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Sample records for klebsiella oxytoca bacteria

  1. Magnetic properties of biomineral particles produced by bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raĭkher, Yu. L.; Stepanov, V. I.; Stolyar, S. V.; Ladygina, V. P.; Balaev, D. A.; Ishchenko, L. A.; Balasoiu, M.

    2010-02-01

    Ferrihydrite nanoparticles (2-5 nm in size) produced by bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca in the course of biomineralization of iron salt solutions from a natural medium exhibit unique magnetic properties: they are characterized by both the antiferromagnetic order inherent in a bulk ferrihydrite and the spontaneous magnetic moment due to the decompensation of spins in sublattices of a nanoparticle. The magnetic susceptibility enhanced by the superantiferromagnetism effect and the magnetic moment independent of the magnetic field provide the possibility of magnetically controlling these natural objects. This has opened up the possibilities for their use in nanomedicine and bioengineering. The results obtained from measurements of the magnetic properties of the ferrihydrite produced by Klebsiella oxytoca in its two main crystalline modifications are reported, and the data obtained are analyzed theoretically. This has made it possible to determine numerical values of the magnetic parameters of real biomineral nanoparticles.

  2. Characterization of bio-synthesized nanoparticles produced by Klebsiella oxytoca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, L.; Balasoiu, M.; Ishchenko, L. A.; Stolyar, S. V.; Kurkin, T. S.; Rogachev, A. V.; Kuklin, A. I.; Kovalev, Yu S.; Raikher, Yu L.; Iskhakov, R. S.; Duca, G.

    2012-03-01

    Structural and morphological properties of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles produced by bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca are investigated. The stability of water dispersions of biomineral particles produced by Klebsiella oxytoca was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Their chemical composition was determined by FT-IR spectroscopy. The vibrational spectra of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles revealed typical absorption peaks of exopolysaccharides. Morphological analysis based on Raman spectroscopy indicated the presence of exopolysaccharides on the surface as well as inside the pores of the ferrihydrite nanoparticles. Structural investigations of ultrasonic assisted samples of different concentration of water dispersed particles were performed using small angle X-ray scattering analysis. Model calculations and fitting procedures revealed scattering objects of an elongated shape with 6.73±0.16 nm radius of gyration.

  3. Production of Biohydrogen from Wastewater by Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Veena; Tiwari, K L; Jadhav, S K

    2015-08-01

    Production of biohydrogen from distillery effluent was carried out by using Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182. The work focuses on optimization of pH, temperature, and state of bacteria, which are the various affecting factors for fermentative biohydrogen production. Results indicates that at 35 °C for suspended cultures, the production was at its maximum (i.e., 91.33 ± 0.88 mL) when compared with other temperatures. At 35 °C and at pH 5 and 6, maximum productions of 117.67 ± 1.45 and 111.67 ± 2.72 mL were observed with no significant difference. When immobilized, Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182 was used for biohydrogen production at optimized conditions, production was 186.33 ± 3.17 mL. Hence, immobilized cells were found to be more advantageous for biological hydrogen production over suspended form. Physicochemical analysis of the effluent was conducted before and after fermentation and the values suggested that the fermentative process is an efficient method for biological treatment of wastewater. PMID:26237683

  4. Chronic pneumonia due to Klebsiella oxytoca mimicking pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gera, Kamal; Roshan, Rahul; Varma-Basil, Mandira; Shah, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella species infrequently cause acute community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The chronic form of the disease caused by K. pneumoniae (Friedlander's bacillus) was occasionally seen in the pre-antibiotic era. K. oxytoca is a singularly uncommon cause of CAP. The chronic form of the disease caused by K. oxytoca has been documented only once before. A 50-year-old immunocompetent male smoker presented with haemoptysis for 12 months. Imaging demonstrated a cavitary lesion in the right upper lobe with emphysematous changes. Sputum stains and cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were negative. However, three sputum samples for aerobic culture as well as bronchial aspirate cultured pure growth of K. oxytoca. A diagnosis of chronic pneumonia due to K. oxytoca was established and with appropriate therapy, the patient was largely asymptomatic. The remarkable clinical and radiological similarity to pulmonary tuberculosis can result in patients with chronic Klebsiella pneumonia erroneously receiving anti-tuberculous therapy. PMID:26379000

  5. Isolation and characterisation of lytic bacteriophages of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca.

    PubMed

    Karumidze, Natia; Kusradze, Ia; Rigvava, Sophio; Goderdzishvili, Marine; Rajakumar, Kumar; Alavidze, Zemphira

    2013-03-01

    Klebsiella bacteria have emerged as an increasingly important cause of community-acquired nosocomial infections. Extensive use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in hospitalised patients has led to both increased carriage of Klebsiella and the development of multidrug-resistant strains that frequently produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases and/or other defences against antibiotics. Many of these strains are highly virulent and exhibit a strong propensity to spread. In this study, six lytic Klebsiella bacteriophages were isolated from sewage-contaminated river water in Georgia and characterised as phage therapy candidates. Two of the phages were investigated in greater detail. Biological properties, including phage morphology, nucleic acid composition, host range, growth phenotype, and thermal and pH stability were studied for all six phages. Limited sample sequencing was performed to define the phylogeny of the K. pneumoniae- and K. oxytoca-specific bacteriophages vB_Klp_5 and vB_Klox_2, respectively. Both of the latter phages had large burst sizes, efficient rates of adsorption and were stable under different adverse conditions. Phages reported in this study are double-stranded DNA bacterial viruses belonging to the families Podoviridae and Siphoviridae. One or more of the six phages was capable of efficiently lysing ~63 % of Klebsiella strains comprising a collection of 123 clinical isolates from Georgia and the United Kingdom. These phages exhibit a number of properties indicative of potential utility in phage therapy cocktails. PMID:23143289

  6. Characterisation, biotyping, antibiogram and klebocin typing of Klebsiella with special reference to Klebsiella oxytoca.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Aruna; Khanna, Saroj; Arora, Usha

    2003-02-01

    400 strains of Klebsiellae identified by culture characteristics and biochemical reactions were subjected to biotyping, antibiogram and klebocin typing. Based on indole production, pectin and gelatin liquefaction 16.0% of all the isolates were Klebsiella oxytoca. Maximum sensitivity was shown to Amikacin (72%) and maximum resistance to Ampicillin (87.5%). Klebocin typability was 73.5%. So by combining biotyping, antibiogram and Klebocin typing, Klebsiella could be differentiated better than based on any single marker. PMID:14514272

  7. Isolation and characterization of an SDS-degrading Klebsiella oxytoca.

    PubMed

    Shukor, M Y; Husin, W S W; Rahman, M F A; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

    2009-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is one of the main components in the detergent and cosmetic industries. Its bioremediation by suitable microorganism has begun to receive greater attention as the amount of SDS usage increases to a point where treatment plants would not be able to cope with the increasing amount of SDS in wastewater. The purpose of this work was to isolate local SDS-degrading bacteria. Screening was carried out by the conventional enrichment-culture technique. Six SDS-degrading bacteria were isolated. Of these isolates, isolate S14 showed the highest degradation of SDS with 90% degradation after three days of incubation. Isolate S14 was tentatively identified as Klebsiella oxytoca strain DRY14 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny. SDS degradation by the bacterium was optimum at 37 degrees 0. Ammonium sulphate; at 2.0 g l(-1), was found to be the best nitrogen source for the growth of strain DRY14. Maximum growth on SDS was observed at pH 7.25. The strain exhibited optimum growth at SDS concentration of 2.0 g l(-1) and was completely inhibited at 10 g l(-1) SDS. At the tolerable initial concentration of 2.0 g l(-1), almost 80% of 2.0 g l(-1) SDS was degraded after 4 days of incubation concomitant with increase in cellular growth. The K(m(app) and V(max(app)) values calculated for the alkylsulfatase from this bacterium were 0.1 mM SDS and 1.07 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively. PMID:20112874

  8. First description of KPC-2-producing Klebsiella oxytoca in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Anna C S; Cavalcanti, Felipe L S; Martins, Willames M B; Vilela, Marinalda A; Gales, Ana C; Morais Junior, Marcos A; Morais, Márcia M C

    2013-08-01

    The present work reports the detection of the first case of nosocomial Klebsiella oxytoca producing class A carbapenemase KPC-2 in Brazil. The isolate KPN106 carried a 65-kb IncW-type plasmid that harbors the blaKPC gene and Tn4401b. Moreover, we detected the presence of a class 1 integron containing a new allele, arr-8, followed by a 5'-truncated dhfrIIIc gene. In view of the recent results, we emphasize the high variability of the bacterial and genetic hosts of this resistance determinant. PMID:23752512

  9. Improvements In Ethanologenic Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella Oxytoca

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. David Nunn

    2010-09-30

    The current Verenium cellulosic ethanol process is based on the dilute-acid pretreatment of a biomass feedstock, followed by a two-stage fermentation of the pentose sugar-containing hydrolysate by a genetically modified ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain and a separate simultaneous saccharification-fermentation (SSF) of the cellulosic fraction by a genetically modified ethanologenic Klebsiella oxytoca strain and a fungal enzyme cocktail. In order to reduce unit operations and produce a fermentation beer with higher ethanol concentrations to reduce distillation costs, we have proposed to develop a simultaneous saccharification co-fermentation (SScF) process, where the fermentation of the pentose-containing hydrolysate and cellulosic fraction occurs within the same fermentation vessel. In order to accomplish this goal, improvements in the ethanologens must be made to address a number of issues that arise, including improved hydrolysate tolerance, co-fermentation of the pentose and hexose sugars and increased ethanol tolerance. Using a variety of approaches, including transcriptomics, strain adaptation, metagenomics and directed evolution, this work describes the efforts of a team of scientists from Verenium, University of Florida, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Genomatica to improve the E. coli and K. oxytoca ethanologens to meet these requirements.

  10. Infective endocarditis caused by Klebsiella oxytoca in an intravenous drug user with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Connor; Hatch, Michael; Ayan, Mohamed; Winn, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Infective endocarditis caused by Klebsiella species is rare, with most isolates being K. pneumoniae. We report the case of a 24-year-old intravenous drug user with newly diagnosed seminoma who developed K. oxytoca endocarditis. In addition to having K. oxytoca isolated from blood culture, cultures of that species were obtained from a retroperitoneal metastasis found on original presentation. PMID:27034562

  11. Infective endocarditis caused by Klebsiella oxytoca in an intravenous drug user with cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ashref; Hall, Connor; Hatch, Michael; Ayan, Mohamed; Winn, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Infective endocarditis caused by Klebsiella species is rare, with most isolates being K. pneumoniae. We report the case of a 24-year-old intravenous drug user with newly diagnosed seminoma who developed K. oxytoca endocarditis. In addition to having K. oxytoca isolated from blood culture, cultures of that species were obtained from a retroperitoneal metastasis found on original presentation. PMID:27034562

  12. Forehead abscess caused by Klebsiella oxytoca with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Won-Il; Seo, Bommie F; Jung, Sung-No

    2012-05-01

    Klebsiella is an opportunistic pathogen that is known to cause septicemia, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, hepatobiliary tract infections, and soft tissue infections in patients who have severe underlying diseases or are under immunosuppression. Most Klebsiella species found are Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca is rarely cultured in humans. We report a case of a 48-year-old man presenting with a soft fluctuating mass on his forehead. The lesion was an abscess, and percutaneous drainage yielded pus from which K. oxytoca was isolated. Parenteral levofloxacin was administrated leading to resolution of infection signs. Because of the rarity of the pathogen, evaluation for underlying illnesses was done, and the patient was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is the first report of a patient with previously undiagnosed diabetes who was found with an extraorbital abscess caused by K. oxytoca, which we present with a review of diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment. PMID:22627446

  13. A case of testicular infarction from the complications of Klebsiella oxytoca induced acute epididymitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonae; Park, Heeyoon; Lee, Gilho

    2016-04-01

    Herein, we reported a case of testicular infarction in a patient with Klebsiella oxytoca induced acute epididymitis. Acute left epididymitis progressed into testicular infarction requiring orchiectomy in spite of antibiotics treatment. Ordinary urine cultures did not reveal any specific organism, suggesting viable but noncultureable state. We amplified a bacterial 16S ribosomal subunit gene from the urine and orchiectomized samples, and we found K. oxytoca infections from both of them. PMID:26643901

  14. Refactoring the nitrogen fixation gene cluster from Klebsiella oxytoca

    PubMed Central

    Temme, Karsten; Zhao, Dehua; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial genes associated with a single trait are often grouped in a contiguous unit of the genome known as a gene cluster. It is difficult to genetically manipulate many gene clusters because of complex, redundant, and integrated host regulation. We have developed a systematic approach to completely specify the genetics of a gene cluster by rebuilding it from the bottom up using only synthetic, well-characterized parts. This process removes all native regulation, including that which is undiscovered. First, all noncoding DNA, regulatory proteins, and nonessential genes are removed. The codons of essential genes are changed to create a DNA sequence as divergent as possible from the wild-type (WT) gene. Recoded genes are computationally scanned to eliminate internal regulation. They are organized into operons and placed under the control of synthetic parts (promoters, ribosome binding sites, and terminators) that are functionally separated by spacer parts. Finally, a controller consisting of genetic sensors and circuits regulates the conditions and dynamics of gene expression. We applied this approach to an agriculturally relevant gene cluster from Klebsiella oxytoca encoding the nitrogen fixation pathway for converting atmospheric N2 to ammonia. The native gene cluster consists of 20 genes in seven operons and is encoded in 23.5 kb of DNA. We constructed a “refactored” gene cluster that shares little DNA sequence identity with WT and for which the function of every genetic part is defined. This work demonstrates the potential for synthetic biology tools to rewrite the genetics encoding complex biological functions to facilitate access, engineering, and transferability. PMID:22509035

  15. Modulation of mgrB gene expression as a source of colistin resistance in Klebsiella oxytoca.

    PubMed

    Jayol, Aurlie; Poirel, Laurent; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Nordmann, Patrice

    2015-07-01

    Gene modifications in the PmrAB and PhoPQ two-component regulatory systems, as well as inactivation of the mgrB gene, are known to be causes of colistin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae. The objective of this study was to characterise the mechanism involved in colistin resistance in a Klebsiella oxytoca isolate. A K. oxytoca clinical isolate showing resistance to colistin was recovered in Cali, Colombia. The pmrA, pmrB, phoP, phoQ and mgrB genes were amplified and sequenced. Wild-type mgrB genes from K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca were cloned, and corresponding recombinant plasmids were used for complementation assays. By analysing the mgrB gene of the K. oxytoca isolate and its flanking sequences, an insertion sequence (IS) of 1196bp was identified in its promoter region. The insertion was located between nucleotides -39 and -38 when referring to the start codon of the mgrB gene, thus negatively interfering with expression of the mgrB gene by modifying its promoter structure. This IS was very similar to ISKpn26 (99% nucleotide identity) belonging to the IS5 family. Complementation assays with mgrB genes from wild-type K. pneumoniae or K. oxytoca restored full susceptibility to colistin. In conclusion, here we identified the mechanism involved in colistin resistance in a K. oxytoca isolate. Modulation of mgrB gene expression was the key factor for this acquired resistance to colistin. PMID:25982250

  16. Cytotoxic and Pathogenic Properties of Klebsiella oxytoca Isolated from Laboratory Animals

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Ujjal; Seneviratne, Uthpala; Park, Danny S.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Batchelder, Chara; Cheung, Cheryl; Buckley, Ellen M.; Taylor, Nancy S.; Shen, Zeli; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Wishnok, John S.; Fox, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca is an opportunistic pathogen implicated in various clinical diseases in animals and humans. Studies suggest that in humans K. oxytoca exerts its pathogenicity in part through a cytotoxin. However, cytotoxin production in animal isolates of K. oxytoca and its pathogenic properties have not been characterized. Furthermore, neither the identity of the toxin nor a complete repertoire of genes involved in K. oxytoca pathogenesis have been fully elucidated. Here, we showed that several animal isolates of K. oxytoca, including the clinical isolates, produced secreted products in bacterial culture supernatant that display cytotoxicity on HEp-2 and HeLa cells, indicating the ability to produce cytotoxin. Cytotoxin production appears to be regulated by the environment, and soy based product was found to have a strong toxin induction property. The toxin was identified, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, as low molecular weight heat labile benzodiazepine, tilivalline, previously shown to cause cytotoxicity in several cell lines, including mouse L1210 leukemic cells. Genome sequencing and analyses of a cytotoxin positive K. oxytoca strain isolated from an abscess of a mouse, identified genes previously shown to promote pathogenesis in other enteric bacterial pathogens including ecotin, several genes encoding for type IV and type VI secretion systems, and proteins that show sequence similarity to known bacterial toxins including cholera toxin. To our knowledge, these results demonstrate for the first time, that animal isolates of K. oxytoca, produces a cytotoxin, and that cytotoxin production is under strict environmental regulation. We also confirmed tilivalline as the cytotoxin present in animal K. oxytoca strains. These findings, along with the discovery of a repertoire of genes with virulence potential, provide important insights into the pathogenesis of K. oxytoca. As a novel diagnostic tool, tilivalline may serve as a biomarker for K oxytoca-induced cytotoxicity in humans and animals through detection in various samples from food to diseased samples using LC-MS/MS. Induction of K. oxytoca cytotoxin by consumption of soy may be in part involved in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disease. PMID:25057966

