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  1. 76 FR 12786 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Charlotte Salomon: Life...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Charlotte Salomon: Life? Or Theatre... Salomon: Life? Or Theatre?'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States,...

  2. Experimental verification of the model by Klapper for 4H-SiC homoepitaxy on vicinal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallinger, Birgit; Polster, Sebastian; Berwian, Patrick; Friedrich, Jochen; Danilewsky, Andreas N.

    2013-11-01

    4H-SiC homoepitaxial layers free of basal plane dislocations (BPDs) are urgently needed to overcome the so-called bipolar degradation of high-voltage devices. BPDs being present in substrates are able to either propagate to the epilayer or convert to harmless threading edge dislocations (TEDs) in the epilayer. The model by Klapper predicts the conversion of BPDs to TEDs to be more efficient for growth on vicinal substrates with low off-cut angle. This paper aims to verify the model by Klapper by an extensive variation of epitaxial growth parameters and the substrates' off-cut. It is shown that the off-cut angle is the key parameter for growth of BPD-free epilayers. Furthermore, it is shown that the model also describes adequately the behavior of different types of TEDs, i.e., TED II and TED III dislocations, during epitaxial growth. Therefore, the model by Klapper is verified successfully for 4H-SiC homoepitaxial growth on vicinal substrates.

  3. WIMS-D4M user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Deen, J.R.; Woodruff, W.L.; Costescu, C.I.

    1995-07-01

    The Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme (WIMS) code has been used extensively throughout the world for power and research reactor lattice physics analysis. There are many WIMS versions currently in use. The D4 version selected by the RERTR program was originally developed in 1980). It was chosen for the accurate lattice physics capability and an unrestricted distribution privilege. The code and its 69-group library tape 166259 generated in Winfrith were obtained from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) in 1992. Since that time the RERTR program has added three important features. The first was the capability to generate up to 20 broad-group bumup-dependent macroscopic or microscopic ISOTXS cross sections for each composition of the unit cell, a new ENDF/B-V based nuclear data library, and a new Supercell option. As a result of these modifications and other minor ones, the code is now named WIMS-D4M. A supplementary reference guide can be obtained from the RSIC that contains detailed explanations of all user options, library contents, along with several sample problems. Primary applications of WIMS for research reactor modeling do not require an extensive knowledge of all WIMS user options. This user guide is primarily addressed to the needs of the research reactor community although the code can be used for most thermal reactor lattices. The guide is written based on the experience of the RERTR staff with WIMS-D4M and will discuss only the most needed options for research reactor analyses.

  4. A Utility Program for WIMS Libraries.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-11-01

    Version 00 WILIT is a utility program for use with WIMS libraries. The following functions can be performed: conversions between binary and card-image form; extraction of data for specified material and re-inclusion (after possible editing) in the library with different identification number; reduction of library contents (number of materials); comparison of selected data sets with interpolation in resonance integral tables; replacement of fission spectrum; inclusion of cross sections calculated by FEDGROUP-R in the library.

  5. Mental Effort and Perceptions of TV and Books: A Dutch Replication Study Based on Salomon's Model of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beentjes, Hans W. J.

    This comparison of students' learning from reading books and from watching television uses Gavriel Salomon's model of learning effects, which is based on the amount of mental effort invested (AIME) in a medium as determining how deeply the information from that medium is processed. Mental effort, in turn, is predicted to depend on two perceptions…

  6. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 85-002-1551, Salomon Brothers, New York, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Fannick, N.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon-monoxide (630080) and carbon-dioxide (124389) concentrations were measured at Salomon Brothers, Incorporated (SIC-6711), New York, New York, in September and October, 1984. The evaluation was requested by the firm's medical department because of complaints of headache and eye, nose, and sinus irritation among employees who worked on the 40th floor, trading center. Ventilation surveys were also performed. After additional ventilation equipment was installed, a second survey found that the outdoor air supplied exceeded the ASHRAE recommendations. Following installation of the supplemental ventilation equipment, the employees complaints abated. The author concludes that in the preliminary survey, a potential health hazard existed due to an inadequate supply of fresh air. Installation of additional ventilation equipment removed the potential hazard.

  7. Neutron transport in WIMS by the characteristics method

    SciTech Connect

    Halsall, M.J. )

    1993-01-01

    The common methods of solving the neutron transport equation in reactor assembly geometries involve some geometric approximation. The standard differential transport methods and diffusion methods rely on pin-cell smearing, and transmission probability methods make approximations to the boundary fluxes linking pin cells. Integral transport methods (collision probabilities) can cope with pin geometries by numerical integration but require excessive computing times that increase with the square of the number of regions. The characteristics method in WIMS, known as CACTUS, solves the differential transport equation by a numerical tracking technique whose accuracy is limited only by computing resources; in its WIMS implementation it can handle any pin-type geometry without the need for preliminary spatial smearing.

  8. Use of WIMS-E lattice code for prediction of the transuranic source term for spent fuel dose estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1996-04-15

    A recent source term analysis has shown a discrepancy between ORIGEN2 transuranic isotopic production estimates and those produced with the WIMS-E lattice physics code. Excellent agreement between relevant experimental measurements and WIMS-E was shown, thus exposing an error in the cross section library used by ORIGEN2.

  9. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) Configuration and Data Management Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Schlicher, Bob G

    2006-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involvement in the Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) research with both government agencies and private companies dates back to 1989. The discussion here will focus on the US Army's current need for an automated WIM system to weigh and determine the center-of-balance for military wheeled vehicles and cargo and the expanded uses of WIM data. ORNL is addressing configuration and data management issues as they relate to deployments for both military and humanitarian activities. The transition from the previous WIM Gen I to the current Gen II system illustrates a configuration and data management solution that ensures data integration, integrity, coherence and cost effectiveness. Currently, Army units use portable and fixed scales, tape measures, and calculators to determine vehicle axle, total weights and center of balance for vehicles prior to being transshipped via railcar, ship, or airlifted. Manually weighing and measuring all vehicles subject to these transshipment operations is time-consuming, labor-intensive, hazardous and is prone to human errors (e.g., misreading scales and tape measures, calculating centers of balance and wheel, axle, and vehicle weights, recording data, and transferring data from manually prepared work sheets into an electronic data base and aggravated by adverse weather conditions). Additionally, in the context of the military, the timeliness, safety, success, and effectiveness of airborne heavy-drop operations can be significantly improved by the use of an automated system to weigh and determine center of balance of vehicles while they are in motion. The lack of a standardized airlift-weighing system for joint service use also creates redundant weighing requirements at the cost of scarce resources and time. This case study can be judiciously expanded into commercial operations related to safety and enforcement. The WIM program will provide a means for the Army to automatically identify/weigh and monitor

  10. A comparison of WIMS-D4 and WIMS-D4m generated cross-section data with Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.L.; Deen, J.R. ); Costescu, C.I. )

    1992-01-01

    Cross-section and related data generated by a modified version of the WIMS-D4 code for both plate and rod type research reactor fuel are compared with Monte Carlo data from the VIM code. The modifications include the introduction of a capability for generating broad group microscopic data and to write selected microscopic cross-sections to an ISOTXS file format. The original WIMS-D4 library with H in ZrH, and [sup 166]Er and [sup 167]Er added gives processed microscopic cross-section data that agree well with VIM ENDF/B-V based data for both plate and TRIGA cells. Additional improvements are in progress including the capability to generate an ENDF/B-V based library.

  11. A comparison of WIMS-D4 and WIMS-D4m generated cross-section data with Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.L.; Deen, J.R.; Costescu, C.I.

    1992-11-01

    Cross-section and related data generated by a modified version of the WIMS-D4 code for both plate and rod type research reactor fuel are compared with Monte Carlo data from the VIM code. The modifications include the introduction of a capability for generating broad group microscopic data and to write selected microscopic cross-sections to an ISOTXS file format. The original WIMS-D4 library with H in ZrH, and {sup 166}Er and {sup 167}Er added gives processed microscopic cross-section data that agree well with VIM ENDF/B-V based data for both plate and TRIGA cells. Additional improvements are in progress including the capability to generate an ENDF/B-V based library.

  12. The Wim Van Leer Competition for Young Film Makers at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel, Gilli

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Jerusalem Film Center and the background, history, and organization of the Wim Van Leer Competition which was established for young filmmakers in high school. Describes the Jerusalem Film Festival, film studies programs at Israeli high schools, and future possibilities. (Author/LRW)

  13. Design of a Capacitive Flexible Weighing Sensor for Vehicle WIM System

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lu; Zhang, Hongjian; Li, Qing

    2007-01-01

    With the development of the Highway Transportation and Business Trade, vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM) technology has become a key technology and trend of measuring traffic loads. In this paper, a novel capacitive flexible weighing sensor which is light weight, smaller volume and easy to carry was applied in the vehicle WIM system. The dynamic behavior of the sensor is modeled using the Maxwell-Kelvin model because the materials of the sensor are rubbers which belong to viscoelasticity. A signal processing method based on the model is presented to overcome effects of rubber mechanical properties on the dynamic weight signal. The results showed that the measurement error is less than ±10%. All the theoretic analysis and numerical results demonstrated that appliance of this system to weigh in motion is feasible and convenient for traffic inspection.

  14. New ENDF/B-V nuclear data library for WIMS-D4M

    SciTech Connect

    Deen, J.R.; Woodruff, W.L.; Costescu, C.I.

    1993-12-31

    The WIMS-D4M code has been chosen by the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program for all future research reactor cross-section generation replacing EPRI-CELL. A new 69-group 96-material library has been created for use in WIMS-D4M. The latest SUN version of NJOY (91.27) was used to generate the ENDF/B-V-based cross-section library. The library also includes ENDF/B-V based fission yields, energy fission and energy per capture data. The upper energy boundary has been extended from 10 to 20 MeV in order to model high energy neutron reactions. Additional fuel and moderator temperatures have been included to better predict temperature coefficients. More excess potential scattering points have been added to increase the accuracy of self-shielded resonance cross-sections. Several benchmark comparisons have been made to validate the new library.

  15. Automated-In-Motion Vehicle Evaluation Environment (AIMVEE) Weigh-In Motion (WIM) User Training and Testing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-05-04

    The AIMVEE/WIM system electronically retrieves deployment information, identifies vehicle automatically, and determines total weight, individual wheel weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing, and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle in motion. The AIMVEE/WIM system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE/WIM system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information ismore » stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide “actual” weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility. The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) system is an unique enhancement to the AIMVEE/WIM system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale and is included in the AIMVEE computer code base. The material to be copyrighted is the Automated-In-Motion Vehicle Evaluation Environment (AIMVEE)/Weigh-In-Motion User Training and Testing material. It includes instructional material in the set-up, operation and tear-down of the AIMVEE/WIM system. It also includes a final exam associated with the training.« less

  16. Automated-In-Motion Vehicle Evaluation Environment (AIMVEE) Weigh-In Motion (WIM) User Training and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    2006-05-04

    The AIMVEE/WIM system electronically retrieves deployment information, identifies vehicle automatically, and determines total weight, individual wheel weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing, and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle in motion. The AIMVEE/WIM system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE/WIM system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide “actual” weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility. The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) system is an unique enhancement to the AIMVEE/WIM system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale and is included in the AIMVEE computer code base. The material to be copyrighted is the Automated-In-Motion Vehicle Evaluation Environment (AIMVEE)/Weigh-In-Motion User Training and Testing material. It includes instructional material in the set-up, operation and tear-down of the AIMVEE/WIM system. It also includes a final exam associated with the training.

  17. Validation of WIMS-IST for CANDU R-type lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, B. P.; Davis, R.

    2006-07-01

    Prior validation studies of 28-element natural uranium (28-NU) CANDU R-type fuel bundles using the WIMS-IST lattice physics code had demonstrated a bias in the calculation of the coolant void reactivity (CVR) of approximately +0.5 to +0.6 mk (1 mk =100 pcm = 0.001 {Delta}k/k). However, these validation studies were performed using experimental data for 28-element bundles with pressure tubes that were smaller than standard CANDU-type pressure tubes, giving a smaller coolant volume, and a modified neutron energy spectrum. Validation studies performed with 37-element and 43-element fuel bundles with a CANDU-type lattice pitch and pressure tube had shown a CVR bias of {approx} 1.7 to 1.9 mk. It was believed that the CVR bias for a 28-element bundle would be closer to this range of values if a standard CANDU pressure tube diameter were used The objective of this study was to confirm this hypothesis, that using a larger CANDU-standard pressure tube would give a larger CVR bias for a 28-NU fuel bundle, as computed by WIMS-IST in comparison to experimental measurements of critical buckling. Thus, new critical-height and flux-map measurements were performed in substitution experiments in the ZED-2 research reactor to determine the pure critical lattice buckling for 28-element fuel with standard-size CANDU pressure tubes. The derived buckling from these experiments were used in WIMS-IST transport calculations to determine the effective multiplication factors for cooled and voided lattices and hence the bias in the CVR. Calculation results demonstrated that the CVR bias for the 28-NU was {approx} 1.7 mk {+-} 0.42 mk, which is consistent with the results for 37-element and 43-element CANDU-type lattices. (authors)

  18. "Experience Is Our Great and Only Teacher": A Peircean Reading of Wim Wenders' "Wings of Desire"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Torill

    2014-01-01

    Wim Wenders' film "Wings of Desire" tells the story of an angel who wishes to become mortal in order to know the simple joy of human life. Told from the angel's point of view, the film is shot in black and white. But at the very instant the angel perceives the realities of human experience, the film blossoms into colour. In…

  19. Analysis of climate change scenarios in an olive orchard microcatchment in Spain using the model WIMMED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Enrique; Aguilar, Cristina; José Polo, María; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2015-04-01

    Olive orchards constitute traditional systems in the Mediterranean Basin. In Andalusia, Southern Spain, more than 1.5Mha are dedicated to olive crop land use, which represent a production of 1Mt of olive oil per year. This is a strategic economic sector with environmental and social relevance. In the context of climate change in Andalusia, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has highlighted that an increase of temperatures and rainfall intensities as well as the reduction of cumulated rainfall might be expected. This may mean serious detrimental economic and environmental risks associated to floods and the reduction of available water resources which would be convenient to quantify. The objective of this work is to analyse the rainfall-runoff relationships in an olive orchard catchment by the application of the distributed hydrological model WIMMED (Herrero et al., 2009) simulating the effects of climate change, with a special emphasis on extreme events. Firstly, the model was calibrated and validated with 9 maximum annual events of a datasets from 2005-2012 obtained in an olive orchard catchment in Spain (Taguas et al., 2010). In this stage, only the saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil moisture in saturation were adjusted after a sensitivity analysis where 68 simulations were carried out. A good agreement was obtained between observed and simulated hydrographs. The mean errors and the root mean square errors were 0.18 mm and 2.19 mm for the calibration and 0.18 and 1.94 mm, for the validation. Finally, the catchment response to the increase of intensity and temperature and the reduction of cumulated rainfall were simulated for the maximum event of the series. The results showed a rise of 11% of the runoff coefficient quantifying the possible impact of climate change. REFERENCES Herrero J, Polo M., Moñino A., Losada MA (2009). An energy balance snowmelt model in a Mediterranean site. J. Hydrol. 371, pp. 98-107 Taguas EV, Peña A, Ayuso JL, Yuan Y

  20. Calculation of the Fast Flux Test Facility fuel pin tests with the WIMS-E and MCNP codes

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.; Wittekind, W.D.; Toffer, H.

    1991-10-01

    The Fuel Assembly Area (FAA) at the Fast Flux Test Facility site on the Hanford Site at Richland, Washington currently is being prepared to fabricate mixed oxide fuel (U, Pu) for the FFTF. Calculational tools are required to perform criticality safety analyses for various process locations and to establish safe limits for fissile material handling at the FAA. These codes require validation against experimental data appropriate for the compositions that will be handled. Critical array experiments performed by Bierman provide such data for mixed oxide fuel in the range Pu/(U+Pu) = 22 wt %, and with Pu-240 contents equal to 12 wt %. Both the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon (MCNP) and the Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme (WIMS-E) computer codes were used to calculate the neutron multiplication factor for explicit models of the various critical arrays. The W-CACTUS modules within the WIMS-E code system was used to calculate k{infinity} for the explicit array configuration, as well as few-group cross sections that were then used in a three-dimensional diffusion theory code for the calculation of k{sub eff} for the finite array. 10 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Testing WIMS-D4M cross sections and the ANL ENDF/B-V 69 group library. Results from global diffusion and Monte Carlo calculations compared with measurements in the Romanian 14-MW TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bretscher, M.M.

    1993-12-31

    The WIMS-D4 code has been modified (WIMS-D4M) to produce microscopic isotopic cross sections in ISOTXS format for use in diffusion and transport calculations. Beginning with 69-group libraries based on ENDF/B-V data, numerous cell calculations have been made to prepare a set of broad group cross sections for use in diffusion calculations. Global calculations have been made for two control rod states of the Romanian steady state TRIGA reactor with 29 fresh HEU fuel clusters. Detailed Monte Carlo calculations also have been performed for the same reactor configurations using data based on ENDF/B-V. Results from these global calculations are compared with each other and with the measured excess reactivities. Although region-averaged macroscopic principal cross sections obtained from WIMS-D4M are in good agreement with the corresponding Monte Carlo values, problems exist with the high energy (E > 10 keV) microscopic hydrogen transport cross sections.

  2. The Potential and Beneficial Use of Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) Systems Integrated with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems for Characterizing Disposal of Waste Debris to Optimize the Waste Shipping Process

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Buckner Jr, Dooley; Newton, David D

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system provides a portable and/or semi-portable means of accurately weighing vehicles and its cargo as each vehicle crosses the scales (while in motion), and determining (1) axle weights and (2) axle spacing for vehicles (for determination of Bridge Formula compliance), (3) total vehicle/cargo weight and (4) longitudinal center of gravity (for safety considerations). The WIM system can also weigh the above statically. Because of the automated nature of the WIM system, it eliminates the introduction of human errors caused by manual computations and data entry, adverse weather conditions, and stress. Individual vehicles can be weighed continuously at low speeds (approximately 3-10 mph) and at intervals of less than one minute. The ORNL WIM system operates and is integrated into the Bethel Jacobs Company Transportation Management and Information System (TMIS, a Radio-Frequency Identification [RFID] enabled information system). The integrated process is as follows: Truck Identification Number and Tare Weight are programmed into a RFID Tag. Handheld RFID devices interact with the RFID Tag, and Electronic Shipping Document is written to the RFID Tag. The RFID tag read by an RFID tower identifies the vehicle and its associated cargo, the specific manifest of radioactive debris for the uniquely identified vehicle. The weight of the cargo (in this case waste debris) is calculated from total vehicle weight information supplied from WIM to TMIS and is further processed into the Information System and kept for historical and archival purposes. The assembled data is the further process in downstream information systems where waste coordination activities at the Y-12 Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) are written to RFID Tag. All cycle time information is monitored by Transportation Operations and Security personnel.

  3. Otto Salomon in Nääs and His First Icelandic Students in Nordic Sloyd

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsteinsson, Gisli; Ólafsson, Brynjar

    2014-01-01

    Pedagogically aimed craft education was established around the same time as the school-based system of formative education, under the term Sloyd. This refers to a pedagogical system of manual training that promotes general child development, through the acquisition of the technical skills employed in woodwork, metalwork, sewing, knitting and the…

  4. WASTE INFORMATION MODELING (WIM) FOR CONSTRUCTION OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The outcomes will include the construction of full-scale building prototypes. As full-scale pieces are constructed they will be installed throughout the community, and could potentially be used as installations within the local community to demonstrate the use of recycled prod...

  5. Comments on "Some Conceptual Issues in Observed-Score Equating" by Wim J. van der Linden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradlow, Eric T.

    2013-01-01

    The van der Linden article (this issue) provides a roadmap for future research in equating. My belief is that the roadmap begins and ends with collecting auxiliary data that can be utilized to provide improved equating, especially when data are sparse or equating beyond simple moments is desired.

  6. Code System to Calculate Integral Parameters with Reaction Rates from WIMS Output.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-10-25

    Version 00 REACTION calculates different integral parameters related to neutron reactions on reactor lattices, from reaction rates calculated with WIMSD4 code, and comparisons with experimental values.

  7. Wim J. van der Linden and Ronald K. Hambleton. Handbook of Modern Item Response Theory. [book review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Terry

    2001-01-01

    This book is a compendium of recent item response theory (IRT) research that reviews 27 IRT models. The book contains a historical overview of IRT followed by six sections that deal with the application of a particular IRT model or set of models. (SLD)

  8. "Computerized Adaptive Testing: Theory and Practice." Wim J. van der Linden and Cees A. W. Glas, Eds. [book review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reise, Steven P.

    2001-01-01

    This book contains a series of research articles about computerized adaptive testing (CAT) written for advanced psychometricians. The book is divided into sections on: (1) item selection and examinee scoring in CAT; (2) examples of CAT applications; (3) item banks; (4) determining model fit; and (5) using testlets in CAT. (SLD)

  9. Taking Communication to Task--Again: What Difference Does a Decade Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A decade ago, Klapper (2003: "Taking communication to task? A critical review of recent trends in language teaching", "The Language Learning Journal" 27: 33-42) created the opportunity to reflect on the assets and limitations of task-based language teaching (TBLT) in comparison with more established communicative language…

  10. Interview: Professor Helle Neergaard, President of the European Council for Small Business and Entrepreneurship, on the Nature of Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industry and Higher Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    On August 13, 2014, Rita G. Klapper conducted a Skype interview with Helle Neergaard. Neergaard is not only President of the European Council for Small Business and Entrepreneurship, but also Docent at the Hanken School of Economics, and Professor at iCARE, Department of Business Administration, School of Business and Social Sciences, University…

  11. JEF-1 Based 69 Group Neutron Data Library.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1990-12-14

    Version 00 The cross section libraries can be read into the transport code WIMS-D. WIMS-D is a comprehensive code for reactor lattice cell calculations including burn-up calculations in a wide variety of reactor types.

  12. EDITORIAL: Cold Quantum GasesEditorial: Cold Quantum Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassen, W.; Hemmerich, A.; Arimondo, E.

    2003-04-01

    the Dutch Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM) and by the Dutch Gelderland province. We thank all these sponsors and the members of the International Programme Committee for making the Workshop such a success. At this point we take the opportunity to express our gratitude to both authors and reviewers, for their efforts in preparing and ensuring the high quality of the papers in this special issue. Wim Vassen Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam Andreas Hemmerich Universität Hamburg Ennio Arimondo Università di Pisa Guest Editors International Programme Committee A Aspect Orsay, France E Cornell Boulder, USA W Ertmer Hannover, Germany T W Haensch Munich, Germany A Hemmerich Hamburg, Germany W Hogervorst Amsterdam, The Netherlands D Kleppner Cambridge, USA C Salomon Paris, France G V Shlyapnikov Amsterdam, Paris, Moscow S Stringari Trento, Italy W Vassen Amsterdam, The Netherlands J T M Walraven Amsterdam, The Netherlands

  13. Key Qualifications in Work and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhof, Wim J., Ed.; Streumer, Jan N., Ed.

    This book contains the following chapters: "The Demarcation Issue: Introduction" (Wim J. Nijhof, Jan N. Streumer); "Qualifying for the Future" (Wim J. Nijhof); "The Many Meanings of Occupational Competence and Qualification" (Per-Erik Ellstroem); "Qualification and Labour Markets: Institutionalisation and Individualisation" (Ben Hoevels); "The…

  14. The application of eigensymmetries of face forms to X-ray diffraction intensities of crystals twinned by `reticular merohedry'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapper, H.; Hahn, Th

    2012-01-01

    Crystallographic face forms {hkl} are interpreted as sets of symmetry-equivalent X-ray reflections. Extending an earlier paper on twinning by merohedry [ [Sigma] = 1, Klapper & Hahn (2010). Acta Cryst. A66, 327-346], the eigensymmetry of these forms is used to derive general relations between the diffraction intensities of overlapping twin-related reflections. The following twins by reticular merohedry are treated: [Sigma] 3 twins of rhombohedral and cubic, [Sigma] 5 twins of tetragonal and [Sigma] 7 twins of hexagonal crystals.

  15. 69 FR 9880 - Real Estate Income Fund Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Real Estate Income Fund Inc., et al.; Notice of Application February 25, 2004. AGENCY: Securities... specified in the terms of any preferred stock. Applicants: Real Estate Income Fund Inc. (``REIF''), Salomon... securities issued by real estate companies. REIF's common stock is listed and traded on the New York...

  16. An Evaluation of Reported Changes in Teachers' Practices in the Classroom for the Future Initiative Based on Levels of Technology Implemented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of computers and related educational technologies into the classrooms in the late 1970s came with the expectation that technology would transform teaching and learning by improving teaching conditions, enhancing classroom management, individualizing learning, and resulting in a pedagogical shift (Salomon & Perkins, 1996).…

  17. Proceedings of the First Inter-American Conference on Bilingual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troike, Rudolph C., Ed.; Modiano, Nancy, Ed.

    The conference papers presented here are grouped under the six topics around which the conference was organized. The section on program goals and models for bilingual education contains papers by Joshua Fishman, Salomon Nahmad, John C. Molina, Alberto Escobar, G. Kent Gooderham, and Dillon Platero. The section on teaching the second language…

  18. A Correlational Study of Nature Awareness and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Kelly; Swartzentruber, Monica

    2011-01-01

    As part of a pilot program, the researchers sought to develop an instrument that would effectively measure the nature awareness of students. With this information, the researchers correlated nature awareness scores and science averages. According to Salomon and Perkins' theory of transfer, experiences in one situation can influence experiences in…

  19. Roles and Functions of British Careers Officers: Implications for Rehabilitation Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoreson, Richard W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study was designed to parallel Muthard and Salomone's (1969) study of American rehabilitation counselors. The participants took a de-Americanized version of the Strong Campbell Interest Inventory (SCII) and the Careers Officer Task Inventory (COTI), which was designed for this study. The results suggested that role conflict is almost…

  20. Client-Centered Placement Revisited: A Dialogue on Placement Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Paul R.; Usdane, William M.

    1977-01-01

    The authors take substantially different philosophical stances concerning placement in the rehabilitation process. Usdane believes that job placement is not given enough attention by rehabilitation counselors early in the rehabilitation process. Salomone advocates a greater emphasis on client growth and independence. (Author)

  1. Censorship's New Wave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Focusing on the dramatic increase in the scope, intensity and frequency of censorship protests in the United States, and based on the premise that the censorship crusade is better organized, staffed, and financed than ever before, this journal issue addresses many facets of the censorship problem. In addition to an introduction by Ronald Salomone,…

  2. The Roles and Functions of the Rehabilitation Counselor Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berven, Norman L.

    1979-01-01

    Reexamined the eight duty factors identified by Muthard and Salomone, which have been viewed as a definitive description of rehabilitation counselor role behavior. Data were reanalyzed using cluster analysis. Original results were replicated with modifications, increasing the meaningfulness of the description of rehabilitation counselor role…

  3. Advanced weigh-in-motion system for weighing vehicles at high speed

    SciTech Connect

    Beshears, D.L.; Muhs, J.D.; Scudiere, M.B.

    1998-02-01

    A state-of-the-art, Advanced Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system has been designed, installed, and tested on the west bound side of Interstate I-75/I-40 near the Knox County Weigh Station. The project is a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and International Road Dynamics, Inc. (IRD) sponsored by the Office of Uranium Programs, Facility and Technology Management Division of the Department of Energy under CRADA No. ORNL95-0364. ORNL, IRD, the Federal Highway Administration, the Tennessee Department of Safety and the Tennessee Department of Transportation have developed a National High Speed WIM Test Facility for test and evaluation of high-speed WIM systems. The WIM system under evaluation includes a Single Load Cell WIM scale system supplied and installed by IRD. ORNL developed a stand-alone, custom data acquisition system, which acquires the raw signals from IRD`s in-ground single load cell transducers. Under a separate contract with the Federal Highway Administration, ORNL designed and constructed a laboratory scale house for data collection, analysis and algorithm development. An initial advanced weight-determining algorithm has been developed. The new advanced WIM system provides improved accuracy and can reduce overall system variability by up to 30% over the existing high accuracy commercial WIM system.

  4. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Industrial Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) World Industrial Model (WIM). It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  5. Heating of the Warm Ionized Medium by Low-energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Mark A.

    2016-02-01

    In light of evidence for a high ionization rate due to low-energy cosmic rays (LECR) in diffuse molecular gas in the solar neighborhood, we evaluate their heat input to the warm ionized medium (WIM). LECR are much more effective at heating plasma than they are at heating neutrals. We show that the upper end of the measured ionization rates corresponds to a local LECR heating rate sufficient to maintain the WIM against radiative cooling, independent of the nature of the ionizing particles or the detailed shape of their spectrum. Elsewhere in the Galaxy the LECR heating rates may be higher than those measured locally. In particular, higher fluxes of LECR have been suggested for the inner Galactic disk, based on the observed hard X-ray emission, with correspondingly larger heating rates implied for the WIM. We conclude that LECR play an important and perhaps dominant role in the thermal balance of the WIM.

  6. Code System to Calculate Mixed Cores in TRIGA Mark II Research Reactor.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-08-29

    Version 00 TRIGLAV is a computer program for reactor calculations of mixed cores in a TRIGA Mark II research reactor. It can be applied for fuel element burn-up calculations, for power and flux distributions calculations and for reactivity predictions. The TRIGLAV program requires the WIMS-D4 program with the original WIMS cross-section library extended for TRIGA reactor specific nuclides. This package includes the code TRIGAC, which is a new version of TRIGAP.

  7. Wiener Geologen im Spiegel des Geologenarchivs. Kober - Kieslinger - Ampferer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, I.; Seibold, E.

    2001-05-01

    The bulk of the correspondence in the Geologenarchiv comes in two major groups:a) letters relating mainly to professional matters and b) letters containing predominantly personal communication. This will be demonstrated by material relating to the three above mentioned Viennese Geologists: Leopold Kober's letter to Wilhelm Salomon-Calvi and the correspondence between Alois Kieslinger and Eugen Wegmann are mainly professional, whereas Otto Ampferer's letters to the Bavarian glaciologist Edith Ebers are a documentation of personal friendship.

  8. The psychology of inherence is self-referential (and that is a good thing).

    PubMed

    Bookstein, Fred L

    2014-10-01

    Cimpian & Salomon (C&S) appear to characterize the inherence heuristic and essentialism as unwise or childish aspects of human reasoning. But actually, these cognitive modes lie at the core of statistical analysis across all of the quantitative sciences, including the developmental cognitive psychology in which the argument here is couched. Their whole argument is as much an example of its topic as an analysis of it. PMID:25388030

  9. Revised lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Middle-Upper Devonian strata of central Missouri, southern part of Iowa basin

    SciTech Connect

    Day, J. . Dept. of Geography-Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Middle-Upper Devonian strata of central Missouri are now included in the Cedar Valley Formation and Snyder Creek Shale. The Cedar Valley is divided into the Cooper, Mineola, and Callaway members. The Snyder Creek Shale is now defined to include: the New Bloomfield, Craghead Branch, Cow Creek, and Warren Branch members. The Cooper and Mineola members make up a carbonate-dominated late Givetian age depositional sequence. Cooper and Mineola strata contain brachiopods that correlate with the Rhyssochonetes bellarugosa-Neatrypa waterlooensis zones of the Little Cedar Formation of Iowa. Deposition of the Little Cedar of Iowa and Cedar Valley of Missouri corresponds to the lower part of Euramerican Devonian T-R Cycle IIa of Johnson et al. (1985). Carbonates of the Callaway Member and mixed shales and carbonates of the overlying Snyder Creek Shale make up a latest Givetian-early Frasnian depositional sequence. The Callaway brachiopod fauna is correlated with the Allanella allani Zone, and the Snyder Creek brachiopod fauna is correlated with the Strophodonta callawayensis Zone of the Lithograph City Formation of Iowa. Conodont faunas recovered from the Callaway correlate with the interval of the P. insita Fauna (latest Givetian-early Frasnian). Conodont faunas from the Snyder Creek contain species of Ancyrodella and Mesotaxis that provide the basis for direct correlation with Zone 3 of the Frasnian Montagne Noire conodont zonation of Klapper (1989) as discussed in Johnson and Klapper (1992). Deposition of the Callaway-Snyder Creek of Missouri and Lithograph City of Iowa corresponds to Euramerican Devonian T-R Cycle IIb of Johnson et al. (1985).

  10. Automated-In-Motion Vehicle Evaluation Environment (AIMVEE)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-05-04

    The AIMVEE/WIM system electronically retrieves deployment information, identifies vehicle automatically, and determines total weight, individual wheel weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing, and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle in motion. The AIMVEE/WIM system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE/WIM system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information ismore » stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide “actual” weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility. The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) system is an unique enhancement to the AIMVEE/WIM system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale and is included in the AIMVEE computer code base. The material to be copyrighted is the Automated-In-Motion Vehicle Evaluation Environment (AIMVEE)/Weigh-In-Motion User Training and Testing material. It includes instructional material in the set-up, operation and tear-down of the AIMVEE/WIM system. It also includes a final exam associated with the training.« less

  11. ORNL Automated-In-Motion Evaluation Environment (AIMVEE) User Training and Testing Materials - U.S. Copyright TXu 1-797-273

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2012-01-01

    The AIMVEE/WIM system electronically retrieves deployment information, identifies vehicle automatically, and determines total weight, individual wheel weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing, and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle in motion. The AIMVEE/WIM system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE/WIM system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide actual weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility. The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) system is an unique enhancement to the AIMVEE/WIM system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale and is included in the AIMVEE computer code base. The material copyrighted is the ORNL Automated-In-Motion Vehicle Evaluation Environment (AIMVEE)/Weigh-In-Motion User Training and Testing material. It includes instructional material in the set-up, operation and tear-down of the AIMVEE/WIM system. It also includes a final exam associated with the training.

  12. Use of Finite Elements Analysis for a Weigh-in-Motion Sensor Design

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Rigobert; Goanta, Viorel; Carlescu, Petru; Barsanescu, Paul-Doru; Taranu, Nicolae; Banu, Oana

    2012-01-01

    High speed weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensors are utilized as components of complex traffic monitoring and measurement systems. They should be able to determine the weights on wheels, axles and vehicle gross weights, and to help the classification of vehicles (depending on the number of axles). WIM sensors must meet the following main requirements: good accuracy, high endurance, low price and easy installation in the road structure. It is not advisable to use cheap materials in constructing these devices for lower prices, since the sensors are normally working in harsh environmental conditions such as temperatures between −40 °C and +70 °C, dust, temporary water immersion, shocks and vibrations. Consequently, less expensive manufacturing technologies are recommended. Because the installation cost in the road structure is high and proportional to the WIM sensor cross section (especially with its thickness), the device needs to be made as flat as possible. The WIM sensor model presented and analyzed in this paper uses a spring element equipped with strain gages. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), the authors have attempted to obtain a more sensitive, reliable, lower profile and overall cheaper elastic element for a new WIM sensor. PMID:22969332

  13. Automated-In-Motion Vehicle Evaluation Environment (AIMVEE)

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K.; Sheldon, Frederick T.

