluation of results from the Gschliefgraben landslide, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supper, R.; Baroň, I.; Ottowitz, D.; Motschka, K.; Gruber, S.; Winkler, E.; Jochum, B.; Römer, A.

    2013-12-01

    In September 2009, a complex airborne geophysical survey was performed in the large landslide affected area of the Gschliefgraben valley, Upper Austria, in order to evaluate the applicability of this method for landslide detection and mapping. An evaluation of the results, including different remote-sensing and ground-based methods, proved that airborne geophysics, especially the airborne electromagnetic method, has a high potential for landslide investigation. This is due to its sensitivity to fluid and clay content and porosity, which are parameters showing characteristic values in landslide prone structures. Resistivity distributions in different depth levels as well as depth slices along selected profiles are presented and compared with ground geoelectrical profiles for the test area of Gschliefgraben. Further interesting results can be derived from the radiometric survey, whereas the naturally occurring radioisotopes 40K and 232Th, as well as the man-made nuclide 137Cs have been considered. While the content of potassium and thorium in the shallow subsurface layer is expressively related to the lithological composition, the distribution of caesium is mainly determined by mass wasting processes.

  12. [Transdermal rivastigmine patch in outpatient services in Austria: a naturalistic study in 103 patients with Alzheimer dementia].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Alf, Claude; Bancher, Christian; Benke, Thomas; Berek, Klaus; Dal-Bianco, Peter; Führwürth, Gerhard; Imarhiagbe, Douglas; Jagsch, Christian; Lechner, Anita; Rainer, Michael; Reisecker, Franz; Rotaru, Juliana; Uranüs, Margarete; Walter, Andreas; Winkler, Andreas; Wuschitz, Albert

    2009-01-01

    We performed a 6-month open-label study on the use of the transdermal rivastigmine patch in clinical routine in 103 patients with Alzheimer's disease from 25 outpatient services in Austria. After baseline, safety and tolerability of the 10 cm2--rivastigmine patch was assessed at week 4, 12 and 24 in all patients. A Mini Mental State Examination was done at baseline and at week 12 and 24. Skin adherence of the patch was very good or good in 85% of study participants. Only 2.9% of patients had gastrointestinal adverse events. Local skin reactions occurred in 23% of individuals. Skin alteration were mostly mild in severity. In only 6.8% of subjects did they result in termination of treatment. At the earliest skin reactions were observed after 3 months of treatment. Cognitive functioning of patients improved comparable to the controlled trial which led to approval of the rivastigmine patch. In daily routine the safety profile of the rivastigmine patch is favourable, as is the response to treatment. Local, mostly mild skin reactions affect approximately every fifth patient, and they occur relatively late in the course of therapy. Patients and their caregivers should receive detailed information about skin reactions to omit unnecessary drop outs to treatment. PMID:19272293

  13. Prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis: a retrospective analysis of mother-child examinations, Styria, Austria, 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Berghold, Christian; Herzog, Sereina Annik; Jakse, Heidelinde; Berghold, Andrea

    2016-08-18

    In Austria, mandatory screening for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis stipulates a serological test for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii as early as possible in pregnancy. In the case of a seronegative result, subsequent tests at intervals of 8 weeks are requested. We analysed serological data from Styria, an Austrian federal state, to determine the seroprevalence and incidence of Toxoplasma infections. The study included 353,599 tests from 103,316 women during 158,571 pregnancies from 1995 to 2012. The age-adjusted seroprevalence decreased from 43.3% in 1995 to 31.5% in 2012, with a yearly decline of 0.84% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0. 79 -0.88). The intergravid incidence showed an annual decrease of 4.2%. The average yearly incidence of intragravid and intergravid seroconversions was 0.52% (95% CI 0.45-0.61) and 0.72% (95% CI 0.67-0.77), respectively. If the difference between these rates (p < 0.001) can be explained by the effect of primary prevention such as avoiding raw meat and taking hygiene precautions when encountering cats or preparing vegetables, only ca two of seven (28%) infections were avoided by hygiene measures taken by pregnant women. Primary prevention may therefore have its limits. PMID:27562876

  14. Bilingual teaching for multilingual students? Innovative dual-medium models in Slovene-German schools in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purkarthofer, Judith; Mossakowski, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Traditional bilingual education programmes in regional linguistic minority contexts face major challenges within the recent paradigm of linguistic diversity against a background of increasing migration, mobility and trans-locality. Based on three case studies, the authors of this paper focus on how particular dual-medium models are applied in Slovene-German schools in Carinthia, Austria. They examine not only how these schools provide for a balanced bilingual teaching and learning environment, but also how they deal with their students' multilingual realities and support their identification with bi- and multilingualism. The authors regard schools as institutional sites where linguistic dispositions are subject to discursive power relations and where language policies and educational goals are negotiated by teachers, parents and students alike. Drawing on speaker-centred and ethnographic approaches in sociolinguistic research, the authors seek to document experiences of all actors involved as well as spatial and discursive practices. Through this the authors show how these dual-medium schools achieve particular profiles in multilingual education which are potentially regarded as innovative examples of best-practice and as being of interest for students and families with heterogeneous linguistic backgrounds.

  15. Multihazard risk analysis and disaster planning for emergency services as a basis for efficient provision in the case of natural hazards - case study municipality of Au, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltzkait, Anika; Pfurtscheller, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    Multihazard risk analysis and disaster planning for emergency services as a basis for efficient provision in the case of natural hazards - case study municipality of Au, Austria A. Maltzkait (1) & C. Pfurtscheller (1) (1) Institute for Interdisciplinary Mountain Research (IGF), Austrian Academy of Sciences, Innsbruck, Austria The extreme flood events of 2002, 2005 and 2013 in Austria underlined the importance of local emergency services being able to withstand and reduce the adverse impacts of natural hazards. Although for legal reasons municipal emergency and crisis management plans exist in Austria, they mostly do not cover risk analyses of natural hazards - a sound, comparable assessment to identify and evaluate risks. Moreover, total losses and operational emergencies triggered by natural hazards have increased in recent decades. Given sparse public funds, objective budget decisions are needed to ensure the efficient provision of operating resources, like personnel, vehicles and equipment in the case of natural hazards. We present a case study of the municipality of Au, Austria, which was hardly affected during the 2005 floods. Our approach is primarily based on a qualitative risk analysis, combining existing hazard plans, GIS data, field mapping and data on operational efforts of the fire departments. The risk analysis includes a map of phenomena discussed in a workshop with local experts and a list of risks as well as a risk matrix prepared at that workshop. On the basis for the exact requirements for technical and non-technical mitigation measures for each natural hazard risk were analysed in close collaboration with members of the municipal operation control and members of the local emergency services (fire brigade, Red Cross). The measures includes warning, evacuation and, technical interventions with heavy equipment and personnel. These results are used, first, to improve the municipal emergency and crisis management plan by providing a risk map, and a

  16. A national strategy for a long-term monitoring of permafrost and periglacial processes and their relationship to natural hazard prevention in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Bartsch, Annett; Gitschthaler, Christoph; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Weyss, Gernot; Riedl, Claudia; Avian, Michael

    2016-04-01

    About 2.5% (~2000 km²) of the national territory of Austria is influenced by permafrost conditions. A slightly smaller area of Austria is additionally affected by deep seasonal frost which is, however, similarly exposed to intensive physical weathering and related geomorphic processes. Currently, 23 skiing resorts, 31 water reservoirs and 42 mountain huts are either directly or indirectly influenced by permafrost and associated processes in Austria as determined from regional permafrost models. Ground thermal changes most likely affect the ground stability and infrastructure in those areas. Therefore, changes in the distribution and characteristics of permafrost and seasonal frost are of high economic and ecological importance. A range of Austrian institutions are interested in systematic permafrost monitoring (several universities, geological surveys, the Austrian torrent and avalanche control agency or several different alpine clubs). However, to date no coordinated monitoring network has been established on a national scale and a strategy for long-term permafrost/periglacial observation did not exist so far. Such a national strategy has been developed in 2015 within the permAT project funded through the StartClim2014-program. During permAT an extensive literature review and data search as well as a workshop with 40 participants (scientists, stakeholder and policy maker) were accomplished. The workshop allowed the integration of national as well as international colleagues into the strategy development. Results of permAT clearly demonstrate that the number of present permafrost/periglacial monitoring sites is far too little in Austria. Only few alpine areas of Austria are well represented by the existing monitoring activities but large areas lack such instrumentations. Furthermore, permafrost boreholes exist at only three sites in central Austria (all contribution to the GTN-P network) and there is a lack of knowledge about thermal conditions and recent changes

  17. Hydrogeological properties of fault zones in a karstified carbonate aquifer and their impact on groundwater circulation (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Helene; Schröckenfuchs, Theresa Christina; Decker, Kurt

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a comparative, field-based hydrogeological characterization of exhumed, inactive fault zones in low porosity Triassic dolostones and limestones of the Hochschwab massif, a carbonate unit of high economic importance supplying 60% of the drinking water of Austria`s capital Vienna. The hydrogeology (groundwater storage and flow) of the massif has been reported to be essentially governed by karstified, large-scale faults. Previous work has shown that faults that formed during the Oligocene to Miocene lateral extrusion of the Eastern Alps act as groundwater pathways draining the karst massif preferably in E-W-direction. We present hydrogeological relevant data from these types of fault zones and a conceptual model, which supports the idea that fault-zone networks also have the potential to contribute significantly to the storage capacity of the aquifer. With respect to fault zone architecture and rock content, four types of faults are presented: (1) faults with single stranded, minor fault cores, (2) faults with single stranded, permeable fault cores, (3) faults with single stranded, impermeable fault cores, and (4) faults with multiple stranded, permeable fault cores. Within these faults cataclastic rocks and strongly cemented cataclastic breccias form low-permeability (< 1 mD) domains. Fractured rocks with fracture densities varying by a factor of 10 show significantly elevated porosities (> 3%) with respect to the country rock (< 1%). Dilation breccias with average porosities > 3% and permeabilities > 1000 mD form high-permeability domains. Our data illustrates significant differences in the architectural build-up of fault zones in dolostone (multiple-stranded cataclastic fault cores of weak lateral continuity, high volumes of intensely fractured rock) and limestone (laterally distinct, single-stranded fault cores, Riedel-shear fractures dominating fracture patterns). Karstic carbonate dissolution occurs preferentially along faults cores in

  18. Water - Isotope - Map (δ 18O, δ 2H, 3H) of Austria: Applications, Extremes and Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyhlidal, Stefan; Kralik, Martin; Benischke, Ralf; Leis, Albrecht; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    The isotopic ratios of oxygen and hydrogen in water (2H/1H and 18O/16O) are important tools to characterise waters and their cycles. This starts in the atmosphere as rain or snow and continues in surface water and ends in shallow groundwater as well as in deep groundwater. Tritium formed by natural cosmic radiation in the upper atmosphere and in the last century by tests of thermonuclear bombs in the atmosphere, is characterised by its radioactive decay with a half-life of 12.32 years and is an ideal age-marker during the last 60 years. To determine the origin and mean age of waters in many projects concerning water supply, engineering and scientific projects in the last 45 years on more than 1,350 sites, more than 40,000 isotope measurements were performed in Austria. The median value of all sites of oxygen-18 is δ 18O -10.7 ‰ and for hydrogen-2 δ 2H -75 ‰. As the fractionation is mainly temperature dependent the lowest negative values are observed in winter precipitation (oxygen-18 as low as δ 18O -23 ‰) and in springs in the mountain regions (δ 18O -15.1 ‰). In contrast the highest values were observed in summer precipitation (up to δ 18O - 0.5 ‰) and in shallow lakes in the Seewinkel (up to δ 18O + 5 ‰). The isotopic ratios of the Austrian waters are also influenced by the origin of the evaporated water masses. Therefore the precipitation in the region south of the main Alpine crest (East-Tyrol, Carinthia and South-East Styria) is approximately 1 ‰ higher in δ 18O-values than sites at the same altitude in the northern part. This is most probably caused by the stronger influence of precipitation from the mediterranean area. The median value of all 1,120 sampling sites of decay corrected (2015) tritium measurements is 6.2 tritium units (TU). This is somewhat smaller than the median value of all precipitation stations with 7.2 TU. This can be explained by the fact that in most cases in groundwater the median value has been reduced by decay

  19. Impact of cattle grazing on soil and vegetation - a case study in a mountainous region of Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohner, Andreas; Foldal, Cecilie; Jandl, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In mountainous regions of Austria and of many other European countries, climate change may cause a further intensification of grassland management. Therefore, the effects of intensive cattle grazing on selected soil chemical and physical properties, above- and below-ground phytomass, forage quality, plant species composition and plant species richness at the scale of a representative paddock in a mountainous region of Austria were investigated. At the study site (Styrian Enns valley; 675 m a.s.l.), climate is relatively cool and humid, with a mean annual air temperature of 6.7°C and a mean annual precipitation of 970 mm, of which 66% falls during the vegetation period (April-October). The soil is a deep, base-rich Cambisol with a loamy sand texture. The paddock investigated has a total area of about 2 ha and had been grazed by dairy cows (Brown Swiss) five times per grazing season. The stocking density was 4 cows ha-1 during 180 days from early May to the end of October with a grazing time of about 8 hours per day. The strip grazed permanent pasture was manured annually for a long time, mostly with cattle slurry. Vegetation surveys were carried out using the method of Braun-Blanquet. Above- and below-ground phytomass, forage quality and mineral element concentration in the harvestable above-ground plant biomass were determined by using standard methods. During the grazing season surface soil samples (0-10 cm depth) for chemical analyses were collected before each grazing period (5 analyses of composite samples per site). At the beginning and the end of the grazing season also soil samples for physical analyses were taken from the topsoil (0-15 cm depth). Heavy cattle treading led to a substantial soil compaction especially in the 5-10 cm layer and to a deterioration of topsoil structure. The porous crumb structure was replaced by a compact platy structure. The topsoil was enriched with nutrients (mainly nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and boron). The degree of

  20. The August 2002 flood in Salzburg / Austria experience gained and lessons learned from the ``Flood of the century''?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesenegger, H.

    2003-04-01

    On the {12th} of August 2002 a low pressure system moved slowly from northern Italy towards Slovakia. It continuously carried moist air from the Mediterranean towards the northern rim of the Alps with the effect of wide-spread heavy rainfall in Salzburg and other parts of Austria. Daily precipitation amounts of 100 - 160 mm, in some parts even more, as well as rainfall intensities of 5 - 10 mm/h , combined with well saturated soils lead to a rare flood with a return period of 100 years and more. This rare hydrological event not only caused a national catastrophe with damages of several Billion Euro, but also endangered more than 200,000 people, and even killed some. As floods are dangerous, life-threatening, destructive, and certainly amongst the most frequent and costly natural disasters in terms of human hardship as well as economic loss, a great effort, therefore, has to be made to protect people against negative impacts of floods. In order to achieve this objective, various regulations in land use planning (flood maps), constructive measurements (river regulations and technical constructions) as well as flood warning systems, which are not suitable to prevent big floods, but offer in-time-warnings to minimize the loss of human lives, are used in Austria. HYDRIS (Hydrological Information System for flood forecasting in Salzburg), a modular river basin model, developed at Technical University Vienna and operated by the Hydrological Service of Salzburg, was used during the August 2002 flood providing accurate 3 to 4 hour forecasts within 3 % of the real peak discharge of the fast flowing River Salzach. The August {12^th}} flood was in many ways an exceptional, very fast happening event which took many people by surprise. At the gauging station Salzburg / Salzach (catchment area 4425 {km^2}) it took only eighteen hours from mean annual discharge (178 {m3/s}) to the hundred years flood (2300 {m3/s}). The August flood made clear, that there is a strong need for

  1. Source apportionment of elevated BaP concentrations in PM10 aerosols in an alpine valley in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans; Jankowski, Nicole; Sampaio Cordeiro Wagner, Lylian

    2010-05-01

    INTRODUCTION: In a village situated at 1215 m a.s.l. in a natural preserve in an Austrian alpine valley elevated BaP concentrations have been measured in the last years. A highly frequented highway leading from Italy to Germany passes near the village. Monthly means of particulate BaP concentrations show a clear seasonal trend with values below 1 ng/m³ during the warmer months and with concentrations up to 9 ng/m³ in the cold season. Annual averages in the years 2000 - 2005 ranged between 1.4 and 2.8 ng/m³ - much higher than the EU target value of 1 ng/m³. We used a macrotracer model developed at the Vienna University of Technology to determine the contributions of the sources for BaP emissions, which were mainly space heating with wood and traffic from the highway. EXPERIMENTAL: The macrotracer concept is a nine component model to derive source contribution and explains 80-100% of PM10 aerosols in Austria. The amount of traffic exhaust is derived by using EC as tracer, whereas EC produced by wood burning is subtracted, the amount of wood smoke is derived by the anhydro-sugar levoglucosan and the ratio between the anhydro-sugars levoglucosan and mannosan. For the source apportionment of BaP the applied factors reflect on the one hand the composition of the automotive fleet in Austria and on the other hand the composition of the fire wood in the region. Filter samples collected with a high volume sampler in winter were analyzed for PM10 aerosol mass, total, organic, elemental and carbonate carbon, HULIS, anhydro-sugars, polyols and ions (major ions and organic acids) and PAHs. In the same way emission samples taken at a motor test stand and at a test stand for wood combustion were analyzed (Schmidl et al. 2008). The saccharides were determined using high pH anion exchange and pulsed amperometry (HPAE-PAD). Details of the analytical method are given in Iinuma et al., 2009. Elemental and organic carbon were determined with a thermal-optical instrument (Sunset lab

  2. Analysis of multitemporal laserscanned DTMs of an active landslide (Doren, Western Austria) using a robust planefitting segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koma, Zs.; Pocsai, A.; Székely, B.; Dorninger, P.; Zámolyi, A.; Roncat, A.