  17. Detection and spread of oxa-48-producing Klebsiella oxytoca isolates in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nazik, Hasan; Aydin, Selda; Albayrak, Rüveyda; Bilgi, Esma A; Yildiz, Ismail; Kuvat, Nuray; Kelesoglu, Fatih M; Kelesoglu, Fatih M; Pakaştiçali, Nagehan; Yilmaz, Fadime; Ongen, Betigül

    2014-01-01

    Five OXA-48 producing Klebsiella oxytoca strains isolated in April-July 2010 were analyzed. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using disc diffusion method and VITEK 2 system. Carbapenemase activity was investigated using the Modified Hodge test. Beta-lactamase genes were detected by PCR and blaOXA-48 was sequenced. Genetic relatedness between K. oxytoca isolates was investigated by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Carbapenemase activity was detected in 5 isolates by Modified Hodge test. Although all strains were resistant to ertapenem and imipenem, only one strain was also resistant to meropenem. BlaOXA-48 in 4 isolates harbored 2 or 3 other ESBL types, namely, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, or blaVEB. PFGE revealed 3 different pulso-types among the K. oxytoca isolates. The presence of OXA-48 carbapenemase in other species of clinical isolates should also be considered. PMID:24964661

  18. Recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca strains with improved efficiency in removal of high nitrate loads

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, G.; Ramos, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca CECT 4460 removes high nitrate loads from industrial wastewaters without accumulation of nitrite under optimal culture conditions; however, under nonoptimal conditions nitrite accumulates. This situation reflects an in vivo-limited functioning of nitrite reductase in this strain. As a way to overcome this limitation, an increase in the nitrite reductase gene dose in K. oxytoca CECT 4460 was considered. To achieve this, the authors cloned and transferred into this strain the Klebsiella pneumoniae nasB gene, which encodes assimilatory nitrite reductase. The delivery vector was either the wide-host-range plasmid pUPE2, in which the nasB gene is expressed from the Escherichia coli P{sub lac} promoter, or a mini-Tn5-Km vector, which upon random insertion in the host chromosome allowed expression of the nasB gene from an unidentified chromosomal host promoter. The effect of the increase in the dose of the nasB gene in K. oxytoca CECT 4460 on the accumulation of nitrite in the culture medium was tested in two recombinant strains. The results obtained showed that K. oxytoca CECT 4460 bearing pUPE2 accumulated 88% less nitrite than the wild-type strain, while the recombinant strain bearing the K. pneumoniae nasB gene in the host chromosome showed a 25% lower level of nitrite accumulation in the culture medium than that of the wild type.

  19. Contaminated Handwashing Sinks as the Source of a Clonal Outbreak of KPC-2-Producing Klebsiella oxytoca on a Hematology Ward

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Eva; Zarfel, Gernot; Luxner, Josefa; Herzog, Kathrin; Pekard-Amenitsch, Shiva; Hoenigl, Martin; Valentin, Thomas; Feierl, Gebhard; Grisold, Andrea J.; Högenauer, Christoph; Sill, Heinz; Krause, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We investigated sinks as possible sources of a prolonged Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella oxytoca outbreak. Seven carbapenem-resistant K. oxytoca isolates were identified in sink drains in 4 patient rooms and in the medication room. Investigations for resistance genes and genetic relatedness of patient and environmental isolates revealed that all the isolates harbored the blaKPC-2 and blaTEM-1 genes and were genetically indistinguishable. We describe here a clonal outbreak caused by KPC-2-producing K. oxytoca, and handwashing sinks were a possible reservoir. PMID:25348541

  20. Outbreak of OXY-2-Producing Klebsiella oxytoca in a Renal Transplant Unit▿

    PubMed Central

    Zárate, Mariela Soledad; Gales, Ana C.; Picão, Renata C.; Pujol, Gervasio Soler; Lanza, Alejandra; Smayevsky, Jorgelina

    2008-01-01

    We describe a Klebsiella oxytoca infection outbreak in a renal transplant unit that involved seven patients. All strains belonged to a single pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern and were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime, piperacillin-tazobactam, and aztreonam but susceptible to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime, and imipenem. Chromosomal β-lactamase hyperproduction was caused by a point mutation in the blaOXY-2 gene promoter region. PMID:18417660

  1. Outbreak of OXY-2-Producing Klebsiella oxytoca in a renal transplant unit.

    PubMed

    Zárate, Mariela Soledad; Gales, Ana C; Picão, Renata C; Pujol, Gervasio Soler; Lanza, Alejandra; Smayevsky, Jorgelina

    2008-06-01

    We describe a Klebsiella oxytoca infection outbreak in a renal transplant unit that involved seven patients. All strains belonged to a single pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern and were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime, piperacillin-tazobactam, and aztreonam but susceptible to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime, and imipenem. Chromosomal beta-lactamase hyperproduction was caused by a point mutation in the bla(OXY-2) gene promoter region. PMID:18417660

  2. Effect of IAA produced by Klebsiella oxytoca Rs-5 on cotton growth under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Shi, Zaiqiang; Yao, Lixia; Yue, Haitao; Li, Hui; Li, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca Rs-5 isolated with ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) deaminase activity as the sole nitrogen source could obviously promote cotton seedling growth under salt stress and produce phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The amount of IAA produced by the strain Rs-5 was measured, and the effect of IAA on cotton growth under salt stress was studied. Different treatments were set to treat cotton seeds with fermentation broth containing strain Rs-5 (FB), strain Rs-5, fermentation broth with bacteria removed (FB-NB), fermentation broth without bacteria or IAA (FB-NB-NI) and single IAA solutions (SI) according to the IAA concentration after strain Rs-5 culturing of 48, 72 and 120 h. The germination rate, dry weight, plant height, root length and malondialdehyde (MDA), proline and endogenous IAA content in roots were determined. The results showed that both IAA produced by strain Rs-5 and the strain were effective in promoting cotton growth under salt stress. The growth and ability to resist salt stress of cotton seedlings were increased with the enhancement of IAA concentration. The treatment of FB containing bacteria and IAA at 120 h obtained the best state of cotton growth, when the IAA content was the highest in the fermentation broth (42.14 μg·L(-1)). The germination rate, dry weight, plant height and root length were increased by 29.4%, 24.3%, 27.2% and 27.2% , respectively, compared to the saline control. The strain Rs-5 and/or IAA could obviously reduce the MDA and proline content and increase the endogenous IAA content in cotton seedlings. However, the efficacy of other components in the fermentation broth was inconspicuous. PMID:23518519

  3. Characterization of Piperacillin/Tazobactam-Resistant Klebsiella oxytoca Recovered from a Nosocomial Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Ai; Kimura, Kouji; Yokoyama, Satoru; Jin, Wanchun; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Yamada, Keiko; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2015-01-01

    We characterized 12 clinical isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca with the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype (high minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] values of ceftriaxone) recovered over 9 months at a university hospital in Japan. To determine the clonality of the isolates, we used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), and PCR analyses to detect blaRBI, which encodes the β-lactamase RbiA, OXY-2-4 with overproduce-type promoter. Moreover, we performed the isoelectric focusing (IEF) of β-lactamases, and the determination of the MICs of β-lactams including piperacillin/tazobactam for 12 clinical isolates and E. coli HB101 with pKOB23, which contains blaRBI, by the agar dilution method. Finally, we performed the initial screening and phenotypic confirmatory tests for ESBLs. Each of the 12 clinical isolates had an identical PFGE pulsotype and MLST sequence type (ST9). All 12 clinical isolates harbored identical blaRBI. The IEF revealed that the clinical isolate produced only one β-lactamase. E. coli HB101 (pKOB23) and all 12 isolates demonstrated equally resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam (MICs, >128 μg/ml). The phenotypic confirmatory test after the initial screening test for ESBLs can discriminate β-lactamase RbiA-producing K. oxytoca from β-lactamase CTX-M-producing K. oxytoca. Twelve clinical isolates of K. oxytoca, which were recovered from an outbreak at one university hospital, had identical genotypes and produced β-lactamase RbiA that conferred resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam. In order to detect K. oxytoca isolates that produce RbiA to promote research concerning β-lactamase RbiA-producing K. oxytoca, the phenotypic confirmatory test after the initial screening test for ESBLs would be useful. PMID:26539828

  4. Characterization of Piperacillin/Tazobactam-Resistant Klebsiella oxytoca Recovered from a Nosocomial Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ai; Kimura, Kouji; Yokoyama, Satoru; Jin, Wanchun; Wachino, Jun-Ichi; Yamada, Keiko; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2015-01-01

    We characterized 12 clinical isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca with the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype (high minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] values of ceftriaxone) recovered over 9 months at a university hospital in Japan. To determine the clonality of the isolates, we used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), and PCR analyses to detect blaRBI, which encodes the β-lactamase RbiA, OXY-2-4 with overproduce-type promoter. Moreover, we performed the isoelectric focusing (IEF) of β-lactamases, and the determination of the MICs of β-lactams including piperacillin/tazobactam for 12 clinical isolates and E. coli HB101 with pKOB23, which contains blaRBI, by the agar dilution method. Finally, we performed the initial screening and phenotypic confirmatory tests for ESBLs. Each of the 12 clinical isolates had an identical PFGE pulsotype and MLST sequence type (ST9). All 12 clinical isolates harbored identical blaRBI. The IEF revealed that the clinical isolate produced only one β-lactamase. E. coli HB101 (pKOB23) and all 12 isolates demonstrated equally resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam (MICs, >128 μg/ml). The phenotypic confirmatory test after the initial screening test for ESBLs can discriminate β-lactamase RbiA-producing K. oxytoca from β-lactamase CTX-M-producing K. oxytoca. Twelve clinical isolates of K. oxytoca, which were recovered from an outbreak at one university hospital, had identical genotypes and produced β-lactamase RbiA that conferred resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam. In order to detect K. oxytoca isolates that produce RbiA to promote research concerning β-lactamase RbiA-producing K. oxytoca, the phenotypic confirmatory test after the initial screening test for ESBLs would be useful. PMID:26539828

  5. Isolation and characterization of a Klebsiella oxytoca strain for simultaneous azo-dye anaerobic reduction and bio-hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Yu, Han-Qing; Wu, Chao

    2012-07-01

    A facultative anaerobic bacteria strain GS-4-08, isolated from an anaerobic sequence batch reactor for synthetic dye wastewater treatment, was investigated for azo-dye decolorization. This bacterium was identified as a member of Klebsiella oxytoca based on Gram staining, morphology characterization and 16S rRNA gene analysis. It exhibited a good capacity of simultaneous decolorization and hydrogen production in the presence of electron donor. The hydrogen production was less affected even at a high Methyl Orange (MO) concentration of 0.5 mM, indicating a superior tolerability of this strain to MO. This efficient bio-hydrogen production from electron donor can not only avoid bacterial inhibition due to accumulation of volatile fatty acids during MO decolorization, but also can recover considerable energy from dye wastewater. PMID:22086069

  6. Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca E718, a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1-producing nosocomial strain.

    PubMed

    Liao, Tsai-Lien; Lin, Ann-Chi; Chen, Elsa; Huang, Tzu-Wen; Liu, Yen-Ming; Chang, Ya-Hui; Lai, Jui-Fen; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Wang, Jann-Tay; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Chen, Ying-Tsong

    2012-10-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca E718, a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)-producing strain isolated from a renal transplant patient. The genome contains a 6,097,032-bp chromosome and two multidrug resistance plasmids with sizes of 324,906 bp and 110,781 bp. PMID:22965083

  7. Epidemiology of Klebsiella oxytoca-Associated Diarrhea Detected by Simmons Citrate Agar Supplemented with Inositol, Tryptophan, and Bile Salts

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Tsang, Lee-Lee; Yau, Miranda C. Y.; Siu, Gilman K. H.; Wong, Sally C. Y.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Tse, Herman; Hung, Ivan F. N.; Tai, Josepha W. M.; Ho, Pak-Leung

    2012-01-01

    We studied the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Klebsiella oxytoca-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients in Hong Kong. Between 1 November 2009 and 30 April 2011, all inositol-fermenting colonies found on Simmons citrate agar supplemented with inositol, tryptophan, and bile salts (SCITB agar) used for the culturing of diarrheal stool samples were screened by a spot indole test for K. oxytoca. The overall sensitivity of SCITB agar plus the spot indole test (93.3%) for the detection of K. oxytoca in stool samples was superior to that of MacConkey agar (63.3%), while the specificities were 100% and 60.4%, respectively. The former achieved a 23-fold reduction in the workload and cost of subsequent standard biochemical identifications. Cytotoxin production and the clonality of K. oxytoca were determined by a cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay using HEp-2 cells and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Of 5,581 stool samples from 3,537 patients, K. oxytoca was cultured from 117/5,581 (2.1%) stool samples from 104/3,537 (2.9%) patients. Seventy-six of 104 (73.1%) patients with K. oxytoca had no copathogens in their diarrheal stool samples. Twenty-four (31.6%) of 76 patients carried cytotoxin-producing strains, which were significantly associated with antibiotic therapy after hospital admission (50% versus 21.2%; P = 0.01). Health care-associated diarrhea was found in 44 (42%) of 104 patients with K. oxytoca, but there was no epidemiological linkage suggestive of a nosocomial outbreak, and PFGE showed a diverse pattern. None of the patients with cytotoxin-producing K. oxytoca developed antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis, suggesting that K. oxytoca can cause a mild disease manifesting as uncomplicated antibiotic-associated diarrhea with winter seasonality. PMID:22357507

  8. Epidemiology of Klebsiella oxytoca-associated diarrhea detected by Simmons citrate agar supplemented with inositol, tryptophan, and bile salts.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Vincent C C; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Tsang, Lee-Lee; Yau, Miranda C Y; Siu, Gilman K H; Wong, Sally C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; To, Kelvin K W; Tse, Herman; Hung, Ivan F N; Tai, Josepha W M; Ho, Pak-Leung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-05-01

    We studied the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Klebsiella oxytoca-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients in Hong Kong. Between 1 November 2009 and 30 April 2011, all inositol-fermenting colonies found on Simmons citrate agar supplemented with inositol, tryptophan, and bile salts (SCITB agar) used for the culturing of diarrheal stool samples were screened by a spot indole test for K. oxytoca. The overall sensitivity of SCITB agar plus the spot indole test (93.3%) for the detection of K. oxytoca in stool samples was superior to that of MacConkey agar (63.3%), while the specificities were 100% and 60.4%, respectively. The former achieved a 23-fold reduction in the workload and cost of subsequent standard biochemical identifications. Cytotoxin production and the clonality of K. oxytoca were determined by a cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay using HEp-2 cells and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Of 5,581 stool samples from 3,537 patients, K. oxytoca was cultured from 117/5,581 (2.1%) stool samples from 104/3,537 (2.9%) patients. Seventy-six of 104 (73.1%) patients with K. oxytoca had no copathogens in their diarrheal stool samples. Twenty-four (31.6%) of 76 patients carried cytotoxin-producing strains, which were significantly associated with antibiotic therapy after hospital admission (50% versus 21.2%; P = 0.01). Health care-associated diarrhea was found in 44 (42%) of 104 patients with K. oxytoca, but there was no epidemiological linkage suggestive of a nosocomial outbreak, and PFGE showed a diverse pattern. None of the patients with cytotoxin-producing K. oxytoca developed antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis, suggesting that K. oxytoca can cause a mild disease manifesting as uncomplicated antibiotic-associated diarrhea with winter seasonality. PMID:22357507

  9. Conversion of xylan to ethanol by ethanologenic strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca

    SciTech Connect

    Burchhardt, G.; Ingram, L.O. )

    1992-04-01

    A two-stage process was evaluated for the fermentation of polymeric feedstocks to ethanol by a single, genetically engineered microorganism. The truncated xylanase gene (xynZ) from the thermophilic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum was fused with the N terminus of lacZ to eliminate secretory signals. This hybrid gene was expressed at high levels in ethanologenic strains of Escherichia coli KO11 and Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1(pLOI555). Large amounts of xylanase (25 to 93 mU/mg of cell protein) accumulated as intracellular products during ethanol production. Cells containing xylanase for saccharification. After cooling, the hydrolysate was fermented to ethanol with the same organism (30C), thereby replenishing the supply of xylanase for a subsequent saccharification. Recombinant E. coli metabolized only xylose, while recombinant K. oxytoca M5A1 metabolized xylose, xylobiose, and xylotriose but not xylotetrose. Derivatives of this latter organism produced large amounts of intracellular xylosidase, and the organism is presumed to transport both xylobiose and xylotriose for intracellular hydrolysis. By using recombinant M5A1, approximately 34% of the maximal theoretical yield of ethanol was obtained from xylan by this two-stage process. The yield appeared to be limited by the digestability of commercial xylan rather than by a lack of sufficient xylanase or by ethanol toxicity. In general form, this two-stage process, which uses a single, genetically engineered microorganism, should be applicable for the production of useful chemicals from a wide range of biomass polymers.