    2006-05-04

    The AIMVEE/WIM system electronically retrieves deployment information, identifies vehicle automatically, and determines total weight, individual wheel weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing, and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle in motion. The AIMVEE/WIM system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE/WIM system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide “actual” weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility. The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) system is an unique enhancement to the AIMVEE/WIM system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale and is included in the AIMVEE computer code base. The material to be copyrighted is the Automated-In-Motion Vehicle Evaluation Environment (AIMVEE)/Weigh-In-Motion User Training and Testing material. It includes instructional material in the set-up, operation and tear-down of the AIMVEE/WIM system. It also includes a final exam associated with the training.

  14. ZigBee-based wireless multi-sensor system for physical activity assessment.

    PubMed

    Mo, Lingfei; Liu, Shaopeng; Gao, Robert X; John, Dinesh; Staudenmayer, John; Freedson, Patty

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is important for assessing human exposure to the environment. This paper presents a ZigBee-based Wireless wearable multi-sensor Integrated Measurement System (WIMS) for in-situ PA measurement. Two accelerometers, a piezoelectric displacement sensor, and an ultraviolet (UV) sensor have been used for the physical activity assessment. Detailed analysis was performed for the hardware design and embedded program control, enabling efficient data sampling and transmission, compact design, and extended battery life to meet requirements for PA assessment under free-living conditions. Preliminary testing of the WIMS has demonstrated the functionality of the design, while performance comparison of the WIMS with a wired version on an electromagnetic shaker has demonstrated the signal validity. PMID:22254443

  15. Metrological approach to the force exerted by the axle of a road vehicle in motion carrying liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruolo, Luciano Bruno; de Noronha Castro Pinto, Fernando Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems are used for identifying the dynamic force exerted on the ground by axles of a vehicle. These systems are important for monitoring the gross vehicle weight and the vehicle axle load. Overweighted trucks on the roads increase pavement damage and traffic accidents. Knowing the accuracy of WIM systems is necessary. In the case of liquid transport the ‘sloshing effect’ affects this accuracy. This paper aims to analyze the dynamic measurement of the axle forces in vehicles carrying liquid during WIM up to 6 km h-1. Laboratory experiments using one vehicle with six axles and liquid loads on different levels in weighing instruments are presented. A non-linear computational multi-mass-springs model was developed and laboratory experiments were carried out to show the acceleration influences on axle forces of vehicles with six axles and with and without baffles to vary the ‘sloshing effect’.

  16. The Vertical Structure of Warm Ionised Gas in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaensler, B. M.; Madsen, G. J.; Chatterjee, S.; Mao, S. A.

    2008-11-01

    We present a new joint analysis of pulsar dispersion measures and diffuse Hα emission in the Milky Way, which we use to derive the density, pressure and filling factor of the thick disk component of the warm ionised medium (WIM) as a function of height above the Galactic disk. By excluding sightlines at low Galactic latitude that are contaminated by Hii regions and spiral arms, we find that the exponential scale-height of free electrons in the diffuse WIM is 1830-250+120 pc, a factor of two larger than has been derived in previous studies. The corresponding inconsistent scale heights for dispersion measure and emission measure imply that the vertical profiles of mass and pressure in the WIM are decoupled, and that the filling factor of WIM clouds is a geometric response to the competing environmental influences of thermal and non-thermal processes. Extrapolating the properties of the thick-disk WIM to mid-plane, we infer a volume-averaged electron density 0.014 +/- 0.001 cm-3, produced by clouds of typical electron density 0.34 +/- 0.06 cm-3 with a volume filling factor 0.04 +/- 0.01. As one moves off the plane, the filling factor increases to a maximum of ~30% at a height of ~1-1.5 kpc, before then declining to accommodate the increasing presence of hot, coronal gas. Since models for the WIM with a ~1 kpc scale-height have been widely used to estimate distances to radio pulsars, our revised parameters suggest that the distances to many high-latitude pulsars have been substantially underestimated.

  17. FLYSAFE, nowcasting of in flight icing supporting aircrew decision making process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, A.; Le Bot, C.

    2009-09-01

    FLYSAFE is an Integrated Project of the 6th framework of the European Commission with the aim to improve flight safety through the development of a Next Generation Integrated Surveillance System (NGISS). The NGISS provides information to the flight crew on the three major external hazards for aviation: weather, air traffic and terrain. The NGISS has the capability of displaying data about all three hazards on a single display screen, facilitating rapid pilot appreciation of the situation by the flight crew. Weather Information Management Systems (WIMS) were developed to provide the NGISS and the flight crew with weather related information on in-flight icing, thunderstorms, wake-vortex and clear-air turbulence. These products are generated on the ground from observations and model forecasts. WIMS supply relevant information on three different scales: global, regional and local (over airport Terminal Manoeuvring Area). Within the flysafe program, around 120 hours of flight trials were performed during February 2008 and August 2008. Two aircraft were involved each with separate objectives : - to assess FLYSAFE's innovative solutions for the data-link, on-board data fusion, data-display, and data-updates during flight; - to evaluate the new weather information management systems (in flight icing and thunderstorms) using in-situ measurements recorded on board the test aircraft. In this presentation we will focus on the in-flight icing nowcasting system developed at Météo France in the framework of FLYSAFE: the local ICE WIMS. The local ICE WIMS is based on data fusion. The most relevant information for icing detection is extracted from the numerical weather prediction model, the infra-red and visible satellite imagery and the ground weather radar reflectivities. After a presentation of the local ICE WIMS, we detail the evaluation of the local ICE WIMS performed using the winter and summer flight trial data.

  18. Prototype Weigh-In-Motion Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Beshears, David L; Hively, Lee M; Scudiere, Matthew B; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2006-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed and patented methods to weigh slowly moving vehicles. We have used this technology to produce a portable weigh-in-motion system that is robust and accurate. This report documents the performance of the second-generation portable weigh-in-motion prototype (WIM Gen II). The results of three modes of weight determination are compared in this report: WIM Gen II dynamic mode, WIM Gen II stop-and-go mode, and static (parked) mode on in-ground, static scales. The WIM dynamic mode measures axle weights as the vehicle passes over the system at speeds of 3 to 7 miles per hour (1.3 to 3.1 meters/second). The WIM stop-and-go mode measures the weight of each axle of the vehicle as the axles are successively positioned on a side-by-side pair of WIM measurement pads. In both measurement modes the center of balance (CB) and the total weight are obtained by a straight-forward calculation from axle weights and axle spacings. The performance metric is measurement error (in percent), which is defined as 100 x (sample standard deviation)/(average); see Appendix A for details. We have insufficient data to show that this metric is predictive. This report details the results of weight measurements performed in May 2005 at two sites using different types of vehicles at each site. In addition to the weight measurements, the testing enabled refinements to the test methodology and facilitated an assessment of the influence of vehicle speed on the dynamic-mode measurements. The initial test at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, TN, involved measurements of passenger and light-duty commercial vehicles. A subsequent test at the Arrival/Departure Airfield Control Group (A/DACG) facility in Ft. Bragg, NC, involved military vehicles with gross weights between 3,000 and 75,000 pounds (1,356 to 33,900 kilograms) with a 20,000-pound (9,040 kilograms) limit per axle. For each vehicle, four or more separate measurements were done

  19. From ultracold Fermi Gases to Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Ultracold dilute atomic gases can be considered as model systems to address some pending problem in Many-Body physics that occur in condensed matter systems, nuclear physics, and astrophysics. We have developed a general method to probe with high precision the thermodynamics of locally homogeneous ultracold Bose and Fermi gases [1,2,3]. This method allows stringent tests of recent many-body theories. For attractive spin 1/2 fermions with tunable interaction (^6Li), we will show that the gas thermodynamic properties can continuously change from those of weakly interacting Cooper pairs described by Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory to those of strongly bound molecules undergoing Bose-Einstein condensation. First, we focus on the finite-temperature Equation of State (EoS) of the unpolarized unitary gas. Surprisingly, the low-temperature properties of the strongly interacting normal phase are well described by Fermi liquid theory [3] and we localize the superfluid phase transition. A detailed comparison with theories including recent Monte-Carlo calculations will be presented. Moving away from the unitary gas, the Lee-Huang-Yang and Lee-Yang beyond-mean-field corrections for low density bosonic and fermionic superfluids are quantitatively measured for the first time. Despite orders of magnitude difference in density and temperature, our equation of state can be used to describe low density neutron matter such as the outer shell of neutron stars. [4pt] [1] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, K. Jiang, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Nature 463, 1057 (2010) [0pt] [2] N. Navon, S. Nascimbène, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Science 328, 729 (2010) [0pt] [3] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, S. Pilati, F. Chevy, S. Giorgini, A. Georges, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 215303 (2011)

  20. Freshwater molluscs as indicators of bioavailability and toxicity of metals in surface-water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, John F.; Collins, Jerilyn J.

    1991-01-01

    During the past several decades, studies from a variety of locations have demonstrated widespread occurrence of metals in surface waters at concentrations significantly higher than background levels. Elevated concentrations are not limited to certain water types or polluted areas; they appear in all types of systems and in all geographic areas. It is clear that metals enter the aquatic systems from diverse sources, both point and nonpoint, and they can be readily transported from one system to another. Transport routes include atmospheric, terrestrial, subterranean, aquatic, and biological pathways (Elder 1988; Salomons and Forstner 1984).

  1. [Discussion of a medical officer carrying the arm-band of the Red Cross during the second world war].

    PubMed

    Riaud, Xavier

    2008-12-01

    Sacrificing his life to save that of his soldiers and of his nursing staff, Captain Ben Salomon became a legend. Yet, studies of international treaties and of some directives specific to the American Army have seriously held back the historical and public recognition of his heroism. Indeed, when he took hold of the machine gun to cover his men's retreat in 1944, he was wearing a Red Cross armband and was enlisted as a "doctor". What did this mean exactly? Was his action a misdemeanor or definitely an act of heroism? PMID:19579343

  2. Découverte du foraminifère Colaniella Likharev dans le Permien supérieur de la vallée du Sosio (Sicile)First occurrence of the foraminifer Colaniella Likharev in the Upper Permian from the Sosio Valley (Sicily).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenny-Deshusses, Catherine; Martini, Rossana; Zaninetti, Louisette

    2000-06-01

    The foraminifers Colaniella ex gr. parva (Colani) and Colaniella ex gr. minima (Wang) are described for the first time in Late Permian calcarenitic sediments of the Pietra di Salomone (Sosio Valley, Sicily). These species, also recognised in redeposited intervals of the Triassic Monte Facito Formation (Southern Apennine, Lagonegro Basin), are here illustrated for the first time. Their simultaneous presence indicates a Midian to Dzhulfian possibly Dorashamian? age. The age of the redeposition of the calcarenites and calcirudites, in Sicily and in Southern Apennine, is consequently Latest Permian (Dorashamian), or younger.

  3. Validation Report for FY 1997--Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    The report issued according to ''Work Release 02. P. 99-8'' presents a comparison of results on VVER Calculational Benchmarks computed with various codes: design code TVS-M and precision code MCU-REA elaborated in RRC KI, IPPE codes WIMS-ABBN, TRIANG-PWR and CONKEMO and 2-D fuel assembly analysis code HELIOS developed by Studsvik Scandpower.

  4. Inventory processes for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    Inventory records are maintained in the following inventory systems: HIP, (Spare Parts), WIM, (General Supplies): Convenient Storage, Shop Stock, Essential Materials, Special Tools, ESP (Excess Inventory). Requisitions for replenishment of inventory items are initiated in the respective inventory system and then forwarded to the purchasing system.

  5. Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual framework for…

  6. Access, Equity, and Opportunity. Women in Machining: A Model Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Heather

    The Women in Machining (WIM) program is a Machine Action Project (MAP) initiative that was developed in response to a local skilled metalworking labor shortage, despite a virtual absence of women and people of color from area shops. The project identified post-war stereotypes and other barriers that must be addressed if women are to have an equal…

  7. Ion-Neutral Collisions in the Interstellar Medium: Wave Damping and Elimination of Collisionless Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, Steven R.; Savage, Allison H.; Redfield, Seth

    2011-09-21

    Most phases of the interstellar medium contain neutral atoms in addition to ions and electrons. This introduces differences in plasma physics processes in those media relative to the solar corona and the solar wind at a heliocentric distance of 1 astronomical unit. In this paper, we consider two well-diagnosed, partially-ionized interstellar plasmas. The first is the Warm Ionized Medium (WIM) which is probably the most extensive phase in terms of volume. The second is the gas of the Local Clouds of the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM). Ion-neutral interactions seem to be important in both media. In the WIM, ion-neutral collisions are relatively rare, but sufficiently frequent to damp magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves (as well as propagating MHD eddies) within less than a parsec of the site of generation. This result raises interesting questions about the sources of turbulence in the WIM. In the case of the VLISM, the ion-neutral collision frequency is higher than that in the WIM, because the hydrogen is partially neutral rather than fully ionized. We present results showing that prominent features of coronal and solar wind turbulence seem to be absent in VLISM turbulence. For example, ion temperature does not depend on ion mass. This difference may be due to ion-neutral collisions, which distribute power from more effectively heated massive ions such as iron to other ion species and neutral atoms.

  8. A Look at Psychometrics in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; Swaminathan, H.

    Comments are made on the review papers presented by six Dutch psychometricians: Ivo Molenaar, Wim van der Linden, Ed Roskam, Arnold Van den Wollenberg, Gideon Mellenbergh, and Dato de Gruijter. Molenaar has embraced a pragmatic viewpoint on Bayesian methods, using both empirical and pure approaches to solve educational research problems. Molenaar…

  9. Cover Image, Volume 170A, Number 6, June 2016.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Allan; Fijalkowski, Igor; Andersen, Tobias; Abdulmunem, Sura Azhar; van den Ende, Jenneke; Van Hul, Wim

    2016-06-01

    The cover image, by Wim Van Hul et al., is based on the Original Article Further delineation of facioaudiosymphalangism syndrome: Description of a family with a novel NOG mutation and without hearing loss, DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37626. PMID:27191530

  10. Ion-Neutral Collisions in the Interstellar Medium: Wave Damping and Elimination of Collisionless Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Steven R.; Savage, Allison H.; Redfield, Seth

    2011-09-01

    Most phases of the interstellar medium contain neutral atoms in addition to ions and electrons. This introduces differences in plasma physics processes in those media relative to the solar corona and the solar wind at a heliocentric distance of 1 astronomical unit. In this paper, we consider two well-diagnosed, partially-ionized interstellar plasmas. The first is the Warm Ionized Medium (WIM) which is probably the most extensive phase in terms of volume. The second is the gas of the Local Clouds of the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM). Ion-neutral interactions seem to be important in both media. In the WIM, ion-neutral collisions are relatively rare, but sufficiently frequent to damp magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves (as well as propagating MHD eddies) within less than a parsec of the site of generation. This result raises interesting questions about the sources of turbulence in the WIM. In the case of the VLISM, the ion-neutral collision frequency is higher than that in the WIM, because the hydrogen is partially neutral rather than fully ionized. We present results showing that prominent features of coronal and solar wind turbulence seem to be absent in VLISM turbulence. For example, ion temperature does not depend on ion mass. This difference may be due to ion-neutral collisions, which distribute power from more effectively heated massive ions such as iron to other ion species and neutral atoms.

  11. A Novel Sensor System for Measuring Wheel Loads of Vehicles on Highways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenbin; Suo, Chunguang; Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    With the development of the highway transportation and business trade, vehicle Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) technology has become a key technology for measuring traffic loads. In this paper a novel WIM system based on monitoring of pavement strain responses in rigid pavement was investigated. In this WIM system multiple low cost, light weight, small volume and high accuracy embedded concrete strain sensors were used as WIM sensors to measure rigid pavement strain responses. In order to verify the feasibility of the method, a system prototype based on multiple sensors was designed and deployed on a relatively busy freeway. Field calibration and tests were performed with known two-axle truck wheel loads and the measurement errors were calculated based on the static weights measured with a static weighbridge. This enables the weights of other vehicles to be calculated from the calibration constant. Calibration and test results for individual sensors or three-sensor fusions are both provided. Repeatability, sources of error, and weight accuracy are discussed. Successful results showed that the proposed method was feasible and proven to have a high accuracy. Furthermore, a sample mean approach using multiple fused individual sensors could provide better performance compared to individual sensors.

  12. Cross sections for fuel depletion and radioisotope production calculations in TRIGA reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, H.F.; Mazon, R.R.

    1994-07-01

    For TRIGA Reactors, the fuel depletion and isotopic inventory calculations, depends on the computer code and in the cross sections of some important actinides used. Among these we have U-235, U-238, Pu-239, Pu-240 and Pu-241. We choose ORIGEN2, a code with a good reputation in this kind of calculations, we observed the cross sections for these actinides in the libraries that we have (PWR's and BWR), the fission cross section for U-235 was about 50 barns. We used a PWR library and our results were not satisfactory, specially for standard elements. We decided to calculate cross sections more suitable for our reactor, for that purpose we simulate the standard and FLIP TRIGA cells with the transport code WIMS. We used the fuel average flux and COLAPS (a home made program), to generate suitable cross sections for ORIGEN2, by collapsing the WIMS library cross sections of these nuclides. For the radioisotope production studies using the Central Thimble, we simulate the A and B rings and used the A average flux to collapse cross sections. For these studies, the required nuclides sometimes are not present in WIMS library, for them we are planning to process the ENDF/B data, with NJOY system, and include the cross sections to WIMS library or to collapse them using the appropriate average-flux and the program COLAPS. (author)

  13. [Collected Papers on International Aspects of Teacher Education and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Dee Anna, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on international issues in technology and teacher education: "Developing and Researching the International Dimension in Teacher Education and Technology: A SITE Invited Panel" (Niki Davis, Therese Laferriere, Bridget Somekh, Wim Veen, and Jerry Willis); "Integrating ICT into the Curriculum: A Case Study…

  14. The relationship between fatty acid profiles in milk identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and onset of luteal activity in Norwegian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Martin, A D; Afseth, N K; Kohler, A; Randby, Å; Eknæs, M; Waldmann, A; Dørum, G; Måge, I; Reksen, O

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility of milk fatty acids as predictors of onset of luteal activity (OLA), 87 lactations taken from 73 healthy Norwegian Red cattle were surveyed over 2 winter housing seasons. The feasibility of using frozen milk samples for dry-film Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) determination of milk samples was also tested. Morning milk samples were collected thrice weekly (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) for the first 10 wk in milk (WIM). These samples had bronopol (2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol) added to them before being frozen at -20°C, thawed, and analyzed by ELISA to determine progesterone concentration and the concentrations of the milk fatty acids C4:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, and cis-9 C18:1 as a proportion of total milk fatty acid content using dry-film FTIR, and averaged by WIM. Onset of luteal activity was defined as the first day that milk progesterone concentrations were >3 ng/mL for 2 successive measurements; the study population was categorized as early (n=47) or late (n=40) OLA, using the median value of 21 DIM as the cutoff. Further milk samples were collected 6 times weekly, from morning and afternoon milkings, these were pooled by WIM, and one proportional sample was analyzed fresh for fat, protein, and lactose content by the dairy company Tine SA, using traditional FTIR spectrography in the wet phase of milk. Daily energy-balance calculations were performed in 42 lactations and averaged by WIM. Animals experiencing late OLA had a more negative energy balance in WIM 1, 3, 4, and 5, with the greatest differences been seen in WIM 3 and 4. A higher proportion of the fatty acids were medium chained, C14:0 and C16:0, in the early than in the late OLA group from WIM 1. In WIM 4, the proportion of total fatty acid content that was C16:0 predicted late OLA, with 74% sensitivity and 80% specificity. The long-chain proportion of the fatty acids C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 were lower in the early than in the late OLA group. Differences were greatest in

  15. Warm ionized gas in CALIFA early-type galaxies. 2D emission-line patterns and kinematics for 32 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, J. M.; Papaderos, P.; Kehrig, C.; Vílchez, J. M.; Lehnert, M. D.; Sánchez, S. F.; Ziegler, B.; Breda, I.; Dos Reis, S. N.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; Bomans, D. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Walcher, C. J.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; García-Benito, R.; Márquez, I.; Del Olmo, A.; Masegosa, J.; Mollá, M.; Marino, R. A.; González Delgado, R. M.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Califa Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    Context. The morphological, spectroscopic, and kinematical properties of the warm interstellar medium (wim) in early-type galaxies (ETGs) hold key observational constraints to nuclear activity and the buildup history of these massive, quiescent systems. High-quality integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data with a wide spectral and spatial coverage, such as those from the CALIFA survey, offer an unprecedented opportunity for advancing our understanding of the wim in ETGs. Aims: This article centers on a 2D investigation of the wim component in 32 nearby (≲150 Mpc) ETGs from CALIFA, complementing a previous 1D analysis of the same sample. Methods: The analysis presented here includes Hα intensity and equivalent width (EW) maps and radial profiles, diagnostic emission-line ratios, and ionized-gas and stellar kinematics. It is supplemented by τ-ratio maps, which are a more efficient means to quantify the role of photoionization by the post-AGB stellar component than alternative mechanisms (e.g., AGN, low-level star formation). Results: Confirming and strengthening our previous conclusions, we find that ETGs span a broad continuous sequence in the properties of their wim, exemplified by two characteristic classes. The first (type i) comprises systems with a nearly constant EW(Hα) in their extranuclear component, which quantitatively agrees with (but is no proof of) the hypothesis that photoionization by the post-AGB stellar component is the main driver of extended wim emission. The second class (type ii) stands for virtually wim-evacuated ETGs with a very low (≤0.5 Å), outwardly increasing EW(Hα). These two classes appear indistinguishable from one another by their LINER-specific emission-line ratios in their extranuclear component. Here we extend the tentative classification we proposed previously by the type i+, which is assigned to a subset of type i ETGs exhibiting ongoing low-level star-forming activity in their periphery. This finding along with faint

  16. The interstellar halo of spiral galaxies: NGC 891

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Rand, R. J.; Hester, J. Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Researchers have detected the Warm Ionized Medium (WIM) phase in the galaxy NGC 891. They found that the radial distribution of the WIM follows the molecular or young star distribution - an expected dependence. The amount of the WIM in this galaxy exceeds that in our Galaxy. The major surprize is the large thickness of the WIM phase - about 9 kpc instead 3 kpc as in our Galaxy. Clearly, this is the most significant result of the observations. The presence of low ionization gas at high z as well as at large galactocentric radii (where young stars are rare) is an important clue to the origin of the halo and observations such as the one reported here provide important data on this crucial question. In particular, the ionization of gas at high absolute z implies that either the UV photons manage to escape from the disk of the galaxy or that the extragalactic UV background plays an important role. The bulk of the WIM in spiral galaxies is a result of star-formation activity and thus these results can be understood by invoking a high star formation rate in NGC 891. Only the concerted action of supernovae can get the gas to the large z-heights as is observed in this galaxy. Support for this view comes from our detection of many worms i.e., bits and pieces of supershells in the form of kilo-parsec long vertical filaments. Researchers also saw a 600-pc size supershell located nearly one kpc above the plane of the galaxy.

  17. Spatially extensive microbial biogeography of the Indian Ocean provides insights into the unique community structure of a pristine coral atoll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, Thomas C.; Ostrowski, Martin; Williams, Rohan B.; Xie, Chao; Jensen, Rachelle M.; Grzymski, Joseph J.; Senstius, Svend Jacob; Givskov, Michael; Hoeke, Ron; Philip, Gayle K.; Neches, Russell Y.; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Chénard, Caroline; Paulsen, Ian T.; Lauro, Federico M.

    2015-10-01

    Microorganisms act both as drivers and indicators of perturbations in the marine environment. In an effort to establish baselines to predict the response of marine habitats to environmental change, here we report a broad survey of microbial diversity across the Indian Ocean, including the first microbial samples collected in the pristine lagoon of Salomon Islands, Chagos Archipelago. This was the first large-scale ecogenomic survey aboard a private yacht employing a ‘citizen oceanography’ approach and tools and protocols easily adapted to ocean going sailboats. Our data highlighted biogeographic patterns in microbial community composition across the Indian Ocean. Samples from within the Salomon Islands lagoon contained a community which was different even from adjacent samples despite constant water exchange, driven by the dominance of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In the lagoon, Synechococcus was also responsible for driving shifts in the metatranscriptional profiles. Enrichment of transcripts related to photosynthesis and nutrient cycling indicated bottom-up controls of community structure. However a five-fold increase in viral transcripts within the lagoon during the day, suggested a concomitant top-down control by bacteriophages. Indeed, genome recruitment against Synechococcus reference genomes suggested a role of viruses in providing the ecological filter for determining the β-diversity patterns in this system.

  18. Spatially extensive microbial biogeography of the Indian Ocean provides insights into the unique community structure of a pristine coral atoll

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Thomas C.; Ostrowski, Martin; Williams, Rohan B.; Xie, Chao; Jensen, Rachelle M.; Grzymski, Joseph J.; Senstius, Svend Jacob; Givskov, Michael; Hoeke, Ron; Philip, Gayle K.; Neches, Russell Y.; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Chénard, Caroline; Paulsen, Ian T.; Lauro, Federico M.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms act both as drivers and indicators of perturbations in the marine environment. In an effort to establish baselines to predict the response of marine habitats to environmental change, here we report a broad survey of microbial diversity across the Indian Ocean, including the first microbial samples collected in the pristine lagoon of Salomon Islands, Chagos Archipelago. This was the first large-scale ecogenomic survey aboard a private yacht employing a ‘citizen oceanography’ approach and tools and protocols easily adapted to ocean going sailboats. Our data highlighted biogeographic patterns in microbial community composition across the Indian Ocean. Samples from within the Salomon Islands lagoon contained a community which was different even from adjacent samples despite constant water exchange, driven by the dominance of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In the lagoon, Synechococcus was also responsible for driving shifts in the metatranscriptional profiles. Enrichment of transcripts related to photosynthesis and nutrient cycling indicated bottom-up controls of community structure. However a five-fold increase in viral transcripts within the lagoon during the day, suggested a concomitant top-down control by bacteriophages. Indeed, genome recruitment against Synechococcus reference genomes suggested a role of viruses in providing the ecological filter for determining the β-diversity patterns in this system. PMID:26481089

  19. Spatially extensive microbial biogeography of the Indian Ocean provides insights into the unique community structure of a pristine coral atoll.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Thomas C; Ostrowski, Martin; Williams, Rohan B; Xie, Chao; Jensen, Rachelle M; Grzymski, Joseph J; Senstius, Svend Jacob; Givskov, Michael; Hoeke, Ron; Philip, Gayle K; Neches, Russell Y; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Chénard, Caroline; Paulsen, Ian T; Lauro, Federico M

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms act both as drivers and indicators of perturbations in the marine environment. In an effort to establish baselines to predict the response of marine habitats to environmental change, here we report a broad survey of microbial diversity across the Indian Ocean, including the first microbial samples collected in the pristine lagoon of Salomon Islands, Chagos Archipelago. This was the first large-scale ecogenomic survey aboard a private yacht employing a 'citizen oceanography' approach and tools and protocols easily adapted to ocean going sailboats. Our data highlighted biogeographic patterns in microbial community composition across the Indian Ocean. Samples from within the Salomon Islands lagoon contained a community which was different even from adjacent samples despite constant water exchange, driven by the dominance of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In the lagoon, Synechococcus was also responsible for driving shifts in the metatranscriptional profiles. Enrichment of transcripts related to photosynthesis and nutrient cycling indicated bottom-up controls of community structure. However a five-fold increase in viral transcripts within the lagoon during the day, suggested a concomitant top-down control by bacteriophages. Indeed, genome recruitment against Synechococcus reference genomes suggested a role of viruses in providing the ecological filter for determining the β-diversity patterns in this system. PMID:26481089

  20. First detection of [N II] 205 μm absorption in interstellar gas. Herschel-HIFI observations towards W 31C, W 49N, W 51, and G34.3+0.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, C. M.; Gerin, M.; Mookerjea, B.; Black, J. H.; Olberg, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Hassel, G. E.; Falgarone, E.; Levrier, F.; Menten, K. M.; Pety, J.

    2014-08-01

    We present high resolution [N ii] 205 μm (3P1 - 3P0) spectra obtained with Herschel-HIFI towards a small sample of far-infrared bright star forming regions in the Galactic plane: W 31C (G10.6-0.4), W 49N (G43.2-0.1), W 51 (G49.5-0.4), and G34.3+0.1. All sources display an emission line profile associated directly with the H ii regions themselves. For the first time we also detect absorption of the [N ii] 205 μm line by extended low-density foreground material towards W 31C and W 49N over a wide range of velocities. We attribute this absorption to the warm ionised medium (WIM) and find N(N+) ≈ 1.5 × 1017 cm-2 towards both sources. This is in agreement with recent Herschel-HIFI observations of [C ii] 158 μm, also observed in absorption in the same sight-lines, if ≈7-10% of all C+ ions exist in the WIM on average. Using an abundance ratio of [N] / [H] = 6.76 × 10-5 in the gas phase we find that the mean electron and proton volume densities are ~0.1-0.3 cm-3 assuming a WIM volume filling fraction of 0.1-0.4 with a corresponding line-of-sight filling fraction of 0.46-0.74. A low density and a high WIM filling fraction are also supported by RADEX modelling of the [N ii] 205 μm absorption and emission together with visible emission lines attributed mainly to the WIM. The detection of the 205 μm line in absorption emphasises the importance of a high spectral resolution, and also offers a new tool for investigation of the WIM. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgHerschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  1. A multidimensional multispecies continuum model for heterogeneous biofilm development.

    PubMed

    Alpkvist, Erik; Alpkvista, Erik; Klapper, Isaac

    2007-02-01

    We propose a multidimensional continuum model for heterogeneous growth of biofilm systems with multiple species and multiple substrates. The new model provides a deterministic framework for the study of the interactions between several spe1cies and their effects on biofilm heterogeneity. It consists of a system of partial differential equations derived on the basis of conservation laws and reaction kinetics. The derivation and key assumptions are presented. The assumptions used are a combination of those used in the established one dimensional model, due to Wanner and Gujer, and for the viscous fluid model, of Dockery and Klapper. The work of Wanner and Gujer in particular has been extensively used through the years, and thus this new model is an extension to several spatial dimensions of an already proven working model. The model equations are solved using numerical techniques, for purposes of simulation and verification. The new model is applied to two different biofilm systems in several spatial dimensions, one of which is equivalent to a system originally studied by Wanner and Gujer. Dimensionless formulations for these two systems are given, and numerical simulation results with varying initial conditions are presented. PMID:17211734

  2. Code System to Process WIMSD4 Interface Output Files and Generate Two-Group Data for Reactor Calculations.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-12-03

    Version 00 The code processes the WIMS-D/4 binary output files for producing two-group microscopic cross sections and macroscopic lattice cell constants (zone and cell macroscopic cross sections, D, M, and K-infinity) in a more flexible format needed for reactor burnup codes like CITATION, for reactor dynamics codes like NADYP-W and for other reactor codes. The purpose of the WIMSCORE-ENEA code is to facilitate the automation of data transfer between the cell calculation code WIMS andmore » the diffusion-burnup codes. Use is made of the VARY storage manipulation package. WIMSCORE generates output files to be used by the codes TDB, TRITON, CITATION.« less

  3. Evaluation of the DRAGON code for VHTR design analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Taiwo, T. A.; Kim, T. K.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-01-12

    This letter report summarizes three activities that were undertaken in FY 2005 to gather information on the DRAGON code and to perform limited evaluations of the code performance when used in the analysis of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. These activities include: (1) Use of the code to model the fuel elements of the helium-cooled and liquid-salt-cooled VHTR designs. Results were compared to those from another deterministic lattice code (WIMS8) and a Monte Carlo code (MCNP). (2) The preliminary assessment of the nuclear data library currently used with the code and libraries that have been provided by the IAEA WIMS-D4 Library Update Project (WLUP). (3) DRAGON workshop held to discuss the code capabilities for modeling the VHTR.

  4. Multigroup Reactor Lattice Cell Calculation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1990-03-01

    The Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme (WIMS), is a general code for reactor lattice cell calculations on a wide range of reactor systems. In particular, the code will accept rod or plate fuel geometries in either regular arrays or in clusters, and the energy group structure has been chosen primarily for thermal calculations. The basic library has been compiled with 14 fast groups, 13 resonance groups and 42 thermal groups, but the user is offered themore » choice of accurate solutions in many groups or rapid calculations in few groups. Temperature dependent thermal scattering matrices for a variety of scattering laws are available in the library for the principal moderators which include hydrogen, deuterium, graphite, beryllium and oxygen. WIMSD5 is a succesor version of WIMS-D/4.« less

  5. Internal structure of spiral arms traced with [C II]: Unraveling the warm ionized medium, H I, and molecular emission lanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Pineda, J. L.

    2015-06-01

    Context. The spiral arm tangencies are ideal lines of sight in which to determine the distribution of interstellar gas components in the spiral arms and study the influence of spiral density waves on the interarm gas in the Milky Way. [C II] emission in the tangencies delineates the warm ionized component and the photon-dominated regions and is thus an important probe of spiral arm structure and dynamics. Aims: We aim to use [C II], H I, and 12CO spectral line maps of the Crux, Norma, and Perseus tangencies to analyze the internal structure of the spiral arms in different gas layers. Methods: We used [C II] l-V maps along with those for H I and 12CO to derive the average spectral line intensity profiles over the longitudinal range of each tangency. Using the VLSR of the emission features, we located the [C II], H I, and 12CO emissions along a cross cut of the spiral arm. We used the [C II] velocity profile to identify the compressed warm ionized medium (WIM) in the spiral arm. Results: We present a large-scale (~15°) position-velocity map of the Galactic plane in [C II] from l = 326.6° to 341.4° observed with Herschel HIFI. In the spectral line profiles at the tangencies, [C II] has two emission peaks, one associated with the compressed WIM and the other the molecular gas photon-dominated regions. When represented as a cut across the inner to outer edge of the spiral arm, the [C II]-WIM peak appears closest to the inner edge while 12CO and [C II] associated with molecular gas are at the outermost edge. H I has broader emission with an intermediate peak located nearer to that of 12CO. Conclusions: The velocity-resolved spectral line data of the spiral arm tangencies unravel the internal structure in the arms locating the emission lanes within them. We interpret the excess [C II] near the tangent velocities as shock compression of the WIM induced by the spiral density waves and as the innermost edge of spiral arms. For the Norma and Perseus arms, we estimate

  6. Accelerating Into the Future: From 0 to GeV in a Few Centimeters (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Leemans, Wim [LOASIS Program, AFRD

    2009-09-01

    July 8, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: By exciting electric fields in plasma-based waveguides, lasers accelerate electrons in a fraction of the distance conventional accelerators require. The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division's LOASIS program, headed by Wim Leemans, has used 40-trillion-watt laser pulses to deliver billion-electron-volt (1 GeV) electron beams within centimeters. Leemans looks ahead to BELLA, 10-GeV accelerating modules that could power a future linear collider.

