Science.gov

Sample records for klab maailm nii

  1. The NII and the New World Trade Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoot, Oliver

    1994-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the new General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Topics discussed include the reduction or elimination of tariffs on NII products; protection of copyrighted works; unresolved trade issues, including the European telecommunications market; standards; and privacy and…

  2. 78 FR 21320 - Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) Devices in the 5 GHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ...This document proposes to amend the Commission's rules governing the operation of Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) devices in the 5 GHz band. The Commission has gained much experience with U-NII devices since it first made spectrum available in the 5 GHz band for U-NII in 1997. The Commission believes that the time is now right to revisit the rules. The initiation of this......

  3. Binuclear complexes of Ni(I) from 4-terphenyldithiophenol.

    PubMed

    Koch, Felix; Schubert, Hartmut; Sirsch, Peter; Berkefeld, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Binuclear complexes of Ni(i) have been prepared from a 4-terphenyldithiophenol ligand. Steric effects were found to determine the formation of coordination isomeric structures that differ in the nature of metal-to-ligand bonding. Coordination of spatially demanding phosphine ligands PR3, R = C6H6, C6H11, at nickel sites results in a butterfly shaped thiolate-bridged Ni2(μ-S)2 motif. For smaller PMe3, the central π-system of the 4-terphenyl backbone adopts a bis-allyl like μ-syn-η(3):η(3)-C6H4 structure due to significant d-π* Ni(i)-to-ligand charge transfer. Delocalisation indices δ(Ni-Ni) derived from DFT calculations provide a metric to assess the strength of electronic coupling of the Ni sites based on solid state structural data, and indicated less strong electronic coupling for the bis-allyl like structure with δ(Ni-Ni) = 0.225 as compared to 0.548 for the Ni2(μ-S)2 structural motif. A qualitative reactivity study toward CNCH3 as an auxiliary ligand has provided the first insight into the chemical properties of the bimetallic complexes presented. PMID:26130424

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NiI transition probability measurements (Wood+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2014-04-01

    As in much of our previous branching fraction work, this NiI branching fraction study makes use of archived FTS data from both the 1.0m Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) previously at the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak and the Chelsea Instruments FT500 UV FTS at Lund University in Sweden. Table 1 lists the 37 FTS spectra used in our NiI branching fraction study. All NSO spectra, raw interferograms, and header files are available in the NSO electronic archives. The 80 CCD frames of spectra from commercial Ni HCD lamps of the echelle spectrograph are listed in Table 2. (6 data files).

  5. Protein kinase NII and the regulation of rDNA transcription in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Belenguer, P; Baldin, V; Mathieu, C; Prats, H; Bensaid, M; Bouche, G; Amalric, F

    1989-01-01

    Transcription of ribosomal RNA genes is generally accepted to correlate with cell growth. Using primary cultures of adult bovine aortic endothelial (ABAE) cells, we have shown that transcription of rDNA in confluent cells falls to 5% of the transcription level in growing cells. Protein kinase NII appears to be a limiting factor to promote rDNA transcription in isolated nuclei of confluent cells. Protein kinase NII was detected by immunocytochemistry in the cytoplasm, nuclei and nucleoli of growing cells while it was no longer present in nucleoli of confluent cells. The kinase activity, in isolated nuclei, was estimated by endogenous phosphorylation of a specific substrate, nucleolin. A 10% residual activity was present in confluent cell nuclei compared to growing cell nuclei. Concomitantly, the transcription 'in vitro' of rDNA in the corresponding nuclei was also highly reduced (by 85%). Addition of exogenous protein kinase NII to confluent cell nuclei induced a strong increase in the phosphorylation of specific proteins including nucleolin. In parallel, the transcription of rDNA was increased by a factor of 5, to nearly the level observed in nuclei prepared from growing cells. These data suggest that, in confluent cells, factors necessary for rDNA transcription machinery are present but inactive in the nucleolus and that the phosphorylation of one or several of these factors (nucleolin, topoisomerase I,...) by protein kinase NII is a key event in the regulation of rDNA transcription. Images PMID:2780290

  6. Catching a Ride on the NII: The Federal Policy Vehicles Paving the Information Highway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Patricia D.; Westerback, Lisa K.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses implications to the management of the U.S. federal government information resources from recent legislation. Examines relevant policy instruments in light of the federal government's high-level commitment to the development of a National Information Infrastructure (NII) which promotes accessible and high-quality services to its citizens.…

  7. The fallacy of using NII in analyzing aircraft operations. [Noise Impact Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, R. G.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three measures of noise annoyance (Noise Impact Index, Level-Weighted Population, and Annoyed Population Number) are compared, regarding their utility in assessing noise reduction schemes for aircraft operations. While NII is intended to measure the average annoyance per person in a community, it is found that the method of averaging can lead to erroneous conclusions, particularly if the population does not have uniform spatial distribution. Level-Weighted Population and Annoyed Population Number are shown to be better indicators of noise annoyance when rating different strategies for noise reduction in a given community.

  8. Crude oil biodegradation aided by biosurfactants from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 or its culture broth.

    PubMed

    Sajna, Kuttuvan Valappil; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; Pandey, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the biosurfactants produced by the yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 for enhancing the degradation of crude oil by a model hydrocarbon degrading strain, Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Pseudozyma biosurfactants were supplemented at various concentrations to the P. putida culture medium containing crude oil as sole carbon source. Supplementation of the biosurfactants enhanced the degradation of crude oil by P. putida; the maximum degradation of hydrocarbons was observed with a 2.5 mg L(-1) supplementation of biosurfactants. Growth inhibition constant of the Pseudozyma biosurfactants was 11.07 mg L(-1). It was interesting to note that Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 alone could also degrade diesel and kerosene. Culture broth of Pseudozyma containing biosurfactants resulted up to ∼46% improvement in degradation of C10-C24 alkanes by P. putida. The enhancement in degradation efficiency of the bacterium with the culture broth supplementation was even more pronounced than that with relatively purer biosurfactants. PMID:25985416

  9. Comparison of the performances of DRAINMOD-NII and ADAPT models in simulating nitrate losses from subsurface drainage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate knowledge on the movement of nitrate under different subsurface (tile) drain configurations and management practices in the U.S. Midwest, is essential for developing remedial measures for reducing hypoxic conditions in the Gulf of Mexico. In this study, DRAINMOD-NII, a daily time-step soil ...

  10. Studies on structural and physical characteristics of a novel exopolysaccharide from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165.

    PubMed

    Sajna, Kuttuvan Valappil; Sukumaran, Rajeev K; Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; Jayamurthy, Himani; Dhar, Kiran S; Pandey, Ashok

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) from a novel ustilaginomycetes yeast strain Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165. The culture produced 3.5g/l EPS on fourth day of fermentation in a glucose-based medium. The structural characterization revealed that the EPS was a polymer of glucose, galactose and mannose in the ratio of 2.4:5.0:2.6 with a molecular weight of 1.7MDa. The pseudoplastic behaviour of aqueous EPS with a thermal stability up to 220°C indicated its potential utility as a thickening or gelling agent in food industry. SEM studies of the EPS showed that it had compact film-like structure, which could make it a useful in preparing plasticized films. The AFM studies showed that EPS had spike-shaped microstructure. Physical properties of the exopolysaccharide determined further indicated its possible potential in different industrial applications. PMID:23597707

  11. The utility`s role in the future of PC services and the NII. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The paper is a report by C3 Communications (formerly CSW Communications) summarizing the experience and lessons learned during an 18 month Department of Energy Grant to evaluate how electric utilities can further the growth of the NII by developing a hybrid Internet-energy management service. In addition, the project was also expanded to include evaluation of residential gateway issues, in particular the energy management aspects of this developing area. The report is broken up into three sections, the first section focuses on the issues surrounding the start-up of a traditional ISP and provides a road map for utilities interested in this area. The second section provides an overview of the Internet energy management projects which were undertaken and the key lessons learned from each. Lastly, the third section outlines the gateway progress made during the grant and provides some of the recommendations which the work produced.

  12. ISM band to U-NII band frequency transverter and method of frequency transversion

    DOEpatents

    Stepp, Jeffrey David; Hensley, Dale

    2006-04-04

    A frequency transverter (10) and method for enabling bi-frequency dual-directional transfer of digitally encoded data on an RF carrier by translating between a crowded or otherwise undesirable first frequency band, such as the 2.4 GHz ISM band, and a less-crowded or otherwise desirable second frequency band, such as the 5.0 GHz-6.0 GHz U-NII band. In a preferred embodiment, the transverter (10) connects between an existing data radio (11) and its existing antenna (30), and comprises a bandswitch (12); an input RF isolating device (14); a transmuter (16); a converter (18); a dual output local oscillator (20); an output RF isolating device (22); and an antenna (24) tuned to the second frequency band. The bandswitch (12) allows for bypassing the transverter (10), thereby facilitating its use with legacy systems. The transmuter (14) and converter (16) are adapted to convert to and from, respectively, the second frequency band.

  13. ISM band to U-NII band frequency transverter and method of frequency transversion

    DOEpatents

    Stepp, Jeffrey David; Hensley, Dale

    2006-09-12

    A frequency transverter (10) and method for enabling bi-frequency dual-directional transfer of digitally encoded data on an RF carrier by translating between a crowded or otherwise undesirable first frequency band, such as the 2.4 GHz ISM band, and a less-crowded or otherwise desirable second frequency band, such as the 5.0 GHz 6.0 GHz U-NII band. In a preferred embodiment, the transverter (10) connects between an existing data radio (11) and its existing antenna (30), and comprises a bandswitch (12); an input RF isolating device (14); a transmuter (16); a converter (18); a dual output local oscillator (20); an output RF isolating device (22); and an antenna (24) tuned to the second frequency band. The bandswitch (12) allows for bypassing the transverter (10), thereby facilitating its use with legacy systems. The transmuter (14) and converter (16) are adapted to convert to and from, respectively, the second frequency band.

  14. Access to Formally Ni(I) States in a Heterobimetallic NiZn System

    PubMed Central

    Uyeda, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Heterobimetallic NiZn complexes featuring metal centers in distinct coordination environments have been synthesized using diimine-dioxime ligands as binucleating scaffolds. A tetramethylfuran-containing ligand derivative enables a stable one-electron-reduced S = 1/2 species to be accessed using Cp2Co as a chemical reductant. The resulting pseudo-square planar complex exhibits spectroscopic and crystallographic characteristics of a ligand-centered radical bound to a Ni(II) center. Upon coordination of a π-acidic ligand such as PPh3, however, a five-coordinate Ni(I) metalloradical is formed. The electronic structures of these reduced species provide insight into the subtle effects of ligand structure on the potential and reversibility of the NiII/I couple for complexes of redox-active tetraazamacrocycles. PMID:25614786

  15. Isolation and characterization of novel plant growth promoting Micrococcus sp NII-0909 and its interaction with cowpea.

    PubMed

    Dastager, Syed G; Deepa, C K; Pandey, Ashok

    2010-12-01

    A phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strain NII-0909 isolated from the Western ghat forest soil in India was identified as Micrococcus sp on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, carbon source utilization pattern, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The strain exhibited the plant growth-promoting attributes of phosphate solubilization, auxin production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity, and siderophore production. It was able to solubilize (122.4μg of Ca(3)PO(4) ml(-1)), and produce IAA (109μgml(-1)) at 30°C. P-solubilizing activity of the strain NII-0909 was associated with the release of organic acids and a drop in the pH of the NBRIP medium. HPLC analysis detected two organic acids in the course of P-solubilization. A significant increase in the growth of cow pea was recorded for inoculations under controlled conditions. Scanning electron microscopic study revealed the root colonization of strain on cow pea seedlings. These results demonstrate that isolates NII-0909 has the promising PGPR attributes to be develop as a biofertilizer to enhance soil fertility and promote the plant growth. PMID:20951599

  16. Spermine stimulation of a nuclear NII kinase from pea plumules and its role in the phosphorylation of a nuclear polypeptide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, N.; Schell, M. B.; Roux, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that spermine stimulates the phosphorylation of a 47 kilodalton nuclear polypeptide from pea plumules (N Datta, LK Hardison, SJ Roux 1986 Plant Physiol 82: 681-684). In this paper we report that spermine stimulates the activity of a cyclic AMP independent casein kinase, partially purified from a chromatin fraction of pea plumule nuclei. This effect of spermine was substrate specific; i.e. with casein as substrate, spermine stimulated the kinase activity, and with phosvitin as substrate, spermine completely inhibited the activity. The stimulation by spermine of the casein kinase was, in part, due to the lowering of the Mg2+ requirement of the kinase. Heparin could partially inhibit this casein kinase activity and spermine completely overcame this inhibition. By further purification of the casein kinase extract on high performance liquid chromatography, we fractionated it into an NI and an NII kinase. Spermine stimulated the NII kinase by 5- to 6-fold but had no effect on the NI kinase. Using [gamma-32P]GTP, we have shown that spermine promotes the phosphorylation of the 47 kilodalton polypeptide(s) in isolated nuclei, at least in part by stimulating an NII kinase.

  17. Esterase Active in Polar Organic Solvents from the Yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165.

    PubMed

    Alex, Deepthy; Shainu, Anju; Pandey, Ashok; Sukumaran, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    Esterases/lipases active in water miscible solvents are highly desired in biocatalysis where substrate solubility is limited and also when the solvent is desired as an acyl acceptor in transesterification reactions, as with the case of biodiesel production. We have isolated an esterase from the glycolipid producing yeast-Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 which in its crude form was alkali active, thermo stable, halo tolerant and also capable of acting in presence of high methanol concentration. The crude enzyme which maintained 90% of its original activity after being treated at 70°C was purified and the properties were characterized. The partially purified esterase preparation had temperature and pH optima of 60°C and 8.0 respectively. The enzyme retained almost complete activity in presence of 25% methanol and 80% activity in the same strength of ethanol. Conditions of enzyme production were optimized, which lead to 9 fold increase in the esterase yield. One of the isoforms of the enzyme LIP1 was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Purified LIP1 had a K m and V max of 0.01 and 1.12, respectively. The purified esterase lost its thermo and halo tolerance but interestingly, retained 97% activity in methanol. PMID:24800063

  18. Estimation of small business activity by county for the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, S.E. ); Yoder, T.N. )

    1992-09-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has commissioned the design of an assessment system to perform rapid analysis of the economic impacts of various disasters. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS) in response to this need. Its design includes several modules to support emergency assessment--the Facility Damage Assessment Module to provide rapid summaries of economic capacity at risk in a disaster area, the Regional Impacts Module (RIM) to estimate the change in a region's production, consumption, and net exports as a result of capacity lost in the disaster area, the Inter-Regional Trade Flows Module to identify potential interruptions in commodity trade flows between regions, based on the results of the RIM analysis, and the National Economic Model to identify potential macroeconomic impacts of the disaster. In addition to the assessment system, FEMA needs a core data base that contains the comprehensive, county-level information required to conduct regional and national impact analyses. The effort is focused on a general overview of the seriousness of each disaster (e.g., how large is the relative impact) and not on detailed local effects. However, the core data file must be complete enough and accurate enough to support analysis of the relative costs of different disasters. Coverage must be comprehensive in order to address equity issues, as well as detailed in the specific industries that most affect the economy's ability to respond to disaster.

  19. Estimation of small business activity by county for the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, S.E.; Yoder, T.N.

    1992-09-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has commissioned the design of an assessment system to perform rapid analysis of the economic impacts of various disasters. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS) in response to this need. Its design includes several modules to support emergency assessment--the Facility Damage Assessment Module to provide rapid summaries of economic capacity at risk in a disaster area, the Regional Impacts Module (RIM) to estimate the change in a region`s production, consumption, and net exports as a result of capacity lost in the disaster area, the Inter-Regional Trade Flows Module to identify potential interruptions in commodity trade flows between regions, based on the results of the RIM analysis, and the National Economic Model to identify potential macroeconomic impacts of the disaster. In addition to the assessment system, FEMA needs a core data base that contains the comprehensive, county-level information required to conduct regional and national impact analyses. The effort is focused on a general overview of the seriousness of each disaster (e.g., how large is the relative impact) and not on detailed local effects. However, the core data file must be complete enough and accurate enough to support analysis of the relative costs of different disasters. Coverage must be comprehensive in order to address equity issues, as well as detailed in the specific industries that most affect the economy`s ability to respond to disaster.

  20. Esterase Active in Polar Organic Solvents from the Yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165

    PubMed Central

    Shainu, Anju; Pandey, Ashok; Sukumaran, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Esterases/lipases active in water miscible solvents are highly desired in biocatalysis where substrate solubility is limited and also when the solvent is desired as an acyl acceptor in transesterification reactions, as with the case of biodiesel production. We have isolated an esterase from the glycolipid producing yeast-Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 which in its crude form was alkali active, thermo stable, halo tolerant and also capable of acting in presence of high methanol concentration. The crude enzyme which maintained 90% of its original activity after being treated at 70°C was purified and the properties were characterized. The partially purified esterase preparation had temperature and pH optima of 60°C and 8.0 respectively. The enzyme retained almost complete activity in presence of 25% methanol and 80% activity in the same strength of ethanol. Conditions of enzyme production were optimized, which lead to 9 fold increase in the esterase yield. One of the isoforms of the enzyme LIP1 was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Purified LIP1 had a Km and Vmax of 0.01 and 1.12, respectively. The purified esterase lost its thermo and halo tolerance but interestingly, retained 97% activity in methanol. PMID:24800063

  1. Combined Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Detection of a Ni(I) ⋅⋅⋅H-N Bonding Interaction with Relevance to Electrocatalytic H2 Production.

    PubMed

    Kochem, Amélie; O'Hagan, Molly; Wiedner, Eric S; van Gastel, Maurice

    2015-07-13

    The [Ni(P(R) 2 N(R') 2 )2 ](2+) family of complexes are exceptionally active catalysts for proton reduction to H2 . In this manuscript, we explore the first protonation step of the proposed catalytic cycle by using a catalytically inactive Ni(I) complex possessing a sterically demanding variation of the ligand. Due to the paramagnetic nature of the Ni(I) oxidation state, the protonated Ni(I) intermediate has been characterized through a combination of cyclic voltammetry, electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy, and hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopy. Both the electrochemical and spectroscopic studies indicate that the Ni(I) complex is protonated at a pendant amine that is endo to Ni, which suggests the presence of an intramolecular Ni(I) ⋅⋅⋅HN bonding interaction. Using density functional theory, the hydrogen bond was found to involve three doubly-occupied, localized molecular orbitals: the 3dxz , 3d z 2, and 3dyz orbitals of nickel. These studies provide the first direct experimental evidence for this critical catalytic intermediate, and implications for catalytic H2 production are discussed. PMID:26041715

  2. Replacement P212H altered the pH-temperature profile of phytase from Aspergillus niger NII 08121.

    PubMed

    Ushasree, Mrudula Vasudevan; Vidya, Jalaja; Pandey, Ashok

    2015-03-01

    Microbial phytase, a widely used animal feed enzyme, needs to be active and stable in the acidic milieu for better performance in the monogastric gut. Aspergillus niger phytases exhibit an activity dip in the pH range from 3.0 to 3.5. Replacement of amino acids, which changed the pKa of catalytic residues H82 and D362, resulted in alteration of the pH profile of a thermostable phytase from A. niger NII 08121. Substitution P212H in the protein loop at 14 Å distance to the active site amended the pH optimum from 2.5 to pH 3.2 nevertheless with a decrease in thermostability than the wild enzyme. This study described the utility of amino acid replacements based on pKa shifts of catalytic acid/base to modulate the pH profile of phytases. PMID:25595493

  3. Emergency Preparedness technology support to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the United Kingdom. Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    O`Kula, K.R.

    1994-03-01

    The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the United Kingdom (UK) suggested the use of an accident progression logic model method developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for K Reactor to predict the magnitude and timing of radioactivity releases (the source term) based on an advanced logic model methodology. Predicted releases are output from the personal computer-based model in a level-of-confidence format. Additional technical discussions eventually led to a request from the NII to develop a proposal for assembling a similar technology to predict source terms for the UK`s advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) type. To respond to this request, WSRC is submitting a proposal to provide contractual assistance as specified in the Scope of Work. The work will produce, document, and transfer technology associated with a Decision-Oriented Source Term Estimator for Emergency Preparedness (DOSE-EP) for the NII to apply to AGRs in the United Kingdom. This document, Appendix A is a part of this proposal.

  4. Predicting dissolved organic nitrogen export from a poorly drained loblolly pine plantation using the forestry version of DRAINMOD-NII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, S.; Youssef, M. M.; Skaggs, R. W.; Chescheir, G. M.; Amatya, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is one of the main nitrogen forms exported from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems and it plays important ecological functions in receiving surface water bodies. The DRAINMOD-NII forestry model was developed to predict water, carbon and nitrogen dynamics in drained forest ecosystems. We present an extended version of the model to predict DON export from drained forested lands. A new module has been added to the model to describe key mechanisms and processes regulating DON losses from forested lands. DON production rates was linked to the surface letter and soil microbial compartments and root exudates. The Langmuir isotherm was used to quantify the assumed instantaneous equilibrium between DON in solid and aqueous phases. DON transport with groundwater flow is simulated using numerical solutions to the advection-dispersion-reaction equation. We calibrated and validated the modified model using 21 years of water flow and DON loading data measured at the outlets of three forested (loblolly pine plantations) watersheds located in eastern North Carolina, USA. Field-testing results indicated that the model is capable of reproducing DON export dynamics on both annual and monthly basis. Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients were above 0.70 for predicted annual DON losses and above 0.63 for monthly predictions. The good model performance is most likely attributed to accurate predictions of drainage rates and reasonable quantification of biotic and abiotic controls on DON dynamics. Although there are some uncertainties of assumptions and methods adapted by the model, the relatively accurate predictions of DON loads indicates a good performance of the model given the currently limited understanding of these inherent factors and mechanisms controlling DON dynamics.

  5. Biomimetic mono- and dinuclear Ni(I) and Ni(II) complexes studied by X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuth, N.; Gehring, H.; Horn, B.; Holze, P.; Kositzki, R.; Schrapers, P.; Limberg, C.; Haumann, M.

    2016-05-01

    Five biomimetic mono- or dinuclear nickel complexes featuring Ni(I) or Ni(II) sites were studied by X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Ni K-edge XANES spectra and Kβ main and satellite emission lines were collected on powder samples. The pre-edge absorption transitions (core-to-valence excitation) and Kβ2,5 emission transitions (valence-to-core decay) were calculated using DFT (TPSSh/TZVP) on crystal structures. This yielded theoretical ctv and vtc spectra in near-quantitative agreement with the experiment, showing the adequacy of the DFT approach for electronic structure description, emphasizing the sensitivity of the XAS/XES spectra for ligation/redox changes at nickel, and revealing the configuration of unoccupied and occupied valence levels, as well as the spin-coupling modes in the dinuclear complexes. XAS/XES-DFT is valuable for molecular and electronic structure analysis of synthetic complexes and of nickel centers in H2 or COx converting metalloenzymes.

  6. First Detections of the [NII] 122 Micrometer Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [NIl] 122 {\\mu} m line from a high redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (> 6{\\sigma}) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and HI413+ 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS) on the CSO. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line-to-FIR continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0x10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1x10(exp -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line-to-continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8 to 17% of the molecular gas mass. The [OIII]/[NII] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an AGN. Using our previous detection of the [01II] 88 {\\mu}m line, the [OIII]/ [NIl] line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar HII regions ionized by 09.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter 10g(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30 to 50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [NIl] line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This work demonstrates the utility of the [NIl] and [OIII] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  7. NII Simulator 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-12-02

    The software listed here is a simulator for SAIC P7500 VACIS non intrusive inspection system. The simulator provides messages similar to those provided by this piece of equipment.To facilitate testing of the Second Line of Defense systems and similar software products from commercial software vendors, this software simulation application has been developed to simulate the P7500 that the Second Line of Defense communications software system must interface with. The primary use of this simulator ismore » for testing of both Sandia developed and DOE contractor developed software.« less

  8. NII Simulator 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Craig; Salazar, Anthony; Humphrey, Walter; & Johnson, ALfred

    2009-12-02

    The software listed here is a simulator for SAIC P7500 VACIS non intrusive inspection system. The simulator provides messages similar to those provided by this piece of equipment.To facilitate testing of the Second Line of Defense systems and similar software products from commercial software vendors, this software simulation application has been developed to simulate the P7500 that the Second Line of Defense communications software system must interface with. The primary use of this simulator is for testing of both Sandia developed and DOE contractor developed software.

  9. X-Ray Crystallographic, Multifrequency EPR, and DFT Characterization of the Ni(PCy2NtBu2)2n+ Hydrogen Oxidation Catalyst in the Ni(I) Oxidation State

    PubMed Central

    Niklas, Jens; Westwood, Mark; Mardis, Kristy L.; Brown, Tiara L.; Pitts-McCoy, Anthony M.; Hopkins, Michael D.; Poluektov, Oleg G.

    2016-01-01

    The Ni(I) hydrogen oxidation catalyst [Ni(PCy2NtBu2)2]+ (1+; PCy2NtBu2= 1,5bis(tert-butyl)-3,7-dicyclo-hexyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacychlooctane) has been studied using a combination of EPR techniques (X-, Q-, and D-band; electron-nuclear double resonance, hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy), X-ray crystallography, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Crystallographic and DFT studies indicate that the molecular structure of 1+ is highly symmetrical. EPR spectroscopy has allowed determination of the electronic g-tensor and the spin density distribution on the ligands, and revealed that the Ni(I) center does not interact strongly with the potentially coordinating solvents acetonitrile and butyronitrile. The EPR spectra and magnetic parameters of 1+ are found to be distinctly different from those for the related compound [Ni(PPh2NPh2)2]+ (4+). One significant contributor to these differences is that the molecular structure of 4+ is unsymmetrical, unlike that of 1+. DFT calculations on derivatives in which the R and R′ groups are systematically varied have allowed elucidation of structure/substituent relationships and their corresponding influence on the magnetic resonance parameters. PMID:26098955

  10. NII Task Force Issues Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Presents the preliminary report of the National Information Infrastructure's Task Force on Intellectual Property. Topics addressed include current copyright law; distribution rights; publication; first sale doctrine; technological protection; copyright management information; public performance right; fair use; licensing; international issues;…

  11. A Practical and Cost Effective Demonstration of Efficient Energy Usage and Quality Management Using the NII

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    In order to be competitive in the changing electric power industry, and to promote energy efficiency and conservation, electric power providers need to have access to information on the power system to a level of detail that has not been available in the past. This level of detail extends beyond the usual voltage, current, power, and energy quantities obtained from traditional utility SCADA systems.

  12. [CII] 158 μm and [NII] 205μm emission in IC342

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röllig, M.; Simon, R.; Güsten, R.; Stutzki, J.; Israel, F.; Jacobs, K.

    2016-05-01

    Atomic fine-structure line emission is a major cooling process in the interstellar medium (ISM). In particular the [C ii] 158 μm line is one of the dominant cooling lines in photon-dominated regions (PDRs). However, it is not confined to PDRs only but can also originate from the ionized gas closely surrounding young massive stars. Here we discuss the question how much of the [C ii] emission in the nucleus of the nearby spiral galaxy IC 342 is contributed by PDRs and by the ionized gas. Particularly the correlation of the [C ii] line with the also observed [N ii] 205 μm emission line coming exclusively from the [H ii] regions is investigated. The emission coming from the ionized gas shows a kinematic component in addition to the general Doppler signature of the molecular gas. We discuss how this requires an adaptation of our understanding of the geometrical structure of the nucleus of IC 342. Applying predictions from numerical models of [H ii] and PDR regions to derive the contribution from the ionized phase to the total [C ii] emission we find that 30-60% of the observed [C ii] intensity stems from the ionized gas if both phases contribute.

  13. 78 FR 37499 - Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) Devices in the 5 GHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Rulemaking (``NPRM''), 78 FR 21320, April 10, 2013, in the above-captioned proceeding. That NPRM established... period submitted by IEEE 802 and W-Fi Alliance. We find that good cause exist for an extension of the..., IEEE 802 requested that the reply comment deadline be extended by 30 days because in reviewing...

  14. Physical Properties of the Magellanic Bridge Tidal Remnant through Mapped Hα, [SII], and [NII] Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Kathleen; Haffner, L. Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We present the first kinematically resolved [S II] λ6716 and [N II] λ6583 emission maps of the entire Magellanic Bridge that were observed with the Wisconsin Hα Mapper Telescope. Combining these maps with the complementary Hα maps of Barger et al. (2013), we explore the temperature, sulfur and nitrogen ionization state, and sources of the ionization of the warm-ionized gas in the Magellanic Bridge, the SMC-Tail, and the LMC-Bridge interface region. Within the Magellanic Bridge, we find that the low velocity (+100 to +200 km s-1 ) and the high velocity (+200 to +300 km s-1 ) gas have different properties, suggesting that it is composed of at least two separate and coherent filaments. Within the high-velocity filament, a high-velocity ridge of gas—with different properties from the high-velocity structure—extends along the high-latitude edge of the Hα SMC-Tail to low latitude edge LMC-Bridge interface. This ridge coincides with a strip of early-type stars, suggesting that these stars are influencing this gas. We further find that the properties of both the SMC-Tail and LMC-Bridge interface regions have similar properties and therefore are likely affected by similar ionization sources.

  15. The [NII] 205 μm Emission in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C. Kevin; Gao, Yu; Lord, Steven D.; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Evans, Aaron; Howell, Justin; Petric, Andreea O.; van der Werf, Paul P.; Sanders, David B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present the measurements of the [N ii] 205 μm line for a flux-limited sample of 122 (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies [(U)LIRGs] and 20 additional normal galaxies, obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel). We explore the far-infrared (FIR) color dependence of the [N ii] 205 μm (L[N ii]205 μm) to the total infrared (LIR) luminosity ratio, and find that L[N ii]205 μm/LIR only depends modestly on the 70-160 μm flux density ratio ({f}70/{f}160) when {f}70/{f}160≲ 0.6, whereas such dependence becomes much steeper for {f}70/{f}160\\gt 0.6. We also investigate the relation between L[N ii]205 μm and star formation rate (SFR), and show that L[N ii]205 μm has a nearly linear correlation with SFR, albeit the intercept of such a relation varies somewhat with {f}60/{f}100, consistent with our previous conclusion that [N ii] 205 μm emission can serve as an SFR indicator with an accuracy of ˜0.4 dex, or ˜0.2 dex if {f}60/{f}100 is known independently. Furthermore, together with the Infrared Space Observatory measurements of [N ii], we use a total of ˜200 galaxies to derive the local [N ii] 205 μm luminosity function (LF) by tying it to the known IR LF with a bivariate method. As a practical application, we also compute the local SFR volume density ({\\dot{ρ }}{{SFR}}) using the newly derived SFR calibrator and LF. The resulting {log} {\\dot{ρ }}{{SFR}}=-1.96+/- 0.11 {M}⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3 agrees well with previous studies. Finally, we determine the electron densities (ne) of the ionized medium for a subsample of 12 (U)LIRGs with both [N ii] 205 μm and [N ii] 122 μm data, and find that ne is in the range of ˜1-100 cm-3, with a median value of 22 cm-3. Based on Herschel observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: [NII]205um emission in local luminous IR galaxies (Zhao+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Lu, N.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Lord, S. D.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Evans, A.; Howell, J.; Petric, A. O.; van der Werf, P. P.; Sanders, D. B.