  10. Klebsiella oxytoca: resistance to aztreonam by overproduction of the chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Fournier, B; Arlet, G; Lagrange, P H; Philippon, A

    1994-02-01

    Aztreonam-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca strain SL7811 was selected on agar containing 1 microgram of aztreonam per ml from a susceptible strain SL781. The MICs for the resistant mutant towards penicillins, aztreonam and ceftriaxone were much higher, to cefotaxime slightly higher and to ceftazidime unchanged. Synthesis of beta-lactamase was 223-fold greater in the mutant compared with the susceptible strain. SL781 and its resistant mutant SL7811 produced beta-lactamase with the same isoelectric point and substrate profile. The beta-lactamase genes from SL781 and SL7811 were cloned in plasmid pBGS18 giving pBOF-1 and pBOF-4 respectively. The sequences of the two putative promoters indicated two modifications in the resistant plasmid pBOF-4: a transversion (G-->T) in the first base of the -10 consensus sequence and a deletion of one C residue four base pairs upstream of the -10 hexamer. PMID:8132152

  11. Modeling 1,2-dichloroethane biodegradation by Klebsiella oxytoca va 8391 immobilized on granulated activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Mileva, A; Sapundzhiev, Ts; Beschkov, V

    2008-02-01

    A mathematical model of the biodegradation of xenobiotics by microbial cells attached to particles of granulated activated carbon was developed. The model allowed the quantitative evaluation of different characteristics of the biofilm behavior: retarded microbial growth, increased concentration of immobilized cells compared to suspended cultures, potential cell detachment from the solid support and consequent independent growth of free cells. The applicability of the model was demonstrated for our own experimental data for 1,2- dichloroethane (DCA) biodegradation by Klebsiella oxytoca VA 8391 cells attached to granulated activated carbon. Two types of reactors, recirculated batch and continuous flow bioreactor, were studied. It was shown that in all investigated cases, the major contribution to DCA biodegradation was provided by the immobilized cells. Furthermore, immobilized cells were found to tolerate much higher substrate concentration and dilution rates in continuous culture than the free cells. PMID:17690915

  12. Metabolic engineering of Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1 for ethanol production from xylose and glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Beall, D.S.; Mejia, J.P.; Shanmugam, K.T.; Ingram, L.O. )

    1991-10-01

    The efficient diversion of pyruvate from normal fermentative pathways to ethanol production in Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1 requires the expression of Zymomanas mobilis genes encoding both pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. Final ethanol concentrations obtained with the best recombinant, strain M5A1 (pLOI555), were in excess of 40 g/liter with an efficiency of 0.48 g of ethanol (xylose) and 0.50 g of ethanol (glucose) per g of sugar, as compared with a theoretical maximum of 0.51 of ethanol per g of sugar. The maximal volumetric productivity per hour for both sugars was 2.0 g/liter. This volumetric productivity with xylose is almost twice that previously obtained with ethanologenic Escherichia coli. Succinate was also produced as a minor product during fermentation.

  13. Genetic control of nitrate assimilation in Klebsiella oxytoca. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Valley J.

    2001-04-01

    Some microorganisms can use nitrate as the sole source of nitrogen for biosynthesis. This project focused on the bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, an enterobacterium found in soil and water. Mutagenesis and molecular cloning identified the nasFEDCBA operon encoding enzymes for the uptake and reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium, and the adjacent nasR regulatory gene. Analysis of nasF operon expression revealed that transcription is activated by the Ntr (general nitrogen regulation ) system in response to nitrogen limitation. Transcription antitermination control in response to nitrate and nitrite is mediated by the NasR protein. Additional work established that the NasR protein is an RNA-binding protein that interacts with nasF operon leader RNA to control transcription readthrough.

  14. Optimization of 2,3-butanediol production by Klebsiella oxytoca through oxygen transfer rate control

    SciTech Connect

    Beronio, P.B. Jr. . Amoco Research Center); Tsao, G.T. . Lab. of Renewable Resources Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    Production of 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella oxytoca is influenced by the degree of oxygen limitation. During batch culture studies, two phases of growth are observed: energy-coupled growth, during which cell growth and oxygen supply are coupled; and, energy-uncoupled growth, which arises when the degree of oxygen limitation reaches a critical value. Optimal 2,3-butanediol productivity occurs during the energy-coupled growth phase. In this article, a control system which maintains the batch culture at a constant level of oxygen limitation in the energy-coupled growth regime has been designed. Control, which involves feedback control on the oxygen transfer coefficient, is achieved by continually increasing the partial pressure of oxygen in the feed gas, which in turn continually increases the oxygen transfer rate. Control has resulted in a balanced state of growth, a repression of ethanol formation, and an increase in 2,3-butanediol productivity of 18%.

  15. Iron-binding characterization and polysaccharide production by Klebsiella oxytoca strain isolated from mine acid drainage

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, F; Marchetto, D; Battistel, D; Daniele, S; Faleri, C; De Castro, C; Lanzetta, R

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To investigate Klebsiella oxytoca strain BAS-10 growth on ferric citrate under anaerobic conditions for exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and localization on cell followed by the purification and the EPS determination of the iron-binding stability constant to EPS or biotechnological applications. Methods and Results: Klebsiella oxytoca ferments ferric citrate under anaerobic conditions and produces a ferric hydrogel, whereas ferrous ions were formed in solution. During growth, cells precipitate and a hydrogel formation was observed: the organic material was constituted of an EPS bound to Fe(III) ions, this was found by chemical analyses of the iron species and transmission electron microscopy of the cell cultures. Iron binding to EPS was studied by cyclic voltammetric measurements, either directly on the hydrogel or in an aqueous solutions containing Fe(III)-citrate and purified Fe(III)-EPS. From the voltammetric data, the stability constant for the Fe(III)-EPS complex can be assumed to have values of approx. 1012–1013. It was estimated that this is higher than for the Fe(III)-citrate complex. Conclusions: The production of Fe(III)-EPS under anaerobic conditions is a strategy for the strain to survive in mine drainages and other acidic conditions. This physiological feature can be used to produce large amounts of valuable Fe(III)-EPS, starting from a low cost substrate such as Fe(III)-citrate. Significant and Impact of the Study: The data herein demonstrates that an interesting metal-binding molecule can be produced as a novel catalyst for a variety of potential applications and the EPS itself is a valuable source for rhamnose purification. PMID:19508299

  16. Mechanism of resistance and antibacterial susceptibility in extended-spectrum β-lactamase phenotype Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca isolated between 2000 and 2010 in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takafumi; Hara, Takafumi; Horiyama, Tsukasa; Kanazawa, Sachi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Maki, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca collected from 20 Japanese medical facilities between 2000 and 2010 were analysed to evaluate the mechanisms of resistance and antibacterial susceptibilities to 14 antimicrobials. Overall, eight of 484 (1.6%) K. pneumoniae and 19 of 359 (5.3%) K. oxytoca were determined to be extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype isolates, and the identified ESBLs amongst the K. pneumoniae isolates were CTX-M-2, -3, -14 and -15, and SHV-12. In contrast, overproduction of chromosomal β-lactamase OXY-2, which was due to a distinct mutation at the - 10 promoter region of this gene, conferred the ESBL phenotype to all the K. oxytoca isolates except one. Based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints, all the ESBL phenotype K. pneumoniae were susceptible to doripenem, flomoxef, moxalactam (latamoxef), cefmetazole and tazobactam/piperacillin, whereas the ESBL phenotype K. oxytoca were susceptible to ceftazidime and ceftibuten in addition to the above, with the exception of tazobactam/piperacillin. Amongst the oral antimicrobials, ceftibuten was relatively effective against both ESBL phenotype Klebsiella species compared with levofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. PMID:25813819

  17. Final Technical Report: Genetic Control of Nitrogen Assimilation in Klebsiella oxytoca.

    SciTech Connect

    Valley Stewart

    2007-03-07

    Klebsiella oxytoca, an enterobacterium closely related to Escherichia coli and amenable to molecular genetic analysis, is a long-established model organism for studies of bacterial nitrogen assimilation. Our work concerned utilization of purines, nitrogen-rich compounds that are widespread in the biosphere. This project began with our observation that molybdenum cofactor (chlorate-resistant) mutants can use (hypo)xanthine as sole nitrogen source (Garzón et al., J. Bacteriol. 174:6298, 1992). Since xanthine dehydrogenase is a molybdoenzyme, Klebsiella must use an alternate route for (hypo)xanthine catabolsim. We identified and characterized a cluster of 22 genes that encode the enzymes, permeases and regulators for utilizing hypoxanthine and xanthine as sole nitrogen source. (Hypoxanthine and xanthine arise from deamination of adenine and guanine, respectively.) Growth and complementation tests with insertion mutants, combined with protein sequence comparisons, allow us to assign probable functions for the products of these genes and to deduce the overall pathway. We present genetic evidence that the first two enzymes for the Klebsiella purine utilization pathway have been recruited from pathways involved in catabolism of aromatic compounds. The first, HxaAB enzyme catalyzing (hypo)xanthine oxidation, is related to well-studied aromatic ring hydroxylating oxygenases such as phthalate dioxygenase. The second, HxbA enzyme catalyzing urate hydroxylation, is related to single-component monooxygenases. Thus, the Klebsiella purine utilization pathway has likely experienced non-orthologous gene displacement, substituting these oxygenases for the conventional enzymes, xanthine dehydrogenase and uricase. We also present evidence that transcription of the hxaAB operon is subject to dual regulation: global general nitrogen regulation (Ntr) through an unknown mechanism, and (hypo)xanthine induction mediated by a LysR-type activator.

  18. Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Klebsiella oxytoca Infections Associated with Contaminated Handwashing Sinks1

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Christopher; Willey, Barbara; O’Shaughnessy, Anna; Lee, Wayne; Lum, Ming; Pike, Karen; Larocque, Cindy; Dedier, Helen; Dales, Lorraine; Moore, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca is primarily a health care–associated pathogen acquired from environmental sources. During October 2006–March 2011, a total of 66 patients in a hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, acquired class A extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing K. oxytoca with 1 of 2 related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. New cases continued to occur despite reinforcement of infection control practices, prevalence screening, and contact precautions for colonized/infected patients. Cultures from handwashing sinks in the intensive care unit yielded K. oxytoca with identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns to cultures from the clinical cases. No infections occurred after implementation of sink cleaning 3×/day, sink drain modifications, and an antimicrobial stewardship program. In contrast, a cluster of 4 patients infected with K. oxytoca in a geographically distant medical ward without contaminated sinks was contained with implementation of active screening and contact precautions. Sinks should be considered potential reservoirs for clusters of infection caused by K. oxytoca. PMID:22841005

  19. In vivo selection of a chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase variant conferring ceftazidime resistance in Klebsiella oxytoca.

    PubMed

    Mammeri, Hedi; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2003-12-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolate A was recovered from the urine of a 55-year-old man with prostatic and urinary tract infections. This isolate displayed a beta-lactam resistance phenotype consistent with overproduction of a chromosomally encoded class A beta-lactamase and had decreased susceptibilities to all beta-lactams except ceftazidime, cephamycins, and carbapenems. Four weeks after treatment with an antibiotic regimen that included ceftazidime, K. oxytoca isolate B, which had a high level of resistance to ceftazidime, was isolated from the urine of the same patient. Isoelectric focusing analysis of the culture extracts of these isolates gave a pI of 5.4 for both isolates. Cloning experiments with the PCR products of the bla(OXY) gene resulted in two Escherichia coli DH10B recombinant clones with resistance phenotypes mirroring those of the parental isolates. Sequencing analysis revealed that the bla(OXY-2-5) gene from K. oxytoca B had a single nucleotide substitution compared to the sequence of the bla(OXY-2) gene from K. oxytoca A, leading to a proline-to-serine substitution at position 167, according to the numbering of Ambler. Biochemical analysis of purified OXY-2-5 showed that it had the ability to hydrolyze ceftazidime. This is the first report of in vivo selection of a K. oxytoca isolate that produced a chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase conferring resistance to ceftazidime. PMID:14638475

  20. First Description of KPC-2-Producing Klebsiella oxytoca Isolated from a Pediatric Patient with Nosocomial Pneumonia in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Labrador, Indira

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, carbapenem resistance has emerged among clinical isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae family. This has been increasingly attributed to the production of β-lactamases capable of hydrolyzing carbapenems. Among these enzymes, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) are the most frequently and clinically significant class-A carbapenemases. In this report, we describe the first nosocomial KPC-2-producing K. oxytoca isolated from a pediatric patient with pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit at The Andes University Hospital, Mérida, Venezuela. This strain was resistant to several antibiotics including imipenem, ertapenem, and meropenem but remained susceptible to ciprofloxacin, colistin, and tigecycline. Conjugation assays demonstrated the transferability of all resistance determinants, except aminoglycosides. The isolate LMM-SA26 carried a ~21 kb conjugative plasmid that harbored the blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-8, and blaTEM-15 genes. Although carbapenem resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae is still unusual in Venezuela, KPCs have a great potential to spread due to their localization on mobile genetic elements. Therefore, rapid detection of KPC-carrying bacteria with phenotypic and confirmatory molecular tests is essential to establish therapeutic options and effective control measures. PMID:25405043

  1. First Description of KPC-2-Producing Klebsiella oxytoca Isolated from a Pediatric Patient with Nosocomial Pneumonia in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Labrador, Indira; Araque, María

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, carbapenem resistance has emerged among clinical isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae family. This has been increasingly attributed to the production of β-lactamases capable of hydrolyzing carbapenems. Among these enzymes, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) are the most frequently and clinically significant class-A carbapenemases. In this report, we describe the first nosocomial KPC-2-producing K. oxytoca isolated from a pediatric patient with pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit at The Andes University Hospital, Mérida, Venezuela. This strain was resistant to several antibiotics including imipenem, ertapenem, and meropenem but remained susceptible to ciprofloxacin, colistin, and tigecycline. Conjugation assays demonstrated the transferability of all resistance determinants, except aminoglycosides. The isolate LMM-SA26 carried a ~21 kb conjugative plasmid that harbored the bla KPC-2, bla CTX-M-8, and bla TEM-15 genes. Although carbapenem resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae is still unusual in Venezuela, KPCs have a great potential to spread due to their localization on mobile genetic elements. Therefore, rapid detection of KPC-carrying bacteria with phenotypic and confirmatory molecular tests is essential to establish therapeutic options and effective control measures. PMID:25405043

  2. Biosynthesis of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by New Klebsiella oxytoca Free and Immobilized Cells on Inorganic Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Celloto, Valéria R.; Oliveira, Arildo J. B.; Gonçalves, José E.; Watanabe, Cecília S. F.; Matioli, Graciette; Gonçalves, Regina A. C.

    2012-01-01

    While many natural and synthetic compounds exhibit auxin-like activity in bioassays, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is recognized as the key auxin in most plants. IAA has been implicated in almost all aspects of plant growth and development and a large array of bacteria have been reported to enhance plant growth. Cells of Klebsiella oxytoca isolated from the rhizosphere of Aspidosperma polyneuron and immobilized by adsorption on different inorganic matrices were used for IAA production. The matrices were prepared by the sol-gel method and the silica-titanium was the most suitable matrix for effective immobilization. In operational stability assays, IAA production was maintained after four cycles of production, obtaining 42.80 ± 2.03 μg mL−1 of IAA in the third cycle, which corresponds to a 54% increase in production in relation to the first cycle, whereas free cells began losing activity after the first cycle. After 90 days of storage at 4°C the immobilized cells showed the slight reduction of IAA production without significant loss of activity. PMID:22623901

  3. Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by new Klebsiella oxytoca free and immobilized cells on inorganic matrices.