  7. Accelerating Into the Future: From 0 to GeV in a Few Centimeters (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Leemans, Wim

    2008-07-08

    Summer Lecture Series 2008: By exciting electric fields in plasma-based waveguides, lasers accelerate electrons in a fraction of the distance conventional accelerators require. The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division's LOASIS program, headed by Wim Leemans, has used 40-trillion-watt laser pulses to deliver billion-electron-volt (1 GeV) electron beams within centimeters. Leemans looks ahead to BELLA, 10-GeV accelerating modules that could power a future linear collider.

  8. Accelerating Into the Future: From 0 to GeV in a Few Centimeters (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Leemans, Wim [LOASIS Program, AFRD

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2008: By exciting electric fields in plasma-based waveguides, lasers accelerate electrons in a fraction of the distance conventional accelerators require. The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division's LOASIS program, headed by Wim Leemans, has used 40-trillion-watt laser pulses to deliver billion-electron-volt (1 GeV) electron beams within centimeters. Leemans looks ahead to BELLA, 10-GeV accelerating modules that could power a future linear collider.

  9. Accelerating Into the Future: From 0 to GeV in a Few Centimeters (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Leemans, Wim

    2008-07-08

    July 8, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: By exciting electric fields in plasma-based waveguides, lasers accelerate electrons in a fraction of the distance conventional accelerators require. The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division's LOASIS program, headed by Wim Leemans, has used 40-trillion-watt laser pulses to deliver billion-electron-volt (1 GeV) electron beams within centimeters. Leemans looks ahead to BELLA, 10-GeV accelerating modules that could power a future linear collider.

  10. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN BARNARD'S LOOP, COMPONENTS OF THE ORION-ERIDANUS BUBBLE, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE WARM IONIZED MEDIUM COMPONENT OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, C. R.; Ferland, G. J.; Porter, R. L.; Van Hoof, P. A. M.

    2011-05-20

    We have supplemented existing spectra of Barnard's Loop with high accuracy spectrophotometry of one new position. Cloudy photoionization models were calculated for a variety of ionization parameters and stellar temperatures and compared with the observations. After testing the procedure with recent observations of M43, we establish that Barnard's Loop is photoionized by four candidate ionizing stars, but agreement between the models and observations is only possible if Barnard's Loop is enhanced in heavy elements by about a factor of 1.4. Barnard's Loop is very similar in properties to the brightest components of the Orion-Eridanus Bubble and the warm ionized medium (WIM). We are able to establish models that bound the range populated in low-ionization color-color diagrams (I([S II])/I(H{alpha}) versus I([N II])/I(H{alpha})) using only a limited range of ionization parameters and stellar temperatures. Previously established variations in the relative abundance of heavy elements render uncertain the most common method of determining electron temperatures for components of the Orion-Eridanus Bubble and the WIM based only on the I([N II])/I(H{alpha}) ratio, although we confirm that the lowest surface brightness components of the WIM are on average of higher electron temperature. The electron temperatures for a few high surface brightness WIM components determined by direct methods are comparable to those of classical bright H II regions. In contrast, the low surface brightness H II regions studied by the Wisconsin H{alpha} Mapper are of lower temperatures than the classical bright H II regions.

  11. Conversion and evaluation of the THOR reactor core to TRIGA fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.-H.; Shiau, L.-C.

    1990-07-01

    The THOR reactor is a pool type 1 MW research reactor and has been operated since 1961. The original MTR fuel elements have been gradually replaced by TRIGA fuel elements since 1977 and the conversion completed in 1987. The calculations were performed for various core configurations by using computer codes, WIMS/CITATION. The computing results have been evaluated and compared with the core measurements after the fuel conversion. The analysis results are in good correspondence with the measurements. (author)

  12. A rheology model of soft elastomeric capacitor for Weigh-In-Motion application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollipara, Venkata Dharmateja

    As a result of fast growing industry, there is an increase in traffic congestion and deterioration of transportation inventory. Real-time traffic characterisation could be used to amoliorate the efficiency of our transportation system. Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) systems offer the advantages of vehicle classification, speed measurement, in addition to weight measurement while vehicles are moving. In this thesis, state-of-the-art WIM systems are discussed and limitations of current technologies are identified. A Soft Elastomeric Capacitor (SEC) that works as a large scale surface strain gauge is introduced to address the limitations in existing techniques and investigated for its applicability as a WIM sensor. Though the novel SEC has potential advantages, the relationship axial strain-to-stress needs to be modeled to enable its utilization as a WIM sensor. A Zener model is selected and modified by the addition of a slider to characterize the polymer behavior. An overstress approach is used to study the resultant stress-strain response owing to its simplicity and computational benefits. Since the overstress approach is data-driven, an experimental testing scheme is used to identify the model parameters. The tests comprise three types of applied strain loading: multi step relaxation, simple relaxation and cyclic compression. Specimens with varying stiffness are employed for these tests. Numerical simulations for the cyclic compression loading are presented to assess the model performance. The model is found to be capable of reproducing the experimental data with an absolute maximum error value of 0.085 MPa for slow loading rate tests and 0.175 MPa for high loading rate tests. Comparative studies are completed to investigate the impact of patch stiffness on the mechanical behavior of the soft elastomeric capacitor patches. It is observed that as stiffness decreases, the nonlinearity in stress-strain response increases

  13. Transversal wavelength-independent microradiography, a method for monitoring caries lesions over time, validated with transversal microradiography.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R Z; Ruben, J L; de Vries, J; ten Bosch, J J; Huysmans, M C D N J M

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a microradiographic method for measuring mineral concentration in a transversal geometry with thick (< or =3.2 mm) sections: transversal wavelength-independent microradiography (T-WIM). It was tested on bovine enamel and dentin samples in vitro, and the results were validated with those of transversal microradiography (TMR). 48 enamel and 48 dentin samples (3.2 x 3.2 x 1.5 mm) were embedded in acrylic resin, randomly divided into six groups of 8 dentin or 8 enamel samples, and demineralized for 0 (sound control), 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks. For T-WIM, samples were imaged on film with polychromatic 40-kV Cu X-rays with an Al (0.25 mm)/Ni (0.02 mm) filter together with an aluminium/zinc step wedge. TMR slices (about 80 mum for enamel and about 130 mum for dentine) were subsequently cut from the centre of the samples and subjected to TMR. Microradiographs from both methods were digitized and image analysis software was used to calculate lesion depth and mineral loss. The relations between T-WIM and TMR results for mineral loss (DeltaZ) and lesion depth were nearly linear (r > or = 0.96) for both enamel and dentin. The slopes of the regression lines were between 0.99 and 1.02 except for DeltaZ in dentine, which was 0.89. It was concluded that T-WIM is a suitable method for TMR on thick samples. PMID:16741358

  14. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY ON THE FATE OF IONIZING RADIATION IN LOCAL STARBURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hanish, D. J.; Oey, M. S.; Rigby, J. R.; Lee, J. C.; De Mello, D. F.

    2010-12-20

    The fate of ionizing radiation is vital for understanding cosmic ionization, energy budgets in the interstellar and intergalactic medium, and star formation rate indicators. The low observed escape fractions of ionizing radiation have not been adequately explained, and there is evidence that some starbursts have high escape fractions. We examine the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a sample of local star-forming galaxies, containing 13 local starburst galaxies and 10 of their ordinary star-forming counterparts, to determine if there exist significant differences in the fate of ionizing radiation in these galaxies. We find that the galaxy-to-galaxy variations in the SEDs are much larger than any systematic differences between starbursts and non-starbursts. For example, we find no significant differences in the total absorption of ionizing radiation by dust, traced by the 24 {mu}m, 70 {mu}m, and 160 {mu}m MIPS bands of the Spitzer Space Telescope, although the dust in starburst galaxies appears to be hotter than that of non-starburst galaxies. We also observe no excess ultraviolet flux in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer bands that could indicate a high escape fraction of ionizing photons in starburst galaxies. The small H{alpha} fractions of the diffuse, warm ionized medium (WIM) in starburst galaxies are apparently due to temporarily boosted H{alpha} luminosity within the star-forming regions themselves, with an independent, constant WIM luminosity. This independence of the WIM and starburst luminosities contrasts with WIM behavior in non-starburst galaxies and underscores our poor understanding of radiation transfer in both ordinary and starburst galaxies.

  15. Creation of Computational Benchmarks for LEU and MOX Fuel Assemblies Under Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A M; Kalashnikov, A G; Kalugin, M A; Lazarenko, A P; Maiorov, L V; Sidorenko, V D

    1999-11-01

    The result of VVER-1000 computational benchmarks, calculations obtained with the use of various Russian codes (such as MCU-RFFI/A, TVS-M and WIMS-ABBN) are presented. List of benchmarks includes LEU and MOX cells with fresh and spent fuel under various conditions (for calculation of kinetic parameters, Doppler coefficient, reactivity effect of decreasing the water density). Calculations results are compared with each other and results of this comparison are discussed.

  16. System and method for identifying, validating, weighing and characterizing moving or stationary vehicles and cargo

    DOEpatents

    Beshears, David L.; Batsell, Stephen G.; Abercrombie, Robert K.; Scudiere, Matthew B.; White, Clifford P.

    2007-12-04

    An asset identification and information infrastructure management (AI3M) device having an automated identification technology system (AIT), a Transportation Coordinators' Automated Information for Movements System II (TC-AIMS II), a weigh-in-motion system (WIM-II), and an Automated Air Load Planning system (AALPS) all in electronic communication for measuring and calculating actual asset characteristics, either statically or in-motion, and further calculating an actual load plan.

  17. TRIGA MARK-II source term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Hamzah, N. S.; J. B., Abi M.; M. Z., M. Rawi; Abu, M. P.

    2014-02-01

    ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding γ source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

  18. Sampling optimization for high-speed weigh-in-motion measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj; Palek, Leonard; Strommen, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) measurement has been widely used for weight enforcement, pavement design, freight management, and intelligent transportation systems to monitor traffic in real-time. However, to use such sensors effectively, vehicles must exit the traffic stream and slow down to match their current capabilities. Hence, agencies need devices with higher vehicle passing speed capabilities to enable continuous weight measurements at mainline speeds. The current practices for data acquisition at such high speeds are fragmented. Deployment configurations and settings depend mainly on the experiences of operation engineers. To assure adequate data, most practitioners use very high frequency measurements that result in redundant samples, thereby diminishing the potential for real-time processing. The larger data memory requirements from higher sample rates also increase storage and processing costs. The field lacks a sampling design or standard to guide appropriate data acquisition of high-speed WIM measurements. This study develops the appropriate sample rate requirements as a function of the vehicle speed. Simulations and field experiments validate the methods developed. The results will serve as guidelines for future high-speed WIM measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors.

  19. Improvement of the accuracy of the aircraft center of gravity by employing optical fiber Bragg grating technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Wang, Pengfei; Fan, LingLing; Guan, Liang; Zhao, Qiming; Cui, Hong-Liang

    2010-04-01

    Safety flight of aircrafts requires that the aircraft center of gravity (CG) must fall within specified limits established by the manufacturer. However, the aircraft CG depends not only on the structure of planes, but also on the passengers and their luggage. The current method of estimating the weight of passengers and luggage by the average weight may result in a violation of this requirement. To reduce the discrepancy between the actual weight and estimated weight, we propose a method of improving the accuracy of calculating the CG of the plane by weighing the passengers and their personal luggage. This method is realized by a Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system installed at boarding gates based on optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology. One prototype of WIM is fabricated and tested at lab. The resolution of this system is 2 kg and can be further improved by advanced manufacture technology. With the accurate weight of passengers and luggage coming from the WIM system and the locations of passengers and luggage obtained from boarding cards, the aircraft CG can be calculated correctly. This method can be applied into other fields, such as escalators, boarding gates for ferries.

  20. TRIGA MARK-II source term

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Hamzah, N. S. Abi, M. J. B. Rawi, M. Z. M. Rawi Abu, M. P.

    2014-02-12

    ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding γ source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

  1. Algorithm for a novel fiber-optic weigh-in-motion sensor system

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W. Jr.; Muhs, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    Over the past decade, the demand from both government and private industry for small, lightweight, vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems has grown substantially. During the 1980s several techniques for weighing vehicles in motion were developed that include piezoelectric cables, capacitive mats, and hydraulic and bending-plate load cells. These different systems have advantages and disadvantages that trade off between accuracy, physical size and system complexity. The smaller portable systems demonstrate medium to poor accuracy and repeatability while the larger more accurate systems are nonportable. A small, lightweight, and portable WIM system based on a fiber-optic pressure transducer has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to meet the demands of government and industry. The algorithm for extracting vehicle weight from the time-dependent sensor response is developed and presented in this report, along with data collected by the system for several classes of vehicles. These results show that the ORNL fiber-optic WIM system is a viable alternative to other commercial systems that are presently available. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Code System to Calculate Cross Sections for PWR Fuel Assembly Calculations.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-11-15

    Version 00 The MARIA System calculates cross sections for PWR fuel assembly calculations. It generates the cross sections library for the diffusion calculations with burnup and feedback effects (CARMEN System, NEA 0649 and RSIC CCC-487) and the k(infinite) and M**2 parameters for the nodal calculations (SIMULA, NEA 0768). MARIA includes three modules. PRELIM generates the input data for the fuel assembly calculation module, for all fuel assembly types in the core and at any conditionmore » of power rate and temperature. WIMS-TRACA is a modified version of the fuel assembly calculation program WIMS-D/4 (NEA 0329 and RSIC CCC-576), which generates the collapsed cross sections versus burn up needed by the CARMEN code (reference cell, boron, xenon, samarium, and light water). POSWIM calculates the transport corrections to the diffusion constant of the absorber materials generated by WIMS-TRACA, to be used directly in the diffusion code when rods or burnable absorber rods are present.« less

  3. An explanatory heuristic gives rise to the belief that words are well suited for their referents.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Shelbie L; Cimpian, Andrei

    2015-10-01

    The mappings between the words of a language and their meanings are arbitrary. There is, for example, nothing inherently dog-like about the word dog. And yet, building on prior evidence (e.g., Brook, 1970; Piaget, 1967), the six studies reported here (N=1062) suggest that both children and (at least to some extent) adults see a special "fit" between objects and their names, as if names were particularly suitable or appropriate for the objects they denote. These studies also provide evidence for a novel proposal concerning the source of these nominal fit beliefs. Specifically, beliefs about nominal fit may be a byproduct of the heuristic processes that people use to make sense of the world more generally (Cimpian & Salomon, 2014a). In sum, the present studies provide new insights into how people conceive of language and demonstrate that these conceptions are rooted in the processes that underlie broader explanatory reasoning. PMID:26226428

  4. Nodal resonance in a strong standing wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández C., David J.; Mielnik, Bogdan

    1990-06-01

    The motion of charged particles in a standing electromagnetic wave is considered. For amplitudes that are not too high, the wave causes an effect of attraction of particles to the nodal points, resembling the channeling effect reported by Salomon, Dalibard, Aspect, Metcalf, and Cohen-Tannoudji [Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1659 (1987)] consistent with the ``high-frequency potential'' of Kapitza [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 21, 588 (1951)]. For high-field intensities, however, the nodal points undergo a qualitative metamorphosis, converting themselves from particle attractors into resonant centers. Some chaotic phenomena arise and the description of the oscillating field in terms of an ``effective potential'' becomes inappropriate. The question of a correct Floquet Hamiltonian that could describe the standing wave within this amplitude and frequency regime is open.

  5. ACES-PHARAO : Microwave link data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynadier, F.; Delva, P.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Laurent, P.; Wolf, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Atomic Clocks Ensemble in Space (PHARAO-ACES mission, te{Salomon2007}), which will be installed on board the International Space Station , uses a dedicated two-way microwave link in order to compare the timescale generated on board with those provided by many ground stations disseminated on the Earth. Phase accuracy and stability of this long range link will have a key role in the success of the PHARAO-ACES experiment. The SYRTE is heavily involved in the design and the development of the data processing software : from theoretical modelling and numerical simulations to the development of a software prototype. Our team is working on a wide range of problems that need to be solved in order to achieve high accuracy in (almost) real time. In this poster we present some key aspects of the measurement, as well as the current status of the software's development.

  6. AN overview of the FLYSAFE datalink solution for the exchange of weather information: supporting aircrew decision making processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, A.; Drouin, A.

    2009-09-01

    FLYSAFE is an Integrated Project of the 6th framework of the European Commission with the aim to improve flight safety through the development of an avionics solution the Next Generation Integrated Surveillance System (NGISS), which is supported by a ground based network of Weather Information Management Systems (WIMS) and access points in the form of the Ground Weather Processor (GWP). The NGISS provides information to the flight crew on the three major external hazards for aviation: weather, air traffic and terrain. The NGISS has the capability of displaying data about all three hazards on a single display screen, facilitating rapid appreciation of the situation by the flight crew. Weather Information Management Systems (WIMS) were developed to provide the NGISS and the flight crew with weather related information on in-flight icing, thunderstorms and clear-air turbulence. These products are generated on the ground from observations and model forecasts. WIMS will supply relevant information on three different scales: global, regional and local (over airport Terminal Manoeuvring Area). The Ground Weather Processor is a client-server architecture that utilises open source components, which include a geospatial database and web feature services. The GWP stores Weather Objects generated by the WIMS. An aviation user can retrieve on-demand all Weather Objects that intersect the volume of space that is of interest to them. The Weather Objects are fused with in-situ observation data and can be used by the flight management system to propose a route to avoid the hazard. In addition they can be used to display the current hazardous weather to the Flight Crew thereby raising their awareness. Within the FLYSAFE program, around 120 hours of flight trials were performed during February 2008 and August 2008. Two aircraft were involved each with separate objectives: - to assess FLYSAFE's innovative solutions for the data-link, on-board data-fusion and data-display and data

  7. Hydrogeological features conditioning trophic levels of quarry lakes in western Po plain (north-western Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Castagna, Sara; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Quarry lakes occur in plains areas due to the extraction of alluvial sand and gravel used for grout and concrete in the construction industry. Excavation depths can reach and intersect the groundwater surface, thus creating a lake. Because of the need to optimize efficiency, the number of active open pit mines has increased in recent years; consequently, the global number of pit lakes will increase in coming decades (Castendyk and Eary 2009; Klapper and Geller 2001; Castro and Moore 2000). Similar to natural lakes, pit lakes are subject to eutrophication process, both during and after quarrying activity; during mining activity, the eutrophic level is strongly controlled by the excavation method. In the Piedmont territory (north-western Italy) there are 70 active quarry lakes, corresponding to approximately 0.1% of the entire plain area. Quarry lakes, located primarily along the main rivers occur in alluvial deposits of the plain area and have average depths between 20 and 30 m (maximum of 60 m deep) and surface areas between 3 and 30 hectares (Castagna 2008). The present study describes the trophic status of 23 active quarry lakes in the Piedmont plain that were evaluated by applying classifications from scientific literature. Currently, the majority of the studied quarry lakes may be defined as mesotrophic or eutrophic according to the trophic state classifications. Based on historic data, lake trophic levels have increased over time, during active mining. At the end of mining activity, further deterioration of water quality was expected, especially for smaller lakes with minimal oxygen stratification and higher levels of nutrients and algal growth. In addition, the paper focuses on the pit lake water quality and pit dimension; From an environmental perspective the excavation of quarry lakes with an appreciable size will likely result in a better safeguard of water quality and enhanced possibilities for lake end use after the cessation of mining. Piedmont quarry

  8. Synsedimentary tectonics, mud-mounds and sea-level changes on a Palaeozoic carbonate platform margin: a Devonian Montagne Noire example (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrouilh, Robert; Bourque, Pierre-André; Dansereau, Pauline; Bourrouilh-Le Jan, Françoise; Weyant, Pierre

    1998-06-01

    of Johnson et al. (1985). [Johnson, J.G., Klapper, G., Sanberg, C.A., 1985. Devonian eustatic fluctuations in Euramerica. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 96, 567-587.

  9. Waste Information Management System-2012 - 12114

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyay, H.; Quintero, W.; Shoffner, P.; Lagos, L.; Roelant, D.

    2012-07-01

    The Waste Information Management System (WIMS) -2012 was updated to support the Department of Energy (DOE) accelerated cleanup program. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedule. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast and transportation information regarding the volumes and types of radioactive waste that would be generated by DOE sites over the next 40 years. Each local DOE site historically collected, organized, and displayed waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. In order for interested parties to understand and view the complete DOE complex-wide picture, the radioactive waste and shipment information of each DOE site needed to be entered into a common application. The WIMS application was therefore created to serve as a common application to improve stakeholder comprehension and improve DOE radioactive waste treatment and disposal planning and scheduling. WIMS allows identification of total forecasted waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal, along with forecasted waste transportation information by rail, truck and inter-modal shipments. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, developed and deployed the web-based forecast and transportation system and is responsible for updating the radioactive waste forecast and transportation data on a regular basis to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. WIMS continues to successfully accomplish the goals and objectives set forth by DOE for this project. It has

  10. Modeling wave-ice interactions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bismuth, E.; Dumont, D.; Neumeier, U.

    2013-12-01

    The Gulf of St. Lawrence (GSL) is a seasonally ice-covered basin located in eastern Canada that is subject to coastal erosion through the action of waves. Sea ice contributes in many ways to the prevailing wave conditions and to sediment transport at the coast. It reduces the fetch over which wind waves can grow and it selectively attenuates waves. Simulations of the future climate suggest that the maximum sea ice extent will decrease and that the winter season will shorten significantly, affecting the wave climate and the occurrence of extreme events. In this work we adapt and use a waves-in-ice model (WIM) to study how changing ice conditions will affect the wave conditions at the coast. WIM is an advection-attenuation model for waves propagating in sea ice that calculate the floe size distribution by way of floe breaking. It has been initially developed for swell waves impacting the arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ) and the generation of waves by the wind is not included. In order to simulate wave conditions in the GSL, wind wave generation is added to WIM and the wave spectrum at the coast is studied for various spatial distributions of sea ice and wind conditions. Obtained results are compared with observations from three acoustic wave and current (AWAC) profilers deployed in the GSL for three consecutive winters (2010-2013). This comparison allows us to assess the validity of the model and its parameterizations in seas that are covered with relatively thin ice and subject to modest wave conditions compared to the arctic MIZ.

  11. Waste Information Management System with 2012-13 Waste Streams - 13095

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyay, H.; Quintero, W.; Lagos, L.; Shoffner, P.; Roelant, D.

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Information Management System (WIMS) 2012-13 was updated to support the Department of Energy (DOE) accelerated cleanup program. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedule. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast and transportation information regarding the volumes and types of radioactive waste that would be generated by DOE sites over the next 40 years. Each local DOE site historically collected, organized, and displayed waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. In order for interested parties to understand and view the complete DOE complex-wide picture, the radioactive waste and shipment information of each DOE site needed to be entered into a common application. The WIMS application was therefore created to serve as a common application to improve stakeholder comprehension and improve DOE radioactive waste treatment and disposal planning and scheduling. WIMS allows identification of total forecasted waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal, along with forecasted waste transportation information by rail, truck and inter-modal shipments. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, developed and deployed the web-based forecast and transportation system and is responsible for updating the radioactive waste forecast and transportation data on a regular basis to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. (authors)

  12. The Wisconsin Hα Mapper Northern Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffner, L. M.; Reynolds, R. J.; Madsen, G. J.; Tufte, S. L.; Jaehnig, K. P.; Percival, J. P.; Hausen, N. R.

    2001-12-01

    The ionized gas in the Milky Way has been fully surveyed from the Northern Hemisphere by the Wisconsin Hα Mapper (WHAM). The WHAM Northern Sky Survey (WHAM-NSS) has an angular resolution of one-degree and provides the first kinematically resolved map of the Warm Ionized Medium (WIM). With 12 km s-1 spectral resolution, we have removed atmospheric emission and zodiacal absorption features from each of the 37,565 spectra, leaving behind a fully resolved Galactic Hα profile. Galactic emission is detected in nearly every spectrum. Velocity channel maps from the survey show complex filamentary structure in the local WIM and in the nearest spiral arms. Some of these halo features are clearly associated with active star formation in the Galactic plane. High-latitude Hα emission at intermediate velocities traces out IVC complexes previously discovered through 21 cm observations. An initial analysis of the relationship between the high latitude Hα and 21 cm emission suggests that although the spatial extent and velocity profiles are quite similar, the intensities are completely uncorrelated. Our deep emission sensitivity also reveals several H 2 regions around early B stars and sdO stars, providing an indirect probe of their Lyman continuum and adding another ionizing source for the WIM. Total intensity maps, velocity channel maps, and full spectral profiles from the WHAM-NSS are available for download at http://www.astro.wisc.edu/wham/. WHAM was built and continues to explore the rich science of ionized gas through generous support of the National Science Foundation. This work is funded by grant AST96-19424.

  13. Calculation of the Local Neutronic Parameters for CANDU Fuel Bundles Using Transport Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Balaceanu, Victoria; Rizoiu, Andrei; Hristea, Viorel

    2006-07-01

    For a realistic neutronic evaluation of the CANDU reactor core it is important to accurately perform the local neutronic parameters (i.e. multigroup macroscopic cross sections for the core materials) calculation. This means using codes that allow a good geometric representation of the CANDU fuel bundle and then solving the transport equation. The paper reported here intends to study in detail the local behavior for two types of CANDU fuel, NU{sub 3}7 (Natural Uranium, 37 elements) and SEU{sub 4}3 (Slightly Enriched Uranium, 43 elements, with 1.1 wt% enrichment). The considered fuel types represent fresh and used bundles. The two types of CANDU super-cells are reference NU{sub 3}7, perturbed NU{sub 3}7, reference SEU{sub 4}3 and perturbed SEU{sub 4}3. The perturbed super-cells contain a Mechanical Control Absorber (a very strong reactivity device). For reaching the proposed objective a methodology is used based on WIMS and PIJXYZ codes. WIMS is a standard lattice-cell code, based on transport theory and it is used for producing fuel cell multigroup macroscopic cross sections. For obtaining the fine local neutronic parameters in the CANDU super-cells (k-eff values, local MCA reactivity worth, flux distributions and reaction rates), the PIJXYZ code is used. PIJXYZ is a 3D integral transport code using the first collision probability method and it has been developed for CANDU cell geometry. It is consistent with WIMS lattice-cell calculations and allows a good geometrical representation of the CANDU bundle in three dimensions. The analysis of the neutronic parameters consists of comparing the obtained results with the similar results calculated with the DRAGON code. This comparison shows a good agreement between these results. (authors)

  14. Formation and evolution of magma-poor margins, an example of the West Iberia margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Andres-Martinez, Miguel; Morgan, Jason P.; Ranero, Cesar R.; Reston, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The West Iberia-Newfoundland (WIM-NF) conjugate margins have been geophysically and geologically surveyed for the last 30 years and have arguably become a paradigm for magma-poor extensional margins. Here we present a coherent picture of the WIM-NF rift to drift evolution that emerges from these observations and numerical modeling, and point out important differences that may exist with other magma-poor margins world-wide. The WIM-NF is characterized by a continental crust that thins asymmetrically and a wide and symmetric continent-ocean transition (COT) interpreted to consist of exhumed and serpentinised mantle with magmatic products increasing oceanward. The architectural evolution of these margins is mainly dominated by cooling under very slow extension velocities (<~6 mm/yr half-rate) and a lower crust that most probably was not extremely weak at the start of rifting. These conditions lead to a system where initially deformation is distributed over a broad area and the upper, lower crust and lithosphere are decoupled. As extension progresses upper, lower, crust and mantle become tightly coupled and deformation localizes due to strengthening and cooling during rifting. Coupling leads to asymmetric asthenospheric uplift and weakening of the hanginwall of the active fault, where a new fault forms. This continued process leads to the formation of an array of sequential faults that dip and become younger oceanward. Here we show that these processes acting in concert: 1) reproduce the margin asymmetry observed at the WIM-NF, 2) explain the fault geometry evolution from planar, to listric to detachment like by having one common Andersonian framework, 3) lead to the symmetric exhumation of mantle with little magmatism, and 4) explain the younging of the syn-rift towards the basin centre and imply that unconformities separating syn- and post-rift may be diachronous and younger towards the ocean. Finally, we show that different lower crustal rheologies lead to different

  15. Error Reduction for Weigh-In-Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, Lee M; Abercrombie, Robert K; Scudiere, Matthew B; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2009-01-01

    Federal and State agencies need certifiable vehicle weights for various applications, such as highway inspections, border security, check points, and port entries. ORNL weigh-in-motion (WIM) technology was previously unable to provide certifiable weights, due to natural oscillations, such as vehicle bouncing and rocking. Recent ORNL work demonstrated a novel filter to remove these oscillations. This work shows further filtering improvements to enable certifiable weight measurements (error < 0.1%) for a higher traffic volume with less effort (elimination of redundant weighing).

  16. Hanford inventory program user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkelman, K.C.

    1994-09-12

    Provides users with instructions and information about accessing and operating the Hanford Inventory Program (HIP) system. The Hanford Inventory Program is an integrated control system that provides a single source for the management and control of equipment, parts, and material warehoused by Westinghouse Hanford Company in various site-wide locations. The inventory is comprised of spare parts and equipment, shop stock, special tools, essential materials, and convenience storage items. The HIP replaced the following systems; ACA, ASP, PICS, FSP, WSR, STP, and RBO. In addition, HIP manages the catalog maintenance function for the General Supplies inventory stocked in the 1164 building and managed by WIMS.

  17. Design and optimization of power supplies for wireless integrated microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, Fabio

    In this work, we developed a novel power supply for the WIMS-ERC intraocular sensor (WIMS-IOS), an autonomous and implantable system. This device is representative of a broad class of microscale devices, whose full implementation in environmental and medical systems will require significantly smaller power supplies; presently, battery systems represent 85% mass and 50% volume of typical devices. Strategies using both commercial and specially developed devices, using a variety of electrochemistries have been used. The smallest of the batteries reported to date, are thin-film lithium (Li) cells, using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) approach. Thin film batteries fabricated with these techniques have achieved electrodes thicknesses less than 5mum (unpackaged), capacities of ˜100muAh/cm2 and footprints of 1cm2. However, clean-room fabrication and high power laser equipment needed for ceramic materials entail high cost (˜$300/Wh), and the elevated processing temperatures (500-720°C) and use of chemicals and etchants, make them incompatible with CMOS materials. Finally, the intrinsically high power (3.5-4.2V) of lithium chemistry complicates integration with low-voltage MEMS, since it necessitates voltage regulation. In our study we deposited thin film electrodes using physical vapor deposition (PVD), a low temperature (270-500°C) purely physical process in a vacuum ˜10 -7Torr. Our underlying hypothesis was that this technique would reduce intrinsic losses because of the high resulting precision, while allowing integration with chips because of more benign processing conditions to MEMS. Our specific objectives were to: (1) analyze commercial systems for the WIMS-IOS; (2) create batteries from commercial active materials; and finally (3) create test and integrate novel batteries. Commercial Zn/Ag batteries were selected using a previously developed system analyzer (POWER algorithm). Active materials from the same commercial

  18. Develop 3G Application with The J2ME SATSA API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JunWu, Xu; JunLing, Liang

    This paper describes research in the use of the Security and Trust Services API for J2ME (SATSA) to develop mobile applications. for 3G networks. SATSA defines a set of APIs that allows J2ME applications to communicate with and access functionality, secure storage and cryptographic operations provided by security elements such as smart cards and Wireless Identification Modules (WIM). A Java Card application could also work as an authentication module in a J2ME-based e-bank application. The e-bank application would allow its users to access their bank accounts using their cell phones.

  19. Structural analysis in real time using continuous monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, Juergen; Viano, Charles; Hodac, Bernard

    2005-05-01

    OSMOS developed a completely automatic monitoring-system, which is ideal for the determination and monitoring of the structural state of civil engineering structures. Static and dynamic data are recorded as needed and are available via internet for further analysis. In case of bridges, automatic calculation of the axle load of the flowing traffic is implemented, a weigh in motion system (WIMS). When configurable thresholds are exceeded alarms are sent by SMS, e-mail, SNMP-trap for facility-management-systems or by fax.

  20. Groundwater/surface-water interactions in the Bad River Watershed, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leaf, Andrew T.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hunt, Randall J.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Finally, a new data-worth analysis of potential new monitoring-well locations was performed by using the model. The relative worth of new measurements was evaluated based on their ability to increase confidence in model predictions of groundwater levels and base flows at 35 locations, under the condition of a proposed open-pit iron mine. Results of the new data-worth analysis, and other inputs and outputs from the Bad River model, are available through an online dynamic web mapping service at (http://wim.usgs.gov/badriver/).

  1. Error Reduction in Weigh-In-Motion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-09-21

    Federal and State agencies need certifiable vehicle weights for various applications, such as highway inspections, border security, check points, and port entries. ORNL weigh-in-motion (WIM) technology was previously unable to provide certifiable weights, due to natural oscillations, such as vehicle bounding and rocking. Recent ORNL work demonstrated a novel filter to remove these oscillations. This work shows further filtering improvements to enable certifiable weight measurements (error < 0.1%) for a higher traffic volume with lessmore » effort (elimination of redundant weighing)« less

  2. ELECTROSTATIC AIR CLEANING DEVICE AND METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, L.; Anderson, D.M.

    1961-07-18

    A method and apparatus for utilizing friction-charged particulate material from an aerosol are described. A bed of the plastic spheres is prepared, and the aerosol is passed upwardly through the bed at a rate just large enough to maintain the bed in a fluidized state wim over-all circulation of the balls. Wire members criss-crossing through the bed rub against the balls and maintain their surfaces with electrostatic charges. The particulate material in the aerosol adheres to the surfaces of the balls.

  3. IONIZED GAS IN THE FIRST 10 kpc OF THE INTERSTELLAR GALACTIC HALO: METAL ION FRACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Howk, J. Christopher; Consiglio, S. Michelle E-mail: smconsiglio@ucla.edu

    2012-11-10

    We present direct measures of the ionization fractions of several sulfur ions in the Galactic warm ionized medium (WIM). We obtained high-resolution ultraviolet absorption-line spectroscopy of post-asymptotic giant branch stars in the globular clusters Messier 3 [(l, b) = (42.{sup 0}2, +78.{sup 0}7), d = 10.2 kpc, and z = 10.0 kpc] and Messier 5 [(l, b) = (3.{sup 0}9, +46.{sup 0}8), d = 7.5 kpc, and z = +5.3 kpc] with the Hubble Space Telescope and Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer to measure, or place limits on, the column densities of S I, S II, S III, S IV, S VI, and H I. These clusters also house millisecond pulsars, whose dispersion measures give an electron column density from which we infer the H II column in these directions. We find fractions of S{sup +2} in the WIM for the M 3 and M 5 sight lines x(S{sup +2}) {identical_to} N(S{sup +2})/N(S) = 0.33 {+-} 0.07 and 0.47 {+-} 0.09, respectively, with variations perhaps related to location. With negligible quantities of the higher ionization states, we conclude that S{sup +} and S{sup +2} account for all of the S in the WIM. We extend the methodology to study the ion fractions in the warm and hot ionized gas of the Milky Way, including the high ions Si{sup +3}, C{sup +3}, N{sup +4}, and O{sup +5}. The vast majority of the Galactic ionized gas is warm (T {approx} 10{sup 4} K) and photoionized (the WIM) or very hot (T > 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K) and collisionally ionized. The common tracer of ionized gas beyond the Milky Way, O{sup +5}, traces <1% of the total ionized gas mass of the Milky Way.