    2012-04-01

    Structural geomorphometric analysis of high-resolution laser scanned DTMs is a straightforward method to study microtopographic components of dynamically forming landscapes, and thus areas affected by mass movements. However, results for multitemporal DTMs may turn out to be difficult to evaluate. In our approach, a robust plane fitting algorithm is used to create various segmentations to filtered lidar point cloud (ground surface points) by applying different sets of parameters. The resulting sets of planes are analyzed in terms of their geologic meaning and compared in order to detect changes. Our study area, the Doren landslide (Bregenzerwald, Vorarlberg, Western Austria), an actively forming landslide developed in molasse sediments has been measured several times by laser scanning (lidar). These DTMs form the input to our procedure. The DTMs are analyzed by the segmentation algorithm, using varying parameter sets (i.e. number of minimum points, standard deviation, point-to-plain distance). The segmented results are checked for indications of geological structures as well as for features belonging to the moving material of the landslide. Finally the segments of the different years are compared. Results show that patterns composed of segments of steep and less steep valley sides can be correlated with the tectonic and lithological setting of the study area. Furthermore some narrow linear or curvilinear zones appear that can be related to the outlines of some small internal mass movements. Interestingly, the various years show sometimes similar patterns despite the continuous displacement of the sliding material. The project has been supported by the Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW) in the framework of the project "Geophysik der Erdkruste".

  3. Regional economic impacts of natural hazards - the case of the 2005 Alpine flood event in Tyrol (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfurtscheller, C.

    2014-02-01

    Natural hazards have substantial impacts on economies on all scales. While the measurement of direct effects seems manageable, less is known about the dimensions of economic effects, especially on local and regional scales. The lack of standardized terminology, empirical data and methods currently hampers profound decision support. In our study of the 2005 flood event in the Federal State of Tyrol (Austria), which triggered about 264 million Euros in direct losses, we surveyed companies from all sectors of the economy to identify the drivers of economic effects. The main aim of the study was to assess the regional economic impacts on the gross regional product by the 2005 floods without macro-economic modelling techniques using bottom-up data. Using basic quantitative and qualitative methods, we established and analysed a data pool of questionnaire and interview results as well as direct loss data. Based on this empirical evidence, we estimated the decline in gross regional product in the study area at NUTS-3 level. We observed that disrupted traffic networks, for instance, had very negative effects on the regional economy. In addition, we identified economic winners of severe hazard impacts and estimated the amount of increasing economic flows (economic stimuli), based on compensation payments. Finally, the net effect can be estimated balancing the negative and positive effects of the flood event. The methods and results of this study can help to improve ex post loss estimations, and with it, ex ante methods for the cost efficiency of risk reduction measures, e.g. cost-benefit analysis. However, much effort is needed to improve the data basis on economic effects measured as a change in economic flows.

  4. Interaction of various flow systems in small alpine catchments: conceptual model of the upper Gurk Valley aquifer, Carinthia, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilberg, Sylke; Riepler, Franz

    2016-03-01

    Small alpine valleys usually show a heterogeneous hydraulic situation. Recurring landslides create temporal barriers for the surface runoff. As a result of these postglacial processes, temporal lakes form, and thus lacustrine fine-grained sedimentation intercalates with alluvial coarse-grained layers. A sequence of alluvial sediments (confined and thus well protected aquifers) and lacustrine sediments (aquitards) is characteristic for such an environment. The hydrogeological situation of fractured hard-rock aquifers in the framing mountain ranges is characterized by superficially high hydraulic conductivities as the result of tectonic processes, deglaciation and postglacial weathering. Fracture permeability and high hydraulic gradients in small-scaled alpine catchments result in the interaction of various flow systems in various kinds of aquifers. Spatial restrictions and conflicts between the current land use and the requirements of drinking-water protection represent a special challenge for water resource management in usually densely populated small alpine valleys. The presented case study describes hydrogeological investigations within the small alpine valley of the upper Gurktal (Upper Carinthia, Austria) and the adjacent Höllenberg Massif (1,772 m above sea level). Hydrogeological mapping, drilling, and hydrochemical and stable isotope analyses of springs and groundwater were conducted to identify a sustainable drinking-water supply for approximately 1,500 inhabitants. The results contribute to a conceptual hydrogeological model with three interacting flow systems. The local and the intermediate flow systems are assigned to the catchment of the Höllenberg Massif, whereas the regional flow system refers to the bordering Gurktal Alps to the north and provides an appropriate drinking water reservoir.

  5. Potential to Enhance the Prescribing of Generic Drugs in Patients with Mental Health Problems in Austria; Implications for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Godman, Brian; Bucsics, Anna; Burkhardt, Thomas; Piessnegger, Jutta; Schmitzer, Manuela; Barbui, Corrado; Raschi, Emanuel; Bennie, Marion; Gustafsson, Lars L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Scrutiny over pharmaceutical expenditure is increasing leading to multiple reforms. This includes Austria with measures to lower generic prices and enhance their utilization. However the situation for newer antidepressants and atypical antipsychotic medicines (AAPs) is different to PPIs, statins, and renin-angiotensin inhibitor drugs with greater tailoring of therapy and no wish to switch products in stable patients. Authorities welcome generics though given the high costs particularly of single-sourced AAPs. Objective: Assess (a) changes in utilization of venlafaxine versus other newer antidepressants before and after availability of generics, (b) utilization of generic versus originator venlafaxine, (c) price reductions of venlafaxine over time and their influence on total expenditure, (d) utilization of risperidone versus other AAPs, (e) suggest potential additional reforms that could be introduced if pertinent to further enhance the use of generics. Methodology: A quasi-experimental study design with a segmented time series and an observational study. Utilization measured in defined daily doses (DDDs) and total expenditure per DDD and over time. Results: No appreciable changes in the utilization of venlafaxine and risperidone after generics. The reduction in expenditure/DDD for venlafaxine decreased overall expenditure on newer antidepressants by 5% by the end of the study versus just before generics despite a 37% increase in utilization. Expenditure will further decrease if reduced prescribing of duloxetine. Conclusion: Depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar diseases are complex diseases. As a result, specific measures are needed to encourage the prescribing of generic risperidone and venlafaxine when multiple choices are appropriate. Authorities cannot rely on a “Hawthorne” effect between classes to enhance the use of generics. Measures may include prescribing restrictions for duloxetine. No specific measures planned for AAPs with more

  6. Late Pleistocene climate change and landscape dynamics in the Eastern Alps: the inner-alpine Unterangerberg record (Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Starnberger, Reinhard; Drescher-Schneider, Ruth; Reitner, Jürgen M.; Rodnight, Helena; Reimer, Paula J.; Spötl, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Drill cores from the inner-alpine valley terrace of Unterangerberg, located in the Eastern Alps of Austria, offer first insights into a Pleistocene sedimentary record that was not accessible so far. The succession comprises diamict, gravel, sand, lignite and thick, fine grained sediments. Additionally, cataclastic deposits originating from two paleo-landslide events are present. Multi-proxy analyses including sedimentological and palynological investigations as well as radiocarbon and luminescence data record the onset of the last glacial period (Würmian) at Unterangerberg at ∼120–110 ka. This first time period, correlated to the MIS 5d, was characterised by strong fluvial aggradation under cold climatic conditions, with only sparse vegetation cover. Furthermore, two large and quasi-synchronous landslide events occurred during this time interval. No record of the first Early Würmian interstadial (MIS 5c) is preserved. During the second Early Würmian interstadial (MIS 5a), the local vegetation was characterised by a boreal forest dominated by Picea, with few thermophilous elements. The subsequent collapse of the vegetation is recorded by sediments dated to ∼70–60 ka (i.e. MIS 4), with very low pollen concentrations and the potential presence of permafrost. Climatic conditions improved again between ∼55 and 45 ka (MIS 3) and cold-adapted trees re-appeared during interstadials, forming an open forest vegetation. MIS 3 stadials were shorter and less severe than the MIS 4 at Unterangerberg, and vegetation during these cold phases was mainly composed of shrubs, herbs and grasses, similar to what is known from today's alpine timberline. The Unterangerberg record ended at ∼45 ka and/or was truncated by ice during the Last Glacial Maximum. PMID:23805019

  7. First Proliferative Kidney Disease outbreak in Austria, linking to the aetiology of Black Trout Syndrome threatening autochthonous trout populations.

    PubMed

    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Kotob, Mohamed H; Unfer, Günter; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2016-05-01

    Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD) was diagnosed in juvenile autochthonous brown trout Salmo trutta for the first time in Austria during summer 2014. Cytology showed Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae sporoblasts, and histology revealed sporogonic (coelozoic) and extrasporogonic (histozoic) stages. Analysis of malacosporean ribosomal small subunit revealed that this strain is closely related to European isolates, although its source is unknown. Infection and high pathogenicity were reproduced upon a pre-restocking test with specific pathogen free (SPF) juvenile trout, resulting in 100% mortality between 28 and 46 d post exposure (dpe), with high ectoparasitosis. Fish showed grade 2 of the Kidney Swelling Index and grade 3 of the PKD histological assessment. T. bryosalmonae enzootic waters were demonstrated in further locations along the River Kamp, with infected bryozoans retrieved up to 6 km upstream of the farm with the PKD outbreak. Fredericella sultana colonies collected from these locations were cultivated in laboratory conditions. Released malacospores successfully induced PKD, and contextually Black Trout Syndrome (BTS), in SPF brown trout. In the absence of co-infections mortality occurred between 59 and 98 dpe, with kidneys enlarged up to 6.74% of total body weight (normal 1.23%). This study confirms the first isolation of a pathogenic myxozoan from an Austrian river tributary of the Danube, where its 2-host life cycle is fully occurring. Its immunosuppressant action could link PKD as a key factor in the multifactorial aetiology of BTS. This T. bryosalmonae isolation provides an impetus to undertake further multi-disciplinary research, aiming to assess the impact of PKD and BTS spreading to central European regions. PMID:27137070

  8. An ecosystem approach to assess soil quality in organically and conventionally managed farms in Iceland and Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, J. P.; Lehtinen, T.; Lair, G. J.; Bloem, J.; Hemerik, L.; Ragnarsdóttir, K. V.; Gísladóttir, G.; Newton, J. S.; de Ruiter, P. C.

    2015-01-01

    Intensive agricultural production can be an important driver for the loss of long-term soil quality. For this reason, the European Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) network adopted four pairs of agricultural CZO sites that differ in their management: conventional or organic. The CZO sites include two pairs of grassland farms in Iceland and two pairs of arable farms in Austria. Conventional fields differed from the organic fields in the use of artificial fertilisers and pesticides. Soils of these eight farms were analysed in terms of their physical, chemical, and biological properties, including soil aggregate size distribution, soil organic matter contents, abundance of soil microbes and soil fauna, and taxonomic diversity of soil microarthropods. In Icelandic grasslands, organically farmed soils had larger mean weight diameters of soil aggregates than the conventional farms, while there were no differences on the Austrian farms. Organic farming did not systematically influence organic matter contents or composition, nor soil carbon and nitrogen contents. Also, soil food web structures, in terms of presence of trophic groups of soil organisms, were highly similar among all farms, indicating a low sensitivity of trophic structure to land use or climate. However, soil organism biomass, especially of bacteria and nematodes, was consistently higher on organic farms than on conventional farms. Within the microarthropods, taxonomic diversity was systematically higher in the organic farms compared to the conventional farms. This difference was found across countries and farm, crop, and soil types. The results do not show systematic differences in physical and chemical properties between organic and conventional farms, but confirm that organic farming can enhance soil biomass and that microarthropod diversity is a sensitive and consistent indicator for land management.

  9. An ecosystem approach to assess soil quality in organically and conventionally managed farms in Iceland and Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, J. P.; Lehtinen, T.; Lair, G. J.; Bloem, J.; Hemerik, L.; Ragnarsdóttir, K. V.; Gísladóttir, G.; Newton, J. S.; de Ruiter, P. C.

    2014-06-01

    Intensive agricultural production can be an important driver for the loss of long-term soil quality. For this reason, the European Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) network adopted four pairs of agricultural CZO sites that differ in their management: conventional or organic. The CZO sites include two pairs of grassland farms in Iceland and two pairs of arable farms in Austria. Conventional fields differed from the organic fields in the use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Soils of these eight farms were analysed in terms of their physical, chemical, and biological properties, including soil aggregate size distribution, soil organic matter contents, abundance of soil microbes and soil fauna, and taxonomic diversity of soil microarthropods. In Icelandic grasslands, organically farmed soils had larger mean weight diameters than the conventional farms, while there were no differences in the Austrian farms. Organic farming did neither systematically influence organic matter contents or composition, nor soil carbon and nitrogen contents. Also soil food web structures, in terms of presence of trophic groups of soil organisms, were highly similar among all farms, indicating a low sensitivity of trophic structure to land use or climate. However, soil organism biomass, especially of bacteria and nematodes, was consistently higher in organic farms than in conventional farms. Within the microarthropods, also taxonomic diversity was systematically higher in the organic farms compared to the conventional farms. This difference was found across countries, farm-, crop- and soil-types. The results do not show systematic differences in physical and chemical properties between organic and conventional farms, but confirm that organic farming can enhance soil organism biomass, and that microarthropod diversity is a sensitive and consistent indicator for land management.

  10. Implementing separate waste collection and mechanical biological waste treatment in South Africa: a comparison with Austria and England.

    PubMed

    Trois, Cristina; Simelane, Oscar T

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of organic compounds found in municipal solid waste (MSW) under the anaerobic landfill conditions produces gas and liquid emissions that can protract well into the landfill after-care period. The European Landfill Directives regulate the amount and nature of the organic compounds disposed into landfills. In South Africa and other developing countries, MSW is still landfilled without any kind of pre-treatment. This paper presents a pilot project of mechanical biological waste treatment (MBWT) in South Africa implemented at municipal level in the city of Durban using passively aerated open windrows. Based on case studies from Austria, England and South Africa, a waste minimisation model which can facilitate full-scale implementation of MBWT in developing countries is presented. MSW was treated in open windrows for 8 weeks. Composting temperature reached a maximum of 65 degrees C in less than 10 days. The results of eluate tests on waste samples from the windrows at the end of composting show a reduction of BOD(5) and BOD(5)/COD ratios equal to 35.7% and 16.7%, respectively. The percent waste composition of the treated MSW was 28.3% putrescibles, 17.4% garden refuse, 13.3% plastic, 12.4% fabrics, 12% paper and other elements. The waste composition shows that more than 40% of un-treated organic material and also more than 40% non-biodegradable and recyclable materials are still landfilled without any form of biological treatment or resource recovery. A simple wet and dry waste collection model can promote recycling, treatment of biological waste before landfilling, resource recovery, labour intensive jobs and hence sustainable landfilling in the South African scenario as well as in similar developing countries. PMID:20116993

  11. The benthic marine assemblages of the estuarine and shallow marine Upper Burdigalian deposits of the Korneuburg Basin in Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengst, Babette; Zuschin, Martin; Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg; Roetzel, Reinhard

    2010-05-01

    In the course of highway constructions (Wiener Außenring-Schnellstraße (S1)) a detailed sedimentological transect of 1.8 km length was logged in deposits of the Central Paratethys near the village of Stetten, N of Korneuburg in Lower Austria. A total of 324 sediment- and 118 molluscan samples was studied. The siliciclastic succession consists of pelitic and sandy sediments and sandstones and is rich in fossils. The fossil remains consist of sponges, corals, serpulids, molluscs, balanids, echinoderms, fish and micromammals. Quantitatively the molluscs dominate and have been studied in detail. 139 species were determined from more than 11,000 shells. Two gastropod species, Agapilia pachii und Granulolabium bicinctum make up more than 53% of the assemblage. Another 11 species (Nassarius edlaueri, Bittium spina, Loripes dujardini, Hydrobia spp., Paphia subcarinata, Cyllenina ternodosa, Turritella gradata, Corbula gibba, Cerastoderma praeplicata, Striarca lactea, Sandbergeria perpusilla) each contributes more than 1% to the total molluscan composition, but all other 126 species are quantitatively unimportant. A conspicuous alternation between intertidal and shallow subtidal mollusc associations is evident. The intertidal is dominated by the superabundant Agapilia pachii and Granulolabium plicatum, whereas the heavily bioturbated fully marine subtidal is characterized by a more diverse assemblage including Turritella gradata, Nassarius edlaueri, Anadara diluvii and various venerids. Additionally, layers with large fragments of Crassostrea and thin coal deposits with Terebralia bidentata are quite abundant in the section. Washed in land snails (e.g., Planorbidae) and river snails (Melanopsidae) occur occasionally. This faunal composition, along with its typical alternation points to a vivid dynamic within this Lower Miocene, subtropical ecosystem in the paleo-estuary of the southern Korneuburg basin.