    PubMed

    Celloto, Valéria R; Oliveira, Arildo J B; Gonçalves, José E; Watanabe, Cecília S F; Matioli, Graciette; Gonçalves, Regina A C

    2012-01-01

    While many natural and synthetic compounds exhibit auxin-like activity in bioassays, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is recognized as the key auxin in most plants. IAA has been implicated in almost all aspects of plant growth and development and a large array of bacteria have been reported to enhance plant growth. Cells of Klebsiella oxytoca isolated from the rhizosphere of Aspidosperma polyneuron and immobilized by adsorption on different inorganic matrices were used for IAA production. The matrices were prepared by the sol-gel method and the silica-titanium was the most suitable matrix for effective immobilization. In operational stability assays, IAA production was maintained after four cycles of production, obtaining 42.80 ± 2.03 μg mL(-1) of IAA in the third cycle, which corresponds to a 54% increase in production in relation to the first cycle, whereas free cells began losing activity after the first cycle. After 90 days of storage at 4°C the immobilized cells showed the slight reduction of IAA production without significant loss of activity. PMID:22623901

  4. The pKO2 Linear Plasmid Prophage of Klebsiella oxytoca

    PubMed Central

    Casjens, Sherwood R.; Gilcrease, Eddie B.; Huang, Wai Mun; Bunny, Kim L.; Pedulla, Marisa L.; Ford, Michael E.; Houtz, Jennifer M.; Hatfull, Graham F.; Hendrix, Roger W.

    2004-01-01

    Temperate bacteriophages with plasmid prophages are uncommon in nature, and of these only phages N15 and PY54 are known to have a linear plasmid prophage with closed hairpin telomeres. We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the 51,601-bp Klebsiella oxytoca linear plasmid pKO2, and we demonstrate experimentally that it is also a prophage. We call this bacteriophage φKO2. An analysis of the 64 predicted φKO2 genes indicate that it is a fairly close relative of phage N15; they share a mosaic relationship that is typical of different members of double-stranded DNA tailed-phage groups. Although the head, tail shaft, and lysis genes are not recognizably homologous between these phages, other genes such as the plasmid partitioning, replicase, prophage repressor, and protelomerase genes (and their putative targets) are so similar that we predict that they must have nearly identical DNA binding specificities. The φKO2 virion is unusual in that its phage λ-like tails have an exceptionally long (3,433 amino acids) central tip tail fiber protein. The φKO2 genome also carries putative homologues of bacterial dinI and umuD genes, both of which are involved in the host SOS response. We show that these divergently transcribed genes are regulated by LexA protein binding to a single target site that overlaps both promoters. PMID:14996813

  5. The pKO2 linear plasmid prophage of Klebsiella oxytoca.

    PubMed

    Casjens, Sherwood R; Gilcrease, Eddie B; Huang, Wai Mun; Bunny, Kim L; Pedulla, Marisa L; Ford, Michael E; Houtz, Jennifer M; Hatfull, Graham F; Hendrix, Roger W

    2004-03-01

    Temperate bacteriophages with plasmid prophages are uncommon in nature, and of these only phages N15 and PY54 are known to have a linear plasmid prophage with closed hairpin telomeres. We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the 51,601-bp Klebsiella oxytoca linear plasmid pKO2, and we demonstrate experimentally that it is also a prophage. We call this bacteriophage phiKO2. An analysis of the 64 predicted phiKO2 genes indicate that it is a fairly close relative of phage N15; they share a mosaic relationship that is typical of different members of double-stranded DNA tailed-phage groups. Although the head, tail shaft, and lysis genes are not recognizably homologous between these phages, other genes such as the plasmid partitioning, replicase, prophage repressor, and protelomerase genes (and their putative targets) are so similar that we predict that they must have nearly identical DNA binding specificities. The phiKO2 virion is unusual in that its phage lambda-like tails have an exceptionally long (3,433 amino acids) central tip tail fiber protein. The phiKO2 genome also carries putative homologues of bacterial dinI and umuD genes, both of which are involved in the host SOS response. We show that these divergently transcribed genes are regulated by LexA protein binding to a single target site that overlaps both promoters. PMID:14996813

  6. Fermentation of crystalline cellulose to ethanol by Klebsiella oxytoca containing chromosomally integrated zymomonas mobilis genes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.B.; Ingram, L.O.

    1993-09-01

    Complete enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose is generally required for efficient fermentation to ethanol. This hydrolysis requires endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and cellobiase. The Gram-negative bacterium, Klebsiella oxytoca, contains the native ability to transport and metabolize cellobiose, minimizing the need for extracellular cellobiase. Strain P2 is a recombinant derivative in which the Zymomonas mobilis pdc and adhB genes have been integrated into the chromosome and expressed, directing the metabolism of pyruvate to ethanol. This organism has been evaluated in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) experiments to determine optimal conditions and limits of performance. The temperature was varied between 32 and 40{degree}C over a pH range of 5.0-5.8 with 100 g/L crystalline cellulose (Sigmacell 50, Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, MO) as the substrate and commercial cellulase (Spezyme CE, South San Francisco, CA). A broad optimum for SSF was observed, with a pH of 5.2-5.5 and temperatures of 32-35{degree}C, which allowed the production of over 44 g of ethanol/L (81-86% of the maximum theoretical yield). Although the rate of ethanol production increased with cellulase, diminishing improvements were observed at enzyme loadings above 10 filter paper units/g of cellulose. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Effects of nano zero-valent iron on Klebsiella oxytoca and stress response.

    PubMed

    Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Fajardo, Carmen; Nande, Mar; Martín, Margarita

    2013-11-01

    Nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) is a new option for contaminated soil and groundwater treatment, despite little is known on their impact on environmental microorganisms. Klebsiella oxytoca K5 strain, isolated from the NZVI-treated soil, was used to investigate the bacterial, phenotypical and molecular response to commercial NZVI exposure. Cytotoxicity assays at three NZVI concentrations (1, 5 and 10 mg mL(-1)) suggested a negligible bacteriostatic effect and the lack of bactericidal effect. Structural changes were analysed by electronic microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of NZVI around some bacterial cells, but no apparent morphological changes were seen. NZVI attachment to the cell surface was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, although most of them were not affected. A proteomic approach (two-dimensional electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) was used to investigate NZVI impact. For the first time to our knowledge, results revealed that exposure of a soil bacterium to NZVI resulted in the overproduction of tryptophanase, associated with oxidative stress response. K5 may set up an adaptative stress response involving indole as a signal molecule to inform the bacterial population about environmental changes. These findings would improve knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial response to NZVI exposure. PMID:23893265

  8. Cloning, Characterization, and Functional Expression of the Klebsiella oxytoca Xylodextrin Utilization Operon (xynTB) in Escherichia coli†

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yilei; Yomano, L. P.; Preston, J. F.; Aldrich, H. C.; Ingram, L. O.

    2003-01-01

    Escherichia coli is being developed as a biocatalyst for bulk chemical production from inexpensive carbohydrates derived from lignocellulose. Potential substrates include the soluble xylodextrins (xyloside, xylooligosaccharide) and xylobiose that are produced by treatments designed to expose cellulose for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Adjacent genes encoding xylobiose uptake and hydrolysis were cloned from Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1 and are functionally expressed in ethanologenic E. coli. The xylosidase encoded by xynB contains the COG3507 domain characteristic of glycosyl hydrolase family 43. The xynT gene encodes a membrane protein containing the MelB domain (COG2211) found in Na+/melibiose symporters and related proteins. These two genes form a bicistronic operon that appears to be regulated by xylose (XylR) and by catabolite repression in both K. oxytoca and recombinant E. coli. Homologs of this operon were found in Klebsiella pneumoniae, Lactobacillus lactis, E. coli, Clostridium acetobutylicum, and Bacillus subtilis based on sequence comparisons. Based on similarities in protein sequence, the xynTB genes in K. oxytoca appear to have originated from a gram-positive ancestor related to L. lactis. Functional expression of xynB allowed ethanologenic E. coli to metabolize xylodextrins (xylosides) containing up to six xylose residues without the addition of enzyme supplements. 4-O-methylglucuronic acid substitutions at the nonreducing termini of soluble xylodextrins blocked further degradation by the XynB xylosidase. The rate of xylodextrin utilization by recombinant E. coli was increased when a full-length xynT gene was included with xynB, consistent with xynT functioning as a symport. Hydrolysis rates were inversely related to xylodextrin chain length, with xylobiose as the preferred substrate. Xylodextrins were utilized more rapidly by recombinant E. coli than K. oxytoca M5A1 (the source of xynT and xynB). XynB exhibited weak arabinosidase activity, 3% that of xylosidase. PMID:14532050

  9. Genome-scale reconstruction and in silico analysis of Klebsiella oxytoca for 2,3-butanediol production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Klebsiella oxytoca, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, and facultative anaerobic bacterium, is one of the most promising 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) producers. In order to improve the metabolic performance of K. oxytoca as an efficient biofactory, it is necessary to assess its metabolic characteristics with a system-wide scope, and to optimize the metabolic pathways at a systems level. Provision of the complete genome sequence of K. oxytoca enabled the construction of genome-scale metabolic model of K. oxytoca and its in silico analyses. Results The genome-scale metabolic model of K. oxytoca was constructed using the annotated genome with biochemical and physiological information. The stoichiometric model, KoxGSC1457, is composed of 1,457 reactions and 1,099 metabolites. The model was further refined by applying biomass composition equations and comparing in silico results with experimental data based on constraints-based flux analyses. Then, the model was applied to in silico analyses to understand the properties of K. oxytoca and also to improve its capabilities for 2,3-BD production according to genetic and environmental perturbations. Firstly, in silico analysis, which tested the effect of augmenting the metabolic flux pool of 2,3-BD precursors, elucidated that increasing the pyruvate pool is primarily important for 2,3-BD synthesis. Secondly, we performed in silico single gene knockout simulation for 2,3-BD overproduction, and investigated the changes of the in silico flux solution space of a ldhA gene knockout mutant in comparison with that of the wild-type strain. Finally, the KoxGSC1457 model was used to optimize the oxygen levels during fermentation for 2,3-BD production. Conclusions The genome-scale metabolic model, KoxGSC1457, constructed in this study successfully investigated metabolic characteristics of K. oxytoca at systems level. The KoxGSC1457 model could be employed as an useful tool to analyze its metabolic capabilities, to predict its physiological responses according to environmental and genetic perturbations, and to design metabolic engineering strategies to improve its metabolic performance. PMID:23432904

  10. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of pKOI-34, an IncL/M Plasmid Carrying blaIMP-34 in Klebsiella oxytoca Isolated in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Norimitsu; Kayama, Shizuo; Shigemoto, Norifumi; Hisatsune, Junzo; Kuwahara, Ryuichi; Nishio, Hisaaki; Yamasaki, Katsutoshi; Wada, Yasunao; Sueda, Taijiro; Ohge, Hiroki; Sugai, Motoyuki

    2016-05-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of a self-transmissible IncL/M plasmid, pKOI-34, from a Klebsiella oxytoca isolate. pKOI-34 possessed the core structure of an IncL/M plasmid found in Erwinia amylovora, pEL60, with two mobile elements inserted, a transposon carrying the arsenic resistance operon and a Tn21-like core module (tnp and mer modules) piggybacking blaIMP-34 as a class 1 integron, In808, where blaIMP-34 confers a resistance to carbapenems in K. oxytoca and Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:26902770

  11. Nucleotide sequence of the nifLA operon of Klebsiella oxytoca NG13 and characterization of the gene products.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y M; Ahn, K J; Beppu, T; Uozumi, T

    1986-11-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the regulatory operon nifLA of a nitrogen fixer Klebsiella oxytoca NG13 was determined, and the transcriptional start point was assigned by S1 mapping. The nifL protein (a repressor) was coded by an open reading frame of 1,485 bases, corresponding to a protein of 495 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 55,242. The open reading frame (1,572 bases) of the nifA protein (an activator), corresponding to a molecular weight of 58,649, was confirmed by in vitro transcription-translation experiments, using the wild type and artificially deleted nifA genes. The initiation codon (ATG) of nifA overlapped the termination codon(TGA) of nifL, sharing the two bases T and G. A conserved DNA contact point [Gln-(X)3-Ala-(X)3-Gly-(X)5-Val] common in many DNA binding proteins was found in the C-terminal region of the nifA sequence. The promoter sequences of nifLA, nifB and nifF in K. oxytoca coincided exactly with those of K. pneumoniae in the consensus regions at -12 and -26, although the overall homology in the promoter regions was 96%. Changes of four amino acids were found between the nifA coding sequences of K. oxytoca and K. pneumoniae. PMID:3027503

  12. Influence of carbon source on nitrate removal by nitrate-tolerant Klebsiella oxytoca CECT 4460 in batch and chemostat cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, G.; Ramos, J.L.; Kovarova, K.; Egli, T.

    1998-08-01

    The nitrate-tolerant organism Klebsiella oxytoca CECT-4460 tolerates nitrate at concentrations up to 1 M and is used to treat wastewater with high nitrate loads in industrial wastewater treatment plants. The authors studied the influence of the C source (glycerol or sucrose or both) on the growth rate and the efficiency of nitrate removal under laboratory conditions. With sucrose as the sole C source the maximum specific growth rate was 0.3 h{sup {minus}1}, whereas with glycerol it was 0.45 h{sup {minus}1}. In batch cultures K. oxytoca cells grown on sucrose or glycerol were able to immediately use sucrose as a sole C source, suggesting that sucrose uptake and metabolism were constitutive. In contrast, glycerol uptake occurred preferentially in glycerol-grown cells. Independent of the preculture conditions, when sucrose and glycerol were added simultaneously to batch cultures, the sucrose was used first, and once the supply of sucrose was exhausted, the glycerol was consumed. Utilization of nitrate as an N source occurred without nitrite of ammonium accumulation when glycerol was used, but nitrite accumulated when sucrose was used. In chemostat cultures K. oxytoca CECT 4460 efficiently removed nitrate without accumulation of nitrite or ammonium when sucrose, glycerol, or mixtures of these two C sources were used. The growth yields and the efficiencies of C and N utilization were determined at different growth rates in chemostat cultures. Regardless of the C source, yield carbon (Y{sub C}) ranged between 1.3 and 1.0 g (dry weight) per g of sucrose C or glycerol C consumed. Regardless of the specific growth rate and the C source, yield nitrogen (Y{sub N}) ranged from 17.2 to 12.5 g (dry weight) per g of nitrate N consumed.

  13. Production of 2,3-butanediol from pretreated corn cob by Klebsiella oxytoca in the presence of fungal cellulase

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ningjun; Xia Youkun; Gong, Cheng, S.; Tsao, G.T.

    1997-12-31

    A simple and effective method of treatment of lignocellulosic material was used for the preparation of corn cob for the production of 2,3-butane-diol by Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 8724 in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process. During the treatment, lignin, and alkaline extractives were solubilized and separated from cellulose and hemicellulose fractions by dilute ammonia (10%) steeping. Hemicellulose was then hydrolyzed by dilute hydrochloric acid (1%, w/v) hydrolysis at 100{degrees}C at atmospheric pressure and separated from cellulose fraction. The remaining solid, with 90% of cellulose, was then used as the substrate. A butane-diol concentration of 25 g/L and an ethanol concentration of 7 g/L were produced by K. oxytoca from 80 g/L of corn cob cellulose with a cellulose dosage of 8.5 IFPU/g corn cob cellulose after 72 h of SSF. With only dilute acid hydrolysis, a butanediol production rate of 0.21 g/L/h was obtained that is much lower than the case in which corn cob was treated with ammonia steeping prior to acid hydrolysis. The butanediol production rate for the latter was 0.36 g/L/h. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Fermentation of starch by Klebsiella oxytoca P2, containing plasmids with {alpha}-amylase and pullulanase genes

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, V.L. dos; Araujo, E.F.; Barros, E.G. de; Guimaraes, W.V.