  4. Fast hydrodynamic model for medium- and long-term dispersion in seawater in the English Channel and southern North Sea, qualitative and quantitative validation by radionuclide tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    du Bois, P. Bailly; Dumas, F.

    The database for medium- and long-term model validation using 125Sb released by the La Hague reprocessing plant includes 1400 measurements performed between 1987 and 1994 in the English Channel and the North Sea and data for each release since 1982. Antimony-125 has a conservative behaviour in water masses over a period of several years. These data can be used qualitatively and quantitatively to compare the measured concentrations with the calculated ones and quantities of tracers. Tritium measurements are also available for model calibration. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been developed to allow repetitive long-term simulations. This model uses a database of residual tidal currents calculated using the Lagrangian barycentric method [Salomon, J.C., Guéguéniat, P., Orbi, A., Baron, Y., 1988. A Lagrangian model for long-term tidally induced transport and mixing. Verification by artificial radionuclide concentrations. In: Guary, J.C., Guéguéniat, P., Pentreath, R.J. (Eds.), Radionuclides: A Tool for Oceanography, Cherbourg 1-5 June, 1987. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, New York, pp. 384-394]. The area covered by the model includes the English Channel, the southern North Sea and the Irish Sea with a mesh size of 1 km. The main adjustment parameters of this model are the sources of wind data used and the calculation method for evaluating wind stress at the sea surface. With these parameters, the fluxes of radionuclides and water masses in the English Channel and the North Sea were balanced for the whole period of field measurements (1987-1994). The correlation factor between individual measurements in seawater and calculation results is 0.88 with an average error of ±54%, the error attributable to the measurement process being 15% on average. The mean flux through the Dover Strait is 126,000 m 3 s -1, close from the one obtained from previous studies [Salomon, J.C., Breton, M., Guéguéniat, P. 1993. Computed residual flow through the Dover

  5. Shortening rates at the mountain front of the Andean Precordillera (Argentina) on timescales of millions, thousands and a few years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, E.; Mechernich, S.; Hetzel, R.; Mingorance, F.; Ramos, V. A.

    2012-12-01

    The eastern margin of the Andean Precordillera between 30 and 33°S is one of the most seismically active regions in the world and indicated several destructive earthquakes, e.g. a MS ~7.0 event destroyed Mendoza city in 1861. Modeled GPS data revealed a short-term shortening rate of ~2-5 mm/a at the wider Andean mountain front at 32-33°S (Brooks et al., 2003; Kendrick et al., 2006). Using only GPS stations directly east and west of the mountain front near Mendoza (33°S) results in a shortening of 2.8 ± 1.3 mm/a (Salomon et al., in rev.), implying that this rate is accommodated by the respective active frontal thrust. To investigate the significance of this GPS rate on longer timescales and to account for its accommodation on specific faults, we studied two range-bounding thrust faults near Mendoza, the 48-km-long Peñas and the 31-km-long Cal thrust, using fault scarp profiles, paleoseismic trenching and age determinations of the deformed terraces T1-T4. Fault scarps on the lowest terrace level T1 reveal vertical offsets of 0.8-1.0 m for both faults, which are interpreted as coseismic displacements during the last earthquakes (Mw~6.9). Older terraces show stepwise increasing cumulative offsets, indicating that elastic strain energy was repeatedly released during strong earthquakes. For example at the Peñas thrust the ~3.3-ka-old terrace T2 is offset by ~1.9 m and the ~12-ka-old terrace T3 is displaced by ~11 m (Schmidt et al., 2011). Thus, shortening along the Peñas thrust occurred at a rather constant rate of ~2.0 mm/a during the past ~12 ka; i.e. at a similar value as the present-day shortening at the mountain front. In contrast, the Cal thrust fault, which extends into Mendoza, indicates a shortening rate that accelerated recently from ≥0.9 mm/a to ~5.4 mm/a since three terraces vertically offset by ~2.6, ~3.6, and ~7.0 m, yielded ages of ~0.8 ka (OSL), ~3.9 ka (14C), and ≤12 ka (10Be) (Schmidt et al., 2011). However, caution is needed when regarding

  6. Wireless design of a multisensor system for physical activity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mo, Lingfei; Liu, Shaopeng; Gao, Robert X; John, Dinesh; Staudenmayer, John W; Freedson, Patty S

    2012-11-01

    Real-time monitoring of human physical activity (PA) is important for assessing the intensity of activity and exposure to environmental pollutions. A wireless wearable multisenor integrated measurement system (WIMS) has been designed for real-time measurement of the energy expenditure and breathing volume of human subjects under free-living conditions. To address challenges posted by the limited battery life and data synchronization requirement among multiple sensors in the system, the ZigBee communication platform has been explored for energy-efficient design. Two algorithms have been developed (multiData packaging and slot-data-synchronization) and coded into a microcontroller (MCU)-based sensor circuitry for real-time control of wireless data communication. Experiments have shown that the design enables continued operation of the wearable system for up to 68 h, with the maximum error for data synchronization among the various sensor nodes (SNs) being less than 24 ms. Experiment under free-living conditions have shown that the WIMS is able to correctly recognize the activity intensity level 86% of the time. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the energy-efficient wireless design for human PA monitoring. PMID:23086196

  7. Consumption of unsafe food in the adjacent area of Hazaribag tannery campus and Buriganga River embankments of Bangladesh: heavy metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Islam, G M Rabiul; Khan, Faysal Elahi; Hoque, Md Mozammel; Jolly, Yeasmin Nahar

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As in water, poultry meat, fish, vegetables, and rice plants obtained from the area adjacent to the Hazaribag tannery campus, Dhaka, Bangladesh, were estimated and compared with permissible levels established by the WHO and FAO and levels reported previously by other authors. The metal contents were in the following order according to the concentration in contaminated irrigation water: Cr > Pb > As > Hg > Cd. Mean concentrations of Cr, Pb, Hg, and As in irrigated water were above the permissible levels, whereas the results were below the permissible levels for Cd. The metal concentrations in poultry meat, fish, rice, and vegetables were in the following orders: Pb > Cr > Cd > Hg > As, Pb > Cr > Cd > As > Hg, Pb > As, and Cr > Pb > Cd > As > Hg, respectively. The mean concentrations of metals in poultry meat, fish, rice, and vegetables were much higher than the permissible levels. The trends of weekly intake of heavy metals (WIMs) from poultry meat, fish, rice, and vegetables were as follows: Pb > Cr > Cd > Hg > As, Pb > Cr > Cd > As > Hg, Pb > As, and Cr > Pb > Cd > As > Hg, respectively. WIMs for all the metals were lower than the provisional maximum weekly intake recommended by WHO/FAO and USNAS. PMID:25030244

  8. Development status of the lattice physics code in COSINE project

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Yu, H.; Li, S.; Liu, Z.; Yan, Y.

    2013-07-01

    LATC is an essential part of COSINE code package, which stands for Core and System Integrated Engine for design and analysis. LATC performs 2D multi-group assembly transport calculation and generates few group constants and the required cross-section data for CORE, the core simulator code. LATC is designed to have the capability of modeling the API 000 series assemblies. The development is a continuously improved process. Currently, LATC uses well-proven technology to achieve the key functions. In the next stage, more advanced methods and modules will be implemented. At present, WIMS and WIMS improved format library could be read in LATC code. For resonance calculation, equivalent relation with rational approximations is utilized. For transport calculation, two options are available. One choice is collision probability method in cell homogenization while discrete coordinate method in assembly homogenization, the other is method of characteristics in assembly homogenization directly. For depletion calculation, an improved linear rate 'constant power' depletion method has been developed. (authors)

  9. POWER (power optimization for wireless energy requirements): A MATLAB based algorithm for design of hybrid energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. A.; Albano, F.; Nevius, P. E.; Sastry, A. M.

    We have expanded and implemented an algorithm for selecting power supplies into a turnkey MATLAB code, "POWER" (power optimization for wireless energy requirements). Our algorithm uses three approaches to system design, specifying either: (1) a single, aggregate power profile; (2) a power system designed to satisfy several power ranges (micro-, milli- and Watt); or (3) a power system designed to be housed within specified spaces within the system. POWER was verified by conducting two case studies on hearing prosthetics: the TICA (LZ 3001) (Baumann group at the Tübingen University) and Amadeus cochlear implant (CI) (WIMS-ERC at the University of Michigan) based on a volume constraint of 2 cm 3. The most suitable solution identified by POWER for the TICA device came from Approach 1, wherein one secondary cell provided 26,000 cycles of 16 h operation. POWER identified Approach 2 as the solution for the WIMS-ERC Amadeus CI, which consisted of 1 cell for the microWatt power range and 1 cell for the milliWatt range (4.43 cm 3, ∼55% higher than the target volume), and provided 3280 cycles of 16 h operation (including re-charge of the batteries). Future work will be focused on continuously improving our present tool.

  10. Design of an implantable power supply for an intraocular sensor, using POWER (power optimization for wireless energy requirements)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, F.; Chung, M. D.; Blaauw, D.; Sylvester, D. M.; Wise, K. D.; Sastry, A. M.

    The reduction in size and power usage of MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) devices has enabled development of fully implantable medical devices [K.D. Wise, IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Magaz. 24(5) (2005) 22-29], though major obstacles remain in developing devices of very small scale (<1 mm) [T. Simunic, L. Benini, G. De Micheli, IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst. 9 (2001) 15-28]. One of the most challenging applications; an intraocular sensor (IOS) developed by the Wireless Integrated Micro-Systems-Engineering Research Center (WIMS-ERC) at The University of Michigan; is the subject of the present study. Our specific objectives are fourfold: (1) to model the power usage of an intraocular sensor (IOS); (2) to develop a methodology for optimization of Hybrid Implantable Power Systems (HIPS); (3) to apply the selection tool to identify candidate power systems; and (4) to establish a methodology to fabricate and test the performance of an optimized power supply. In the present study we fabricated and tested three different cells. For one of these, 10 complete discharge and recharge cycles were successfully obtained. The experimental capacity was 7.70 mAh (15% of theoretical) for a discharge rate of C/5. As part of future work, a microbattery will be built for the WIMS-ERC IOS and tested in a fully integrated testbed.

  11. Distributed resonance self-shielding using the equivalence principle

    SciTech Connect

    Altiparmakov, D.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an extension of the equivalence principle to allow distributed resonance self-shielding in a multi-region fuel configuration. Rational expansion of fuel-to-fuel collision probability is applied in order to establish equivalence between the actual fuel configuration and a homogeneous mixture of hydrogen and resonant absorber, which is a commonly used model to calculate library tables of resonance integrals. The main steps in derivation are given along with the basic physics assumptions on which the presented approach relies. The method has been implemented in the lattice code WIMS-AECL and routinely used for calculation of CANDU-type reactor lattices. Its capabilities are illustrated by comparison of WIMS-AECL and MCNP results of {sup 238}U resonance capture in a CANDU lattice cell. In order to determine optimal rational expansion of fuel-to-fuel collision probability, the calculations were carried out by varying the number of rational terms from 1 to 6. The results show that 4 terms are sufficient. The further increase of the number of terms affects the computing time, while the impact on accuracy is negligible. To illustrate the convergence of the results, the fuel subdivision is gradually refined varying the number of fuel pin subdivisions from 1 to 32 equal-area annuli. The results show very good agreement with the reference MCNP calculation. (authors)

  12. TRIGA spent-fuel storage criticality analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnik, M.; Glumac, B.

    1996-06-01

    A criticality safety analysis of a pool-type storage for spent TRIGA Mark II reactor fuel is presented. Two independent computer codes are applied: the MCNP Monte Carlo code and the WIMS lattice cell code. Two types of fuel elements are considered: standard fuel elements with 12 wt% uranium concentration and FLIP fuel elements. A parametric study of spent-fuel storage lattice pitch, fuel element burnup, and water density is presented. Normal conditions and postulated accident conditions are analyzed. A strong dependence of the multiplication factor on the distance between the fuel elements and on the effective water density is observed. A multiplication factor <1 may be expected for an infinite array of fuel rods at center-to-center distances >6.5 cm, regardless of the fuel element type and burnup. At shorter distances, the subcriticality can be ensured only by adding absorbers to the array of fuel rods even if the fuel rods were burned to {approximately}20% burnup. The results of both codes agree well for normal conditions. The results show that WIMS may be used as a complement to the Monte Carlo code in some parts of the criticality analysis.

  13. Evaluation of ternary mobile phases for the analysis of carbonyl compound derivatives using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ho, Duy Xuan; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of ternary mobile phases was examined in a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based analysis of carbonyl compounds (CCs). To test the performance of different ternary phases, the liquid phase standards containing a 15 aldehyde/ketone-DNPH(o) mix were analyzed through a series of five-point calibration experiments. For this comparison, three types of ternary mobile phases were prepared initially by mixing water (W) with two of the following three organic solvents: isopropanol (I), methanol (M), and tetrahydrofuran (T). The resulting three types of ternary phases (named as WIM, WTM, and WIT) were tested and evaluated in relation to the water content or in terms of methanol-to-water ratio (M/W). The results derived by the three ternary phases revealed that the optimal resolution was attained near maximum water content, while those of WIT consistently suffered from poor resolution problems. The relative performances of WIM and WTM phases, if assessed by three key operating parameters (sensitivity, retention time, and resolution), were found to be reliable for most selected CCs with the decreasing M/W ratio. PMID:21218260

  14. Static Scale Conversion Weigh-In-Motion System

    SciTech Connect

    Beshears, D.L.

    2001-05-18

    In support of the Air Mobility Battle Lab (AMBL), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Advanced Logistics Program and the U. S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM), the ultimate objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a full-scale prototype static scale conversion weigh-in-motion/Profilometry (SSC-WIM/P) system to measure and record dimensional and weight information for the Department of Defense (DoD) equipment and cargo. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), along with the AMBL, and Intercomp, Inc. have developed a long-range plan for developing a dual-use system which can be used as a standard static scale or an accurate weigh-in-motion system. AMBL will work to define requirements for additional activities with U.S. Transportation Command, Air Mobility Command, and the Joint Warfighting Battle Lab for both the SSC-WIM/P and a portable Weigh-in-Motion System for individual units. The funding goal is to fully fund the development of two prototype test articles (a SSC-WIM kit, and a laser profilometer) and have at least one fully operational system by the early 2002 timeframe. The objective of this portion of the project will be to develop a SSC-WIM system, which at a later date can be fully integrated with a profilometry system; to fully characterize DOD wheeled vehicles and cargo (individual axle weights, total vehicle weight, center of balance, height, width and length measurements). The program will be completed in phases with the initial AMBL/DARPA funding being used to initiate the efforts while AMBL/USTC obtains funding to complete the first generation system effort. At the completion of an initial effort, the interface hardware and the data acquisition/analysis hardware will be developed, fabricated, and system principles and basic functionality evaluated, tested, and demonstrated. Additional funding, when made available, will allow the successful completion of a first generation prototype system. This effort will be

  15. The Emsian - Eifelian (Lower - Middle Devonian) boundary occurs in a 100-kyr eccentricity maximum: A potentially useful secondary marker for the GSSP section (Wetteldorf Richtschnitt, Germany).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vleeschouwer, D.; Makarona, C.; Linnemann, U.; Königshof, P.; Claeys, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of a stage is chosen such that it can be accurately correlated with widely separated sections. To make such correlation, one can use the primary marker (usually the first appearance of a species). However, more often than not, secondary markers of chemo-, magneto-, cyclo- or biostratigraphic nature prove useful in establishing accurate and precise correlations. The GSSP for the Emsian - Eifelian stage boundary is exposed in the Wetteldorf Richtschnitt, in the Eifel Hill in Germany. The Emsian-Eifelian boundary is defined by the first occurrence of the conodont Polygnathus costatus partitus (Ziegler and Klapper, 1985). However, no secondary markers are currently available for this GSSP section. Our aim is to construct a cyclostratigraphic framework for this GSSP section, and thus to facilitate future correlations. Therefore, we collected 4-cm spaced elemental data of an 8.65 m thick interval, using a Bruker Tracer handheld XRF. We complemented our data with previously-published magnetic susceptibility (MS) data (Ellwood et al., 2006). A strong anti-correlation exists between the calcium-iron ratio (Ca/Fe) and the MS data. These variations mainly reflect the lithological variability between carbonate-poor mud- and siltstones and argillaceous limestone beds or calcareous sandstones. These proxies, as well as Ti/Al and K/Al, reflect strong 0.5 - 1 m periodicity. However, the orbital calibration of this dominant periodicity is challenged by the few time constraints available for the studied section. To circumvent this problem, we apply the evolutive average spectral misfit method (eASM; Meyers and Sageman, 2007) to the 4 different proxy records. This method tests the null hypothesis of no orbital signal and provides an estimate of sedimentation rate throughout the section. For all proxies, the eASM method provides similar results and we use the obtained sedimentation rates to convert stratigraphic height into time

  16. Predictors of scientific understanding of middle school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strate, Joshua Matthew

    The purpose of this study was to determine if middle school student scientific understanding could be predicted by the variables: standardized 5th grade score in science, standardized 5th grade score in mathematics, standardized 5th grade score in reading, student attitude towards science, socioeconomic status, gender, and ethnicity. The areas of the comprehensive literature review were trends in science learning and teaching, research in the K-12 science education arena, what factors have influenced K-12 science education, scientific understanding, what research has been done on K-12 scientific understanding, and what factors have influenced science understanding in the K-12 arenas. Based on the results of the literature review, the researcher of this study examined a sample of middle school 8th grade students. An Attitude Towards Science Survey (SATS) Simpson & Oliver (1990) and a Survey of Scientific Understandings (Klapper, DeLucia, & Trent, 1993) were administered to these 116 middle school 8th grade students drawn from a total population of 1109 who attend this middle school in a typical county in Florida during the 2010- 2011 school year. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to test each sub-hypothesis and to provide a model that attempted to predict student scientific understanding. Seven null sub-hypotheses were formed to determine if there were significant relationships between student scientific understanding and the abovementioned variables. The results of the tests of the seven null sub-hypotheses showed that the sub-hypothesis that involved socioeconomic status was rejected, which indicated that the socioeconomic status of a family does influence the level of scientific understanding of a student. Low SES students performed lower on the scientific understanding survey, on average, than high SES students. This study can be a source of information for teachers in low-income schools by recognizing potential areas of concern for low

  17. Photoinduced Electron Transfer in the Strong Coupling Regime: Waveguide–Plasmon Polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Peng; Cadusch, Jasper; Chakraborty, Debadi; Smith, Trevor A.; Roberts, Ann; Sader, John E.; Davis, Timothy J.; Gómez, Daniel E.

    2016-04-01

    Reversible exchange of photons between a material and an optical cavity can lead to the formation of hybrid light--matter states where material properties such as the work function\\cite{Hutchison_AM2013a}, chemical reactivity\\cite{Hutchison_ACIE2012a}, ultra--fast energy relaxation \\cite{Salomon_ACIE2009a,Gomez_TJOPCB2012a} and electrical conductivity\\cite{Orgiu_NM2015a} of matter differ significantly to those of the same material in the absence of strong interactions with the electromagnetic fields. Here we show that strong light--matter coupling between confined photons on a semiconductor waveguide and localised plasmon resonances on metal nanowires modifies the efficiency of the photo--induced charge--transfer rate of plasmonic derived (hot) electrons into accepting states in the semiconductor material. Ultra--fast spectroscopy measurements reveal a strong correlation between the amplitude of the transient signals, attributed to electrons residing in the semiconductor, and the hybridization of waveguide and plasmon excitations.

  18. Photoinduced Electron Transfer in the Strong Coupling Regime: Waveguide-Plasmon Polaritons.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Peng; Cadusch, Jasper; Chakraborty, Debadi; Smith, Trevor A; Roberts, Ann; Sader, John E; Davis, Timothy J; Gómez, Daniel E

    2016-04-13

    Reversible exchange of photons between a material and an optical cavity can lead to the formation of hybrid light-matter states where material properties such as the work function [ Hutchison et al. Adv. Mater. 2013 , 25 , 2481 - 2485 ], chemical reactivity [ Hutchison et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2012 , 51 , 1592 - 1596 ], ultrafast energy relaxation [ Salomon et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2009 , 48 , 8748 - 8751 ; Gomez et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013 , 117 , 4340 - 4346 ], and electrical conductivity [ Orgiu et al. Nat. Mater. 2015 , 14 , 1123 - 1129 ] of matter differ significantly to those of the same material in the absence of strong interactions with the electromagnetic fields. Here we show that strong light-matter coupling between confined photons on a semiconductor waveguide and localized plasmon resonances on metal nanowires modifies the efficiency of the photoinduced charge-transfer rate of plasmonic derived (hot) electrons into accepting states in the semiconductor material. Ultrafast spectroscopy measurements reveal a strong correlation between the amplitude of the transient signals, attributed to electrons residing in the semiconductor and the hybridization of waveguide and plasmon excitations. PMID:26963038

  19. Mice Transgenic for a Human Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus Receptor Are Susceptible to Productive Viral Infection†

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Y.; Marcucci, K. T.; Cherqui, S.; Szabo, A.; Drysdale, T.; Srinivisan, U.; Wilson, C. A.; Patience, C.; Salomon, D. R.

    2006-01-01

    Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) is considered one of the major risks in xenotransplantation. No valid animal model has been established to evaluate the risks associated with PERV transmission to human patients by pig tissue xenotransplantation or to study the potential pathogenesis associated with PERV infection. In previous work we isolated two genes encoding functional human PERV receptors and proved that introduction of these into mouse fibroblasts allowed the normally nonpermissive mouse cells to become productively infected (T. A. Ericsson, Y. Takeuchi, C. Templin, G. Quinn, S. F. Farhadian, J. C. Wood, B. A. Oldmixon, K. M. Suling, J. K. Ishii, Y. Kitagawa, T. Miyazawa, D. R. Salomon, R. A. Weiss, and C. Patience, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:6759-6764, 2003). In the present study we created mice transgenic for human PERV-A receptor 2 (HuPAR-2). After inoculation of transgenic animals with infectious PERV supernatants, viral DNA and RNA were detected at multiple time points, indicating productive replication. This establishes the role of HuPAR-2 in PERV infection in vivo; in addition, these transgenic mice represent a new model for determining the risk of PERV transmission and potential pathogenesis. These mice also create a unique opportunity to study the immune response to PERV infection and test potential therapeutic or preventative modalities. PMID:16537582

  20. [Social urban development and poverty control as health promotion].

    PubMed

    Trojan, A

    2001-03-01

    The Salomon Neumann Medal of the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention bears the inscription. "Medicine is a Social Science". This provocative statement is most topical. It compels us to actively promote health by healthier living and environmental conditions apart from medical prevention. A core of this sphere of action is the reduction of social inequalities. Several recent congresses and publications have clearly shown that this subject remains one of the biggest challenges facing health promotion. German law has set the signs for reducing socially rooted inequalities for chances of health. This article postulates the thesis that health promotion can find allies for a healthy public policy in programmes planning for healthy urban development and for combatting poverty. The specific approaches for combatting social inequalities in the health sphere are reported and examples are given how such a health promotion policy may be translated into reality on a communal level. Finally, spotlight is on the dilemma of combatting inequality of chance due to differences in social status. PMID:11329919

  1. The Ionization Structure of Sharpless 2-264: Multiwavelength Observations of the λ Ori H II Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahan, M.; Haffner, L. M.

    2016-06-01

    We present velocity-resolved maps taken with the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) in Hα, [S ii] λ 6716, and [N ii] λ 6583 around the well-known O8 III star λ Ori A (HD 36861) ({\\ell }=185^\\circ to 205^\\circ ,b=-24^\\circ to -1^\\circ ). The integrated intensity ({v}{{LSR}}=-80 to +80 km s‑1), {I}{{H}α }, within WHAM’s one-degree beams varies from ∼190 R near the center to ∼10 R on the periphery of the nebula where it becomes comparable to foreground and/or background emission in this complex region. Intensity ratios for [N ii]/Hα and [S ii]/Hα average 0.28 and 0.35, respectively. In both ratios, higher values are found preferentially at larger radii from λ Ori, although the behavior of [N ii]/Hα is complicated near the edges of the nebula. The [S ii]/[N ii] intensity ratio ranges from ∼0.5 to ∼1.0, with the value increasing toward larger radii (and lower Hα intensities). Variations of the [S ii]/Hα, [N ii]/Hα, and [S ii]/[N ii] line ratios in this diffuse region show some similar trends to those seen in the warm ionized medium (WIM) but with generally lower metal-line ratios. As with the WIM, the trends are driven by changes in the underlying physical parameters, most notably the ionization states and gas temperature. To investigate which cause might be dominant in this region, we use these extremely high signal-to-noise observations to construct a map of temperature and non-thermal velocity throughout the nebula. Using the line widths of Hα and [S ii], we separate thermal and non-thermal components and find spatial trends of these parameters within the nebula. Ion temperatures range between 4000 and 8000 K throughout the nebula. The non-thermal velocity map reveals a decrease in velocity from about 10 to 5 km s‑1 from the center to the edge of the lower half of the H ii region. In addition to using the widths as a measure of temperature, we also use the variation in [N ii]/Hα to estimate electron temperature. The results obtained from

  2. Dosimetry aspects of the new Canadian MAPLE-X10 reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lidstone, R.F.; Wilkin, G.B.

    1994-12-31

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is building the 10-MW{sub t} MAPLE-X10 reactor facility as a dedicated producer of medical and industrial radioisotopes. Dosimetry aspects of the MAPLE-X10 nuclear design include the calculated thermal and fast neutron flux distributions throughout the reactor assembly and the rate of heat generation in reactor materials and components. Examples of the resolution of design issues are also presented, such as the use of fission counters and ion chambers to provide diverse methods of detecting neutron flux levels and the use of the difference between photon and neutron signals to guard against the effects of downgrading of the heavy-water reflector. Computer codes employed in the calculations include MCNP, ONEDANT, WIMS-AECL, and 3DDT.

  3. Neutronic assessment of stringer fuel assembly design for liquid-salt-cooledvery high temperature reactor (LS-VHTR).

    SciTech Connect

    Szakaly, F. J.; Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.

    2006-09-15

    Neutronic studies of 18-pin and 36-pin stringer fuel assemblies have been performed to ascertain that core design requirements for the Liquid-Salt Cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR) can be met. Parametric studies were performed to determine core characteristics required to achieve a target core cycle length of 18 months and fuel discharge burnup greater than 100 GWd/t under the constraint that the uranium enrichment be less than 20% in order to support non-proliferation goals. The studies were done using the WIMS9 lattice code and the linear reactivity model to estimate the core reactivity balance, fuel composition, and discharge burnup. The results show that the design goals can be met using a 1-batch fuel management scheme, uranium enrichment of 15% and a fuel packing fraction of 30% or greater for the 36-pin stringer fuel assembly design.

  4. Analysis constants for database of neutron nuclear data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedenko, S. V.; Jeremiah, J. Joseph; Knyshev, V. V.; Shamanin, I. V.

    2016-07-01

    At present there is a variety of experimental and calculation nuclear data which are rather entirely presented in the following evaluated nuclear data libraries: ENDF (USA), JEFF (Europe), JENDL (Japan), TENDL (Russian Federation), ROSFOND (Russian Federation). Libraries of nuclear data, used for neutron-physics calculations in programs: Scale (Origen-Arp), MCNP, WIMS, MCU, and others. Nevertheless all existing nuclear data bases, including evaluated ones, contain practically no information about threshold neutron reactions on 232Th nuclei; available values of outputs and cross-sections significantly differ by orders. The work shows necessity of nuclear constants corrections which are used in the calculations of grids and thorium storage systems. The results of numerical experiments lattices and storage systems with thorium.

  5. Waste Information Management System: One Year After Web Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Shoffner, P.A.; Geisler, T.J.; Upadhyay, H.; Quintero, W.

    2008-07-01

    The implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) mandated accelerated cleanup program created significant potential technical impediments. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to site waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedules. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast information regarding the volumes and types of waste that would be generated by DOE sites over the next 30 years. Each local DOE site has historically collected, organized, and displayed site waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. However, waste information from all sites needed a common application to allow interested parties to understand and view the complete complex-wide picture. A common application allows identification of total waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, and technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, has completed the deployment of this fully operational, web-based forecast system. New functional modules and annual waste forecast data updates have been added to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. In conclusion: WIMS continues to successfully accomplish the goals and objectives set forth by DOE for this project. WIMS has replaced the historic process of each DOE site gathering, organizing, and reporting their waste forecast information utilizing different database and display technologies. In addition, WIMS meets DOE's objective to have the complex-wide waste forecast information available to all stakeholders and the public in one easy-to-navigate system

  6. Advanced NMR approaches in the characterization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Maciel, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    A solid-state 2D {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C chemical shift correlation experiment has been developed, refined and applied to representative organic solids ranging room pure, powdered, crystalline compounds to lignite. During the {sup 1}H chemical shift evolution period a 48-pulse elaboration of a recently reported windowless 12-pulse sequence (BB-12) was applied in the {sup 13}C channel for decoupling the {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C dipolar interaction, along with the windowless BLEW-48 for {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H dipolar decoupling. For {sup 1}H{yields}{sup 13}C polarization transfer, the previously reported WIM-24 windowless sequence was used in both the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C channels. Excellent 2D results are obtained, permitting {sup 1}H peaks to benefit in resolution from the spread of {sup 13}C chemical shifts. Prospects for future techniques and applications are discussed. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Applications of a Monte Carlo whole-core microscopic depletion method

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, J.L.; Butement, A.W.; Watt, S.; Shadbolt, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    In the WIMS-6 (Ref. 1) reactor physics program scheme a three-dimensional microscopic depletion method has been developed using Monte Carlo fluxes. Together with microscopic cross sections, these give nuclide reaction rates, which are used to solve nuclide depletion equations for each region. An extension of the method, enabling rapid whole-core calculations, has been implemented in the long-established companion code MONK5W. Predictions at successive depletion time steps are based on a calculational route where both geometry and cross sections are accurately represented, providing a reliable and independent approach for benchmarking other methods. Newly developed tracking and storage procedures in MONK5W enable whole core burnup modeling on a desktop computer. Theory and applications are presented in this paper.

  8. Analysis of ONEDANT code package for the calculation of the Doppler coefficient of reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Soares, I. ); Miller, W.F.; Perry, R.T. )

    1993-06-01

    The viability of the use of the ONEDANT discrete ordinates code for the calculation of the Doppler coefficient of reactivity for a pressurized water reactor is investigated. The ONEDANT results are compared with benchmark results from a Monte Carlo code, MCNP-3A. A comparison with the results obtained using the CELL-2 and WIMS-AECL codes is also included. The influences of certain variables, such as spatial mesh, S[sub N] angular quadrature order, interaction convergence criterion, boundary conditions, P[sub N] order, and number of energy groups, are analyzed. An alternative benchmark calculation to the Monte Carlo result is attempted to provide some feel for the approximate accuracy of the Monte Carlo calculation. Such an alternative answer is important when less approximate methods are compared with these results.

  9. Snow evolution in a semi-arid mountainous area combining snow modelling and Landsat spectral mixture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, R.; Herrero, J.; Polo, M. J.

    2015-05-01

    This study proposes the use of both physically-distributed hydrological modelling in combination with satellite remote sensing images, to study the evolution of the snowpack in the Sierra Nevada mountains, in southern Spain. The snowmelt-accumulation module inside WiMMed (Watershed Integrated Management in Mediterranean Environment) hydrological model was employed, which includes the use of depletion curves to expand the energy and water balance equations over a grid representation. Snow maps obtained from spectral mixture analysis of Landsat images were used to evaluate this model at the study site. The results show a significant agreement between observed and simulated snow pixels in the area, which allows production of sequences of snow maps with greater resolution than the remote sensing images employed. However, some mismatches do appear at the boundaries of the snow area, mainly related to: (a) the great number of mixed pixels; and (b) the influence of the snow transport by wind.

  10. Origin and z-distribution of Galactic diffuse [C II] emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    Context. The [C ii] emission is an important probe of star formation in the Galaxy and in external galaxies. The GOT C+ survey and its follow up observations of spectrally resolved 1.9 THz [C ii] emission using Herschel HIFI provides the data needed to quantify the Galactic interstellar [C ii] gas components as tracers of star formation. Aims: We determine the source of the diffuse [C ii] emission by studying its spatial (radial and vertical) distributions by separating and evaluating the fractions of [C ii] and CO emissions in the Galactic ISM gas components. Methods: We used the HIFI [C ii] Galactic survey (GOT C+), along with ancillary H i, 12CO, 13CO, and C18O data toward 354 lines of sight, and several HIFI [C ii] and [C i] position-velocity maps. We quantified the emission in each spectral line profile by evaluating the intensities in 3 km s-1 wide velocity bins, "spaxels". Using the detection of [C ii] with CO or [C i], we separated the dense and diffuse gas components. We derived 2D Galactic disk maps using the spaxel velocities for kinematic distances. We separated the warm and cold H2 gases by comparing CO emissions with and without associated [C ii]. Results: We find evidence of widespread diffuse [C ii] emission with a z-scale distribution larger than that for the total [C ii] or CO. The diffuse [C ii] emission consists of (i) diffuse molecular (CO-faint) H2 clouds and (ii) diffuse H i clouds and/or WIM. In the inner Galaxy we find a lack of [C ii] detections in a majority (~62%) of H i spaxels and show that the diffuse component primarily comes from the WIM (~21%) and that the H i gas is not a major contributor to the diffuse component (~6%). The warm-H2 radial profile shows an excess in the range 4 to 7 kpc, consistent with enhanced star formation there. Conclusions: We derive, for the first time, the 2D [C ii] spatial distribution in the plane and the z-distributions of the individual [C ii] gas component. From the GOT C+ detections we estimate the

  11. WWER-1000 core and reflector parameters investigation in the LR-0 reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zaritsky, S. M.; Alekseev, N. I.; Bolshagin, S. N.; Riazanov, D. K.; Lichadeev, V. V.; Ocmera, B.; Cvachovec, F.