  12. Interaction of various flow systems in small alpine catchments: conceptual model of the upper Gurk Valley aquifer, Carinthia, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilberg, Sylke; Riepler, Franz

    2016-08-01

    Small alpine valleys usually show a heterogeneous hydraulic situation. Recurring landslides create temporal barriers for the surface runoff. As a result of these postglacial processes, temporal lakes form, and thus lacustrine fine-grained sedimentation intercalates with alluvial coarse-grained layers. A sequence of alluvial sediments (confined and thus well protected aquifers) and lacustrine sediments (aquitards) is characteristic for such an environment. The hydrogeological situation of fractured hard-rock aquifers in the framing mountain ranges is characterized by superficially high hydraulic conductivities as the result of tectonic processes, deglaciation and postglacial weathering. Fracture permeability and high hydraulic gradients in small-scaled alpine catchments result in the interaction of various flow systems in various kinds of aquifers. Spatial restrictions and conflicts between the current land use and the requirements of drinking-water protection represent a special challenge for water resource management in usually densely populated small alpine valleys. The presented case study describes hydrogeological investigations within the small alpine valley of the upper Gurktal (Upper Carinthia, Austria) and the adjacent Höllenberg Massif (1,772 m above sea level). Hydrogeological mapping, drilling, and hydrochemical and stable isotope analyses of springs and groundwater were conducted to identify a sustainable drinking-water supply for approximately 1,500 inhabitants. The results contribute to a conceptual hydrogeological model with three interacting flow systems. The local and the intermediate flow systems are assigned to the catchment of the Höllenberg Massif, whereas the regional flow system refers to the bordering Gurktal Alps to the north and provides an appropriate drinking water reservoir.

  13. Assessment of small-diameter shallow wells for managed aquifer recharge at a site in southern Styria, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Händel, Falk; Liu, Gaisheng; Fank, Johann; Friedl, Franz; Liedl, Rudolf; Dietrich, Peter

    2016-07-01

    An approach to establish the recharge component of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has recently been proposed that uses small-diameter shallow wells installed using relatively inexpensive drilling methods such as direct push. As part of further development of that approach, a generalized procedure is presented for a technical and economic assessment of the approach's potential in comparison to other systems. Following this procedure, the use of small-diameter wells was evaluated both experimentally and numerically for a site located in southern Styria, Austria. MAR is currently done at the site using a horizontal pipe infiltration system, and system expansion has been proposed with a target rate of 12 l/s using small-diameter wells as one possible option. A short-duration single-well field recharge experiment (recharge rate 1.3-3.5 l/s) was performed (recharge by gravity only). Numerical modeling of the injection test was used to estimate hydraulic conductivity (K). Quasi-steady-state, single-well recharge simulations for different locations, as well as a long-term transient simulation, were performed using the K value calibrated from the field injection test. Results indicate that a recharge capacity of 4.1 l/s was achievable with a maximum head rise of 0.2 m at the injection well. Finally, simulations were performed for three different well fields (4, 6 and 8 wells, respectively) designed to infiltrate a target rate of 12 l/s. The experimental and numerical assessments, supported by a cost analysis of the small-diameter wells, indicate that the small-diameter wells are a viable, cost-effective recharge approach at this and other similar sites.

  14. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Livers of Fox (Vulpes vulpes) and Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) from Germany and Austria.

    PubMed

    Riebe, Rika Alessa; Falk, Sandy; Georgii, Sebastian; Brunn, Hubertus; Failing, Klaus; Stahl, Thorsten

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations of 11 perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) were measured in the livers of foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Germany, a primarily carnivorous species, and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) from Austria, an herbivorous species. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) at concentrations [all results refer to wet weight (ww)] of 3.2-320 µg/kg were detected in all 40 fox livers tested, yielding an arithmetic mean of 46.6 µg/kg and a median of 29.8 µg/kg. Long-chain PFAAs were detected at concentrations of 1.7 µg/kg perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) to 2.4 µg/kg perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA). Of the short-chain PFAAs tested, only perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) was found in 1 fox liver at a concentration of 1.4 µg/kg, and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) was found in 2 fox livers at a concentration of 1 µg/kg each. PFOS and PFNA concentrations higher than limit of quantification (LOQ) were detected in 90.9 and 81.8 % of chamois livers, respectively. The arithmetic mean for PFOS concentrations was 2.2 µg/kg (median 2.4 µg/kg), a factor of 21 (median factor of 12) lower than in fox livers. The arithmetic mean for PFNA concentrations was 2.0 µg/kg (median 1.9 µg/kg). Perfluorobutanoic acid, PFHxA, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorobutanesulfonate, and PFHxS were not detected at concentrations higher than the LOQ in any of the samples. The various results are compared with one another and with the results of other studies of herbivorous, carnivorous, and omnivorous wild animals. The highest concentrations of PFAA, in particular PFOS, were found in omnivorous animals followed by carnivores. The lowest levels were present in herbivores. PMID:26714691

  15. Changes in the Pasterze and the Kleines Fleisskees Glaciers, Austria, as Measured from the Ground and Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Bayr, Klaus J.; Schoener, Wolfgang; Bindschadler, Robert A.; Chien, Janet Y. L.

    2002-01-01

    The tongue of the Pasterze Glacier in the eastern Alps of Austria receded more than 1152 m from 1880 to 2001. Landsat and Ikonos satellite data from 1976 to 2001, topographic maps beginning in 1893 and ground measurements were studied. Results show that though satellite images significantly underestimate the width of the Pasterze Glacier tongue due to the presence of morainal material on the surface, they provide an excellent way to measure the recession of the exposed-ice part of the glacier tongue. The rate of change of the terminus as determined using satellite data is found to compare well with ground measurements. Between 1976 and 2001, Landsat-derived measurements show a recession of the terminus of the Pasterze Glacier of 479+/-113 m (at an average rate of 18.4 m a(exp -1) while measurements from the ground showed a recession of 428 m (at an average recession of 17.1 m a(exp -1). Ikonos satellite images from 2000 and 2001 reveal changes in the exposed ice part of the Pasterze tongue, and a decrease in area of the exposed ice part of the tongue of 22,096 sq m. GPS points and a ground survey of the glacier terminus in August 2001 were plotted on a 1-m resolution Ikonos image, and showed the actual terminus shape and location. The nearby Kleines Fleisskees glacier lost 30% of its area between 1984 and 2001, and the area of exposed ice increased by 0.44 sq km, according to Landsat satellite measurements. Recession of both the Pasterze and the Kleines Fleisskees corresponds generally to temperature and precipitation trends, especially increasing summer temperatures, as determined from meteorological data acquired from the Sonnblick Observatory, however the smaller the Kleines FleiSkees reacts more quickly to climate changes than does the Pasterze Glacier.

  16. Delivery room management of very low birth weight infants in Germany, Austria and Switzerland - a comparison of protocols

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Surveys from the USA, Australia and Spain have shown significant inter-institutional variation in delivery room (DR) management of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI, < 1500 g) at birth, despite regularly updated international guidelines. Objective To investigate protocols for DR management of VLBWI in Germany, Austria and Switzerland and to compare these with the 2005 ILCOR guidelines. Methods DR management protocols were surveyed in a prospective, questionnaire-based survey in 2008. Results were compared between countries and between academic and non-academic units. Protocols were compared to the 2005 ILCOR guidelines. Results In total, 190/249 units (76%) replied. Protocols for DR management existed in 94% of units. Statistically significant differences between countries were found regarding provision of 24 hr in house neonatal service; presence of a designated resuscitation area; devices for respiratory support; use of pressure-controlled manual ventilation devices; volume control by respirator; and dosage of Surfactant. There were no statistically significant differences regarding application and monitoring of supplementary oxygen, or targeted saturation levels, or for the use of sustained inflations. Comparison of academic and non-academic hospitals showed no significant differences, apart from the targeted saturation levels (SpO2) at 10 min. of life. Comparison with ILCOR guidelines showed good adherence to the 2005 recommendations. Summary Delivery room management in German, Austrian and Swiss neonatal units was commonly based on written protocols. Only minor differences were found regarding the DR setup, devices used and the targeted ranges for SpO2 and FiO2. DR management was in good accordance with 2005 ILCOR guidelines, some units already incorporated evidence beyond the ILCOR statement into their routine practice. PMID:21159574

  17. [Choosing wisely--against overuse in healthcare systems--activities in Germany and Austria in geriatric medicine].

    PubMed

    Gogol, Manfred; Siebenhofer, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation initiated the Choosing Wisely campaign to promote discussion between physicians and patients (or proxies) on decision-making in medicine, and to reduce the use of procedures and therapies which are not necessary, or harmful to patients. The American Geriatrics Society (AGS), the American Medical Directors Association and the Society of Post-Acute and Long-Term Medicine (AMDA) participated in this initiative and both published 10 recommendations on procedures that should be discussed and avoided. Furthermore, some scientific societies have also published recommendations concerning elderly patients. As the campaign attracted considerable international attention, an International Roundtable was established in 2014. In Germany a similar initiative to address overuse and underuse was established by the German Society of Internal Medicine (DGIM) in 2015. The German Society of Geriatrics (DGG) was invited to address subjects affecting elderly patients that are of relevance to the German health care system. As a member of the Commission of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF), it also participated actively in the development of a methods paper on how to prepare recommendations. The German College of General Practitioners and Family Physicians (DEGAM) has developed a new guideline on this topic and in Austria preliminary activities are already underway. A clear, transparent, structured and evidence-based approach may help avoid some of the methodological weaknesses to be found in the development of the U.S. recommendations. Whereas the U.S. campaign only addresses overuse, the German campaign will also address underuse and misuse. PMID:26811241

  18. Determinants of Public Attitudes towards Euthanasia in Adults and Physician-Assisted Death in Neonates in Austria: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Stolz, Erwin; Burkert, Nathalie; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Stronegger, Willibald J.; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background Euthanasia remains a controversial topic in both public discourses and legislation. Although some determinants of acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted death have been identified in previous studies, there is still a shortage of information whether different forms of euthanasia are supported by the same or different sub-populations and whether authoritarian personality dispositions are linked to attitudes towards euthanasia. Methods A large, representative face-to-face survey was conducted in Austria in 2014 (n = 1,971). Respondents faced three scenarios of euthanasia and one of physician assisted death differing regarding the level of specificity, voluntariness and subject, requiring either approval or rejection: (1) abstract description of euthanasia, (2) abstract description of physician-assisted suicide, (3) the case of euthanasia of a terminally-ill 79-year old cancer patient, and (4) the case of non-voluntary, physician assisted death of a severely disabled or ill neonate. A number of potential determinants for rejection ordered in three categories (socio-demographic, personal experience, orientations) including authoritarianism were tested via multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Rejection was highest in the case of the neonate (69%) and lowest for the case of the older cancer patient (35%). A consistent negative impact of religiosity on the acceptance across all scenarios and differential effects for socio-economic status, area of residence, religious confession, liberalism, and authoritarianism were found. Individuals with a stronger authoritarian personality disposition were more likely to reject physician-assisted suicide for adults but at the same time also more likely to approve of physician-assisted death of a disabled neonate. Conclusion Euthanasia in adults was supported by a partially different sub-population than assisted death of disabled neonates. PMID:25906265

  19. Attribution of high resolution streamflow trends in Western Austria - an approach based on climate and discharge station data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormann, C.; Francke, T.; Renner, M.; Bronstert, A.

    2014-06-01

    The results of streamflow trend studies are often characterised by mostly insignificant trends and inexplicable spatial patterns. In our study region, Western Austria, this applies especially for trends of annually averaged runoff. However, analysing the altitudinal aspect, we found that there is a trend gradient from high-altitude to low-altitude stations, i.e. a pattern of mostly positive annual trends at higher stations and negative ones at lower stations. At mid-altitudes, the trends are mostly insignificant. These trends were most probably caused by the following two main processes: on the one hand, melting glaciers produce excess runoff at high-altitude watersheds. On the other hand, rising temperatures potentially alter hydrological conditions in terms of less snowfall, higher infiltration, enhanced evapotranspiration etc., which in turn results in decreasing streamflow trends at low-altitude watersheds. However, these patterns are masked at mid-altitudes because the resulting positive and negative trends balance each other. To verify these theories, we attributed the detected trends to specific causes. For this purpose, we analysed the trends on a daily basis, as the causes for these changes might be restricted to a smaller temporal scale than the annual one. This allowed for the explicit determination of the exact days of year (DOY) when certain streamflow trends emerge, which were then linked with the corresponding DOYs of the trends and characteristic dates of other observed variables, e.g. the average DOY when temperature crosses the freezing point in spring. Based on these analyses, an empirical statistical model was derived that was able to simulate daily streamflow trends sufficiently well. Analyses of subdaily streamflow changes provided additional insights. Finally, it was confirmed that the main drivers of alpine streamflow changes are increased glacial melt and earlier snow melt. However, further research is needed to explicitly determine which

  20. Attribution of high resolution streamflow trends in Western Austria - an approach based on climate and discharge station data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormann, C.; Francke, T.; Renner, M.; Bronstert, A.

    2015-03-01

    The results of streamflow trend studies are often characterized by mostly insignificant trends and inexplicable spatial patterns. In our study region, Western Austria, this applies especially for trends of annually averaged runoff. However, analysing the altitudinal aspect, we found that there is a trend gradient from higher-altitude to lower-altitude stations, i.e. a pattern of mostly positive annual trends at higher stations and negative ones at lower stations. At mid-altitudes, the trends are mostly insignificant. Here we hypothesize that the streamflow trends are caused by the following two main processes: on the one hand, melting glaciers produce excess runoff at higher-altitude watersheds. On the other hand, rising temperatures potentially alter hydrological conditions in terms of less snowfall, higher infiltration, enhanced evapotranspiration, etc., which in turn results in decreasing streamflow trends at lower-altitude watersheds. However, these patterns are masked at mid-altitudes because the resulting positive and negative trends balance each other. To support these hypotheses, we attempted to attribute the detected trends to specific causes. For this purpose, we analysed trends of filtered daily streamflow data, as the causes for these changes might be restricted to a smaller temporal scale than the annual one. This allowed for the explicit determination of the exact days of year (DOYs) when certain streamflow trends emerge, which were then linked with the corresponding DOYs of the trends and characteristic dates of other observed variables, e.g. the average DOY when temperature crosses the freezing point in spring. Based on these analyses, an empirical statistical model was derived that was able to simulate daily streamflow trends sufficiently well. Analyses of subdaily streamflow changes provided additional insights. Finally, the present study supports many modelling approaches in the literature which found out that the main drivers of alpine

  1. Variscan potassic dyke magmatism of durbachitic affinity at the southern end of the Bohemian Massif (Lower Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitlhofer, Helga; Grasemann, Bernhard; Petrakakis, Konstantin

    2016-06-01

    Dykes in the Strudengau area (SW Moldanubian Zone, Austria) can be mineralogically divided into lamprophyres (spessartites and kersantites) and felsic dykes (granite porphyries, granitic dykes and pegmatoid dykes). Geochemical analyses of 11 lamprophyres and 7 felsic dykes show evidence of fractional crystallization. The lamprophyres are characterized by metaluminous compositions, intermediate SiO2 contents and high amounts of MgO and K2O; these rocks have high Ba (800-3000 ppm) and Sr (250-1000 ppm) contents as well as an enrichment of large-ion lithophile elements over high field strength elements, typical for enriched mantle sources with variable modifications due to fractionation and crustal contamination. This geochemical signature has been reported from durbachites (biotite- and K feldspar-rich mela-syenites particularly characteristic of the Variscan orogen in Central Europe). For most major elements, calculated fractionation trends from crystallization experiments of durbachites give an excellent match with the data from the Strudengau dykes. This suggests that the lamprophyres and felsic dykes were both products of fractional crystallization and subsequent magma mixing of durbachitic and leucogranitic melts. Rb-Sr geochronological data on biotite from five undeformed kersantites and a locally deformed granite porphyry gave cooling ages of c. 334-318 Ma, indicating synchronous intrusion of the dykes with the nearby outcropping Weinsberger granite (part of the South Bohemian Batholith, c. 330-310 Ma). Oriented matrix biotite separated from the locally deformed granite porphyry gave an Rb-Sr age of c. 318 Ma, interpreted as a deformation age during extensional tectonics. We propose a large-scale extensional regime at c. 320 Ma in the Strudengau area, accompanied by plutonism of fractionated magmas of syncollisional mantle-derived sources, mixed with crustal components. This geodynamic setting is comparable to other areas in the Variscan belt documenting an

  2. Late Pleistocene climate change and landscape dynamics in the Eastern Alps: the inner-alpine Unterangerberg record (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starnberger, Reinhard; Drescher-Schneider, Ruth; Reitner, Jürgen M.; Rodnight, Helena; Reimer, Paula J.; Spötl, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    Drill cores from the inner-alpine valley terrace of Unterangerberg, located in the Eastern Alps of Austria, offer first insights into a Pleistocene sedimentary record that was not accessible so far. The succession comprises diamict, gravel, sand, lignite and thick, fine grained sediments. Additionally, cataclastic deposits originating from two paleo-landslide events are present. Multi-proxy analyses including sedimentological and palynological investigations as well as radiocarbon and luminescence data record the onset of the last glacial period (Würmian) at Unterangerberg at ˜120-110 ka. This first time period, correlated to the MIS 5d, was characterised by strong fluvial aggradation under cold climatic conditions, with only sparse vegetation cover. Furthermore, two large and quasi-synchronous landslide events occurred during this time interval. No record of the first Early Würmian interstadial (MIS 5c) is preserved. During the second Early Würmian interstadial (MIS 5a), the local vegetation was characterised by a boreal forest dominated by Picea, with few thermophilous elements. The subsequent collapse of the vegetation is recorded by sediments dated to ˜70-60 ka (i.e. MIS 4), with very low pollen concentrations and the potential presence of permafrost. Climatic conditions improved again between ˜55 and 45 ka (MIS 3) and cold-adapted trees re-appeared during interstadials, forming an open forest vegetation. MIS 3 stadials were shorter and less severe than the MIS 4 at Unterangerberg, and vegetation during these cold phases was mainly composed of shrubs, herbs and grasses, similar to what is known from today's alpine timberline. The Unterangerberg record ended at ˜45 ka and/or was truncated by ice during the Last Glacial Maximum.