    1999-12-20

    Klebsiella oxytoca P2(pC46), an ethanol-producing recombinant, has been evaluated in fermentation of maltose and starch. The maximum ethanol produced by P2(pC46) was 0.34 g ethanol/g maltose and 0.38, 0.40, or 0.36 g ethanol/g starch in fermentation of 1, 2, or 4% starch, representing 68, 71, and 64% the theoretical yield. The pC46 plasmid transformed to cells of K. oxytoca P2 reduced the ethanol production from maltose and starch. In fermentation of starch after its digestion at 60 C for 24 h, in two-step fermentation, the time for maximum ethanol production was reduced to 12--24 h and the theoretical yield was around 90%. The increase in starch concentration resulted in lower {alpha}-amylase activity but in higher pullulanase activity. The high activity and thermostability of the amylolytic enzymes from this transformant suggest that it has a potential for amylolytic enzymes source.

  15. Crystal structure of a novel two domain GH78 family α-rhamnosidase from Klebsiella oxytoca with rhamnose bound

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Ellis C; Stevenson, Clare E M; Paterson, Michael J; Rejzek, Martin; Chauvin, Anne-Laure; Lawson, David M; Field, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of the GH78 family α-rhamnosidase from Klebsiella oxytoca (KoRha) has been determined at 2.7 Å resolution with rhamnose bound in the active site of the catalytic domain. Curiously, the putative catalytic acid, Asp 222, is preceded by an unusual non-proline cis-peptide bond which helps to project the carboxyl group into the active centre. This KoRha homodimeric structure is significantly smaller than those of the other previously determined GH78 structures. Nevertheless, the enzyme displays α-rhamnosidase activity when assayed in vitro, suggesting that the additional structural domains found in the related enzymes are dispensible for function. Proteins 2015; 83:1742–1749. © 2015 The Authors. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25846411

  16. Genetic characterization of resistance to extended-spectrum beta-lactams in Klebsiella oxytoca isolates recovered from patients with septicemia at hospitals in the Stockholm area.

    PubMed

    Wu, S W; Dornbusch, K; Kronvall, G

    1999-05-01

    Two beta-lactamase gene regions were characterized by DNA sequencing in eight clinical isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca. The blaOXY-2a region encoded a beta-lactamase nearly identical to OXY-2 (one amino acid residue substituted) and conferred aztreonam and cefuroxime resistance on the K. oxytoca isolates. Overproduction of OXY-2a was caused by a G-to-A substitution of the fifth nucleotide in the -10 consensus sequence of blaOXY-2a. The blaOXY-1a was identified in a susceptible strain, and the OXY-1a enzyme differed from OXY-1 by two amino acid residues. PMID:10223957

  17. Genotypes of Klebsiella oxytoca Isolates from Patients with Nosocomial Pneumonia Are Distinct from Those of Isolates from Patients with Antibiotic-Associated Hemorrhagic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Kathrin A. T.; Schneditz, Georg; Leitner, Eva; Feierl, Gebhard; Hoffmann, Karl Martin; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Krause, Robert; Gorkiewicz, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca acts as a pathobiont in the dysbiotic human intestinal microbiota, causing antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis (AAHC), but it also infects other organs, resulting in pneumonia and urinary tract and skin infections. The virulence of K. oxytoca is still poorly understood. The production of a specific cytotoxin has been linked to AAHC pathogenesis. To investigate the clonal relationships of K. oxytoca with regard to clinical origin and virulence attributes, we established a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method and analyzed 74 clinical K. oxytoca isolates from asymptomatic carriers and patients with AAHC, respiratory infections, and other infections. The isolates were phenotypically characterized, typed, and compared phylogenetically based on the sequences of seven housekeeping genes. MLST analysis yielded 60 sequence types, 12 of which were represented by more than one isolate. The phylogenetic tree distinguished clusters of K. oxytoca isolates between patients with AAHC and those with respiratory infections. Toxin-positive and -negative strains were observed within one sequence type. Our findings indicate that AAHC isolates share a genetic background. Interestingly, K. oxytoca isolates from nosocomial pneumonia showed a different genetic clustering, suggesting that these strains do not originate from the intestines or that they are specialized for respiratory tract colonization. Our results further indicate a polyphyletic origin and possible horizontal transfer of the genes involved in K. oxytoca cytotoxin production. This work provides evidence that K. oxytoca isolates colonizing the two main clinically relevant habitats (lower gastrointestinal [GI] tract and respiratory tract) of the human host are genetically distinct. Applications of this MLST analysis should help clarify the sources of nosocomial infections. PMID:24599976

  18. Genotypes of Klebsiella oxytoca isolates from patients with nosocomial pneumonia are distinct from those of isolates from patients with antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Kathrin A T; Schneditz, Georg; Leitner, Eva; Feierl, Gebhard; Hoffmann, Karl Martin; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Krause, Robert; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Zechner, Ellen L; Högenauer, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca acts as a pathobiont in the dysbiotic human intestinal microbiota, causing antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis (AAHC), but it also infects other organs, resulting in pneumonia and urinary tract and skin infections. The virulence of K. oxytoca is still poorly understood. The production of a specific cytotoxin has been linked to AAHC pathogenesis. To investigate the clonal relationships of K. oxytoca with regard to clinical origin and virulence attributes, we established a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method and analyzed 74 clinical K. oxytoca isolates from asymptomatic carriers and patients with AAHC, respiratory infections, and other infections. The isolates were phenotypically characterized, typed, and compared phylogenetically based on the sequences of seven housekeeping genes. MLST analysis yielded 60 sequence types, 12 of which were represented by more than one isolate. The phylogenetic tree distinguished clusters of K. oxytoca isolates between patients with AAHC and those with respiratory infections. Toxin-positive and -negative strains were observed within one sequence type. Our findings indicate that AAHC isolates share a genetic background. Interestingly, K. oxytoca isolates from nosocomial pneumonia showed a different genetic clustering, suggesting that these strains do not originate from the intestines or that they are specialized for respiratory tract colonization. Our results further indicate a polyphyletic origin and possible horizontal transfer of the genes involved in K. oxytoca cytotoxin production. This work provides evidence that K. oxytoca isolates colonizing the two main clinically relevant habitats (lower gastrointestinal [GI] tract and respiratory tract) of the human host are genetically distinct. Applications of this MLST analysis should help clarify the sources of nosocomial infections. PMID:24599976

  19. Enhanced reduction of Fe(III) oxides and methyl orange by Klebsiella oxytoca in presence of anthraquinone-2-disulfonate.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Wang, Shi; Tang, Qing-Wen; Cao, Ming-Yue; Li, Jia; Yuan, Kun; Wang, Ping; Li, Wen-Wei

    2016-05-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca GS-4-08 is capable of azo dye reduction, but its quinone respiration and Fe(III) reduction abilities have not been reported so far. In this study, the abilities of this strain were reported in detail for the first time. As the biotic reduction of Fe(III) plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycles, two amorphous Fe(III) oxides were tested as the sole electron acceptor during the anaerobic respiration of strain GS-4-08. For the reduction of goethite and hematite, the biogenic Fe(II) concentrations reached 0.06 and 0.15 mM, respectively. Humic acid analog anthraquinone-2-disulfonate (AQS) was found to serve as an electron shuttle to increase the reduction of both methyl orange (MO) and amorphous Fe(III) oxides, and improve the dye tolerance of the strain. However, the formation of Fe(II) was not accelerated by biologically reduced AQS (B-AH2QS) because of the high bioavailability of soluble Fe(III). For the K. oxytoca strain, high soluble Fe(III) concentrations (above 1 mM) limit its growth and decolorization ability, while lower soluble Fe(III) concentrations produce an electron competition with MO initially, and then stimulate the decolorization after the electron couples of Fe(III)/Fe(II) are formed. With the ability to respire both soluble Fe(III) and insoluble Fe(III) oxides, this formerly known azo-reducer may be used as a promising model organism for the study of the interaction of these potentially competing processes in contaminated environments. PMID:26762391

  20. Removal of nitrate from industrial wastewaters in a pilot plant by nitrate-tolerant Klebsiella oxytoca CECT 4460 and Arthrobacter globiformis CECT 4500

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, G.; Ramos, J.L.; Oliva, J.M.; Sanchez-Barbero, L.; Calvo, V.

    1998-06-05

    Two strains, a gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca CECT 4460 and a gram-positive, mycelium-forming bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis CECT 4500, tolerant to up to 1 M nitrate, were isolated from the grounds of a munitions factory. Under strict aerobic conditions and with appropriate C-sources, growth of these bacteria took place when the nitrate concentration in the medium was below 150 mM. Optimal growth conditions regarding the culture medium composition for the biological removal of nitrate were established in batch cultures. Then, the system was scaled up to a 40-L pilot plant and operated under continuous conditions in a factory with direct waste streams from dinitroethylene glycol production after appropriate dilution with nontreated groundwaters. The level of nitrate in the effluent was below 0.5% of the initial N-load. Nitrite and ammonium were undetectable and the level of the C-source in the effluent was below 50 mg per L. On the basis of these results, the authors conclude that the system worked on site satisfactorily.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Fournomiti, Maria; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Mantzourani, Ioanna; Plessas, Stavros; Theodoridou, Irene; Papaemmanouil, Virginia; Kapsiotis, Ioannis; Panopoulou, Maria; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia E.; Alexopoulos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Background Oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years. However, to gain a proper and marketable chemotype various factors during the cultivation should be considered as the geographical morphology, climatic, and farming conditions. In this frame, we have studied the antimicrobial efficiency of the EOs from oregano, sage, and thyme cultivated under different conditions in a region of NE Greece in comparison to the data available in literature. Methods Plants were purchased from a certified supplier, planted, and cultivated in an experimental field under different conditions and harvested after 9 months. EOs were extracted by using a Clevenger apparatus and tested for their antibacterial properties (Minimum inhibitory concentration – MIC) against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (n=27), Klebsiella oxytoca (n=7), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16) strains by using the broth microdilution assay. Results Our results showed that the most sensitive organism was K. oxytoca with a mean value of MIC of 0.9 µg/mL for oregano EOs and 8.1 µg/mL for thyme. The second most sensitive strain was K. pneumoniae with mean MIC values of 9.5 µg/mL for thyme and 73.5 µg/mL for oregano EOs. E. coli strains were among the most resistant to EOs antimicrobial action as the observed MICs were 24.8–28.6 µg/mL for thyme and above 125 µg/mL for thyme and sage. Most efficient were the EOs from thyme followed by those of oregano. Conclusions With MIC values above 150 µg/mL, sage EOs did not show any antibacterial efficiency against the majority of the strains. However, no significant differences were observed concerning the antimicrobial action of all EOs originating from irrigated versus non-irrigated cultivated aromatic plants. PMID:25881620

  2. Cloning and construction of recombinant palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca on pET-32b into E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS for production of isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeis, Maelita R.; Berlian, Liska; Suhandono, Sony; Prima, Alex; Komalawati, Eli; Kristianti, Tati

    2014-03-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca produces sucrose isomerase which catalyses the conversion of sucrose to isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar. From the previous study, palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca was succesfully isolated from sapodilla fruit (Manilkara zapota). The full-length palI gene sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca was cloned in E. coli DH5α. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 498 residues which includes conserved motif for sucrose isomerisation 325RLDRD329 and 97% identical to palI gene from Klebsiella sp. LX3 (GenBank:AAK82938.1). This fragment was succesfullly ligated into the expression vector pET-32b using overlap-extension PCR and cloned in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. DNA sequencing result shows that palI gene of Klebsiella oxytoca was inserted in-frame in pET-32b. This is the first report on cloning of palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca.

  3. Cloning and construction of recombinant palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca on pET-32b into E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS for production of isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Moeis, Maelita R. Berlian, Liska Suhandono, Sony Prima, Alex Komalawati, Eli Kristianti, Tati

    2014-03-24

    Klebsiella oxytoca produces sucrose isomerase which catalyses the conversion of sucrose to isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar. From the previous study, palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca was succesfully isolated from sapodilla fruit (Manilkara zapota). The full-length palI gene sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca was cloned in E. coli DH5α. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 498 residues which includes conserved motif for sucrose isomerisation {sup 325}RLDRD{sup 329} and 97% identical to palI gene from Klebsiella sp. LX3 (GenBank:AAK82938.1). This fragment was succesfullly ligated into the expression vector pET-32b using overlap-extension PCR and cloned in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. DNA sequencing result shows that palI gene of Klebsiella oxytoca was inserted in-frame in pET-32b. This is the first report on cloning of palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca.

  4. Wastewater drainage system as an occult reservoir in a protracted clonal outbreak due to metallo-?-lactamase-producing Klebsiella oxytoca.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Lpez, S; Domnguez, M C; Conejo, M C; Pascual, ; Rodrguez-Bao, J

    2013-11-01

    We describe the epidemiology of a protracted nosocomial clonal outbreak due to multidrug-resistant IMP-8 producing Klebsiella oxytoca (MDRKO) that was finally eradicated by removing an environmental reservoir. The outbreak occurred in the ICU of a Spanish hospital from March 2009 to November 2011 and evolved over four waves. Forty-two patients were affected. First basic (active surveillance, contact precautions and reinforcement of surface cleaning) and later additional control measures (nurse cohorting and establishment of a minimum patient/nurse ratio) were implemented. Screening of ICU staff was repeatedly negative. Initial environmental cultures, including dry surfaces, were also negative. The above measures temporarily controlled cross-transmission but failed to eradicate the epidemic MDRKO strain that reappeared two weeks after the last colonized patients in waves 2 and 3 had been discharged. Therefore, an occult environmental reservoir was suspected. Samples from the drainpipes and traps of a sink were positive; removal of the sink reduced the rate number but did not stop new cases that clustered in a cubicle whose horizontal drainage system was connected with the eliminated sink. The elimination of the horizontal drainage system finally eradicated the outbreak. In conclusion, damp environmental reservoirs (mainly sink drains, traps and the horizontal drainage system) could explain why standard cross-transmission control measures failed to control the outbreak; such reservoirs should be considered even when environmental cultures of surfaces are negative. PMID:23829434

  5. Polysaccharide-based silver nanoparticles synthesized by Klebsiella oxytoca DSM 29614 cause DNA fragmentation in E. coli cells.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Franco; Daniele, Salvatore; Gallo, Michele; Paganelli, Stefano; Battistel, Dario; Piccolo, Oreste; Faleri, Claudia; Puglia, Anna Maria; Gallo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), embedded into a specific exopolysaccharide (EPS), were produced by Klebsiella oxytoca DSM 29614 by adding AgNO3 to the cultures during exponential growth phase. In particular, under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, two types of silver nanoparticles, named AgNPs-EPS(aer) and the AgNPs-EPS(anaer), were produced respectively. The effects on bacterial cells was demonstrated by using Escherichia coli K12 and Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341 (ex Micrococcus luteus) as Gram-negative and Gram-positive tester strains, respectively. The best antimicrobial activity was observed for AgNPs-EPS(aer), in terms of minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations. Observations by transmission electron microscopy showed that the cell morphology of both tester strains changed during the exposition to AgNPs-EPS(aer). In particular, an electron-dense wrapped filament was observed in E. coli cytoplasm after 3 h of AgNPs-EPS(aer) exposition, apparently due to silver accumulation in DNA, and both E. coli and K. rhizophila cells were lysed after 18 h of exposure to AgNPs-EPS(aer). The DNA breakage in E. coli cells was confirmed by the comparison of 3-D fluorescence spectra fingerprints of DNA. Finally the accumulation of silver on DNA of E. coli was confirmed directly by a significant Ag(+) release from DNA, using the scanning electrochemical microscopy and the voltammetric determinations. PMID:26886276

  6. Influences and mechanisms of surfactants on pyrene biodegradation based on interactions of surfactant with a Klebsiella oxytoca strain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Zhu, Lizhong; Li, Feng

    2013-08-01

    Surfactant-enhanced bioremediation has been proposed as a promising technology for the treatment of organic polluted soils; however its application has been hindered by the controversial influences and mechanisms of surfactants on the biodegradation of hydrophobic organic compounds. To address this problem, effects of five surfactants on the sorption and biodegradation of pyrene by Klebsiella oxytoca PYR-1, as well as their interactions with bacterial cell surface and membrane lipids were investigated. We found that surfactants enhanced or inhibited pyrene biodegradation depending on their effects on the sorption of pyrene onto bacterial cell, which occurred mainly through modifying cell surface hydrophobicity (such as Tween series surfactants) or disrupting bacterial membrane (such as Triton X-100), respectively. A relatively high positive correlation (P<0.0001) was observed between biodegradation promotion (Bs/B0) and enhancement of sorption coefficients (Kd,s(∗)/Kd,0(∗)) for pyrene in the presence of surfactant, indicating that surfactant-induced sorption played the dominant role during pyrene biodegradation. PMID:23751486

  7. Dissemination of clinical isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca harboring CMY-31, VIM-1, and a New OXY-2-type variant in the community.