    2006-07-01

    Measurements and calculations carried out in the core and reflector of WWER-1000 mock-up are discussed: - the determination of the pin-to-pin power distribution in the core by means of gamma-scanning of fuel pins and pin-to-pin calculations with Monte Carlo code MCU-REA and diffusion codes MOBY-DICK (with WIMS-D4 cell constants preparation) and RADAR - the fast neutron spectra measurements by proton recoil method inside the experimental channel in the core and inside the channel in the baffle, and corresponding calculations in P{sub 3}S{sub 8} approximation of discrete ordinates method with code DORT and BUGLE-96 library - the neutron spectra evaluations (adjustment) in the same channels in energy region 0.5 eV-18 MeV based on the activation and solid state track detectors measurements. (authors)

  12. Analysis of ANS LWR physics benchmark problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Taiwo, T. A.

    1998-07-29

    Various Monte Carlo and deterministic solutions to the three PWR Lattice Benchmark Problems recently defined by the ANS Ad Hoc Committee on Reactor Physics Benchmarks are presented. These solutions were obtained using the VIM continuous-energy Monte Carlo code and the DIF3D/WIMS-D4M code package implemented at the Argonne National Laboratory. The code results for the K{sub eff} and relative pin power distribution are compared to measured values. Additionally, code results for the three benchmark-prescribed infinite lattice configurations are also intercompared. The results demonstrate that the codes produce very good estimates of both the K{sub eff} and power distribution for the critical core and the lattice parameters of the infinite lattice configuration.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hα fluxes of Galactic planetary nebulae (Frew+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, D. J.; Bojicic, I. S.; Parker, Q. A.

    2014-05-01

    SHASSA is a robotic wide-angle digital imaging survey covering 21000deg2 of the southern and equatorial sky undertaken with the aim of detecting Hα emission from the warm ionized interstellar medium (WIM). The survey consists of 2168 images covering 542 fields south of +16° declination, between Galactic longitudes of 195° and 45° at the mid-plane (Gauataud et al., 2001PASP..113.1326G, GMR01). A complementary survey to SHASSA, the VTSS (Dennison et al., 1998PASA...15..147D), covers a wide strip around the northern Galactic plane (15°-15°. Like SHASSA, the combination of fast optics, narrow-band interference filters and a CCD detector gives this survey very deep sensitivity to diffuse Hα emission. (3 data files).

  14. Antenna Efficiency and the Genius of the IEEE Standard for Antenna Terms [Education Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, Karl F.

    2012-08-01

    At a 2007 Square Kilometre Array Design Studies (SKADS) workshop in Dwingeloo, Wim van Cappellen of the Nether lands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON) gave a presentation on figures of merit, in which he memorably compared antenna terms to apples. What seems like a simple, homogeneous fruit comes in all colors and varieties. Similarly, a survey of antenna literature and textbooks shows that authors use a wide variety of antenna figures of merit, often not in compliance with the relevant IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms for Antennas [1]. Since this standard is now in the process of revision by the Antennas and Propagation Society Antenna Standards Committee, it seems worth while to consider the standard, and clarify some common misunderstandings and inconsistent usages.

  15. The Contribution of Ionizing Stars to the Far-Infrared and Radio Emission in the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, S.; Fich, M.; Taylor, R.

    1999-01-01

    A summary of research activities carried out in this eighth and final progress report. The final report includes: this summary document, copies of three published research papers, plus a draft manuscript of a fourth research paper entitled "The Contribution of Ionizing Stars to the FarInfrared and Radio Emission in the Milky Way; Evidence for a Swept-up Shell and Diffuse Ionized Halo around the W4 Chimney/Supershell." The main activity during the final quarterly reporting period was research on W4, including analysis of the radio and far-infrared images, generation of shell models, a literature search, and preparation of a research manuscript. There will be additional consultation with co-authors prior to submission of the paper to the Astrophysical Journal. The results will be presented at the 4th Tetons Summer Conference on "Galactic Structure, Stars, and the ISM" in May 2000. In this fourth and last paper we show W4 has a swept-up partially ionized shell of gas and dust which is powered by the OCl 352 star cluster. Analysis shows there is dense interstellar material directly below the shell, evidence that that the lower W4 shell "ran into a brick wall" and stalled, whereas the upper W4 shell achieved "breakout" to form a Galactic chimney. An ionized halo is evidence of Lyman continuum leakage which ionizes the WIM (warm ionized medium). It has long been postulated that the strong winds and abundant ionizing photons from massive stars are responsible for much of the large scale structure in the interstellar medium (ISM), including the ISM in other galaxies. However standard HII region theory predicts few photons will escape the local HII region. The significance of W4 and this work is it provides a direct example of how stellar winds power a galactic chimney, which in turn leads to a low density cavity from which ionizing photons can escape to large distances to ionize the WIM.

  16. The Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffner, L. Matthew; Reynolds, Ronald J.; Babler, Brian L.; Madsen, Gregory J.; Hill, Alex S.; Barger, Kathleen; Jaehnig, Kurt P.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Percival, Jeffrey W.; Chopra, Nitish; Pingel, Nickolas; Reese, Daniel T.; Gostisha, Martin; Wunderlin, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    We present the first all-sky, kinematic survey of Hα from the Milky Way, combining survey observations taken with the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) from Kitt Peak (1997-2007) and Cerro Tololo (2009-present). The WHAM Sky Survey (WHAM-SS) reaches sensitivity levels of about 0.1 R (EM ~ 0.2 pc cm^-6) with emission detected toward every direction in the sky. Each pointing of the survey comprises a spatially integrated spectrum from a one-degree beam on the sky covering at least 200 km/s around the Local Standard of Rest with 12 km/s spectral resolution. WHAM was designed primarily to study the pervasive warm ionized medium (WIM) component of the interstellar medium (ISM) but also reveals many large-scale, locally-ionized regions throughout the Galaxy. The WIM is a diffuse but thick component of the ISM that extends several kiloparsecs into the Galactic halo with a kinematic signature that traces the gaseous spiral arms of the Galaxy. In addition to this fairly smooth global emission, the Hα sky contains many individual H II regions and supernova remnants, a few revealed in the WHAM-SS for the first time. Some locations are dominated by complex filamentary network of diffuse ionized gas where the ISM has been shaped by past winds and supernovae and is now powered by a new wave of star formation. At high latitudes, faint emission from intermediate-velocity clouds is also regularly present. The success of WHAM as a fully remote observing facility for nearly two decades is due in no small part to the excellent and responsive support staff at KPNO in Arizona and CTIO in Chile. WHAM has been designed, built, and operated primarily through support of the National Science Foundation. The current research presented here is funded by award AST-1108911.

  17. Hα and [SII] emission from warm Ionized GAS in the Scutum-Centaurus Arm

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Alex S.; Benjamin, Robert A.; Gostisha, Martin C.; Haffner, L. Matthew; Barger, Kathleen A.

    2014-06-01

    We present Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper [SII] λ6716 and Hα spectroscopic maps of the warm ionized medium (WIM) in the Scutum-Centaurus Arm at Galactic longitudes 310° < l < 345°. Using extinction-corrected Hα intensities (I{sub Hα}{sup c}), we measure an exponential scale height of electron density squared in the arm of H{sub n{sub e{sup 2}}}=0.30 kpc (assuming a distance of 3.5 kpc), intermediate between that observed in the inner Galaxy and in the Perseus Arm. The [S II]/Hα line ratio is enhanced at large |z| and in sightlines with faint I{sub Hα}{sup c}. We find that the [S II]/Hα line ratio has a power-law relationship with I{sub Hα}{sup c} from a value of ≈1.0 at I{sub Hα}{sup c}<0.2 R (Rayleighs) to a value of ≈0.08 at I{sub Hα}{sup c}≳100 R. The line ratio is better correlated with Hα intensity than with height above the plane, indicating that the physical conditions within the WIM vary systematically with electron density. We argue that the variation of the line ratio with height is a consequence of the decrease of electron density with height. Our results reinforce the well-established picture in which the diffuse Hα emission is due primarily to emission from in situ photoionized gas, with scattered light only a minor contributor.

  18. Early Results from the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper Southern Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffner, L. Matthew; Reynolds, R. J.; Madsen, G. J.; Hill, A. S.; Barger, K. A.; Jaehnig, K. P.; Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Percival, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    After a successful eleven-year campaign at Kitt Peak, we moved the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) to Cerro Tololo in early 2009. Here we present some of the early data after the first nine months under southern skies. These maps begin to complete the first all-sky, kinematic survey of the diffuse Hα emission from the Milky Way. Much of this emission arises from the Warm Ionized Medium (WIM), a significant component of the ISM that extends a few kiloparsecs above the Galactic disk. The WHAM instrument consists of a 0.6 m primary lens housed in a steerable siderostat coupled to a 15 cm dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The optical configuration delivers a spatially integrated spectrum from a one-degree beam on the sky covering 200 km/s with 12 km/s spectral resolution. Short, 30-second exposures allow us to cover the observable sky in about two years at sensitivity levels of about 0.1 R (EM 0.2 pc cm-6). While this first look at the data focuses on the Hα survey, WHAM is also capable of observing many other optical emission lines, revealing fascinating trends in the temperature and ionization state of the WIM. Our ongoing studies of the physical conditions of diffuse ionized gas will continue in the south following the Hα survey. In addition, future observations using our survey mode will cover the full velocity range of the Magellanic Stream, Bridge, and Clouds to trace the ionized gas associated with these neighboring systems. WHAM is supported by NSF award AST-0607512 and has made this smooth relocation south due to the excellent staff at KPNO and CTIO.

  19. Energy-Level Related Nuclear-Spin Effects and Super-Hyperfine Spectral Patterns: how Molecules do Self-Nmr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, William; Mitchell, Justin

    2009-06-01

    At several points in his defining works on molecular spectroscopy, Herzberg notes that ``because nuclear moments ldots are so very slight ldots transitions between species ldots are very strictly forbiddenldots '' Herzberg's most recent statement of such selection rules pertained to spherical top spin-species. It has since been shown that spherical top species (as well as those of lower symmetry molecules) converge exponentially with momentum quanta J and K to degenerate level clusters wherein even ``very slight'' nuclear fields and moments cause pervasive resonance and total spin species mixing. Ultra-high resolution spectra of Borde, et .al and Pfister et .al shows how SF_6 and SiF_4 Fluorine nuclear spin levels rearrange from total-spin multiplets to NMR-like patterns as their superfine structure converges. Similar super-hyperfine effects are anticipated for lower symmetry molecules exhibiting converging superfine level-clusters. Examples include PH_3 molecules and asymmetric tops. Following this we consider models that treat nuclear spins as coupled rotors undergoing generalized Hund-case transitions from spin-lab-momentum coupling to various spin-rotor correlations. G. A. Herzberg, Electronic Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules, (Von Norstrand Rheinhold 1966) p. 246. W G. Harter and C. W Patterson, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2277 (1979) W. G. Harter, Phys. Rev. A 24, 192 (1981). Ch. J. Borde, J. Borde, Ch. Breant, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Van Lerberghe, and Ch. Salomon, in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W Hensch and Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985). O. Pfister, F. Guernet, G. Charton, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Herlemont, and J. Legrand, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1521 (1993). O. Pfister, Ch. Chardonnet, and Ch. J. Bordè, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4516 (1996) S. N. Yurchenko, W. Thiel, S. Patchkovskii, and P. Jensen, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.7, 573 (2005)

  20. Joint Estimation of Activity and Attenuation in Whole-Body TOF PET/MRI Using Constrained Gaussian Mixture Models.

    PubMed

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib

    2015-09-01

    It has recently been shown that the attenuation map can be estimated from time-of-flight (TOF) PET emission data using joint maximum likelihood reconstruction of attenuation and activity (MLAA). In this work, we propose a novel MRI-guided MLAA algorithm for emission-based attenuation correction in whole-body PET/MR imaging. The algorithm imposes MR spatial and CT statistical constraints on the MLAA estimation of attenuation maps using a constrained Gaussian mixture model (GMM) and a Markov random field smoothness prior. Dixon water and fat MR images were segmented into outside air, lung, fat and soft-tissue classes and an MR low-intensity (unknown) class corresponding to air cavities, cortical bone and susceptibility artifacts. The attenuation coefficients over the unknown class were estimated using a mixture of four Gaussians, and those over the known tissue classes using unimodal Gaussians, parameterized over a patient population. To eliminate misclassification of spongy bones with surrounding tissues, and thus include them in the unknown class, we heuristically suppressed fat in water images and also used a co-registered bone probability map. The proposed MLAA-GMM algorithm was compared with the MLAA algorithms proposed by Rezaei and Salomon using simulation and clinical studies with two different tracer distributions. The results showed that our proposed algorithm outperforms its counterparts in suppressing the cross-talk and scaling problems of activity and attenuation and thus produces PET images of improved quantitative accuracy. It can be concluded that the proposed algorithm effectively exploits the MR information and can pave the way toward accurate emission-based attenuation correction in TOF PET/MRI. PMID:25769148

  1. The inherence heuristic across development: systematic differences between children's and adults' explanations for everyday facts.

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Steinberg, Olivia D

    2014-12-01

    The inherence heuristic is a basic cognitive process that supplies quick-and-easy answers to what are, in reality, incredibly complex questions about why the broad patterns of the world are as they are (Cimpian & Salomon, 2014-a, 2014-b). This explanatory heuristic satisfies the human need to understand, but it is also a source of bias because the heuristic relies too often on the (easily accessible) inherent features of the entities in the patterns being explained. Here, we investigated the developmental trajectory of this heuristic. Given that the cognitive resources that help override the typical output of the inherence heuristic are scarce in childhood, we hypothesized that the heuristic's output would be more broadly endorsed by children than by adults. Five experiments involving young children and adults (N=480) provided consistent support for this hypothesis. The first three experiments (Part I) investigated participants' explanations for broad patterns (e.g., fire trucks are red) and suggested that, consistent with our predictions, children were particularly likely to endorse inherence-based explanations. The last two experiments (Part II) investigated two intuitions that accompany the output of the inherence heuristic: namely, that the patterns being explained cannot be changed and are temporally stable. As predicted, participants' judgments on these dimensions showed the same developmental differences as the explanations investigated in Part I, with children being particularly likely to see patterns as inalterable and temporally stable. The developmental differences found across these five experiments suggest that children start out with a broad reliance on the explanatory output of the inherence heuristic, a reliance that narrows in scope to some extent as children develop. PMID:25291062

  2. Modeling of the impact of ionic strength on the electroosmotic flow in capillary electrophoresis with uniform and discontinuous buffer systems.

    PubMed

    Thormann, W; Zhang, C X; Caslavska, J; Gebauer, P; Mosher, R A

    1998-02-01

    A new dynamic computer model permitting the combined simulation of the temporal behavior of electroosmosis and electrophoresis under constant voltage or current conditions and in a capillary which exhibits a pH-dependent surface charge has been constructed and applied to the description of capillary zone electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, and isoelectric focusing with electroosmotic zone displacement. Electroosmosis is calculated via use of a normalized wall titration curve (mobility vs pH). Two approaches employed for normalization of the experimentally determined wall titration data are discussed, one that considers the electroosmotic mobility to be inversely proportional to the square root of the ionic strength (method based on the Gouy-Chapman theory with the counterion layer thickness being equal to the Debye-Hückel length) and one that assumes the double-layer thickness to be the sum of a compact layer of fixed charges and the Debye-Hückel thickness and the existence of a wall adsorption equilibrium of the buffer cation other than the proton (method described by Salomon, K.; et al. J. Chromatogr. 1991, 559, 69). The first approach is shown to overestimate the magnitude of electroosmosis, whereas, with the more complex dependence between the electroosmotic mobility and ionic strength, qualitative agreement between experimental and simulation data is obtained. Using one set of electroosmosis input data, the new model is shown to provide detailed insight into the dynamics of electroosmosis in typical discontinuous buffer systems employed in capillary zone electrophoresis (in which the sample matrix provides the discontinuity), in capillary isotachophoresis, and in capillary isoelectric focusing. PMID:21644753

  3. Hydro-mechanical simulations of well abandonment at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage verify wellbore system integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Victoria; Kempka, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    simulation time step and verified by a comparison of calculated and observed bottomhole pressures for the operational phase. Well abandonment was simulated by stepwise filling of the wellbore with Schlumberger Evercrete and Class G cements considering the specific mechanical cement properties as a function of time to account for stress changes and displacements in the wellbore system and its surrounding. Our simulation results indicate, that taking into account available site-specific data, failure of the wellbore system is unlikely to occur during site operation and subsequent abandonment. The implemented hydro-mechanical model can be consequently applied for investigation of different hypothetical scenarios including varying stress regimes, low-quality cementation jobs as well as casing corrosion. Furthermore, coupling with hydro-chemical simulations would allow for a long-term assessment of wellbore integrity and reservoir fluid leakage. Kempka, T., Klapperer, S., Norden, B. Coupled hydro-mechanical simulations demonstrate system integrity at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage, Germany (2014) Rock Engineering and Rock Mechanics: Structures in and on Rock Masses - Proceedings of EUROCK 2014, ISRM European Regional Symposium, pp. 1317-1322.

  4. Development and installation of Picostrain sensors in structural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sener, Joseph C.; Latta, Bernard M.; Ross, Jimmy D.

    2004-07-01

    The concept of the Picostrain sensor technology is based on a standard, commercially available, electrical cable assembly embedded in pavement or structural members. The concept has been developed through the 1990s and patented by the Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) in 2003. The objective of this new technology is to build an inexpensive, easily installed and maintained sensor system for the purposes of vehicle classification (VC), vehicle identification (VI), weigh-in-motion (WIM), and vehicle tracking (VT) applications along with real-time monitoring and evaluation of structural performance under static and dynamic traffic loading. It is intended, in the future, that these sensors will be further developed to replace curently utilized expensive embedded pavement and structural sensors for ultimate improvement of transportation decision-making and planning. This will also help to document the movement of people and goods along with the evironmental, social, economic and financial parameters with an emphasis on tracking movements in social life for security based upon the use of this durable and reliable transducers. Approximately, 400 sensors have been installed on and in the reinforced concrete structural members of the West Park Center River Crossing Bridge (Bridge) and the Micron Engineering Center (MEC) building (Building) at Boise State University (BSU) in Boise, Idaho, USA, since 1998. These sensors were installed: in bridge pile caps, piers, girders and decks; bridge abutment embankments; building footings, columns, beams, floor slabs; and, have been linked to instrument cabinets on site. These sensors installed structures may now be called "smart" structures since they contain a resident sensing system capable of maintaining a constant watch over the integrity of the structure. These sensing systems will be able to evaluate the applied loads, as well as the static and dynamic response of the structure. This paper introduces and describes the new

  5. The First Detection of Diffuse Interstellar [OII] Emission from the Milky Way using Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Roesler, F. L.; Harlander, J. M.; Reynolds, R. J.; Jaehnig, K. P.

    2004-12-01

    Using a newly developed Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS), we have achieved the first detection of diffuse [OII] 372.6 nm and 372.9 nm emission lines from the warm (10,000 K), low density (0.1 cm-3) ionized component of our Galaxy's interstellar medium (WIM). These [OII] lines are a principal coolant for this wide spread, photoionized gas and are a potential tracer of variations in the gas temperature resulting from unidentified interstellar heating processes that appear to be acting within the Galaxy's disk and halo. We have also detected numerous, weak airglow lines, including terrestrial [OII] emission. In our SHS system, Fizeau fringes of wavenumber-dependent spatial frequency are produced by a Michelson interferometer modified by replacing the return mirrors with diffraction gratings. These fringes are recorded on a position sensitive detector and Fourier transformed to recover a spectrum over a limited range centered at the grating Littrow wavenumber. SHS combines interferometric and field-widening gains to achieve sensitivities much larger than conventional grating instruments of similar size and resolving power, and comparable to the Wisconsin Hα Mapper (WHAM) Fabry-Perot, but in the near UV where WHAM cannot observe. Our early results confirm the superb performance of the SHS technique for measurements of spatially extended faint emissions, including the first detection of [OII] emission lines extending out to 20 degrees from the Galactic equator in the longitude range of 110 to 150 degrees. [OII] intensities range from tens of Rayleighs near the Galactic plane to less than one Rayleigh at high Galactic latitudes. The [OII] line profiles clearly show structure indicating emission along the lines of sight from both local interstellar gas and more distant gas in the Perseus spiral arm. Preliminary line ratio comparisons with WHAM [NII] (658.4 nm) and Hα (656.3 nm) observations confirm the utility of the [OII] observations as a temperature diagnostic

  6. On the self-regulation of intense star-formation in galaxies at z = 1-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, M. D.; Le Tiran, L.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; van Driel, W.; Boulanger, F.; Di Matteo, P.

    2013-07-01

    We have analyzed the properties of the Hα and [Nii]λ6583 rest-frame optical emission lines of a sample of 53 intensely star forming galaxies at z = 1.3 to 2.7 observed with SINFONI on the ESO-VLT. Similar to previous authors, we find large velocity dispersions in the lines, σ = few 10-250 km s-1. Our data agree well with simulations where we applied beam-smearing and assumed a scaling relation of the form: velocity dispersion is proportional to the square root of the star-formation intensity (star-formation rate per unit surface area). We conclude that the dispersions are primarily driven by star formation. To explain the high surface brightness and optical line ratios, high thermal pressures in the warm ionized medium, WIM, are required (P/k ~ > 106-107 K cm-3). Such thermal pressures in the WIM are similar to those observed in nearby starburst galaxies, but occur over much larger physical scales. Moreover, the relatively low ionization parameters necessary to fit the high surface brightnesses and optical line ratios suggest that the gas is not only directly associated with regions of star formation, but is wide spread throughout the general interstellar medium (ISM). Thus the optical emission line gas is a tracer of the large scale dynamics of the bulk of the ISM. We present a simple model for the energy input from young stars in an accreting galaxy, to argue that the intense star-formation is supporting high turbulent pressure, which roughly balances the gravitational pressure and thus enables distant gas accreting disks to maintain a Toomre disk instability parameter Q ~ 1. For a star formation efficiency of 3%, only 5-15% of the mechanical energy from young stars that is deposited in the ISM is needed to support the level of turbulence required for maintaining this balance. Since this balance is maintained by energy injected into the ISM by the young stars themselves, this suggests that star formation in high redshift galaxies is self-regulating. Data

  7. Depletion calculations for the McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R. T.; Newell, D. L.

    1997-12-08

    Depletion calculations have been performed for the McClellan reactor history from January 1990 through August 1996. A database has been generated for continuing use by operations personnel which contains the isotopic inventory for all fuel elements and fuel-followed control rods maintained at McClellan. The calculations are based on the three-dimensional diffusion theory code REBUS-3 which is available through the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC). Burnup-dependent cross-sections were developed at zero power temperatures and full power temperatures using the WIMS code (also available through RSICC). WIMS is based on discretized transport theory to calculate the neutron flux as a function of energy and position in a one-dimensional cell. Based on the initial depletion calculations, a method was developed to allow operations personnel to perform depletion calculations and update the database with a minimal amount of effort. Depletion estimates and calculations can be performed by simply entering the core loading configuration, the position of the control rods at the start and end of cycle, the reactor power level, the duration of the reactor cycle, and the time since the last reactor cycle. The depletion and buildup of isotopes of interest (heavy metal isotopes, erbium isotopes, and fission product poisons) are calculated for all fuel elements and fuel-followed control rods in the MNRC inventory. The reactivity loss from burnup and buildup of fission product poisons and the peak xenon buildup after shutdown are also calculated. The reactivity loss from going from cold zero power to hot full power can also be calculated by using the temperature-dependent, burnup-dependent cross-sections. By calculating all of these reactivity effects, operations personnel are able to estimate the total excess reactivity necessary to run the reactor for the given cycle. This method has also been used to estimate the worth of individual control rods. Using this

  8. [C ii] emission from galactic nuclei in the presence of X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, W. D.; Pineda, J. L.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The luminosity of [C ii] is used as a probe of the star formation rate in galaxies, but the correlation breaks down in some active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Models of the [C ii] emission from galactic nuclei do not include the influence of X-rays on the carbon ionization balance, which may be a factor in reducing the [C ii] luminosity. Aims: We aim to determine the properties of the ionized carbon and its distribution among highly ionized states in the interstellar gas in galactic nuclei under the influence of X-ray sources. We calculate the [C ii] luminosity in galactic nuclei under the influence of bright sources of soft X-rays. Methods: We solve the balance equation of the ionization states of carbon as a function of X-ray flux, electron, atomic hydrogen, and molecular hydrogen density. These are input to models of [C ii] emission from the interstellar medium (ISM) in galactic nuclei representing conditions in the Galactic central molecular zone and a higher density AGN model. The behavior of the [C ii] luminosity is calculated as a function of the X-ray luminosity. We also solve the distribution of the ionization states of oxygen and nitrogen in highly ionized regions. Results: We find that the dense warm ionized medium (WIM) and dense photon dominated regions (PDRs) dominate the [C ii] emission when no X-rays are present. The X-rays in galactic nuclei can affect strongly the C+ abundance in the WIM, converting some fraction to C2+ and higher ionization states and thus reducing its [C ii] luminosity. For an X-ray luminosity L(X-ray) ≳ 1043 erg s-1 the [C ii] luminosity can be suppressed by a factor of a few, and for very strong sources, L(X-ray) >1044 erg s-1 such as found for many AGNs, the [C ii] luminosity is significantly depressed. Comparison of the model with several extragalactic sources shows that the [C ii] to far-infrared ratio declines for L(X-ray) ≳ 1043 erg s-1, in reasonable agreement with our model. Conclusions: We conclude that X

  9. Keith Attenborough, Kai Ming Li and Kirill Horoshenkov, Predicting Outdoor Sound , Taylor & Francis, UK (2006) ISBN 9780419235101 xiii+441pp., price £75.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Kenneth E.

    2008-08-01

    In the preface to "Predicting Outdoor Sound," the authors say they regard their book as complementary to the book, "Computational Acoustics," by Erik M. Salomons. Further, they say that workers in outdoor sound would be wise to own both books. With these statements in mind, it seems prudent to briefly compare the two books. Put simply, "Computational Acoustics" is mainly about using full-wave, numerical models to predict long-range sound propagation in a realistic atmosphere over irregular, but otherwise simple, terrain. In contrast, "Predicting Outdoor Sound" is mainly about how to predict sound propagation in a homogeneous atmosphere over surfaces that range from simple flat impedance planes to very complex structures such as realistic barriers and buildings. There are other important differences as well. While "Computational Acoustics" is largely theoretical, "Predicting Outdoor Sound" has a wealth of experimental measurements and empirical prediction schemes. Specifically, Chapters 1-6 contain in-depth discussions of propagation in a homogeneous atmosphere over a flat, finite impedance surface. A multitude of ground impedance measurements and models are discussed in these chapters. Chapter 7 discusses the effect of source motion. Chapter 8 considers sound propagation over a flat surface with a horizontally varying impedance. Chapters 9 and 10 discuss, respectively, the performance of outdoor noise barriers and the effects of vegetation, trees and turbulence. Chapter 11 considers approximate analytic models for sound propagation that include the effects of a finite impedance surface, refraction, and turbulence. In Chapter 12, a number of currently popular, semi-empirical noise prediction schemes are discussed. Chapter 13, the final chapter, discusses sound and noise in an urban environment, with consideration of such issues as street canyons and building facades. Although the book probably would not serve well as a stand-alone text, the authors have nevertheless

  10. ECL1i, d(LGTFLKC), a novel, small peptide that specifically inhibits CCL2-dependent migration.

    PubMed

    Auvynet, Constance; Baudesson de Chanville, Camille; Hermand, Patricia; Dorgham, Karim; Piesse, Christophe; Pouchy, Charlotte; Carlier, Ludovic; Poupel, Lucie; Barthélémy, Sandrine; Felouzis, Virginie; Lacombe, Claire; Sagan, Sandrine; Salomon, Benoit; Deterre, Philippe; Sennlaub, Florian; Combadière, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    CC chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) is a key molecule in inflammatory diseases and is an obvious drug target for the treatment of inflammation. A number of nonpeptidic, competitive CCR2 antagonists have been developed, but none has yet been approved for clinical use. Our aim was to identify a short peptide that showed allosteric antagonism against human and mouse CCR2. On the basis of sequence analysis and 3-dimensional modeling, we identified an original 7-d-amino acid peptidic CCR2 inhibitor that we have called extracellular loop 1 inverso (ECL1i), d(LGTFLKC). In vitro, ECL1i selectively and potently inhibits CC chemokine ligand type 2 (CCL2)-triggered chemotaxis (IC50, 2 µM) but no other conventional CCL2-associated events. We used the classic competitive CCR2 antagonist, BMS22 {2-[(isopropylaminocarbonyl)amino]-N-[2-[[cis-2-[[4-(methylthio)benzoyl]amino]cyclohexyl]amino]-2-oxoethyl]-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzamide}, as positive control and inhibited CCL2-dependent chemotaxis with an IC50 of 18 nM. As negative control, we used a peptide with the same composition as ECL1i, but in a different sequence, d(FKLTLCG). In vivo, ECL1i (4 mg/kg) interfered with CCR2-positive cell recruitment and attenuated disease progression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. This study establishes ECL1i as the first allosteric inhibitor of CCR2 with functional selectivity. ECL1i is a promising new agent in therapeutic development, and it may, by its selective effect, increase our understanding of CCR2 signaling pathways and functions.-Auvynet, C., Baudesson de Chanville, C., Hermand, P., Dorgham, K., Piesse, C., Pouchy, C., Carlier, L., Poupel, L., Barthélémy, S., Felouzis, V., Lacombe, C., Sagan, S., Salomon, B., Deterre, P., Sennlaub, F., Combadière, C. ECL1i, d(LGTFLKC), a novel, small peptide that specifically inhibits CCL2-dependent migration. PMID:26979087

  11. Facts and fiction surrounding the discovery of the venous valves.

    PubMed

    Scultetus, A H; Villavicencio, J L; Rich, N M

    2001-02-01

    Venous valves are delicate structures, the integrity of which is crucial for the normal function of the venous system. Their abnormalities lead to widespread disorders, ranging from chronic venous insufficiency to life-threatening thromboembolic phenomena. The discovery of the venous valves, however, has been the subject of hot controversy. Even though Fabricius ab Aquapendente is credited with the discovery by most historians, we demonstrate in this paper that other anatomists described them many years before Fabricius ab Aquapendente publicly demonstrated them in Padua in 1579. A thorough review of the historical literature surrounding the discovery of the venous valves was carried out from 1545 to the present under the supervision of the Medical History Department of our institution. Research was performed at the History of Medicine Division of the National Library of Medicine and through MEDLINE access to the medical literature. The Parisian Charles Estienne first mentioned the venous valves in his 1545 publication when he described "apophyses membranarum" in the veins of the liver. Lusitanus and Canano publicly demonstrated them in the azygos vein during cadaver dissections performed in Ferrera, Italy. The Parisian Jacques Sylvius described valves in the veins of the extremities in 1555. The work of these anatomists, however, could not achieve full recognition, because Andreas Vesalius, the leading anatomist at that time, was unable to confirm their findings and strongly denied the existence of venous valves. Vesalius's influence was so powerful that research on the subject was idle until 1579, when Fabricius ab Aquapendente "discovered" the venous valves. About the same time, the German Salomon Alberti published the first drawings of a venous valve (in 1585). William Harvey, a disciple of Fabricius ab Aquapendente, finally postulated the function of the venous valves, providing anatomical support for one of the greatest discoveries in medicine: the blood

  12. Why are some amyloidoses systemic? Does hepatic “chaperoning at a distance” prevent cardiac deposition in a transgenic model of human senile systemic (transthyretin) amyloidosis?

    PubMed Central

    Buxbaum, Joel N.; Tagoe, Clement; Gallo, Gloria; Walker, John R.; Kurian, Sunil; Salomon, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    ., Kurian, S., Salomon, D. R. Why are some amyloidoses systemic? Does hepatic “chaperoning at a distance” prevent cardiac deposition in a transgenic model of human senile systemic (transthyretin) amyloidosis? PMID:22362898

  13. Photochemical properties of the flavin mononucleotide-binding domains of the phototropins from Arabidopsis, rice, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Masahiro; Swartz, Trevor E; Olney, Margaret A; Onodera, Akihiko; Mochizuki, Nobuyoshi; Fukuzawa, Hideya; Asamizu, Erika; Tabata, Satoshi; Kanegae, Hiromi; Takano, Makoto; Christie, John M; Nagatani, Akira; Briggs, Winslow R

    2002-06-01

    Phototropins (phot1 and phot2, formerly designated nph1 and npl1) are blue-light receptors that mediate phototropism, blue light-induced chloroplast relocation, and blue light-induced stomatal opening in Arabidopsis. Phototropins contain two light, oxygen, or voltage (LOV) domains at their N termini (LOV1 and LOV2), each a binding site for the chromophore flavin mononucleotide (FMN). Their C termini contain a serine/threonine protein kinase domain. Here, we examine the kinetic properties of the LOV domains of Arabidopsis phot1 and phot2, rice (Oryza sativa) phot1 and phot2, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii phot. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified LOV domains from all phototropins examined bind FMN tightly and undergo a self-contained photocycle, characterized by fluorescence and absorption changes induced by blue light (T. Sakai, T. Kagawa, M. Kasahara, T.E. Swartz, J.M. Christie, W.R. Briggs, M. Wada, K. Okada [2001] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 6969-6974; M. Salomon, J.M. Christie, E. Knieb, U. Lempert, W.R. Briggs [2000] Biochemistry 39: 9401-9410). The photocycle involves the light-induced formation of a cysteinyl adduct to the C(4a) carbon of the FMN chromophore, which subsequently breaks down in darkness. In each case, the relative quantum efficiencies for the photoreaction and the rate constants for dark recovery of LOV1, LOV2, and peptides containing both LOV domains are presented. Moreover, the data obtained from full-length Arabidopsis phot1 and phot2 expressed in insect cells closely resemble those obtained for the tandem LOV-domain fusion proteins expressed in E. coli. For both Arabidopsis and rice phototropins, the LOV domains of phot1 differ from those of phot2 in their reaction kinetic properties and relative quantum efficiencies. Thus, in addition to differing in amino acid sequence, the phototropins can be distinguished on the basis of the photochemical cycles of their LOV domains. The LOV domains of C. reinhardtii phot also undergo light

  14. Neutronics assessment of stringer fuel assembly designs for the liquid-salt-cooled very high temperature reactor (LS-VHTR).

    SciTech Connect

    Szakaly, F. J.; Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-01-01

    Neutronic studies of 18-pin and 36-pin stringer fuel assemblies have been performed to ascertain that core design requirements for the Liquid-Salt Cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR) can be met. Parametric studies were performed to determine core characteristics required to achieve a target core cycle length of 18 months and fuel discharge burnup greater than 100 GWd/t under the constraint that the uranium enrichment be less than 20% in order to support non-proliferation goals. The studies were done using the WIMS9 lattice code and the linear reactivity model to estimate the core reactivity balance, fuel composition, and discharge burnup. The results show that the design goals can be met using a 1-batch fuel management scheme, uranium enrichment of 15% and a fuel packing fraction of 30% or greater for the 36-pin stringer fuel assembly design.Evaluations of a liquid-salt- (molten-salt-) cooled version of the prismatic-block type VHTR, the LS-VHTR, are ongoing at U.S. national laboratories, universities, and industry. These evaluations have included core and passive safety studies and balance of plant conceptual designs.