    2016-05-01

    The primary sample studied in this paper is from the Herschel open time project Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (OT1nlu1; PI: N. Lu). The observations were conducted with the Herschel SPIRE/FTS in its point source spectroscopy mode and high spectral resolution configuration, yielding a spectral resolution of 0.04/cm (or 1.2GHz) over the spectral coverage of 194-672um. (1 data file).

  17. The Russian Scientific Research Institue Of Parachute Design And Production (NII Parachutostroyeniya, NIIPC)- History, Research And Collaboration In Space Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyalin, V.; Ladygin, V.; Komarov, V.; Kuleshov, V.; Wong, H.; Offerman, J.; Thirkettle, A.

    2011-05-01

    NIIPC was established in 1946 for the development of paradrop equipment and is one of a few companies in the world to perform the full cycle of parachute development, including scientific research, design, manufacturing, test and modification. NIIPC produced the parachute systems for Yuri Gagarin and all of the Russian manned space missions, Vistok, Voshod and Soyuz. It produced the parachutes for unmanned missions, Almaz, Bion, Cosmos as well as the reentry modules for Mars, Venus and from the Moon. NIIPC has its own school for training of scientific personnel and large scientific and technical archive. The existing knowledge and computer codes are used for the development of prospective parachute systems. Research includes all aspects such as payload- parachute dynamics, inflation, clusters, gliding parachutes, and aeroballistic heating and strength of supersonic parachutes. International collaboration included the Ariane 5 booster parachutes with Dutch Space and development of the current supersonic parachute system for EXPERT. An Ariane 5 booster weighs 41 tonnes dry and involves a 3-stage parachute system. The EXPERT parachute deploys a drogue supersonic parachute at Mach 1.7, before extracting a main cross-shaped parachute. The test campaign for EXPERT started in 2010 and will be completed by summer 2011.

  18. Infrared and EPR Spectroscopic Characterization of a Ni(I) Species Formed by Photolysis of a Catalytically Competent Ni(I)-CO Intermediate in the Acetyl-CoA Synthase Reaction†

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Güneş; Stich, Troy A.; Yan, Lifen; Britt, R. David; Cramer, Stephen P.; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS) catalyzes the synthesis of acetyl-CoA from CO, coenzyme A (CoA), and a methyl-group from the CH3-Co3+ site in the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (CFeSP). These are the key steps in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of anaerobic CO and CO2 fixation. The active site of ACS is the A-cluster, which is an unusual nickel-iron-sulfur cluster. There is significant evidence for the catalytic intermediacy of a CO-bound paramagnetic Ni species, with an electronic configuration of [Fe4S4]2+-(Nip1+–CO)-(Nid2+), where Nip and Nid represent the Ni centers in the A-cluster that are proximal and distal to the [Fe4S4]2+ cluster. This well-characterized Nip1+–CO intermediate is often called NiFeC species. Photolysis of the Nip1+–CO state generates a novel Nip1+ species (Ared*) with a rhombic electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum (g-values of 2.56, 2.10, 2.01) and an extremely low (1 kJ/mol) barrier for recombination with CO. We suggest that the photolytically generated Ared* species is (or is similar to) the Nip1+ species that binds CO (to form the Nip1+–CO species) and the methyl group (to form Nip-CH3) in the ACS catalytic mechanism. The results provide support for a binding site (an “alcove”) for CO near Nip, indicated by X-ray crystallographic studies of the Xe-incubated enzyme. We propose that, during catalysis, a resting Nip2+ state predominates over the active Nip1+ species (Ared*) that is trapped by the coupling of a one-electron transfer step to the binding of CO, which pulls the equilibrium toward Nip1+-CO formation. PMID:20669901

  19. Services and the National Information Infrastructure. Report of the Information Infrastructure Task Force Committee on Applications and Technology, Technology Policy Working Group. Draft for Public Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC.

    In this report, the National Information Infrastructure (NII) services issue is addressed, and activities to advance the development of NII services are recommended. The NII is envisioned to grow into a seamless web of communications networks, computers, databases, and consumer electronics that will put vast amounts of information at users'…

  20. Technology Deployment and Interoperability in the National Information Infrastructure. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and Aviation of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science, Space and Technology.

    This document presents the proceedings of a Congressional hearing on private sector initiatives to develop the National Information Infrastructure (NII) with a focus on understanding the nature of industry investment in the NII and how those investments will contribute to the Administration's goals for NII. Statements are provided by the following…

  1. EEE Links, Volume 9, No. 1, January 2003 Focus on Plastic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The January 2003 issue of Electronic, Electromechanical, Electric (EEE) Links is presented. The Programmable Logic Application Notes column has been reinstated in this newsletter. Written by Rich Katz of NASA's Office of Logic Design (OLD), the application notes offer technical tips intended to prevent flight design errors and enhance research, development, and use of programmable logic and elements for space flight applications. An archive of these notes columns from previous issues of EEE Links is available at http://www.klabs.org/richcontent/eeelink s/EEE Links.htm.

  2. Putting the Information Infrastructure to Work. Report of the Information Infrastructure Task Force Committee on Applications and Technology. NIST Special Publication 857.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

    An interconnection of computer networks, telecommunications services, and applications, the National Information Infrastructure (NII) can open up new vistas and profoundly change much of American life. This report explores some of the opportunities and obstacles to the use of the NII by people and organizations. The goal is to express how…

  3. The Public Library Building and Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Gerard B.

    A library building consultant discusses ways in which public libraries can plan for the participation of their libraries in the National Information Infrastructure (NII). With participants ranging from schools to agencies of local government, large volumes of information will be passing through the NII network. Public libraries will be engaged in…

  4. Enthusiasts, Deregulators, Guardians, and Skeptics: Contrasting Policy Viewpoints on the National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Donald O.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews more than 80 National Information Infrastructure (NII)-related documents, published from 1988 to 1997, and classifies their views and authors according to a two-dimensional typology by policy analyst William Dutton. Comparisons are made between those advocating "Public" versus "Market" leadership in NII development, and between promotional…

  5. The Uses of the National Information Infrastructure in Providing Services to Small Industry, State and Local Governments, and Education in Rural Areas. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session (Billings, Montana).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    The Senate Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space held a hearing in Billings, Montana, on rural America's access to the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and uses of NII in the provision of rural education and services. An Assistant Secretary of Commerce discussed the development of the Internet, problems in rural access to the…

  6. Neuronal intranuclear inclusions are ultrastructurally and immunologically distinct from cytoplasmic inclusions of neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease.

    PubMed

    Mosaheb, Sabrina; Thorpe, Julian R; Hashemzadeh-Bonehi, Lida; Bigio, Eileen H; Gearing, Marla; Cairns, Nigel J

    2005-10-01

    Abnormal neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) containing aggregates of alpha-internexin and the neurofilament (NF) subunits, NF-H, NF-M, and NF-L, are the signature lesions of neuronal intermediate filament (IF) inclusion disease (NIFID). The disease has a clinically heterogeneous phenotype, including frontotemporal dementia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs presenting at a young age. NCIs are variably ubiquitinated and about half of cases also have neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs), which are also ubiquitinated. NIIs have been described in polyglutamine-repeat expansion diseases, where they are strongly ubiquitin immunoreactive. The fine structure of NIIs of NIFID has not previously been described. Therefore, to determine the ultrastructure of NIIs, immunoelectron microscopy was undertaken on NIFID cases and normal aged control brains. Our results indicate that the NIIs of NIFID are strongly ubiquitin immunoreactive. However, unlike NCIs which contain ubiquitin, alpha-internexin and NF epitopes, NIIs contain neither epitopes of alpha-internexin nor NF subunits. Neither NIIs nor NCIs were recognised by antibodies to expanded polyglutamine repeats. The NII of NIFID lacks a limiting membrane and contains straight filaments of 20 nm mean width (range 11-35 nm), while NCIs contain filaments with a mean width of 10 nm (range 5-18 nm; t-test, P<0.001). Biochemistry revealed no differences in neuronal IF protein mobilities between NIFID and normal brain tissue. Therefore, NIIs of NIFID contain filaments morphologically and immunologically distinct from those of NCIs, and both types of inclusion lack expanded polyglutamine tracts of the triplet-repeat expansion diseases. These observations indicate that abnormal protein aggregation follows separate pathways in different neuronal compartments of NIFID. PMID:16025283

  7. A systems configuration toolkit for modular integration of mechatronic resources

    SciTech Connect

    Oppel, F.J. III; Palmquist, R.

    1995-07-01

    The use of the NII (National Information Infrastructure) is growing rapidly in the number of users and in the areas in which it is being applied. Sandia is using, the NII to leverage the use of geographically distributed mechatronic (electromechanical) assets. This paper discusses the availability of networks, new challenges for robotics technology, and how the use of networks is helping to meet these challenges. A brief overview of the NII is provided, followed by a listing of ``needs`` within the intelligent systems community. An approach is then given for meeting, these needs and, finally, implementation, examples, and future research directions are discussed.

  8. Búsqueda de regiones de baja excitación en nebulosas planetarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vena Valdarenas, R. R.; Schmidt, E. O.; Volpe, M. G.; Weidmann, W.; Mudrik, A.

    2015-08-01

    We present early results from observations with narrow band filter ([NII], 6584 ) for a sample of austral planetary nebulae. The observations are being made from Bosque Alegre Astrophysical Station. The observation inherent aspects will be treated in detail.

  9. Analysis of NASA communications (Nascom) II network protocols and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom II (NII) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System, and other projects. NII is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The authors describe various baseline protocol architectures based on current and evolving technologies. They address the internetworking issues suggested for reliable transfer of data over heterogeneous segments. They also describe the NII architecture, topology, system components, and services. A comparative evaluation of the current and evolving technologies was made, and suggestions for further study are described. It is shown that the direction of the NII configuration and the subsystem component design will clearly depend on the advances made in the area of broadband integrated services.

  10. 47 CFR 2.1093 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: portable devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of this chapter, and unlicensed personal communication service, unlicensed NII devices and millimeter... to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,” ANSI/IEEE...

  11. EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON NEURONAL DEVELOPMENT IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increased use of organophosphorus compounds as alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has led to widespread human exposure, There is, however, limited information on their potential health effects. This study compared the effects of nii ne organophosphorus flame...

  12. Essential gene identification and drug target prioritization in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenqi; Sillaots, Susan; Lemieux, Sebastien; Davison, John; Kauffman, Sarah; Breton, Anouk; Linteau, Annie; Xin, Chunlin; Bowman, Joel; Becker, Jeff; Jiang, Bo; Roemer, Terry

    2007-03-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne filamentous fungal pathogen in humans, causing severe and often fatal invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. Currently available antifungal drugs to treat invasive aspergillosis have limited modes of action, and few are safe and effective. To identify and prioritize antifungal drug targets, we have developed a conditional promoter replacement (CPR) strategy using the nitrogen-regulated A. fumigatus NiiA promoter (pNiiA). The gene essentiality for 35 A. fumigatus genes was directly demonstrated by this pNiiA-CPR strategy from a set of 54 genes representing broad biological functions whose orthologs are confirmed to be essential for growth in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Extending this approach, we show that the ERG11 gene family (ERG11A and ERG11B) is essential in A. fumigatus despite neither member being essential individually. In addition, we demonstrate the pNiiA-CPR strategy is suitable for in vivo phenotypic analyses, as a number of conditional mutants, including an ERG11 double mutant (erg11BDelta, pNiiA-ERG11A), failed to establish a terminal infection in an immunocompromised mouse model of systemic aspergillosis. Collectively, the pNiiA-CPR strategy enables a rapid and reliable means to directly identify, phenotypically characterize, and facilitate target-based whole cell assays to screen A. fumigatus essential genes for cognate antifungal inhibitors. PMID:17352532

  13. Technical Note: On the possibly missing mechanism of 15 μm emission in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R. D.

    2015-02-01

    Accurate knowledge of the rate as well as the mechanism of excitation of the bending mode of CO2 is necessary for reliable modeling of the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) region of the atmosphere. Assuming the excitation mechanism to be thermal collisions with atomic oxygen, the rate coefficient derived from the observed 15 μm emission by space-based experiments (kATM = 6.0 × 10-12 cm3s-1) differs from the laboratory measurements (kLAB =(1.5-2.5) × 10-12 cm3s-1) by a factor of 2-4. The general circulation models (GCMs) of Earth, Venus, and Mars have chosen to use a median value of kGCM = 3.0 × 10-12 cm3s-1 for this rate coefficient. As a first step to resolve the discrepancies between the three rate coefficients, we attempt to find the source of disagreement between the first two. It is pointed out that a large magnitude of the difference between these two rate coefficients (kx ≡ kATM - kLAB) requires that the unknown mechanism involve one or both major species: N2, O. Because of the rapidly decreasing volume mixing ratio (VMR) of CO2 with altitude, the exciting partner must be long lived and transfer energy efficiently. It is shown that thermal collisions with N2, mediated by a near-resonant rotation-to-vibration (RV) energy transfer process, while giving a reasonable rate coefficient kVR for de-excitation of the bending mode of CO2, lead to vibration-to-translation kVT rate coefficients in the terrestrial atmosphere that are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than those observed in the laboratory. It is pointed out that the efficient near-resonant rotation-to-vibration (RV) energy transfer process has a chance of being the unknown mechanism if very high rotational levels of N2, produced by the reaction of N and NO and other collisional processes, have a super-thermal population and are long lived. Since atomic oxygen plays a critical role in the mechanisms discussed here, it suggested that its density be determined experimentally by ground- and space

  14. Sequence homology requirements for transcriptional silencing of 35S transgenes and post-transcriptional silencing of nitrite reductase (trans)genes by the tobacco 271 locus.

    PubMed

    Thierry, D; Vaucheret, H

    1996-12-01

    The transgene locus of the tobacco plant 271 (271 locus) is located on a telomere and consists of multiple copies of a plasmid carrying an NptII marker gene driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 19S promoter and the leaf-specific nitrite reductase Nii1 cDNA cloned in the antisense orientation under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. Previous analysis of gene expression in leaves has shown that this locus triggers both post-transcriptional silencing of the host leaf-specific Nii genes and transcriptional silencing of transgenes driven by the 19S or 35S promoter irrespective of their coding sequence and of their location in the genome. In this paper we show that silencing of transgenes carrying Nii1 sequences occurs irrespective of the promoter driving their expression and of their location within the genome. This phenomenon occurs in roots as well as in leaves although root Nii genes share only 84% identity with leaf-specific Nii1 sequences carried by the 271 locus. Conversely, transgenes carrying the bean Nii gene (which shares 76% identity with the tobacco Nii1 gene) escape silencing by the 271 locus. We also show that transgenes driven by the figwort mosaic virus 34S promoter (which shares 63% identity with the 35S promoter) also escape silencing by the 271 locus. Taken together, these results indicate that a high degree of sequence similarity is required between the sequences of the silencing locus and of the target (trans)genes for both transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing. PMID:9002606

  15. 3D Reconstruction of the Vortex in a Human Right Ventricle Model using High Speed PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheradvar, Arash; Falahatpisheh, Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    This work aims to characterize the formation process and translation of the vortex, which forms along with the trans-tricuspid jet in a realistic model of a human right ventricle (RV). A clear model of the RV made of silicone rubber was carefully casted in real size from echocardiographic data of an adult human heart. The RV model was used in our heart pulsed-flow simulator at KLAB at UCI to perform experiments. Bioprosthetic heart valves in appropriate sizes were used at tricuspid and pulmonary positions. Multi-planar high-speed PIV was performed to capture and reconstruct the 3D flow field with a 1-millisecond time gap between each two velocity frames. λ2 iso-surfaces were used to illustrate the evolution of vortex cores. The highly asymmetric shape of the RV chamber results in a complex 3D trans-tricuspid vortex that forms and translates toward right ventricular outflow tract, and finally departs RV from pulmonary valve. Through this study, -for the first time- the formation, evolution and pathway of the RV vortex have been characterized in vitro.

  16. Communications satellites in the national and global health care information infrastructure: their role, impact, and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuzek, J. E.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1996-01-01

    Health care services delivered from a distance, known collectively as telemedicine, are being increasingly demonstrated on various transmission media. Telemedicine activities have included diagnosis by a doctor at a remote location, emergency and disaster medical assistance, medical education, and medical informatics. The ability of communications satellites to offer communication channels and bandwidth on demand, connectivity to mobile, remote and under served regions, and global access will afford them a critical role for telemedicine applications within the National and Global Information Infrastructure (NII/GII). The importance that communications satellites will have in telemedicine applications within the NII/GII the differences in requirements for NII vs. GII, the major issues such as interoperability, confidentiality, quality, availability, and costs, and preliminary conclusions for future usability based on the review of several recent trails at national and global levels are presented.

  17. EUV studies of N2 and O2 produced by low energy electron impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, H. D.; Mentall, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The emission spectra resulting from electron impact excitation on molecular nitrogen and oxygen in the 500-1200 A spectral region are investigated. Electron energies are from 0 to 300 eV. Numerous bands of N2 are found between 800 and 1000 A. Excitation functions are measured for the NII 916 A, the OI 879 A, and the OII 834 multiplets, and nitrogen band emission. Cross sections were measured at 200 eV for several of the band emissions plus the NI 1135 A, NI 1164 A, NI 1177 A, NII 776 A, NII 1084 A, OI 1152 A, OI 1041 A, OI 999 A, OI 989 A, OI 879 A, OII 834 A, OII 616 A, OII 555 A, OII 539 A, and OII 718 A multiplets.

  18. Large scale excitation of the ISM in NGC 1068

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, J.; Bland, Jonathan; Cecil, G. N.; Tully, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers have shown that photoionization by the continuum of the hidden Seyfert I nucleus in NGC 1068 can have a significant effect on the ionization state and energetics of this disk's Interstellar Medium (ISM). Photoionization models with appropriate power law spectra can produce (NII) lambda lambda 6538, 6584/H alpha line ratios of 1.25 for ionization parameters Q approx. 10 (exp -12). However the data indicate large regions where the (NII)/H alpha ratio is 1 to 3. Since the abundances are known to be solar, there must be additional heating sources. Hardening of the incident radiation field by intervening absorption should be able to raise T sub e, thereby raising the (NII)/H alpha ratio. Heating with moderate efficiency by the intense starburst ring should also be a significant factor in raising the temperature of the ISM. The photoionization models with additional heating predict enhanced emission from other forbidden lines including (OII) lambda 3727 and (SII) lambda 6731.

  19. The role of wireless communications in the National Information Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Backof, C.A.

    1995-08-01

    We live today in a communications world of private voice and public images. The telephone provides private voice contact, while television delivers public broadcast images. With the National Information Infrastructure (NII), that communications model will expand to include private and public access to all forms of information, supporting services and products that can only be imagined. The model is however constrained to fit a wired format, even though people have come to expect wireless access. This paper explores the applications and technologies needed to extend the NII with broadband wireless access, and presents estimates of the spectrum required to achieve this extension.

  20. Potassium Quantity-Intensity Parameters and its Correlation with Selected Soil Properties in Some Soils of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaslou, H.; Abtahi, A.

    Potassium exchange-equilibrium were obtained from quantity-intensity (Q/I) isotherms, i.e., K equilibrium activity ratio (AR0k), K labile (Klab), equilibrium potential buffering capacity for k (PBCkequ), free energy of k replishment (-ΔGkequ), the Gapon selectively coefficient (kG), least soil exchangeable potassium (Emin) and initial equilibrium concentration solution potassium (C, k0). Characterization of these relations provides general information on the nature of K equilibrium and surve as a good index of K supplying power of soil. Plant availability of soil potassium is controlled by dynamic interactions among its different pools. Misunderstanding of these dynamics leads to mismanagement of soil fertility. These relationships were investigated in some selected soils of Fars province, Iran. K equilibrium activity ratio (AR0k) ranged between 1.74 to 19.90 (mmol dm-3)0.5, labile K values fluctuated within the range 1.28 to -9.78 meq 100 g-1 soil. And equilibrium potential buffering capacity (PBCkequ) fluctuated from 31.14 to 100.64 meq 100 g-1 (mmol dm-3)0.5. Potassium was significantly controlled by soil properties. Potassium activity was controlled more by silt (r = 0.80**), Mn-BCD (r = 0.67*), Mn-OX (r = 0.73*) and the -ΔGkequ values had significantly correlated with silt (r = 0.79*), Mn- BCD (r = 0.68*) Mn-OX (r = 0.71*). This result implies that studies of potassium dynamics of soils should additionally consider the level of Fe and especially Mn, as well. The Q/I parameters provide useful information for understanding K+ availability in calcareous soils and can be used for K+ fertilizer recommendations.

  1. Distance Learning Revisited: Life-Long Learning and the National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburg, Michael; Ullmer, Eldon J.

    This paper "revisits" distance learning by addressing its past achievements, its present state, and its future in the face of the rapidly converging computer and communications technologies and the goals and potential that underlie the creation of the proposed National Information Infrastructure (NII). The analysis was undertaken recognizing that…

  2. Improving Institutional Performance through IT-Enabled Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, William H.

    2005-01-01

    In its report "Innovate America," the National Innovation Initiative (NII) calls for an "innovation infrastructure" as the foundation for the nation's future productivity and competitiveness. The report notes: "Innovation generates the productivity that economists estimate has accounted for half of U.S. GDP growth over the past 50 years... It's…

  3. The Federal Government and Information Technology Standards: Building the National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radack, Shirley M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the role of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the development of the National Information Infrastructure (NII). Highlights include the standards process; voluntary standards; Open Systems Interconnection problems; Internet Protocol Suite; consortia; government's role; and network security. (16 references) (LRW)

  4. The Information Infrastructure: Reaching Society's Goals. A Report of the Information Infrastructure Task Force Committee on Applications and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

    Intended for public comment and discussion, this document is the second volume of papers in which the Information Infrastructure Task Force has attempted to articulate in clear terms, with sufficient detail, how improvements in the National Information Infrastructure (NII) can help meet other social goals. These are not plans to be enacted, but…

  5. Electrochemical, Spectroscopic, and Density Functional Theory Characterization of Redox Activity in Nickel-Substituted Azurin: A Model for Acetyl-CoA Synthase.

    PubMed

    Manesis, Anastasia C; Shafaat, Hannah S

    2015-08-17

    Nickel-containing enzymes are key players in global hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane cycles. Many of these enzymes rely on Ni(I) oxidation states in critical catalytic intermediates. However, due to the highly reactive nature of these species, their isolation within metalloenzymes has often proved elusive. In this report, we describe and characterize a model biological Ni(I) species that has been generated within the electron transfer protein, azurin. Replacement of the native copper cofactor with nickel is shown to preserve the redox activity of the protein. The Ni(II/I) couple is observed at -590 mV versus NHE, with an interfacial electron transfer rate of 70 s(-1). Chemical reduction of Ni(II)Az generates a stable species with strong absorption features at 350 nm and a highly anisotropic, axial EPR signal with principal g-values of 2.56 and 2.10. Density functional theory calculations provide insight into the electronic and geometric structure of the Ni(I) species, suggesting a trigonal planar coordination environment. The predicted spectroscopic features of this low-coordinate nickel site are in good agreement with the experimental data. Molecular orbital analysis suggests potential for both metal-centered and ligand-centered reactivity, highlighting the covalency of the metal-thiolate bond. Characterization of a stable Ni(I) species within a model protein has implications for understanding the mechanisms of complex enzymes, including acetyl coenzyme A synthase, and developing scaffolds for unique reactivity. PMID:26234790

  6. 20/20 Vision: The Development of a National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Telecommunications and Information Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

    After the publication of the Clinton Administration's "The National Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Action," a group of telecommunication specialists were asked to evaluate the proposals in order to broaden the policy discussion concerning the National Information Infrastructure (NII). This collection contains their visions of the nation's…

  7. Libraries and Their Role in the Information Infrastructure. Hearing on Examining the Role of Libraries in Developing America's New Information Infrastructure, before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The purpose of this congressional hearing was to determine how libraries fit into the emerging national information infrastructure (NII). Testimony and prepared statements include those from Howard F. McGinn, Director, Emporia Public Library, Emporia, Kansas; James H. Billington, Librarian of Congress, Library of Congress, Washington D.C.,…

  8. The development of regulatory expectations for computer-based safety systems for the UK nuclear programme

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P. J.; Westwood, R.N; Mark, R. T.; Tapping, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has completed a review of their Safety Assessment Principles (SAPs) for Nuclear Installations recently. During the period of the SAPs review in 2004-2005 the designers of future UK naval reactor plant were optioneering the control and protection systems that might be implemented. Because there was insufficient regulatory guidance available in the naval sector to support this activity the Defence Nuclear Safety Regulator (DNSR) invited the NII to collaborate with the production of a guidance document that provides clarity of regulatory expectations for the production of safety cases for computer based safety systems. A key part of producing regulatory expectations was identifying the relevant extant standards and sector guidance that reflect good practice. The three principal sources of such good practice were: IAEA Safety Guide NS-G-1.1 (Software for Computer Based Systems Important to Safety in Nuclear Power Plants), European Commission consensus document (Common Position of European Nuclear Regulators for the Licensing of Safety Critical Software for Nuclear Reactors) and IEC nuclear sector standards such as IEC60880. A common understanding has been achieved between the NII and DNSR and regulatory guidance developed which will be used by both NII and DNSR in the assessment of computer-based safety systems and in the further development of more detailed joint technical assessment guidance for both regulatory organisations. (authors)

  9. Innovation, TIDE Teachers, and the Global Economy: The Direct Ability of a TIDE Education to Create Investors and Innovators is Simply Overlooked and Underestimated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkweather, Kendall N.

    2005-01-01

    The National Innovation Initiative (NII) defines innovation as "the intersection of invention and insight, leading to the creation of social and economic value." Innovation has been fundamental in exploration, opportunity, and discovery. It is the story of how technology has advanced, is used, and powers the economic engines of a country. NII…

  10. Humanities and Arts on the Information Highways: A Profile. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getty Art History Information Program, Santa Monica, CA.

    A National Initiative has been formed to address the urgent need for the humanities and arts to gain a voice in the planning and development of the National Information Infrastructure (NII). This report makes a case for the importance of connecting all people with electronic access to the nation's cultural heritage, and relates the special…

  11. Combined Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Detection of a NiI•••H–N Bonding Interaction with Relevance to Electrocatalytic H2 Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kochem, Amelie; O'Hagan, Molly J.; Wiedner, Eric S.; van Gastel, Maurice

    2015-07-13

    The [Ni(PR2NR’2)2]2+ family of complexes are exceptionally active catalysts for proton reduction to H2. In this manuscript, we explore the first protonation step of the proposed catalytic cycle by using a catalytically inactive NiI complex possessing a sterically demanding variation of the ligand. Due to the paramagnetic nature of the NiI oxidation state, the protonated NiI intermediate has been characterized through a combination of cyclic voltammetry, ENDOR, and HYSCORE spectroscopy. Both the electrochemical and spectroscopic studies indicate that the NiI complex is protonated at a pendant amine that is endo to Ni, which suggests the presence of an intramolecular NiI•••HN bonding interaction. Using density functional theory, the proton was found to hydrogen bond to three doubly-occupied, localized molecular orbitals: the 3dxz, 3dz2, and 3dyz orbitals of nickel. These studies provide the first direct experimental evidence for this critical catalytic intermediate, and implications for catalytic H2 production are discussed. Research was supported by the Max Planck Society (EPR, ENDOR, and HYSCORE spectroscopy, computational studies), and as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (electrochemistry, NMR spectroscopy). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  12. The High-Performance Computing and Communications program, the national information infrastructure and health care.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, D A; Humphreys, B L

    1995-01-01

    The High-Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program is a multiagency federal effort to advance the state of computing and communications and to provide the technologic platform on which the National Information Infrastructure (NII) can be built. The HPCC program supports the development of high-speed computers, high-speed telecommunications, related software and algorithms, education and training, and information infrastructure technology and applications. The vision of the NII is to extend access to high-performance computing and communications to virtually every U.S. citizen so that the technology can be used to improve the civil infrastructure, lifelong learning, energy management, health care, etc. Development of the NII will require resolution of complex economic and social issues, including information privacy. Health-related applications supported under the HPCC program and NII initiatives include connection of health care institutions to the Internet; enhanced access to gene sequence data; the "Visible Human" Project; and test-bed projects in telemedicine, electronic patient records, shared informatics tool development, and image systems. PMID:7614116

  13. Children's Depression Screener (ChilD-S): Development and Validation of a Depression Screening Instrument for Children in Pediatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruhe, Barbara; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Pietsch, Kathrin; Baethmann, Martina; Peters, Jochen; Kellnar, Stephan; Heep, Axel; Burdach, Stefan; von Schweinitz, Dietrich; Schulte-Korne, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and validate the Children's Depression Screener (ChilD-S) for use in pediatric care. In two pediatric samples, children aged 9-12 (NI = 200; NII = 246) completed an explorative item pool (subsample I) and a revised item pool (subsample II). Diagnostic accuracy of each of the 22 items from the revised…

  14. 32 CFR 241.10 - Small business consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Small business consideration. 241.10 Section 241...) § 241.10 Small business consideration. The ASD(NII)/DoD CIO on behalf of the Secretary of Defense shall: (a) Ensure that, of the assignments made each year, at least 20 percent are small business...

  15. Science with the High Elevation Antarctic Terahertz Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, M. G.; Walsh, W.; Storey, J. W. V.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Walker, C.

    2006-08-01

    The proposed High Elevation Antarctic Terahertz Telescope (HEAT) is an instrument designed for the measurement of sub-mm spectral lines over regions several square degrees in size toward the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds. By mapping as a function of Galactic position the size and mass distribution and internal velocity dispersion of interstellar clouds in the Galaxy in both atomic and molecular lines, HEAT will construct the first barometric map of the Galactic Plane. HEAT will also map the gas heating rate, the star formation rate and produce the first large scale Galactic images of the dominant cooling atomic cooling lines of carbon and nitrogen. balance, and evolution of molecular clouds in the Milky Way and distant star-forming galaxies. Since the ionisation potential of nitrogen is 14.5eV, the 1461.1319 GHz = 205.176µm line of [NII] arises from regions where hydrogen is ionised, and thus serves as an extinction-free probe of the Warm Ionised Medium (WIM). There is an observed nonlinear relationship between [CII] and [NII] emission (Bennett et al. 1994) on large scales. By observing a variety of UV-illuminated giant molecula clouds, compact and diffuse HII regions, and planetary nebulae in the 1461 GHz [NII] line at 700 times the spectral and angular resolution of satellite data, the [CII]/[NII] intensity ratio can be used as a probe to determine how much of the Galaxy's [CII] emission arises in ionised gas.

  16. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... modulation symbols, during which the average symbol envelope power is constant. (q) RLAN. Radio Local Area... between several transmission power levels in the data transmission process. (s) U-NII devices. Intentional... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National...

  17. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... modulation symbols, during which the average symbol envelope power is constant. (q) RLAN. Radio Local Area... between several transmission power levels in the data transmission process. (s) U-NII devices. Intentional... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National...

  18. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... modulation symbols, during which the average symbol envelope power is constant. (q) RLAN. Radio Local Area... between several transmission power levels in the data transmission process. (s) U-NII devices. Intentional... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National...

  19. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... symbols, during which the average symbol envelope power is constant. (q) RLAN. Radio Local Area Network... several transmission power levels in the data transmission process. (s) U-NII devices. Intentional... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National...

  20. College Psychotherapy at a Taiwanese Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yii-nii

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Yii-nii Lin, Professor in the Center for Teacher Education at the National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan, and prior director of the university's counseling center for a 3 year term. She has worked as a university counselling psychologist for more than 15 years when she participated in an online interview that…

  1. Submillimeter Astronomy Investigation of Line Specra (SAILS) - a balloon borne instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiffert, M. D.; Langer, W. D.; Lord, S. D.; Pearson, J.; McGrath, W. R.