  3. PCR diagnostics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in historic human long bone remains from 18th century burials in Kaiserebersdorf, Austria

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Lutz; Däubl, Barbara; Lindqvist, Charlotte; Kruckenhauser, Luise; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Haring, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background In the present pilot study we applied recently published protocols for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human remains. We screened long bones from an 18th century cemetery and skulls from the anatomical "Weisbach collection" (19th century). In addition, besides the study of abundance of tuberculosis in inmates of the poorhouse itself, we were interested to test whether in this particular instance tuberculosis can be identified from cortical bones, which are rarely affected by tuberculosis, but mostly better preserved than the vertebral bodies or epiphyses. Method The DNA extractions from the bone samples were obtained following established ancient DNA protocols. Subsequently extracts were subjected to a series of PCR amplifications using primer pairs published previously [1,2]. PCR products of the expected size were subsequently sequenced. Results Only primers targeting the repetitive IS6110 insertion sequence yielded PCR products of appropriate size. In one sample only (skull sample WB354 of the "Weisbach collection") sequence analysis revealed an authentic M. tuberculosis sequence that matched to a reference sequence from GenBank. Conclusion With a variety of established PCR approaches we failed to detect M. tuberculosis DNA in historic human femurs from an 18th century cemetery relating to a poor house in Kaiserebersdorf, Austria. Our data may indicate that in this particular case, thoracic or lumbar vertebrae, i.e. bones that are severely affected by the disease, would be more suitable for molecular diagnostics than long bones. However, the unpredictable state of DNA preservation in bones from museum collections does not allow any general recommendation of any type of bone. PMID:18799009

  4. Multistage evolution of UHT granulites from the southernmost part of the Gföhl Nappe, Bohemian Massif, Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schantl, Philip; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Linner, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    A detailed petrological investigation has been undertaken in leucocratic kyanite-garnet bearing and mesocratic orthopyroxene bearing granulites from the Dunkelsteiner Wald, Pöchlarn-Wieselburg and Zöbing granulite bodies from the Moldanubian Zone in the Bohemian Massif (Austria). A combination of textural observations, conventional geothermobarometry, phase equilibrium modelling as well as major and trace element analyses in garnet enables us to confirm a multistage Variscan metamorphic history. Chemically homogenous garnet cores with near constant grossular-rich plateaus are considered to reflect garnet growth during an early HP/UHP metamorphic evolution. Crystallographically oriented rutile exsolutions restricted to those grossular-rich garnet cores point to a subsequent isothermal decompression of the HP/UHP rocks. Overgrowing garnet rims show a pronounced zonation and are interpreted as the result of dehydration melting reactions during an isobaric heating phase which could have taken place near the base of an overthickened continental crust, where the previously deeply subducted rocks were exhumed to. For this HP granulite facies event maximum PT conditions of ~1050 °C and 1.6 GPa have been estimated from leucocratic granulites comprising the peak mineral assemblage quartz, ternary feldspar, garnet, kyanite and rutile. The pronounced zoning of garnet rims indicates that the HP granulite facies event must have been short lived since diffusion in this temperature region is usually sufficient fast to homogenize a zoning pattern in garnet. A retrogressive metamorphic stage is documented in these rocks by the replacement of kyanite to sillimanite and the growth of biotite. This retrograde event took place within the granulite facies but at significantly lower pressures and temperatures with ~0.8 GPa and ~760 °C. This final stage of re-equilibration is thought to be linked with a second exhumation phase into middle crustal levels accompanied by intensive

  5. Spatial vulnerability units - expert-based spatial modelling of socio-economic vulnerability in the Salzach catchment, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienberger, S.; Lang, S.; Zeil, P.

    2009-05-01

    The assessment of vulnerability has moved to centre-stage of the debate between different scientific disciplines related to climate change and disaster risk management. Composed by a combination of social, economical, physical and environmental factors the assessment implies combining different domains as well as quantitative with qualitative data and makes it therefore a challenge to identify an integrated metric for vulnerability. In this paper we define vulnerability in the context of climate change, targeting the hazard "flood". The developed methodology is being tested in the Salzach river catchment in Austria, which is largely prone to floods. The proposed methodology allows the spatial quantification of vulnerability and the identification of vulnerability units. These units build upon the geon concept which acts as a framework for the regionalization of continuous spatial information according to defined parameters of homogeneity. Using geons, we are capable of transforming singular domains of information on specific systemic components to policy-relevant, conditioned information. Considering the fact that vulnerability is not directly measurable and due to its complex dimension and social construction an expert-based approach has been chosen. Established methodologies such as Multicriteria Decision Analysis, Delphi exercises and regionalization approaches are being integrated. The method not only enables the assessment of vulnerability independent from administrative boundaries, but also applies an aggregation mode which reflects homogenous vulnerability units. This supports decision makers to reflect on complex issues such as vulnerability. Next to that, the advantage is to decompose the units to their underlying domains. Feedback from disaster management experts indicates that the approach helps to improve the design of measures aimed at strengthening preparedness and mitigation. From this point of view, we reach a step closer towards validation of the

  6. Impact of the 2013 summer flood on hydrological processes and sediment transport in Lake Mondsee and its catchment (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, P.; Kaempf, L.; Guntner, A.; Brauer, A.; Merz, B.

    2013-12-01

    One crucial limitation in the field of flood frequency analysis is the availability of long instrumental flood time series. Geoarchives such as lake sediments record land surface processes including extreme events and are used to elongate instrumental time series to geological time scales. A seasonally resolved flood layer chronology over the past 7000 years has already been established from varved lake sediments of Lake Mondsee (Upper Austria). The interpretation of lacustrine flood layer chronologies, however, requires detailed understanding of hydro-sedimentary processes during floods, including the transformation of the rain event into discharge and sediment dynamics from the catchment's source areas until the deposition within the lake. For this purpose, flood and sediment transport related variables like precipitation, runoff and suspended sediment concentration are monitored at five gauges in the Fuschler Ache river catchment, the largest sub-catchment draining to Lake Mondsee. These gauges cover the catchment from the headwaters to the outlet into Lake Mondsee. Lake monitoring is realized by implementing four buoys and two multi-level sediment traps. Meteorological and limno-physical variables measured at each buoy with 15 minute resolution are turbidity as surrogate for suspended sediment concentration, water temperature and flow velocity in different water depths as well as wind, air temperature and relative humidity. The monitoring system provided a unique data set for the extreme summer flood in June 2013. The data show the stream response to an extreme rainfall event, processes and rates of sediment transport in the catchment and sediment dynamics and sedimentation rates within the lake. A comparison of the 2013 summer event to past severe flood events in the Lake Mondsee catchment elucidates the need of detailed process understanding of the catchment processes and the lake-internal processes to properly interpret flood chronologies derived from

  7. Along-strike variations of structural styles in the imbricated Molasse of Salzburg and Upper Austria: a 3-D seismic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsch, Ralph; Linzer, Hans-Gert

    2010-05-01

    At the southern border of the Northern Alpine Foreland Basin syntectonic deposits (Molasse Sediments) are partly incorporated into Alpine contractional deformation. Along the alpine chain style and timing of this deformation varies significantly. In this study we use one of the largest European on-shore 3-D seismic datasets, spanning the Molasse basin of Upper Austria and Salzburg states, to investigate the along-strike structural architecture of the alpine deformation front. In the Austrian Part of the Molasse basin, foredeep sedimentation started in Upper-Eocene times (Wagner, 1996). The sediments cover the European margin, consisting of a crystalline basement covered by variously thick Mesozoic sediments (Nachtmann und Wagner, 1987). In Oligocene to Lower Miocene times, syntectonic foredeep sedimentation took place in a deep marine environment, comprising an axial channel system (Linzer 2001, DeRuig and Hubbard, 2006). Parts of these syntectonic sediments are subsequently affected by the advancing thrust wedge. Within the study area, three distinct fold-and-thrust belt segments of different structural architecture can be defined. 1) The Perwang Imbricates are a promontory mostly situated in Salzburg at the border to Germany. Complexly deformed small thrust sheets evolve above a detachment horizon situated in Late Cretaceous shaly marls in Oligocene times. Syntectonic piggy-back and thrust top basins evolve (Covault et al. 2008), which are partly affected by subsequent Miocene overthrusting. 2) The Regau Segment is the area west of the Perwang lobe. It is dominated by few number of thrust sheets in the Molasse sediments. Instead, over-thrusting by the alpine wedge (pre-deformed Flysch and Helvetic thrust sheets) dominates. 3) The Sierning Imbricates segment is located further to the east, at the border of Upper Austria to Lower Austria. The structural inventory of this thrust belt is comprises varying numbers of thrust sheets along strike (1-5), ramp

  8. Potential of genetically modified oilseed rape for biofuels in Austria: Land use patterns and coexistence constraints could decrease domestic feedstock production

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Dietmar; Eckerstorfer, Michael; Pascher, Kathrin; Essl, Franz; Zulka, Klaus Peter

    2013-01-01

    Like other EU Member States, Austria will meet the substitution target of the EU European Renewable Energy Directive for transportation almost exclusively by first generation biofuels, primarily biodiesel from oilseed rape (OSR). Genetically modified (GM) plants have been promoted as a new option for biofuel production as they promise higher yield or higher quality feedstock. We tested implications of GM OSR application for biodiesel production in Austria by means of high resolution spatially explicit simulation of 140 different coexistence scenarios within six main OSR cropping regions in Austria (2400 km2). We identified structural land use characteristics such as field size, land use diversity, land holding patterns and the proportion of the target crop as the predominant factors which influence overall production of OSR in a coexistence scenario. Assuming isolation distances of 800 m and non-GM-OSR proportions of at least 10% resulted in a loss of area for cultivation of OSR in all study areas ranging from −4.5% to more than −25%, depending on the percentage of GM farmers and on the region. We could show that particularly the current primary OSR cropping regions are largely unsuitable for coexistence and would suffer from a net loss of OSR area even at isolation distances of 400 or 800 m. Coexistence constraints associated with application of GM OSR are likely to offset possible GM gains by substantially reducing farmland for OSR cultivation, thus contradicting the political aim to increase domestic OSR area to meet the combined demands of food, feed and biofuel production. PMID:26109750

  9. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in children is influenced by their parents' education: results of two cross-sectional studies conducted in Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Weber, Andrea S; Haidinger, Gerald

    2010-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an important health problem worldwide. Several studies have shown that a positive family history is a strong risk factor. We studied the prevalence of AD among 23,583 Austrian school children and examined the association between the prevalence of AD in children and their parents' education at two points in time. As part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood programme, two cross-sectional studies were conducted in Upper Austria (Federal State of Austria) between the years 1995-97 (Phase I) and 2001-03 (Phase III). All pupils of pre-school classes and of first and second grade of all elementary schools in seven districts of Upper Austria received standardized questionnaires, resulting in a total of 13,399 (Phase I) and 13,731 (Phase III) children. All variables examined concerning AD showed an increase in prevalence in the age group examined: During the first study, 9.6% of the children ever had eczema diagnosed by a doctor (Phase III: 13.3%), whereas 9.2% ever had symptoms of AD (Phase III: 11.0%). In Phase I, 6.0% of the children had an itchy rash in the past 12 months (Phase III: 6.7%). In both studies, high parental education (i.e. high school or university degree) was an independent statistically significant risk factor for eczema in the child, resulting in an adjusted Odds Ratio between 1.13 and 1.37. In a census-like-survey, we are able to demonstrate a statistically significant association between parental education and the prevalence of AD in their children, which is independent of a possible parental AD. PMID:20444159

  10. Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine—An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs☆

    PubMed Central

    Vogl, Sylvia; Picker, Paolo; Mihaly-Bison, Judit; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H.; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dirsch, Verena M.; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance In Austria, like in most Western countries, knowledge about traditional medicinal plants is becoming scarce. Searching the literature concerning Austria's ethnomedicine reveals its scant scientific exploration. Aiming to substantiate the potential of medicinal plants traditionally used in Austria, 63 plant species or genera with claimed anti-inflammatory properties listed in the VOLKSMED database were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Material and methods 71 herbal drugs from 63 plant species or genera were extracted using solvents of varying polarities and subsequently depleted from the bulk constituents, chlorophylls and tannins to avoid possible interferences with the assays. The obtained 257 extracts were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The expression of the inflammatory mediators E-selectin and interleukin-8 (IL-8), induced by the inflammatory stimuli tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured in endothelial cells. The potential of the extracts to activate the nuclear factors PPARα and PPARγ and to inhibit TNF-α-induced activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in HEK293 cells was determined by luciferase reporter gene assays. Results In total, extracts from 67 of the 71 assessed herbal drugs revealed anti-inflammatory activity in the applied in vitro test systems. Thereby, 30 could downregulate E-selectin or IL-8 gene expression, 28 were strong activators of PPARα or PPARγ (inducing activation of more than 2-fold at a concentration of 10 µg/mL) and 21 evoked a strong inhibition of NF-κB (inhibition of more than 80% at 10 µg/mL). Conclusion Our research supports the efficacy of herbal drugs reported in Austrian folk medicine used for ailments associated with inflammatory processes. Hence, an ethnopharmacological screening approach is a useful tool for the discovery of new drug leads. PMID:23770053

  11. Upgraded biogas from municipal solid waste for natural gas substitution and CO{sub 2} reduction – A case study of Austria, Italy, and Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, Katherine; Villalba, Gara; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biogas can be upgraded to create biomethane, a substitute to natural gas. • Biogas upgrading was applied to landfills and anaerobic digestors in 3 countries. • Up to 0.6% of a country’s consumption of natural gas could be replaced by biomethane. • Italy could save 46% of the national CO{sub 2} emissions attributed to the waste sector. • Scenarios were created to increase biomethane production. - Abstract: Biogas is rich in methane and can be further purified through biogas upgrading technologies, presenting a viable alternative to natural gas. Landfills and anaerobic digestors treating municipal solid waste are a large source of such biogas. They therefore offer an attractive opportunity to tap into this potential source of natural gas while at the same time minimizing the global warming impact resulting from methane emissions in waste management schemes (WMS) and fossil fuel consumption reduction. This study looks at the current municipal solid waste flows of Spain, Italy, and Austria over one year (2009), in order to determine how much biogas is generated. Then it examines how much natural gas could be substituted by using four different biogas upgrading technologies. Based on current waste generation rates, exploratory but realistic WMS were created for each country in order to maximize biogas production and potential for natural gas substitution. It was found that the potential substitution of natural gas by biogas resulting from the current WMS seems rather insignificant: 0.2% for Austria, 0.6% for Italy and 0.3% for Spain. However, if the WMS is redesigned to maximize biogas production, these figures can increase to 0.7% for Austria, 1% for Italy and 2% for Spain. Furthermore, the potential CO{sub 2} reduction as a consequence of capturing the biogas and replacing fossil fuel can result in up to a 93% reduction of the annual national waste greenhouse gas emissions of Spain and Italy.

  12. Comparison of UAV and TLS DTMs for acquisition of geological, geomorphological information for Doren landslide, Vorarlberg Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koma, Zsófia; Székely, Balázs; Dorninger, Peter; Rasztovits, Sascha; Roncat, Andreas; Zámolyi, András; Krawczyk, Dominik; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    Aerial imagery derivatives collected by the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology can be used as input for generation of high resolution digital terrain model (DTM) data along with the Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) method. Both types of datasets are suitable for detailed geological and geomorphometric analysis, because the data provide micro-topographical and structural geological information. Our study focuses on the comparison of the possibilities of the extracted geological information, which is available from high resolution DTMs. This research attempts to find an answer which technology is more effective for geological and geomorphological analysis. The measurements were taken at the Doren landslide (Vorarlberg, Austria), a complex rotational land slide situated in the Alpine molasse foreland. Several formations (Kojen Formation, Würmian glacial moraine sediments, Weissach Formation) were tectonized there in the course of the alpine orogeny (Oberhauser et al, 2007). The typical fault direction is WSW-ENE. The UAV measurements that were carried out simultaneously with the TLS campaign focused on the landslide scarp. The original image resolution was 4 mm/pixel. Image matching was implemented in pyramid level 2 and the achieved resolution of the DTM was 0.05 meter. The TLS dataset includes 18 scan positions and more than 300 million points for the whole landslide area. The achieved DTM has 0.2 meter resolution. The steps of the geological and geomorphological analysis were: (1) visual interpretation based on field work and geological maps, (2) quantitative DTM analysis. In the quantitative analysis input data provided by the different kinds of DTMs were used for further parameter calculations (e.g. slope, aspect, sigmaZ). In the next step an automatic classification method was used for the detection of faults and classification of different parts of the landslide. The conclusion was that for geological visualization interpretation UAV datasets are better

  13. Quantification of fluvial sediment transport and geomorphic change in a glacier forefield: Gepatschferner, Ötztaler Alps, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morche, D.; Baewert, H.; Bryk, A.