  15. Components of Particle Emissions from Light-Duty Spark-Ignition Vehicles with Varying Aromatic Content and Octane Rating in Gasoline.

    PubMed

    Short, Daniel Z; Vu, Diep; Durbin, Thomas D; Karavalakis, Georgios; Asa-Awuku, Akua

    2015-09-01

    Typical gasoline consists of varying concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons and octane ratings. However, their impacts on particulate matter (PM) such as black carbon (BC) and water-soluble and insoluble particle compositions are not well-defined. This study tests seven 2012 model year vehicles, which include one port fuel injection (PFI) configured hybrid vehicle, one PFI vehicle, and six gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles. Each vehicle was driven on the Unified transient testing cycle (UC) using four different fuels. Three fuels had a constant octane rating of 87 with varied aromatic concentrations at 15%, 25%, and 35%. A fourth fuel with higher octane rating, 91, contained 35% aromatics. BC, PM mass, surface tension, and water-soluble organic mass (WSOM) fractions were measured. The water-insoluble mass (WIM) fraction of the vehicle emissions was estimated. Increasing fuel aromatic content increases BC emission factors (EFs) of transient cycles. BC concentrations were higher for the GDI vehicles than the PFI and hybrid vehicles, suggesting a potential climate impact for increased GDI vehicle production. Vehicle steady-state testing showed that the hygroscopicity of PM emissions at high speeds (70 mph; κ > 1) are much larger than emissions at low speeds (30 mph; κ < 0.1). Iso-paraffin content in the fuels was correlated to the decrease in WSOM emissions. Both aromatic content and vehicle speed increase the amount of hygroscopic material found in particle emissions. PMID:26244891

  16. Computation of a Canadian SCWR unit cell with deterministic and Monte Carlo codes

    SciTech Connect

    Harrisson, G.; Marleau, G.

    2012-07-01

    The Canadian SCWR has the potential to achieve the goals that the generation IV nuclear reactors must meet. As part of the optimization process for this design concept, lattice cell calculations are routinely performed using deterministic codes. In this study, the first step (self-shielding treatment) of the computation scheme developed with the deterministic code DRAGON for the Canadian SCWR has been validated. Some options available in the module responsible for the resonance self-shielding calculation in DRAGON 3.06 and different microscopic cross section libraries based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluated nuclear data file have been tested and compared to a reference calculation performed with the Monte Carlo code SERPENT under the same conditions. Compared to SERPENT, DRAGON underestimates the infinite multiplication factor in all cases. In general, the original Stammler model with the Livolant-Jeanpierre approximations are the most appropriate self-shielding options to use in this case of study. In addition, the 89 groups WIMS-AECL library for slight enriched uranium and the 172 groups WLUP library for a mixture of plutonium and thorium give the most consistent results with those of SERPENT. (authors)

  17. Dutch chemical producers pledge emissions cuts

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.; Schoenmakers, J.

    1993-02-24

    Dutch chemical producers have negotiated a long-term agreement with government ministries to reduce emissions of a wide range of chemicals. Industry association Vereniging van de Nederlandse Chemische Industrie (VNCI; Leidschendam) says implementing the commitment will cost companies Dfl 10 billion ($5.4 billion) between 1993 and 2000. VNCI technical director Wim Quik welcomes the accord, which he describes as a management contract, saying, Rather than have legislation, there is a certain adjustment available. Peter Santen, managing director of midsized chemicals player Cindu Chemicals (Uithoorn, the Netherlands) voices some concern about the details of the accord, but adds, we are flexible in trying to agree with the contents of the covenant [it] is better than having new rules from law. The Dutch government, traditionally eager for consensus, has struck a number of such deals with Dutch industries - including packaging, metal, and tire - to reduce emissions and set up environmental management programs. The effort is based on the government's National Environmental Policy Plans - NMP and NMP Plus. Targets for emissions reduction by the chemical industry were provided by a government-funded environmental research institute.

  18. Fuel Burnup and Fuel Pool Shielding Analysis for Bushehr Nuclear Reactor VVER-1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadad, Kamal; Ayobian, Navid

    Bushehr Nuclear power plant (BNPP) is currently under construction. The VVER-1000 reactor will be loaded with 126 tons of about 4% enriched fuel having 3-years life cycle. The spent fuel (SF) will be transferred into the spent fuel pool (SPF), where it stays for 8 years before being transferred to Russia. The SPF plays a crucial role during 8 years when the SP resides in there. This paper investigates the shielding of this structure as it is designed to shield the SF radiation. In this study, the SF isotope inventory, for different cycles and with different burnups, was calculated using WIMS/4D transport code. Using MCNP4C nuclear code, the intensity of γ rays was obtained in different layers of SFP shields. These layers include the water above fuel assemblies (FA) in pool, concrete wall of the pool and water laid above transferring fuels. Results show that γ rays leakage from the shield in the mentioned layers are in agreement with the plant's PSAR data. Finally we analyzed an accident were the water height above the FA in the pool drops to 47 cm. In this case it was observed that exposure dose above pool, 10 and 30 days from the accident, are still high and in the levels of 1000 and 758 R/hr.

  19. Gap Size and Wall Lesion Development Next to Composite

    PubMed Central

    Kuper, N.K.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Ruben, J.L.; de Soet, J.J.; Cenci, M.S.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This in situ study investigated whether there is a relationship between gap size and wall lesion development in dentin next to 2 composite materials, and whether a clinically relevant threshold for the gap size could be established. For 21 days, 14 volunteers wore a modified occlusal splint containing human dentin samples with 5 different interfaces: 4 gaps of 50 µm, 100 µm, 200 µm, or 400 µm and 1 non-bonded interface without a gap. Eight times a day, the splint with samples was dipped in a 20% sucrose solution for 10 minutes. Before and after caries development, specimens were imaged with transversal wavelength-independent microradiography (T-WIM), and lesion depth (LD) and mineral loss (ML) were calculated at the 5 different interfaces. After correction for the confounder location (more mesial or distal), a paired t test clustered within volunteers was performed for comparison of gap widths. Results showed no trend for a relationship between the corrected lesion depth and the gap size. None of the differences in lesion depth for the different gap sizes was statistically significant. Also, the composite material (AP-X or Filtek Supreme) gave no statistically significant differences in lesion depth and mineral loss. A minimum gap size could not be established, although, in a non-bonded interface without a measurable gap, wall lesion development was never observed. PMID:24801597

  20. Science with the High Elevation Antarctic Terahertz Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, M. G.; Walsh, W.; Storey, J. W. V.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Walker, C.

    2006-08-01

    The proposed High Elevation Antarctic Terahertz Telescope (HEAT) is an instrument designed for the measurement of sub-mm spectral lines over regions several square degrees in size toward the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds. By mapping as a function of Galactic position the size and mass distribution and internal velocity dispersion of interstellar clouds in the Galaxy in both atomic and molecular lines, HEAT will construct the first barometric map of the Galactic Plane. HEAT will also map the gas heating rate, the star formation rate and produce the first large scale Galactic images of the dominant cooling atomic cooling lines of carbon and nitrogen. balance, and evolution of molecular clouds in the Milky Way and distant star-forming galaxies. Since the ionisation potential of nitrogen is 14.5eV, the 1461.1319 GHz = 205.176µm line of [NII] arises from regions where hydrogen is ionised, and thus serves as an extinction-free probe of the Warm Ionised Medium (WIM). There is an observed nonlinear relationship between [CII] and [NII] emission (Bennett et al. 1994) on large scales. By observing a variety of UV-illuminated giant molecula clouds, compact and diffuse HII regions, and planetary nebulae in the 1461 GHz [NII] line at 700 times the spectral and angular resolution of satellite data, the [CII]/[NII] intensity ratio can be used as a probe to determine how much of the Galaxy's [CII] emission arises in ionised gas.

  1. Reliability assessment of long span bridges based on structural health monitoring: application to Yonghe Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shunlong; Li, Hui; Ou, Jinping; Li, Hongwei

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the reliability estimation studies based on structural health monitoring data for long span cable stayed bridges. The data collected by structural health monitoring system can be used to update the assumptions or probability models of random load effects, which would give potential for accurate reliability estimation. The reliability analysis is based on the estimated distribution for Dead, Live, Wind and Temperature Load effects. For the components with FBG strain sensors, the Dead, Live and unit Temperature Load effects can be determined by the strain measurements. For components without FBG strain sensors, the Dead and unit Temperature Load and Wind Load effects of the bridge can be evaluated by the finite element model, updated and calibrated by monitoring data. By applying measured truck loads and axle spacing data from weight in motion (WIM) system to the calibrated finite element model, the Live Load effects of components without FBG sensors can be generated. The stochastic process of Live Load effects can be described approximately by a Filtered Poisson Process and the extreme value distribution of Live Load effects can be calculated by Filtered Poisson Process theory. Then first order reliability method (FORM) is employed to estimate the reliability index of main components of the bridge (i.e. stiffening girder).

  2. APS presents prizes in fluid dynamics and plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This article reviews the presentation of the American Physical Society awards in fluid dynamics and plasma physics. The recipient of the plasma physics James Clerk Maxwell Prize was John M. Green for contributions to the theory of magnetohydrodynamics equilibria and ideal and resistive instabilities, for discovering the inverse scattering transform leading to soliton solutions of many nonlinear partial differential equations and for inventing the residue method of determining the transition to global chaos. The excellence in Plasma Physics Research Award was presented to Nathaniel A. Fisch for theoretical investigations of noninductive current generation in toroidally confined plasma. Wim Pieter Leemans received the Simon Ramo Award for experimental and simulational contributions to laser-plasma physics. William R. Sears was given the 1992 Fuid Dynamics Prize for contributions to the study of steady and unsteady aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, magnetoaerodynamics,and wind tunnel design. William C. Reynolds received the Otto Laporte Award for experimental, theoretical, and computational work in turbulence modeling and control and leadership in direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation.

  3. Whole-Body In Vivo Monitoring of Inflammatory Diseases Exploiting Human Interleukin 6-Luciferase Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Makiko; Takai, Jun; Yu, Lei; Motohashi, Hozumi; Moriguchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2015-10-01

    Chronic inflammation underlies the pathological progression of various diseases, and thus many efforts have been made to quantitatively evaluate the inflammatory status of the diseases. In this study, we generated a highly sensitive inflammation-monitoring mouse system using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone containing extended flanking sequences of the human interleukin 6 gene (hIL6) locus, in which the luciferase (Luc) reporter gene is integrated (hIL6-BAC-Luc). We successfully monitored lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation in various tissues of the hIL6-BAC-Luc mice using an in vivo bioluminescence imaging system. When two chronic inflammatory disease models, i.e., a genetic model of atopic dermatitis and a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), were applied to the hIL6-BAC-Luc mice, luciferase bioluminescence was specifically detected in the atopic skin lesion and central nervous system, respectively. Moreover, the Luc activities correlated well with the disease severity. Nrf2 is a master transcription factor that regulates antioxidative and detoxification enzyme genes. Upon EAE induction, the Nrf2-deficient mice crossed with the hIL6-BAC-Luc mice exhibited enhanced neurological symptoms concomitantly with robust luciferase luminescence in the neuronal tissue. Thus, whole-body in vivo monitoring using the hIL6-BAC-Luc transgenic system (WIM-6 system) provides a new and powerful diagnostic tool for real-time in vivo monitoring of inflammatory status in multiple different disease models. PMID:26283726

  4. Evaluation of transuranium isotopes inventory for Candu/ACR standard and SEU spent fuel and the possibility to transmute them

    SciTech Connect

    Ghizdeanu, Elena Nineta; Pavelescu, Alexandru; Balaceanu, Victoria

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The main disadvantage of nuclear energy is the quantity of long lived radioactive waste produced in a NPP. Transmutation could be one of the solutions to reduce it. Waste transmutation will require a suitable deployment of techniques for spent fuel reprocessing. At present, reprocessing is done by aqueous methods that are very efficient for Pu separation (up to 99.9%). For transmutation applications, new partitioning processes must be developed for minor actinides separation from the high level waste. Although these processes are still very much at the research stage, industrial scale-up will result in the deployment of new, more specific separation techniques for transmutation applications. Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) techniques could contribute to reduce the radioactive inventory and its associated radio-toxicity. Scientists are looking for ways to drastically reduce both the mass and the radio-toxicity of the nuclear waste to be stored in a deep geological repository, and to reduce the time needed to reach the radioactivity level of the raw material originally used to produce energy. The first stage in the transmutation process is the isotopes inventory formed in the spent fuel. In this paper is made an intercomparison evaluation using WIMS 5B.12 and ORIGEN computer codes. Using these two codes, there is evaluated the isotopes released by a fuel standard from a Candu reactor. Moreover, there is simulated an inventory released by a Candu-SEU reactor and an ACR reactor. (authors)

  5. Code System for Producing Pointwise and Multigroup Neutron and Photon Cross Sections from ENDF/B Data.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-05-13

    Version 00 The NJOY nuclear data processing system is a modular computer code used for converting evaluated nuclear data in the ENDF format into libraries useful for applications calculations. Because the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) format is used all around the world (e.g., ENDF/B-VI in the US, JEF-2.2 in Europe, JENDL-3.2 in Japan, BROND-2.2 in Russia), NJOY gives its users access to a wide variety of the most up-to-date nuclear data. NJOY provides comprehensivemore » capabilities for processing evaluated data, and it can serve applications ranging from continuous-energy Monte Carlo (MCNP), through deterministic transport codes (DANT, ANISN, DORT), to reactor lattice codes (WIMS, EPRI). NJOY handles a wide variety of nuclear effects, including resonances, Doppler broadening, heating (KERMA), radiation damage, thermal scattering (even cold moderators), gas production, neutrons and charged particles, photoatomic interactions, self shielding, probability tables, photon production, and high-energy interactions (to 150 MeV). Output can include printed listings, special library files for applications, and Postscript graphics (plus color). More information on NJOY is available from the developer's home page at http://t2.lanl.gov. Follow the Tourbus section of the Tour area to find notes from the ICTP lectures held at Trieste in March 1998 on the ENDF format and on the NJOY code.« less

  6. Interview: European collaboration in relative effectiveness assessment: the use of patient registries and development of common guidelines.

    PubMed

    Goettsch, Wim

    2013-07-01

    Wim Goettsch is currently the Project Leader of Work Package 5 of the European Network of Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) Joint Action 2 (2012-2015). EUnetHTA is a network of the health technology assessment organizations in Europe responsible for advising or deciding on the national reimbursement of pharmaceuticals and other health technologies. In this work package, rapid joint assessments of the relative effectiveness of pharmaceuticals are piloted between more than 25 health technology assessment organizations around Europe. These pilots are based on the methodology that was developed in a similar work package in EUnetHTA JA1 (2010-2012), of which Dr Goettsch was also the Project Leader. Until the beginning of 2013, Dr Goettsch was the Deputy Secretary of the Medicinal Products Reimbursement Committee at Dutch Healthcare Insurance Board (CVZ). The Dutch Medicinal Products Reimbursement Committee advises the Dutch Minister of Health on whether new drugs need to be included in the basic insurance package. Before joining CVZ, he worked as a research manager for the PHARMO Institute (Utrecht, The Netherlands) and was responsible for the coordination of numerous pharmacoepidemiological and outcomes studies for international offices of pharmaceutical companies, such as AstraZeneca, Novartis, Pfizer and GlaxoSmithKline. Dr Goettsch has approximately 50 publications in peer-reviewed international journals. PMID:24236677

  7. Code System for Producing Pointwise and Multigroup Neutron and Photon Cross Sections from ENDF/B Data.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-03-28

    Version 00 The NJOY nuclear data processing system is a modular computer code used for converting evaluated nuclear data in the ENDF format into libraries useful for applications calculations. Because the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) format is used all around the world (e.g., ENDF/B‑VI in the US, JEF‑2.2 in Europe, JENDL‑3.2 in Japan, BROND‑2.2 in Russia), NJOY gives its users access to a wide variety of the most up‑to‑date nuclear data. NJOY provides comprehensivemore » capabilities for processing evaluated data, and it can serve applications ranging from continuous‑energy Monte Carlo (MCNP), through deterministic transport codes (DANT, ANISN, DORT), to reactor lattice codes (WIMS, EPRI). NJOY handles a wide variety of nuclear effects, including resonances, Doppler broadening, heating (KERMA), radiation damage, thermal scattering (even cold moderators), gas production, neutrons and charged particles, photoatomic interactions, self shielding, probability tables, photon production, and high‑energy interactions (to 150 MeV). Output can include printed listings, special library files for applications, and Postscript graphics (plus color).« less

  8. The Contribution of Ionizing Starts to the Far-Infrared and Radio Emission in the Milky Way: Evidence for a Swept-up Shell and Diffuse Ionized Halo Around the W4 Chimney/Supershell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, Susan; Oliversen, R. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Normandeau have proposed that W4 is a galactic chimney, the only chimney to-date identified in our Galaxy. Using the recent approx. 1 min resolution IGA (Infrared Galaxy Atlas) and DRAO (Dominion Royal Astrophysical Observatory) CGPS (Canadian Galactic Plane Survey) galactic plane surveys we analyze the far-infrared and radio structure of the W 4 chimney/supershell. We show W4 has a swept-up partially ionized shell of gas and dust which is powered by the OCl 352 star cluster. Analysis of the dust column density establishes there is dense interstellar material below the shell, directly showing the dense material which caused the lower shell expansion to stall. Due to much lower densities above the Galactic plane, the upper W4 shell achieved 'breakout' to form a Galactic chimney. Although the shell appears ionization bounded, it is very inhomogenous and an ionized halo provides evidence of significant Lyman continuum leakage. A large fraction of the OCl 352 cluster photons escape to large distances and are available to ionize the WIM (warm ionized medium) component of the interstellar medium.

  9. Rapid emergence of massive temperature monitoring networks in streams and rivers across North America (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaak, D.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal regimes in streams and rivers are fundamentally important to aquatic ecosystems and are monitored by resource agencies to determine regulatory compliance. The advent of miniature digital temperature sensors in the early 1990s has resulted in a steady increase in the amount of temperature data collected across North America. Recent concerns about climate change and other forms of broad environmental degradation have stimulated regional data compilation efforts (e.g., NorWeST: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/boise/AWAE/projects/NorWeST.html; NorEaST: http://wim.usgs.gov/NorEaST/) and these 'found' databases sometimes constitute 1,000,000s of temperature recordings at 1,000s of unique stream sites. These same concerns are accelerating expansion of monitoring efforts to many areas where data are sparse and an informal, continental scale monitoring network is rapidly emerging. Temperature sensor records are a particularly rich information source because they consist of hourly measurements over periods ranging from several months to many years. The 'thermal pulse' of North American streams is readily apparent in these records as regular cycles shown at daily, seasonal, annual, and decadal time-scales but cardiac irregularities are also apparent due to long-term trends from climate change and ongoing urbanization. The massive amounts of stream temperature data now in existence provide significant opportunities to describe, understand, and predict the health of stream thermal regimes at unprecedented spatial scales and temporal resolutions.

  10. Analysis of Yearly Traffic Fluctuation on Latvian Highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freimanis, A.; Paeglı¯tis, A.

    2015-11-01

    Average annual daily traffic and average annual truck traffic are two most used metrics for road management decisions. They are calculated from data gathered by continuous counting stations embedded in road pavement, manual counting sessions or mobile counting devices. Last two usually do not last longer than a couple of weeks so the information gathered is influenced by yearly traffic fluctuations. Data containing a total of 8,186,871 vehicles or 1989 days from 4 WIM stations installed on highways in Latvia were used in this study. Each of the files was supposed to contain data from only 1 day and additional data were deleted. No other data cleaning steps were performed, which increased the number of vehicles as counting systems sometimes split vehicles into two. Weekly traffic and weekly truck traffic was normalized against respective average values. Each weekly value was then plotted against its number in a year for better visual perception. Weekly traffic amplitudes were used to assess differences between different locations and standard deviations for fluctuation comparison of truck and regular traffic at the same location. Results show that truck traffic fluctuates more than regular traffic during a year, especially around holidays. Differences between counting locations were larger for regular traffic than truck traffic. These results show that average annual daily traffic could be influenced more if short term counting results are adjusted by factors derived from unsuitable continuous counting stations, but truck traffic is more influenced by the time of year in which counting is done.

  11. Preface to the CJEP special section on numerical cognition.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jamie I D

    2016-03-01

    This editorial explains the special section of the CJEP on numerical cognition, which is an outcome of the 33rd meeting of the Banff Annual Seminar in Cognitive Science (BASICS) held in May, 2014. The importance of numeracy to modern societies can hardly be overemphasised. We are immersed in numbers and basic calculations every day and rely heavily on technologies that would be impossible without sophisticated mathematical knowledge. In the world's increasingly computer-based technological economy, numeracy is at least as important to socioeconomic opportunities as literacy, although the latter has historically received far more research attention. Over the last four decades, however, there has been a major escalation of research in the behavioural and brain sciences directed to understanding numeracy skills. This research intersects numerous subfields including cognitive and neurological development, educational psychology, computational modelling, animal cognition, neuropsychology, as well as cognitive science and neuroscience, including brain imaging and brain stimulation research. This conference provided an opportunity for Jo-Anne LeFevre (see record 2016-09785-002), Daniel Ansari (see record 2016-09785-003), Patrick Lemaire (see record 2015-41950-001), Wim Fias and Jean-Philippe van Dijck (see record 2016-09785-004), and Roi Cohen Kadosh (see record 2016-09785-005) to talk about their research in big-picture fashion. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26913780

  12. Laboratory spectroscopy of Mars Analogue materials and latest field results from Iceland and Eifel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offringa, Marloes; Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    We have established a collection of samples, and measured them in the laboratory towards a spectrometric database that could be used as a reference for future orbital or in situ measurements. We are using systematically for all samples UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers, and sporadically a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer and a Raman laser spectrometer on control samples. We also used a documented set of Moon-Mars relevant minerals curated at VU Amsterdam, as well as samples retrieved from Mars analogue campaigns in Utah (Foing et al., 2011, 2016), Iceland (Mid-Atlantic ridge spreading and magma-ice interaction), La Réunion hot spot volcano and Eifel volcanic region (mixed hotspot and melt-ascent through crust fractures) from recent campaigns in 2015 and 2016.. We discuss samples spectral diagnostics of volcanic processes and hydrous alterations that can inform recent or upcoming measurements from Mars orbit or in situ rovers. Acknowledgements: we thank Dominic Doyle for ESTEC optical lab support, Euan Monaghan (Leiden U) for FTIR measurement support, Wim van Westrenen for access to VU samples, Oscar Kamps (Utrecht U), Aidan Cowley (EAC) and Matthias Sperl (DLR) for support discussions

  13. Full core analysis of IRIS reactor by using MCNPX.

    PubMed

    Amin, E A; Bashter, I I; Hassan, Nabil M; Mustafa, S S

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes neutronic analysis for fresh fuelled IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor by MCNPX code. The analysis included criticality calculations, radial power and axial power distribution, nuclear peaking factor and axial offset percent at the beginning of fuel cycle. The effective multiplication factor obtained by MCNPX code is compared with previous calculations by HELIOS/NESTLE, CASMO/SIMULATE, modified CORD-2 nodal calculations and SAS2H/KENO-V code systems. It is found that k-eff value obtained by MCNPX is closer to CORD-2 value. The radial and axial powers are compared with other published results carried out using SAS2H/KENO-V code. Moreover, the WIMS-D5 code is used for studying the effect of enriched boron in form of ZrB2 on the effective multiplication factor (K-eff) of the fuel pin. In this part of calculation, K-eff is calculated at different concentrations of Boron-10 in mg/cm at different stages of burnup of unit cell. The results of this part are compared with published results performed by HELIOS code. PMID:27135607

  14. Developpement d'une methode hybride pour le suivi du coeur et la gestion du combustible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenette, Eric

    The nuclear industry of CANDU reactors uses neutron physics methodologies (core follow-up, fuel management) that are considered out of date and do not reflect the latest developments in the field of neutronics. For instance, the software used by the reactor physics team in Gentilly-2, HQSIMEX 3, uses macroscopic cross sections ("grid-based" approach) calculated by two methods: (1) The "four factors" formula, an obsolete technique used in 1950; (2) The WIMS software, based on a microscopic cross section library. Among other method, the history-based approach is considered more precise but requires greater computing time. Processing a whole CANDU core follow-up through the history-based approach is not possible as of today with the actual computers, due to computing cost issues. The main goal of this research is to come up with a new strategy that will combine the interpolation technique of the "grid-based approach" with the isotopic depletion follow-up of the "history-based" approach.

  15. Prerana: a success story.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Prerana-Associate CEDPA, a women- and youth-focused community organization headquartered in New Delhi, has expanded its program activities with recent grants from two leading donors, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation. CEDPA provides important support through grants from The Xerox Foundation, The Turner Foundation, World Bank, and the US Agency for International Development. Founded in 1976, Prerana--whose name means "Inspiration" in Hindi--has grown steadily as knowledge of its comprehensive community-based program has spread. The organization conducts the CEDPA Better Life Options health, education, and vocational skills programs for girls and young women, maternal and child health services, and integrated community-based family planning. A parallel Better Life Options program for boys and young men was recently started. With almost 20 years of experience in the private sector, Prerana provides training and assistance to other private organizations. Prerana's Better Life Options program received international recognition in UNFPA's "The State of World Population 1994." The publication featured an article by a young Indian woman who participated in the program and as a result was able to develop life skills, improve her self-esteem, and, with her husband, decide to delay parenthood. "This success story," said Prerana Executive Director Dr. Uma Agarwal (WIM 29), "is being repeated by many other girls who find support at Prerana." PMID:12288432

  16. EDITORIAL: CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodonov, Victor V.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2010-09-01

    QED. Another rapidly growing research field (although its origin can be traced to the beginning of the 1980s) is the quantum control of evolution at the microscopic level. These examples show that quantum non-stationary systems continue to be a living and very interesting part of quantum physics, uniting researchers from many different areas. Thus it is no mere chance that several special scientific meetings devoted to these topics have been organized recently. One was the international seminar 'Time-Dependent Phenomena in Quantum Mechanics' organized by Manfred Kleber and Tobias Kramer in 2007 at Blaubeuren, Germany. The proceedings of that event were published in 2008 as volume 99 of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Another recent meeting was the International Workshop on Quantum Non-Stationary Systems, held on 19-23 October 2009 at the International Center for Condensed Matter Physics (ICCMP) in Brasilia, Brazil. It was organized and directed by Victor Dodonov (Institute of Physics, University of Brasilia, Brazil), Vladimir Man'ko (P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia) and Salomon Mizrahi (Physics Department, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Brazil). This event was accompanied by a satellite workshop 'Quantum Dynamics in Optics and Matter', organized by Salomon Mizrahi and Victor Dodonov on 25-26 October 2009 at the Physics Department of the Federal University of Sao Carlos, Brazil. These two workshops, supported by the Brazilian federal agencies CAPES and CNPq and the local agencies FAP-DF and FAPESP, were attended by more than 120 participants from 16 countries. Almost 50 invited talks and 20 poster presentations covered a wide area of research in quantum mechanics, quantum optics and quantum information. This special issue of CAMOP/Physica Scripta contains contributions presented by some invited speakers and participants of the workshop in Brasilia. Although they do not cover all of the wide spectrum of problems related to quantum non

  17. Design and Dynamic Performance of a Small Water Cooled Reactor Fuelled with Plutonium in Rock-Like Oxide (ROX) Form

    SciTech Connect

    Gaultier, M.; Danguy, G.; Ritchie, D.; Williams, A.; Thompson, A.; Brushwood, J.; Beeley, P.A.; Greenlees, L.; Perry, A.

    2006-07-01

    The results of a design study for a small water-cooled reactor with plutonium fuel in a rock like oxide (ROX) form are reported. A summary is given of the five study areas, Physics, Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, Navalisation and Dynamics, and Shielding and Decommissioning. The dynamics simulation for the whole plant is then described in more detail. The physics of the fuel module is studied using the WIMS suite of deterministic codes with selected computations checked with the Monte-Carlo code MONK. Whole core calculations are undertaken with the WIMS/SNAP code. Essential parameters are provided to the other study areas including reactivity feedback coefficients for the Dynamics. The Thermal Hydraulic design aims to remove the required maximum power using pumped flow and also to provide significant power removal using natural circulation. The major components of the primary circuit are sized and flow rates in pumped and natural circulation calculated by hand and by using the TRACPFQ code. This information is also used in the dynamics study. Further details of the Physics and Thermal hydraulics studies will be given at PHYSOR 2006. The materials study is being published elsewhere, but a brief description of the temperature and stress calculations for the fuel pellet performed with the ABACUS finite element code is given. Navalisation and dynamics of the plant are examined. The power requirements for the plant are estimated and a suitable electric propulsion system is proposed and sized. A whole plant model is built using the AcslXtreme computer package in which a block diagram of the system is constructed via a graphical interface and simulations of the system transients are produced. The block diagram for the whole system is described followed by the describing equations for the major blocks representing neutron kinetics, fuel element heat transfer, thermal hydraulics of the primary circuit and of the steam generators. Also included are describing equations for

  18. Hydrodynamics of Cloud Collisions in Two Dimensions: The Fate of Clouds in a Multiphase Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miniati, Francesco; Jones, T. W.; Ferrara, Andrea; Ryu, Dongsu

    1997-12-01

    We have studied head-on collisions between equal-mass, mildly supersonic H I clouds (Mach number 1.5 with respect to the background medium) through high-resolution numerical simulations in two dimensions. We explore the role of various factors, including the radiative cooling parameter, η = τrad/τcoll (τcoll = Rc/vc), evolutionary modifications on the cloud structure, and the symmetry of the problem. Self-gravity is not included. Radiative losses are taken into account explicitly and not approximated with an isothermal adiabatic index γ ~ 1, which, in fact, leads to very different results. We assume a standard two-phase interstellar medium (ISM) model where clouds are characterized by a temperature Tc = 74 K and number density nc = 22 cm-3 and are in pressure equilibrium with the surrounding warm intercloud medium (WIM), with a density contrast χ = ρc/ρi = 100. In particular, we study collisions for the adiabatic (η >> 1) and radiative (η = 0.38) cases that may correspond to small (Rc <= 0.4 pc for an assumed WIM) or large (Rc ~ 1.5 pc) clouds, respectively. In addition to a standard case of identical ``nonevolved'' clouds, we also consider the collision of identical clouds, ``evolved'' through independent motion within the intercloud gas, over one crushing time before collision. This turns out to be about the mean collision time for such clouds in the ISM. The presence of bow shocks and ram pressure from material in the cloud wake alters these interactions significantly with respect to the standard case. In some cases, we removed the mirror symmetry from the problem by colliding initially identical clouds ``evolved'' to different ages before impact. In those cases, the colliding clouds have different density and velocity structures, so that they provide a first insight on the behavior of more complex interactions. In our adiabatic collisions, the clouds are generally disrupted and convert their gas into the warm phase of the ISM. Although the details

  19. Restoration Materials and Secondary Caries Using an In Vitro Biofilm Model

    PubMed Central

    van de Sande, F.H.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; de Soet, J.J.; Cenci, M.S.; Huysmans, M.C.D.J.N.M.

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated whether restoration materials and adhesives influence secondary caries formation in gaps using a short-term in vitro biofilm model. Sixty enamel–dentin blocks were restored with 6 different restoration materials with or without adhesives (n = 10 per group) with a gap: 1) Clearfil AP-X composite, 2) Clearfil AP-X composite + SE Bond, 3) Clearfil AP-X composite + ProtectBond, 4) Filtek Silorane composite, 5) Filtek Silorane composite + Silorane System adhesive, or 6) Tytin amalgam. Specimens were subjected to an intermittent 1% sucrose biofilm model for 20 days to create artificial caries lesions. Lesion progression in the enamel–dentin next to the different materials was measured in lesion depth (LD) and mineral loss (ML) using transversal wavelength independent microradiography (T-WIM). A regression analysis was used to compare the LD and ML of the different restoration materials at 4 measurement locations: 1 location at the surface of the enamel, 1 location at the wall of the enamel, and 2 locations at the wall of the dentin. A statistically significant effect of AP-X composite with Protect Bond was found for LD and ML at the WallDentin1 location, leading to less advanced wall lesions. An additional finding was that gap size was also statistically significant at the 2 wall locations in dentin, leading to increasing lesion progression with wider gaps. In conclusion, adhesives can influence wall lesion development in gaps. Protect Bond showed significantly less caries progression compared to bare restoration materials or other adhesives in this short-term in vitro biofilm model. PMID:25297114

  20. Preliminary Analysis of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) with PROTEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Connaway, H. M.; Lee, C. H.

    2015-11-30

    The neutron transport code PROTEUS has been used to perform preliminary simulations of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT). TREAT is an experimental reactor designed for the testing of nuclear fuels and other materials under transient conditions. It operated from 1959 to 1994, when it was placed on non-operational standby. The restart of TREAT to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s resumption of transient testing is currently underway. Both single assembly and assembly-homogenized full core models have been evaluated. Simulations were performed using a historic set of WIMS-ANL-generated cross-sections as well as a new set of Serpent-generated cross-sections. To support this work, further analyses were also performed using additional codes in order to investigate particular aspects of TREAT modeling. DIF3D and the Monte-Carlo codes MCNP and Serpent were utilized in these studies. MCNP and Serpent were used to evaluate the effect of geometry homogenization on the simulation results and to support code-to-code comparisons. New meshes for the PROTEUS simulations were created using the CUBIT toolkit, with additional meshes generated via conversion of selected DIF3D models to support code-to-code verifications. All current analyses have focused on code-to-code verifications, with additional verification and validation studies planned. The analysis of TREAT with PROTEUS-SN is an ongoing project. This report documents the studies that have been performed thus far, and highlights key challenges to address in future work.

  1. Formal definition and dating of the GSSP (Global Stratotype Section and Point) for the base of the Holocene using the Greenland NGRIP ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, S. O.

    2009-04-01

    The Greenland ice core from NorthGRIP (NGRIP) contains a proxy climate record across the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary of unprecedented clarity and resolution. Analysis of an array of physical and chemical parameters within the ice enables the base of the Holocene, as reflected in the first signs of climatic warming at the end of the Younger Dryas/Greenland Stadial 1 cold phase, to be located with a high degree of precision. This climatic event is most clearly reflected in an abrupt shift in deuterium excess values, accompanied by more gradual changes in ^18O, dust concentration, a range of chemical species, and annual layer thickness. A timescale based on multi-parameter annual layer counting provides an age of 11,700 calendar yr b2k (before AD 2000) for the base of the Holocene, with a maximum counting error of 99 yr. A proposal that an archived core from this unique sequence should constitute the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Holocene Series/Epoch (Quaternary System/Period) has been ratified by the International Union of Geological Sciences. The results have been published in Journal of Quaternary Science vol. 24(1), pp. 3-17, 2009 by an author team consisting of Mike Walker, Sigfus Johnsen, Sune Olander Rasmussen, Trevor Popp, Jørgen-Peder Steffensen, Phil Gibbard, Wim Hoek, John Lowe, John Andrews, Svante Björck, Les C. Cwynar, Konrad Hughen, Peter Kershaw, Bernd Kromer, Thomas Litt, David J. Lowe, Takeshi Nakagawa, Rewi Newnham, and Jakob Schwander. The poster presents the definition and the underlying data.