    2000-01-01

    The Submillimeter Astronomy Investigation of Line Specra (SAILS) is a balloon-borne experiment under study for a 100 day ultra-long duration balloon mission. The experiment would survey the galactic plane with 1 arc minute angular resolution and 1 km/sec velocity resolution in the important submillimeter lines of CII, NII, and OI.

  2. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Channel. (m) Peak Power Spectral Density. The peak power spectral density is the maximum power spectral density, within the specified measurement bandwidth, within the U-NII device operating band. (n) Maximum... output power is the highest total transmit power occurring in any mode. (o) Power Spectral Density....

  3. Reforming telecommunications: How utilities fare on Capitol Hill

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, S.A.

    1994-06-15

    While the traditional players in the telephone and cable industries have grabbed headlines and jockeyed for the inside track on the [open quotes]information superhighway,[close quotes] electric and gas utilities and natural gas pipelines have been quietly positioning themselves to play a strategic role in the actual construction of the [open quotes]National Information Infrastructure[close quotes] (NII).

  4. 47 CFR 15.401 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Infrastructure Devices § 15.401 Scope. This subpart sets out the regulations for unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) devices operating in the 5.15-5.35 GHz, 5.47-5.725 GHz and 5.725-5.825 GHz bands....

  5. 47 CFR 15.401 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Infrastructure Devices § 15.401 Scope. This subpart sets out the regulations for unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) devices operating in the 5.15-5.35 GHz, 5.47-5.725 GHz and 5.725-5.825 GHz bands....

  6. 47 CFR 15.401 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Infrastructure Devices § 15.401 Scope. This subpart sets out the regulations for unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) devices operating in the 5.15-5.35 GHz, 5.47-5.725 GHz and 5.725-5.85 GHz bands....

  7. 47 CFR 15.401 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Infrastructure Devices § 15.401 Scope. This subpart sets out the regulations for unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) devices operating in the 5.15-5.35 GHz, 5.47-5.725 GHz and 5.725-5.825 GHz bands....

  8. 47 CFR 15.401 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Infrastructure Devices § 15.401 Scope. This subpart sets out the regulations for unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) devices operating in the 5.15-5.35 GHz, 5.47-5.725 GHz and 5.725-5.825 GHz bands....

  9. Applications drivers for data parking on the Information Superhighway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Clark E., Jr.; Foeller, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    As the cost of data storage continues to decline (currently about one-millionth of its cost four decades ago) entirely new applications areas become economically feasible. Many of these new areas involved the extraordinarily high data rates and universal connectivity soon to be provided by the National Information Infrastructure (NII). The commonly held belief is that the main driver for the NII will be entertainment applications. We believe that entertainment applications as currently touted (multi-media, 500 video channels, video-on-demand, etc.) will play an important but far from dominant role in the development of the NII and its data storage components. The most pervasively effective drivers will be medical applications such as telemedicine and remote diagnosis, education and environmental monitoring. These applications have a significant funding base and offer a clearly perceived opportunity to improve the nation's standard of living. The NII's wideband connectivity both nationwide and worldwide requires a broad spectrum of data storage devices with a wide-range of performance capabilities. These storage centers will be dispersed throughout the system. Magnetic recording devices will fill the majority of these new data storage requirements for at least the rest of this century. The storage needs of various application areas and their respective market sizes will be explored. The comparative performance of various magnetic technologies and competitive alternative storage systems will be discussed.

  10. Using the National Information Infrastructure for social science, education, and informed decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.

    1994-01-07

    The United States has aggressively embarked on the challenging task of building a National Information Infrastructure (NII). This infrastructure will have many levels, extending from the building block capital stock that composes the telecommunications system to the multitude of higher tier applications hardware and software tied to this system. This ``White Paper`` presents a vision for a second and third tier national information infrastructure that focuses exclusively on the needs of social science, education, and decision making (NII-SSEDM). NII-SSEDM will provide the necessary data, information, and automated decision support and educational tools needed to help this nation solve its most pressing social problems. The proposed system has five components: `data collection systems; databases; statistical analysis and modeling tools; policy analysis and decision support tools; and materials and software specially designed for education. This paper contains: a vision statement for each component; comments on progress made on each component as of the early 1990s; and specific recommendations on how to achieve the goals described in the vision statements. The white paper also discusses how the NII-SSEDM could be used to address four major social concerns: ensuring economic prosperity; health care; reducing crime and violence; and K-12 education. Examples of near-term and mid-term goals (e.g., pre-and post Year 2000) are presented for consideration. Although the development of NII-SSEDM will require a concerted effort by government, the private sector, schools, and numerous other organizations, the success of NH-SSEDM is predicated upon the identification of an institutional ``champion`` to acquire and husband key resources and provide strong leadership and guidance.

  11. A survey of the ISM in early-type galaxies. I. The ionized gas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchetto, F.; Pastoriza, M.; Caon, N.; Sparks, W. B.; Giavalisco, M.; Bender, R.; Capaccioli, M.

    1996-12-01

    We present results of a CCD optical imaging survey of the ionized gas in 73 luminous elliptical and lenticular galaxies, selected from the RC3 catalog to represent a broad variety of X-ray, radio, infrared and kinematical properties. For each galaxy we have used broad-band R images and narrow-band images centered at the Hα and [NII] emission lines to derive the luminosity and distribution of the ionized gas. We found that a large fraction of E (72%) and S0 (85%) galaxies in our sample contain ionized gas. The gas morphology appears to be rather smooth for most galaxies; however ~12% of the sample galaxies show a very extended filamentary structure. According to the morphology and size of the gas distribution, the galaxies have been classified into three broad groups, named small disk (SD), regular extended (RE) and filamentary structure (F). The mean diameter of the emitting region ranges between 1 and 10kpc; the derived mass of the ionized gas ranges between 10^3^ and 10^5^ solar masses. A significant correlation between Hα+[NII] and X-ray luminosities is found for those galaxies (27% of the sample) for which we have detected ionized gas and are also listed as X-ray sources. However, there are relatively strong X-ray emitting galaxies for which we have not detected Hα+[NII] emission and objects which show emission-lines but are not listed either in the EINSTEIN or in the ROSAT databases. The distribution of datapoint and upper limits in this diagram suggests that galaxies with warm gas are also X-ray emitters, while there are X-ray emitters without measurable Hα+[NII] emission. Similar characteristics are present in the correlation between the infrared luminosity in the 12 μm band and L_Hα+[NII]_; correlations with other infrared wavelengths are weaker. A strong correlation was also found between the Hα+[NII] luminosity and the luminosity in the B band inside the region occupied by the line-emitting gas. We use these correlations to discuss the possible

  12. The Instability of Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }2 : A Fifty Year Old Transition Metal Silylamide Mystery.

    PubMed

    Faust, Michelle; Bryan, Aimee M; Mansikkamäki, Akseli; Vasko, Petra; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Tuononen, Heikki M; Grandjean, Fernande; Long, Gary J; Power, Philip P

    2015-10-26

    The characterization of the unstable Ni(II) bis(silylamide) Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }2 (1), its THF complex Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }2 (THF) (2), and the stable bis(pyridine) derivative trans-Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }2 (py)2 (3), is described. Both 1 and 2 decompose at ca. 25 °C to a tetrameric Ni(I) species, [Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }]4 (4), also obtainable from LiN(SiMe3 )2 and NiCl2 (DME). Experimental and computational data indicate that the instability of 1 is likely due to ease of reduction of Ni(II) to Ni(I) and the stabilization of 4 through dispersion forces. PMID:26332337

  13. Research of ceramic materials stability in thermionic converter interelectrode gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Oleg F.; Nikolaev, Yuri V.; Vybyvanets, Valeri; Agnew, Paul; Olson, David; Zavadil, Kevin R.

    1995-01-01

    Demonstration tests were conducted using a diagnostic thermionic converter (N597) designed and manufactured at NII NPO LUCH (JV INERTEK). The converter at NII NPO LUCH was a subject of comparative research on mass loss rate of two ceramic materials (aluminium oxide and scandium oxide) at constant sample temperature in various modes of the converter operation. These investigations were continued in NMERI on the modified TISA Rig. Substantial corrosion of Al2O3 was revealed after sample exposure in cesium plasma. It was also determined that Sc2O3 does not interact with cesium plasma. Sc2O3 mass loss rate in all thermionic converter operation modes does not exceed values corresponding to diffusion mode and is by several orders lower than Al2O3 mass loss rate. Based on these results the lifetime of TFE electrode spacers was evaluated.

  14. Excitation of emission lines by fluorescence and recombination in IC 418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalante, Vladimir; Morisset, Cristophe; Georgiev, Leonid

    2012-08-01

    We predict intensities of lines of CII, NI, NII, OI and OII and compare them with a deep spectroscopic survey of IC 418 to test the effect of excitation of nebular emission lines by continuum fluorescence of starlight. Our calculations use a nebular model and a synthetic spectrum of its central star to take into account excitation of the lines by continuum fluorescence and recombination. The NII spectrum is mostly produced by fluorescence due to the low excitation conditions of the nebula, but many CII and OII lines have more excitation by fluorescence than recombination. In the neutral envelope, the NI permitted lines are excited by fluorescence, and almost all the OI lines are excited by recombination. Electron excitation produces the forbidden optical lines of OI, but continuum fluorescence excites most of the NI forbidden line intensities. Lines excited by fluorescence of light below the Lyman limit thus suggest a new diagnostic to explore the photodissociation region of a nebula.

  15. GENI-DB: a database of global events for epidemic intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Nigel; Doan, Son

    2012-01-01

    Summary: We present a novel public health database (GENI-DB) in which news events on the topic of over 176 infectious diseases and chemicals affecting human and animal health are compiled from surveillance of the global online news media in 10 languages. News event frequency data were gathered systematically through the BioCaster public health surveillance system from July 2009 to the present and is available to download by the research community for purposes of analyzing trends in the global burden of infectious diseases. Database search can be conducted by year, country, disease and language. Availability: The GENI-DB is freely available via a web portal at http://born.nii.ac.jp/ Contact: collier@nii.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22383735

  16. Bipolar Outflow Offset from the Nucleus of M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roming, P. W. A.; Moody, J. W.; Hintz, M. L.; Wu, K.; Soria, R.

    2002-12-01

    Using long-slit spectra centered in wavelength about Hα , we have produced a velocity map of a 0.5' x 2' hourglass shaped object centered 38" southeast of the optical center of M33. The velocity resolution is 1.1 km/s. We have also produced electron temperature, electron density, and shock heating maps of the same region using the [NII](λ 6548), [NII](λ 6583), Hα , [SII](λ 6717), and [SII](λ 6731) lines. The data reveal that the gas is flowing away from the center of this hourglass shaped object and that the electron temperature and density of the region is relatively low. The shock heating maps indicate that very little of the gas in the region is shock heated. Using this new data and previously published UV, IR, and radio data we investigate possible scenarios that could explain this large scale, low velocity outflow.

  17. Differences in autism spectrum disorders incidence by sub-populations in Israel 1992-2009: a total population study.

    PubMed

    Raz, Raanan; Weisskopf, Marc G; Davidovitch, Michael; Pinto, Ofir; Levine, Hagai

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed data from the Israeli National Insurance Institute (NII). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) incidence was calculated for all children born in Israel 1992-2009, and by population groups. Overall, 9,109 ASD cases among 2,431,649 children were identified. ASD cumulative incidence by age 8 years increased 10-fold during 2000-2011, from 0.49% to 0.49%, while other child disabilities in NII increased only 1.65-fold. There was a consistent increase in ASD incidence with advancing birth cohorts born 1992-2004, stabilizing among those born 2005-2009. ASD rates among Israeli Arabs were substantially lower, and increased about 10 years later than the general population. The findings suggest a role for ASD awareness, accessing of the government benefit, or the way the concept of ASD is perceived. PMID:25287899

  18. Space-based Communications Infrastructure for Developing Countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infractructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  19. Paramagnetic intermediates in reactions of the components of catalytic systems of the Ziegler type. Reactions of azo and azomethine complexes of Ni(II) with diethylaluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasov, Ya.A.; Ismailov, E.G.; Medzhidov, A.A.

    1988-04-01

    The intermediate paramagnetic particles, i.e., radical particles, complexes of Ni(I), and Ni/sub n/(O) aggregates, formed as a result of the reaction of azo and azomethine complexes of Ni(II) with Et/sub 2/AlCl in solvent media (toluene, THF, heptane) have been identified with the aid of ESR. The possibility of the stabilization of reactive intermediate complexes of Ni(I) by organophosphorus ligands (DPPE and TPP) has been demonstrated, and the magnetic-resonance parameters of their adducts have been determined. It has been postulated that the formation of radical particles occurs as a result of the coordination of the nitrogen atoms of the azo or azomethine ligands by the organoaluminum compound followed by splitting of the -N=N or -CH=N bonds.

  20. Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders Incidence by Sub-Populations in Israel 1992-2009: A Total Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Raanan; Weisskopf, Marc G; Davidovitch, Michael; Pinto, Ofir; Levine, Hagai

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Israeli National Insurance Institute (NII). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) incidence was calculated for all children born in Israel 1992-2009, and by population groups. Overall, 9,109 ASD cases among 2,431,649 children were identified. ASD cumulative incidence by age 8 years increased 10-fold during 2000-2011, from 0.049% to 0.49%, while other child disabilities in NII increased only 1.65-fold. There was a consistent increase in ASD incidence with advancing birth cohorts born 1992-2004, stabilizing among those born 2005-2009. ASD rates among Israeli Arabs were substantially lower, and increased about 10 years later than the general population. The findings suggest a role for ASD awareness, accessing of the government benefit, or the way the concept of ASD is perceived. PMID:25287899

  1. Far-Infrared Line Observations of SGR A West

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Edwin F.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Simpson, Janet P.; Rubin, Robert H.; Haas, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    Using NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), we have measured lines of [SIII] 19 and 33 micrometers, [FeIII] 23 micrometers, [OIII] 52 and 88 micrometers, [NIII] 57 micrometer, and [NII] 122 and 205 micrometers arising in the unusual HII region Sgr A West at the Galactic Center. The emission is consistent with photoionization of the low density (approximately 1000/cc) cavity gas, but the N+ emission could arise predominantly in the higher density "mini-spiral" ionized streamers unresolved in our beam.

  2. Induction of the CYP2B genes by triphenyldioxane treatment in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Grigorieva, E; Soshilov, A; Surovtseva, Y; Schwartz, E L; Duzhak, T G; Gulyaeva, L F; Lyakhovich, V V

    2002-08-01

    Triphenyldioxane (TPD) is a potent phenobarbital-type (PB) inducer of the CYP2B cytochrome isoforms, the inducing effect of which is one order of magnitude higher than PB. The fact that TPD is unable to induce CYP2B genes having the proximal promoter disrupted (mouse Cyp2b10) suggests an existence of the proximal promoter-dependent mechanism of the CYP2B induction. So a TPD-dependent activation of the nuclear proteins to the binding with Barbie-box sequence (the most conservative part of the proximal promoter) was studied. In the nuclear extracts from the intact rat liver there were detected five proteins that could be activated to the Barbie-box binding by the TPD treatment in vitro (II, III, NI, NII and NIII). The first three were effected also by another PB-like inducers tested (PB and TCPOBOP), when NII and NIII complexes were formed under the influence of TPD only. It is possible that a direct activation of the NII and NIII proteins by TPD exists as (3)H-labeled TPD was detected in the composition of NII and NIII complexes. However, both of them disappeared from the nuclear extracts after the long exposure time with TPD (6 h or more). A short induction by the direct intra-liver delivery of TPD (15-30 min) led to the stabile activation of one TPD-specific protein. Apart from the activation of the Barbie-box-binding protein, the short TPD treatment caused the activation of three nuclear proteins being able to interact with the NR1 sequence of the distal promoter PBREM element. These findings suggest that TPD is really the first member of the PB-like inducers family for which a special mechanism of CYP2B induction may exist. PMID:12110287

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Nebular emission lines towards NGC3372 center (Damiani+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, F.; Bonito, R.; Magrini, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Mapelli, M.; Micela, G.; Kalari, V.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Alfaro, E.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S.; Klutsch, A.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Sacco, G. G.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Worley, C.; Zaggia, S.; Zwitter, T.; Dorda, R.

    2016-04-01

    Nebular emission lines of H-alpha, [NII] 6584Å, HeI 6678Å, [SII] 6717Å, [SII] 6731Å, towards the center of Carina nebula, are modeled with two gaussians each ('blue' and 'red' components). Best-fit parameters are given in the table. Line widths include the instrumental width of the Giraffe spectrograph (7km/s). Radial velocities are heliocentric. (1 data file).

  4. Evaluating and minimizing noise impact due to aircraft flyover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a study on the evaluation and reduction of noise impact to a community due to aircraft landing and takeoff operations are presented. The case of multiple aircrafts flying on several trajectories, for either approach/landings or takeoffs was examined. An extremely realistic model of the flight path was developed. The annoyance criterion used was the noise impact index (NII). The algorithm was applied to Patrick Henry International Airport.

  5. Remote use of distributed robotics resources to enhance technology development and insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.; McDonald, M.J.; Davies, B.R.

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes Virtual Collaborative Environments (VCEs), an information architecture that enables remote sharing of mechatronic (intelligent electrochemical devices) resources. This architecture will leverage the proposed National Information Infrastructure (NII) or Information Highway to share valuable resources and reduce product-to-market cycles. Benefits of sharing mechatronic resources with VCEs are explored. An existing prototype VCE is described and experimental and illustrative results from using the prototype VCE system are discussed.

  6. Ionization of the diffuse gas in galaxies: Hot low-mass evolved stars at work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Fajardo, N.; Morisset, C.; Stasinska, G.; Binette, L.

    2011-10-01

    The Diffuse Ionized Medium (DIG) is visible through its faint optical line emission outside classical HII regions (Reynolds 1971) and turns out to be a major component of the interstellar medium in galaxies. OB stars in galaxies likely represent the main source of ionizing photons for the DIG. However, an additional source is needed to explain the increase of [NII]/Hα, [SII]/Hα with galactic height.

  7. Bd +60 73 = Igr J00370+6122

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Reig, Pablo

    2004-05-01

    A classification spectrum of BD +60 73, reported to be the optical counterpart to IGR J00370+6122 (ATel #281), was taken on the night of 2003 July 7th with the 2.5-m Issac Newton telescope at La Palma. The derived spectral type is BN0.5II-III, where the composite luminosity class indicates an intermediate luminosity. The Nitrogen enhancement is moderately high, with numerous NII lines being rather stronger than corresponds to the spectral type.

  8. Government Information Locator Service (GILS). Draft report to the Information Infrastructure Task Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a draft report on the Government Information Locator Service (GILS) to the National Information Infrastructure (NII) task force. GILS is designed to take advantage of internetworking technology known as client-server architecture which allows information to be distributed among multiple independent information servers. Two appendices are provided -- (1) A glossary of related terminology and (2) extracts from a draft GILS profile for the use of the American National Standard Information Retrieval Application Service Definition and Protocol Specification for Library Applications.

  9. OSI and TCP/IP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, Lynwood P.

    1994-01-01

    The Open Systems Interconnection Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (OSI TCP/IP) and the Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) are compared and described in terms of Federal internetworking. The organization and functions of the Federal Internetworking Requirements Panel (FIRP) are discussed and the panel's conclusions and recommendations with respect to the standards and implementation of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) are presented.

  10. Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders Incidence by Sub-Populations in Israel 1992-2009: A Total Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raz, Raanan; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Davidovitch, Michael; Pinto, Ofir; Levine, Hagai

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Israeli National Insurance Institute (NII). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) incidence was calculated for all children born in Israel 1992-2009, and by population groups. Overall, 9,109 ASD cases among 2,431,649 children were identified. ASD cumulative incidence by age 8 years increased 10-fold during 2000-2011, from 0.49 %…

  11. Mutant Huntingtin Gene-Dose Impacts on Aggregate Deposition, DARPP32 Expression and Neuroinflammation in HdhQ150 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Young, Douglas; Mayer, Franziska; Vidotto, Nella; Schweizer, Tatjana; Berth, Ramon; Abramowski, Dorothee; Shimshek, Derya R.; van der Putten, P. Herman; Schmid, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive and fatal neurological disorder caused by an expansion of CAG repeats in exon-1 of the huntingtin gene. The encoded poly-glutamine stretch renders mutant huntingtin prone to aggregation. HdhQ150 mice genocopy a pathogenic repeat (∼150 CAGs) in the endogenous mouse huntingtin gene and model predominantly pre-manifest HD. Treating early is likely important to prevent or delay HD, and HdhQ150 mice may be useful to assess therapeutic strategies targeting pre-manifest HD. This requires appropriate markers and here we demonstrate, that pre-symptomatic HdhQ150 mice show several dramatic mutant huntingtin gene-dose dependent pathological changes including: (i) an increase of neuronal intra-nuclear inclusions (NIIs) in brain, (ii) an increase of extra-nuclear aggregates in dentate gyrus, (iii) a decrease of DARPP32 protein and (iv) an increase in glial markers of neuroinflammation, which curiously did not correlate with local neuronal mutant huntingtin inclusion-burden. HdhQ150 mice developed NIIs also in all retinal neuron cell-types, demonstrating that retinal NIIs are not specific to human exon-1 R6 HD mouse models. Taken together, the striking and robust mutant huntingtin gene-dose related changes in aggregate-load, DARPP32 levels and glial activation markers should greatly facilitate future testing of therapeutic strategies in the HdhQ150 HD mouse model. PMID:24086450

  12. Searching for the Nearest Extragalactic Binary Black Hole: A Spectroscopic Study of NGC 4736

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Annika; Kwan, Teiler J.; Fisher, Robert Scott; Mason, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In 1995 and 1996, Maoz et al. concluded that the nearby galaxy NGC 4736 (d=16 million light years) is in the late stages of a merger event. After further investigation, in 2005, Maoz et al. observed UV variability in the nuclear region of NGC 4736, revealing a second unknown source in the nucleus. Since late stage mergers are an ideal location to search for binary black holes (BBH), members of our team hypothesized that the second source could be a second black hole, making this a potential BBH system. This is important since observational evidence for their existence remains sparse, even though BBH are predicted by many theories and potentially play an important role in galaxy evolution. In January of 2008, NGC 4736 was observed with the GMOS-N instrument on Gemini North. Optical longslit spectra of the nuclear region were obtained with spatial resolution of 0.1454''/pixel and a spectral resolution of R~1700. At this resolution, the two nuclear sources are spatially resolved at a projected separation of 2.5''. As a result, we can classify the nature of the second source by looking at the optical line ratios following Ho et al. (1997). High signal-to-noise spectra of the unknown source displayed strong emission of [SII] and [NII], but an extremely weak [OIII] emission line. The unknown source has a calculated [NII]/[Hα] ratio of 1.37 and an upper limit of 0.6 for the [OIII]/[Hβ] ratio. Placing the unknown source on the BPT-NII diagram (Baldwin et al., 1981), we tentatively conclude that it is a low-luminosity second black hole potentially making NGC 4736 the nearest BBH system. The result will enable future high-spectral and spatial resolution observations of a low-luminosity system in extremely late stages of merging, which will be a significant step forward in validating models of galaxy mergers and AGN activity.

  13. Supernovae and their host galaxies - II. The relative frequencies of supernovae types in spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, A. A.; Nazaryan, T. A.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Petrosian, A. R.; Aramyan, L. S.; Kunth, D.; Mamon, G. A.; de Lapparent, V.; Bertin, E.; Gomes, J. M.; Turatto, M.

    2014-11-01

    We present an analysis of the relative frequencies of different supernova (SN) types in spirals with various morphologies and in barred or unbarred galaxies. We use a well-defined and homogeneous sample of spiral host galaxies of 692 SNe from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in different stages of galaxy-galaxy interaction and activity classes of nucleus. We propose that the underlying mechanisms shaping the number ratios of SNe types can be interpreted within the framework of interaction-induced star formation, in addition to the known relations between morphologies and stellar populations. We find a strong trend in behaviour of the NIa/NCC ratio depending on host morphology, such that early spirals include more Type Ia SNe. The NIbc/NII ratio is higher in a broad bin of early-type hosts. The NIa/NCC ratio is nearly constant when changing from normal, perturbed to interacting galaxies, then declines in merging galaxies, whereas it jumps to the highest value in post-merging/remnant galaxies. In contrast, the NIbc/NII ratio jumps to the highest value in merging galaxies and slightly declines in post-merging/remnant subsample. The interpretation is that the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies, which are strongly affected in the final stages of interaction, have an impact on the number ratios of SNe types. The NIa/NCC (NIbc/NII) ratio increases (decreases) from star-forming to active galactic nuclei (AGN) classes of galaxies. These variations are consistent with the scenario of an interaction-triggered starburst evolving into AGN during the later stages of interaction, accompanied with the change of star formation and transformation of the galaxy morphology into an earlier type.

  14. The Impact of Diffuse Ionized Gas on Emission-line Ratios and Gas Metallicity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Yan, Renbin; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) is prevalent in star-forming galaxies. Using a sample of galaxies observed by MaNGA, we demonstrate how DIG in star-forming galaxies impact the measurements of emission line ratios, hence the gas-phase metallicity measurements and the interpretation of diagnostic diagrams. We demonstrate that emission line surface brightness (SB) is a reasonably good proxy to separate HII regions from regions dominated by diffuse ionized gas. For spatially-adjacent regions or regions at the same radius, many line ratios change systematically with emission line surface brightness, reflecting a gradual increase of dominance by DIG towards low SB. DIG could significantly bias the measurement of gas metallicity and metallicity gradient. Because DIG tend to have a higher temperature than HII regions, at fixed metallicity DIG displays lower [NII]/[OII] ratios. DIG also show lower [OIII]/[OII] ratios than HII regions, due to extended partially-ionized regions that enhance all low-ionization lines ([NII], [SII], [OII], [OI]). The contamination by DIG is responsible for a substantial portion of the scatter in metallicity measurements. At different surface brightness, line ratios and line ratio gradients can differ systematically. As DIG fraction could change with radius, it can affect the metallicity gradient measurements in systematic ways. The three commonly used strong-line metallicity indicators, R23, [NII]/[OII], O3N2, are all affected in different ways. To make robust metallicity gradient measurements, one has to properly isolate HII regions and correct for DIG contamination. In line ratio diagnostic diagrams, contamination by DIG moves HII regions towards composite or LINER-like regions.

  15. Kinetic Analysis of Competitive Electrocatalytic Pathways: New Insights into Hydrogen Production with Nickel Electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Wiedner, Eric S; Brown, Houston J S; Helm, Monte L

    2016-01-20

    The hydrogen production electrocatalyst Ni(P(Ph)2N(Ph)2)2(2+) (1) is capable of traversing multiple electrocatalytic pathways. When using dimethylformamidium, DMF(H)(+), the mechanism of H2 formation by 1 changes from an ECEC to an EECC mechanism as the potential approaches the Ni(I/0) couple. Two electrochemical methods, current-potential analysis and foot-of-the-wave analysis (FOWA), were performed on 1 to measure detailed kinetics of the competing ECEC and EECC pathways. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the methods using digital simulations to understand their strengths and limitations. Chemical rate constants were significantly underestimated when not accounting for electron-transfer kinetics, even when electron transfer was fast enough to afford a reversible noncatalytic wave. The EECC pathway of 1 was faster than the ECEC pathway under all conditions studied. Buffered DMF:DMF(H)(+) mixtures afforded an increase in the catalytic rate constant (k(obs)) of the EECC pathway, but k(obs) for the ECEC pathway did not change when using buffered acid. Further kinetic analysis of the ECEC path revealed that base increases the rate of isomerization from exo-protonated Ni(0) isomers to the catalytically active endo-isomers, but decreases the rate of protonation of Ni(I). FOWA did not provide accurate rate constants, but FOWA was used to estimate the reduction potential of the previously undetected exo-protonated Ni(I) intermediate. Comparison of catalytic Tafel plots for 1 under different conditions reveals substantial inaccuracies in the turnover frequency at zero overpotential when the kinetic and thermodynamic effects of the conjugate base are not accounted for properly. PMID:26692398

  16. An ALMA view of the interstellar medium of the z = 4.77 lensed starburst SPT-S J213242-5802.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béthermin, M.; De Breuck, C.; Gullberg, B.; Aravena, M.; Bothwell, M. S.; Chapman, S. C.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Greve, T. R.; Litke, K.; Ma, J.; Malkan, M.; Marrone, D. P.; Murphy, E. J.; Spilker, J. S.; Stark, A. A.; Strandet, M.; Vieira, J. D.; Weiß, A.; Welikala, N.

    2016-02-01

    We present ALMA detections of the [NII] 205 μm and CO(12-11) emission lines, and the tentative detection of [CI] - for the strongly lensed (μ = 5.7 ± 0.5) dusty, star-forming galaxy SPT-S J213242-5802.9 (hereafter SPT2132-58) at z = 4.77. The [NII] and CO(12-11) lines are detected at 11.5 and 8.5σ levels, respectively, by our band 6 observations. The [CI] line is detected at 3.2σ after a reanalysis of existing band 3 data. The [CI] luminosity implies a gas mass of (3.8 ± 1.2) × 1010M⊙, and, consequently, a very short depletion timescale of 34 ± 13 Myr and a CO luminosity to gas mass conversion factor αCO of 1.0 ± 0.3 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1. SPT2132-58 is an extreme starburst with an intrinsic star formation rate of 1100 ± 200 M⊙/yr. We find a [CII]/[NII] ratio of 26 ± 6, which is the highest ratio reported at z > 4. This suggests that SPT2132-58 hosts an evolved interstellar medium (0.5 Z⊙< Z < 1.5 Z⊙), which may be dominated by photodissociation regions. The CO(2-1) and CO(5-4) transitions have lower CO to far-infrared ratios than local and high-redshift samples, while CO(12-11) is similar to these samples, suggesting the presence of an additional very excited component or an active galactic nucleus.

  17. Mode of action uncovered for the specific reduction of methane emissions from ruminants by the small molecule 3-nitrooxypropanol.