    PubMed

    Tsakris, Athanassios; Poulou, Aggeliki; Markou, Fani; Pitiriga, Vassiliki; Piperaki, Evangelia-Theophano; Kristo, Ioulia; Pournaras, Spyros

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiological link of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca isolates causing community-onset infections among patients attending our outpatient department and to investigate the underlying resistance mechanisms. The isolates were tested by agar dilution MICs, phenotypic carbapenemase testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PCR assays and nucleotide sequencing were employed for the identification of bla gene types and the mapping of the integron-containing metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) gene. During the study period (January 2005 to April 2007), nine broad-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant K. oxytoca clinical isolates were prospectively collected from separate outpatients with urinary tract infections. In all cases, the patients had been hospitalized or exposed to health care facilities during the preceding year. Molecular typing revealed that all isolates belonged to the same K. oxytoca clonal type, which contained five PFGE subtypes. A novel chromosomal OXY-2 β-lactamase type variant (OXY-2-9) was detected in all isolates, but no mutations in the promoter region justifying bla(OXY) gene overproduction were detected. In addition, all isolates harbored the plasmidic CMY-31 (LAT-4) AmpC cephalosporinase, while three of them harbored VIM-1 MBL in a class 1 integron structure. This is the first study to present the dissemination in the community of multidrug-resistant K. oxytoca isolates causing extrahospital infections. PMID:21555768

  8. Dissemination of Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca Harboring CMY-31, VIM-1, and a New OXY-2-Type Variant in the Community ▿

    PubMed Central

    Tsakris, Athanassios; Poulou, Aggeliki; Markou, Fani; Pitiriga, Vassiliki; Piperaki, Evangelia-Theophano; Kristo, Ioulia; Pournaras, Spyros

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiological link of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca isolates causing community-onset infections among patients attending our outpatient department and to investigate the underlying resistance mechanisms. The isolates were tested by agar dilution MICs, phenotypic carbapenemase testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PCR assays and nucleotide sequencing were employed for the identification of bla gene types and the mapping of the integron-containing metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) gene. During the study period (January 2005 to April 2007), nine broad-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant K. oxytoca clinical isolates were prospectively collected from separate outpatients with urinary tract infections. In all cases, the patients had been hospitalized or exposed to health care facilities during the preceding year. Molecular typing revealed that all isolates belonged to the same K. oxytoca clonal type, which contained five PFGE subtypes. A novel chromosomal OXY-2 β-lactamase type variant (OXY-2-9) was detected in all isolates, but no mutations in the promoter region justifying blaOXY gene overproduction were detected. In addition, all isolates harbored the plasmidic CMY-31 (LAT-4) AmpC cephalosporinase, while three of them harbored VIM-1 MBL in a class 1 integron structure. This is the first study to present the dissemination in the community of multidrug-resistant K. oxytoca isolates causing extrahospital infections. PMID:21555768

  9. Enhanced 2,3-Butanediol Production by Optimizing Fermentation Conditions and Engineering Klebsiella oxytoca M1 through Overexpression of Acetoin Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sukhyeong; Kim, Taeyeon; Woo, Han Min; Lee, Jinwon; Kim, Yunje; Um, Youngsoon

    2015-01-01

    Microbial production of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) has been attracting increasing interest because of its high value and various industrial applications. In this study, high production of 2,3-BDO using a previously isolated bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca M1 was carried out by optimizing fermentation conditions and overexpressing acetoin reductase (AR). Supplying complex nitrogen sources and using NaOH as a neutralizing agent were found to enhance specific production and yield of 2,3-BDO. In fed-batch fermentations, 2,3-BDO production increased with the agitation speed (109.6 g/L at 300 rpm vs. 118.5 g/L at 400 rpm) along with significantly reduced formation of by-product, but the yield at 400 rpm was lower than that at 300 rpm (0.40 g/g vs. 0.34 g/g) due to acetoin accumulation at 400 rpm. Because AR catalyzing both acetoin reduction and 2,3-BDO oxidation in K. oxytoca M1 revealed more than 8-fold higher reduction activity than oxidation activity, the engineered K. oxytoca M1 overexpressing the budC encoding AR was used in fed-batch fermentation. Finally, acetoin accumulation was significantly reduced by 43% and enhancement of 2,3-BDO concentration (142.5 g/L), yield (0.42 g/g) and productivity (1.47 g/L/h) was achieved compared to performance with the parent strain. This is by far the highest titer of 2,3-BDO achieved by K. oxytoca strains. This notable result could be obtained by finding favorable fermentation conditions for 2,3-BDO production as well as by utilizing the distinct characteristic of AR in K. oxytoca M1 revealing the nature of reductase. PMID:26368397

  10. General Nitrogen Regulation of Nitrate Assimilation Regulatory Gene nasR Expression in Klebsiella oxytoca M5al

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Stephen Qitu; Chai, Weihang; Lin, Janine T.; Stewart, Valley

    1999-01-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca can assimilate nitrate and nitrite by using enzymes encoded by the nasFEDCBA operon. Expression of the nasF operon is controlled by general nitrogen regulation (Ntr) via the NtrC transcription activator and by pathway-specific nitrate and nitrite induction via the NasR transcription antiterminator. This paper reports our analysis of nasR gene expression. We constructed strains bearing single-copy Φ(nasR-lacZ) operon fusions within the chromosomal rhaBAD-rhaSR locus. The expression of ΔrhaBS::[Φ(nasR-lacZ)] operon fusions was induced about 10-fold during nitrogen-limited growth. Induction was reduced in both ntrC and rpoN null mutants, indicating that Ntr control of nasR gene expression requires the NtrC and ςN (ς54) proteins. Sequence inspection of the nasR control region reveals an apparent ςN-dependent promoter but no apparent NtrC protein binding sites. Analysis of site-specific mutations coupled with primer extension analysis authenticated the ςN-dependent nasR promoter. Fusion constructs with only about 70 nucleotides (nt) upstream of the transcription initiation site exhibited patterns of β-galactosidase expression indistinguishable from Φ(nasR-lacZ) constructs with about 470 nt upstream. Expression was independent of the Nac protein, implying that NtrC is a direct activator of nasR transcription. Together, these results indicate that nasR gene expression does not require specific upstream NtrC-binding sequences, as previously noted for argT gene expression in Salmonella typhimurium (G. Schmitz, K. Nikaido, and G. F.-L. Ames, Mol. Gen. Genet. 215:107–117, 1988). PMID:10572131

  11. [Profiles of the utilization of 20 amino acids as the only source of nitrogen and carbon in bacteria of the genera Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Escherichia].

    PubMed

    Sivolodskiĭ, E P

    2005-01-01

    The profiles of the utilization of 20 protein amino acids in 118 Klebsiella pneumoniae sub- sp. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, K. planticola, K. mobilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marscescens, S. liquefaciens, Escherichia coli strains isolated from clinical material were studied. The utilization of amino acids was determined on minimal saline agar containing amino acid as the only source of nitrogen and carbon; the results were evaluated after 72-hour incubation at 37 degrees C. 17 profiles of amino-acid utilization were thus determined, most of them genus-specific in enterobacteria: Klebsiella (profiles No. 1--6, 9, 10), Enterobacter (No. 11--13), Serratia (No. 14--16), Escherichia (No. 17). The full coincidence of amino-acid utilization profiles in bacteria of K. mobilis (No. 1, 6) and K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae with out of such profiles in bacteria of the genera Enterobacter, Serratia, Escherichia was established, which confirmed that K. mobilis (formerly Enterobacter aerogenes) belonged to the genus Klebsiella. PMID:16279526

  12. Adaptative biochemical pathways and regulatory networks in Klebsiella oxytoca BAS-10 producing a biotechnologically relevant exopolysaccharide during Fe(III)-citrate fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A bacterial strain previously isolated from pyrite mine drainage and named BAS-10 was tentatively identified as Klebsiella oxytoca. Unlikely other enterobacteria, BAS-10 is able to grow on Fe(III)-citrate as sole carbon and energy source, yielding acetic acid and CO2 coupled with Fe(III) reduction to Fe(II) and showing unusual physiological characteristics. In fact, under this growth condition, BAS-10 produces an exopolysaccharide (EPS) having a high rhamnose content and metal-binding properties, whose biotechnological applications were proven as very relevant. Results Further phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rDNA sequence, definitively confirmed that BAS-10 belongs to K. oxytoca species. In order to rationalize the biochemical peculiarities of this unusual enterobacteriun, combined 2D-Differential Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis and mass spectrometry procedures were used to investigate its proteomic changes: i) under aerobic or anaerobic cultivation with Fe(III)-citrate as sole carbon source; ii) under anaerobic cultivations using Na(I)-citrate or Fe(III)-citrate as sole carbon source. Combining data from these differential studies peculiar levels of outer membrane proteins, key regulatory factors of carbon and nitrogen metabolism and enzymes involved in TCA cycle and sugar biosynthesis or required for citrate fermentation and stress response during anaerobic growth on Fe(III)-citrate were revealed. The protein differential regulation seems to ensure efficient cell growth coupled with EPS production by adapting metabolic and biochemical processes in order to face iron toxicity and to optimize energy production. Conclusion Differential proteomics provided insights on the molecular mechanisms necessary for anaeorobic utilization of Fe(III)-citrate in a biotechnologically promising enterobacteriun, also revealing genes that can be targeted for the rational design of high-yielding EPS producer strains. PMID:23176641

  13. Molecular cloning of kman coding for mannanase from Klebsiella oxytoca KUB-CW2-3 and its hybrid mannanase characters.

    PubMed

    Pongsapipatana, Nawapan; Damrongteerapap, Piyanat; Chantorn, Sudathip; Sintuprapa, Wilawan; Keawsompong, Suttipun; Nitisinprasert, Sunee

    2016-07-01

    Gene encoding for β-mannanase (E.C 3.2.1.78) from Klebsiella oxytoca KUB-CW2-3 was cloned and expressed by an E. coli system resulting in 400 times higher mannanase activities than the wild type. A 3314bp DNA fragment obtained revealed an open reading frame of 1164bp, namely kman-2, which encoded for 387 amino acids with an estimated molecular weight of 43.2kDa. It belonged to the glycosyl hydrolase family 26 (GH26) exhibited low similarity of 50-71% to β-mannanase produced by other microbial sources. Interestingly, the enzyme had a broad range of substrate specificity of homopolymer of ivory nut mannan (6%), carboxymethyl cellulose (30.6%) and avicel (5%), and heteropolymer of konjac glucomannan (100%), locust bean gum (92.6%) and copra meal (non-defatted 5.3% and defatted 7%) which would be necessary for in vivo feed digestion. The optimum temperature and pH were 30-50°C and 4-6, respectively. The enzyme was still highly active over a low temperature range of 10-40°C and over a wide pH range of 4-10. The hydrolysates of konjac glucomannan (H-KGM), locust bean gum (H-LBG) and defatted copra meal (H-DCM) composed of compounds which were different in their molecular weight range from mannobiose to mannohexaose and unknown oligosaccharides indicating the endo action of mannanase. Both H-DCM and H-LBG enhanced the growth of lactic acid bacteria and some pathogens except Escherichia coli E010 with a specific growth rate of 0.36-0.83h(-1). H-LBG was more specific to 3 species of Weissella confusa JCM 1093, Lactobacillus reuteri KUB-AC5, Lb salivarius KL-D4 and E. coli E010 while both H-KGM and H-DCM were to Lb. reuteri KUB-AC5 and Lb. johnsonii KUNN19-2. Based on the nucleotide sequence of kman-2 containing two open reading frames of 1 and 2at 5' end of the +1 and +43, respectively, removal of the first open reading frame provided the recombinant clone E. coli KMAN-3 resulting in the mature protein of mannanase composing of 345 amino acid residues confirmed by 3D structure analysis and amino acid sequence at N-terminal namely KMAN (GenBank accession number KM100456). It exhibited 10 times higher extracellular and periplasmic total activities of 17,600 and 14,800 units than E. coli KMAN-2. With its low similarity to mannanases previously proposed, wide range of homo- and hetero-polysaccharide specificity, negative effect to E. coli and most importance of high production, it would be proposed as a novel mannanase source for application in the future. PMID:27233126

  14. Detection of an IncA/C plasmid encoding VIM-4 and CMY-4 β-lactamases in Klebsiella oxytoca and Citrobacter koseri from an inpatient in a cardiac rehabilitation unit.

    PubMed

    Caltagirone, Mariasofia; Bitar, Ibrahim; Piazza, Aurora; Spalla, Melissa; Nucleo, Elisabetta; Navarra, Antonella; Migliavacca, Roberta

    2015-07-01

    A 62-year-old patient was transferred to the cardiac rehabilitation unit of the I.R.C.C.S. Fondazione S. Maugeri after undergoing a heart transplantation at the Acute Care Hospital I.R.C.C.S. S. Matteo of Pavia. On 1 August 2013 and during hospitalization in the rehabilitation unit, Klebsiella oxytoca and Citrobacter koseri clinical isolates were simultaneously recovered from the patient's preputial swab. Both the K. oxytoca and C. koseri strains were carbapenem- resistant by MicroScan System (Beckman Coulter). Carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae had previously been reported in the same rehabilitation facility. The aim of the study was to identify the carbapenem resistance mechanisms among the enterobacterial species recovered. Phenotypic screening tests useful to detect the β-lactamases/carbapenemases were performed. Carbapenem MICs were obtained by Etest. AmpC and MBL encoding genes were identified by PCR and sequencing. Conjugation assays and plasmid characterization were performed. Both of the K. oxytoca and C. koseri isolates were multi drug resistant, showing resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, three generation cephalosporins, ertapenem (K. oxytoca MIC, >32 mg/L; C. koseri MIC, 4 mg/L), imipenem (K. oxytoca MIC, 4 mg/L; C. koseri MIC, 12 mg/L), thrimethoprim sulphamethoxazole and gentamicin. Susceptibility was retained to fluoroquinolones, colistin and tigecycline. Molecular characterization confirmed the co-presence of blaCMY-4 and blaVIM-4 determinants in a 150 Kb transferable plasmid of IncA/C group. This case is the first detection in Italy of the K. oxytoca and C. koseri clinical isolates co-producing the CMY-4 and VIM-4 enzymes. PMID:26147151

  15. First report of a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase KOXY-2 producing Klebsiella oxytoca that hydrolyses cefotaxime and ceftazidime.

    PubMed

    Younes, A; Hamouda, A; Amyes, S G B

    2011-06-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca strains MU946294N and MB193997E were isolated from patients in Scotland. Strain MU946294N was resistant to pencillins, monbactams and cephalosporins. Isolate MB193997E displayed a β-lactam resistance phenotype consistent with chromosomal β-lactamase overproduction. No bla(TEM), bla(SHV) or bla(CTX-M) genes could be amplified in either strain; however, amplification by PCR was found with primers for the bla(OXY-2) gene. This β-lactamase gene in MU946294N differed by one mutation from the all other bla(OXY) genes previously reported, with an amino acid substitution Alanine237 Threonine enhancing the binding of cefotaxime. Strain MB193997E showed mutations at positions 255 and 283, neither of which affect function. Based on rpoB and gyrA characterization, both strains were assigned to the KoII phylogenic group but they were completely dissimilar from each other by PFGE. This study is the first to report the substitution of Alanine to Threonine at position 237 in a OXY- 2 β-lactamase and this enhances resistance to cefotaxime. PMID:21742579

  16. Metabolic Changes in Klebsiella oxytoca in Response to Low Oxidoreduction Potential, as Revealed by Comparative Proteomic Profiling Integrated with Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan; Li, Dan; Bao, Guanhui; Wang, Shaohua; Mao, Shaoming; Song, Jiangning; Li, Yin

    2014-01-01

    Oxidoreduction potential (ORP) is an important physiological parameter for biochemical production in anaerobic or microaerobic processes. However, the effect of ORP on cellular physiology remains largely unknown, which hampers the design of engineering strategies targeting proteins associated with ORP response. Here we characterized the effect of altering ORP in a 1,3-propanediol producer, Klebsiella oxytoca, by comparative proteomic profiling combined with flux balance analysis. Decreasing the extracellular ORP from −150 to −240 mV retarded cell growth and enhanced 1,3-propanediol production. Comparative proteomic analysis identified 61 differentially expressed proteins, mainly involved in carbohydrate catabolism, cellular constituent biosynthesis, and reductive stress response. A hypothetical oxidoreductase (HOR) that catalyzes 1,3-propanediol production was markedly upregulated, while proteins involved in biomass precursor synthesis were downregulated. As revealed by subsequent flux balance analysis, low ORP induced a metabolic shift from glycerol oxidation to reduction and rebalancing of redox and energy metabolism. From the integrated protein expression profiles and flux distributions, we can construct a rational analytic framework that elucidates how (facultative) anaerobes respond to extracellular ORP changes. PMID:24584239

  17. Saccharification and fermentation of sugar cane bagasse by Klebsiella oxytoca P2 containing chromosomally integrated genes encoding the Zymomonas mobilis ethanol pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.B.; Aldrich, H.C.; Ingram, L.O. . Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science)

    1994-06-20

    Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse is essential for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process which uses recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2 and Genencor Spezyme CE. Strain P2 has been genetically engineered to express Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding the ethanol pathway and retains the native ability to transport and metabolize cellobiose (minimizing the need for extracellular cellobiase). In SSF studies with this organism, both the rate of ethanol production and ethanol yield were limited by saccharification at 10 and 20 filter paper units (FPU) g[sup [minus]1] acid-treated bagasse. Dilute slurries of biomass were converted to ethanol more efficiently (over 72% of theoretical yield) in simple batch fermentations than slurries containing high solids, albeit with the production of lower levels of ethanol. With high solids (i.e., 160 g acid-treated bagasse L[sup [minus]1]), a combination of 20 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse, preincubation under saccharification conditions, and additional grinding (to reduce particle size) were required to produce ca. 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1]. Alternatively, almost 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1] was produced with 10 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse by incorporating a second saccharification step (no further enzyme addition) followed by a second inoculation and short fermentation. In this way, a theoretical ethanol yield of over 70% was achieved with the production of 20 g ethanol 800 FPU[sup [minus]1] of commercial cellulase.