    2012-12-01

    Glacial retreat has persisted in Alpine catchments since the end of the Little Ice Age (ca. 1850). The unconsolidated sediments (moraines, tills, glaciofluvial deposits, etc.) immediately left behind are highly subject to remobilization and export via mass wasting and fluvial processes. Despite the prevalence of fluvial remobilization in proglacial areas, field site inaccessibility and inadequate measurement techniques have historically disallowed geomorphologists to appropriately quantify sediment transport rates in these regions. The result is that the interaction between sediment fluxes and associated geomorphic processes in proglacial areas remains poorly understood. A new joint research project "High resolution measurements of the morphodynamics in rapidly changing PROglacial Systems of the Alps" (PROSA), centered in the Kaunertal valley, Austria is directed towards an integrated understanding of sediment fluxes in the proglacial setting. The PROSA project specifically focuses on quantification of recent and subrecent sediment transport processes throughout the entire catchment (approx. 65 sqkm) with the ultimate goal of developing a catchment-scale sediment budget.The channel system in the Kaunertal valley is fed continuously with fine sediment by glacial melt water (glacial milk) and intermittently (e.g. during storm events) with coarser sediment via landslides, debris flows, and rock falls from various areas in the catchment. These lateral sediment sources (also subject to fluvial excavation) are numerous and widespread. However, the temporary along-channel sediment sinks (braided alluvial plains, bars, etc.) are relatively discrete - connected only by narrow bedrock reaches. The main goal of this contribution is to investigate the sediment transport dynamics in the Gepatschferner glacier forefield and furthermore to assess the relative influence of coupled sediment sources/sinks on fluvial mass export in the Kaunertal valley. This is accomplished using a

  14. Single event time series analysis in a binary karst catchment evaluated using a groundwater model (Lurbach system, Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Mayaud, C.; Wagner, T.; Benischke, R.; Birk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The Lurbach karst system (Styria, Austria) is drained by two major springs and replenished by both autogenic recharge from the karst massif itself and a sinking stream that originates in low permeable schists (allogenic recharge). Detailed data from two events recorded during a tracer experiment in 2008 demonstrate that an overflow from one of the sub-catchments to the other is activated if the discharge of the main spring exceeds a certain threshold. Time series analysis (autocorrelation and cross-correlation) was applied to examine to what extent the various available methods support the identification of the transient inter-catchment flow observed in this binary karst system. As inter-catchment flow is found to be intermittent, the evaluation was focused on single events. In order to support the interpretation of the results from the time series analysis a simplified groundwater flow model was built using MODFLOW. The groundwater model is based on the current conceptual understanding of the karst system and represents a synthetic karst aquifer for which the same methods were applied. Using the wetting capability package of MODFLOW, the model simulated an overflow similar to what has been observed during the tracer experiment. Various intensities of allogenic recharge were employed to generate synthetic discharge data for the time series analysis. In addition, geometric and hydraulic properties of the karst system were varied in several model scenarios. This approach helps to identify effects of allogenic recharge and aquifer properties in the results from the time series analysis. Comparing the results from the time series analysis of the observed data with those of the synthetic data a good agreement was found. For instance, the cross-correlograms show similar patterns with respect to time lags and maximum cross-correlation coefficients if appropriate hydraulic parameters are assigned to the groundwater model. The comparable behaviors of the real and

  15. Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point cloud ground filtering for area of an active landslide (Doren, Western Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodić, Nenad; Cvijetinović, Željko; Milenković, Milutin; Dorninger, Peter; Mitrović, Momir

    2014-05-01

    Ground filtering of point cloud is the primary step required for Digital Terrain Model (DTM) generation. The procedure is especially interesting for forested areas, since LiDAR systems can measure terrain elevation under vegetation cover with a high level of penetration. This work analyzes the potential of ALS data ground filtering for area of an active landslide. The results of ALS filtering, for example, may improve geomorphological and motion-detection studies. ALS data was collected during flight campaign 2011 under leaf-off conditions for Doren region, Vorarlberg, Western Austria. In this area, non-ground objects are mostly low vegetation such as shrubs, small trees etc. The vegetation is more dense in lower part of the landslide where erosion is smaller. Vegetation points can be removed based on the hypothesis that these are significantly higher than their neighboring points. However, in case of steep terrain, ground points may have the same heights as vegetation points, and thus, local slope should be considered. Also, if terrain roughness increases, the classification may become even more complex. Software system OPALS (Orientation and Processing of Airborne Laser Scanning data, Vienna University of Technology) was used for processing the ALS data. Labeling ground points has been made using physical and geometrical attributes (parameters) of ALS points. Also additional attributes were calculated in order to improve extraction. Since bare ground surface is usually smooth and continuous unlike vegetation, standard deviation of local elevations was used as roughness measure to differentiate these surfaces. EchoRatio (ER) was adopted as a measure of surface penetrability, while number of echoes and differentiation between echoes (EchoNumber) were also deployed in filtering. Since the ground points are measurements from bare-earth that are usually the lowest surface features in a local area, normalized height was defined as a rank of neighboring points

  16. Shallow subsurface temperature and moisture monitoring at rock walls during freeze thaw cycles in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rode, Matthias; Sass, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    The process of frost weathering as well as the contribution of further weathering processes (e.g. hydration, thermal fatigue) is poorly understood. For this purpose, different measuring systems were set up in two study areas (Dachstein massif - permafrost area (2700m asl, 47° 28' 32″ N, 13° 36' 23″ E) and Gesäuse mountains - non permafrost area (900m asl, 47° 35' 19″ N, 14° 39' 32″ E) located in Styria, Austria within the framework of the research project ROCKING ALPS (FWF-P2444). A key to understand frost weathering is to observe the rock temperature with several high resolution temperature sensors from the rock surface down to -20cm depth. The temperatures are measured hourly at north and south exposed rock walls since 2012 in the headwalls of the Dachstein glacier at the Koppenkarstein (built up of limestone) in about 2600m asl. Since 2013 the same measurement setup is installed in the lower Johnsbachtal (Gesäuse mountains, prevailing rock type is dolomite) in about 800m asl. To know the temperature is crucial to understand internal heat flow and transport and latent heat effects during freezing and thawing caused by night frost (lasting some hours), cold fronts (lasting some days) or winter frost of several weeks or months. At these study points we also have installed small-scale 2D-geoelectric survey lines, supplemented by moisture sensors. Moisture is determined by means of resistivity measurements which are difficult to calibrate, but provide good time series. Additional novel moisture sensors were developed which use the heat capacity of the surrounding rock as a proxy of water content. These sensors give point readings from a defined depth and are independent from soluble salt contents. First results from the Dachstein show that short term latent heat effects during the phase change have crucial influence on the moisture content. The moisture distribution and movements during temperature changes inside the rock are discussed upon the two main

  17. Constraints on Long-Term Seismic Hazard From Vulnerable Stalagmites for the surroundings of Katerloch cave, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribovszki, Katalin; Bokelmann, Götz; Mónus, Péter; Kovács, Károly; Kalmár, János

    2016-04-01

    Earthquakes hit urban centers in Europe infrequently, but occasionally with disastrous effects. This raises the important issue for society, how to react to the natural hazard: potential damages are huge, and infrastructure costs for addressing these hazards are huge as well. Obtaining an unbiased view of seismic hazard (and risk) is very important therefore. In principle, the best way to test Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments (PSHA) is to compare with observations that are entirely independent of the procedure used to produce the PSHA models. Arguably, the most valuable information in this context should be information on long-term hazard, namely maximum intensities (or magnitudes) occurring over time intervals that are at least as long as a seismic cycle. Such information would be very valuable, even if it concerned only a single site. Long-term information can in principle be gained from intact stalagmites in natural karstic caves. These have survived all earthquakes that have occurred, over thousands of years - depending on the age of the stalagmite. Their "survival" requires that the horizontal ground acceleration has never exceeded a certain critical value within that period. We are focusing here on a case study from the Katerloch cave close to the city of Graz, Austria. A specially-shaped (candle stick style: high, slim, and more or less cylindrical form) intact and vulnerable stalagmites (IVSTM) in the Katerloch cave has been examined in 2013 and 2014. This IVSTM is suitable for estimating the upper limit for horizontal peak ground acceleration generated by pre-historic earthquakes. For this cave, we have extensive information about ages (e.g., Boch et al., 2006, 2010). The approach, used in our study, yields significant new constraints on seismic hazard, as the intactness of the stalagmites suggests that tectonic structures close to Katerloch cave, i.p. the Mur-Mürz fault did not generate very strong paleoearthquakes in the last few thousand years

  18. A numerical groundwater model to assess the hydrogeological behavior of a relict rock glacier aquifer (Niedere Tauern Range, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauritsch, Marcus; Wagner, Thomas; Winkler, Gerfried; Birk, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    A three dimensional numerical groundwater model representing a relict rock glacier with an extent of 0.17 km², located in the Eastern Alps (Schöneben rock glacier, Niedere Tauern Range, Austria) is used to highlight the impact of the major internal aquifer structures and the morphology of the aquifer base on the discharge behavior. The model is implemented in MODFLOW and calibrated using the discharge data of the spring. The recharge is determined based on precipitation and evapotranspiration which is calculated using a simple soil water balance model in combination with the monthly potential evapotranspiration. Data are provided by an automatic weather station on the Schöneben rock glacier where precipitation and air temperature are continuously measured. It is renounced to use a snow model in order to keep the model as simple as possible. Therefore the investigation is limited to the time periods from late summer to the beginning of the snowmelt in spring. The aquifer geometry and in particular the morphology of the aquifer base are based on geophysical investigations (ground penetrating radar and seismic refraction). However, due to gaps of the geophysical investigations the interpolation of the aquifer base at the margin of the rock glacier is related to uncertainties. Therefore, two different morphologies of the aquifer base were used which mainly differ in the slope of the south-eastern margin. Several model setups with increasing complexity of the internal structure (from homogeneous to heterogeneous) were applied to demonstrate the effects of the vertical (layering) and horizontal (preferential flow) aquifer heterogeneity on the discharge behavior. The results show that a model with a homogeneous setup cannot satisfyingly reproduce the discharge dynamics observed at the Schöneben rock glacier. With a heterogeneous setup, the model fit greatly improves but shows differences between the horizontally and vertically heterogeneous setups. The morphology of

  19. Transient groundwater observations and modelling at a rockslide in fractured rocks adjacent to a hydropower reservoir (Kaunertal valley, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauhal, Thomas; Zangerl, Christian; Loew, Simon; Holzmann, Michael; Perzlmaier, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    Positive pore water pressure within the fractured network of a rock slope reduces the effective stresses. This makes the knowledge of transient pore pressure magnitudes essential to evaluate time-dependent hydro-mechanically coupled rock slope processes. Slowly moving, deep-seated rockslides are a common type of gravitational mass movements in fractured metamorphic rocks. The hydrogeological conditions in rockslides adjacent to hydropower reservoirs are of major interest given that several case studies document the hydro-mechanical coupling between seasonal variations in the rockslide deformation behaviour and the filling and drawing down of the reservoir and/or seasonal variations of pore water pressure due to rainfall-events and snowmelt. Groundwater flow and pore pressure distributions in deep-seated rockslides, composed of fractured rocks, are usually only described by simplified conceptual models because of a lack of field measurements and difficulties in transient numerical modelling. The heterogeneous degree of disintegration of the sliding mass, soil-like deformation zones and the anisotropic fractured bedrock complicate the hydrogeological measurement, interpretation and analysis. In this study, detailed hydrogeological analyses of the Klasgarten rockslide at the Gepatsch reservoir (Kaunertal valley, Austria) are presented. A focus is set on the impact of reservoir level fluctuations, groundwater recharge along the slope and drainage by an exploring adit. The effect of various hydrogeological properties of the sliding mass, the deformation zone and the fractured bedrock on the groundwater fluctuations is discussed. Information on the groundwater flow regime, hydraulic relevant material properties and pore water pressure data are gained from borehole based investigations, a subhorizontal exploring adit and laboratory tests. Field observations are interpreted and validated on the basis of two dimensional finite element groundwater modelling. The transient

  20. Runoff scenarios of the Ötz catchment (Tyrol, Austria) considering climate change driven changes of the cryosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfricht, Kay; Schneeberger, Klaus; Welebil, Irene; Schöber, Johannes; Huss, Matthias; Formayer, Herbert; Huttenlau, Matthias; Schneider, Katrin

    2014-05-01

    The seasonal distribution of runoff in alpine catchments is markedly influenced by the cryospheric contribution (snow and ice). Long-term climate change will alter these reservoirs and consequently have an impact on the water balance. Glacierized catchments like the Ötztal (Tyrol, Austria) are particularly sensitive to changes in the cryosphere and the hydrological changes related to them. The Ötztal possesses an outstanding role in Austrian and international cryospheric research and reacts sensitive to changes in hydrology due to its socio-economic structure (e.g. importance of tourism, hydro-power). In this study future glacier scenarios for the runoff calculations in the Ötztal catchment are developed. In addition to climatological scenario data, glacier scenarios were established for the hydrological simulation of future runoff. Glacier outlines and glacier surface elevation changes of the Austrian Glacier Inventory were used to derive present ice thickness distribution and scenarios of glacier area distribution. Direct effects of climate change (i.e. temperature and precipitation change) and indirect effects in terms of variations in the cryosphere were considered for the analysis of the mean runoff and particularly flood frequencies. Runoff was modelled with the hydrological model HQSim, which was calibrated for the runoff gauges at Brunau, Obergurgl and Vent. For a sensitivity study, the model was driven by separate glacier scenarios. Keeping glacier area constant, variable climate input was used to separate the effect of climate sensitivity. Results of the combination of changed glacier areas and changed climate input were subsequently analysed. Glacier scenarios show first a decrease in volume, before glacier area shrinks. The applied method indicates a 50% ice volume loss by 2050 relative to today. Further, model results show a reduction in glacier volume and area to less than 20% of the current ice cover towards the end of the 21st century. The effect

  1. Compositional classification and sedimentological interpretation of the laminated lacustrine sediments at Baumkrichen (Western Austria) using XRF core scanning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Samuel; Tjallingii, Rik; Bloemsma, Menno; Brauer, Achim; Starnberger, Reinhard; Spötl, Christoph; Dulski, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The outcrop at Baumkirchen (Austria) encloses part of a unique sequence of laminated lacustrine sediments deposited during the last glacial cycle. A ~250m long composite sediment record recovered at this location now continuously covers the periods ~33 to ~45 ka BP (MIS 3) and ~59 to ~73 ka BP (MIS 4), which are separated by a hiatus. The well-laminated (mm-cm scale) and almost entirely clastic sediments reveal alternations of clayey silt and medium silt to very-fine sand layers. Although radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating provide a robust chronology, accurate dating of the sediment laminations appears to be problematic due to very high sedimentation rates (3-8 cm/yr). X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning provided a detailed ~150m long record of compositional changes of the sediments at Baumkirchen. Changes in the sediments are subtle and classification into different facies based on individual elements is therefore subjective. We applied a statistically robust clustering analysis to provide an objective compositional classification without prior knowledge, based on XRF measurements for 15 analysed elements (all those with an acceptable signal-noise ratio: Zr, Sr, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Ni, Fe, K, Cr, V, Si, Ba, T). The clustering analysis indicates a distinct compositional change between sediments deposited below and above the stratigraphic hiatus, but also differentiates between individual different laminae. Preliminary results suggest variations in the sequence are largely controlled by the relative occurrence of different kinds of sediment represented by different clusters. Three clusters identify well-laminated sediments, visually similar in appearance, each dominated by an anti-correlation between Ca and one or more of the detrital elements K, Zr, Ti, Si and Fe. Two of these clusters occur throughout the entire sequence, one frequently and the other restricted to short sections, while the third occurs almost exclusively below the

  2. Workflow for the fast evaluation of rock mass properties and stability of rock slopes along trafficways in Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Wolfgang; Zangerl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    In Lower Austria there is a total of 17.000 km of provincial and 24.000 km of communal roads, to be maintained by the province and the municipalities. In addition, there are approx. 1.500 km of railroads, and the Danube as a major waterway. A large part of this infrastructure is, or is potentially, affected by various types of instability of adjacent slopes. Due to insufficient knowledge, as well as slope design and management practice in the past, every year, especially in connection to weather extremes, slopes known to be critical become active landslides again, and unexpected new ones arise, causing damage as well as financial stress. Engineering intervention, if possible, should be quick and effective. Geologists and engineers in public service, not having the means for detailed investigation in most cases, are using guidelines to assess the requirements to be met by slope design on traffic ways. But these guidelines don't reflect many of the newer scientific advances. Therefore, scientists at BOKU and backers in the administration want to gain more insight into causative factors, which, if successful, may render maintenance of traffic lines under critical conditions more effective and predictable. The specific project goal is to produce new guidelines to allow quick assessment of the most likely behaviour of rock masses common in the area, especially when cut into shape along infrastructure lines, using readily available information. The scientific investigations include simple and ready tests (like Schmidt hammer), as well as photogrammetry, laserscanning, and other complex geophysical and numerical techniques, but the final product (guidelines) is expected to work without such difficult methods. It is important to note, on the other hand, that the rock mass stability classification inherent in the new guidelines must allow distinction between conclusions which are safe, and conjectures which are in need of validation by contracted experts. It is planned to

  3. Single event time series analysis in a binary karst catchment evaluated using a groundwater model (Lurbach system, Austria).