    PubMed

    Duin, Evert C; Wagner, Tristan; Shima, Seigo; Prakash, Divya; Cronin, Bryan; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Duval, Stephane; Rümbeli, Robert; Stemmler, René T; Thauer, Rudolf Kurt; Kindermann, Maik

    2016-05-31

    Ruminants, such as cows, sheep, and goats, predominantly ferment in their rumen plant material to acetate, propionate, butyrate, CO2, and methane. Whereas the short fatty acids are absorbed and metabolized by the animals, the greenhouse gas methane escapes via eructation and breathing of the animals into the atmosphere. Along with the methane, up to 12% of the gross energy content of the feedstock is lost. Therefore, our recent report has raised interest in 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP), which when added to the feed of ruminants in milligram amounts persistently reduces enteric methane emissions from livestock without apparent negative side effects [Hristov AN, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(34):10663-10668]. We now show with the aid of in silico, in vitro, and in vivo experiments that 3-NOP specifically targets methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR). The nickel enzyme, which is only active when its Ni ion is in the +1 oxidation state, catalyzes the methane-forming step in the rumen fermentation. Molecular docking suggested that 3-NOP preferably binds into the active site of MCR in a pose that places its reducible nitrate group in electron transfer distance to Ni(I). With purified MCR, we found that 3-NOP indeed inactivates MCR at micromolar concentrations by oxidation of its active site Ni(I). Concomitantly, the nitrate ester is reduced to nitrite, which also inactivates MCR at micromolar concentrations by oxidation of Ni(I). Using pure cultures, 3-NOP is demonstrated to inhibit growth of methanogenic archaea at concentrations that do not affect the growth of nonmethanogenic bacteria in the rumen. PMID:27140643

  18. Polyglutamine aggregation behavior in vitro supports a recruitment mechanism of cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Berthelier, V; Yang, W; Wetzel, R

    2001-08-01

    In expanded CAG repeat diseases such as Huntington's disease, proteins containing polyglutamine (poly(Gln)) sequences with repeat lengths of about 37 residues or more are associated with development of both disease symptoms and neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs). Disease physiology in animal and cellular models does not always correlate with NII formation, however, and the mechanism by which aggregate formation might lead to cytotoxicity is unknown. To help evaluate various possible mechanisms, we determined the biophysical properties of a series of simple poly(Gln) peptides. The circular dichroism spectra of poly(Gln) peptides with repeat lengths of five, 15, 28 and 44 residues are all nearly identical and are consistent with a high degree of random coil structure, suggesting that the length-dependence of disease is not related to a conformational change in the monomeric states of expanded poly(Gln) sequences. In contrast, there is a dramatic increase in both the kinetics and the thermodynamic favorability of the spontaneous formation of ordered, amyloid-like aggregates for poly(Gln) peptides with repeat lengths of greater than 37 residues. At the same time, poly(Gln) peptides with repeat lengths in the 15-20 residue range, despite their poor abilities to support spontaneous, self-nucleated aggregation, are capable of efficiently adding to an already-formed aggregate. We also find that morphologically small, finely divided aggregates are much more efficient at recruiting poly(Gln) peptides than are large aggregates, suggesting a possible explanation for why disease pathology does not always correlate with the observable NII burden. Together, these data are consistent with a model for disease pathology in which critical cellular proteins possessing poly(Gln) sequences of modest length become inactivated when they are recruited into aggregates of an expanded poly(Gln) protein. PMID:11469866

  19. Transfer and utilization of government technology assets to the private sector in the fields of health care and information technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Luis G.

    1995-10-01

    During the first Health Care Technology Policy conference last year, during health care reform, four major issues were brought up in regards to the efforts underway to develop a computer based patient record (CBPR), the National Information Infrastructure (NII) as part of the high performance computers and communications (HPCC), and the so-called 'patient card.' More specifically it was explained how a national information system will greatly affect the way health care delivery is provided to the United States public and reduce its costs. These four issues were: (1) Constructing a national information infrastructure (NII); (2) Building a computer based patient record system; (3) Bringing the collective resources of our national laboratories to bear in developing and implementing the NII and CBPR, as well as a security system with which to safeguard the privacy rights of patients and the physician-patient privilege; (4) Utilizing government (e.g., DOD, DOE) capabilities (technology and human resources) to maximize resource utilization, create new jobs, and accelerate technology transfer to address health care issues. This year a section of this conference entitled: 'Health Care Technology Assets of the Federal Government' addresses benefits of the technology transfer which should occur for maximizing already developed resources. This section entitled: 'Transfer and Utilization of Government Technology Assets to the Private Sector,' will look at both health care and non-health care related technologies since many areas such as information technologies (i.e. imaging, communications, archival/retrieval, systems integration, information display, multimedia, heterogeneous data bases, etc.) already exist and are part of our national labs and/or other federal agencies, i.e., ARPA. These technologies although they are not labeled under health care programs they could provide enormous value to address technical needs. An additional issue deals with both the technical

  20. Nebular Line Emission in z 1 Spitzer Infrared-Luminous Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, John; Papovich, C.; Finkelstein, S.; Willmer, C.; Egami, E.; Conselice, C.; Huang, J.; Koo, D.; Laird, E.; Le Floc'h, E.; Lotz, J.; Maia, M.; Marcillac, D.; Nandra, K.; Webb, T.; Weiner, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present near-infrared (IR) spectroscopic observations from the Multi-Object IR Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru telescope of a sample of 21 IR-luminous galaxies in the approximate range 1 < z < 1.5. These galaxies were selected based on their Spitzer 24-micron flux densities (S(24 micron) > 0.1 mJy) and known spectroscopic redshifts from the All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS). We measure rest-frame optical emission line fluxes for H-alpha and [NII], and also [OIII] and H-beta, where available. We use emission-line diagnostics to constrain the origin of the ionization in these objects: processes associated with star formation or AGN (including Seyferts and LINERs). The high-redshift galaxies in our sample have similar [NII] / H-alpha flux ratios compared to low-redshift (z 0.1) IR-luminous galaxies (Kim et al., 1995; Veilleux et al., 1995) for galaxies with implied IR luminosities of 11 < Log L(8-1000 micron) / L sol < 12. However, we find evidence that the IR-luminous galaxies in our sample with implied Log L(8-1000 micron) / L sol > 12 have lower [NII] / H-alpha ratios than low-redshift galaxies with comparable IR luminosity, implying the higher redshift IR-luminous galaxies may have a higher fraction of systems dominated by star formation. We also study the relation of our rest-frame optical emission-line diagnostics to other indicators of AGN activity, including the mid-IR colors and X-ray luminosities. In addition, we compare star-formation-rate indicators from our dust-corrected H-alpha emission line luminosities to those from the mid-to-far IR and compare these as a function of IR luminosity against the low-redshift sample.

  1. Investigation by EPR and ENDOR spectroscopy of the nickel(I) form of cofactor F{sub 430} of Methanobacterium thermoautorophicum and of nickel(I) octaethylisobacteriochlorin

    SciTech Connect

    Telser, J.; Fann, Y.C.; Hoffman, B.M.; Renner, M.W.; Fajer, J.; Wang, S.; Zhang, H.; Scott, R.A.

    1997-01-29

    The terminal step in methane generation by the archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum is catalyzed by the enzyme S-methyl coenzyme M reductase (methylreductase). This enzyme contains a Ni(II) tetrapyrrole cofactor, F{sub 430}, at the active site in the resting state. A Ni(I) state (Ni{sup I}F{sub 430}) has been proposed as the active form of the cofactor. Nickel isobacteriochlorins have been used to model F{sub 430}. We have investigated both Ni{sup I}F{sub 430} and Ni{sup I}OEiBC using CW and pulsed EPR and ENDOR spectroscopy at X-band and Q-band microwave frequencies. In agreement with a previous X-band EPR and ESEEM study, at Q-band, the g tensor of Ni{sup I}F{sub 430} appears axial and {sup 1,2}H ENDOR of Ni{sup I}F{sub 430} in H{sub 2}O versus D{sub 2}O solvent shows no evidence for strongly coupled, solvent-exchangeable hydrogens, and this indicates that there is no water axially coordinated to Ni(I) in contrast to the Ni(II) resting state. Both Ni{sup I}F{sub 430} and Ni{sup I}OEiBC give {sup 14}N ENDOR signals arising from the four pyrrole nitrogen ligands to Ni(I). Previous EXAFS studies of Ni{sup I}OEiBC and Ni{sup I}F{sub 430}Me{sub 5} showed two sets of Ni(I)-N distances differing by nearly 8%, and in agreement with this, the {sup 14}N ENDOR signals for both Ni{sup I}OEiBC and Ni{sup I}F{sub 430} can be analyzed in terms of superimposed signals from two distinct types of nitrogen ligand. 86 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Positioning the electric utility to build information infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    In two particular respects (briefly investigated in this study from a lawyer`s perspective), electric utilities appear uniquely well-positioned to contribute to the National Information Infrastructure (NII). First of all, utilities have legal powers derived from their charters and operating authorities, confirmed in their rights-of-way, to carry out activities and functions necessary for delivering electric service. These activities and functions include building telecommunications facilities and undertaking information services that have become essential to managing electricity demand and supply. The economic value of the efficiencies made possible by telecommunications and information could be substantial. How great remains to be established, but by many estimates electric utility applications could fund a significant share of the capital costs of building the NII. Though utilities` legal powers to pursue such efficiencies through telecommunications and information appear beyond dispute, it is likely that the effort to do so will produce substantial excess capacity. Who will benefit from this excess capacity is a potentially contentious political question that demands early resolution. Will this windfall go to the utility, the customer, or no one (because of political paralysis), or will there be some equitable and practical split? A second aspect of inquiry here points to another contemporary issue of very great societal importance that could very well become the platform on which the first question can be resolved fortuitously-how to achieve universal telecommunications service. In the effort to fashion the NII that will now continue, ways and means to maximize the unique potential contribution of electric utilities to meeting important social and economic needs--in particular, universal service--merit priority attention.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Nuclear activity in isolated galaxies (Hernandez-Ibarra+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Ibarra, F. J.; Dultzin, D.; Krongold, Y.; Del Olmo, A.; Perea, J.; Gonzalez, J.

    2014-07-01

    We used two samples of rigorously defined isolated galaxies: the photometric catalogue of isolated galaxies (CIG) by Karachentseva (1973, Cat. VII/82) and the northern isolated disc galaxies compiled by Varela et al. (2004, Cat. J/A+A/420/873). We examined all of the spectra looking if emission lines were present. Within the spectral range covered by the SDSS spectra, we searched for Hβ, [OIII] λ5007Å, [OI] λ6300Å, [NII] λλ6548, 6584Å, Hα and the two sulphur ([SII] λλ6717, 6731Å) lines. (2 data files).

  4. Esterases immobilized on aminosilane modified magnetic nanoparticles as a catalyst for biotransformation reactions.

    PubMed

    Alex, Deepthy; Mathew, Abraham; Sukumaran, Rajeev K

    2014-09-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by reacting ferrous and ferric salts in presence of aqueous ammonia. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were amino functionalized by treating with 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APTES) and was coupled with glutaraldehyde. A novel solvent tolerant esterase from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 was immobilized on the MNPs through covalent bonding to the glutaraldehyde. The magnetite nanoparticles had a size range of 10-100 nm, confirmed by DLS. Lipases immobilized on MNPs were evaluated for biotransformation reactions including synthesis of ethyl acetate and transesterification of vegetable oil for producing biodiesel. The MNP immobilized esterase had prolonged shelf life and there was no loss in enzyme activity. PMID:24968816

  5. Monitoring the Continuing Spectral Evolution of Nova Delphini 2013 (V339 Del) with Low Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooers, H. D.; Wiethoff, W. S.; Evich, A.

    2016-02-01

    The continuing spectral evolution of Nova Delphini 2013 is presented with low-resolution spectroscopy collected with a 100 line per millimeter diffraction grating. Spectra were collected on 3 July, 2014 and 14 September, 2015, +321 and +759 days after peak visible brightness on 16 August, 2013. Imaging system was mounted on an equatorially-mounted, 14-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope. The continuum is no longer visible in the spectra, however, Oiii (5007 Å) and Ha (6563 Å) are prominent and Nii (5755), Hg (4340 Å) and Ciii/Niii (4640 Å) can still be discerned at +759 days.

  6. Z39.50 and GILS model. [Government Information Locator Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Eliot

    1994-01-01

    The Government Information Locator System (GILS) is a component of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) which provides electronic access to sources of publicly accessible information maintained throughout the Federal Government. GILS is an internetworking information resource that identifies other information resources, describes the information available in the referenced resources, and provides assistance in how to obtain the information either directly or through intermediaries. The GILS core content which references each Federal information system holding publicly accessible data or information is described in terms of mandatory and optional core elements.

  7. Monitoring the Continuing Spectral Evolution of Nova Delphini 2013 (V339 Del) with Low Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooers, H. D.; Wiethoff, W. S.; Evich, A.

    2016-06-01

    The continuing spectral evolution of Nova Delphini 2013 is presented with low-resolution spectroscopy collected with a 100 line per millimeter diffraction grating. Spectra were collected on 3 July, 2014 and 14 September, 2015, +321 and +759 days after peak visible brightness on 16 August, 2013. Imaging system was mounted on an equatorially-mounted, 14-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope. The continuum is no longer visible in the spectra, however, Oiii (5007 Å) and Ha (6563 Å) are prominent and Nii (5755), Hg (4340 Å) and Ciii/Niii (4640 Å) can still be discerned at +759 days.

  8. Fibers and materials of medical application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridman, L. I.

    1993-01-01

    Efferent sorption methods of organism detoxication (by medical trend) are presented. Recently, specialists have shown their keen interest in the problem of treating exogenous and endogenous intoxications. This was stipulated by the growing production and accumulation of chemical products for industrial, agricultural, and domestic needs. To solve this problem the industrial production of carbon fibrous adsorbents was developed and implemented at NII Chimvolokno in St. Petersburg. A description of the carbon fibers is given. Also, application of modern composite materials for manufacturing compression-distraction apparatus used for setting fractured bones is described.

  9. Ternary semiconductors NiZrSn and CoZrBi with half-Heusler structure: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Gregor; Kratzer, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The ternary semiconductors NiZrSn and CoZrBi with C 1b crystal structure are introduced by calculating their basic structural, electronic, and phononic properties using density functional theory. Both the gradient-corrected PBE functional and the hybrid functional HSE06 are employed. While NiZrSn is found to be a small-band-gap semiconductor (Eg=0.46 eV in PBE and 0.60 eV in HSE06), CoZrBi has a band gap of 1.01 eV in PBE (1.34 eV in HSE06). Moreover, effective masses and deformation potentials are reported. In both materials A B C , the intrinsic point defects introduced by species A (Ni or Co) are calculated. The Co-induced defects in CoZrBi are found to have a higher formation energy compared to Ni-induced defects in NiZrSn. The interstitial Ni atom (Nii) as well as the VNiNii complex introduce defect states in the band gap, whereas the Ni vacancy (VNi) only reduces the size of the band gap. While Nii is electrically active and may act as a donor, the other two types of defects may compensate extrinsic doping. In CoZrBi, only the VCoCoi complex introduces a defect state in the band gap. Motivated by the reported use of NiZrSn for thermoelectric applications, the Seebeck coefficient of both materials, both in the p -type and the n -type regimes, is calculated. We find that CoZrBi displays a rather large thermopower of up to 500 μ V /K when p doped, whereas NiZrSn possesses its maximum thermopower in the n -type regime. The reported difficulties in achieving p -type doping in NiZrSn could be rationalized by the unintended formation of Nii2 + in conjunction with extrinsic acceptors, resulting in their compensation. Moreover, it is found that all types of defects considered, when present in concentrations as large as 3%, tend to reduce the thermopower compared to ideal bulk crystals at T =600 K. For NiZrSn, the calculated thermodynamic data suggest that additional Ni impurities could be removed by annealing, leading to precipitation of a metallic Ni2ZrSn phase.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Globulettes in the Carina nebula (Grenman+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenman, T.; Gahm, G. F.

    2014-09-01

    The optical images of the Carina complex were downloaded from the HST archive, cycle 13 and 14 programs GO-10241 and 10475 (principal investigator N. Smith) based on observations with the ACS/WFI camera, which contains two CCDs of 2048x4096 pixels glued together with a small gap in between. The pixel size corresponds to ~0.05 arcsec/pix, and the field of view is 202x202 arcsec. All images selected were exposed for 1000 s through the narrow-band filter F658N, covering the nebular emission lines of Hα and [NII]. (1 data file).

  11. Structural dynamic testing of the Engineering Test Satellite-IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, K.; Mitsuma, H.; Matsushita, T.; Izumi, H.

    The Engineering Test Satellite-IV (ETS-IV) was the first large scale spacecraft developed and launched successfully in Japan on a new N-II launch vehicle. This paper presents an approach taken for the structural development of the ETS-IV. Extensive structural tests were performed to demonstrate that the ETS-IV spacecraft meets all design requirements and will survive all critical environments. Details of the static load test, vibration tests, acoustic test, and pyrotechnic shock test were described. The test results were compared with analyses and measured flight data.

  12. Highly Regioselective Indoline Synthesis under Nickel/Photoredox Dual Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Tasker, Sarah Z.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel/photoredox catalysis is used to synthesize indolines in one step from iodoacetanilides and alkenes. Very high regioselectivity for 3-substituted indoline products is obtained for both aliphatic and styrenyl olefins. Mechanistic investigations indicate that oxidation to Ni(III) is necessary to perform the difficult C–N bond-forming reductive elimination, producing a Ni(I) complex which in turn is reduced to Ni(0). This process serves to further demonstrate the utility of photoredox catalysts as controlled single electron transfer agents in multi-oxidation state nickel catalysis. PMID:26196355

  13. Corporate role in national competitiveness: smart people + good tools + information = profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele-Vivas, Robert D.

    1994-03-01

    Our national competitiveness -- and the profits of many corporations managed and owned by U.S. citizens -- depend heavily on the outcome of Al Gore's efforts to `reinvent government,' and to create a National Information Infrastructure (NII). Both of these efforts depend in turn on many players, both in and out of government, but two of the players could have an especially substantive impact on how America does business as we enter the era of information warfare: the Secretary of Labor, and the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI).

  14. An Examination of Strong-line Metallicity Diagnostics with Direct Gas-Phase Metallicities at Higher Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Chun; Rigby, Jane R.; Malkan, Matthew Arnold; Malhotra, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    The [OIII]λ4363 nebular emission line, which provides the most reliable determination of the gas metallicity by measuring the electron temperature of the gas, is intrinsically weak. As such, most metallicity studies at both low and high redshifts have utilized "strong-line" metallicity calibrations, such as [NII]λ6583/Hα or R23 = ([OII]+[OIII])/Hβ. However, there are growing concerns that these diagnostics may not be used for evolutionary studies due to differences in the physical conditions (e.g., density, ionization, abundance ratios) of the interstellar gas in galaxies. A clear demonstration for this concern is the offset on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagnostic diagram ([OIII]λ5007/Hβ vs. [NII]λ6583/Hα) for high-z star-forming galaxies from local star-forming galaxies.To examine this issue, we investigate the accuracy that commonly-used strong-line diagnostics can explain the direct oxygen abundances. Here, we use a sample of ~100 low-mass galaxies at z=0.07 to 1.0 with detections of the [OIII]λ4363 emission line from Keck and MMT optical spectroscopy. These galaxies are pre-selected for their strong nebular emission lines from the Subaru Deep Field and the DEEP2 Survey. Utilizing the optical emission lines, we argue that "R23" is not a reliable diagnostic and that discrepancies from [OIII]λ4363-based metallicity cannot be explained simply by higher gas densities or higher ionization parameter. We do find that the [NII]-based metallicity diagnostics of Pettini & Pagel (2004) are in agreement with [OIII]λ4363-based metallicity at z~0.5. There is, however, a sub-population (25%) where [NII]-based estimates are overestimating the oxygen metallicities. We argue that enhanced nitrogen abundances, relative to oxygen, is responsible for this significant (~0.5 dex) offset in metallicity. We present preliminary results for a revised metallicity calibration that considers the N/O abundance ratio.

  15. Construction ahead: What regulators should ask about the information superhighway

    SciTech Connect

    Yaquinto, G.

    1994-06-15

    The emergence of competitive access providers, alternative local transport companies, and cable television companies may present a viable alternative to the traditional monopoly of telephone companies. The participation of electric utilities could expedite implementation of the National Information Infrastructure (NII), for they already have in place communication systems that rival and sometimes exceed systems operated by commercial communications providers. State and local regulations limit the ability of some utilities to provide telecommunications, but pending federal legislation may create regulatory parity among competing companies, primarily by applying common carrier obligations to virtually all telecommunications providers.

  16. Role of Radical Species in Salicylaldiminato Ni(II) Mediated Polymer Chain Growth: A Case Study for the Migratory Insertion Polymerization of Ethylene in the Presence of Methyl Methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Ölscher, Franz; Göttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Monteil, Vincent; Mecking, Stefan

    2015-11-25

    To date, an inconclusive and partially contradictive picture exists on the behavior of neutral Ni(II) insertion polymerization catalysts toward methyl methacrylate (MMA). We shed light on this issue by a combination of comprehensive mechanistic NMR and EPR studies, isolation of a key Ni(I) intermediate, and pressure reactor studies with ethylene and MMA, followed by detailed polymer analysis. An interlocking mechanistic picture of an insertion and a free radical polymerization is revealed. Both polymerizations run simultaneously (25 bar ethylene, neat MMA, 70 °C); however, the chain growth cycles are independent of each other, and therefore exclusively a physical mixture of homo-PE and homo-PMMA is obtained. A Ni-C bond cleavage was excluded as a free radical source. Rather a homolytic P-C bond cleavage in the labile aryl phosphine ligand and the reaction of low-valent Ni(0/I) species with specific iodo substituted N^O (Ar-I) ligands were shown to initiate radical MMA polymerizations. Several reductive elimination decomposition pathways of catalyst precursor or active intermediates were shown to form low-valent Ni species. One of those pathways is a bimolecular reductive coupling via intermediate (N^O)Ni(I) formation. These intermediate Ni(I) species can be prevented from ultimate decomposition by capturing with organic radical sources, forming insertion polymerization active [(N^O)Ni(II)-R] species and prolonging the ethylene polymerization activity. PMID:26571229

  17. Spatially resolved physical conditions of molecular gas: a zoom-in from circumnuclear region of M83 to Carina nebula.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ronin; Madden, Suzanne; Galliano, Frédéric; Wilson, Christine; Onaka, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko

    2015-08-01

    Since the launch of the Herschel Space Observatory, our understanding about the photo-dissociation regions (PDR) has taken a step forward. In the bandwidth of the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) of the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) on board Herschel, ten CO rotational transitions, including J=4-3 to J=13-12, and three fine structure lines, including [CI] 609, [CI] 370, and [NII] 250 micron, are covered. This presentation focuses on the physical conditions of molecular gas probed by the Herschel SPIRE/FTS.Based on the spatially resolved physical parameters derived from the CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) map and the comparisons with the dust properties and star-formation tracers, I will first present our findings at the circumnuclear region of M83, and then zoom in toward the young open cluster, Trumpler 14, in Carina nebula. I will discuss (1) the potential of using [NII] 250 and [CI] 370 micron as star-formation tracers; (2) the reliability of tracing molecular gas with CO; (3) the excitation mechanisms of warm CO; (4) the possibility of studying stellar feedback by tracing the thermal pressure of intersetllar molecular gas.

  18. An analysis of emission lines in the spectrum of P Cygni.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, N.; de Groot, M.

    1997-10-01

    Using the coude spectrograph of the NAO 2m telescope at the Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria, 9 spectra in the blue and 8 spectra in the red photographic region of P Cygni were obtained during 1990. By averaging the spectra in each set a S/N-ratio of about 45 was achieved. Comparing the lists of identifications published by Beals (1950PDAO....9....1B), de Groot (1969BAN....20..225D), Ozemre (1978PIstO.101....1O), Stahl et al. (1993A&AS...99..167S), Markova (1994A&AS..108..561M) and Markova & Zamanov (1995A&AS..114..499M), we conclude that the emission spectrum of P Cygni in our days is probably much richer and intensive than 60 years ago. A number of line parameters of the pure emission lines are measured. An estimate of the electron density and temperature in the region of [NII]-lines formation is obtained. Different velocity laws yielding similar density structures are discussed aiming to account for the results obtained on the basis of the [NII] lines. Possible mechanisms for the formation of the permitted pure emission-line spectrum are proposed.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectral Atlas of P Cygni in range 4840-6760A (Markova+, 1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, N.; Zamanov, R.

    1995-07-01

    Using the coude spectrograph of the NAO 2m RCC telescope at the Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria, 11 spectra in the wavelength range from 4840 to 6760A of P Cygni were obtained during the years 1981, 1983 and 1985. By averaging these spectra we achieved a S/N-ratio of about 50. Here we present a spectral atlas with complete line identifications. Apart from the lines listed by de Groot (1969) many pure bright lines are identified. Most of them are lines of FeIII with high multiplet numbers and NII. Further emission lines are those of SiII multiplets 2, 4 and 5. A new feature is SII spectrum in absorption and emission. In addition to the forbidden lines discovered by Stahl et al. (1991, 1993) three new lines, [FeII19] λ5159, [FeII18] λ5273 and [FeII34] λ5477 are identified. The presence of some [TiII9] lines as well as the red lines of [NII1] is considered as quite probable. (1 data file).

  20. Fine structural analysis of the neuronal inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Julian R; Tang, Helen; Atherton, Joe; Cairns, Nigel J

    2008-12-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is a major component of the pathological inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy, also called FTLD with ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions (FTLD-U), and motor neuron disease (MND). TDP-43 is predominantly expressed in the nucleus and regulates gene expression and splicing. In FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy, neuronal inclusions present variably as cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs), dystrophic neurites (DNs), and intranuclear inclusions (NIIs), leading to a fourfold neuropathological classification correlating with genotype. There have been few fine structural studies of these inclusions. Thus, we undertook an immunoelectron microscopic study of FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy, including sporadic and familial cases with progranulin (GRN) mutation. TDP-43-immunoreactive inclusions comprised two components: granular and filamentous. Filament widths, expressed as mean (range) were: NCI, 9 nm (4-16 nm); DN, 10 nm (5-16 nm); NII, 18 nm (9-50 nm). Morphologically distinct inclusion components may reflect the process of TDP-43 aggregation and interaction with other proteins: determining these latter may contribute towards understanding the heterogeneous pathogenesis of FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:18974920

  1. The Long-Term Care Insurance Program in Israel: solidarity with the elderly in a changing society

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Long-Term Care Insurance Program (LTCIP) in Israel is a social security program administered by the National Insurance Institute (NII) since 1988. LTCIP focuses on home-based personal care services. Differently from most other programs under the responsibility of the NII, LTCIP benefits are in-kind benefits and are delivered via multiple for-profit and not-for-profit organizations. In recent years LTCIP has been the target of various legal amendments and numerous administrative changes. While many of these changes may have had significant effects on individuals, they have not altered the fundamental principles of the program. Thus, many of the characteristics of beneficiaries have remained quite stable over the years; other characteristics of the population of beneficiaries have changed over the years reflecting the aging of Israeli society. A central issue related to LTCIP is whether benefits are adequate to meet the needs of the growing elderly population of Israel. While the generosity of LTCIP benefits is questionable, economic and political struggles have limited the scope of changes introduced thus far. PMID:23343104

  2. Interstellar Deuterium, Nitrogen and Oxygen Towards HZ43A: Results from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, J. W.; Howk, J. C.; Andre, M.; Moos, H. W.; Oegerle, William R.; Oliveira, C.; Sembach, K. R.; Chayer, P.; Linsky, J. L.; Wood, B. E.

    2002-01-01

    We present an analysis of interstellar absorption along the line of sight to the nearby white dwarf star HZ43A. The distance to this star is 68+/-13 pc, and the line of sight extends toward the north Galactic pole. Column densities of O(I), N(I), and N(II) were derived from spectra obtained by the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), the column density of D(I) was derived from a combination of our FUSE spectra and an archival HST GARDENS spectrum, and the column density of H(I) was derived from a combination of the GARDENS spectrum and values derived from EUVE data obtained from the literature. We find the following abundance ratios (with 2 sigma uncertainties): D(I)/H(I)=(1.66+/-0.28)x10(exp -5), O(I)/H(I)=(3.63+/-0.84)x10(exp -4), and N(I)/H(I)=(3.80+/-0.74)x10(exp -5). The N(II) column density was slightly greater than that of N(I), indicating that ionization corrections are important when deriving nitrogen abundances. Other interstellar species detected along the line of sight were C(II), C(III), O(VI), Si(II), Ar(I), Mg(II) and Fe(II); an upper limit was determined for N(III). No elements other than H(I) were detected in the stellar photosphere.

  3. Assessing risks to adults and preschool children posed by PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during a biomass burning episode in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Tipmanee, Danai; Khumsup, Chukkapong; Kittikoon, Itthipon; Hirunyatrakul, Phoosak

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the potential cancer risk resulting from biomass burning, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to fine particles (PM2.5) were assessed in nine administrative northern provinces (NNP) of Thailand, before (N-I) and after (N-II) a haze episode. The average values of Σ 3,4-ring PAHs and B[a] P Equivalent concentrations in world urban cities were significantly (p<0.05) much higher than those in samples collected from northern provinces during both sampling periods. Application of diagnostic binary ratios of PAHs underlined the predominant contribution of vehicular exhaust to PM2.5-bound PAH levels in NNP areas, even in the middle of the agricultural waste burning period. The proximity of N-I and N-II values in three-dimensional (3D) principal component analysis (PCA) plots also supports this conclusion. Although the excess cancer risk in NNP areas is much lower than those of other urban area and industrialized cities, there are nevertheless some concerns relating to adverse health impacts on preschool children due to non-dietary exposure to PAHs in home environments. PMID:25506906

  4. Fine structural analysis of the neuronal inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Helen; Atherton, Joe; Cairns, Nigel J.

    2009-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is a major component of the pathological inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy, also called FTLD with ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions (FTLD-U), and motor neuron disease (MND). TDP-43 is predominantly expressed in the nucleus and regulates gene expression and splicing. In FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy, neuronal inclusions present variably as cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs), dystrophic neurites (DNs), and intranuclear inclusions (NIIs), leading to a fourfold neuropathological classification correlating with genotype. There have been few fine structural studies of these inclusions. Thus, we undertook an immunoelectron microscopic study of FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy, including sporadic and familial cases with progranulin (GRN) mutation. TDP-43-immunoreactive inclusions comprised two components: granular and filamentous. Filament widths, expressed as mean (range) were: NCI, 9 nm (4–16 nm); DN, 10 nm (5–16 nm); NII, 18 nm (9–50 nm). Morphologically distinct inclusion components may reflect the process of TDP-43 aggregation and interaction with other proteins: determining these latter may contribute towards understanding the heterogeneous pathogenesis of FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:18974920

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SNRs in six nearby galaxies (Leonidaki+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonidaki, I.; Boumis, P.; Zezas, A.

    2014-03-01

    Optical images were obtained with the 1.3m (f/7.7) Ritchey-Chretien telescope at the Skinakas Observatory on 2008 June 6-12 and 2009 November 16-18. A 2048x2048 ANDOR Tech CCD was used which has a 9.6x9.6arcmin2 field of view and an image scale of 0.28arcsec/pix. Apart from 2009 November 18, all the other observing nights were photometric with seeing conditions ranging from 1.3 to 2.5arcsec. The observations were performed with the narrow-band Hα+[NII], [SII] and [OIII] filters. Broad-band continuum filters in red and blue were used to subtract the continuum from the Hα+[NII], [SII] and [OIII] images, respectively. The continuum filters used for the observations are centred on line-free regions of the spectra in order to avoid strong SNR emission lines to pass. (6 data files).

  6. GMOS-IFU Spectrocopy of the CBSS CAL83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. S.; Steiner, J. E.

    2006-06-01

    The Compact Binary Supersoft X-Ray Sources (CBSS) are X-ray binaries initially discovered in the Magellanic Clouds which are copious sources of supersoft X-rays. The basic model of this class includes a massive white dwarf that suffers stable nuclear burning on its surface due to high mass transfer rates. Here we present the preliminary results of our search for nebular emission in CAL83, a CBSS in the LMC, using GMOS-IFU data obtained at the Gemini South Telescope. We found that CAL83 shows the [FeX] 6375 Å coronal line in emission. This line had never been identified in a CBSS before. This same line was observed, for instance, as the most intense one in the spectrum of the classical nova GQ Mus four years after its outburst. As in that case, this nebular emission is probably associated to hydrostatic hydrogen burning on the surface of the white dwarf. We also found that H and HeII lines present absorption and emission components associated to bipolar jets, with velocities consistent with the escape velocity of a white dwarf. In this preliminary analysis we can not assert the presence of the [OIII], [SII] or [NII] nebular lines. We can identify an emission at the expected position of the [NII] 6548 Å line, but this emission may also be associated to a jet with velocity of -600 km/s with respect to Hα , which in fact is also observed with the same velocity near Hβ .