  2. Laboratory and Field Spectroscopy of Moon analogue material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offringa, Marloes; Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    Samples derived from terrestrial analogue sites are studied to gain insight into lunar processes in their geological context (Foing, Stoker, Ehrenfreund, 2011). For this study samples from the volcanic region of the Eifel, Germany collected during our latest field campaigns in November 2015 and February 2016 (Foing et al., 2010), are analyzed with a variety of spectrometers. The aim is to obtain a database of analyzed samples that could be used as a reference for future in situ measurements. We also use a documented set of Moon-Mars relevant minerals curated at VU Amsterdam. We are using systematically for all samples UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers, and sporadically a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer and a Raman laser spectrometer on control samples. Calibration of the UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers is the main focus of this research in order to obtain the clearest spectra. The calibration of the UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers requires the use of a good light source as well as suitable optical fibers to create a signal that covers the widest range in wavelengths available. To eliminate noise towards the edges of this range, multiple measurements are averaged and data is processed by dividing the signal by reference spectra. Obtained spectra can be tested for accuracy by comparing them with stationary laboratory spectrometers such as the FTIR spectrometer. The Raman, UV-VIS and NIR are also used in combination with the ExoGeoLab mock-up lander during field campaigns (Foing, Stoker, Ehrenfreund, 2011) also brought again to Eifel in February 2016, to prove the applicability of the equipment in the field. Acknowledgements: we thank Dominic Doyle for ESTEC optical lab support, Euan Monaghan (Leiden U) for FTIR measurement support, Wim van Westrenen for access to VU samples, Oscar Kamps (Utrecht U./ESTEC), Aidan Cowley (EAC) and Matthias Sperl (DLR) for support discussions

  3. Analyses of Weapons-Grade MOX VVER-1000 Neutronics Benchmarks: Pin-Cell Calculations with SCALE/SAS2H

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.J.

    2001-01-11

    A series of unit pin-cell benchmark problems have been analyzed related to irradiation of mixed oxide fuel in VVER-1000s (water-water energetic reactors). One-dimensional, discrete-ordinates eigenvalue calculations of these benchmarks were performed at ORNL using the SAS2H control sequence module of the SCALE-4.3 computational code system, as part of the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) of the US DOE. Calculations were also performed using the SCALE module CSAS to confirm the results. The 238 neutron energy group SCALE nuclear data library 238GROUPNDF5 (based on ENDF/B-V) was used for all calculations. The VVER-1000 pin-cell benchmark cases modeled with SAS2H included zero-burnup calculations for eight fuel material variants (from LEU UO{sub 2} to weapons-grade MOX) at five different reactor states, and three fuel depletion cases up to high burnup. Results of the SAS2H analyses of the VVER-1000 neutronics benchmarks are presented in this report. Good general agreement was obtained between the SAS2H results, the ORNL results using HELIOS-1.4 with ENDF/B-VI nuclear data, and the results from several Russian benchmark studies using the codes TVS-M, MCU-RFFI/A, and WIMS-ABBN. This SAS2H benchmark study is useful for the verification of HELIOS calculations, the HELIOS code being the principal computational tool at ORNL for physics studies of assembly design for weapons-grade plutonium disposition in Russian reactors.

  4. The Production of Polyclonal Antibodies in Laboratory Animals. The Report and Recommendations of ECVAM Workshop 35.

    PubMed

    Leenaars, P P; Hendriksen, C F; de Leeuw, W A; Carat, F; Delahaut, P; Fischer, R; Halder, M; Hanly, W C; Hartinger, J; Hau, J; Lindblad, E B; Nicklas, W; Outschoorn, I M; Stewart-Tull, D E

    1999-01-01

    This is the report of the thirty-fifth of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM's main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become well informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal test development and validation, and the potential for the possible incorporation of alternative tests into regulatory procedures. It was decided that this would be best achieved by the organisation of ECVAM workshops on specific topics, at which small groups of invited experts would review the current status of various types of in vitro tests and their potential uses, and make recommendations about the best ways forward (1). This joint ECVAM/FELASA (Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations) workshop on The Immunisation of Laboratory Animals for the Production of Polyclonal Antibodies was held in Utrecht (The Netherlands), on 20-22 March 1998, under the co-chairmanship of Coenraad Hendriksen (RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands) and Wim de Leeuw (Inspectorate for Health Protection, The Netherlands). The participants, all experts in the fields of immunology, laboratory animal science, or regulation, came from universities, industry and regulatory bodies. The aims of the workshop were: a) to discuss and evaluate current immunisation procedures for the production of polyclonal antibodies (including route of injection, animal species and adjuvant ); and b) to draft recommendations and guidelines to improve the immunisation procedures, with regard both to animal welfare and to the optimisation of immunisation protocols. This report summarises the outcome of the discussions and includes

  5. Lattice cell and full core physics of internally cooled annular fuel in heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, J.; Hamilton, H.; Hyland, B.

    2013-07-01

    A program is underway at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to develop a new fuel bundle concept to enable greater burnups for PT-HWR (pressure tube heavy water reactor) cores. One option that AECL is investigating is an internally cooled annular fuel (ICAF) element concept. ICAF contains annular cylindrical pellets with cladding on the inner and outer diameters. Coolant flows along the outside of the element and through the centre. With such a concept, the maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating is significantly reduced compared to conventional, solid-rod type fuel. The preliminary ICAF bundle concept considered in this study contains 24 half-metre long internally cooled annular fuel elements and one non-fuelled centre pin. The introduction of the non-fuelled centre pin reduces the coolant void reactivity (CVR), which is the increase in reactivity that occurs on voiding the coolant in accident scenarios. Lattice cell and full core physics calculations of the preliminary ICAF fuel bundle concept have been performed for medium burnups of approximately 18 GWd/tU using WIMS-AECL and reactor fuel simulation program (RFSP). The results will be used to assist in concept configuration optimization. The effects of radial and axial core power distributions, linear element power ratings, refuelling rates and operational power ramps have been analyzed. The results suggest that burnups of greater than 18 GWd/tU can be achieved in current reactor designs. At approximately 18 GWd/tU, expected maximum linear element ratings in a PT-HWR with online-refuelling are approximately 90 kW/m. These conditions would be prohibitive for solid-rod fuel, but may be possible in ICAF fuel given the reduced maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating. (authors)

  6. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  7. Massive Stars and the Ionization of the Diffuse Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahre, Lauren E.; Walterbos, Rene A. M.

    2015-08-01

    Diffuse ionized Gas (DIG, sometimes called the warm ionized medium or WIM) has been recognized as a major component of the interstellar medium (ISM) in disk galaxies. A general understanding of the characteristics of the DIG is emerging, but several questions remain unanswered. One of these is the ionization mechanism for this gas, believed to be connected to OB stars and HII regions. Using 5-band (NUV (2750 A), U, V, B, and I) photometric imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Legacy Extragalactic Ultraviolet Survey (LEGUS) and ground-based Halpha data from the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey and HST Halpha data from LEGUS, we will investigate the photoionization of HII regions and DIG in nearly 50 galaxies. The 5-band photometry will enable us to determine properties of the most massive stars and reddening corrections for specific regions within a galaxy. Luminosities and ages for groups and clusters will be obtained from SED-fitting of photometric data. For individual stars ages will be determined from isochrone-fitting using reddening-corrected color-magnitude diagrams. We can then obtain estimates of the ionizing luminosities by matching these photometric properties for massive stars and clusters to various stellar atmosphere models. We will compare these predictions to the inferred Lyman continuum production rates from reddening-corrected ground- and HST-based Halpha data for HII regions and DIG. This particular presentation will demonstrate the above process for a set of selected regions in galaxies within the LEGUS sample. It will subsequently be expanded to cover the full LEGUS sample, with the overall goals of obtaining a better understanding of the radiative energy feedback from massive stars on the ISM, particularly their ability to ionize the surrounding ISM over a wide range of spatial scales and SFR surface densities, and to connect the ionization of the ISM to HII region morphologies.

  8. A history of coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Losowsky, M S

    2008-01-01

    Coeliac disease may have an ancient history dating back to the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The first clear description was given by Samuel Gee in 1888. He suggested that dietary treatment might be of benefit. In the early 20th century various diets were tried, with some success, but without clear recognition of the toxic components. The doctoral thesis of Wim Dicke of 1950 established that exclusion of wheat, rye and oats from the diet led to dramatic improvement. The toxicity was shown to be a protein component, referred to as gluten. Dicke's colleagues, Weijers and Van de Kamer, showed that measurement of stool fat reflected the clinical condition. Early studies were in children but stool fat measurements documented that the condition could be recognised in adults. Histological abnormalities of the lining of the small intestine were demonstrated beyond doubt by Paulley in 1954 and techniques of per-oral biopsy described by Royer in 1955 and Shiner in 1956 afforded reliable diagnosis. Concurrence in monozygotic twins suggested a genetic component, confirmed by studies of HLA antigens. Additional, non-genetic factors seem likely. Circulating antibodies suggest an immunological mechanism of damage and provide non-invasive screening tests. Lymphoma, adenocarcinoma and ulceration of the small intestine and a range of immunological disorders are associated. A relationship with dermatitis herpetiformis was suggested by Samman in 1955 and established by Shuster and Marks in 1965 and 1968. The Coeliac Society (now Coeliac UK) was founded in 1968 and similar societies now exist across the world. They provide an extremely valuable service. Present problems include definition of the tolerated levels of gluten, whether oats are toxic for some or all coeliacs and the likelihood that the condition is relatively common and frequently without classical symptoms. Hope for the future is that more convenient methods of treatment will follow better understanding. PMID:18431060

  9. The behaviour of transuranic mixed oxide fuel in a Candu-900 reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Morreale, A. C.; Ball, M. R.; Novog, D. R.; Luxat, J. C.

    2012-07-01

    The production of transuranic actinide fuels for use in current thermal reactors provides a useful intermediary step in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Extraction of actinides reduces the longevity, radiation and heat loads of spent material. The burning of transuranic fuels in current reactors for a limited amount of cycles reduces the infrastructure demand for fast reactors and provides an effective synergy that can result in a reduction of as much as 95% of spent fuel waste while reducing the fast reactor infrastructure needed by a factor of almost 13.5 [1]. This paper examines the features of actinide mixed oxide fuel, TRUMOX, in a CANDU{sup R}* nuclear reactor. The actinide concentrations used were based on extraction from 30 year cooled spent fuel and mixed with natural uranium in 3.1 wt% actinide MOX fuel. Full lattice cell modeling was performed using the WIMS-AECL code, super-cell calculations were analyzed in DRAGON and full core analysis was executed in the RFSP 2-group diffusion code. A time-average full core model was produced and analyzed for reactor coefficients, reactivity device worth and online fuelling impacts. The standard CANDU operational limits were maintained throughout operations. The TRUMOX fuel design achieved a burnup of 27.36 MWd/kg HE. A full TRUMOX fuelled CANDU was shown to operate within acceptable limits and provided a viable intermediary step for burning actinides. The recycling, reprocessing and reuse of spent fuels produces a much more sustainable and efficient nuclear fuel cycle. (authors)

  10. Characterizing the Dust-Correlated Anomalous Emission in LDN 1622

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Kieran; Casassus, Simon; Dickinson, Clive; Lawrence, Charles; Sakon, Itsuki

    2008-03-01

    The search for 'dust-correlated microwave emission' was started by the surprising excess correlation of COBE-DMR maps, at 31.5, 53 and 91GHz, with DIRBE dust emission at 140 microns. It was first thought to be Galactic free-free emission from the Warm Ionized Medium (WIM). However, Leitch et al. (1997) ruled out a link with free-free by comparing with Halpha templates and first confirmed the anomalous nature of this emission. Since then, this emission has been detected by a number of experiments in the frequency range 5-60 GHz. The most popular explanation is emission from ultra-small spinning dust grains (first postulated by Erickson, 1957), which is expected to have a spectrum that is highly peaked at about 20 GHz. Spinning dust models appear to be broadly consistent with microwave data at high latitudes, but the data have not been conclusive, mainly due to the difficulty of foreground separation in CMB data. LDN 1622 is a dark cloud that lies within the Orion East molecular cloud at a distance of 120 pc. Recent cm-wave observations, in combination with WMAP data, have verified the detection of anomalous dust-correlated emission in LDN 1622. This mid-IR-cm correlation in LDN 1622 is currently the only observational evidence that very small grains VSG emit at GHz frequencies. We propose a programme of spectroscopic observations of LDN 1622 with Spitzer IRS to address the following questions: (i) Are the IRAS 12 and 25 microns bands tracing VSG emission in LDN 1622? (ii) What Mid-IR features and continuum bands best correlate with the cm-wave emission? and (iii) How do the dust properties vary with the cm-wave emission? These questions have important implications for high-sensitivity CMB experiments.

  11. Long-term subsidence, cooling, and exhumation history along the South Atlantic passive continental margin in NW-Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menges, Daniel; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton; Salomon, Eric; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; Schneider, Gabi

    2016-04-01

    has been estimated to ~ 2.7 km in the northeastern and ~ 4 km in the western Kaoko Belt. References 1. Miller, R.McG. Becker, T., 2008. The Geology of Namibia: Ministry of Mines and Energy, Geological Survey (Namibia). 2. Stollhofen, H., 1999. Karoo Synrift-Sedimentation und ihre tektonische Kontrolle am entstehenden Kontinentalrand Namibias: Z.dt.geol.Ges. 149: 519-632. 3. Renne, P.R., Glen, J.M., Milner, S.C., Duncan, A.R., 1996. Age of Etendeka flood volcanism and associated intrusions in southwestern Africa: Geology 24 (7): 659- 662. 4. Salomon, E., Koehn, D., Passchier, C., 2014. Brittle reactivation of ductile shear zones in NW Namibia in relation to South Atlantic rifting: Tectonics 34, 70-85.

  12. From telepathology to virtual pathology institution: the new world of digital pathology.

    PubMed

    Kayser, K; Kayser, G; Radziszowski, D; Oehmann, A

    Telepathology has left its childhood. Its technical development is mature, and its use for primary (frozen section) and secondary (expert consultation) diagnosis has been expanded to a great amount. This is in contrast to a virtual pathology laboratory, which is still under technical constraints. Similar to telepathology, which can also be used for e-learning and e-training in pathology, as exemplarily is demonstrated on Digital Lung Pathology (Klaus.Kayser@charite.de) at least two kinds of virtual pathology laboratories will be implemented in the near future: a) those with distributed pathologists and distributed (> or = 1) laboratories associated to individual biopsy stations/surgical theatres, and b) distributed pathologists (usually situated in one institution) and a centralized laboratory, which digitizes complete histological slides. Both scenarios are under intensive technical investigations. The features of virtual pathology comprise a virtual pathology institution (mode a) that accepts a complete case with the patient's history, clinical findings, and (pre-selected) images for first diagnosis. The diagnostic responsibility is that of a conventional institution. The Internet serves as platform for information transfer, and an open server such as the iPATH (http://telepath.patho.unibas.ch) for coordination and performance of the diagnostic procedure. The size and number of transferred images have to be limited, and usual different magnifications have to be used. The sender needs to possess experiences in image sampling techniques, which present with the most significant information. A group of pathologists is "on duty", or selects one member for a predefined duty period. The diagnostic statement of the pathologist(s) on duty is retransmitted to the sender with full responsibility. The first experiences of a virtual pathology institution group working with the iPATH server working with a small hospital of the Salomon islands are promising. A centralized

  13. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  14. Quantifying loss and damage from anthropogenic climate change - Bridging the gap between two research communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, F. E. L.

    2015-12-01

    The science of attribution of meteorological events to anthropogenic causes has for the first time been included in the latest assessment of the Physical Science Basis of the Climate, (WGI), of the Fifth IPCC Assessment Report AR5 (Stocker et al., 2013). At the same time there is a very rapidly growing body of literature on climate change and its impact on economy, society and environment but apart from very few exemptions no link is made to the causes of these changes. Observed changes in hydrological variables, agriculture, biodiversity and the built environment have been attributed to a changing climate, whether these changes are the result of natural variability or external forcings (Cramer et al., 2014). While the research community represented in WGI assesses whether, and to what extent, recent extreme weather events can be attributed to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols, the research community of impact specialists asks how climatic changes lead to different impacts largely independent of the causes of such changes. This distinction becomes potentially very relevant with respect to the 2013 established the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) to address loss and damage from the impacts of climate change in developing countries under the UNFCCC climate change negotiations. Currently there is no discussion what consists of loss and damage and the reasons for this inexistence of a definition are not primarily scientific but political however, the absence of a definition could potentially lead to absurd consequences if funds in the context of loss and damage would be redistributed, as e.g. suggested, for all low risk high impact events. Here we present the implications of discussed definitions of loss and damage (Huggel et al. 2015) and how scientific evidence could be included. Cramer et al. (2014) Detection and Attribution of Observed Impacts. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability Contribution of WG 2 to AR5 of

  15. The near boiling reactor: Conceptual design of a small inherently safe nuclear reactor to extend the operational capability of the Victoria Class submarine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Christopher J. P.

    Nuclear power has several unique advantages over other air independent energy sources for nuclear combat submarines. An inherently safe, small nuclear reactor, capable of supply the hotel load of the Victoria Class submarines, has been conceptually developed. The reactor is designed to complement the existing diesel electric power generation plant presently onboard the submarine. The reactor, rated at greater than 1 MW thermal, will supply electricity to the submarine's batteries through an organic Rankine cycle energy conversion plant at 200 kW. This load will increase the operational envelope of the submarine by providing up to 28 continuous days submerged, allowing for an enhanced indiscretion ratio (ratio of time spent on the surface versus time submerged) and a limited under ice capability. The power plant can be fitted into the existing submarine by inserting a 6 m hull plug. With its simplistic design and inherent safety features, the reactor plant will require a minimal addition to the crew. The reactor employs TRISO fuel particles for increased safety. The light water coolant remains at atmospheric pressure, exiting the core at 96°C. Burn-up control and limiting excess reactivity is achieved through movable reflector plates. Shut down and regulatory control is achieved through the thirteen hafnium control rods. Inherent safety is achieved through the negative prompt and delayed temperature coefficients, as well as the negative void coefficient. During a transient, the boiling of the moderator results in a sudden drop in reactivity, essentially shutting down the reactor. It is this characteristic after which the reactor has been named. The design of the reactor was achieved through modelling using computer codes such as MCNP5, WIMS-AECL, FEMLAB, and MicroShield5, in addition to specially written software for kinetics, heat transfer and fission product poisoning calculations. The work has covered a broad area of research and has highlighted additional areas

  16. Evaluation of snow dynamics modelling on a pixel scale using terrestrial photography and Ensemble Transform Kalman Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Rafael; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    Snow plays a crucial role in the hydrological regime in mountainous catchments, which increases in semiarid regions, where the recurrence of drought period makes it necessary to accurate the determination of the water availability from the snowpack. Physically based approaches constitute one of the best ways to reproduce the snow dynamics over these highly variable conditions. Moreover, they allow further understanding the processes involved, the snowpack behaviour and evolution. However, in some cases the complexity of the modelled process and the non-availability of all the required data for such models, avoid a correct representation of certain aspects. In these cases, data assimilation techniques can help to improve model performance and may also act as an indirect tool to understand the represented processes. This work assesses snow dynamics on a pixel scale (30x30m) in a Mediterranean site (Sierra Nevada Mountain, southern Spain) combining physical snow modelling (WiMMed, a physically based hydrological model developed for Mediterranean environments), ground sensing information (terrestrial photography) and data assimilation techniques (Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter), throughout a study period of two hydrological years: 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. Snow cover fraction and averaged snow depth were obtained from the terrestrial photography images and used as observations in the assimilation scheme. The model performance was evaluated using different combinations of the variables assimilated: 1) only snow cover fraction, 2) only snow depth, 3) and both variables. The results show how the assimilation enhances the model performance. This improvement is higher if the variable assimilated is snow depth, with RMSE= 0.14 m2m‑2and RMSE=12.16 mm for snow cover and snow depth respectively. However, this enhancement varies throughout the study period. During short snowmelt cycles, for example, the assimilation of the snow cover fraction is the most efficient

  17. "Assessment of identity during adolescence using daily diary methods: Measurement invariance across time and sex": Correction to Becht et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "Assessment of Identity During Adolescence Using Daily Diary Methods: Measurement Invariance Across Time and Sex" by Andrik I. Becht, Susan J. T. Branje, Wilma A. M. Vollebergh, Dominique F. Maciejewski, Pol A. C. van Lier, Hans M. Koot, Jaap J. A. Denissen and Wim H. J. Meeus (Psychological Assessment, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 10, 2015, np). In the article the participants should have been reported as N = 494. No differences were found in the results upon reanalyzing the data with the correct number of participants. Additionally, the last sentence of the first full paragraph in the Invariance Across Boys and Girls subsection of the Method section should read "In the fourth model, strict invariance was examined, in which the residual variances were constrained to be equal for boys and girls." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-36246-001.) The aim of this study was to assess measurement invariance of adolescents' daily reports on identity across time and sex. Adolescents (N = 497; mean age = 13.32 years at Time 1, 56.7% boys) from the general population reported on their identity commitments, exploration in depth and reconsideration on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year across 5 years. We used the single-item version of the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitments Scale (UMICS; Klimstra et al., 2010), a broad measure of identity-formation processes covering both interpersonal and educational identity domains. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and strict measurement invariance across days within weeks, across sex, across weeks within years, and across years. Results indicated that daily diary reports show strict measurement invariance across days, across weeks within years, across years, and across boys and girls. These results support the use of daily diary methods to assess identity at various time intervals ranging from days to years and across sex. Results are discussed with

  18. Validation of HELIOS Neutron Cross-Section Library for RBMK Reactors Against the Data From the Critical Facility Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Jasiulevicius, Audrius; Sehgal, Bal Raj

    2002-07-01

    The RBMK reactors are channel type, water-cooled and graphite moderated reactors. The first RBMK type electricity production reactor was put on-line in 1973. Currently there are 13 operating reactors of this type. Two of the RBMK-1500 reactors are at the Ignalina NPP in Lithuania. Experimental Critical Facility for RBMK reactors, located at Kurchatov Institute, Moscow was designed to carry out critical reactivity experiments on assemblies, which imitate parts of the RBMK reactor core. The facility is composed of Control and Protection Rods (CPR's), fuel assemblies with different enrichment in U-235 and other elements, typical for RBMK reactor core loadings, e.g. additional absorber assemblies, CPR imitators, etc. A simulation of a set of the experiments, performed at the Experimental Critical Facility, was carried out at the Royal Institute of Technology (RIT), Nuclear Power Safety Division, using CORETRAN 3-D neutron dynamics code. The neutron cross sections for assemblies were calculated using HELIOS code. The aim of this work was to evaluate capabilities of the HELIOS code to provide correct cross section data for the RBMK reactor. The calculation results were compared to the similar CORETRAN calculations, when employing WIMS-D4 code generated cross section data. For some of the experiments, where calculation results with CASMO-4 code generated cross sections are available, the comparison is also performed against CASMO-4 results. Eleven different experiments were simulated. Experiments differ in size of the facility core (number of assemblies loaded): from simple core loadings, composed only of a few fuel assemblies, to complicated configurations, which represent a part of the RBMK reactor core. Diverse types of measurements were carried out during these experiments: reactivity, neutron flux distributions (both axial and radial), rod reactivity worth and the voiding effects. Results of the reactivity measurements and relative neutron flux distributions were

  19. Flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Delaware River, Delhi, New York, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, William F.; Breaker, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5-mile reach of the West Branch Delaware River through the Village and part of the Town of Delhi, New York, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Village of Delhi, the Delaware County Soil and Water Conservation District, and the Delaware County Planning Department. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the Federal Flood Inundation Mapper Web site at http://wim.usgs.gov/FIMI/FloodInundationMapper.html, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) referenced to the USGS streamgage at West Branch Delaware River upstream from Delhi, N.Y. (station number 01421900). In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model that had been used to produce the flood insurance rate maps for the most recent flood insurance study for the Town and Village of Delhi. This hydraulic model was used to compute 10 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft or near bankfull to 16 ft, which exceeds the stages that correspond to both the estimated 0.2-percent annual-exceedance-probability flood (500-year recurrence interval flood) and the maximum recorded peak flow. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model, which was derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with a 1.2-ft (0.61-ft root mean squared error) vertical accuracy and 3.3-ft (1-meter) horizontal resolution, to delineate the area flooded at each water level. A map that was produced using this method to delineate the inundated area for the flood that occurred on August 28, 2011, agreed well with highwater marks that had been located in the field using a

  20. Flood-inundation maps for the Flatrock River at Columbus, Indiana, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5-mile reach of the Flatrock River on the western side of Columbus, Indiana, from County Road 400N to the river mouth at the confluence with Driftwood River, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the Federal Flood Inundation Mapper Web site at http://wim.usgs.gov/FIMI/FloodInundationMapper.html, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Flatrock River at Columbus (station number 03363900). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service, which also presents the USGS data, at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/. Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Flatrock River streamgage, high-water marks that were surveyed following the flood of June 7, 2008, and water-surface profiles from the current flood-insurance study for the City of Columbus. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 12 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 9 ft or near bankfull to 20 ft, which exceeds the stages that correspond to both the estimated 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flood (500-year recurrence interval flood) and the maximum recorded peak flow. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data having a 0.37 ft

  1. The Effect of Pitch, Burnup, and Absorbers on a TRIGA Spent-Fuel Pool Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Logar, Marjan; Jeraj, Robert; Glumac, Bogdan

    2003-02-15

    It has been shown that supercriticality might occur for some postulated accident conditions at the TRIGA spent-fuel pool. However, the effect of burnup was not accounted for in previous studies. In this work, the combined effect of fuel burnup, pitch among fuel elements, and number of uniformly mixed absorber rods for a square arrangement on the spent-fuel pool k{sub eff} is investigated.The Monte Carlo computer code MCNP4B with the ENDF-B/VI library and detailed three dimensional geometry was used. The WIMS-D code was used to model the isotopic composition of the standard TRIGA and FLIP fuel for 5, 10, 20 and 30% burnup level and 2- and 4-yr cooling time.The results show that out of the three studied effects, pitch from contact (3.75 cm) up to rack design pitch (8 cm), number of absorbers from zero to eight, and burnup up to 30%, the pitch has the greatest influence on the multiplication factor k{sub eff}. In the interval in which the pitch was changed, k{sub eff} decreased for up to {approx}0.4 for standard and {approx}0.3 for FLIP fuel. The number of absorber rods affects the multiplication factor much less. This effect is bigger for more compact arrangements, e.g., for contact of standard fuel elements with eight absorber rods among them, k{sub eff} values are smaller for {approx}0.2 ({approx}0.1 for FLIP) than for arrangements without absorber rods almost regardless of the burnup. The effect of burnup is the smallest. For standard fuel elements, it is {approx}0.1 for almost all pitches and numbers of absorbers. For FLIP fuel, it is smaller for a factor of 3, but increases with the burnup for compact arrangements. Cooling time of fuel has just a minor effect on the k{sub eff} of spent-fuel pool and can be neglected in spent-fuel pool design.

  2. REACTOR PHYSICS MODELING OF SPENT NUCLEAR RESEARCH REACTOR FUEL FOR SNM ATTRIBUTION AND NUCLEAR FORENSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Sternat, M.; Beals, D.; Webb, R.; Nichols, T.

    2010-06-09

    Nuclear research reactors are the least safeguarded type of reactor; in some cases this may be attributed to low risk and in most cases it is due to difficulty from dynamic operation. Research reactors vary greatly in size, fuel type, enrichment, power and burnup providing a significant challenge to any standardized safeguard system. If a whole fuel assembly was interdicted, based on geometry and other traditional forensics work, one could identify the material's origin fairly accurately. If the material has been dispersed or reprocessed, in-depth reactor physics models may be used to help with the identification. Should there be a need to attribute research reactor fuel material, the Savannah River National Laboratory would perform radiochemical analysis of samples of the material as well as other non-destructive measurements. In depth reactor physics modeling would then be performed to compare to these measured results in an attempt to associate the measured results with various reactor parameters. Several reactor physics codes are being used and considered for this purpose, including: MONTEBURNS/ORIGEN/MCNP5, CINDER/MCNPX and WIMS. In attempt to identify reactor characteristics, such as time since shutdown, burnup, or power, various isotopes are used. Complexities arise when the inherent assumptions embedded in different reactor physics codes handle the isotopes differently and may quantify them to different levels of accuracy. A technical approach to modeling spent research reactor fuel begins at the assembly level upon acquiring detailed information of the reactor to be modeled. A single assembly is run using periodic boundary conditions to simulate an infinite lattice which may be repeatedly burned to produce input fuel isotopic vectors of various burnups for a core level model. A core level model will then be constructed using the assembly level results as inputs for the specific fuel shuffling pattern in an attempt to establish an equilibrium cycle. The

  3. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, W. J.

    2014-05-01

    Wim J. de Lange, Geert F. Prinsen, Jacco H. Hoogewoud, Ab A Veldhuizen, Joachim Hunink, Erik F.W. Ruijgh, Timo Kroon Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses

  4. Bayesian approaches for Integrated Water Resources Management. A Mediterranean case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliver, Zacarías; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2013-04-01

    the user to understand quickly the model and the causal relationships between the existing nodes and variables. The input data were collected from the local monitoring networks and the unmonitored data has been generated with a physically based spatially distributed hydrological model WiMMed, which is validated and calibrated. For short-term purposes, pattern analysis has been applied for the management of extreme events scenarios, techniques as Bayesian Neural Networks (BNN) or Gaussian Processes (GP) giving accuracy on the predictions.

  5. Molybdenite Re-Os, zircon U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotopic analysis of the Xiaerchulu Au deposit, Inner Mongolia Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-xin; Nie, Feng-Jun; Zhang, Xue-ni; Jiang, Si-hong

    2016-09-01

    The Xiaerchulu Au deposit, located in the Southern Orogenic Belt (SOB) of Western Inner Mongolia (WIM), is hosted in an Early Permian (271-261 Ma) volcanic-plutonic sequence. Mineralization took place in silicified biotite granites or along the contact zone between the Neoproterozoic Baiyinbaolage Group and the biotite granite. In order to constrain the timing of the Xiaerchulu mineralization and discuss the petrogenesis of the hosting granites, molybdenite Re-Os, and zircon U-Pb and, Lu-Hf, and REE, geochemical, and Sr-Nd isotopic studies were completed in this study. We measured Re-Os isotopes of six molybdenite samples from the main ore body, which yielded a weighted average model age of 261.7 ± 1.5 Ma with a MSWD of 0.55, indicating that the time of mineralization was at ca. 262 Ma. High precision U-Pb dating for the studied granites yields Permian 206Pb/238U ages ranging from 271 to 269 Ma. These age data confirm that both the intrusion and related mineralization were initiated in Early Permian period. These granites are strongly peraluminous with A/CNK = 1.11-1.12, high SiO2-K2O contents, as well as containing biotite and muscovite, indicating a petrogenesis of typical S-type granites, the above consideration is also consistent with the result of discrimination diagrams. The Re contents of molybdenite, εNd(t), and zircon εHf(t), as well as the 176Hf/177Hf values of the granites, fall into the ranges from 1.153 to 2.740 μg/g, - 11.1 to - 9.3, - 8.8 to - 0.9, and 0.282358 to 0.282688, respectively. All of this evidence suggests that the metals were derived from a predominantly crustal source, the granites originated from crust in an extensional setting, and the rejuvenation of the continent may have play an important role during the ore-forming processes of the Early Permian epoch.

  6. Soil moisture trends in mountainous areas: a 50-yr analysis of modelled soil moisture over Sierra Nevada Mountains (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture conditions the energy and water fluxes through the ground surface and constitutes a major hydrological state variable in the analysis of environmental processes. Detecting potential changes in soil moisture and analyzing their trend over a long period of study can help to understand its evolution in other similar areas and to estimate its future role. In mountainous areas, the snow distribution highly conditions soil water content and its implications on the local water cycle. Sierra Nevada, Southern Spain, is a linear mountain range, with altitude higher than 3000 m.a.s.l., where Mediterranean and alpine climates coexist. The snow dynamics dominates the hydrological regime, and the medium and long term trends observed in the snow persistence constitute one of the main potential drivers for soil moisture changes both on a seasonal and annual basis. This work presents a 50-yr study of the soil moisture trends in Sierra Nevada (SN); the distributed monthly mean soil moisture evolution during the recent past (1960-2010) is simulated and its relationship with meteorological variables (precipitation and temperature) analyzed in the five head river basins that the SN area comprises. For this, soil water content is simulated throughout the area by means of WiMMed, a distributed and physically based hydrological model developed for Mediterranean regions that includes snow modelling, which had been previously calibrated and validated in the study area. The analysis of soil moisture shows a globally decreasing annual rate, with a mean value of 0.0011 mmṡmm‑1ṡyear‑1 during the study period averaged over the whole study area, which locally ranges between 0.174 mmṡmm‑1ṡyear‑1 and 0.0014 mmṡmm‑1ṡyear‑1. As previous studies reported, the observed trend in precipitation is more influent than temperature on the snowfall regime change; therefore, as expected, the estimated trends of soil moisture are more related to this variable. Moreover, an

  7. Galactic interstellar turbulence across the southern sky seen through spatial gradients of the polarization vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacobelli, M.; Burkhart, B.; Haverkorn, M.; Lazarian, A.; Carretti, E.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Bernardi, G.; Kesteven, M. J.; Poppi, S.

    2014-06-01

    turbulence in the WIM, as inferred by the analysis of Hα data. We conclude that the sonic Mach number of the diffuse MIM appears to be spatially uniform towards the Galactic plane and the Sagittarius-Carina arm, but local variations induced by nearby extended objects are also found.

  8. 40Ar/39Ar ages and petrogenesis of the West Iberian Margin onshore magmatism at the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition: Geodynamic implications and assessment of open-system processes involving saline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata, J.; Alves, C. F.; Martins, L.; Miranda, R.; Madeira, J.; Pimentel, N.; Martins, S.; Azevedo, M. R.; Youbi, N.; De Min, A.; Almeida, I. M.; Bensalah, M. K.; Terrinha, P.