    PubMed

    Mayaud, C; Wagner, T; Benischke, R; Birk, S

    2014-04-16

    The Lurbach karst system (Styria, Austria) is drained by two major springs and replenished by both autogenic recharge from the karst massif itself and a sinking stream that originates in low permeable schists (allogenic recharge). Detailed data from two events recorded during a tracer experiment in 2008 demonstrate that an overflow from one of the sub-catchments to the other is activated if the discharge of the main spring exceeds a certain threshold. Time series analysis (autocorrelation and cross-correlation) was applied to examine to what extent the various available methods support the identification of the transient inter-catchment flow observed in this binary karst system. As inter-catchment flow is found to be intermittent, the evaluation was focused on single events. In order to support the interpretation of the results from the time series analysis a simplified groundwater flow model was built using MODFLOW. The groundwater model is based on the current conceptual understanding of the karst system and represents a synthetic karst aquifer for which the same methods were applied. Using the wetting capability package of MODFLOW, the model simulated an overflow similar to what has been observed during the tracer experiment. Various intensities of allogenic recharge were employed to generate synthetic discharge data for the time series analysis. In addition, geometric and hydraulic properties of the karst system were varied in several model scenarios. This approach helps to identify effects of allogenic recharge and aquifer properties in the results from the time series analysis. Comparing the results from the time series analysis of the observed data with those of the synthetic data a good agreement was found. For instance, the cross-correlograms show similar patterns with respect to time lags and maximum cross-correlation coefficients if appropriate hydraulic parameters are assigned to the groundwater model. The comparable behaviors of the real and the

  4. Single event time series analysis in a binary karst catchment evaluated using a groundwater model (Lurbach system, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayaud, C.; Wagner, T.; Benischke, R.; Birk, S.

    2014-04-01

    The Lurbach karst system (Styria, Austria) is drained by two major springs and replenished by both autogenic recharge from the karst massif itself and a sinking stream that originates in low permeable schists (allogenic recharge). Detailed data from two events recorded during a tracer experiment in 2008 demonstrate that an overflow from one of the sub-catchments to the other is activated if the discharge of the main spring exceeds a certain threshold. Time series analysis (autocorrelation and cross-correlation) was applied to examine to what extent the various available methods support the identification of the transient inter-catchment flow observed in this binary karst system. As inter-catchment flow is found to be intermittent, the evaluation was focused on single events. In order to support the interpretation of the results from the time series analysis a simplified groundwater flow model was built using MODFLOW. The groundwater model is based on the current conceptual understanding of the karst system and represents a synthetic karst aquifer for which the same methods were applied. Using the wetting capability package of MODFLOW, the model simulated an overflow similar to what has been observed during the tracer experiment. Various intensities of allogenic recharge were employed to generate synthetic discharge data for the time series analysis. In addition, geometric and hydraulic properties of the karst system were varied in several model scenarios. This approach helps to identify effects of allogenic recharge and aquifer properties in the results from the time series analysis. Comparing the results from the time series analysis of the observed data with those of the synthetic data a good agreement was found. For instance, the cross-correlograms show similar patterns with respect to time lags and maximum cross-correlation coefficients if appropriate hydraulic parameters are assigned to the groundwater model. The comparable behaviors of the real and the

  5. Molecular analyses of Erwinia amylovora strains isolated in Russia, Poland, Slovenia and Austria describing further spread of fire blight in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jock, Susanne; Wensing, Annette; Pulawska, Joanna; Drenova, Nataliya; Dreo, Tanja; Geider, Klaus

    2013-08-25

    Fire blight, a bacteriosis of apple and pear, was assayed with molecular tools to associate its origin in Russia, Slovenia and south-eastern Austria with neighboring countries. The identification of all investigated strains was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy except one. Independent isolation was verified by the level of amylovoran synthesis and by the number of short sequence DNA repeats in plasmid pEA29. DNA of gently lysed E. amylovora strains from Russia, Slovenia, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Croatia, Poland, Central Europe and Iran was treated with restriction enzymes XbaI and SpeI to create typical banding patterns for PFGE analysis. The pattern Pt2 indicated that most Russian E. amylovora strains were related to strains from Turkey and Iran. Strains from Slovenia exhibited patterns Pt3 and Pt2, both present in the neighboring countries. Strains were also probed for the recently described plasmid pEI70 detected in Pt1 strains from Poland and in Pt3 strains from other countries. The distribution of pattern Pt3 suggests distribution of fire blight from Belgium and the Netherlands to Central Spain and Northern Italy and then north to Carinthia. The PFGE patterns indicate that trade of plants may have introduced fire blight into southern parts of Europe proceeded by sequential spread. PMID:23570971

  6. Austria: health system review.

    PubMed

    Hofmarcher, Maria M; Quentin, Wilm

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Austrian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health-system performance. The Austrian health system provides universal coverage for a wide range of benefits and high-quality care. Free choice of providers and unrestricted access to all care levels (general practitioners, specialist physicians and hospitals) are characteristic features of the system. Unsurprisingly, population satisfaction is well above EU average. Income-related inequality in health has increased since 2005, although it is still relatively low compared to other countries. The health-care system has been shaped by both the federal structure of the state and a tradition of delegating responsibilities to self-governing stakeholders. On the one hand, this enables decentralized planning and governance, adjusted to local norms and preferences. On the other hand, it also leads to fragmentation of responsibilities and frequently results in inadequate coordination. For this reason, efforts have been made for several years to achieve more joint planning, governance and financing of the health-care system at the federal and regional level. As in any health system, a number of challenges remain. The costs of the health-care system are well above the EU15 average, both in absolute terms and as a percentage of GDP. There are important structural imbalances in healthcare provision, with an oversized hospital sector and insufficient resources available for ambulatory care and preventive medicine. This is coupled with stark regional differences in utilization, both in curative services (hospital beds and specialist physicians) and preventative services such as preventive health check-ups, outpatient rehabilitation, psychosocial and psychotherapeutic care and nursing. There are clear social inequalities in the use of medical services, such as preventive health check-ups, immunization or dentistry. One of the key weaknesses of the health-care system is in the prevention of illness. Spending on preventive medicine, at 2% of total health spending, is significantly lower than the EU15 and OECD average (both 3%), and also shows a below-average rate of growth. It remains to be seen whether the focus on health promotion and prevention of the 'framework health goals' approved in 2012 will be translated into concrete measures, whether clear responsibilities for implementation can be assigned, and whether sufficient funding will be made available. This would be likely to improve the health of the Austrian population and would help to reduce costs associated with preventable diseases. PMID:24334772

  7. Risk-based consequences of extreme natural hazard processes in mountain regions - Multi-hazard analysis in Tyrol (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Stötter, Johann

    2010-05-01

    weighting within the risk concept, this has sufficient implications on the results of risk analyses. Thus, an equal and scale appropriated balance of those risk components is a fundamental key factor for effective natural hazard risk analyses. The results of such analyses inform especially decision makers in the insurance industry, the administration, and politicians on potential consequences and are the basis for appropriate risk management strategies. Thereby, results (i) on an annual or probabilistic risk comprehension have to be distinguished from (ii) scenario-based analyses. The first analyses are based on statistics of periodically or episodically occurring events whereas the latter approach is especially applied for extreme, non-linear, stochastic events. Focusing on the needs especially of insurance companies, the first approaches are appropriate for premium pricing and reinsurance strategies with an annual perspective, whereas the latter is focusing on events with extreme loss burdens under worst-case criteria to guarantee accordant reinsurance coverage. Moreover, the demand of adequate loss model approaches and methods is strengthened by the risk-based requirements of the upcoming capital requirement directive Solvency II. The present study estimates the potential elements at risk, their corresponding damage potentials and the Probable Maximum Losses (PMLs) of extreme natural hazards events in Tyrol (Austria) and considers adequatly the scale dependency and balanced application of the introduced risk components. Beside the introduced analysis an additionally portfolio analysis of a regional insurance company was executed. The geocoded insurance contracts of this portfolio analysis were the basis to estimate spatial, socio-economical and functional differentiated mean insurance values for the different risk categories of (i) buildings, (ii) contents or inventory, (iii) vehicles, and (iv) persons in the study area. The estimated mean insurance values were

  8. The influence of mass movements on flow dynamics in carbonatic conglomerates in the Western Sattnitz, Carinthia (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Gerfried; Thalheim, Felix

    2016-04-01

    The Turiawald plateau (about 6 km²) in the Western Sattnitz (Carinthia, Austria) is built up by massive carbonatic conglomerates with a thickness up to 200 m which are underlain by Miocene fine clastic sediments that act as an aquiclude and slightly incline towards NW. Nearly no overland flow occurs and most of the infiltrating water flows towards three captured major springs, the Roach spring, Pleier spring, and Hojoutz spring. Their catchments are characterized by highly differing in the occurrence of mass movements. The Roach spring drains about 75% of the plateau and is located in the west of the plateau and is influenced by a large-scale mass movement. The Pleier spring drains an area situated at the northern escarpment of the plateau influenced by smaller mass movements and rockfalls. The Hojoutz spring is supposed to be unaffected by mass movements as the water is collected in a gallery with a length of 110 m. This gallery was driven below the Turiawald plateau at the contact between the conglomerates and the aquiclude. Discharge (water level), water temperature and electrical conductivity data were continuously measured at these springs over a period of approximately three years. Additionally, air temperature and precipitation measurements are provided by a weather station located on top of the plateau. The recession analyses result three drainage components for each spring (first runoff, middle flow, and base flow). The Roach spring shows high discharge variability and the highest recession coefficients with a base flow coefficient of about 0.01 1/d. That is almost as high as the fast flow component of the other two springs. In addition, the discharge responses to groundwater recharge after several days. The water temperature seasonally ranges between 7.9 and 8.2 °C with a time shift of 4 to 6 months to the air temperature. The Pleier spring is characterized by a response to precipitation events after a few hours which can be extended up to nearly one

  9. Impact of different tillage treatments on soil respiration and microbial activity for different agricultural used soils in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klik, Andreas; Scholl, Gerlinde; Baatar, Undrakh-Od

    2015-04-01

    Soils can act as a net sink for sequestering carbon and thus attenuating the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide if appropriate soil and crop management is applied. Adapted soil management strategies like less intensive or even no tillage treatments may result in slower mineralization of soil organic carbon and enhanced carbon sequestration. In order to assess the impact of different soil tillage systems on carbon dioxide emissions due to soil respiration and on soil biological activity parameters, a field study of three years duration (2007-2010)has been performed at different sites in Austria. Following tillage treatments were compared: 1) conventional tillage (CT) with plough with and without cover crop during winter period, 2) reduced tillage (RT) with cultivator with cover crop, and 3) no-till (NT) with cover crop. Each treatment was replicated three times. At two sites with similar climatic conditions but different soil textures soil CO2 efflux was measured during the growing seasons in intervals of one to two weeks using a portable soil respiration system consisting of a soil respiration chamber attached to an infrared gas analyzer. Additionally, concurrent soil temperature and soil water contents of the top layer (0-5 cm)were measured. For these and additional three other sites with different soil and climatic conditions soil samples were taken to assess the impact of tillage treatment on soil biological activity parameters. In spring, summer and autumn samples were taken from each plot at the soil depth of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm to analyze soil microbial respiration (MR), substrate induced respiration (SIR), beta-glucasidase activity (GLU) and dehydrogenase (BHY). Samples were sieved (2 mm) and stored at 4 °C in a refrigerator. Analyses of were performed within one month after sampling. The measurements show a high spatial variability of soil respiration data even within one plot. Nevertheless, the level of soil carbon dioxide efflux was similar for

  10. Transformation of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants: the case of Tyroleans (Austria) who migrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In ethnobotanical research, the investigation into traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the context of migration has been of increasing interest in recent decades since it is influenced and changed by new environmental and social conditions. It most likely undergoes transformation processes to match the different living circumstances in the new location. This study compares the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants held by Tyroleans – and their descendants – who emigrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru at different time scales. The study’s findings allow a discussion of the complexities and dynamics that influence this knowledge within the context of long-distance migration. Methods Information was obtained from 65 informants by free-listing, semi-structured interviews and non-participatory observation in Tyrol (Austria) and the migrants’ countries: Australia, Brazil and Peru. The collected data was analysed using different quantitative approaches, including statistical tests, and compared between the countries of investigation. Results All respondents in all four investigation areas claimed that they had knowledge and made use of medicinal plants to treat basic ailments in their day-to-day lives. Informants made 1,139 citations of medicinal plants in total in free lists, which correspond to 164 botanical taxa (genus or species level) in Tyrol, 87 in Australia, 84 in Brazil and 134 in Peru. Of all the botanical taxa listed, only five (1.1%) were listed in all four countries under investigation. Agreement among informants within free lists was highest in Tyrol (17%), followed by Peru (12.2%), Australia (11.9%) and Brazil (11.2%). The proportion of agreement differs significantly between informants in Australia and Tyrol (p = 0.001), Brazil and Tyrol (p = 0.001) and Peru and Tyrol (p = 0.001) and is similar between informants in the migrant countries, as indicated by statistical tests. We recorded 1,286 use citations

  11. Detailed comparison of the geodetic and direct glaciological mass balances on an annual time scale at Hintereisferner, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Christoph; Bollmann, Erik; Galos, Stephan; Kaser, Georg; Prinz, Rainer; Rieg, Lorenzo; Sailer, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of glacier mass changes is fundamental for glacier monitoring and provides important information for climate change assessments, hydrological applications and sea-level changes. On Alpine glaciers two methods of measuring glacier mass changes are widely applied: the direct glaciological method and the geodetic method. Over the last decades several studies compared the mass balance estimates obtained by both methods to identify and correct stochastic and systematic errors. In almost all of these studies, the time span for comparison between the two methods is about one decade or longer. On Hintereisferner (HEF; Ötztal Alps, Austria) mass balance measurements were initiated in the glaciological year 1952/53, resulting in a consistent mass balance data set with an estimated accuracy of ±0.2 m w.e. a-1. Furthermore, 11 airborne laser scanning (ALS) campaigns were conducted between 2001 and 2011 at HEF, all consistent in accuracy as well as in precision (± 0.04 to 0.10 m for slopes ≤ 50°). This is a world-wide unique ALS dataset of a glacierized alpine catchment. Flight campaigns were performed close to the end of the hydrological year (30th September). Resulting data provide high quality topographic information to derive glacier mass changes by applying the geodetic method. On sub-decadal time-scales such method comparisons are rare, or reveal unexplainable large discrepancies between both mass balance methods. In this study we estimate stochastic and systematic uncertainties of the ALS data for processing volume changes, and quantify methodological differences, such as density assumptions, unequal measurement dates, crevasses and glacier dynamics. Hence, we present a method to compare direct glaciological and geodetic mass balances on an annual basis. In a first step, we calculate the annual geodetic mass balance of HEF between 2001 and 2011, resulting in a thickness change map of the glacier. In a second step, the snow cover, which has

  12. Regeneration of a confined aquifer after redevelopment and decommission of artesian wells, example from Grafendorf aquifer (Styria, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmedovski, Nudzejma; Winkler, Gerfried

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential for life and it is therefore necessary to protect drinking water sustainably. Compared to shallow groundwater, deeper groundwater is especially important due to its characteristic tendency to remain extensively unaffected by environmental impacts. Thus, the uncontrolled waste of this valuable resource has to be avoided. A lot of artesian wells have been established in Grafendorf bei Hartberg (Styria, Austria). Almost all wells were not state-of-the art. As a result the different aquifer horizons began to intermix. Additionally some of the artesian wells had a permanent free overflow and the water was not even used. Consequently, since 1950, where the mean discharge of 37 wells was 0,334 l/s per well, the discharge has decreased to 0,090 l/s until 2013, which means a decline of about 75 %. As a reaction to these declines a decommissioning campaign was conducted where 69 artesian wells have been closed by injecting a cement-bentonite suspension (ratio 3:1). The Grafendorf aquifer is situated in the Styrian Basin and consists of 5 separated artesian horizons in Neogene sediments. These artesian horizons range from 42 m (1st horizon) to 176 m (5th horizon) and mostly consist of sand, partly of fine/medium/coarse gravel and partially with minor clay content. In order to analyse the reaction of the Grafendorf aquifer to these redevelopments, 5 monitoring wells could be used for the analysis. Some monitoring wells include different aquifer horizons and hydraulically short cut them. Thus, in this work the analysis focus on the general trend of the whole aquifer system neglecting the individual interactions between the different aquifers. In a first investigation step the hydraulic properties of the aquifer system has been determined using pumping tests which were analysed with different analytical solutions with the software AQTESOLV. Overall the pumping test solutions hardly differ in the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity. On the contrary the