  7. Security Assessment Simulation Toolkit (SAST) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meitzler, Wayne D.; Ouderkirk, Steven J.; Hughes, Chad O.

    2009-11-15

    The Department of Defense Technical Support Working Group (DoD TSWG) investment in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Security Assessment Simulation Toolkit (SAST) research planted a technology seed that germinated into a suite of follow-on Research and Development (R&D) projects culminating in software that is used by multiple DoD organizations. The DoD TSWG technology transfer goal for SAST is already in progress. The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), the Defense-wide Information Assurance Program (DIAP), the Marine Corps, Office Of Naval Research (ONR) National Center For Advanced Secure Systems Research (NCASSR) and Office Of Secretary Of Defense International Exercise Program (OSD NII) are currently investing to take SAST to the next level. PNNL currently distributes the software to over 6 government organizations and 30 DoD users. For the past five DoD wide Bulwark Defender exercises, the adoption of this new technology created an expanding role for SAST. In 2009, SAST was also used in the OSD NII International Exercise and is currently scheduled for use in 2010.

  8. Deep Narrow-Band Imaging of M87: a Close Look at the Disk of Ionized Gas Fueling a Massive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Holland

    1995-07-01

    M87 provides a unique example of a 100 pc scale disk of ionized gasfueling a massive black hole (Ford et al. 1994, Harms et al. 1994).The disk shows tantalizing evidence for spiral structure and a possibleconnection to large scale, wrapped filaments. Sparks, Ford, and Kinney(1993) used observations of dust absorption in the filaments andblueshifted velocities with respect to M87 to conclude that thefilaments are an outflow from the nucleus. If the wrapped filamentsare in fact an outflow, we are witnessing the solution to anoutstanding problem in astrophysics, that of removing angular momentumfrom a disk to allow the gas to flow onto the central massive black hole.We propose to use 6 orbits to take deep, half-pixel stepped,Halpha+[Nii] on-band images to study the morphology in the disk andfilaments. The images will be one magnitude deeper than previousimages and will reach the 0.06'' diffraction limit of the telescopeat Halpha. Our goals are to use the deep, high resolution images to:1) Investigate and understand the apparent connection between thefilaments and the disk.2) Delineate the apparent spiral structure in the disk.3) Confirm the presence of faint Halpha+[Nii] emission associated withthe jet, which could be gas which has been entrained by the jet.

  9. Government Services Information Infrastructure Management

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallini, J.S.; Aiken, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Government Services Information Infrastructure (GSII) is that portion of the NII used to link Government and its services, enables virtual agency concepts, protects privacy, and supports emergency preparedness needs. The GSII is comprised of the supporting telecommunications technologies, network and information services infrastructure and the applications that use these. The GSII is an enlightened attempt by the Clinton/Gore Administration to form a virtual government crossing agency boundaries to interoperate more closely with industry and with the public to greatly improve the delivery of government services. The GSII and other private sector efforts, will have a significant impact on the design, development, and deployment of the NII, even if only through the procurement of such services. The Federal Government must adopt new mechanisms and new paradigms for the management of the GSII, including improved acquisition and operation of GSII components in order to maximize benefits. Government requirements and applications will continue to evolv. The requirements from government services and users of form affinity groups that more accurately and effectively define these common requirements, that drive the adoption and use of industry standards, and that provide a significant technology marketplace.

  10. Spectroscopic study in the visible and near infrared wavelength of an Hα-selected sample of star-forming galaxies at z = 0.84

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Gallego, J.; Villar, V.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Zamorano, J.; Cardiel, N.; Acosta Pulido, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we study the physical properties of star-forming galaxies selected in an Hα near-infrared narrow-band survey tuned for redshift z=0.84 (Villar et al. 2008, 2011). Also, we present a sample at z˜1 with mass greater than 10^{10} M_{⊙} with Hα emission. The observations were carried out with WHT/LIRIS (see Sánchez de Miguel et al. 2011, in Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics VI). The rest of the data from the spectra archive of the RAINBOW Cosmological Survey database (Pérez-González et al. 2005, 2008; Barro et al. 2011ab). According to the redshift distribution of these galaxies, 65% of the galaxies are in a redshift range of 0.005. This velocity range corresponds to less than 25% of the effective volume. Which could be indicative of the presence of substructure. A total of 48 galaxies have detected Hα emission and other 12 show [NII]6584. To complete our multi-wavelength sample we found 23 galaxies with Hβ, [OIII]5007 or [OII]3727 detections. Using this photometry from ancillary data we will calculate nebular and stellar extinctions. We have calculated metallicities using the [NII]/Hα ratio and the Pettini & Pagel (2004) calibrations. The metallicity of samples are compatible with the local galaxies. We found that in all the diagnostic diagrams galaxies have similar properties to the local ones, except they are intrinsically brighter for the same equivalent width [OII]3727.

  11. The nature of the emission-line nebulae in powerful far-infrared galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armus, Lee; Heckman, Timothy M.; Miley, George K.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss their program of narrow-band (H alpha + (NII)) imaging of a sample of 30 powerful far-infrared galaxies (FIRG's) chosen to have far-infrared spectral energy distributions similar to the prototype FIRG's Arp 220, NGC 3690, NGC 6240, and M82. The emission-line nebulae of these IR color-selected sample (ICSS) galaxies as a class are both impressively large (mean half light radius, r approx. 1.3 Kpc, and mean diameter, D approx. 16 Kpc) and luminous (L sub TOT approx. 10(exp 8) solar lumninosity; uncorrected for internal extinction). The mean total H alpha + (NII) luminosity of the FIRG's is comparable to that found for pairs of optically selected interacting galaxies (Bushouse, Lamb, and Werner 1988), but is a factor of approx. 5 greater than that of isolated spirals (Kennicutt and Kent 1983). Only approx. 25 percent of the nearby (z approx. less than 0.10) FIRG's have morphologies suggesting that large HII-regions contribute significantly to their emission-line appearance. The broad-band morphologies of our IR color-selected galaxies fall into three major categories. Nearly 75 percent are single galaxy systems, with the remaining FIRG's being either multiple nuclei systems, or members of interacting pairs. Since the authors saw few (10 percent) currently interacting FIRG's, yet many (80 percent) with highly distorted continuum morphologies, their IR color criteria may be preferentially selecting galaxies that have undergone highly inelastic, rapidly merging interactions.

  12. Surface abundances of light elements for a large sample of early B-type stars - III. An analysis of helium lines in spectra of 102 stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimkov, L. S.; Rostopchin, S. I.; Lambert, D. L.

    2004-06-01

    Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of He I lines in spectra of 102 B stars is implemented in order to derive the helium abundance He/H, the microturbulent parameter Vt and the projected rotation velocity v sini. A simultaneous determination of He/H and Vt for the stars is effected by analysing equivalent widths of the 4471- and 4922-Å lines primarily as indicators of He/H and the 4713-, 5016-, 5876- and 6678-Å lines primarily as indicators of Vt. The rotation velocities v sini are found from profiles of the same lines. It is shown that, when Vt > 7 km s-1, the Vt(He I) values determined from He I lines are systematically overestimated as compared with the Vt(OII, NII) values derived from OII and NII lines. This discrepancy is especially appreciable for hot evolved B giants with Vt(He I) = 16-23 km s-1 and may indicate a failure of classical model atmospheres to represent the strong He I lines for these stars. Two programme stars, HR 1512 and 7651, are found to be helium-weak stars. The remaining 100 stars are divided into three groups according to their masses M. The microturbulent parameter Vt(He I) is low for all stars of group A (M= 4.1-6.9 Msolar) and for all stars with the relative ages t/tMS < 0.8 of group B (M= 7.0-11.2 Msolar). Their Vt(He I) values are within the 0 to 5 km s-1 range, as a rule; the mean value is Vt= 1.7 km s-1. Only evolved giants of group B, which are close to the termination of the main-sequence (MS) evolutionary phase (t/tMS > 0.8), show Vt(He I) up to 11 km s-1. The helium abundance He/H is correlated with the relative age t/tMS in both groups; the averaged He/H enhancement during the MS phase is 26 per cent. For group C, containing the most massive stars (M= 12.4-18.8 Msolar), the Vt(He I) values display a correlation with t/tMS, varying from 4 to 23 km s-1. The He/H determination for hot evolved B giants of the group with Vt(He I) > 15 km s-1 depends on a choice between the Vt(He I) and Vt(OII, NII) scales. The mean He

  13. Alternative diagnostic diagrams and the `forgotten' population of weak line galaxies in the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid Fernandes, R.; Stasińska, G.; Schlickmann, M. S.; Mateus, A.; Vale Asari, N.; Schoenell, W.; Sodré, L.

    2010-04-01

    A numerous population of weak line galaxies (WLGs) is often left out of statistical studies on emission-line galaxies (ELGs) due to the absence of an adequate classification scheme, since classical diagnostic diagrams, such as [OIII]/Hβ versus [NII]/Hα (the BPT diagram), require the measurement of at least four emission lines. This paper aims to remedy this situation by transposing the usual divisory lines between star-forming (SF) galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN) hosts and between Seyferts and LINERs to diagrams that are more economical in terms of line quality requirements. By doing this, we rescue from the classification limbo a substantial number of sources and modify the global census of ELGs. More specifically, (1) we use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to constitute a suitable sample of 280000 ELGs, one-third of which are WLGs. (2) Galaxies with strong emission lines are classified using the widely applied criteria of Kewley et al., Kauffmann et al. and Stasińska et al. to distinguish SF galaxies and AGN hosts and Kewley et al. to distinguish Seyferts from LINERs. (3) We transpose these classification schemes to alternative diagrams keeping [NII]/Hα as a horizontal axis, but replacing Hβ by a stronger line (Hα or [OII]), or substituting the ionization-level sensitive [OIII]/Hβ ratio with the equivalent width of Hα (WHα). Optimized equations for the transposed divisory lines are provided. (4) We show that nothing significant is lost in the translation, but that the new diagrams allow one to classify up to 50 per cent more ELGs. (5) Introducing WLGs in the census of galaxies in the local Universe increases the proportion of metal-rich SF galaxies and especially LINERs. In the course of this analysis, we were led to make the following points. (i) The Kewley et al. BPT line for galaxy classification is generally ill-used. (ii) Replacing [OIII]/Hβ by WHα in the classification introduces a change in the philosophy of the distinction

  14. Hα imaging of the Herschel Reference Survey. The star formation properties of a volume-limited, K-band-selected sample of nearby late-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Fossati, M.; Gavazzi, G.; Ciesla, L.; Buat, V.; Boissier, S.; Hughes, T. M.

    2015-07-01

    We present new Hα+[NII] imaging data of late-type galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey aimed at studying the star formation properties of a K-band-selected, volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies. The Hα+[NII] data are corrected for [NII] contamination and dust attenuation using different recipes based on the Balmer decrement and the 24 μm luminosities. We show that the Hα luminosities derived with different corrections give consistent results only whenever the uncertainty on the estimate of the Balmer decrement is σ [C(Hβ)] ≤ 0.1. We used these data to derive the star formation rate of the late-type galaxies of the sample and compare these estimates to those determined using independent monochromatic tracers (far-UV, radio continuum) or the output of spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting codes. This comparison suggests that the 24 μm based dust extinction correction for the Hα data might not be universal and that it should be used with caution in all objects with a low star formation activity, where dust heating can be dominated by the old stellar population. Furthermore, because of the sudden truncation of the star formation activity of cluster galaxies occurring after their interaction with the surrounding environment, the stationarity conditions required to transform monochromatic fluxes into star formation rates might not always be satisfied in tracers other than the Hα luminosity. In a similar way, the parametrisation of the star formation history generally used in SED fitting codes might not be adequate for these recently interacting systems. We then use the derived star formation rates to study the star formation rate luminosity distribution and the typical scaling relations of the late-type galaxies of the HRS. We observe a systematic decrease of the specific star formation rate with increasing stellar mass, stellar mass surface density, and metallicity. We also observe an increase of the asymmetry and smoothness parameters measured

  15. A comparison of FUV dayglows measured by STSAT-1/FIMS with the AURIC model in a geomagnetic quiet condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, Hosik; Kim, Yong Ha; Hong, Jun-Seok; Lee, Joon-Chan; Choi, Yeon-Ju; Min, Kyung Wook

    2014-09-01

    The Korea scientific microsatellite, STSAT-1 (Science and Technology Satellite-1), was launched in 2003 and observed far ultraviolet (FUV) airglow from the upper atmosphere with a Far-ultraviolet IMaging Spectrograph (FIMS) at an altitude of 690 km. The FIMS consists of a dual-band imaging spectrograph of 900-1150 Å (S-band) and 1340-1715 Å (L-band). Limb scanning observations were performed only at the S-band, resulting in intensity profiles of OI 989 Å, OI 1026 Å, NII 1085 Å and NI 1134 Å emission lines near the horizon. We compare these emission intensities with those computed by using a theoretical model, the AURIC (Atmospheric Ultraviolet Radiance Integrated Code). The intensities of the OI 1026 Å, NII 1085 Å and NI 1134 Å emissions measured by using the FIMS are overall consistent with the values computed by using AURIC under the thermospheric and solar activity conditions on August 6, 1984, which is close to the FIMS's observation condition. We find that the FIMS dayglow intensity profiles match reasonably well with AURIC intensity profiles for the MSIS90 oxygen atom density profiles within factors of 0.5 and 2. However, the FIMS intensities of the OI 989 Å line are about 2 ˜ 4 times stronger than the AURIC intensities, which is expected because AURIC does not properly simulate resonance scattering of airglow and solar photons at 989 Å by atomic oxygen in the thermosphere. We also find that the maximum tangential altitudes of the oxygen bearing dayglows (OI 989 Å, OI 1026 Å) are higher than those of the nitrogen-bearing dayglows (NII 1085 Å, NI 1134 Å), which is confirmed by using AURIC model calculations. This is expected because the oxygen atoms are distributed at higher altitudes in the thermosphere than the nitrogen molecules. Validations of the qualities of both the FIMS instrument and the AURIC model indicate that AURIC should be updated with improved thermospheric models and with measured solar FUV spectra for better agreement with the

  16. The discovery of optical emission from the SNR G 126.2 + 1.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, W. P.; Kirshner, R. P.; Gull, T. R.; Sawyer, D. L.; Parker, R. A. R.

    1980-01-01

    Interference filter photographs were used to identify an arc of nebulosity that is coincident with the radio contours of the galactic supernova remnant G 126.2 + 1.6. Spectrophotometry of the filament shows that the emission line spectrum matches the spectra of other galactic supernova remnants. In particular, the arc shows the usual strong SII, and NII emission lines seen in other remnants and unusually strong OII emission as seen in a few remnants. The spectrum can be adequately matched by a shock of velocity near 100 km/s in an interstellar cloud of density 3. If the SNR is at a distance of 4.5 kpc as indicated by the radio signal-D relation, then the observed pressure in the filament requires an initial energy near 4 x 10 to the 51st power (d/4.5 kpc) to the 3rd power ergs.

  17. Identifying strengths and weaknesses in the utilization of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in a nursing program.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, Paula L; Botwinski, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is used in nursing to assess students' transfer of classroom and laboratory learning experiences into simulated clinical practice. OSCE is a performance-based exam in which students are observed demonstrating a multitude of clinical behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify strengths and weaknesses in the utilization of OSCE in this nursing program with 60 full-time students ages 21 to 23. An evaluation methodology was used for this study. Interviews were conducted with two groups: faculty facilitators of OSCE and standardized patients (SPs). Areas of focus were: data collection of students' performance, SP selection and training, and modification of the Nursing Interview Interaction Scale (NIIS). It was found that with appropriate SP selection and training, utilization of appropriate tools, and good data collection, OSCE can offer a valid and reliable means of testing nursing students' clinical competencies. PMID:22416539

  18. Role of Communications Satellites in the National and Global Information Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Early in 1995, the Satellite Industry Task Force (SITF) was initiated by executives of the satellite industry to define the role for communication satellites in the National and Global Information Infrastructure (NII/GII). Satellites are essential to this information network because they offer ubiquitous coverage and less time to market. SITF, which was chaired by Dr. Thomas Brackey of the Hughes Space and Communication Division, grew out of a series of workshops held during the summer of 1994 by the communication industry, NASA, and the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA). Experts were convened from 20 companies representing satellite and terrestrial network builders, operators, and users. For 8 months they worked to identify challenges for the satellite industry to play a pivotal role in the National and Global Information Infrastructure. NASA Lewis Research Center personnel helped out with technical and policy matters.

  19. A Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Nanyao Y.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Armus, L.; Appleton, P. N.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz Santos, T.; Evans, A. S.; Howell, J.; Issak, K.; Iwasawa, K.; Leech, J.; Lord, S. D.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Petric, A.; Sanders, D. B.; Schulz, B.; Surace, J. A.; Van der Werf, P.

    2013-01-01

    We describe an on-going Herschel 194-671 micron spectroscopic survey of a flux-limited sample of 125 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), targeting primarily at the spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the CO rotational line emission (from J=4-3 up to J=13-12) from warm and dense molecular gas, the [NII] 205 micron line from ionized gas, and the [CI] 370 and 609 micron lines arising mainly from less dense and colder molecular gas where the CO (J=1-0) line is also strong. We present observational results for the first set of 65 sample galaxies that are more or less point sources with respect to the Herschel beams, and show statistical correlations among the shape of the CO SLED, CO line luminosities, IR dust luminosity, and whether a target is known to harbor AGN or not.

  20. Are E-test and Vitek2 good choices for tigecycline susceptibility testing when comparing broth microdilution for MDR and XDR Acinetobacter baumannii?

    PubMed

    Grandesso, Stefano; Sapino, Barbara; Amici, Gianpaolo; Mazzucato, Sandra; Solinas, Maria; Gion, Massimo

    2014-10-01

    This study reports the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 10 MDR and 74 XDR Acinetobacter bauman- nii clinical isolates from our hospital routine. We used three different methods: two automated systems (Sensititre and VITEK 2) and one standardized manual method (E-test). Since many published papers refer to in vitro tests performed by E-test, the aim of this study was to test if this method is reliable for testing tigecycline. The results obtained show that E-test significantly overestimates the MIC of the broth microdilution (reference test), thus ob- taining a significant number of major errors (resistant instead of sensitive). VITEK 2 also shows the same problem, but it is less critical. We therefore conclude that these methods do not seem to be very reliable in the performance of susceptibility testing of MDR and XDR Acinetobacter baumannii against tigecycline. PMID:25387287

  1. Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications (IITA) Program: Annual K-12 Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Paul; Likens, William; Leon, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the K-12 workshop is to stimulate a cross pollination of inter-center activity and introduce the regional centers to curing edge K-1 activities. The format of the workshop consists of project presentations, working groups, and working group reports, all contained in a three day period. The agenda is aggressive and demanding. The K-12 Education Project is a multi-center activity managed by the Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications (IITA)/K-12 Project Office at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). this workshop is conducted in support of executing the K-12 Education element of the IITA Project The IITA/K-12 Project funds activities that use the National Information Infrastructure (NII) (e.g., the Internet) to foster reform and restructuring in mathematics, science, computing, engineering, and technical education.

  2. Evolution of In-Situ Generated Reinforcement Precipitates in Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Kar, S. K.; Catalina, A. V.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.

    2004-01-01

    Due to certain inherent advantages, in-situ production of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have received considerable attention in the recent past. ln-situ techniques typically involve a chemical reaction that results in precipitation of a ceramic reinforcement phase. The size and spatial distribution of these precipitates ultimately determine the mechanical properties of these MMCs. In this paper we will investigate the validity of using classical growth laws and analytical expressions to describe the interaction between a precipitate and a solid-liquid interface (SLI) to predict the size and spatial evolution of the in-situ generated precipitates. Measurements made on size and distribution of Tic precipitates in a Ni&I matrix will be presented to test the validity of such an approach.

  3. HST imaging of the dusty filaments and nucleus swirl in NGC4696 at the centre of the Centaurus Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, A. C.; Walker, S. A.; Russell, H. R.; Pinto, C.; Canning, R. E. A.; Salome, P.; Sanders, J. S.; Taylor, G. B.; Zweibel, E. G.; Conselice, C. J.; Combes, F.; Crawford, C. S.; Ferland, G. J.; Gallagher, J. S.; Hatch, N. A.; Johnstone, R. M.; Reynolds, CS.

    2016-06-01

    Narrow-band HST imaging has resolved the detailed internal structure of the 10 kpc diameter Hα+[NII] emission line nebulosity in NGC4696, the central galaxy in the nearby Centaurus cluster, showing that the dusty, molecular, filaments have a width of about 60pc. Optical morphology and velocity measurements indicate that the filaments are dragged out by the bubbling action of the radio source as part of the AGN feedback cycle. Using the drag force we find that the magnetic field in the filaments is in approximate pressure equipartition with the hot gas. The filamentary nature of the cold gas continues inward, swirling around and within the Bondi accretion radius of the central black hole, revealing the magnetic nature of the gas flows in massive elliptical galaxies. HST imaging resolves the magnetic, dusty, molecular filaments at the centre of the Centaurus cluster to a swirl around and within the Bondi radius.

  4. News from On-Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney Judd, Carolyn

    1997-06-01

    Now that we have found all these great things on the World Wide Web, what can we do with them? I mean legally? Never fear, again the Web comes to your rescue! The Conference on Fair Use (CONFU) Interim Report (http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/dcom/olia/confu/) summarizes the work of more than 95 organizations dedicated to establishing fair use guidelines for librarians and educators while also representing copyright owners. CONFU was initiated in 1994 as part of the national government's effort to promote the National Information Infrastructure (NII). Go to this site and look for Guidelines for Fair Use for Digital Images, Distance Learning, and Educational Multimedia. Read the special cautions about material from the Internet, special allowances for retention of projects for tenure review, and permitted uses by students for class projects.

  5. Emission of CO, CI, and CII in the spiral arms of M83 and M51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, C.; Mookerjea, B.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Bayet, E.; Gerin, M.; Israel, F.; Stutzki, J.; Wouterloot, J.

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed study of photon dominated regions at several spiral arm positions and the centers of the nearby spiral galaxies M51 and M83. For this, we combine all important cooling lines: [CI] 609μm taken at the JCMT with 12CO and 13CO 1-0 and 2-1 lines taken at the IRAM 30m MRT. These transitions are combined with data taken from the literature: ISO/LWS [CII] 158μm, [OI] 63μm, 146μm, and [NII] (122μm) data (Brauher, J., et al. 2004) and mid-J CO lines from (Bayet, E., et al., Dumke, M., et al. 2003, Israel, F., Baas, F., 2002).

  6. On-Board Switching and Routing Advanced Technology Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yegenoglu, F.; Inukai, T.; Kaplan, T.; Redman, W.; Mitchell, C.

    1998-01-01

    Future satellite communications is expected to be fully integrated into National and Global Information Infrastructures (NII/GII). These infrastructures will carry multi gigabit-per-second data rates, with integral switching and routing of constituent data elements. The satellite portion of these infrastructures must, therefore, be more than pipes through the sky. The satellite portion will also be required to perform very high speed routing and switching of these data elements to enable efficient broad area coverage to many home and corporate users. The technology to achieve the on-board switching and routing must be selected and developed specifically for satellite application within the next few years. This report presents evaluation of potential technologies for on-board switching and routing applications.

  7. Reductive nitrosylation of nickel(ii) complex by nitric oxide followed by nitrous oxide release.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somnath; Deka, Hemanta; Dangat, Yuvraj B; Saha, Soumen; Gogoi, Kuldeep; Vanka, Kumar; Mondal, Biplab

    2016-06-21

    Ni(ii) complex of ligand ( = bis(2-ethyl-4-methylimidazol-5-yl)methane) in methanol solution reacts with an equivalent amount of NO resulting in a corresponding Ni(i) complex. Adding further NO equivalent affords a Ni(i)-nitrosyl intermediate with the {NiNO}(10) configuration. This nitrosyl intermediate upon subsequent reaction with additional NO results in the release of N2O and formation of a Ni(ii)-nitrito complex. Crystallographic characterization of the nitrito complex revealed a symmetric η(2)-O,O-nitrito bonding to the metal ion. This study demonstrates the reductive nitrosylation of a Ni(ii) center followed by N2O release in the presence of excess NO. PMID:27230278

  8. Lidar observation of marine mixed layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamagishi, Susumu; Yamanouchi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Masayuki

    1992-01-01

    Marine mixed layer is known to play an important role in the transportation of pollution exiting ship funnels. The application of a diffusion model is critically dependent upon a reliable estimate of a lid. However, the processes that form lids are not well understood, though considerable progress toward marine boundary layer has been achieved. This report describes observations of the marine mixed layer from the course Ise-wan to Nii-jima with the intention of gaining a better understanding of their structure by a shipboard lidar. These observations were made in the summer of 1991. One interesting feature of the observations was that the multiple layers of aerosols, which is rarely numerically modeled, was encountered. No attempt is yet made to present a systematic analysis of all the data collected. Instead we focus on observations that seem to be directly relevant to the structure of the mixed layer.

  9. The radical mechanism of biological methane synthesis by methyl-coenzyme M reductase.

    PubMed

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Sliwa, Dariusz; Ginovska, Bojana; Smith, Dayle; Wolf, Matthew W; Lehnert, Nicolai; Raugei, Simone; Ragsdale, Stephen W

    2016-05-20

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation, is responsible for the biological production of more than 1 billion tons of methane per year. The mechanism of methane synthesis is thought to involve either methyl-nickel(III) or methyl radical/Ni(II)-thiolate intermediates. We employed transient kinetic, spectroscopic, and computational approaches to study the reaction between the active Ni(I) enzyme and substrates. Consistent with the methyl radical-based mechanism, there was no evidence for a methyl-Ni(III) species; furthermore, magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy identified the Ni(II)-thiolate intermediate. Temperature-dependent transient kinetics also closely matched density functional theory predictions of the methyl radical mechanism. Identifying the key intermediate in methanogenesis provides fundamental insights to develop better catalysts for producing and activating an important fuel and potent greenhouse gas. PMID:27199421

  10. In-orbit operations of Japanese geostationary meteorological satellite, GMS-2, 'HIMAWARI-2'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kitahara, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Harada, M.

    1982-09-01

    The objectives of GMS-II are the same as those of its predecessor, which was launched as part of the Global Atmospheric Research Program. GMS-2 is a spin-stabilized geostationary meteorological satellite with mechanical despun antennas. The spacecraft launch weight was reduced about 15 kg from that of its predecessor to make it compatible with the N-II launch vehicle. A description is given of the post-launch mission check, which was carried out between August and September 1981. The check was made to compare the in-orbit performance of GMS-2 with ground test data, to verify that the overall system function and performance met the requirements, and to establish a data base for future performance comparisons after the orbit life.

  11. The second Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 'Himawari-2'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kitahara, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Harada, M.; Usuda, S.

    Design features and performance to date of the Japanese meteorological satellite GMS-2 are presented. The GMS-2 is configured to provide weather imagery with VISSR sensors, collect and distribute meteorological data, and monitor solar particles. GMS-2 is spin-stabilized in GEO and was launched on an N-II rocket. The spacecraft length is 3.45 m on-station, the diameter is 2.15 m, and the mass is 653 kg beginning-of-life. Ground links are maintained through despun S-band and UHF antennas. The actual mission life is 3 yr due to the limitations of the on-board hydrazine fuel supply for station-keeping. Noncritical performance anomalies have been exhibited in the telemetry gating circuitry, S-band transmitters, and the PCM telemetry data control circuitry. Back-up systems have compensated for the failures experienced thus far.

  12. The Hawaii Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (HIFI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Jonathan; Cecil, Gerald; Tully, Brent

    1990-01-01

    At Mauna Kea Observatory, researchers conducted optical, imaging spectrophotometric studies of selected active galaxies using both the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6m and University of Hawaii 2.2m telecopes (Tully, Bland and Cecil 1988). To maximize spatial resolution, researchers select galaxies independent of luminosity but known to possess interesting morphologies or high-velocity, extranuclear ionized gas (Walker 1968; Rubin and Ford 1968). They study both the large-scale patterns produced in IR-luminous, starburst systems (e.g., M82, NGC 253, NGC 6240) and those with compact, but spatially extended, circumnuclear, narrow line regions (e.g., M51, NGC 1068, NGC 4151). Current studies are restricted to the optical (SII), (NII) and (OIII) lines and the brightest Balmer recombination lines. These lines are, in principle, sufficient to constrain the dynamical structure and dominant excitation mechanism of the ionized component.

  13. A spiral-like disk of ionized gas in IC 1459: Signature of a merging collision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Norgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Jorgensen, H. E.; Hansen, L.; Dejong, T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report the discovery of a large (15 kpc diameter) H alpha + (NII) emission-line disk in the elliptical galaxy IC 1459, showing weak spiral structure. The line flux peaks strongly at the nucleus and is more concentrated than the stellar continuum. The major axis of the disk of ionized gas coincides with that of the stellar body of the galaxy. The mass of the ionized gas is estimated to be approx. 1 times 10 (exp 5) solar mass, less than 1 percent of the total mass of gas present in IC 1459. The total gas mass of 4 times 10(exp 7) solar mass has been estimated from the dust mass derived from a broad-band color index image and the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data. The authors speculate that the presence of dust and gas in IC 1459 is a signature of a merger event.

  14. AGNs with composite spectra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, P.; Goncalves, A. C.; Veron-Cetty, M.-P.

    1997-03-01

    The use of the Baldwin et al. (1981PASP...93....5B) or Veilleux & Osterbrock (1987ApJS...63..295V) diagnostic diagrams allows the unambiguous classification of the nuclear emission line regions of most galaxies into one of three categories: nuclear HII regions or starbursts, Seyfert 2 galaxies and Liners. However, a small fraction of them have a "transition" spectrum. We present spectral observations of 15 "transition" objects at high-dispersion (66Å/mm) around the Hα, [NII]λλ6548,6584 and/or Hβ, [OIII]λλ4959,5007 emission lines. We show that most of these spectra are composite, due to the simultaneous presence on the slit of a Seyfert nucleus and a HII region. Seyfert 2s and Liners seem to occupy relatively small and distinct volumes in the three-dimensional space λ5007/Hβ, λ6584/Hα, λ6300/Hα.

  15. PdBI high-resolution high-sensitivity imaging of a strongly lensed submillimeter source at z=5.24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, F.; Combes, F.; Krips, M.; Richard, J.; Rawle, T.; Egami, E.; Kneib, J.-P.; Schaerer, D.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Pello, R.; Clément, B.

    2014-12-01

    We have obtained Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations of HLSJ091828.6+514223 (z=5.24) at six different frequencies to cover the CO(6-5), CO(7-6), CI, H_20_{p}(2,0,2-1,1,1), [NII] and [CII] lines. The high resolution and high sensitivity of these multi-configuration observations allow us to detect the various line velocity components as well as the continuum and to resolve spatially their emission. This wealth of information is used to tackle the problem of lens and source modeling. A methodology is implemented to produce image plane maps, optimize the lens model, and finally inverse the PdBI data in the source plane. The image plane and source plane maps are constructed by fitting directly the pixels to the PdBI visibilities with the non-negative least square method. The preliminary results thus obtained are presented.