    2015-11-01

    The West Iberian Margin (WIM) preserves onshore testimonies of three Mesozoic magmatic cycles. In this paper we present and discuss 40Ar/39Ar ages and geochemical data for the second cycle, which occurred at least from 148 Ma to 140 Ma, during the late stages of an important extensional event associated with the Iberia-Newfoundland rifting. The related lithospheric stretching induced magma genesis by adiabatic decompression. Primitive rocks are mildly alkaline but evolved to SiO2-saturated and oversaturated rocks at "high" pressure. Magmas sampled a source of fairly homogenous composition characterized by Sr and Nd isotopic compositions (εNdi from + 1.6 to + 4.2), more enriched than the typical N-MORB source. Magmas were generated at the top of the garnet zone. Considering the thickness of the lithosphere and the geochemical constraints, an origin by melting of a metasomatized domain of the lithosphere is favored. The composition of these onshore magmas is somewhat distinct from the quasi coeval magmas emplaced offshore, which is interpreted as a result of the less important onshore lithospheric stretching, leading to lower degrees of partial melting. This favored the contribution of lithospheric metasomatized domains to onshore magmas. Rocks intruded two sectors of the Lusitanian Basin separated by the Nazaré Fault and characterized by distinct subsidence rates during the Jurassic. The fact that the rocks to the north of the Nazaré Fault are significantly more evolved indicates the more important development of magma chambers in the north, suggesting distinct thermal profiles for those two sectors. Such magma chambers enabled the "high-pressure" fractionation necessary to drive magma compositions from Ne-normative to SiO2- saturated and -over-saturated. The rocks cropping out south of the Nazaré fault are clearly less evolved, and its variability is mostly due to different partial melting events. Some rocks present evidence of post-magmatic processes involving

  9. Earth Science community support in the EGI-Inspire Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwichtenberg, H.

    2012-04-01

    be accessed from EGI resources to enable future research activities by this HUC. The international climate community for IPCC has created the Earth System Grid (ESG) to store and share climate data. There is a need to interface ESG with EGI for climate studies - parametric, regional and impact aspects. Critical points concern the interoperability of security mechanism between both "organisations", data protection policy, data transfer, data storage and data caching. Presenter: Horst Schwichtenberg Co-Authors: Monique Petitdidier (IPSL), Andre Gemünd (SCAI), Wim Som de Cerff (KNMI), Michael Schnell (SCAI)

  10. The Effect on Soil Erosion of Different Tillage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gür, Kazım

    2016-04-01

    The Effects on Soil Erosion of Different Tillage Applications Kazım Gür1, Kazim Çarman2 and Wim M.Cornelis3 1Bahri Daǧdaş International Agricultural Research Instıtute, 42020 Konya, Turkey 2Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery, University of Selçuk, 42031 Konya, Turkey 3Department of Soil Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, 653 Coupure Links, 9000 Gent, Belgium Traditional soil cultivation systems, with excessive and inappropriate soil tillage, will generally lead to soil degradation and loss of soil by wind erosion. Continuous reduced tillage and no-till maintaining soil cover with plant residues called Conservation Agriculture that is considered as effective in reducing erosion. There exist a wide variety of practices using different tools that comply with reduced tillage principles. However, few studies have compared the effect of several of such tools in reducing wind erosion and related soil and surface properties. We therefore measured sediment transport rates over bare soil surfaces (but with under stubbles of wheat, Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to three tillage practices using two pulling type machines and one type of power takeoff movable machines and generated with a portable field wind tunnel. At 10 ms-1, sediment transport rates varied from 107 to 573 gm-1h-1, and from 176 to 768 gm-1h-1 at 13 ms-1. The lowest transport rates were observed for N(no-tillage) and the highest for Rr(L-type rototiller). After tillage, surface roughness, mean weighted diameter, wind erodible fraction, mechanical stability and soil water content were measured as well and varied from 5.0 to 15.9%, 6.9 to 13.8 mm, 14.3 to 29.7%, 79.5 to 93.4% and 8.6 to 15.1%, respectively, with again N is being the most successful practice. In terms of conservation soil tillage technique, it can be said that the applications compared with each other; direct sowing machine is more appropriate and cause to the less erosion.

  11. Decadal trend of precipitation and temperature patterns and impacts on snow-related variables in a semiarid region, Sierra Nevada, Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    In the current context of global change, mountainous areas constitute singular locations in which these changes can be traced. Early detection of significant shifts of snow state variables in semiarid regions can help assess climate variability impacts and future snow dynamics in northern latitudes. The Sierra Nevada mountain range, in southern Spain, is a representative example of snow areas in Mediterranean-climate regions and both monitoring and modelling efforts have been performed to assess this variability and its significant scales. This work presents a decadal trend analysis throughout the 50-yr period 1960-2010 performed on some snow-related variables over Sierra Nevada, in Spain, which is included in the global climate change observatories network around the world. The study area comprises 4583 km2 distributed throughout the five head basins influenced by these mountains, with altitude values ranging from 140 to 3479 m.a.s.l., just 40 km from the Mediterranean coastline. Meteorological variables obtained from 44 weather stations from the National Meteorological Agency were studied and further used as input to the distributed hydrological model WiMMed (Polo et al., 2010), operational at the study area, to obtain selected snow variables. Decadal trends were obtained, together with their statistical significance, over the following variables, averaged over the whole study area: (1) annual precipitation; (2) annual snowfall; annual (3) mean, (4) maximum and (5) minimum daily temperature; annual (6) mean and (7) maximum daily fraction of snow covered areas; (8) annual number of days with snow cover; (9) mean and (10) maximum daily snow water equivalent; (11) annual number of extreme precipitation events; and (12) mean intensity of the annual extreme precipitation events. These variables were also studied over each of the five regions associated to each basin in the range. Globally decreasing decadal trends were obtained for all the meteorological variables

  12. PREFACE: Seventh International Conference on Dissociative Recombination: Theory, Experiments and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zande, Wim J.

    2009-09-01

    possible by generous sponsors, whom we thank wholeheartedly: The Radboud University Nijmegen, The Institute for Molecules and Materials of the Radboud University Nijmegen, The Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (Stichting FOM), The Foundation PHYSICA (Stichting Physica), and The Netherlands Royal Academy of Sciences (KNAW). The organisational support by Erna Gouwens van Oss before and during the conference was essential for its success. The help of Thanja Lambrechts and Vitali Zhaunerchyk during the preparation of the proceedings is greatly appreciated. The delay in the publication of these proceedings is entirely caused by the editor. The authors of the contributions are thanked for the quality of their contributions, Wim J van der Zande, Editor Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, PO Box 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands Email: w.vanderzande@science.ru.nl Conference photograph Participants of the 7th International Conference on Dissociative Recombination: Theory, Experiments and Applications, taken in front of d'Amelander Kaap, the conference venue in Ameland, one of the Wadden Islands in the North of the Netherlands. 1. Dror Shafir21. Annemieke Petrignani41. Oumanou Motopan 2. Ioan Scheider22. Johanna Roos42. Max Berg 3. Nigel Adams23. Erna Gouwens van Oss43. Henrik Buhr 4. Hajime Tanuma24. Natalie de Ruette44. Ilya Fabrikant 5. Jonathan Tennyson25. Francois Wameu Tamo45. Claude Krantz 6. Vitali Zhaunerchyk26. Rainer Johnsen46. Michael Stenrup 7. Robert Continetti27. Viatcheslav Kokoouline47. Xavier Urbain 8. Stefan Rosén28. Hidekazu Takagi48. Evelyne Roueff 9. Erik Vigren29. Hans-Jakob Wörner49. Dirk Schwalm 10. Magdalena Kaminska30. Oskar Asvany50. Valery Ngassam 11. Chris Greene31. Lutz Lammich51. Julien Lecointre 12. Steffen Novotny32. Brandon Jordon-Thaden52. Ann Orel 13. Amy Schumak33. Wolf Diettrich Geppert53. Ihor Korolov 14. Gerard van Rooij34. Alexander Faure54. Romain Guerot 15. Wim van der Zande35. Mathias

  13. EDITORIAL Proceedings of the XIV International Conference on Small-Angle Scattering, SAS-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungar, Goran; Heenan, Richard

    2010-10-01

    There are 52 papers in these Proceedings. The papers are divided into 10 thematic sections and a section for invited papers and reviews. The sections and the respective section editors are given below. Section Editor(s) Invited Papers and Reviews Peter Griffiths, Wim Bras, Rudolf Winter Beamlines and Instrumentation Elliot Gilbert, Wim Bras, Nigel Rhodes Theory, Data processing and Modelling Jan Skov Pedersen, Carlo Knupp Biological Systems and Membranes Richard Heenan, Cameron Neylon Ceramics, Glasses and Porous Materials Rudolf Winter Colloids and Solutions Peter Griffiths Hierarchical Structures and Fibres Steve Eichhorn, Karen Edler Metallic and Magnetic Systems Armin Hoell Polymers Patrick Fairclough Time resolved Diffraction, Kinetic and Dynamical Studies João Cabral, Christoph Rau We are grateful to all section editors and the many anonymous referees for their invaluable effort which made the publication of the Proceedings possible. The refereeing process was strict and thorough, some papers were rejected and most were improved. The resulting compendium gives a good overview of recent developments in small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering theory, application, methods of analysis and instrumentation. Thus it should be a useful source of reference for a number of years to come. The papers are a good reflection of the material presented at the meeting. Because of the general high quality of the articles, it was difficult to decide which to highlight and be fair to all contributors. The following in particular have caught the attention of the editors. Highlighted papers A statistical survey of publications reporting the application of SAXS and SANS by Aldo Craievich (paper 012003) is recommended reading for anyone needing convincing about the vibrancy of this scientific field and the ever expanding use of these techniques. Two aspects of coherent X-ray scattering, made available by the advent of the 3rd generation synchrotron sources, are discussed in the

  14. PREFACE: ARENA 2006—Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino detection Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Lee

    2007-06-01

    , University College London, UK Vladimir Lyashuk, ITEP, Russia Radovan Milincic, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA Rolf Nahnhauer, DESY, Zeuthen, Germany Christopher Naumann, University of Erlangen, Germany Valentin Niess, CPPM Jonathan Perkin, University of Sheffield, UK Steve Ralph, University of Sheffield, UK Christopher Rhodes, Imperial College London, UK Carsten Richardt, University of Erlangen, Germany Karsten Salomon, University of Erlangen, Germany Olaf Scholten, KVI/University of Groningen, Netherlands Terry Sloan, University of Lancaster, UK Pierre Sokolsky, University of Utah, USA Lee Thompson, University of Sheffield, UK Omar Veledar, Northumbria University, UK David Waters, UCL, USA Dawn Williams, Pennsylvania State University, USA Igor Zheleznykh, Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Conference photograph

  15. Abarelix: abarelix-depot-F, abarelix-depot-M, abarelix-L, PPI 149, R 3827.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    -Synthélabo. However, in October 2001, Sanofi-Synthélabo announced that it had waived its rights to abarelix. Praecis confirmed in December 2000 that it had filed an NDA seeking FDA approval for abarelix in the US. In January 2001, the FDA granted the abarelix application priority review status. However, in June 2001, the FDA rejected the NDA for prostate cancer. The FDA requested that Praecis use existing data from the completed trials to analyse the allergic reactions that occurred in a small subset of patients. The FDA also expressed concerns over the lack of maintenance of testosterone suppression beyond the 3-month timeframe that occurred in a subset of patients. In February 2003, Praecis announced the re-submission of its NDA to the US FDA. The submission seeks approval for the use of abarelix in a defined subpopulation of advanced prostate cancer patients for whom the current hormonal therapies are not appropriate. Praecis plans to submit its regulatory application in Europe during the second quarter of 2003. Following the completion of a phase I/II trial of abarelix-L in prostate gland volume reduction, a phase IIIb study of the depot formulation was initiated in September 2001. The trial is comparing the effects of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy with depot formulations of leuprorelin or abarelix for prostate gland volume reduction. Abarelix-L is no longer mentioned on Praecis' website, suggesting that development of this formulation is no longer being pursued. The Financial Times (ft.com) reported in May 2001 that approximately 12 new anti-cancer agents are expected to be approved by the FDA through to the end of 2002, with the potential to generate total sales of US dollars 2.6 billion--abarelix is one of these products. The paper quoted analysts at Salomon Smith Barney predicting that abarelix could reach sales of US dollars 120 million for the indication of prostate cancer. However, in June 2001 the FDA rejected Praecis Pharmaceuticale FDA rejected Praecis Pharmaceuticals

  16. The universe as seen by ISO'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-10-01

    Nearly 400 hundred infrared astronomers will attend a conference in Paris from October the 20th to the 23rd to review and discuss the latest results from the European Infrared Space Telescope, ISO. This will be the first major scientific conference devoted to ISO since the end of its in-orbit mission last May. Thus, it's a long-awaited occasion for the scientists to come to conclusions and start picturing the infrared face of the universe in detail. The meeting, entitled "The Universe as seen by ISO", will be held at UNESCO, Place de Fontenoy, 75007-PARIS where nearly 300 scientific papers ranging over all fields of Astronomy, from Solar System to Cosmology, will be presented and analysed by infrared astronomers. Press interested in the ISO results presentations are invited to attend the conference and to contact Monica Salomone, the ISO press representative at the registration desk. For further information, please contact: ESA Public Relations Division Tel: +33(0)1.53.69.7155 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.7690 Background The infrared universe is relatively poorly known because infrared light comes from dusty and cold regions that are invisible to other telescopes. ISO, the best infrared space telescope so far, finally has swept away the dust and seen all the way through. ISO scientists, therefore, are ready for surprises. The recent discovery by ISO of the presence of water throughout the universe was already a hint of what is still to come. More findings can be expected from this meeting, and a few results are already summarized below. Rings of Andromeda "ISO unveils the hidden rings of Andromeda " The Andromeda galaxy, one of the closest companions of our own galaxy, has been hiding from the astronomers' eyes one of its secrets: while always considered a typical spiral galaxy, ISO sees it now as a spectacular ringed galaxy. Andromeda is thus structured in multiple concentric rings, made of very cold dust --at about -260 degree C--. The cold dust cannot be seen by optical

  17. PREFACE: 31st European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendy, Richard

    2004-12-01

    chaired by Henry Hutchinson (RAL, Chilton), and to the Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion journal team (Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol), for their work on this conference. At the 2004 European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics, plenary invited speakers whose talks spanned the entire field were followed, each day, by multiple parallel sessions which also included invited talks. Invited speakers in both these categories were asked to contribute papers to this special issue (the contributed papers at this conference, and at all recent conferences in this series, are archived at http://epsppd.epfl.ch). The Programme Committee is very grateful to the many invited speakers who have responded positively to this request. Invited papers appear here in their order of presentation during the week beginning 28 June 2004; this ordering provides an echo of the character of the conference, as it was experienced by those who took part. Programme Committee 2004 Professor Richard Dendy UKAEA Culham Division, UK Chairman and guest editor Dr Jean-Luc Dorier Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Lausanne, Switzerland (Co-ordinator of dusty plasmas and guest editor) Professor Jürgen Meyer-ter-Vehn Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany (Co-ordinator of laser-plasma interaction and beam plasma physics and guest editor) Dr Peter Norreys Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, UK (Scientific Secretary and guest editor) Dr Emilia R Solano CIEMAT Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Madrid, Spain ( Co-ordinator of magnetic confinement fusion and guest editor) Dr Shalom Eliezer Soreq Nuclear Research Centre, Israel Dr Wim Goedheer FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica, Rijnhuizen, Netherlands Professor Henry Hutchinson Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, UK Professor John Kirk Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg, Germany Dr Raymond Koch Ecole Royale Militaire/Koninklijke Militaire School, Brussels, Belgium Professor Gerrit Kroesen Technische

  18. a Bayesian Approach for Calibration of Trmm 3B42 Over North Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linguet, L.; Marie-Joseph, I.; Becker, M.; Seyler, F.

    2013-12-01

    . Detailed time-series analysis is presented and shows the effectiveness of the model assumed for observation data. Statistical performances show that monthly and daily bias and RMSE are notably reduced. The developed method connects global and local dynamics of rainfall in a Bayesian framework and provides improved estimates of TRMM 3B42 data. This method can be used for real-time estimates at the surface. Future works need to be pursued on a global scale and under various climate. [1] Arulampalam, S. Maskell, N. Gordon and T. Clapp, A tutorial on particle filters for online nonlinear/non-Gaussian Bayesian tracking IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 50, 2002 [2] L. Linguet, J. Atif, A Bayesian approach for solar resource potential assessment using satellite images, 35th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, ISRSE35, China, April 2013 [3] M. Jehanseb Masud Cheema and G.M. Wim, 'Local calibration of remotely sensed rainfall from the TRMM satellite for different periods and spatial scales in the Indus Bassin,' International Journal of Remote Sensing, Taylor and Francis, London, October 2012. [4] L. Linguet, P. Audois, Calibration of TRMM 3B42 with geographical differential analysis over north Amazonia, Geoscience and Remote Sensing IEEE International Symposium - IGARSS, Australia, 2013

  19. PREFACE Proceedings of the XIV International Conference on Small-Angle Scattering, SAS-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Stephen; Terrill, Nicholas

    2010-10-01

    scientific heart of the conference comprised 10 plenary sessions, interspersed by 39 'themed' parallel sessions, 2 poster sessions, an afternoon tour of Diamond and ISIS, and a week-long exhibition. There were 144 contributed oral presentations and 308 poster presentations across a total of 21 themes. Over half of all presentations fell under 6 themes: biological systems, colloids and solutions, instrumentation, kinetic and time-resolved measurements, polymers, and surfaces and interfaces. The importance of SAS techniques to the study of biology, materials science and soft matter/nanoscience is clear. The plenary presentations, which covered topics as diverse as advanced analysis techniques, biology, green chemistry, materials science and surfaces, were delivered by Frank Bates, Minnesota, USA, Peter Fratzl, MPI Golm, Germany, Buxing Han, Bejing, China, Julia Kornfield, CIT, USA, Jan Skov Pedersen, Aarhus, Denmark, Moonhor Ree, Pohang, Korea, Mitsuhiro Shibayama, Tokyo, Japan, Robert Thomas, Oxford, UK, Jill Trewhella, Sydney, Australia, and Thomas Zemb, ICSM Bagnols, France. Instigated by representatives of the Belgian and Dutch SAS communities one parallel session was dedicated to a tribute for Michel Koch, the pioneer of so many novel applications of SAXS, who retired after 30 years at the EMBL Hamburg in late 2006. With a supporting cast that included Wim Bras, ESRF, France, Tony Ryan, Sheffield, UK and Joe Zaccai, ILL,France, and watched by former colleague André Gabriel, Michel treated the audience to a fascinating - and at times light-hearted - retrospective of the evolution of synchrotron SAXS. Another parallel session was devoted to the work of the canSAS (Collective Action for Nomadic Small-Angle Scatterers) network of large-facility representatives and instrument scientists in areas such as data file formats, intensity calibration and software development. For further information see http://www.smallangles.net/wgwiki/index.php/canSAS_Working_Groups. A total of

  20. Climate change impacts on the fluvial regime in a Mediterranean mountainous area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    The water flow regime in Mediterranean basins is greatly influenced by the high variability of the meteorological patterns, with recurrent drought periods, and the heterogeneity of both terrain physical properties and land uses. These aspects together with the simultaneous demands of water resources for human consumption, irrigation and energy production make it crucial to have a continuous flow series on control points along the river network. In the current context of Global Warming, mountainous semiarid watersheds, where Mediterranean and alpine climates coexist, constitute singular places to evaluate its effects on the river flow regime. Sierra Nevada Mountain area (SN) (southern Spain), with altitudes ranging from 2000 to 3500 m.a.s.l., is a clear example of snow regions in a semiarid environment. Due to its special climate conditions, SN is part of the global climate change observatories network. The aim of this work is to estimate the influence of climate change on the flow regime over several control points along the main channel of the Guadalfeo River (in the South face of SN), by means of analysing the observed trends and focusing in the occurrence of drought period and extreme flood events. For this, the flow regime at three selected points in the river was simulated by using WiMMed, a physically-based hydrological model developed for Mediterranean regions, which includes flow routing calculations. The model was calibrated and validated from observations at a gauge station point, from which the flow series were obtained at upstream. Precipitation and temperature datasets from the reference period (1960-2000) and two different scenarios (A2, B1) for a future period (2046-2100) proposed by the Fourth Assessment Report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) were used as forcing meteorological variables. The comparison was performed over different flow indicator variables: 1) annual mean daily flow; 2) annual maximum daily flow; 3) annual number

  1. Preliminary neutronic studies for the liquid-salt-cooled very hightemperature reactor (LS-VHTR).

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Yang, W. S.

    2005-10-05

    Preliminary neutronic studies have been performed in order to provide guidelines to the design of a liquid-salt cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR) using Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (FLiBe) as coolant and a solid cylindrical core. The studies were done using the lattice codes (WIMS8 and DRAGON) and the linear reactivity model to estimate the core reactivity balance, fuel composition, discharge burnup, and reactivity coefficients. An evaluation of the lattice codes revealed that they give very similar accuracy as the Monte Carlo MCNP4C code for the prediction of the fuel element multiplication factor (kinf) and the double heterogeneity effect of the coated fuel particles in the graphite matrix. The loss of coolant from the LS-VHTR core following coolant voiding was found to result in a positive reactivity addition, due primarily to the removal of the strong neutron absorber Li-6. To mitigate this positive reactivity addition and its impact on reactor design (positive void reactivity coefficient), the lithium in the coolant must be enriched to greater than 99.995% in its Li-7 content. For the reference LS-VHTR considered in this work, it was found that the magnitude of the coolant void reactivity coefficient (CVRC) is quite small (less than $1 for 100% voiding). The coefficient was found to become more negative or less positive with increase in the lithium enrichment (Li-7 content). It was also observed that the coefficient is positive at the beginning of cycle and becomes more negative with increasing burnup, indicating that by using more than one fuel batch, the coefficient could be made negative at the beginning of cycle. It might, however, still be necessary at the beginning of life to design for a negative CVRC value. The study shows that this can be done by using burnable poisons (erbium is a leading candidate) or by changing the reference assembly design (channel dimensions) in order to modify the neutron spectrum. Parametric studies have been performed to

  2. Temporal trend of the snow-related variables in Sierra Nevada in the last years: An analysis combining Earth Observation and hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio J.; Herrero, Javier; Bonet, Francisco J.; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is causing declines in snow-cover extent and duration in European mountain ranges. This is especially important in Mediterranean mountain ranges where the observed trends towards precipitation and higher temperatures can provoke problems of water scarcity. In this work, we analyzed temporal trends (2000 to 2014) of snow-related variables obtained from satellite and modelling data in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high-mountain range located in Southern Spain, at 37°N. Snow cover indicators (snow-cover duration, snow-cover onset dates and snow-cover melting dates) were obtained by processing images of MOD10A2 MODIS product using an automated workflow. Precipitation data were obtained using WiMMed, a complete and fully distributed hydrological model that is used to map the annual rainfall and snowfall with a resolution of 30x30 m over the whole study area. It uses expert algorithms to interpolate precipitation and temperature at an hourly scale, and simulates partition of precipitation into snowfall with several methods. For each snow-related indicator (snow-covers and snowfall), a trend analysis was applied at the MODIS pixel scale during the study period (2000-2014). We applied Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimation in each of the pixels comprising Sierra Nevada. The trend analysis assesses the intensity, magnitude and degree of statistical significance during the period analysed. The spatial pattern of these trends was explored according to elevation ranges. Finally, we explored the relationship between trends of snow-cover related indicators and precipitation trends. Our results show that snow-cover has undergone significant changes in the last 14 years. 80 % of the pixels covering Sierra Nevada showed a negative trend in the duration of snow-cover. We also observed a delay in the snow-cover onset date (68.03 % pixels showing a positive trend in the snow-cover onset date) and an advance in the melt date (80.72 % of pixels followed a

  3. Consolidation and Centralization of Waste Operations Business Systems - 12319

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, D. Dean

    2012-07-01

    This abstract provides a comprehensive plan supporting the continued development and integration of all waste operations and waste management business systems. These include existing systems such as ATMS (Automated Transportation Management System), RadCalc, RFITS (Radio Frequency Identification Transportation System) Programs as well as incorporating key components of existing government developed waste management systems and COTS (Computer Off The Shelf) applications in order to deliver a truly integrated waste tracking and management business system. Some of these existing systems to be integrated include IWTS at Idaho National Lab, WIMS at Sandia National Lab and others. The aggregation of data and consolidation into a single comprehensive business system delivers best practices in lifecycle waste management processes to be delivered across the Department of Energy facilities. This concept exists to reduce operational costs to the federal government by combining key business systems into a centralized enterprise application following the methodology that as contractors change, the tools they use to manage DOE's assets do not. IWITS is one efficient representation of a sound architecture currently supporting multiple DOE sites from a waste management solution. The integration of ATMS, RadCalc and RFITS and the concept like IWITS into a single solution for DOE contractors will result in significant savings and increased efficiencies for DOE. Building continuity and solving collective problems can only be achieved through mass collaboration, resulting in an online community that DOE contractors and subcontractors access common applications, allowing for the collection of business intelligence at an unprecedented level. This is a fundamental shift from a solely 'for profit' business model to a 'for purpose' business model. To the conventional-minded, putting values before profit is an unfamiliar and unnatural way for a contractor to operate - unless however; your

  4. Evolution of the persistence of snow over Sierra Nevada Mountain (southern, Spain) in the last 55 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Rafael; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    Snow plays a crucial role in mountainous areas, not only as water resources for human supply, irrigation and energy production, but also for the ecosystem, flora and fauna, over these areas. Sierra Nevada Mountains, southern Spain, constitutes a rich reservoir of endemic wildlife species, and it is considered the most important center of biodiversity in the wester Mediterranean region. The highest regions of the range were declared UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, Natural and National Parks. Climate trends over the last decades put a lot of pressure on both snowfall occurrence and snow persistence; this poses a risk for biodiversity and has led to its inclusion in the Global Change Observatory Network. This work quantifies the evolution of the persistence of snow over the Sierra Nevada area during the last fifty-five years (1960-2015) as a basis to assess the vulnerability of its ecosystem services. For this, the spatial distribution of the annual number of days with snow, SDS, was analyzed over a study area of 4583 km2 (140-3479 m.a.s.l.), which comprises the head of the five basins in these mountains. The following indicator variables were studied over the whole area and each one of the five head regions identified: 1) the trend of SDS; 2) the annual area where SDS exceeded selected percentiles in its distribution; and 3) the annual minimum altitude where SDS exceeded those percentiles. SDS was obtained during the study period by means of the snow module in WiMMed (Watershed Integrated Model in Mediterranean Environment), a physically-based hydrological model developed, calibrated and validated in the area; the model is based on an energy-mass balance over the snowpack that is spatially distributed through the use of depletion curves, and is operational at hourly and daily scales. A general decreasing trend of SDS (0.25 days year‑1) was found over the whole study area for the study period. This value is higher in the more humid basins (0.45 and 0.41 days year‑1

  5. The Impact of Company-Level ART Provision to a Mining Workforce in South Africa: A Cost–Benefit Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Pienaar, Jan; Brink, Brian; van Zyl, Andrew; Muirhead, Debbie; Grant, Alison; Churchyard, Gavin; Watts, Charlotte; Vickerman, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV impacts heavily on the operating costs of companies in sub-Saharan Africa, with many companies now providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in the workplace. A full cost–benefit analysis of workplace ART provision has not been conducted using primary data. We developed a dynamic health-state transition model to estimate the economic impact of HIV and the cost–benefit of ART provision in a mining company in South Africa between 2003 and 2022. Methods and Findings A dynamic health-state transition model, called the Workplace Impact Model (WIM), was parameterised with workplace data on workforce size, composition, turnover, HIV incidence, and CD4 cell count development. Bottom-up cost analyses from the employer perspective supplied data on inpatient and outpatient resource utilisation and the costs of absenteeism and replacement of sick workers. The model was fitted to workforce HIV prevalence and separation data while incorporating parameter uncertainty; univariate sensitivity analyses were used to assess the robustness of the model findings. As ART coverage increases from 10% to 97% of eligible employees, increases in survival and retention of HIV-positive employees and associated reductions in absenteeism and benefit payments lead to cost savings compared to a scenario of no treatment provision, with the annual cost of HIV to the company decreasing by 5% (90% credibility interval [CrI] 2%–8%) and the mean cost per HIV-positive employee decreasing by 14% (90% CrI 7%–19%) by 2022. This translates into an average saving of US$950,215 (90% CrI US$220,879–US$1.6 million) per year; 80% of these cost savings are due to reductions in benefit payments and inpatient care costs. Although findings are sensitive to assumptions regarding incidence and absenteeism, ART is cost-saving under considerable parameter uncertainty and in all tested scenarios, including when prevalence is reduced to 1%—except when no benefits were paid out to employees

  6. How much can disaster and climate science contribute to loss and damage mechanisms in international climate policy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, Christian; Allen, Simon; Eicken, Hajo; Hansen, Gerrit; Stone, Dáithí

    2015-04-01

    As the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recently has shown, there is increasing evidence of observed impacts of climate change on natural and human systems. Some of these impacts are negative and result in damage and loss of lives and assets. In international climate policy negotiations under the UNFCCC the discussions on loss and damage have gained significant traction during the past negotiation rounds. At COP 19 the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage (WIM) was created as an institutional arrangement to address this issue. Thereby, loss and damage (L&D) are typically defined as the residual damage and loss that occur beyond mitigation and adaptation efforts. This implies that effective mitigation and adaptation policy can substantially reduce L&D. While there is wide agreement that knowledge and understanding needs to be strengthened on how L&D due to climate change affects countries, in particular highly vulnerable countries and populations, there is still substantial disagreement on several aspects. In fact, after COP20 in Lima a number of options are on the table, including whether L&D should be located under the adaptation framework or form a separate institutional arrangement, or whether a compensation regime should be established to support developing countries. Similarly, the scientific framework for a clear L&D concept, its application in real-world cases, and implications for international climate policy, in particular with respect to questions of responsibility, liability, compensation and financing, is still evolving. Earlier proposals, for instance, have included a threshold concept, with payments released upon crossing of certain thresholds of climate (related) parameters, similar to insurance procedures. The threshold would be defined as a departure of the parameter from baseline conditions, for instance a rainfall event that is more intense than a certain baseline based threshold. Further

  7. EDITORIAL Proceedings of the XIV International Conference on Small-Angle Scattering, SAS-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungar, Goran; Heenan, Richard

    2010-10-01

    There are 52 papers in these Proceedings. The papers are divided into 10 thematic sections and a section for invited papers and reviews. The sections and the respective section editors are given below. Section Editor(s) Invited Papers and Reviews Peter Griffiths, Wim Bras, Rudolf Winter Beamlines and Instrumentation Elliot Gilbert, Wim Bras, Nigel Rhodes Theory, Data processing and Modelling Jan Skov Pedersen, Carlo Knupp Biological Systems and Membranes Richard Heenan, Cameron Neylon Ceramics, Glasses and Porous Materials Rudolf Winter Colloids and Solutions Peter Griffiths Hierarchical Structures and Fibres Steve Eichhorn, Karen Edler Metallic and Magnetic Systems Armin Hoell Polymers Patrick Fairclough Time resolved Diffraction, Kinetic and Dynamical Studies João Cabral, Christoph Rau We are grateful to all section editors and the many anonymous referees for their invaluable effort which made the publication of the Proceedings possible. The refereeing process was strict and thorough, some papers were rejected and most were improved. The resulting compendium gives a good overview of recent developments in small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering theory, application, methods of analysis and instrumentation. Thus it should be a useful source of reference for a number of years to come. The papers are a good reflection of the material presented at the meeting. Because of the general high quality of the articles, it was difficult to decide which to highlight and be fair to all contributors. The following in particular have caught the attention of the editors. Highlighted papers A statistical survey of publications reporting the application of SAXS and SANS by Aldo Craievich (paper 012003) is recommended reading for anyone needing convincing about the vibrancy of this scientific field and the ever expanding use of these techniques. Two aspects of coherent X-ray scattering, made available by the advent of the 3rd generation synchrotron sources, are discussed in the

  8. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  9. PREFACE Proceedings of the XIV International Conference on Small-Angle Scattering, SAS-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Stephen; Terrill, Nicholas

    2010-10-01

    scientific heart of the conference comprised 10 plenary sessions, interspersed by 39 'themed' parallel sessions, 2 poster sessions, an afternoon tour of Diamond and ISIS, and a week-long exhibition. There were 144 contributed oral presentations and 308 poster presentations across a total of 21 themes. Over half of all presentations fell under 6 themes: biological systems, colloids and solutions, instrumentation, kinetic and time-resolved measurements, polymers, and surfaces and interfaces. The importance of SAS techniques to the study of biology, materials science and soft matter/nanoscience is clear. The plenary presentations, which covered topics as diverse as advanced analysis techniques, biology, green chemistry, materials science and surfaces, were delivered by Frank Bates, Minnesota, USA, Peter Fratzl, MPI Golm, Germany, Buxing Han, Bejing, China, Julia Kornfield, CIT, USA, Jan Skov Pedersen, Aarhus, Denmark, Moonhor Ree, Pohang, Korea, Mitsuhiro Shibayama, Tokyo, Japan, Robert Thomas, Oxford, UK, Jill Trewhella, Sydney, Australia, and Thomas Zemb, ICSM Bagnols, France. Instigated by representatives of the Belgian and Dutch SAS communities one parallel session was dedicated to a tribute for Michel Koch, the pioneer of so many novel applications of SAXS, who retired after 30 years at the EMBL Hamburg in late 2006. With a supporting cast that included Wim Bras, ESRF, France, Tony Ryan, Sheffield, UK and Joe Zaccai, ILL,France, and watched by former colleague André Gabriel, Michel treated the audience to a fascinating - and at times light-hearted - retrospective of the evolution of synchrotron SAXS. Another parallel session was devoted to the work of the canSAS (Collective Action for Nomadic Small-Angle Scatterers) network of large-facility representatives and instrument scientists in areas such as data file formats, intensity calibration and software development. For further information see http://www.smallangles.net/wgwiki/index.php/canSAS_Working_Groups. A total of

  10. PREFACE: The IARU International Scientific Congress on Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions (10-12 March, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    Visbeck Professor Mary Scholes Professor Masahide Kimoto Professor Matthew England Dr Maxwell Boykoff Dr Michael Raupach Professor Nathan Bindoff Professor Nicolas Gruber Professor Niels Elers Koch Professor Ole John Nielsen Professor Ole Wæver Professor Oran Young Dr Pamela Matson Dr Paul Baer Professor Paul Leadley Dr Pep Canadell Professor Pete Smith Professor Peter Gregory Professor Pier Vellinga Dr Rik Leemans Dr Roberto Bertollini Professor Roberto S Rodriguez Professor Scott Denning Dr Sivan Kartha Dr Thomas Downing Dr Tariq Banuri Professor Thomas Heyd Professor Tim Lenton Professor Timmons Roberts Professor Torkil Jønch Clausen Professor Warwick McKibbin Professor Wim C Turkenburg