  13. Nutrient uptake by agricultural crops from biochar-amended soils: results from two field experiments in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karer, Jasmin; Zehetner, Franz; Kloss, Stefanie; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    The use of biochar as soil amendment is considered as a promising agricultural soil management technique, combining carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvements. These expectations are largely founded on positive experiences with biochar applications to impoverished or degraded tropical soils. The validity of these results for soils in temperate climates needs confirmation from field experiments with typical soils representative for intensive agricultural production areas. Frequently biochar is mixed with other organic additives like compost. As these two materials interact with each other and each one may vary considerably in its basic characteristics, it is difficult to attribute the effects of the combined additive to one of its components and to a specific physico-chemical parameter. Therefore investigations of the amendment efficacy require the study of the pure components to characterize their specific behavior in soil. This is especially important for adsorption behavior of biochar for macro- and micronutrients because in soil there are multiple nutrient sinks that compete with plant roots for vital elements. Therefore this contribution presents results from a field amendment study with pure biochar that had the objective to characterize the macro- and microelement uptake of crops from different soils in two typical Austrian areas of agricultural production. At two locations in North and South-East Austria, two identical field experiments on different soils (Chernozem and Cambisol) were installed in 2011 with varying biochar additions (0, 30 and 90 t/ha) and two nitrogen levels. The biochar was a product from slow pyrolysis of wood (SC Romchar SRL). During the installation of the experiments, the biochar fraction of <2 mm was mixed with surface soil to a depth of 15 cm in plots of 33 m2 each (n=4). Barley (at the Chernozem soil) and maize (at the Cambisol) were cultivated according to standard agricultural practices. The highest crop yields at both

  14. Evaluating the mid Miocene paleoclimate of Lower Carinthia (Austria) based on high resolution palynological studies from the Lavanttal Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grímsson, Friðgeir; Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Zetter, Reinhard; Grimm, Guido

    2016-04-01

    , characteristic for the humid and semi-humid, summer-rain areas of the meridional and nemoral zone. (Co-)Dominant genera in these forests are the various members of the northern hemispheric Fagales. Important indicator taxa include Fagus, one of the most common and widespread genera in temperate, mixed mesophytic forests of North America, China and Japan, and Quercus Group Ilex, a co-dominant group in the East Asian monsoon influenced, winter-dry or fully humid southern foothills of the Himalayas and montane regions of south-western and central China. Equally informative is Corylus, and the co-occurrence of Carya, Juglans, Pterocarya and Engelhardioideae, pinpointing towards forests as today found in south-western China and the warm subtropical parts of the southeastern United States. References: Denk T, Grimm GW, Grímsson F, Zetter R. 2013. Evidence from "Köppen signatures" of fossil plant assemblages for effective heat transport of Gulf Stream to subarctic North Atlantic during Miocene cooling. Biogeosciences 10: 7927-7942. Grímsson F, Grimm GW, Meller B, Bouchal JM, Zetter R. 2015. Combined LM and SEM study of the middle Miocene (Sarmatian) palynoflora from the Lavanttal Basin, Austria: part IV. Magnoliophyta 2 - Fagales to Rosales. Grana: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00173134.2015.1096566 Velitzelos D, Bouchal JM, Denk T. 2014. Review of the Cenozoic floras and vegetation of Greece. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 204: 56-117.

  15. Situation Report--Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti (French Polynesia), Tonga, Turkey, and United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 21 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti, Tonga, Turkey, and United…

  16. Description and biology of Euborellia arcanum sp. nov., an alien earwig           occupying greenhouses in Germany and Austria (Dermaptera: Anisolabididae).

    PubMed

    Matzke, Danilo; Kocarek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Greenhouses in botanical or zoological gardens are home to dozens of species of invertebrates that were introduced alongside plants or potting soil. Our study presents the description of an alien species of earwig, Euborellia arcanum sp. nov., found in tropical greenhouses in Leipzig and Potsdam (Germany) and in Vienna (Austria), including information about its biology in breeding culture. The species was most likely introduced into Europe by way of plants or plant matter from Florida, but the region of its natural habitat is unknown. The sequence of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) was also evaluated and added to GenBank as a DNA barcode for further identification. PMID:26248909

  17. Are People More Inclined to Vote at 16 than at 18? Evidence for the First-Time Voting Boost Among 16- to 25-Year-Olds in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Zeglovits, Eva; Aichholzer, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Potential consequences of lowering voting age to 16 have been discussed in recent scientific and public debates. This article examines turnout of young voters aged 16 to 17 in Austria, the first European country that lowered the general voting age to 16. For this purpose we use unique data taken from electoral lists of two recent Austrian regional elections. The results support the idea that the so-called “first-time voting boost” is even stronger among the youngest voters as turnout was (a) higher compared to 18- to 20-year-old first-time voters and (b) not substantially lower than the average turnout rate. We conclude that our findings are encouraging for the idea of lowering voting age as a means to establish higher turnout rates in the future. PMID:27226806

  18. Activities in German-speaking countries (Germany, Austria, Switzerland) to transform school education with the objective of increasing student awareness of animal welfare issues.

    PubMed

    Luy, Joerg; Grune, Barbara

    2004-06-01

    While harmful live-animal procedures in primary and secondary schools are illegal in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, and classroom dissections are either illegal or at least unpopular, there is a relatively new trend in German-speaking schools to handle animal welfare issues by means of voluntary animal welfare lessons. This began in the 1980s, and there is now a growing number of (at this point, more than ten) organisations in German-speaking countries offering such classes and/or well-prepared teaching aids. Apart from outlining the legal situation for animal use in education and training, the different educational concepts for animal welfare as a subject in schools are presented. PMID:23581123

  19. Barcoding of Central European Cryptops centipedes reveals large interspecific distances with ghost lineages and new species records from Germany and Austria (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Wesener, Thomas; Voigtländer, Karin; Decker, Peter; Oeyen, Jan Philip; Spelda, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In order to evaluate the diversity of Central European Myriapoda species in the course of the German Barcode of Life project, 61 cytochrome c oxidase I sequences of the genus Cryptops Leach, 1815, a centipede genus of the order Scolopendromorpha, were successfully sequenced and analyzed. One sequence of Scolopendra cingulata Latreille, 1829 and one of Theatops erythrocephalus Koch, 1847 were utilized as outgroups. Instead of the expected three species (Cryptops parisi Brolemann, 1920; Cryptops anomalans Newport, 1844; Cryptops hortensis (Donovan, 1810)), analyzed samples included eight to ten species. Of the eight clearly distinguishable morphospecies of Cryptops, five (Cryptops parisi; Cryptops croaticus Verhoeff, 1931; Cryptops anomalans; Cryptops umbricus Verhoeff, 1931; Cryptops hortensis) could be tentatively determined to species level, while a further three remain undetermined (one each from Germany, Austria and Croatia, and Slovenia). Cryptops croaticus is recorded for the first time from Austria. A single specimen (previously suspected as being Cryptops anomalans), was redetermined as Cryptops umbricus Verhoeff, 1931, a first record for Germany. All analyzed Cryptops species are monophyletic and show large genetic distances from one another (p-distances of 13.7–22.2%). Clear barcoding gaps are present in lineages represented by >10 specimens, highlighting the usefulness of the barcoding method for evaluating species diversity in centipedes. German specimens formally assigned to Cryptops parisi are divided into three clades differing by 8.4–11.3% from one another; their intra-lineage genetic distance is much lower at 0–1.1%. The three clades are geographically separate, indicating that they might represent distinct species. Aside from Cryptops parisi, intraspecific distances of Cryptops spp. in Central Europe are low (<3.3%). PMID:27081331

  20. Barcoding of Central European Cryptops centipedes reveals large interspecific distances with ghost lineages and new species records from Germany and Austria (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha).

    PubMed

    Wesener, Thomas; Voigtländer, Karin; Decker, Peter; Oeyen, Jan Philip; Spelda, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the diversity of Central European Myriapoda species in the course of the German Barcode of Life project, 61 cytochrome c oxidase I sequences of the genus Cryptops Leach, 1815, a centipede genus of the order Scolopendromorpha, were successfully sequenced and analyzed. One sequence of Scolopendra cingulata Latreille, 1829 and one of Theatops erythrocephalus Koch, 1847 were utilized as outgroups. Instead of the expected three species (Cryptops parisi Brolemann, 1920; Cryptops anomalans Newport, 1844; Cryptops hortensis (Donovan, 1810)), analyzed samples included eight to ten species. Of the eight clearly distinguishable morphospecies of Cryptops, five (Cryptops parisi; Cryptops croaticus Verhoeff, 1931; Cryptops anomalans; Cryptops umbricus Verhoeff, 1931; Cryptops hortensis) could be tentatively determined to species level, while a further three remain undetermined (one each from Germany, Austria and Croatia, and Slovenia). Cryptops croaticus is recorded for the first time from Austria. A single specimen (previously suspected as being Cryptops anomalans), was redetermined as Cryptops umbricus Verhoeff, 1931, a first record for Germany. All analyzed Cryptops species are monophyletic and show large genetic distances from one another (p-distances of 13.7-22.2%). Clear barcoding gaps are present in lineages represented by >10 specimens, highlighting the usefulness of the barcoding method for evaluating species diversity in centipedes. German specimens formally assigned to Cryptops parisi are divided into three clades differing by 8.4-11.3% from one another; their intra-lineage genetic distance is much lower at 0-1.1%. The three clades are geographically separate, indicating that they might represent distinct species. Aside from Cryptops parisi, intraspecific distances of Cryptops spp. in Central Europe are low (<3.3%). PMID:27081331

  1. Overmature periurban Quercus-Carpinus coppice forests in Austria and Japan: a comparison in view of carbon stocks, stand characteristics and conversion to high forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckman, Viktor; Terada, Toru; Fukuda, Kenji; Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Hochbichler, Eduard

    2016-04-01

    Periurban coppice forests have a long history and tradition in Austria, as well as in Japan. Although developed in a slightly different context, such forests faced nearly the same fate during the last century. While these once served biomass almost exclusively as a feedstock for thermal energy, their significance decreased with the increasing use of fossil fuels and coppice management was consequently abandoned and the area developed, or these forests were converted into high forests with different management aims. This study tries to assess the status of periurban forests that were previously managed as coppice in a comparative approach between Austria and Japan. The focus is stand structure, biomass and C stocks, as well as a comparison with high forest. In Japan, we further directly assessed the consequences of coppice to high forest conversion on soil chemistry. We found remarkable similarities in species distribution and total C stocks. While lower diameter classes are dominated by Carpinus, Quercus is only found in larger diameter classes, indicating the overmature character of both stands due to the lapse from a recognized system of coppice management with occasional fuelwood harvesting in the past decades. Total C stocks are comparable, but SOC is significantly higher in Japanese Andosols. The conversion of coppice to high forest in the 1960's in Japan had a notable impact on soil chemistry. This concerns especially the N cycle and we also observed fewer phenolic compounds in mineral soil after conversion. The authors find that there may be multiple benefits for restoring coppice management to these periurban forests. This includes increased biomass production capabilities and carbon sequestration as well as a better habitat provision and a higher biodiversity.

  2. PTSD and trauma in Austria's elderly: influence of wartime experiences, postwar zone of occupation, and life time traumatization on today's mental health status—an interdisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Glück, Tobias M.; Tran, Ulrich S.; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Background While in recent years epidemiological studies on World War (WW) II-related traumatization and prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in elderly persons have been conducted for various European countries, for Austria, these numbers are unknown. Objective The focus of this epidemiologic study was to picture the current mental health status and prevalence of PTSD and lifetime traumatic events in Austria's elderly with respect to WWII and subsequent occupation. Method In an interdisciplinary approach of psychologists and historians, 316 elderly Austrians (born before 1946) were interviewed for symptoms of PTSD and lifetime traumatization (Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version), current mental health (Brief Symptom Inventory), wartime-related trauma, and traumatic experiences with occupational forces. These factors were also compared regarding the zone of occupation (Allied vs. Soviet). Data were collected between March and September 2010. Results 97.5% of the sample reported at least one lifetime trauma. War-related traumata were reported by 92.7% and non-war-related traumata by 82.3%; 40.2% experienced traumatic events with occupational forces. PTSD was present in 1.9% of the sample and up to 13.9% taking subthreshold PTSD into account. Both, the presence of symptoms indicative of PTSD and subthreshold PTSD implied weaker current mental health (regarding General Distress: odds ratios up to 25.51; 95% CI = 9.82 to 66.27). Independent of PTSD diagnosis persons from the Soviet occupied zone showed higher levels of Interpersonal Sensitivity, Global Distress, and Phobic Anxiety. Prevalence of PTSD was independent of gender. Conclusions Our results corroborate findings from other European countries that PTSD is a common disorder in the elderly due to WWII experience and that PTSD and trauma affect mental health even across long periods of time. Postwar distressing conditions also pose a further risk factor for

  3. High-resolution geophysics revealing an unexpected post-Pannonian uplift structure: Schützen continued (Northern Burgenland, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibz, Jürgen; Häusler, Hermann; Kardeis, Gerald

    2010-05-01

    meters match the results of the 2D-measurements, and down to a depth of forty meters, these sections show a low resistivity zone, which is interpreted as Pannonian siltstone/claystone. Shallow borehole drilling south of the 3D-ERT block revealed karstified limestone down to the final depth of eight meters, which correlates well with the resistivity patterns of the ERT-measurements. To sum up, the high-resistivity of limestone (of Badenium age)on top of the Pannonian beds shows a spindle-like geometry, which is restricted to a narrow corridor north of Schützen only. From these findings we conclude that the limestone slice took up its place in Plio/Pleistocene times, probably controlled by a local strike-slip regime between Leithagebirge and Rust Range. Häusler, H., Figdor, H., Hammerl, C., Kohlbeck, F., Lenhardt, W. & Schuster, R. (2010): Geologische Karte der Republik Österreich 1:50.000, Erläuterungen zu Blatt 78 RUST.- (Geologische Bundesanstalt), Wien (in press) Häusler, H., Scheibz, J., Kohlbeck, F., Kostial, D. & Chwatal, W. (2007): Complementary geophysical investigations revealing camouflaged tectonic structures in the Northern Burgenland (Austria).- European Geosciences Union, 15.04.-20.04.2007, Geophysical Abstracts, vol. 9, 03754, Vienna. Kollmann, W., Carniel, P., Gamerith, W., Jawecki, C., Shadlau, S. & Riehl-Herwirsch, G. (1990): Hydrogeologische, geophysikalische, stratigraphische und hydrochemische Grundlagenuntersuchungen im Einzugsgebiet des Neusiedler Sees (Phase 1 Schwerpunkt: Wulkadurchbruch).- Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, Sonderband 82 (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gesamtkonzept Neusiedler See, Forschungsbericht 1987-89), 111-178, 35 Abb., 13 Tab., Eisenstadt. Scheibz, J. (2006): Geologisch-geophysikalische Untergrunduntersuchungen im Gebiet Schützen am Gebirge (Nordburgenland).- Unveröffentlichte Diplomarbeit, Fakultät für Geowissenschaften, Geographie und Astronomie der Universität Wien, 147 S., 65 Abb., 7 Tab., Anhang

  4. Risk-based consequences of extreme natural hazard processes in mountain regions - Multi-hazard analysis in Tyrol (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Stötter, Johann

    2010-05-01

    weighting within the risk concept, this has sufficient implications on the results of risk analyses. Thus, an equal and scale appropriated balance of those risk components is a fundamental key factor for effective natural hazard risk analyses. The results of such analyses inform especially decision makers in the insurance industry, the administration, and politicians on potential consequences and are the basis for appropriate risk management strategies. Thereby, results (i) on an annual or probabilistic risk comprehension have to be distinguished from (ii) scenario-based analyses. The first analyses are based on statistics of periodically or episodically occurring events whereas the latter approach is especially applied for extreme, non-linear, stochastic events. Focusing on the needs especially of insurance companies, the first approaches are appropriate for premium pricing and reinsurance strategies with an annual perspective, whereas the latter is focusing on events with extreme loss burdens under worst-case criteria to guarantee accordant reinsurance coverage. Moreover, the demand of adequate loss model approaches and methods is strengthened by the risk-based requirements of the upcoming capital requirement directive Solvency II. The present study estimates the potential elements at risk, their corresponding damage potentials and the Probable Maximum Losses (PMLs) of extreme natural hazards events in Tyrol (Austria) and considers adequatly the scale dependency and balanced application of the introduced risk components. Beside the introduced analysis an additionally portfolio analysis of a regional insurance company was executed. The geocoded insurance contracts of this portfolio analysis were the basis to estimate spatial, socio-economical and functional differentiated mean insurance values for the different risk categories of (i) buildings, (ii) contents or inventory, (iii) vehicles, and (iv) persons in the study area. The estimated mean insurance values were

  5. Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humer, Günter; Reithofer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria Considering the increase in flash flood events causing massive damage during the last years in urban but also rural areas [1-4], the requirement for hydrodynamic calculation of flash flood prone areas and possible countermeasures has arisen to many municipalities and local governments. Besides the German based URBAS project [1], also the EU-funded FP7 research project "SWITCH-ON" [5] addresses the damage risk caused by flash floods in the sub-project "FFRM" (Flash Flood Risk Map Upper Austria) by calculating damage risk for buildings and vulnerable infrastructure like schools and hospitals caused by flash-flood driven inundation. While danger zones in riverine flooding are established as an integral part of spatial planning, flash floods caused by overland runoff from extreme rain events have been for long an underrated safety hazard not only for buildings and infrastructure, but man and animals as well. Based on the widespread 2D-model "hydro_as-2D", an extension was developed, which calculates the runoff formation from a spatially and temporally variable precipitation and determines two dimensionally the land surface area runoff and its concentration. The conception of the model is to preprocess the precipitation data and calculate the effective runoff-volume for a short time step of e.g. five minutes. This volume is applied to the nodes of the 2D-model and the calculation of the hydrodynamic model is started. At the end of each time step, the model run is stopped, the preprocessing step is repeated and the hydraulic model calculation is continued. In view of the later use for the whole of Upper Austria (12.000 km²) a model grid of 25x25 m² was established using digital elevation data. Model parameters could be estimated for the small catchment of river Ach, which was hit by an intense rain event with up to 109 mm per hour

  6. Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humer, Günter; Reithofer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria Considering the increase in flash flood events causing massive damage during the last years in urban but also rural areas [1-4], the requirement for hydrodynamic calculation of flash flood prone areas and possible countermeasures has arisen to many municipalities and local governments. Besides the German based URBAS project [1], also the EU-funded FP7 research project "SWITCH-ON" [5] addresses the damage risk caused by flash floods in the sub-project "FFRM" (Flash Flood Risk Map Upper Austria) by calculating damage risk for buildings and vulnerable infrastructure like schools and hospitals caused by flash-flood driven inundation. While danger zones in riverine flooding are established as an integral part of spatial planning, flash floods caused by overland runoff from extreme rain events have been for long an underrated safety hazard not only for buildings and infrastructure, but man and animals as well. Based on the widespread 2D-model "hydro_as-2D", an extension was developed, which calculates the runoff formation from a spatially and temporally variable precipitation and determines two dimensionally the land surface area runoff and its concentration. The conception of the model is to preprocess the precipitation data and calculate the effective runoff-volume for a short time step of e.g. five minutes. This volume is applied to the nodes of the 2D-model and the calculation of the hydrodynamic model is started. At the end of each time step, the model run is stopped, the preprocessing step is repeated and the hydraulic model calculation is continued. In view of the later use for the whole of Upper Austria (12.000 km²) a model grid of 25x25 m² was established using digital elevation data. Model parameters could be estimated for the small catchment of river Ach, which was hit by an intense rain event with up to 109 mm per hour

  7. Fold-related fractures - a brittle tectonic case study of the Helvetic zone in Vorarlberg (western Austria) and Upper Allgäu (Bavaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerlauth, M.