  16. Morphological and spectral study of the galaxies Kaz 69 and Kaz 460

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazarian, M. A.; Karapetian, E. L.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.

    2007-10-01

    Morphological and spectral studies of the galaxies Kaz 69 and Kaz 460 are reported. The observations were made on the 2.6-m telescope at the Byurakan Observatory using the VAGR multiaperture spectrograph. Isophotes of monochromatic images of the Hα, [NII] λ6584, and [SII] λ6717 lines are constructed. Densifications I and II are found to rotate with north-south oriented axes of rotation. The two densifications (“knots”) have all the kinematic and spectral properties of individual galaxies. It is assumed that Kaz 139 and the densifications I and II were ejected from the nucleus of Kaz 460 at different times, with Kaz 139 probably having been ejected first, although they may all have been ejected simultaneously with different velocities. Along with Kaz 460, these objects form a physical group of galaxies and, at the same time, are a consequence of the activity of the nucleus of Kaz 460.

  17. Microvariability of line profiles in the spectra of OB stars: III. The supergiant ρ LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholtygin, A. F.; Fabrika, S. N.; Burlakova, T. E.; Valyavin, G. G.; Chuntonov, G. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Kang, D.; Yushkin, M. V.; Galazutdinov, G. A.

    2007-11-01

    We observed the bright supergiant ρ Leo (B1 lab) in January-February 2004 using the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (Russia) and the 1.8-m telescope of the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (South Korea). 47 spectra with high time resolution (4-10 min), signal-to-noise ratios 300-1000, and spectral resolutions 45 000-60 000 were obtained. We detected variability in the HeI, SiII, SiIII, and NII line profiles, which may be due to rotational modulation of the profiles and photospheric pulsations of ρ Leo. The possible influence of the stellar magnetic field on the line-profile variations is discussed.

  18. Synthesis and structural characterization of two half-sandwich nickel(II) complexes with the scorpionate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.-F.; Zhang, X.; Sun, S.-W.; Sun, H.; Ma, H.-X.

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis and characterization of two new halfsandwich mononuclear nickel(II) complexes with the scorpionate ligands, [ k 3- N, N', N''- Tp t-Bu, Me NiI] ( 1) and [ k 3- N, N', N''- Tp t-Bu, Me NiNO3] ( 2), are reported. These complexes have been fully characterized by elemental analyses and infrared spectra. Their molecular structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The nickel(II) ion of complex 1 is in a four-coordinate environment, in which the donor atoms are provided by three nitrogen atoms of a hydrotris(pyrazolyl) borate ligand and one iodide atom, while that of complex 2 is in a five-coordinate environment with three nitrogen atoms from a hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate ligand and two oxygen atoms from a nitrate ion.

  19. Dust and ionized gas in active radio elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, D. A.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present broad and narrow bandwidth imaging of three southern elliptical galaxies which have flat-spectrum active radio cores (NGC 1052, IC 1459 and NGC 6958). All three contain dust and extended low excitation optical line emission, particularly extensive in the case of NGC 1052 which has a large H alpha + (NII) luminosity. Both NGC 1052 and IC 1459 have a spiral morphology in emission-line images. All three display independent strong evidence that a merger or infall event has recently occurred, i.e., extensive and infalling HI gas in NGC 1052, a counter-rotating core in IC 1459 and Malin-Carter shells in NGC 6958. This infall event is the most likely origin for the emission-line gas and dust, and the authors are currently investigating possible excitation mechanisms (Sparks et al. 1990).

  20. Spectroscopic pilot study in the near infrared of a sample of star-forming galaxies at z = 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, J.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Cardiel, N.; Barro, G.

    2011-11-01

    In this work we present the results of the spectroscopic analysis inthe near-infrared K band of a sample of 12 active star forminggalaxies at z ˜ 2. The sample was selected by using photometricredshifts, blue colors and large fluxes in the 24 μ m band ofMIPS/Spitzer. To analyze their physical properties we have computedtheir sizes, colors, stellar masses, extinctions and other parametersavailable in literature and in the "Rainbow" database. We computeHα luminosities and star formation rates for all galaxies atthat redshift. We were able to estimate metallicities from [NII]6584for a sub sample of the objects. In particular the dependence of the metallicitywith the stellar mass has been studied and compared with the results of other samples ofgalaxies at several redshifts. For a fixed mass, the metallicities ofour galaxies are compatible than those similar at the corresponding redshift, following the general trend of lower metallicities for higher redshifts.

  1. Decommissioning at AWE

    SciTech Connect

    Biles, K.; Hedges, M.; Campbell, C

    2008-07-01

    AWE (A) has been at the heart of the UK Nuclear deterrent since it was established in the early 1950's. It is a nuclear licensed site and is governed by the United Kingdoms Nuclear Installation Inspectorate (NII). AWE plc on behalf of the Ministry of Defence (MOD) manages the AWE (A) site and all undertakings including decommissioning. Therefore under NII license condition 35 'Decommissioning', AWE plc is accountable to make and implement adequate arrangements for the decommissioning of any plant or process, which may affect safety. The majority of decommissioning projects currently being undertaken are to do with Hazard category 3, 4 or 5 facilities, systems or plant that have reached the end of their operational span and have undergone Post-Operational Clean-Out (POCO). They were either built for the production of fissile components, for supporting the early reactor fuels programmes or for processing facility waste arisings. They either contain redundant contaminated gloveboxes associated process areas, process plant or systems or a combination of all. In parallel with decommissioning project AWE (A) are undertaking investigation into new technologies to aid decommissioning projects; to remove the operative from hands on operations; to develop and implement modifications to existing process and techniques used. AWE (A) is currently going thorough a sustained phase of upgrading its facilities to enhance its scientific capability, with older facilities, systems and plant being replaced, making decommissioning a growth area. It is therefore important to the company to reduce these hazards progressively and safety over the coming years, making decommissioning an important feature of the overall legacy management aspects of AWE PLC's business. This paper outlines the current undertakings and progress of Nuclear decommissioning on the AWE (A) site. (authors)

  2. Identification of Hypoxia-Inducible Target Genes of Aspergillus fumigatus by Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Cellular Respiration as an Important Contributor to Hypoxic Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Kristin; Pähtz, Vera; Hillmann, Falk; Vaknin, Yakir; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Roth, Martin; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Osherov, Nir; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic, airborne pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. During the infection process, A. fumigatus is challenged by hypoxic microenvironments occurring in inflammatory, necrotic tissue. To gain further insights into the adaptation mechanism, A. fumigatus was cultivated in an oxygen-controlled chemostat under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Transcriptome analysis revealed a significant increase in transcripts associated with cell wall polysaccharide metabolism, amino acid and metal ion transport, nitrogen metabolism, and glycolysis. A concomitant reduction in transcript levels was observed with cellular trafficking and G-protein-coupled signaling. To learn more about the functional roles of hypoxia-induced transcripts, we deleted A. fumigatus genes putatively involved in reactive nitrogen species detoxification (fhpA), NAD+ regeneration (frdA and osmA), nitrogen metabolism (niaD and niiA), and respiration (rcfB). We show that the nitric oxygen (NO)-detoxifying flavohemoprotein gene fhpA is strongly induced by hypoxia independent of the nitrogen source but is dispensable for hypoxic survival. By deleting the nitrate reductase gene niaD, the nitrite reductase gene niiA, and the two fumarate reductase genes frdA and osmA, we found that alternative electron acceptors, such as nitrate and fumarate, do not have a significant impact on growth of A. fumigatus during hypoxia, but functional mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes are essential under these conditions. Inhibition studies indicated that primarily complexes III and IV play a crucial role in the hypoxic growth of A. fumigatus. PMID:25084861

  3. Light responses and morphology of bNOS-immunoreactive neurons in the mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Ji-Jie; Gao, Fan; Wu, Samuel M.

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by NO synthase (NOS), modulates the function of all retinal neurons and ocular blood vessels and participates in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases. To further understand the regulation of ocular NO release, we systematically studied the morphology, topography and light responses of NOS-containing amacrine cells (NOACs) in dark-adapted mouse retina. Immunohistological staining for neuronal NOS (bNOS), combined with retrograde labeling of ganglion cells (GCs) with Neurobiotin (NB, a gap junction permeable dye) and Lucifer yellow (LY, a less permeable dye), was used to identify NOACs. The light responses of ACs were recorded under whole-cell voltage clamp conditions and cell morphology was examined with a confocal microscope. We found that in dark-adapted conditions bNOS-immunoreactivity (IR) was present primarily in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. bNOS-IR somas were negative for LY, thus they were identified as ACs; nearly 6 % of the cells were labeled by NB but not by LY, indicating that they were dye-coupled with GCs. Three morphological subtypes of NOACs (NI, NII and displaced) were identified. The cell density, inter-cellular distance and the distribution of NOACs were studied in whole retinas. Light evoked depolarizing highly sensitive ON-OFF responses in NI cells and less sensitive OFF responses in NII cells. Frequent (1 to 2 Hz) or abrupt change of light-intensity evoked larger peak responses. The possibility for light to modify NO release from NOACs is discussed. PMID:20503422

  4. Spatially resolved study of the physical properties of the ionized gas in NGC 595

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relaño, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Vílchez, J. M.; Kennicutt, R. C.

    2010-03-01

    We present Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) of NGC 595, one of the most luminous HII regions in M33. This type of observations allows us to study the variation of the principal emission-line ratios across the surface of the nebula. At each position of the field of view, we fit the main emission-line features of the spectrum within the spectral range of 3650-6990Å and create maps of the principal emission-line ratios for the total surface of the region. The extinction map derived from the Balmer decrement and the absorbed Hα luminosity show good spatial correlation with the 24μm emission from Spitzer. We also show here the capability of the IFS to study the existence of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, identifying the previously catalogued WR stars and detecting a new candidate towards the north of the region. The ionization structure of the region nicely follows the Hα shell morphology and is clearly related to the location of the central ionizing stars. The electron density distribution does not show strong variations within the HII region nor any trend with the Hα emission distribution. We study the behaviour within the HII region of several classical emission-line ratios proposed as metallicity calibrators: while [NII]/Hα and [NII]/[OIII] show important variations, the R23 index is substantially constant across the surface of the nebula, despite the strong variation of the ionization parameter as a function of the radial distance from the ionizing stars. These results show the reliability in using the R23 index to characterize the metallicity of HII regions even when only a fraction of the total area is covered by the observations.

  5. Perfis de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    As flutuações de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII, inicialmente propostas para explicar as discrepâncias entre os valores de temperatura obtidos por diferentes métodos, têm sido apontadas como a causa mais provável das enormes diferenças encontradas entre as abundâncias químicas medidas através de linhas excitadas colisionalmente e de linhas de recombinação. Recentemente têm sido reportadas tentativas de detecção e quantificação diretas das flutuações de temperatura eletrônica através de medidas ponto a ponto, obtidas por meio de espectroscopia de fenda longa, das razões de linhas [OIII]l4263/l5007 e [NII]l5755/l6584, principais sensores de temperatura. Neste trabalho, utilizamos o código numérico de fotoionização Cloudy para avaliar a confiabilidade desse procedimento. Concluímos que, para valores de densidade eletrônica e de temperatura efetiva da estrela ionizante típicos das regiões HII, os perfis superficiais de temperatura obtidos via medidas do sensor [OIII]l4263/l5007 são bons traçadores dos gradientes internos de temperatura eletrônica. Já os perfis de temperatura eletrônica medidos por meio da razão [NII]l5755/l6584 não reproduzem os gradientes verdadeiros de temperatura.

  6. Fundamental studies and development of nickel-catalyzed trifluoromethylthiolation of aryl chlorides: active catalytic species and key roles of ligand and traceless MeCN additive revealed.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guoyin; Kalvet, Indrek; Englert, Ulli; Schoenebeck, Franziska

    2015-04-01

    A catalytic protocol to convert aryl and heteroaryl chlorides to the corresponding trifluoromethyl sulfides is reported herein. It relies on a relatively inexpensive Ni(cod)2/dppf (cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene; dppf = 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene) catalyst system and the readily accessible coupling reagent (Me4N)SCF3. Our computational and experimental mechanistic data are consistent with a Ni(0)/Ni(II) cycle and inconsistent with Ni(I) as the reactive species. The relevant intermediates were prepared, characterized by X-ray crystallography, and tested for their catalytic competence. This revealed that a monomeric tricoordinate Ni(I) complex is favored for dppf and Cl whose role was unambiguously assigned as being an off-cycle catalyst deactivation product. Only bidentate ligands with wide bite angles (e.g., dppf) are effective. These bulky ligands render the catalyst resting state as [(P-P)Ni(cod)]. The latter is more reactive than Ni(P-P)2, which was found to be the resting state for ligands with smaller bite angles and suffers from an initial high-energy dissociation of one ligand prior to oxidative addition, rendering the system unreactive. The key to effective catalysis is hence the presence of a labile auxiliary ligand in the catalyst resting state. For more challenging substrates, high conversions were achieved via the employment of MeCN as a traceless additive. Mechanistic data suggest that its beneficial role lies in decreasing the energetic span, therefore accelerating product formation. Finally, the methodology has been applied to synthetic targets of pharmaceutical relevance. PMID:25790253

  7. The Conditions Underpinning Extreme Star Formation in ULIRGs and LIRGs as Revealed by Herschel Far-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, Gabriel A.; Ashby, Matthew; Smith, Howard Alan; McTier, Moiya; Melendez, Marcio

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic survey of molecular and atomic line fluxes in all star-forming galaxies observed by the Herschel PACs instrument with detectable OH lines that also contain Herschel SPIRE FTS spectra, to determine how physical conditions vary as a function of star formation rate. Specifically, we measured selected CO, H2O, [CI], and [NII] integrated line fluxes in a sample of 145 star-forming galaxies covering a range of far-infrared luminosities ranging from 109 to above 1012 LSun . Thus, our sample includes typical, quiescent galaxies as well as Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) and Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs), known to be creating stars extremely rapidly. We find evidence suggesting that ULIRGs with far-infrared luminosities of LFIR> 1012 LSun require an additional heating mechanism other than UV heating from star formation, while LIRGs and less luminous star-forming galaxies may be heated primarily by their star formation. We also find that the [NII] 3P1 - 3P0 fine structure line flux and those of the CO J=5-4, CO J=7-6, and CO J=8-7 transitions are generally weaker for ULIRGs compared to LIRGs and less luminous star-forming galaxies, while we find the CO J=11-10, CO J=12-11, and CO J=13-12 transitions are generally stronger. In all these respects, ULIRGs are shown to differ significantly from other galaxies undergoing less extreme star formation. This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  8. Ultrafast Excited State Relaxation of a Metalloporphyrin Revealed by Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shelby, Megan L; Lestrange, Patrick J; Jackson, Nicholas E; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Mara, Michael W; Stickrath, Andrew B; Zhu, Diling; Lemke, Henrik T; Chollet, Matthieu; Hoffman, Brian M; Li, Xiaosong; Chen, Lin X

    2016-07-20

    Photoexcited Nickel(II) tetramesitylporphyrin (NiTMP), like many open-shell metalloporphyrins, relaxes rapidly through multiple electronic states following an initial porphyrin-based excitation, some involving metal centered electronic configuration changes that could be harnessed catalytically before excited state relaxation. While a NiTMP excited state present at 100 ps was previously identified by X-ray transient absorption (XTA) spectroscopy at a synchrotron source as a relaxed (d,d) state, the lowest energy excited state (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 9616 and Chem. Sci., 2010, 1, 642), structural dynamics before thermalization were not resolved due to the ∼100 ps duration of the available X-ray probe pulse. Using the femtosecond (fs) X-ray pulses of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the Ni center electronic configuration from the initial excited state to the relaxed (d,d) state has been obtained via ultrafast Ni K-edge XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) on a time scale from hundreds of femtoseconds to 100 ps. This enabled the identification of a short-lived Ni(I) species aided by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods. Computed electronic and nuclear structure for critical excited electronic states in the relaxation pathway characterize the dependence of the complex's geometry on the electron occupation of the 3d orbitals. Calculated XANES transitions for these excited states assign a short-lived transient signal to the spectroscopic signature of the Ni(I) species, resulting from intramolecular charge transfer on a time scale that has eluded previous synchrotron studies. These combined results enable us to examine the excited state structural dynamics of NiTMP prior to thermal relaxation and to capture intermediates of potential photocatalytic significance. PMID:27286410

  9. DFT analysis of g and 13C hyperfine coupling tensors for model Ni(I)(CO)(n)L(m) (n = 1-4, L = H2O, OH-) complexes epitomizing surface nickel(I) carbonyls.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyk, Piotr; Podolska, Katarzyna; Sojka, Zbigniew

    2008-11-27

    Relativistic calculations within the spin-orbit mean-field (SOMF) approximation, the zero-order regular approximation (ZORA), and the scalar relativistic method based on the Pauli Hamiltonian were performed for the prediction and interpretation of the electronic g tensor and (13)C hyperfine tensor for a set of model polycarbonyl nickel(I) complexes with aqua or hydroxy coligands. They exhibit extensive similarities with heterogeneous [Ni(I)(CO)(n)]-surface complexes produced upon adsorption of carbon monoxide on Ni(I) ions grafted on silica or inside the zeolite channels. Benchmark calculations showing the influence of the exchange-correlation functional on the g tensor were carried out for well-defined nickel(I) complexes of known structure. On this basis, the SOMF-B3LYP scheme was chosen for calculations of the g tensor, and the obtained results were in satisfactory agreement with literature EPR data found for the [Ni(I)(CO)(n)]/SiO(2) system. The calculated g and A((13)C) tensors allowed polycarbonyl complexes of various stereochemistries to be distinguished. The nature of the Deltag(ii) shifts was assessed in terms of the molecular orbital contributions due to the magnetic-field-induced couplings and their structure sensitivity. The noncoincidence of g and (13)C hyperfine principal axes and their orientation with respect to the molecular framework was also examined. The ability of DFT calculations to follow consistently variations of the EPR parameters induced by stereochemical changes around the Ni(I) center provides an invaluable reference for the interpretation of experimental results. PMID:18986126

  10. A Homunculus Around the Star NaSt1 {WR122}?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauerhan, Jon

    2012-10-01

    Eruptive mass loss during the LBV phase is the most puzzling aspect of massive stellar evolution, posing a serious limitation to theoretical models. Yet we know this is the key channel by which massive stars lose their hydrogen envelopes and become Wolf-Rayet stars. LBV eruptions also explain the phenomenon of supernova "impostors", and are the origin of luminous Type IIn supernovae. Our ignorance has partly persisted because there are so few Galactic examples for detailed study. Eta Car is only object to have recently experienced a giant eruption that is still embedded in a dense, massive, and highly CNO-processed outflow. Because of the compact size, most of what we know about Eta Car has been the result of HST observations. There is no known Galactic analog of this extremeness, so we do not know whether Eta Car represents a unusual or universal occurrence. NaSt1 {aka WR 122} is an evolved, luminous, hot star that is also embedded in a dense CNO-processed outflow. The system shares more characteristics with Eta Car than any other object known. The main difference appears to be the fact that the central star is suspected to be a hot WR, so the system could represent what Eta Car will look like after it experiences another giant eruption. Like Eta Car, NaSt1's nebula is very bright in the light of [NII]. Although it exhibits a hint of bipolarity, it is very compact {7" diameter}. Thus, ground-based imaging is unable to elucidate the object's nature. We propose a simple, narrow-band imaging experiment with HST/WFC3 to determine the precise morphology of NaSt1's [NII] nebula. The data will reveal whether NaSt1 is truly an Eta Car analog, or something entirely different.

  11. Red-channel (6000-8000 Å) nuclear spectra of 376 local galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Consolandi, Guido; Dotti, Massimo; Fossati, Matteo; Savorgnan, Giulia; Gualandi, Roberto; Bruni, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    We obtained long-slit optical spectra of the nuclear regions of 376 galaxies in the local Universe using the 1.5 m Cassini telescope of Bologna Observatory. Of these spectra, 164 were either never taken before by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), or given by the Nasa Extragalactic Database (NED). With these new spectra, we contribute investigating the occurrence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Nevertheless, we stress that the present sample is by no means complete, thus, it cannot be used to perform any demographic study. Following the method used in a previous work, we classify the nuclear spectra using a six bin scheme: SEY (Seyfert), sAGN (strong AGN), and wAGN (weak AGN) represent active galactic nuclei of different levels of activity; HII accounts for star-forming nuclei; RET (retired) and PAS (passive) refer to nuclei with poor or no star-formation activity. The spectral classification is performed using the ratio of λ 6584 [NII] to Hα lines and the equivalent width (EW) of Hα versus [NII] /Hα (WHAN diagnostic introduced by Cid Fernandes and collaborators) after correcting Hα for underlying absorption. The obtained spectra are made available in machine readable format via the Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center (CDS) and NED. Full Tables 3 and 4 and Fig. 4 (in FITS format) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/558/A68

  12. Role of information systems in controlling costs: the electronic medical record (EMR) and the high-performance computing and communications (HPCC) efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Luis G.

    1994-12-01

    On October 18, 1991, the IEEE-USA produced an entity statement which endorsed the vital importance of the High Performance Computer and Communications Act of 1991 (HPCC) and called for the rapid implementation of all its elements. Efforts are now underway to develop a Computer Based Patient Record (CBPR), the National Information Infrastructure (NII) as part of the HPCC, and the so-called `Patient Card'. Multiple legislative initiatives which address these and related information technology issues are pending in Congress. Clearly, a national information system will greatly affect the way health care delivery is provided to the United States public. Timely and reliable information represents a critical element in any initiative to reform the health care system as well as to protect and improve the health of every person. Appropriately used, information technologies offer a vital means of improving the quality of patient care, increasing access to universal care and lowering overall costs within a national health care program. Health care reform legislation should reflect increased budgetary support and a legal mandate for the creation of a national health care information system by: (1) constructing a National Information Infrastructure; (2) building a Computer Based Patient Record System; (3) bringing the collective resources of our National Laboratories to bear in developing and implementing the NII and CBPR, as well as a security system with which to safeguard the privacy rights of patients and the physician-patient privilege; and (4) utilizing Government (e.g. DOD, DOE) capabilities (technology and human resources) to maximize resource utilization, create new jobs and accelerate technology transfer to address health care issues.

  13. HETDEX: Probing the Chemical Evolution of the Universe with Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Hill, G. J.; Gebhardt, K.; Blanc, G.; Drory, N.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) will discover 0.8 million Lyman alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) at 1.9 < z < 3.5 over 300 square degrees beginning in Fall 2012. This unprecedentedly large volume probed will allow the discovery of large samples of bright LAEs, enabling follow-up science which cannot be done for the bulk of the LAE population, as they form the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. Combining the HETDEX sample with the new generation of multi-object near-infrared (NIR) spectrographs will allow direct measurements of LAE physical properties, which are of interest as LAEs appear similar to galaxies at very high redshifts (z > 7) , and LAEs are also the likely progenitors of present-day Milky Way-like galaxies. Here we present results from the HETDEX pilot survey, which discovered 100 LAEs with a single integral field spectrograph mounted on the McDonald Observatory 2.7m telescope. We have detected rest-frame optical emission lines from five of these galaxies with the single-slit NIR spectrograph NIRSPEC on the Keck II 10m telescope. From the ratio of the upper limit on the (undetected) [NII] flux to the observed Halpha line strength, all five LAEs appear to have low metallicities (< 50% solar). The brightest LAE in our sample lies significantly below the mass-metallicity relation for continuum-selected galaxies at the same redshift. The remaining LAEs may also lie below this relation, however their fainter Halpha fluxes result in higher limits on the [NII]/Halpha flux ratio. Thus deeper integrations, requiring multi-object spectrographs (MOS) to be feasible, are necessary. The field-of-view of the next generation of MOS NIR spectrographs will be able to simultaneously observe > 10 HETDEX LAEs to a much deeper depth, providing a significant boost in our ability to probe the chemical enrichment of this enigmatic galaxy population.

  14. Metabolic Engineering of the Morphology of Aspergillus oryzae by Altering Chitin Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christian; McIntyre, Mhairi; Hansen, Kim; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Morphology and α-amylase production during submerged cultivation were examined in a wild-type strain (A1560) and in strains of Aspergillus oryzae in which chitin synthase B (chsB) and chitin synthesis myosin A (csmA) have been disrupted (ChsB/G and CM101). In a flowthrough cell, the growth of submerged hyphal elements was studied online, making it possible to examine the growth kinetics of the three strains. The average tip extension rates of the CM101 and ChsB/G strains were 25 and 88% lower, respectively, than that of the wild type. The branching intensity in the CM101 strain was 25% lower than that in the wild type, whereas that in the ChsB/G strain was 188% higher. During batch cultivation, inseparable clumps were formed in the wild-type strain, while no or fewer large inseparable clumps existed in the cultivations of the ChsB/G and CM101 strains. The α-amylase productivity was not significantly different in the three strains. A strain in which the transcription of chsB could be controlled by the nitrogen source-regulated promoter niiA (NiiA1) was examined during chemostat cultivation, and it was found that the branching intensity could be regulated by regulating the promoter, signifying an important role for chsB in branching. However, the pattern of branching responded very slowly to the change in transcription, and increased branching did not affect α-amylase productivity. α-Amylase residing in the cell wall was stained by immunofluorescence, and the relationship between tip number and enzyme secretion is discussed. PMID:11916702

  15. Spatially resolved physical conditions of molecular gas and potential star formation tracers in M 83, revealed by the Herschel SPIRE FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, R.; Madden, S. C.; Galliano, F.; Wilson, C. D.; Kamenetzky, J.; Lee, M.-Y.; Schirm, M.; Hony, S.; Lebouteiller, V.; Spinoglio, L.; Cormier, D.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Baes, M.; Boselli, A.; Bournaud, F.; De Looze, I.; Hughes, T. M.; Panuzzo, P.; Rangwala, N.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the physical properties of the molecular and ionized gas, and their relationship to the star formation and dust properties in M 83, based on submillimeter imaging spectroscopy from within the central 3.5' (~4 kpc in diameter) around the starburst nucleus. The observations use the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) of the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The newly observed spectral lines include [CI] 370 μm, [CI] 609 μm, [NII] 205 μm, and CO transitions from J = 4-3 to J = 13-12. Combined with previously observed J = 1-0 to J = 3-2 transitions, the CO spectral line energy distributions are translated to spatially resolved physical parameters, column density of CO, N(CO), and molecular gas thermal pressure, Pth, with a non-local thermal equilibrium (non-LTE) radiative transfer model, RADEX. Our results show that there is a relationship between the spatially resolved intensities of [NII] 205 μm and the surface density of the star formation rate (SFR), ΣSFR. This relation, when compared to integrated properties of ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), exhibits a different slope, because the [NII] 205 μm distribution is more extended than the SFR. The spatially resolved [CI] 370 μm, on the other hand, shows a generally linear relationship with ΣSFR and can potentially be a good SFR tracer. Compared with the dust properties derived from broad-band images, we find a positive trend between the emissivity of CO in the J = 1-0 transition with the average intensity of interstellar radiation field (ISRF), ⟨ U ⟩. This trend implies a decrease in the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, XCO, when ⟨ U ⟩ increases. We estimate the gas-to-dust mass ratios to be 77 ± 33 within the central 2 kpc and 93 ± 19 within the central 4 kpc of M 83, which implies a Galactic dust-to-metal mass ratio within the observed region of M 83. The estimated gas-depletion time for the M 83 nucleus is 1.13 ± 0.6 Gyr

  16. Warm ISM in the Sagittarius A Complex. I. Mid-J CO, atomic carbon, ionized atomic carbon, and ionized nitrogen sub-mm/FIR line observations with the Herschel-HIFI and NANTEN2/SMART telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, P.; Simon, R.; Stutzki, J.; Güsten, R.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Higgins, R.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We investigate the spatial and spectral distribution of the local standard of rest (LSR) velocity resolved submillimetre emission from the warm (25-90 K) gas in the Sgr A Complex, located in the Galactic centre. Methods: We present large-scale submillimetre heterodyne observations towards the Sgr A Complex covering ~300 arcmin2. These data were obtained in the frame of the Herschel EXtraGALactic guaranteed time key program (HEXGAL) with the Herschel-HIFI satellite and are complemented with submillimetre observations obtained with the NANTEN2/SMART telescope as part of the NANTEN2/SMART Central Nuclear Zone Survey. The observed species are CO(J = 4-3) at 461.0 GHz observed with the NANTEN2/SMART telescope, and [CI] 3P1-3P0 at 492.2 GHz, [CI] 3P2-3P1 at 809.3 GHz, [NII] 3P1-3P0 at 1461.1 GHz, and [CII] 2P3/2-2P1/2 at 1900.5 GHz observed with the Herschel-HIFI satellite. The observations are presented in a 1 km s-1 spectral resolution and a spatial resolution ranging from 46 arcsec to 28 arcsec. The spectral coverage of the three lower frequency lines is ±200 km s-1, while in the two high frequency lines, the upper LSR velocity limit is +94 km s-1 and +145 km s-1 for the [NII] and [CII] lines, respectively. Results: The spatial distribution of the emission in all lines is very widespread. The bulk of the carbon monoxide emission is found towards Galactic latitudes below the Galactic plane, and all the known molecular clouds are identified. Both neutral atomic carbon lines have their brightest emission associated with the +50 km s-1 cloud. Their spatial distribution at this LSR velocity describes a crescent-shape structure, which is probably the result of interaction with the energetic event (one or several supernovae explosions) that gave origin to the non-thermal Sgr A-East source. The [CII] and [NII] emissions have most of their flux associated with the thermal arched-filaments and the H region and bright spots in [CII] emission towards the central nuclear

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 891 Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectroscopy (Hughes+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, T. M.; Foyle, K.; Schirm, M. R. P.; Parkin, T. J.; de Looze, I.; Wilson, C. D.; Bendo, G. J.; Baes, M.; Fritz, J.; Boselli, A.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Karczewski, O. L.; Lebouteiller, V.; Lu, N.; Madden, S. C.; Spinoglio, L.; Viaene, S.

    2014-10-01

    We present Herschel PACS spectroscopic observations of the [CII] 158, [NII] 122, [OI] 63, 145, and [OIII] 88 micron fine-structure lines in NGC 891 taken has part of the Very Nearby Galaxy Survey (P.I.: C. Wilson). Observations were taken on the 28th February and 1st March, 2011, using the unchopped grating scan mode. They were processed from Level 0 to Level 1 using the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) v.9.2 with calibration files FM,41, following the standard pipeline reduction steps for the unchopped observing mode. Level 1 cubes were exported to PACSman v.3.5.2 (Lebouteiller, 2012A&A...548A..91L), where each individual spaxel's spectrum is fit with a Gaussian function and second order polynomial for the line and continuum baseline, respectively. Intensity maps of the integrated flux are created from the individual rasters, also using PACSman, by projecting the rasters onto a common, over-sampled grid with a 3.133 arcsec pixel size. Complete details on the data reduction may be found in the paper. Our data files are summarised in cubes.dat. Each file is a FITS cube with 8 planes, where each plane contains the following maps: (1.) integrated intensity map in units of W/m2/sr, (2.) integrated intensity error map in units of W/m2/sr, (3.) velocity map in units of km/s, (4.) velocity error map in units of km/s, (5.) full-width at half-maximum map of the line fit in units of km/s, (6.) full-width at half-maximum error map in units of km/s, (7.) continuum map in Jy, and (8.) continuum error map in units of Jy. Please note that the observations consist of raster maps and strips for the [CII], [NII] and [OI] 63 micron lines, and only strips for the remaining lines. The raw data can be retrieved from the Herschel Science Archive (ESA) with the stated OBSIDs. (2 data files).