  18. On-line monitoring of bioreactions of Bacillus polymyxa and Klebsiella oxytoca by membrane introduction tandem mass spectrometry with flow injection analysis sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, M.J.; Kotiaho, Tapio; Lister, A.K.; Cooks, R.G.; Austin, G.D.; Narayan, Ramani; Tsao, G.T. )

    1990-09-01

    Membrane introduction mass spectrometry with flow injection analysis sampling has been utilized for on-line monitoring of the major products and the volatile metabolites of fermentation of the Bacillus polymyxa and Klebsiella oxytoca organisms. A flow injection sampling system was used to rapidly deliver fermentation broth or an external standard to the mass spectrometer. Analyte introduction occurred via a direct insertion membrane probe in which the aqueous solutions flowed past a membrane located within the ion source of the mass spectrometer. For both organisms, concentrations of the liquid-phase products acetic acid, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and ethanol, were monitored as a function of time after permeation through the membrane and ionization by chemical ionization. Tandem mass spectrometry confirmed that these measurements were made without interference. Off-line gas chromatography was utilized to test the accuracy of these measurements, and excellent agreement was found. The use of tandem mass spectrometry has allowed the detection of additional compounds that were previously not known to be present in measurable amounts.

  19. Fuel ethanol production from mixed office paper using recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca P2 containing the Zymomonas mobilis ethanol pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, L.O.; Brooks, T.A.

    1995-12-01

    Mixed Office Waste Paper (MOWP) is an excellent substrate for repulsing or for conversion into fuel ethanol. We have developed a recombinant strain of K. oxytoca which ferments cellobiose and cellotriose to ethanol at near theoretical yield (pH 5-5.2, 35{degrees}C), eliminating the need for external {beta}-glucosidase. This organism was tested with commercial fungal cellulose in optimized simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments using autoclaved MOWP and dilute acid hydrolyzed-MOWT (hydrolyzes hemicellulose and starch) as substrates. Essentially identical rates and yields were obtained with both substrates on a dry weight basis, although initial mixing was easier after acid pretreatment. Under optimal conditions, 5 % ethanol (v/v) was produced in 72 h with low levels of cellulose (5 FPU cellulose average/g paper) during 4 successive fermentations in which cellulose enzymes were recycled. The estimated yield for this process is 0.42 g ethanol/gram dry wt of paper, 538 liters ethanol/ metric ton, 125 gallons/U.S. ton. An adaptation of this process may also be useful as a treatment for sludges from paper recycling.

  20. Characterization of KPC-2-producing Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Klebsiella oxytoca isolates from a Chinese Hospital.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yanping; Yang, Jiyong; Ye, Liyan; Guo, Lin; Zhao, Qiang; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yong; Han, Xuelin; Zhao, Jingya; Tian, Shuguang; Han, Li

    2014-08-01

    Twelve nonduplicated KPC-2-producing enterobacterial isolates, including three Escherichia coli, two Citrobacter freundii, two Enterobacter cloacae, four Enterobacter aerogenes, and one Klebsiella oxytoca, were collected from various clinical samples within 18 months (March 2011 to September 2012). Two of the 12 patients died from infections caused by KPC-2-producing pathogens, while the rest of the patients with KPC-2-producing pathogens improved or were cured. The majority of the clinical isolates exhibited a high-level of resistance to oxyimino-cephalosporins and carbapenems, and possessed self-transferable bla(KPC-2)-carrying plasmids with sizes ranging from 20 to 120 kb. Most isolates carried bla(CTX-M) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, while some isolates produced 16S rRNA methylases (ArmA or RmtB). The genetic environment of bla(KPC-2) of most clinical strains was consistent with the genetic structure surrounding bla(KPC-2) on the plasmid pKP048, which contains an integration structure of a Tn3-based transposon and partial Tn4401 segment. Inserted fragments (truncated bla(TEM)) were detected upstream of the bla(KPC-2) gene for two E. aerogenes strains. In conclusion, the enterobacterial isolates exhibited sporadic emergence and did not arise by clonal spread at our hospital. The outcome of infections caused by KPC-producing enterobacterial isolates and their mortality were closely associated with the baseline condition of patients. The spread of bla(KPC-2) gene between different enterobacterial species in China was mainly mediated by horizontal transfer of the Tn3-based transposons and not the bla(KPC-2)-carrying plasmids. PMID:24433026

  1. Klebsiella pneumoniae Produces No Histamine: Raoultella planticola and Raoultella ornithinolytica Strains Are Histamine Producers

    PubMed Central

    Kanki, Masashi; Yoda, Tomoko; Tsukamoto, Teizo; Shibata, Tadayoshi

    2002-01-01

    Histamine fish poisoning is caused by histamine-producing bacteria (HPB). Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca are the best-known HPB in fish. However, 22 strains of HPB from fish first identified as K. pneumoniae or K. oxytoca by commercialized systems were later correctly identified as Raoultella planticola (formerly Klebsiella planticola) by additional tests. Similarly, five strains of Raoultella ornithinolytica (formerly Klebsiella ornithinolytica) were isolated from fish as new HPB. R. planticola and R. ornithinolytica strains were equal in their histamine-producing capabilities and were determined to possess the hdc genes, encoding histidine decarboxylase. On the other hand, a collection of 61 strains of K. pneumoniae and 18 strains of K. oxytoca produced no histamine. PMID:12089029

  2. Detection of nitrate/nitrite bioavailability in wastewater using a luxCDABE-based Klebsiella oxytoca bioluminescent bioreporter.

    PubMed

    Abd-El-Haleem, Desouky; Ripp, Steven; Zaki, Sahar; Sayler, Gary S

    2007-08-01

    In the present study, we have constructed a bioluminescent bioreporter for the assessment of nitrate/nitrite bioavailability in wastewater. Specifically, an approximately 500-bp DNA fragment containing a nitrate/nitrite-activated nasR-like promoter (regulating expression of genes encoding nitrite reductase in the genus Klebsiella) was fused upstream of the Vibrio fischeri luxCDABE gene cassette in a modified mini-Tn5 vector. Characterization of this strain, designated W6-1, yielded dose-dependent increased bioluminescence coincident with increased nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium added to the growth medium from 1 to 11 ppm. Bioluminescence in response to nitrogen species addition was light dependent up to 10, 7, and 8 ppm with nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, respectively. This response was linear in the range from 1 to 8 ppm for nitrate (R2 = 0.98), 1 to 6 ppm for nitrite (R2 = 0.99), and 1 to 7 ppm for ammonium (R2 = 0.99). A significant bioluminescent response was also recorded when strain W6-1 was incubated with slurries from aged, nitrate/nitrite contaminated wastewater. Thus, bioreporter strain W6-1 can be used to elucidate factors that constrain the use of nitrate/nitrite in wastewaters. PMID:18051593

  3. Hexavalent Molybdenum Reduction to Mo-Blue by a Sodium-Dodecyl-Sulfate-Degrading Klebsiella oxytoca Strain DRY14

    PubMed Central

    Halmi, M. I. E.; Zuhainis, S. W.; Yusof, M. T.; Shaharuddin, N. A.; Helmi, W.; Shukor, Y.; Syed, M. A.; Ahmad, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS-) degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v), between 25 and 30 mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5 mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3 g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant. PMID:24383052

  4. Hexavalent molybdenum reduction to mo-blue by a sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-degrading Klebsiella oxytoca strain DRY14.

    PubMed

    Halmi, M I E; Zuhainis, S W; Yusof, M T; Shaharuddin, N A; Helmi, W; Shukor, Y; Syed, M A; Ahmad, S A

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS-) degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v), between 25 and 30 mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5 mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3 g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant. PMID:24383052

  5. EFFECTS OF VELOCITY ON THE TRANSPORT OF TWO BACTERIA THROUGH SATURATED SAND. GROUND WATER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transport of the bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca and Burkholderia cepacia G4PR1 (G4PR1) was investigated in column experiments conducted under conditions that allowed us to quantify sorption under a range of ground water velocities. Column experiments (33 mm I.D. X 114 mm long colu...

  6. ENUMERATION, TRANSPORT AND SURVIVAL OF BACTERIA ATTACHED TO GRANULAR ACTIVITATED CARBON IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The surfaces of granular activated carbon (GAC), sand, and anthracite particles were found to be populated to the same levels with heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria. GAC supported a greater number of Klebsiella oxytoca than the other two filter media. In a study of operati...

  7. Multi Drug Resistant Klebsiella Isolates in Burn Patients: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, S. Kirshna; Siddiqui, Oves

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Infections are the most common complications in the burn patients admitted to the hospitals leading to high morbidity and mortality. Klebsiella is one of the most frequently isolated bacteria from burn wounds. Materials and Methods We studied antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Klebsiella isolates from burn patients. In this cross- sectional study wound swabs from 1294 patients hospitalized in burnward were collected for bacteriological examination. Antibiotic sensitivity testing of Klebsiella isolates was done by modified Stokes disc diffusion method. Results Out of 883 isolates from 1294 patients 195 were found to be Klebsiella spp. Based on the biochemical properties 153 isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 37 were Klebsiella oxytoca and 5 were others species. In our study we found that 54% of the Klebsiella isolates were multidrug resistant as they were resistant to at least one antibiotic of three or more different groups of antibiotics. [Table/Fig-1]: Isolation of different organism in burn wound infection Bacteria Number Percentage (%) Acinetobacter 70 7.92 Citrobacter 9 1.01 E. coli 125 14.15 Enterobacter 8 0.9 Klebsiella 195 22.08 Morganella 1 0.1 Proteus 71 8.04 Providentia 15 1.6 Pseudomonas 248 28.08 Staphylococcus 141 15.96 Total 883 99.84 Conclusion Rate of isolation of Klebsiella as well as its resistance for commonly used antibiotics is increasing over the time. PMID:26500905

  8. Protective effect of Klebsiella bacteria on lawn grasses under conditions of soil salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emtsev, V. T.; Sokolova, A. Ya.; Selitskaya, O. V.

    2010-07-01

    The protective effect of the inoculation of lawn grasses grown under conditions of soil salinization with bacteria of the Klebsiella genus ( K. planticola and K. pneumoniae) was demonstrated. It was found that K. pneumoniae improves the plant growth under conditions of a high concentration of sodium chloride. It was also shown that the inoculation of lawn grasses with these bacteria optimizes the morphophysiological parameters of the plants and increases the number of mitoses in the apical parts of the roots, which leads to a less significant decrease in the mitotic index under the impact of salinization. The capacity of K. planticola to penetrate into the plants may favor the activation of protective mechanisms improving the immunological status of the plants and, hence, their tolerance to salinization.

  9. Phage associated bacteriocins reveal a novel mechanism for bacteriocin diversification in Klebsiella.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Milind; Rafi, Hamid; Wertz, John; Goldstone, Carla; Riley, Margaret A

    2005-04-01

    Ninety-six isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca were recovered from wild mammals in Australia. 14.6% of these bacteria produce killing phenotypes that suggest the production of bacteriocin toxins. Cloning and sequencing of the gene clusters encoding two of these killing phenotypes revealed two instances of a bacteriocin associated with a bacteriophage gene, the first such genetic organization described. The newly identified klebicin C gene cluster was discovered in both K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca. The newly identified klebicin D gene cluster was detected in K. oxytoca. Protein sequence comparisons and phylogenetic inference suggest that klebicin C is most closely related to the rRNase group of colicins (such as colicin E4), while klebicin D is most closely related to the tRNase group of colicins (such as colicin D). The klebicin C and D gene clusters have similar genetic and regulatory organizations. In both cases, an operon structure is inferred consisting of a phage-associated open reading frame and klebicin activity and associated immunity genes. This novel bacteriophage/bacteriocin organization may provide a novel mechanism for the generation of bacteriocin diversity in Klebsiella. PMID:15883889

  10. Plugging of a model rock system by using starved bacteria. [Klebsiella pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, F.A.; Lappin-Scott, H.M.; Costerton, J.W.

    1988-06-01

    The effects of starvation on bacterial penetration through artificial rock cores were examined. Klebsiella pneumoniae was starved in a simple salts solution for a duration of up to 4 weeks. These cell suspensions were injected into sintered glass bead cores, and the resulting reductions in core permeabilities were recorded. Vegetative cell cultures of K. pneumoniae grown in a sodium citrate medium were injected into other, similar cores, and the reductions in core permeabilities were recorded. The starved cell suspensions did not completely block the core pores, whereas the vegetative cultures reduced core permeability to less than 1%. Scanning electron microscopy of core section infiltrated with either vegetative or starved cells showed that the former produced shallow skin plugs and copious amounts of glycocalyx at the inlet face, whereas the latter produced very little glycocalyx and the cells were distributed evenly throughout the length of the core. The use of a DNA assay to produce a cell distribution profile showed that, compared with the vegetative cells, starved bacteria were able to penetrate deeper into the cores. This was due to the smaller size of the cells and the reduction in biofilm production. This ability of starved bacteria to penetrate further into cores than the normal-size vegetative cells can be usefully applied to selective plugging for enhanced oil recovery. To further test the suitability of starved cells for use in selective plugging, the activities of starved cells present within cores were monitored before and after nutrient stimulation. Our data indicate that with nutrient stimulation, the starved cells lose their metabolic dormancy and produce reductions in core permeability due to cell growth and polymer production.

  11. Efficient reduction of the formation of by-products and improvement of production yield of 2,3-butanediol by a combined deletion of alcohol dehydrogenase, acetate kinase-phosphotransacetylase, and lactate dehydrogenase genes in metabolically engineered Klebsiella oxytoca in mineral salts medium.