    2012-04-01

    Michael Zerlauth1,2 , Marcel Schulz1,2 , Hugo Ortner1 , Bernhard Fügenschuh1, Christian Zangerl2 1 Institut für Geologie und Paläontologie, Leopold Franzens Universität, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria 2 alpS-Gmbh, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria In the eastern Alps the Helvetic units exposed at the surface form a narrow belt restricted to the westernmost part of Austria and the northerly adjacent southernmost part of Bavaria. The Helvetic zone represents a Tertiary fold-and-thrust belt made up of Jurassic to Cretaceous shelf sediments deposited on the European margin of the Eurasian plate. In the course of an industry-funded project, the potential of these units for deep hydro-geothermal energy is investigated. Potential targets for hydrothermal exploration are more or less thick carbonate sequences that can be traced throughout the Helvetic zone, namely the Late Jurassic Quinten Limestone and the Early Cretaceous Schrattenkalk-Fm. In depths of at least 3000m below sea level, that have to be drilled to gain water with at least 90°C, uncemented fractures at any scale are the only cavities within these carbonates to be expected. Therefore, brittle structures are studied at differing scales of observation; aerial photos and surface outcrops are analyzed as well as thin sections. All the data obtained so far were collected in areas deformed homogenously: measuring stations were located outside large scale shear zones and either in fold-limbs or hinge zones. A constantly geometrical relationship between the orientation of the various fractures, the sedimentary layering and the trace of the axial planes can be inferred, as already stated by Hancock (1985). Besides extension fractures, veins and stylolithes, conjugated hybrid and shear fractures are quite common, indicating layer-parallel shortening normal to the axial planes as well as axial elongation. Hence, all of the structures observed can be genetically linked with thrusting and folding during regional N-S compressional

  8. Influential factors on debris flow events and hillslope-channel connectivity in Alpine regions: case studies from two Alpine regions in Styria, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traper, Sandra; Pöppl, Ronald; Rascher, Eric; Sass, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In recent times different types of natural disasters like debris flow events have attracted increasing attention worldwide, since they can cause great damage and loss of infrastructure or even lives is not unusual when it comes to such an event. The engagement with debris flows is especially important in mountainous areas like Austria, since Alpine regions have proved to be particularly prone to the often harmful consequences of such events because of increasing settlement of previously uninhabited regions. Due to those frequently damaging effects of debris flows, research on this kind of natural disaster often focuses on mitigation and recovery measures after an event and on how to restore the initial situation. However, a view on the situation of an area, where severe debris flows recently occurred and are well documented, before the actual event can aid in discovering important preparatory factors that contribute to initiating debris flows and hillslope-channel connectivity in the first place. Valuable insights into the functioning and preconditions of debris flows and their potential connectivity to the main channel can be gained. The study focuses on two geologically different areas in the Austrian Alps, which are both prone to debris flows and have experienced rather severe events recently. Based on data from debris flow events in two regions in Styria (Austria), the Kleinsölk and the Johnsbach valleys, the aim of the study is to identify factors which influence the development of debris flows and the potential of such debris flows to reach the main channel potentially clogging up the river (hillslope-channel connectivity). The degree of hillslope-channel coupling was verified in extensive TLS and ALS surveys, resulting in DEMs of different resolution and spatial extension. Those factors are obtained, analyzed and evaluated with DEM-based GIS- and statistical analyses. These include factors that are attributed to catchment topography, such as slope angle

  9. Assessing the quality of crowdsourced in-situ land-use and land cover data from the FotoQuest Austria application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laso Bayas, Juan Carlos; See, Linda; Fritz, Steffen; Sturn, Tobias; Karner, Mathias; Perger, Christoph; Duerauer, Martina; Mondel, Thomas; Domian, Dahlia; Moorthy, Inian; McCallum, Ian; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Kraxner, Florian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2016-04-01

    With the proliferation of mobile phones and the rise of citizen science, the question of whether citizens can be used to complement traditional land surveys, e.g. the Land Use / Cover Area frame statistical Survey (LUCAS), needs further consideration. LUCAS is the European reference dataset for land use and land cover statistics. It is produced every three years using paid surveyors to collect information on land cover and land use at more than 270,000 point locations across all EU states. LUCAS has very strict protocols on data collection and a two-step system to ensure the quality of the data collected. To complement LUCAS, IIASA has developed the FotoQuest Austria (http://fotoquest.at/) app, which aims to engage citizens in exploring Austrian landscapes, geo-tagging land use and land cover across the country using a simplified version of the LUCAS protocol. The app shows the location of nearby points, and once at the location, volunteers take pictures in four cardinal directions and at the point location, recording the type of land use and land cover from a list of options in the app. Implementation of the simplified protocol uses the mobile technology to record the location, the angles of inclination of the phone when taking the pictures, the compass directions and the precision of the GPS to restrict when users can take photographs. These measures were employed to ensure high quality data collection. FotoQuest Austria has been running since the summer of 2015 with more than 2500 points on the ground and more than 12500 pictures collected by volunteers. Advantages of such an approach include the collection of a denser sample and a more frequent revisit time than the 3 year update cycle of LUCAS, which may then be used to detect ongoing change. Additionally, the involvement of citizens in getting to know their surrounding landscapes is a very valuable process and can be a positive vehicle for raising awareness of possible environmental conflicts and issues. This

  10. Longitudinal sediment-connectivity in a dammed river system using fine sediment analyses - a case study in the Kaja river, Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsch, R.; Poeppl, R. E.; Glade, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the recent past the concept of connectivity gained increased significance for the understanding of the linkage between different subsystems within river channels and catchments. Based on fine sediment (<2mm) analyses the main objective of the presented work is to analyse the impact of a dam on the longitudinal sediment connectivity in a river channel. The study sites are located alongside the "Kaja" river (lower Austria), which has a catchment area of about 21.3km2. The river is characterised by a series of dams whereof the present work deals with the so called "Sagteich". Measurements of suspended load as well as fine sediment samples from pool-sections were collected up- and downstream of the dam. The suspended load concentrations where analysed by weighting the water and sediment amount. The grain size distribution of the sediment samples from the pool-sections were measured with sieving as well as pipette analyses. The results of the suspended load analysis reveal that the dam is a strong disconnecting factor in longitudinal direction. This disconnectivity cannot be confirmed for fine sediments, which have been determined from the sediment samples collected in the pool-sections. It is argued, that the lateral input of sediments alters the grain size distribution in pool-sections and consequently, any interpretation of longitudinal sediment connectivity, or disconnectivity has to be regarded with reservation in this fraction.

  11. Lakes as organic matter upgraders - seasonal variation in biochemical compositions of in- and outflowing particles in pre-alpine Lake Lunz, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Samiullah; Hollaus, Lisa-Maria; Schelker, Jakob; Ejarque, Elisabet; Battin, Tom; Kainz, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Lakes are typically recharged by inflowing stream water and discharge into outflowing streams. In this multiannual field study on pre-alpine, oligotrophic Lake Lunz, Lower Austria, we hypothesized that, irrespective of seasons, stream water recharging the lake contains predominantly recalcitrant particular organic matter (POM; >1.2 um particle size), whereas outflowing lake water is mostly composed of more labile, algae-derived POM. We collected POM for 3 years (2013-2015) at a monthly basis from the inflowing and outflowing streams of Lake Lunz, analyzed POM content, its carbon and nitrogen, their stable isotopes, and fatty acids as biochemical indicators of POM sources. Preliminary results show that, independent of seasons, inflowing POM is rich in terrestrial markers, as evidenced by long-chain saturated fatty acids (>C22:0), with little contribution of autochthonous stream POM, such as algae-derived long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). However, POM in outflowing water contained considerably less terrestrial markers, but clearly higher contents of highly nutritious, algae-derived LC-PUFA. These results suggest that oligotrophic Lake Lunz acts as a biochemical upgrader within the fluvial network of this drainage basin and supplies highly nutritional POM to consumers further downstream. Ongoing research is aimed at identifying how much of the terrestrial and autochthonous POM is retained and processed in the lake (biota, sediments, or respired).

  12. Stressed and overworked? A cross-sectional study of the working situation of urban and rural general practitioners in Austria in the framework of the QUALICOPC project

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Kathryn; Wojczewski, Silvia; George, Aaron; Schäfer, Willemijn L. A.; Maier, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the workload of general practitioners (GPs) in Austria, with a focus on identifying the differences between GPs working in urban and rural areas. Methods Within the framework of the Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe (QUALICOPC) study, data were collected from a stratified sample of GPs using a standardized questionnaire between November 2011 and May 2012. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Results The analysis included data from 173 GPs. GPs in rural areas reported an average of 49.3 working hours per week, plus 23.7 on-call duties per 3 months and 26.2 out-of-office care services per week. Compared to GPs working in urban areas, even in the fully adjusted regression model, rural GPs had significantly more working hours (B 7.00; P = 0.002) and on-call duties (B 18.91; P < 0.001). 65.8% of all GPs perceived their level of stress as high and 84.6% felt they were required to do unnecessary administrative work. Conclusion Our findings show a high workload among Austrian GPs, particularly those working in rural areas. Since physicians show a diminishing interest to work as GPs, there is an imperative to improve this situation. PMID:26321030

  13. Determination of the relative percentage distribution of THCA and Δ(9)-THC in herbal cannabis seized in Austria - Impact of different storage temperatures on stability.

    PubMed

    Taschwer, Magdalena; Schmid, Martin G

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis is globally by far the most widespread illicit drug of abuse. Especially since its legalization in some of the US, controversies about the legal status of cannabis for recreational and medical use have come up. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), which is the major active ingredient in cannabis products, is mainly responsible for the psychoactive effects. Its inactive biosynthetic precursor tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) is present in different quantities in fresh and undried cannabis plants. Under influence of drying, temperature and UV exposure it decomposes to Δ(9)-THC. In this study, a quantification of Δ(9)-THC and THCA was carried out to check the stability of cannabis samples. The determination of the degradation of THCA to Δ(9)-THC in 29 cannabis products seized in Austria was monitored by HPLC-UV. Mobile phase consisted of a 25mM triethylammoniumphosphate buffer (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile (36:64). A common LiChrospher(®) 100 RP-18 column was utilized as stationary phase. To check the influence of low as well as high temperature on the degradation process of the cannabinoid THCA to Δ(9)-THC, samples were stored in a freezer or in a drying cabinet for a specified time period. It was shown successfully that high storage temperatures led to a more rapid and complete decomposition of THCA to Δ(9)-THC while at low temperatures only slight or no changes of the percentage distribution were determined. PMID:26247127

  14. Benefits and stressors – Perceived effects of ICT use on employee health and work stress: An exploratory study from Austria and Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Ninaus, Katharina; Diehl, Sandra; Terlutter, Ralf; Chan, Kara; Huang, Anqi

    2015-01-01

    Stress has become a mass phenomenon in the modern workplace. The use of information and communication technologies is beginning to receive greater attention in the context of occupational stress. An exploratory qualitative study was conducted to examine both stressors and benefits resulting from technologies among practitioners in the advertising, public relations, and journalism industry in Hong Kong and Austria. Results suggest that technologies allow instant availability, which facilitates communication processes as well as information exchange. Notably, modern technologies enable employees to organize their work with greater temporal and spatial flexibility, thus creating an opportunity for better balancing work and private life. However, evolving technologies have come with a cost; the pressure to be constantly available via technologies constitutes a major source of stress, increasing the risk of experiencing prolonged work stress and its adverse consequences on employee health and well-being, such as a burnout. Furthermore, findings suggest that availability pressure may be attributed to an inner obligation rather than to an organizational expectation. Hence, making employees aware of their connectivity behaviour may help to diminish the experience of technology-induced work stress and improve and maintain employees’ health and well-being in the long term. Practical implications, limitations, and future research directions are provided. PMID:26462972

  15. Retrospective epidemiological evaluation of molecular and animal husbandry data within the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programme in Western Austria during 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Schoepf, Karl; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Steinrigl, Adolf; Fuchs, Reinhard; Sailer, Andreas; Weikel, Joachim; Schmoll, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective epidemiological investigation of molecular and animal husbandry data collected over an observation period of five years (2009-2014) within the compulsory bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programme in Western Austria, covering the federal provinces of Tyrol and Vorarlberg is presented in this study. Samples collected from 232 infected calves were phylogenetically classified based on the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). All but 13 samples, which were typed as border disease virus subtype 3 (BDV-3), belonged to the bovine viral diarrhoea virus genotype 1 (BVDV-1) and clustered within six different subtypes (1b, 1e, 1f, 1h, 1d and 1k). Movement data and survival times from infected individual animals were analysed because of their potential of passing on infection to naive herds. From the moment of submission of the laboratory results, 180 animals were culled within the first month, 13 lived longer than two but not longer than six months and seven infected animals lived longer than one year. 13 of the infected animals were born on alpine pastures and eleven infected animals were grazed on mountain pastures during summer. The movement of infected animals and the role of trade in alpine areas are a possible source for spreading the infection, thus hampering the progress of eradication. PMID:27344911

  16. Residence times and age distributions of spring waters at the Semmering catchment area, Eastern Austria, as inferred from tritium, CFCs and stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Han, Liangfeng; Hacker, Peter; Gröning, Manfred

    2007-03-01

    The groundwater system in the mountainous area of Semmering, Austria, was studied by environmental tracers in several karst springs. The tracers used included stable isotopes ((18)O, (2)H), tritium ((3)H) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The tracers provided valuable information in regard to (1) the mean altitude of the spring catchment areas; (2) the residence time and age distribution of the spring waters; and (3) the interconnection of the springs to a sinkhole. The combination of the stable isotopic data and the topography/geology provided the estimates of the mean altitudes of the catchment areas. Based on the stable isotopic data the recharge temperature of the spring waters was estimated. The smoothing of precipitation's isotopic signal in spring discharge provided information on the minimum transit time of the spring waters. Due to short observation time, (3)H data alone cannot be used for describing the mean residence time of the karst waters. CFCs, though useful in recognizing the co-existence of young (post-1993) water with old (CFC-free) water, could not be used to resolve age distribution models. It is shown in this article, however, that the combined use of tritium and CFCs can provide a better assessment of models to account for different groundwater age distributions. In Appendix A, a simplified method for collecting groundwater samples for the analysis of CFCs is described. The method provides a real facilitation for fieldwork. Test data are given for this sampling method in regard to potential contamination by atmospheric CFCs. PMID:17454271

  17. Social dimensions of inclusion in education of 4th and 7th grade pupils in inclusive and regular classes: Outcomes from Austria.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Positive peer relationships play a significant role in the development of students. They are beneficial for learning and psychological outcomes. This article draws upon an important distinction between the four main themes of social participation (friendships, interactions, peer acceptance and self-perception of social participation) and examines these aspects in inclusive and regular classes. Especially, differences in social participation of students with and without special educational needs (SEN) in inclusive classes and between students without SEN in inclusive