  18. Probing the Multiphase Interstellar Medium and Star Formation in Nearby Galaxies through Far Infrared Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Wolfire, Mark G.; Smith, John-David T.; Kennicutt, Robert; Calzetti, Daniela; Croxall, Kevin V.; Fisher, David B.; Kingfish, Beyond The Peak

    2015-01-01

    controlling the heating efficiency. Finally, we studied the properties of the diffuse, warm ionized gas in 22 nearby galaxies by combining the fine-structure transitions [NII] 122 µm and [NII] 205 µm observed by Herschel as part of the Beyond the Peak project.

  19. Ionized gas characteristics in the cavities of the gas and dust disc of the spiral galaxy NGC 6946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, Yu. N.; Afanasiev, V. L.; Egorov, O. V.

    2011-07-01

    The parameters of the ionized gas in NGC 6946 (in the [NII] λλ6548, 6583, H α and [SII] λλ6717, 6731 lines) are investigated with the SAO RAS BTA telescope along three positions of the long slit of the SCORPIO focal reducer, passing through a number of large and small cavities of the gaseous disc of the galaxy. These cavities correspond exactly to the cavities in warm dust, visible at 5 - 8µm. We found that everywhere in the direction of NGC 6946 the lines of ionized gas are decomposed into two Gaussians, one of which shows almost constant [SII]/H α and [NII]/H α ratios, as well as an almost constant radial velocity within the measurement errors (about -35… - 50 km/s). This component is in fact the foreground radiation from the diffuse ionized gas of our Galaxy, which is not surprising, given the low (12°) latitude of NGC 6946; a similar component is also present in the emission of neutral hydrogen. The analysis of the component of ionized gas, occurring inNGC 6946, has revealed that it shows signs of shock excitation in the cavities of the gaseous disc of the galaxy. This shock excitation is as well typical for the extraplanar diffuse ionized gas (EDIG), observed in a number of spiral galaxies at their high Z-coordinates. This can most likely be explained by low density of the gas in the NGC 6946 disc (with the usual photoionization) inside the cavities, due to what we see the spectral features of the EDIG gas of NGC 6946, projected onto them, and located outside the plane of the galaxy. In the absence of separation of ionized gas into two components by radial velocities, there is an increasing contribution to the integral line parameters by the EDIG of our Galaxy when the gas density in NGC 6946 decreases, which explains some strange results, obtained in the previous studies. Themorphology of warmdust, visible in the infrared range and HI is almost the same (except for the peripheral parts of the galaxy, where there are no sources of dust heating

  20. An irradiated jet in M 17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, F.; Pasquali, A.; Alves de Oliveira, C.

    2013-04-01

    Context. M 17 is one of the best studied giant HII regions in our galactic neighborhood. It should also provide a suitable environment for the class of fully ionized jets externally irradiated by the presence of nearby hot stars. However, no such jets have been observed thus far in M 17. Aims: We report on a visible imaging survey of the M 17 nebula with the goal of identifying likely shock-excited nebulosities. Methods: We imaged M 17 through narrow-band filters centered on the most intense visible lines of [OIII], Hα+[NII], [SII], and Hβ. We obtained follow-up spectroscopy of the only jet-like structure identified in the images. We also used published X-ray observations of M 17 obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, as well as infrared data obtained with the Very Large Telescope and with the Spitzer Space Telescope, to look for evidence of a jet-driving source. Results: We have detected what appears to be the first jet identified in M 17 visible HII region. The jet is composed of a set of knots, two of which have significant radial velocities with respect to the HII region, and a distant arc-like bright nebulosity that may represent an early episode of intense mass loss by the jet-driving source. The follow-up spectra of the structures composing the jet, including the arc, support this interpretation by revealing intense forbidden lines of [NII] and [SII] due to enhanced collisional excitation in shocks. The presence of a X-ray source, most likely a young stellar object, at a position where the jet launching source should be expected to lie reinforces the interpretation. We identify a tentative near-infrared counterpart of the X-ray source, although it is offset by 1".9 from the nominal position of the X-ray source, which is almost three times the radius of its positional uncertainty. The very weak [OI] emission in the spectra of the jet knots and the arc suggests that they are nearly fully ionized, in agreement with the environment in which the jet is

  1. Heterodyne Arrays for Terahertz/Sub-millimeter Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloosterman, Jenna; Walker, C. K.; SORAL; SRON; TU-Delft; JPL; APL; ASU; MIT

    2014-01-01

    The clouds of gas and dust that constitute the Interstellar Medium (ISM) within the Milky Way and other galaxies can be studied through the emission from atoms and molecules such as CO, [CI], [CII], [NII], and [OI]. Spectroscopic surveys of these tracers are necessary to disentangle large-scale structure and kinematics within the ISM. Each of these tracers has transitions in the Terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum, loosely defined as 0.3 - 3 THz, thus creating a need for large format THz heterodyne arrays. My dissertation research in radio instrumentation has focused on three main projects. The first, the Superheterodyne Camera (SuperCam), is a ground-based instrument for the Sub-millimeter Telescope (SMT) on Mt. Graham, Arizona. The receiver contains 64 heterodyne pixels designed to detect the J=3-2 rotational line of CO at 345 GHz. SuperCam had its first engineering run in Spring 2012 and its commissioning run in Spring 2013. The second project, the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory (STO), is a balloon-borne, 0.8 m telescope, designed to observe the fine structure lines of [NII] and [CII] at 1.46 and 1.9 THz from an altitude of ~120,000 ft. STO had its first flight around Antarctica in January 2012 and is scheduled to have a second flight (as STO-2) in 2015. The last project is the building of a 4.74 THz heterodyne receiver to look for the fine structure line of the high density tracer [OI]. With an 815 K double sideband noise temperature (e.g. ~7 times the quantum noise limit), this is the most sensitive heterodyne receiver reported above 3 THz. It will be flown on STO-2 and was developed as part of the Galactic/extra-galactic Ultra-Long Duration Stratospheric Spectroscopic THz Observatory (GUSSTO) concept study. This dissertation talk will briefly cover the results of these instrumentation efforts and the science that drives them.

  2. Dust In Hell: Discovery Of Dust In Hot Gas Around Group-Centered Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Brighenti, F.; Mathews, W. G.

    2007-05-01

    Observations with the Spitzer infrared telescope reveal extended internally produced dust in the hot gas (KT 1 KeV) atmospheres surrounding two optically normal galaxies, NGC 5044 and NGC 4636. We interpret this as a dusty buoyant outflow resulting from energy released by gas accretion onto supermassive black holes in the galaxy cores. Both galaxies have highly disturbed, transient activities in the hot gas and contain strong dust emission at 70 and 160 microns in excess of what expected from normal stellar mass loss. The 70 micron image is clearly extended. The lifetime of dust in hot (KT=1KeV) interstellar gas to destruction by sputtering (ion impacts), 10 million years, establishes the time when the dust first entered the hot gas. Remarkably, in NGC 5044 we observe interstellar PAH dust-molecular emission at 8 microns out to about 5 Kpc that is spatially coincident with extended Halpha+[NII] emission from warm gas. We propose that this dust comes from the destruction and heating of dusty disks in the nuclei of these galaxies, followed by buoyant transport. A simple calculation shows that dust-assisted cooling in outflowing buoyant gas in NGC 5044 can cool the gas within a few Kpc in about 10 million years, explaining the optical line emission observed.

  3. Geoengineering and seismological aspects of the Niigata-Ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake of 16 July 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.; Brandenberg, S.J.; CoIlins, B.D.; Dickenson, S.; Ashford, S.; Kawamata, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Koumoto, H.; Abrahamson, N.; Cluff, L.; Tokimatsu, K.

    2009-01-01

    The M6.6 Niigata-Ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake of 16 July 2007 occurred off the west coast of Japan with a focal depth of 10 km, immediately west of Kashiwazaki City and Kariwa Village in southern Niigata Prefecture. Peak horizontal ground accelerations of 0.68 g were measured in Kashiwazaki City, as well as at the reactor floor level of the world's largest nuclear reactor, located on the coast at Kariwa Village. Liquefaction of historic and modern river deposits, aeolian dune sand, and manmade fill was widespread in the coastal region nearest the epicenter and caused ground deformations that damaged bridges, embankments, roadways, buildings, ports, railways and utilities. Landslides along the coast of southern Niigata Prefecture and in mountainous regions inland of Kashiwazaki were also widespread affecting transportation infrastructure. Liquefaction and a landslide also damaged the nuclear power plant sites. This paper, along with a companion digital map database available at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gOv/infobank/n/nii07jp/html/n-ii-07-jp.sites.kmz, describes the seismological and geo-engineering aspects of the event. ?? 2009, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  4. Heme-Biosynthetic Porphobilinogen Deaminase Protects Aspergillus nidulans from Nitrosative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shengmin; Narukami, Toshiaki; Nameki, Misuzu; Ozawa, Tomoko; Kamimura, Yosuke; Hoshino, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms have developed mechanisms to combat reactive nitrogen species (RNS); however, only a few of the fungal genes involved have been characterized. Here we screened RNS-resistant Aspergillus nidulans strains from fungal transformants obtained by introducing a genomic DNA library constructed in a multicopy vector. We found that the AN0121.3 gene (hemC) encodes a protein similar to the heme biosynthesis enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and facilitates RNS-tolerant fungal growth. The overproduction of PBG-D in A. nidulans promoted RNS tolerance, whereas PBG-D repression caused growth that was hypersensitive to RNS. PBG-D levels were comparable to those of cellular protoheme synthesis as well as flavohemoglobin (FHb; encoded by fhbA and fhbB) and nitrite reductase (NiR; encoded by niiA) activities. Both FHb and NiR are hemoproteins that consume nitric oxide and nitrite, respectively, and we found that they are required for maximal growth in the presence of RNS. The transcription of hemC was upregulated by RNS. These results demonstrated that PBG-D is a novel NO-tolerant protein that modulates the reduction of environmental NO and nitrite levels by FHb and NiR. PMID:22038601

  5. Visual Communications for Heterogeneous Networks/Visually Optimized Scalable Image Compression. Final Report for September 1, 1995 - February 28, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Hemami, S. S.

    2003-06-03

    The authors developed image and video compression algorithms that provide scalability, reconstructibility, and network adaptivity, and developed compression and quantization strategies that are visually optimal at all bit rates. The goal of this research is to enable reliable ''universal access'' to visual communications over the National Information Infrastructure (NII). All users, regardless of their individual network connection bandwidths, qualities-of-service, or terminal capabilities, should have the ability to access still images, video clips, and multimedia information services, and to use interactive visual communications services. To do so requires special capabilities for image and video compression algorithms: scalability, reconstructibility, and network adaptivity. Scalability allows an information service to provide visual information at many rates, without requiring additional compression or storage after the stream has been compressed the first time. Reconstructibility allows reliable visual communications over an imperfect network. Network adaptivity permits real-time modification of compression parameters to adjust to changing network conditions. Furthermore, to optimize the efficiency of the compression algorithms, they should be visually optimal, where each bit expended reduces the visual distortion. Visual optimality is achieved through first extensive experimentation to quantify human sensitivity to supra-threshold compression artifacts and then incorporation of these experimental results into quantization strategies and compression algorithms.

  6. Propiedades físicas del gas en regiones de formación estelar multiples en galaxias BCDs: IIZw33 y Mrk600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campuzano-Castro, F.; Hagele, G.; Cardaci, M.; Bosch, G.; Firpo, V.

    2015-08-01

    In this work we perform a detailed analysis of the spectra of the ionized gas belonging to 9 giant HII regions with violent star formation in two Blue Compact Dwarf galaxies. We have measured a large number of recombination and forbidden lines taking into account the underlying stellar population (defining a pseudo continuum for the hydrogen and helium emission lines). The physical properties of the gas have been estimated using the methodology proposed by our group. For the star forming knots, depending on the data available, we derived: (i) the reddening constant from the hydrogen recombination lines in all the regions, (ii) the electron density in the low excitation zone from the sulphur once ionized [SII]6717 and 6731 emission lines ratio, (iii) the electron temperatures using the auroral lines present in the spectra of several of our regions and applying the direct method or empirical relations and photo ionization models: T([OII]), T([OIII]), T([SII]), T([SIII])], and T([NII]) depending on the quality of the spectra, (iv) ionic abundances of He, O, O, S, S, N, Ne, Ar and Ar in most of the knots, except the last one that could only be measured for one object, (v) the total chemical abundances of O, S, N, Ne and Ar, (vi) the ionization degree from the softness parameter .

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Psychiatric Nursing in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaga, Naoki; Nosaki, Akiko; Hayashi, Yuta; Tanoue, Hiroki; Shimizu, Eiji; Kunikata, Hiroko; Okada, Yoshie; Shiraishi, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric nurses have played a significant role in disseminating cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in Western countries; however, in Japan, the application, practice, efficiency, and quality control of CBT in the psychiatric nursing field are unclear. This study conducted a literature review to assess the current status of CBT practice and research in psychiatric nursing in Japan. Three English databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) and two Japanese databases (Ichushi-Web and CiNii) were searched with predetermined keywords. Fifty-five articles met eligibility criteria: 46 case studies and 9 comparative studies. It was found that CBT took place primarily in inpatient settings and targeted schizophrenia and mood disorders. Although there were only a few comparative studies, each concluded that CBT was effective. However, CBT recipients and outcome measures were diverse, and nurses were not the only CBT practitioners in most reports. Only a few articles included the description of CBT training and supervision. This literature review clarified the current status of CBT in psychiatric nursing in Japan and identified important implications for future practice and research: performing CBT in a variety of settings and for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, conducting randomized controlled trials, and establishing pre- and postqualification training system. PMID:26798512

  8. Production and application of chemical fibers with special properties for manufacturing composite materials and goods of different usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levit, R.

    1993-01-01

    The development of modern technologies demands the creation of new nonmetallic, fibrous materials with specific properties. The fibers and materials developed by NII 'Chimvolokno', St. Petersburg, can be divided into two groups. The first group includes heat-resistant fibers, fire-resistant fibers, thermotropic fibers, fibers for medical application, and textile structures. The second group contains refractory fibers, chemoresistant and antifriction fibers, fibers on the basis of polyvinyl alcohol, microfiltering films, and paperlike and nonwoven materials. In cooperation with NPO 'Chimvolokno' MYTITSHI, we developed and started producing heat-resistant high-strength fibers on the base of polyhetarearilin and aromatic polyimides (SVM and terlon); heat-resistant fibers on the base of polyemede (aramid); fire-retardant fibers (togilen); chemoresistant and antifriction fibers on the basis of homo and copolymers of polytetrafluoroethylene (polyfen and ftorin); and water soluble, acetylated, and high-modulus fibers from polyvinyl alcohol (vylen). Separate reports will deal with textile structures and thermotropic fibers, as well as with medical fibers. One of the groups of refractory fibers carbon fibers (CF) and the corresponding paperlike nonwoven materials are discussed in detail. Also, composite materials (CM) and their base, which is the subject of the author's research since 1968, is discussed.

  9. Medium-resolution studies of extreme ultraviolet emission from N2 by electron impact - Vibrational perturbations and cross sections of the c4-prime 1Sigma(+)u and b-prime 1Sigma(+)u states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, Joseph M.; James, Geoffrey K.; Franklin, Brian O.; Shemansky, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    In a crossed-beam experiment the electron-impact-induced fluorescence spectrum of N2 in the extreme ultraviolet is studied at a spectral resolution of up to 0.03 nm. The optically thin experiment obtained the highest-resolution electron-impact emission spectrum of the Rydberg and valence states of N2. The spectral measurements provide the emission cross sections of each of the vibrational transitions of the Carroll-Yoshino and the Birge-Hopfield-II band systems. Laboratory vibrational-excitation cross sections arising from the mutual perturbation of the c4-prime 1Sigma(+)u and b-prime 1Sigma(+)u states by homogeneous configuration interactions are measured from 10 to 400 eV, and a modified Born approximation analytic model is given for them. The analysis leads to accurate band-system oscillator strengths. The relative emission and excitation cross sections each of the vibrational levels are compared. In addition, low-resolution measurements of the cross section of the atomic dissociation fragments (NI, NII, NIII) from 40 to 102 nm are made, and medium-resolution measurements are made of the emission cross section of the c4 1Pi(u), c5-prime 1Sigma(+)u, c5 1Pi(u), and c6-prime 1Sigma(+)u to X 1Sigma(+)g (0,0) transitions.

  10. The federal role in the health information infrastructure: a debate of the pros and cons of government intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Shortliffe, E H; Bleich, H L; Caine, C G; Masys, D R; Simborg, D W

    1996-01-01

    Some observers feel that the federal government should play a more active leadership role in educating the medical community and in coordinating and encouraging a more rapid and effective implementation of clinically relevant applications of wide-area networking. Other people argue that the private sector is recognizing the importance of these issues and will, when the market demands it, adopt and enhance the telecommunications systems that are needed to produce effective uses of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) by the healthcare community. This debate identifies five areas for possible government involvement: convening groups for the development of standards; providing funding for research and development; ensuring the equitable distribution of resources, particularly to places and people considered by private enterprise to provide low opportunities for profit; protecting rights of privacy, intellectual property, and security; and overcoming the jurisdictional barriers to cooperation, particularly when states offer conflicting regulations. Arguments against government involvement include the likely emergence of an adequate infrastructure under free market forces, the often stifling effect of regulation, and the need to avoid a common-and-control mentality in an infrastructure that is best promoted collaboratively. PMID:8816347

  11. Exercise upregulates salivary amylase in humans (Review).

    PubMed

    Koibuchi, Eri; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2014-04-01

    The secretion of salivary α-amylase is influenced by adrenergic regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; thus, exercise affects the levels of salivary α-amylase. Granger et al published a review in 2007 that focused attention on salivary α-amylase. In addition, a portable system for monitoring salivary α-amylase activity was launched in Japan at the end of 2005. The correlation between exercise and salivary α-amylase has since been extensively investigated. The present review summarizes relevant studies published in the English and Japanese literature after 2006. A search of the PubMed and CiNii databases identified 54 articles, from which 15 original articles were selected. The findings described in these publications indicate that exercise consistently increases mean salivary α-amylase activities and concentrations, particularly at an intensity of >70% VO2max in healthy young individuals. Thus, these studies have confirmed that salivary α-amylase levels markedly increase in response to physical stress. Salivary α-amylase levels may therefore serve as an effective indicator in the non-invasive assessment of physical stress. PMID:24669232

  12. An ATCA radio-continuum study of the Small Magellanic Cloud - IV. A multifrequency analysis of the N66 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, W. A.; Payne, J. L.; Filipović, M. D.; Danforth, C. W.; Jones, P. A.; White, G. L.; Staveley-Smith, L.

    2006-04-01

    Traditional identification of supernova remnants (SNRs) include the use of radio spectral index, optical spectral studies (including strong [SII], [NII], [OI], [OII] and [OIII] lines) and X-ray co-identifications. Each of these can have significant limitations within the context of a particular SNR candidate and new identification methods are continually sought. In this paper, we explore subtraction techniques by Ye, Turtle and Kennicutt to remove thermal emission estimated from Hα flux from radio-continuum images. The remaining non-thermal emission allows the identification of SNRs embedded within these HII regions. Subtraction images of the N66 region in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using Hα wide-field optical CCD images from the Curtis Schmidt Telescope and the recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA)/Parkes radio-continuum (1420, 2370, 4800 and 8640MHz) data are presented as an example. These show three SNRs (B0057 - 724, B0056 - 724 and B0056 - 725) separated from their surrounding HII radio emission. 2.3-m dual-beam spectrograph long-slit spectra from selected regions within N66 suggest the presence of an additional SNR with no radio or X-ray emission. Radio spectral index, [SII]/Hα ratio and archived Chandra images of N66 combine to give a more coherent picture of this region, confirming B0057 - 724 as an SNR. The N66 nebula complex is divided into 10 components, composed separately of these SNRs and HII regions.

  13. [Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and genetic mutations including progranulin gene].

    PubMed

    Arai, Tetsuaki; Hasegawa, Masato; Nishihara, Masugi; Nonaka, Takashi; Kametani, Fuyuki; Yoshida, Mari; Hashizume, Yoshio; Beach, Thomas G; Morita, Mitsuya; Nakano, Imaharu; Oda, Tatsuro; Tsuchiya, Kuniaki; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2008-11-01

    Research on familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) has led to the discovery of disease-causing genes: microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), progranulin (PGRN) and valosin-containing protein (VCP). TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been identified as a major component of tau-negative ubiquitin-positive inclusions in familial and sporadic FTLD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which are now referred to as TDP-43 proteinopathy. Recent findings of mutations in TDP-43 gene in familial and sporadic ALS cases confirm the pathogenetic role for TDP-43 in neurodegeneration. TDP-43 proteinopathies have been classified into 4 pathological subtypes. Type 1 is characterized by numerous dystrophic neurites (DNs), Type 2 has numerous neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs), Type 3 has NCIs and DNs and Type 4 has neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs) and DNs. There is a close relationship between such pathological subtypes of TDP-43 proteinopathy and the immunoblot pattern of C-terminal fragments of accumulated TDP-43. These results parallel our earlier findings of differing C-terminal tau fragments in progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration, despite identical composition of tau isoforms. Taken together, these results suggest that elucidating the mechanism of C-terminal fragment origination may shed light on the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders involving TDP-43 proteinopathy and tauopathy. PMID:19198141

  14. Differential Toxicities of Nickel Salts to the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Dean; Birdsey, Jennifer M; Wendolowski, Mark A; Dobbin, Kevin K; Williams, Phillip L

    2016-08-01

    This study focused on assessing whether nickel (Ni) toxicity to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was affected by the molecular structure of the Ni salt used. Nematodes were exposed to seven Ni salts [Ni sulfate hexahydrate (NiSO4·6H2O), Ni chloride hexahydrate (NiCl2·6H2O), Ni acetate tetrahydrate (Ni(OCOCH3)2·4H2O), Ni nitrate hexahydrate (N2NiO6·6H2O), anhydrous Ni iodide (NiI2), Ni sulfamate hydrate (Ni(SO3NH2)2·H2O), and Ni fluoride tetrahydrate (NiF2·4H2O)] in an aquatic medium for 24 h, and lethality curves were generated and analyzed. Ni fluoride, Ni iodide, and Ni chloride were most toxic to C. elegans, followed by Ni nitrate, Ni sulfamate, Ni acetate, and Ni sulfate. The LC50 values of the halogen-containing salts were statistically different from the corresponding value of the least toxic salt, Ni sulfate. This finding is consistent with the expected high bioavailability of free Ni ions in halide solutions. We recommend that the halide salts be used in future Ni testing involving aquatic invertebrates. PMID:27278637

  15. Role of pendant proton relays and proton-coupled electron transfer on the hydrogen evolution reaction by nickel hangman porphyrins

    PubMed Central

    Bediako, D. Kwabena; Solis, Brian H.; Dogutan, Dilek K.; Roubelakis, Manolis M.; Maher, Andrew G.; Lee, Chang Hoon; Chambers, Matthew B.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    The hangman motif provides mechanistic insights into the role of pendant proton relays in governing proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) involved in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We now show improved HER activity of Ni compared with Co hangman porphyrins. Cyclic voltammogram data and simulations, together with computational studies using density functional theory, implicate a shift in electrokinetic zone between Co and Ni hangman porphyrins due to a change in the PCET mechanism. Unlike the Co hangman porphyrin, the Ni hangman porphyrin does not require reduction to the formally metal(0) species before protonation by weak acids in acetonitrile. We conclude that protonation likely occurs at the Ni(I) state followed by reduction, in a stepwise proton transfer–electron transfer pathway. Spectroelectrochemical and computational studies reveal that upon reduction of the Ni(II) compound, the first electron is transferred to a metal-based orbital, whereas the second electron is transferred to a molecular orbital on the porphyrin ring. PMID:25298534

  16. Nitrite reductase gene upregulated during conidiation is involved in macroconidium formation in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Iida, Y; Kurata, T; Harimoto, Y; Tsuge, T

    2008-10-01

    Fusarium oxysporum produces three kinds of asexual spores, microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores. We previously found that the transcript level of the nitrite reductase gene of F. oxysporum, named FoNIIA, was markedly upregulated during conidiation compared with during vegetative growth. FoNIIA was also found to be positively regulated by Ren1 that is a transcription regulator controlling development of microconidia and macroconidia. In this study, we analyzed the function of FoNIIA in conidiation of F. oxysporum. Conidiation cultures showed markedly higher level of accumulation of FoNiiA protein as well as FoNIIA mRNA than vegetative growth cultures. FoNIIA protein was significantly decreased in cultures of the REN1 disruption mutant compared with that of the wild type. These results confirmed that FoNIIA expression is upregulated during conidiation and is positively regulated by REN1. The FoNIIA disruption mutants produced microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores, which were morphologically indistinguishable from those of the wild type. The mutants, however, produced significantly fewer macroconidia than the wild type, although the wild type and mutant strains produced similar numbers of microconidia and chlamydospores. These results demonstrate that nitrite reductase is involved in quantitative control of macroconidium formation as well as nitrate utilization in F. oxysporum. PMID:18943456

  17. National Information Infrastructure Education Forum: A summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.; Oliver, C.E.

    1994-05-01

    The National Information Infrastructure (NII) Education Forum was held on October 6-8, 1993, in Arlington, Virginia. The Forum was sponsored by the Office of Scientific Computing, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Its purpose was to discuss technology for K-12 education and what role DOE and its national laboratories could play in developing, disseminating, and using technology for K-12. The Forum brought together over 120 people from across the nation. Participants represented six groups: national laboratories; education research institutions; K-12 teachers and administrators; industry; federal agencies; and other institutions. The Forum consisted of a series of structured presentations from each of these six groups; technology demonstrations; and open, small group discussions. The presentations covered the following: important K-12 education and computing issues, national laboratory capabilities, other federal sector initiatives, and industry perspectives. The demonstration room had over 20 computers networked to the Internet. Workshop participants were shown (1) how to use the Internet to access resources anywhere in the world, (2) state-of-the-art network video teleconferencing technology, (3) multi-media technology, and (4) various other educational software systems.

  18. Japan's launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Y.; Hara, N.

    The development of Japan's Mu series scientific research launch vehicles, and N and H series practical applications vehicles, is described. The three-stage M-3C features a second-stage radio inertial guidance system. The evolution to the M-3S includes a first-stage TVC and Solid Motor Roll Control device, and eight 310-m strap-on boosters (SOB's). The M-3SII developed to launch an interplanetary satellite for the 1986 Halley's Comet apparition, employs two 735-mm SOB's and a microprocessor digitalized flight control system, and can put a 770 kg satellite into low earth orbit. The N-1 is a three-stage radio-guided vehicle using first and second stage liquid engines, a solid motor third stage, three SOB's, and having the capability to launch a 145 kg geostationary satellite. N-II improvements include a 350 kg geostationary payload capacity, nine SOB's, and an inertial guidance system. The H-1 planned for 1987 has a 550 kg geostationary payload capacity and a domestically developed cryogenic engine. The H-II planned for 1992 will be capable of launching a two-ton geostationary satellite, or LOX/LH2 plural satellites simultaneously. It will be powered by a single 95-ton thrust LE-7 main engine.

  19. Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Shoji

    2012-01-01

    Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a rare autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by various combinations of cerebellar ataxia, choreoathetosis, myoclonus, epilepsy, dementia, and psychiatric symptoms. The most striking clinical features of DRPLA are the considerable heterogeneity in clinical presentation, depending on the age of onset, and the prominent genetic anticipation. DRPLA is caused by unstable expansion of CAG repeats coding for polyglutamine stretches located in exon 5 of the DRPLA gene. DRPLA is characterized by prominent anticipation, with paternal transmission resulting in more prominent anticipation than does maternal transmission, which is now understood based on the intergenerational stability of the CAG repeats. DRPLA protein (also called atrophin-1) is localized in the nucleus and functions as a transcription co-regulator. Recent immunohistochemical studies on autopsied tissues of patients with DRPLA have demonstrated that diffuse accumulation of mutant DRPLA protein (atrophin-1) in the neuronal nuclei, rather than the formation of neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs), is the predominant pathologic condition and involves a wide range of central nervous system regions far beyond the systems previously reported to be affected. Thus, age-dependent and CAG repeat-dependent intranuclear accumulation of mutant DRPLA leading to nuclear dysfunctions are suggested to be the essential pathophysiologic mechanisms in DRPLA. PMID:21827919

  20. Spectroscopy of planetary nebulae in the region of Canis Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniazev, A. Yu.

    2012-11-01

    We present the results of a pilot project of spectroscopic observations for planetary nebulae (PNe) and PN candidates in Canis Major, a sky region where the remnant of a disrupted dwarf galaxy cannibalized by the Milky Way may be located. The spectra of seven objects were taken while testing the SALT spectrograph (South African Astronomical Observatory). All elemental abundances have been obtained by the T e method, where the electron temperature is calculated directly using the measured weak auroral [OIII] λ 4363 Å and/or [NII] λ 5755 Å lines. We have measured the intensities of all the detected emission lines and determined the abundances of oxygen and several other elements (N, Ne, S, Cl, C, and He) in all PNe. The radial velocity for one PN has been measured for the first time and the velocities for all of the remaining PNe have been measured with a considerably better accuracy than that of the previously published ones. The elemental abundances for three PNe have been calculated for the first time and the accuracies of determining the abundances for three others have been improved. The measured heavy-element abundance ratios (S/O, Ne/O, Cl/O) are in good agreement with their typical values for HII regions. Among the PNe studied, ESO 428-05 is the first and so far the most likely candidate for belonging to the remnants of a possible dwarf galaxy disrupted by the tidal interaction with the Milky Way.

  1. Panoramic spectroscopy of galaxies with star-formation regions. a study of SBS 1202 + 583

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakopian, S. A.; Balayan, S. K.; Dodonov, S. N.; Moiseev, A. V.; Smirnova, A. A.

    2012-03-01

    The methods of panoramic (3D) spectroscopy are used by us in a detailed study of galaxies with ongoing star formation chosen from among objects in seven selected fields of the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS). This article deals with the irregular galaxy SBS 1202 + 583, which our classification scheme identifies as being in a continuous phase of star formation. Observations were made with the panoramic spectrographs MPFS at the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) of the Russian Academy of Sciences and VAGR at the 2.6-m telescope of the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) in Armenia. The data are used to construct maps of the radiative fluxes in the continuum and various emission lines. Special attention is devoted to analyzing the emission in the H α hydrogen recombination line and in the forbidden low-ionization doublets of nitrogen [NII] λλ6548, 6583 and sulfur [SII] λλ6716, 6731, and the ratios of the intensities of the forbidden lines to H α. The observable characteristics (size, H α fluxes, etc.) of nine HII regions are studied. The estimated current rates of star formation in the individual HII regions based on the H α fluxes lie within the range of 0.3-1.2⨀ M /year. The dependence of the ratio of the intensities of the emission in these above mentioned forbidden doublets on the rate of star formation in the HII regions is found.

  2. The Sunrise project: An R&D project for a national information infrastructure prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Juhnyoung

    1995-02-01

    Sunrise is a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) project started in October 1993. It is intended to a prototype National Information Infrastructure (NII) development project. A main focus of Sunrise is to tie together enabling technologies (networking, object-oriented distributed computing, graphical interfaces, security, multimedia technologies, and data mining technologies) with several specific applications. A diverse set of application areas was chosen to ensure that the solutions developed in the project are as generic as possible. Some of the application areas are materials modeling, medical records and image analysis, transportation simulations, and education. This paper provides a description of Sunrise and a view of the architecture and objectives of this evolving project. The primary objectives of Sunrise are three-fold: (1) To develop common information-enabling tools for advanced scientific research and its applications to industry; (2) To enhance the capabilities of important research programs at the Laboratory; and (3) To define a new way of collaboration between computer science and industrially relevant research.

  3. Spin tuning of electron-doped metal-phthalocyanine layers.

    PubMed

    Stepanow, Sebastian; Lodi Rizzini, Alberto; Krull, Cornelius; Kavich, Jerald; Cezar, Julio C; Yakhou-Harris, Flora; Sheverdyaeva, Polina M; Moras, Paolo; Carbone, Carlo; Ceballos, Gustavo; Mugarza, Aitor; Gambardella, Pietro

    2014-04-01

    The spin state of organic-based magnets at interfaces is to a great extent determined by the organic environment and the nature of the spin-carrying metal center, which is further subject to modifications by the adsorbate-substrate coupling. Direct chemical doping offers an additional route for tailoring the electronic and magnetic characteristics of molecular magnets. Here we present a systematic investigation of the effects of alkali metal doping on the charge state and crystal field of 3d metal ions in Cu, Ni, Fe, and Mn phthalocyanine (Pc) monolayers adsorbed on Ag. Combined X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ligand field multiplet calculations show that Cu(II), Ni(II), and Fe(II) ions reduce to Cu(I), Ni(I), and Fe(I) upon alkali metal adsorption, whereas Mn maintains its formal oxidation state. The strength of the crystal field at the Ni, Fe, and Mn sites is strongly reduced upon doping. The combined effect of these changes is that the magnetic moment of high- and low-spin ions such as Cu and Ni can be entirely turned off or on, respectively, whereas the magnetic configuration of MnPc can be changed from intermediate (3/2) to high (5/2) spin. In the case of FePc a 10-fold increase of the orbital magnetic moment accompanies charge transfer and a transition to a high-spin state. PMID:24635343

  4. Hidden Star Formation in High-Velocity Gas Clouds in Clump 2 near the Edge of the CMZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolls, Volker; Smith, Howard Alan; Stark, Antony A.; Martin, Christopher L.; HIGGS Team

    2016-01-01

    The inner Galaxy can be divided into two main regions, the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ; Morris and Serabyn 1996) and the Galactic Bar region. Gas and dust moves from the end points of the Galactic Bar on dust lanes towards the CMZ, where it merges with the gas and dust located on a 100-pc molecular ring. The stream of gas and dust on the dust lanes is not continuous, but fragments into irregularly separated clumps of varying sizes. One of the most significant aggregations of clumps is the Clump 2 region (Roogour 1964, Bania 1977). Although the gas and dust clouds in this region are very dense, they were always considered quiet with no ongoing star formation. Selected regions of Clump 2 were the targets of Herschel HIFI and PACS observations of CO J=7-6, CI, CII, OI, NII, and OIII as part of the Herschel Inner Galactic Gas Survey (HIGGS). This poster will present an update of the ongoing data analysis, which may have yielded some surprising results.

  5. The homogeneous reduction of CO₂ by [Ni(cyclam)]⁺: increased catalytic rates with the addition of a CO scavenger.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, Jesse D; Kubiak, Clifford P

    2015-03-18

    The homogeneous electrochemical reduction of CO2 by the molecular catalyst [Ni(cyclam)](2+) is studied by electrochemistry and infrared spectroelectrochemistry. The electrochemical kinetics are probed by varying CO2 substrate and proton concentrations. Products of CO2 reduction are observed in infrared spectra obtained from spectroelectrochemical experiments. The two major species observed are a Ni(I) carbonyl, [Ni(cyclam)(CO)](+), and a Ni(II) coordinated bicarbonate, [Ni(cyclam)(CO2OH)](+). The rate-limiting step during electrocatalysis is determined to be CO loss from the deactivated species, [Ni(cyclam)(CO)](+), to produce the active catalyst, [Ni(cyclam)](+). Another macrocyclic complex, [Ni(TMC)](+), is deployed as a CO scavenger in order to inhibit the deactivation of [Ni(cyclam)](+) by CO. Addition of the CO scavenger is shown to dramatically increase the catalytic current observed for CO2 reduction. Evidence for the [Ni(TMC)](+) acting as a CO scavenger includes the observation of [Ni(TMC)(CO)](+) by IR. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations probing the optimized geometry of the [Ni(cyclam)(CO)](+) species are also presented. PMID:25714353

  6. Sharing lattice QCD data over a widely distributed file system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amagasa, T.; Aoki, S.; Aoki, Y.; Aoyama, T.; Doi, T.; Fukumura, K.; Ishii, N.; Ishikawa, K.-I.; Jitsumoto, H.; Kamano, H.; Konno, Y.; Matsufuru, H.; Mikami, Y.; Miura, K.; Sato, M.; Takeda, S.; Tatebe, O.; Togawa, H.; Ukawa, A.; Ukita, N.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamazaki, T.; Yoshie, T.

    2015-12-01

    JLDG is a data-grid for the lattice QCD (LQCD) community in Japan. Several large research groups in Japan have been working on lattice QCD simulations using supercomputers distributed over distant sites. The JLDG provides such collaborations with an efficient method of data management and sharing. File servers installed on 9 sites are connected to the NII SINET VPN and are bound into a single file system with the GFarm. The file system looks the same from any sites, so that users can do analyses on a supercomputer on a site, using data generated and stored in the JLDG at a different site. We present a brief description of hardware and software of the JLDG, including a recently developed subsystem for cooperating with the HPCI shared storage, and report performance and statistics of the JLDG. As of April 2015, 15 research groups (61 users) store their daily research data of 4.7PB including replica and 68 million files in total. Number of publications for works which used the JLDG is 98. The large number of publications and recent rapid increase of disk usage convince us that the JLDG has grown up into a useful infrastructure for LQCD community in Japan.

  7. Control of spoilage fungi by protective lactic acid bacteria displaying probiotic properties.

    PubMed

    Varsha, Kontham Kulangara; Priya, Sulochana; Devendra, Leena; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

    2014-04-01

    Thirty-six lactic acid bacteria belong to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Pediococcus were isolated, and the spectrum of antifungal activity was verified against Fusarium oxysporum (KACC 42109), Aspergillus niger (KACC 42589), Fusarium moniliforme (KACC 08141), Penicillium chrysogenum (NII 08137), and the yeast Candida albicans (MTCC 3017). Three isolates, identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus (TG2), Lactobacillus casei (DY2), and Lactococcus (BSN) were selected further, and their antifungal compounds were identified by ESI-MS and HPLC analysis as a range of carboxylic acids along with some unidentified, higher molecular weight compounds. An attempt to check out the shelf life extension of wheat bread without fungal spoilage was performed by fermenting the dough with the Lactococcus isolate. Apart from growth in low pH and tolerance to bile salts, probiotic potential of these three isolates was further substantiated by in vitro screening methods that include transit tolerance to the conditions in the upper human gastrointestinal tract and bacterial adhesion capacity to human intestinal cell lines. PMID:24532445

  8. Measuring the Relative Contributions of Viscous Accretion and Photoevaporation to the Dispersal of Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M. N.; Pascucci, I.; Rigliaco, E.; Gorti, U.; Hollenbach, D.

    2014-03-01

    Models of protoplanetary disk evolution suggest that photoevaporation driven by the central star and viscous evolution via gas accretion onto the star are the main mechanisms that drive disk dispersal. Viscous evolution has the ability to smoothly decrease the disk surface density, but photoevaporation can drastically change it by creating gaps in planet-forming regions that widen quickly over time. This quick gas dispersal can stop the migration of giant planets whose location affects the final delivery of volatiles (including water) to terrestrial planets. We selected a sample of twenty protoplanetary disks around T. Tauri stars in the Taurus region spanning all three main disk evolutionary stages, with a range of mass accretion rates. For this sample we have acquired high-resolution optical spectra with Keck/HIRES covering gas lines that trace both accretion and photoevaporation. We will present an analysis of the forbidden OI, SII, and NII lines and provide empirically determined mass loss rates as a function of disk evolutionary stage and mass accretion rate. This will enhance our understanding of the disk stage at which photoevaporation starts to dominate over viscous accretion.

  9. Variability of the planetary nebula NGC 6572 and its central star during the interval covered by optical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipova, V. P.; Kostyakova, E. B.; Burlak, M. A.; Esipov, V. F.; Ikonnikova, N. P.

    2014-10-01

    Estimates of relative line intensities available in the literature and integrated H β fluxes of the planetary nebula NGC 6572 during the time covered by optical observations (1938-2013) are compared to search for possible variations. Line intensities measured from observations obtained at the Crimean Station of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute in 2013 are presented, as well as previously unpublished photographic spectroscopic data obtained 1972-2005. Our analysis of all the available data shows that the line intensities do not vary within the observational uncertainties, with the possible exception of the [OIII] 4959 and 5007 Å lines, which show a tendency for their intensity increase with time. This can be interpreted as a manifestation of a temperature increase of the central star, or radial stratification of the [OIII] emission in the nebula, with the latter explanation being less probable. However, stratification is clearly visible in the [OII] and [NII] line intensities. The integrated H β flux is most probably constant at F(H β) = (1.50 ± 0.03) × 10-10 erg cm-2 s-1. A refined estimate of the interstellar extinction toward NGC 6572 has been obtained from radio and optical data, c(H β) = 0.42 ± 0.03. The MAST spectroscopy data were used to derive the central star's UBV magnitudes in 2004. Integrated photoelectric UBV observations of the nebula and central star for 1971-2005 are presented.

  10. An Infrared Method for Discovering AGN: Lick Spectroscopy of New Seyfert I’s in the Kepler Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsan, Tran; Edelson, Rick; Smith, Krista Lynne; Malkan, Matthew Arnold

    2016-06-01

    Spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) candidates in the Kepler fields were observed at Lick Observatory. We used the Shane 3.0-meter telescope with the Kast double spectrograph, covering from 0.35-0.8 μm. Using IRAF, we extracted 1D spectra from the original 2D long-slit images of the candidates. Our main goals are to determine the redshift of the candidates and identify any new AGN. The wavelength and flux calibration are fairly accurate, and most spectra have a good signal-to-noise ratio. Twenty- seven nights of data (consisting of 106 candidates) have been analyzed. For 89% of them, we have determined the redshifts to a precision of δz = 0.0005 in most cases. The rest give inconclusive results. 19 of the candidates turn out to be galactic stars. The most commonly identified emission lines are Hα+[NII], the [OIII] doublet, and Hβ. 44 of the candidates show a Broad Line Region, meaning that their wide permitted lines classify them as either Seyfert I’s or quasars. 6 of these have redshifts above 0.5, indicating that they are highly luminous quasars. One candidate appears to be a bl-lac object. We are now analyzing the Kepler light curves of these Seyfert galaxies.

  11. Analysis of a beach as a time-invariant linear input/output system of marine litter.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kato, Shigeru

    2013-12-15

    The exponential decay of the amount of new litter on Wadahama Beach, Nii-jima Island, Japan revealed by 20-month mark-recapture experiments demonstrates a linear response of the beach to the input of target items. Here we show the amplitude and phase characteristics of the beach as a time-invariant linear input/output system and discuss the hydrodynamic and geomorphological factors that would determine the characteristics with the aid of a diffusion equation. The characteristics are fully determined by the residence time of the items (τ(r)=209 days) and can be described as functions of the ratio of τ(r) to the period of input variability. The decay is reproduced well by the analytical solution of the equation with a constant diffusion coefficient (D), whose order was estimated by τ(r) and the backshore width. Generally, D would depend on hydrodynamical statistics and beach geomorphology as well as the dimensions and density of the items. PMID:24143956

  12. Beyond telecommuting: A new paradigm for the effect of telecommunications on travel

    SciTech Connect

    Niles, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    Conventional wisdom about social and economic behavior holds that the use of telecommunications is a natural substitute for transportation. For example, telephone calls can replace travel to meetings, and facsimile or electronic-mail transmission of documents substitutes for courier or postal delivery. The moving of information can replace the moving of period and goods. Vehicle traffic on the national transportation infrastructure can be replaced by digital traffic on what is now called the National Information Infrastructure (NII). A leading example is telecommuting. This means using telecommunications to replace commuting between home and work. Telecommuting is an optional way of expanding employees` work locations in those circumstances where it yields both improved organizational performance and employee satisfication. Telecommuting accounts for 7.6 million U.S. workers as of early 1993, up 15% from the 6.6 million counted in 1992. The growth of telecommuting has been strong for the past five years. No one has identified any reasons to suggest that this growth will abate in the forseeable future.

  13. Chemical abundances of very metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. W.; Zhao, G.

    2005-12-01

    High-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of 32 very metal-poor stars were obtained with the Coudé echelle spectrograph mounted on the 2.16-m telescope at the National Astronomical Observatories (Xinglong, China). Equivalent widths of FeI, FeII, OI, NaI, MgI, AlI, SiI, SiII, KI, CaI, ScII, TiI, VI, CrI, MnI, NiI, CuI and BaII lines were measured. Stellar effective temperatures were determined by colour indices. Stellar surface gravities were calculated from Hipparcos parallaxes and stellar evolutionary tracks. Photospheric abundances of 16 elements were derived by local thermodynamical equilibrium analysis. Stellar space motions (U, V, W) and Galactic orbital parameters were calculated. Based on kinematics, sample stars were separated into dissipative collapse and accretion components of halo population. The global kinematics of the two components were analysed. Element abundances were discussed as functions of metallicities. The results of oxygen and α-elements abundance confirmed the previous works. The [K/Fe] shows a gradual systematic increase toward a lower metallicity, such as in the case of α-elements. The [Ba/Fe] trend suggests that the s-process dominated Ba production at least for the metal-poor stars with [Fe/H]> -2.0.

  14. Ionized gas kinematics within the inner kiloparsec of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1365

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lena, Davide; Robinson, Andrew; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Couto, Guilherme S.; Schnorr-Müller, Allan; Riffel, Rogemar A.

    2016-04-01

    We observed the nuclear region of the galaxy NGC 1365 with the integral field unit of the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph mounted on the GEMINI-South telescope. The field of view covers 13″ × 6″ (1173 × 541 pc2) centered on the nucleus, at a spatial resolution of 52 pc. The spectral coverage extends from 5600 Å to 7000 Å, at a spectral resolution R = 1918. NGC 1365 hosts a Seyfert 1.8 nucleus, and exhibits a prominent bar extending out to 100″ (9 kpc) from the nucleus. The field of view lies within the inner Lindblad resonance. Within this region, we found that the kinematics of the ionized gas (as traced by [OI], [NII], Hα, and [SII]) is consistent with rotation in the large-scale plane of the galaxy. While rotation dominates the kinematics, there is also evidence for a fan-shaped outflow, as found in other studies based on the [OIII] emission lines. Although evidence for gas inflowing along nuclear spirals has been found in a few barred galaxies, we find no obvious signs of such features in the inner kiloparsec of NGC 1365. However, the emission lines exhibit a puzzling asymmetry that could originate from gas which is slower than the gas responsible for the bulk of the narrow-line emission. We speculate that it could be tracing gas which lost angular momentum, and is slowly migrating from the inner Lindblad resonance towards the nucleus of the galaxy.

  15. Absolute spectrophotometry of northern compact planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. A.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Perinotto, M.

    2005-06-01

    We present medium-dispersion spectra and narrowband images of six northern compact planetary nebulae (PNe): BoBn 1, DdDm 1, IC 5117, M 1-5, M 1-71, and NGC 6833. From broad-slit spectra, total absolute fluxes and equivalent widths were measured for all observable emission lines. High signal-to-noise emission line fluxes of Hα, Hβ, [Oiii], [Nii], and HeI may serve as emission line flux standards for northern hemisphere observers. From narrow-slit spectra, we derive systemic radial velocities. For four PNe, available emission line fluxes were measured with sufficient signal-to-noise to probe the physical properties of their electron densities, temperatures, and chemical abundances. BoBn 1 and DdDm 1, both type IV PNe, have an Hβ flux over three sigma away from previous measurements. We report the first abundance measurements of M 1-71. NGC 6833 measured radial velocity and galactic coordinates suggest that it is associated with the outer arm or possibly the galactic halo, and its low abundance ([O/H]=1.3× 10-4) may be indicative of low metallicity within that region.

  16. Chemical Composition of Nebulosities in the Magellanic Clouds

    PubMed Central

    Aller, L. H.; Czyzak, S. J.; Keyes, C. D.; Boeshaar, G.

    1974-01-01

    From photoelectric spectrophotometric data secured at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory we have attempted to derive electron densities and temperatures, ionic concentrations, and chemical abundances of He, C, N, O, Ne, S, and Ar in nebulosities in the Magellanic Clouds. Although 10 distinct nebulosities were observed in the Small Cloud and 20 such objects in the Large Cloud, the most detailed observations were secured only for the brighter objects. Results for 30 Doradus are in harmony with those published previously and recent work by Peimbert and Torres-Peimbert. Nitrogen and heavier elements appear to be less abundant in the Small Cloud than in the Large Cloud, in accordance with the conclusions of Dufour. A comparison with the Orion nebula suggests He, N, Ne, O, and S may all be less abundant in the Megellanic Clouds, although adequate evaluations will require construction of detailed models. For example, if we postulate that the [NII], [OII], and [SII] radiations originate primarily in regions with electron temperatures near 8000°K, while the [OIII], [NeIII], [ArIII], and H radiations are produced primarily in regions with Tε = 10,000° K, the derived chemical abundances in the clouds are enhanced. PMID:16592199

  17. Reevaluating Active Galactic Nuclei in Rich Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, M. J.; Flores, R.; Quintana, H.

    1999-06-01

    We have selected 42 candidate Active Galactic Nuclei in 19 Rich Abell Clusters. The candidates were selected using the criteria of Dressler, Thompson & Shectman (1985; DTS) in their analysis of the statistics of 22 AGN in 14 rich cluster fields, which are based on the equivalent width of [OII]3727Å, H β, and [OIII]5007Å emission. These AGN are then separated from HII galaxies in the manner developed by Veilleux & Osterbrock (1987; VO) using the additional information provided by Hα and [NII]6583Å or Hα and [SII]6716 + 6731Å emission, in order to test the reliability of the selection criteria used by DTS. Our sample is very comparable to that of DTS before we discriminate AGN from HII galaxies, and would lead to similar conclusions. However, we find that their method inevitably mixes HII galaxies with AGN. Over the years many authors have attempted to quantify the relative fraction of cluster to field AGN since the study of DTS (Hill & Oegerle 1993; Biviano et al. 1997) and have reached similar conclusions, but using criteria similar to that of DTS to select AGN (or using the [OIII]5007Å/H β flux ratio test that also mixes HII galaxies with AGN).

  18. On the Crimea-Texas project "Surface abundances of light elements for a large sample of early B-type stars".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimkov, L. S.

    2002-12-01

    A significant part of the project is already implemented. Actually, high-resolution spectra of more than 100 early B stars were obtained. A number of basic parameters was determined including the effective temperatures Teff , surface gravities log g, masses M, ages t etc. A detailed non-LTE analysis of HeI lines was effected to find the helium abundance He/H, microturbulent parameter Vt and rotational velocity v sin i . Relations between He/H and Vt , from the one hand, and M, t/tms and v sin i , from the other hand, were constructed. It was confirmed that there is the helium enrichment during the MS phase, which correlates with the masses M and rotational velocities v sin i . It is necessary to note that from the outset we tried to get a highest accuracy on each stage of this work. At present we are implementing a last stage of the project, i.e. an analysis of CII, NII and OII lines on the basis of non-LTE computations. Our goal is an accurate determination of the C, N and O abundances and a search for correlations with M, t/tms and v sin i.

  19. Molecular modeling of human serum transferrin for rationalizing the changes in its physicochemical properties induced by iron binding. Implication of the mechanism of binding to its receptor.

    PubMed

    Yajima, H; Sakajiri, T; Kikuchi, T; Morita, M; Ishii, T

    2000-04-01

    In order to rationalize the physicochemical properties of human serum-transferrin (STf) and the STf-receptor (TfR) recognition process, we have tried to predict the 3D structures of apo- and iron-loaded STf using a homology modeling technique to study the changes in the structural characteristics that take place upon the uptake of iron by STf in solution. The crystal structures of both forms for ovotransferrin were used as templates for the STf modeling. The modeled structure of STf gave a satisfactory interpretation for the typical physicochemical properties such that (1) STf has a negative electrophoretic mobility and its value increases with iron uptake, and (2) the radius of gyration Rg of Tf decreases with iron uptake. It was found that upon iron binding, interdomain closures take place with large movements of the NII and CII subdomains comprising the N- and C-lobes in STf through a hinge-bending motion, accompanied by the opening of the bridge region with a displacement of more than 15 A. Moreover, in view of the findings from our capillary electrophoresis experiments that the electrostatic interactions significantly contribute to a specific binding of Fe2-STf with TfR, it is inferred that the connecting (bridge) and its neighboring region associated with a surface exposure of negative charge play an important role in the STf-receptor recognition process. PMID:10981814

  20. A belt transect setting strategy for mark-recapture experiments to evaluate the 1D diffusion coefficient of beached litter in the cross-shore direction.

    PubMed

    Hinata, Hirofumi; Kataoka, Tomoya

    2016-08-15

    We propose a belt transect setting strategy for mark-recapture experiments (MREs) to evaluate the time-independent 1D diffusion coefficient (〈Dp0〉) of marine litter in the cross-shore direction that determines the backwashing flux of the litter, based on two-year MREs for plastic floats (PFs) on Wadahama Beach, Nii-jima Island, Japan. When the alongshore width of the belt transect (Lt) was of the order of, or longer than, the length scale of wave-induced nearshore current circulation (Lc), the PFs were rarely transported alongshore across the selected transects prior to being backwashed offshore. Thus, the transect residence time became longer and showed a much weaker dependence on the transect position, in contrast to when Lt was even shorter than Lc. We therefore obtained the diffusion coefficients close to the value of (〈Dp0〉) when we set Lt to the order of, or longer than, Lc. PMID:27263978

  1. Kinematics of the Diffuse Ionized Gas Disk of Andromeda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, Alexander; Howley, K.; Guhathakurta, P.; Dorman, C.; SPLASH Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on the flattened rotating diffuse ionized gas (DIG) disk of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). For this we use spectra from 25 multislit masks obtained by the SPLASH collaboration using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck-II 10-meter telescope. Each mask contains 200 slits covering the region around M32 (S of the center of M31), the major axis of M31, and the SE minor axis. DIG emission was serendipitously detected in the background sky of these slits. By creating a normalized "sky spectrum” to remove various other sources of emission (such as night sky lines) in the background of these slits, we have examined the rotation of the DIG disk using individual line-of-sight velocity measurements of Hα, [NII] and [SII] emission. his emission is probably the result of newly formed stars ionizing the gas in the disk. The measured IG rotation will be compared to the rotation of M31's stellar disk and HI gas disk, as well as models of an infinitely thin rotating disk, to better understand the relationship between the components of the galactic disk and its differential rotation. We wish to acknowledge the NSF for funding on this project.

  2. Analysis of the diffuse ionized gas database: DIGEDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Fajardo, N.; Morisset, C.; Binette, L.

    2009-10-01

    Studies of the Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) have progressed without providing so far any strict criterion to distinguish DIGs from H II regions. In this work, we compile the emission line measurements of 29 galaxies that are available in the scientific literature, thereby setting up the first DIG database (DIGEDA). Making use of this database, we proceed to analyze the global properties of the DIG using the [NII]λ6583/Hα, [O I]λ6300/Hα, [O III]λ5007/Hβ and [SII]λ6716/Hα lines ratios, including the H α emission measure. This analysis leads us to conclude that the [N II]/Hα ratio provides an objective criterion for distinguishing whether an emission region is a DIG or an H II region, while the EM(Hα) is a useful quantity only when the galaxies are considered individually. Finally, we find that the emission regions of Irr galaxies classified as DIG in the literature appear in fact to be much more similar to H II regions than to the DIGs of spiral galaxies.

  3. Dust processing in the Carina nebula region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, Takashi; Mori, Tamami I.; Okada, Yoko

    2015-10-01

    Dust processing in the Carina nebula is investigated based on mid- to far-infrared spectroscopy with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Mapping observations over a central 40‧ ×20‧ area of the nebula with PHT-S, SWS, and LWS onboard ISO not only reveal spectroscopically that the mid-infrared unidentified infrared (UIR) bands at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm are absent in the ionized region, but also indicate that the 11.3 μm may behave differently from the other three UIR bands near the edge of the ionized region, suggesting a variation either in the size distribution or in the ionization fraction of the band carriers. The correlation of [NII]122 μm and [SiII]35 μm line emissions observed with SWS and LWS is reinvestigated based on the recent atomic data as well as the latest cosmic abundance, suggesting that a large fraction (> 70%), if not all, of silicon returns to the gas phase in the Carina nebula, suggesting that silicates cannot survive under harsh conditions, such as massive star-forming regions. The present observations clearly show dust processing taking place in active regions in the Galaxy.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopic study of 283 AGNs in Coma (Gavazzi+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, G.; Savorgnan, G.; Fumagalli, M.

    2011-11-01

    We obtained optical spectra of the nuclei of 283 galaxies using the 1.5m Cassini telescope of Bologna observatory during 14 runs from 2005 to 2011, using the Bologna Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (BFOSC) attached to the 152cm F/8 Cassini Telescope located in Loiano, belonging to the Observatory of Bologna. Among these galaxies, 177 belong to the Coma supercluster and are added to the 4785 spectra available from SDSS (DR7) to fill-in the incomplete coverage by SDSS of luminous galaxies. We perform a spectral classification of the nuclei of galaxies in this region (with a completeness of 98% at r<=17.77), classifying the nuclear spectra in six classes: three of them (SEY, sAGN, LIN) refer to AGNs and the remaining three (HII, RET, PAS) refer to different stages of starburst activity. We perform this classification as recommended by Cid Fernandes and collaborators using the ratio of λ6584 [NII] to Hα lines and the equivalent width of Hα (WHAN diagnostic), after correcting the last quantity by 1.3Å for underlying absorption. (1 data file).

  5. Development of a polarization resolved spectroscopic diagnostic for measurements of the magnetic field in the Caltech coaxial magnetized plasma jet experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikama, Taiichi; Bellan, Paul M.

    2011-11-01

    Measurements of the magnetic field strength in current-carrying magnetically confined plasmas are necessary for understanding the underlying physics governing the dynamical behavior. Such a measurement would be particularly useful in the Caltech coaxial magnetized plasma gun, an experiment used for fundamental studies relevant to spheromak formation, astrophysical jet formation/propagation, solar coronal physics, and the general behavior of twisted magnetic flux tubes that intercept a boundary. In order to measure the field strength in the Caltech experiment, a non-perturbing spectroscopic method is being implemented to observe the Zeeman splitting in the emission spectra. The method is based on polarization-resolving spectroscopy of the Zeeman-split σ components, a technique previously used in both solar and laboratory plasmas. We have designed and constructed an optical system that can simultaneously detect left- and right-circularly polarized emission with both high throughput and small extinction ratio. The system will be used on the 489.5 nm NII line, chosen because of its simple Zeeman structure and minimal Stark broadening.

  6. Beyond telecommuting: A new paradigm for the effect of telecommunications on travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niles, J. S.

    1994-09-01

    Conventional wisdom about social and economic behavior holds that the use of telecommunications is a natural substitute for transportation. For example, telephone calls can replace travel to meetings, and facsimile or electronic-mail transmission of documents substitutes for courier or postal delivery. The moving of information can replace the moving of people and goods. Vehicle traffic on the national transportation infrastructure can be replaced by digital traffic on what is now called the national information infrastructure (NII). A leading example is telecommuting. This means using telecommunications to replace commuting between home and work. Telecommuting is an optional way of expanding employees' work locations in those circumstances where it yields both improved organizational performance and employee satisfaction. Telecommuting accounts for 7.6 million U.S. workers as of early 1993, up 15% from the 6.6 million counted in 1992. The growth of telecommuting has been strong for the past five years. No one has identified any reasons to suggest that this growth will abate in the forseeable future.

  7. Broadband Satellite Technologies and Markets Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    1999-01-01

    The current usage of broadband (data rate greater than 64 kilobits per second (kbs)) for multimedia network computer applications is increasing, and the need for network communications technologies and systems to support this use is also growing. Satellite technology will likely be an important part of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the Global Information Infrastructure (GII) in the next decade. Several candidate communications technologies that may be used to carry a portion of the increased data traffic have been reviewed, and estimates of the future demand for satellite capacity have been made. A study was conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center to assess the satellite addressable markets for broadband applications. This study effort included four specific milestones: (1) assess the changing nature of broadband applications and their usage, (2) assess broadband satellite and terrestrial technologies, (3) estimate the size of the global satellite addressable market from 2000 to 2010, and (4) identify how the impact of future technology developments could increase the utility of satellite-based transport to serve this market.

  8. BioCaster: detecting public health rumors with a Web-based text mining system

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Nigel; Doan, Son; Kawazoe, Ai; Goodwin, Reiko Matsuda; Conway, Mike; Tateno, Yoshio; Ngo, Quoc-Hung; Dien, Dinh; Kawtrakul, Asanee; Takeuchi, Koichi; Shigematsu, Mika; Taniguchi, Kiyosu

    2008-01-01

    Summary: BioCaster is an ontology-based text mining system for detecting and tracking the distribution of infectious disease outbreaks from linguistic signals on the Web. The system continuously analyzes documents reported from over 1700 RSS feeds, classifies them for topical relevance and plots them onto a Google map using geocoded information. The background knowledge for bridging the gap between Layman's terms and formal-coding systems is contained in the freely available BioCaster ontology which includes information in eight languages focused on the epidemiological role of pathogens as well as geographical locations with their latitudes/longitudes. The system consists of four main stages: topic classification, named entity recognition (NER), disease/location detection and event recognition. Higher order event analysis is used to detect more precisely specified warning signals that can then be notified to registered users via email alerts. Evaluation of the system for topic recognition and entity identification is conducted on a gold standard corpus of annotated news articles. Availability: The BioCaster map and ontology are freely available via a web portal at http://www.biocaster.org. Contact: collier@nii.ac.jp PMID:18922806

  9. Morphological and Spectral Study of the Galaxy Kaz 73

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazarian, M. A.; Movsessian, T. A.

    2005-04-01

    Morphological and spectral studies of the nucleus and immediately surrounding regions of the galaxy Kaz 73 are reported. The observations were made on the 2.6 m telescope at the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory in combination with the multi-pupil VAGR spectrograph. Isophotes are constructed for monochromatic images in the Hα, [NII]λ 6584, and [SII]λ6731 lines. It is shown that the surface brightness of the nucleus in monochromatic images of these lines increases rapidly from the edge to the center, with an increase of 5m for the Hα line. The nucleus of Kaz 73 is found to rotate clockwise about its axis, which is perpendicular to the direction of the arms of the galaxy. The extent of the nucleus in the direction of the arms is found to be a consequence of its rotation; that is, the nucleus is flattened in the direction of the poles. Overall, the nucleus of Kaz 73 has all the kinematic features of an entire galaxy. The masses of the nucleus and its gaseous component are determined to be 6.5ṡ108 M• and 1.9ṡ104 M•, respectively.

  10. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening, Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-07-01081

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip; Bush, John; Bowerman, Biays; Cespedes, Ernesto; White, Timothy

    2004-12-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security’s Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009.