    PubMed

    Jantama, Kaemwich; Polyiam, Pattharasedthi; Khunnonkwao, Panwana; Chan, Sitha; Sangproo, Maytawadee; Khor, Kirin; Jantama, Sirima Suvarnakuta; Kanchanatawee, Sunthorn

    2015-07-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca KMS005 (∆adhE∆ackA-pta∆ldhA) was metabolically engineered to improve 2,3-butanediol (BDO) yield. Elimination of alcohol dehydrogenase E (adhE), acetate kinase A-phosphotransacetylase (ackA-pta), and lactate dehydrogenase A (ldhA) enzymes allowed BDO production as a primary pathway for NADH re-oxidation, and significantly reduced by-products. KMS005 was screened for the efficient glucose utilization by metabolic evolution. KMS005-73T improved BDO production at a concentration of 23.5±0.5 g/L with yield of 0.46±0.02 g/g in mineral salts medium containing 50 g/L glucose in a shake flask. KMS005-73T also exhibited BDO yields of about 0.40-0.42 g/g from sugarcane molasses, cassava starch, and maltodextrin. During fed-batch fermentation, KMS005-73T produced BDO at a concentration, yield, and overall and specific productivities of 117.4±4.5 g/L, 0.49±0.02 g/g, 1.20±0.05 g/Lh, and 27.2±1.1 g/gCDW, respectively. No acetoin, lactate, and formate were detected, and only trace amounts of acetate and ethanol were formed. The strain also produced the least by-products and the highest BDO yield among other Klebsiella strains previously developed. PMID:25895450

  12. Vaccination with Klebsiella pneumoniae-derived extracellular vesicles protects against bacteria-induced lethality via both humoral and cellular immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won-Hee; Choi, Hyun-Il; Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, Kwang-sun; Gho, Yong Song; Jeon, Seong Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae highlights the need to develop preventive measures to ameliorate Klebsiella infections. Bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are spherical nanometer-sized proteolipids enriched with outer membrane proteins. Gram-negative bacteria-derived EVs have gained interest for use as nonliving complex vaccines. In the present study, we evaluated whether K. pneumoniae-derived EVs confer protection against bacteria-induced lethality. K. pneumoniae-derived EVs isolated from in vitro bacterial culture supernatants induced innate immunity, including the upregulation of co-stimulatory molecule expression and proinflammatory mediator production. EV vaccination via the intraperitoneal route elicited EV-reactive antibodies and interferon-gamma-producing T-cell responses. Three vaccinations with the EVs prevented bacteria-induced lethality. As verified by sera and splenocytes adoptive transfer, the protective effect of EV vaccination was dependent on both humoral and cellular immunity. Taken together, these findings suggest that K. pneumoniae-derived EVs are a novel vaccine candidate against K. pneumoniae infections. PMID:26358222

  13. [Increase of metallo-beta-lactamase producing bacteria positive cases including Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Japanese university hospital].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Takamichi; Kimura, Satoshi; Nakama, Emiko; Chen, Gelin; Fukuchi, Kunihiko

    2010-06-01

    The clinical characteristics of the metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing bacteria were investigated in a Japanese university hospital with 661 beds. In total, 34 cases (38 strains) were isolated from March 2006 to October 2007. No MBL-producing strain was detected until then. We screened for MBL using Arakawa's method because it detects MBL-producing bacteria more sensitively than conventional methods. Anti-biotic resistant genes were analyzed in 24 MBL producing bacteria positive cases detected from September 2007 to August 2008. Either bla(IMP-1) or bla(IMP-11) was detected in all cases. Age distribution of the MBL producing bacteria positive cases had two peaks, infant age (under five-years-old) and senior age (over seventies). All cases have underlying diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, malignant tumor, granulocytopenia, and/or using steroids. Twenty-one strains were detected from postoperative cases. MBL carrier rate in total clinically isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae strains was 2.6%. As far as we know, this number is the highest among reports in Japanese hospitals. The clinical manifestation of K. pneumoniae as pathogen was identified in only two cases (5%). In 24 cases (82%), MBL-producing bacteria were identified as bystanders. Though infection cases by MBL-producing bacteria especially by K. pneumoniae have not been frequently observed, we should carefully watch their numbers because the bacteria transfer resistant genes among their flora. PMID:20662265

  14. Preparation and characterization of vanadia-titania mixed oxide for immobilization of Serratia rubidaea CCT 5732 and Klebsiella marcescens bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Saragiotto Colpini, Leda Maria Correia Goncalves, Regina A.; Goncalves, Jose Eduardo; Maieru Macedo Costa, Creusa

    2008-08-04

    Vanadia-titania mixed oxide was synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized by several techniques. Texturally, it is formed by mesopores and presents high-specific surface area and controlled porosity. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that vanadium is homogeneously distributed in the material. Structurally, it was possible to identify characteristic V=O stretching bands by IR. The analysis of X-ray diffraction showed that the material, particularly vanadium, is highly dispersed. Application experiments were carried out through the immobilization of Serratia rubidae CCT 5732 and Klebsiella marcescens bacteria by adsorption on the surface of mixed oxide. The micrographies revealed that the bacteria were adsorbed on the entire support, with average surface densities of 8.55 x 10{sup 11} cells/m{sup 2} (Serratia rubidae CCT 5732) and 3.40 x 10{sup 11} cells/m{sup 2} (K. marcescens)

  15. Bacteria cell properties and grain size impact on bacteria transport and deposition in porous media.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hongjuan; Cochet, Nelly; Pauss, André; Lamy, Edvina

    2016-03-01

    The simultaneous role of bacteria cell properties and porous media grain size on bacteria transport and deposition behavior was investigated in this study. Transport column experiments and numerical HYDRUS-1D simulations of three bacteria with different cell properties (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Rhodococcus rhodochrous) were carried out on two sandy media with different grain sizes, under saturated steady state flow conditions. Each bacterium was characterized by cell size and shape, cell motility, electrophoretic mobility, zeta potential, hydrophobicity and potential of interaction with the sand surface. Cell characteristics affected bacteria transport behavior in the fine sand, but similar bacteria breakthroughs and retardation factors observed in the coarse sand, indicated that bacteria transport was more depended on grain size than on bacteria cell properties. Retention decreased with increasing hydrophobicity and increased with increasing electrophoretic mobility of bacteria for both sand. The increasing sand grain size resulted in a decrease of bacteria retention, except for the motile E. coli, indicating that retention of this strain was more dependent on cell motility than on the sand grain size. Bacteria deposition coefficients obtained from numerical simulations of the retention profiles indicated that straining was an important mechanism affecting bacteria deposition of E. coli and Klebsiella sp., in the fine sand, but the attachment had the same importance as straining for R. rhodochrous. The results obtained in the coarse sand did not permit to discriminate the predominant mechanism of bacteria deposition and the relative implication of bacteria cell properties of this process. PMID:26705829

  16. Influence of Asellus aquaticus on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Campylobacter jejuni and naturally occurring heterotrophic bacteria in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Sarah C B; Nissen, Erling; Arvin, Erik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jrgen

    2012-10-15

    Water lice, Asellus aquaticus (isopoda), frequently occur in drinking water distribution systems where they are a nuisance to consumers and water utilities. Whether they are solely an aesthetic problem or also affect the microbial water quality is a matter of interest. We studied the influence of A. aquaticus on microbial water quality in non-chlorinated drinking water in controlled laboratory experiments. Pure cultures of the indicator organisms Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the pathogen Campylobacter jejuni as well as naturally occurring heterotrophic drinking water bacteria (measured as heterotrophic plate counts, HPC) were investigated in microcosms at 7 C, containing non-sterilised drinking water, drinking water sediment and A. aquaticus collected from a non-chlorinated ground water based drinking water supply system. Concentrations of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni decreased over time, following a first order decay with half lives of 5.3, 18.4 and 1.3 days, respectively. A. aquaticus did not affect survival of indicators and pathogens substantially whereas HPC were influenced by presence of dead A. aquaticus. Growth rates increased with an average of 48% for bacteria grown on R-2A agar and an average of 83% for bacteria grown on yeast extract agar when dead A. aquaticus were present compared to no and living A. aquaticus present. A. aquaticus associated E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni were measured (up to 25 per living and 500 per dead A. aquaticus) and so were A. aquaticus associated heterotrophic bacteria (>1.8*10(4) CFU per living and >6*10(4) CFU per dead A. aquaticus). A. aquaticus did not serve as an optimised habitat that increased survival of indicators and pathogens, since A. aquaticus associated E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni were only measured as long as the bacteria were also present in the water and sediment. PMID:22884244

  17. Abiotic process for Fe(II) oxidation and green rust mineralization driven by a heterotrophic nitrate reducing bacteria (Klebsiella mobilis).

    PubMed

    Etique, Marjorie; Jorand, Frdric P A; Zegeye, Asfaw; Grgoire, Brian; Despas, Christelle; Ruby, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Green rusts (GRs) are mixed Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides with a high reactivity toward organic and inorganic pollutants. GRs can be produced from ferric reducing or ferrous oxidizing bacterial activities. In this study, we investigated the capability of Klebsiella mobilis to produce iron minerals in the presence of nitrate and ferrous iron. This bacterium is well-known to reduce nitrate using an organic carbon source as electron donor but is unable to enzymatically oxidize Fe(II) species. During incubation, GR formation occurred as a secondary iron mineral precipitating on cell surfaces, resulting from Fe(II) oxidation by nitrite produced via bacterial respiration of nitrate. For the first time, we demonstrate GR formation by indirect microbial oxidation of Fe(II) (i.e., a combination of biotic/abiotic processes). These results therefore suggest that nitrate-reducing bacteria can potentially contribute to the formation of GR in natural environments. In addition, the chemical reduction of nitrite to ammonium by GR is observed, which gradually turns the GR into the end-product goethite. The nitrogen mass-balance clearly demonstrates that the total amount of ammonium produced corresponds to the quantity of bioreduced nitrate. These findings demonstrate how the activity of nitrate-reducing bacteria in ferrous environments may provide a direct link between the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and iron. PMID:24605878

  18. The study of Nickel Resistant Bacteria (NiRB) isolated from wastewaters polluted with different industrial sources

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pollution due to the heavy metals is a problem that may have negative consequences on the hydrosphere. One of the best procedures in removing the toxic metals from the environment is using metal resistant bacteria. Results In the present study eight nickel resistant bacteria were isolated from industrial wastewaters. Three of them were selected as the most resistant based on their Maximum tolerable concentration (8, 16 and 24 mM Ni2+). Their identification was done according to morphological, biochemical characteristics and 16SrDNA gene sequencing and they were identified as Cupriavidus sp ATHA3, Klebsiella oxytoca ATHA6 and Methylobacterium sp ATHA7. The accession numbers assigned to ATHA3, ATHA6 and ATHA7 strains are JX120152, JX196648 and JX457333 respectively. The Growth rate of the most resistant isolate, Klebsiella oxytoca strain ATHA6, in the presence of Ni2+ and the reduction in Ni2+ concentration was revealed that K oxytoca ATHA6 could decrease 83 mg/mL of nickel from the medium after 3 days. Conclusion It can be concluded that the identified Ni resistant bacteria could be valuable for the bioremediation of Ni polluted waste water and sewage. PMID:24475932

  19. Molecular characterization of class 1 integrons and gene cassettes in multidrug resistant (MDR) Klebsiella spp. isolated from hospitalized and outpatients in Iran, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Salimizand, Himen; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Kalantar, Enayatollah; Badmasti, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Klebsiella species are of the most common bacteria involved in nosocomial and urinary tract infections. Genetic elements such as class 1 integrons have an important role in the resistance development. In this study, the share of class 1 integrons, the genetic characterization of the integron cassettes and PFGE profiles of the clinical Klebsiella isolates are evaluated in Besat University hospital of Sanandaj, Iran. Methods Isolates from 17890 clinical specimens were identified by API20E. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and MIC were done for MDR isolates. For investigating class 1 integrons and gene cassettes, PCR by intI1 integrase and 5’-CS/3’-CS were performed. Integrated gene cassettes were analyzed by PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis was carried out for studying of clonality outbreak of isolates. Results Thirty five Klebsiella spp. were isolated and included 29 K. pneumoniae and 6 K. oxytoca. All the isolates were susceptible to carbapenems while other antibiotics showed high resistant profile. In all Klebsiella spp. PCR for intI1 integrase and 5’-CS/3’-CS were positive (100%). Sequencing for prevalent bands of internal variable regions between 5’-CS/3’-CS showed arr-5, orfD-aacA4 and aad5- dfrA17. PFGE Analysis showed 18 clusters in K. pneumoniae with clonality relatedness in some cases but no relatedness among K. oxytoca isolates. Conclusion High prevalence of class 1 integron carrying gene cassettes confirms that integron-mediated antimicrobial gene cassettes are important in Klebsiella spp. resistance profile. Clone diffusions of MDR Klebsiella spp. which harbor class 1 integrons have threaten the potential in the resistance development in our clinical settings. PMID:23466743

  20. [Specific biological features of opportunistic bacteria determining dysbacteriosis in the composition of the large intestine normal microflora].

    PubMed

    Levanova, L A; Aleshkin, V A; Vorob'ev, A A; Afanas'ev, S S; Surikova, E V; Rubal'skiĭ, O V; Aleshkin, A V

    2002-01-01

    Dysbiotic manifestations in the gastrointestinal tract are widely spread. They are characterized by a prolonged, persistent course with the tendency to transition to the chronic form and poorly respond to corrective treatment. The occurrence of high concentrations is 70% for Klebsiella oxytoca, while for K. pneumoniae--within the limit of 30%. The most topical problem is colonization of the intestinal mucosa in children aged up to 1 year by Klebsiella, the seeded bacteria retaining their capacity for growth for up to 2-3 years despite the use of probiotics. As shown in this study, the occurrence of Klebsiella and the level of the antilysozyme and "antiinterferon" activity of these bacteria, their resistance to antimicrobial preparations increase, correlating with the level of dysbiotic disturbances. PMID:12525001

  1. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C; De la Mora-Amutio, Marcela; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost. PMID:25763038

  2. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C.; la Mora-Amutio, Marcela De; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A.; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R.; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J.; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J.; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. ‘Azul’ is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost. PMID:25763038

  3. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    SciTech Connect

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  4. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhanghong; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and evaluate the chemotaxis of B. dorsalis to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assigned to the five bacterial classes Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. Nine OTUs were assigned to Gammaproteobacteria, which was the most highly represented class. Enterobacteriaceae constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including Enterobacter sakazakii, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter amnigenus. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by R. terrigena, K. oxytoca and K. pneumoniae were attractive to the B. dorsalis adults, and in field studies, B. dorsalis adults were most attracted to K. oxytoca. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly. PMID:22754363

  5. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Commensal Bacteria from Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Wen; Tseng, Shu-Ying; Huang, Mao-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have focused on foodborne or commensal bacteria as vehicles of antibiotic resistance. However, the antibiotic resistance of milk bacteria from healthy donors is still vague in Taiwan. For this purpose, human milk samples were obtained from randomly recruited 19 healthy women between 3 and 360 days post-partum. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacteria from milk samples was determined. About 20 bacterial species were isolated from milk samples including Staphylococcus (6 species), Streptococcus (4 species), Enterococcus (2 species), Lactobacillus (1 species), and bacteria belonging to other genera (7 species). Some opportunistic or potentially pathogenic bacteria including Kluyvera ascorbata, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Actinomyces bovis, and Staphylococcus aureus were also isolated. Intriguingly, Staphylococcus isolates (22 strains) were resistant to 2–8 of 8 antibiotics, while Streptococcus isolates (3 strains) were resistant to 3–7 of 9 antibiotics, and members of the genus Enterococcus (5 strains) were resistant to 3–8 of 9 antibiotics. Notably, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, S. aureus, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Enterococcus faecalis were resistant to vancomycin, which is considered as the last-resort antibiotic. Therefore, this study shows that most bacterial strains in human milk demonstrate mild to strong antibiotic resistance. Whether commensal bacteria in milk could serve as vehicles of antibiotic resistance should be further investigated. PMID:26494365

  6. Community spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria detected in social insurance hospitals throughout Japan.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Mayumi; Komatsu, Masaru; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Maeda, Misaho; Uchida, Takae; Yonezawa, Hitoshi; Inagaki, Kenji; Omi, Ayako; Matsumoto, Hidenobu; Murotani, Makiko; Iwamoto, Tsukasa; Kodaka, Yoshihiro; Kieda, Hideto; Tokiwa, Manabu; Masuwa, Bunji; Kinoshita, Mari; Saito, Kazuei; Katou, Masahiko

    2016-06-01

    We surveyed the status of community-acquired infections involving four extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis) isolated from clinical specimens from 11 social insurance hospitals in Japan in 2012. These are member hospitals of the Japan Community Healthcare Organization, an independent administrative hospital organization. The isolation rates for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, and P. mirabilis were 14.0% (165/1176), 3.3% (16/480), 3.1% (4/130), and 15.9% (17/107), respectively. The CTX-M-9 group, the most frequently detected genotype, was found in 77.0% (127/165) of E. coli and 43.8% (7/16) of K. pneumoniae isolates. Among K. oxytoca isolates, 75% (3/4) were the CTX-M-1 group, and all 17 P. mirabilis strains were the CTX-M-2 group. ESBL-producing bacteria isolation rates in each hospital ranged from 5.8% to 21.5% (median 9.5%), and the proportion of community-acquired infections among ESBL-producing bacteria isolates ranged from 1.6% to 30.8% (median 11.4%) in each hospital. Overall, the rates of ESBL-producing bacterial infection in all community-acquired infections and in all hospital infections were 10.6% (115/1081) and 10.7% (87/812), respectively. The ESBL-producing bacteria are not limited to certain regions or hospitals but are spreading in communities throughout Japan. PMID:27066881

  7. Prevalence of multidrug resistant uropathogenic bacteria in pediatric patients of a tertiary care hospital in eastern India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Monali P; Sarangi, Rachita; Padhy, Rabindra N

    2016-01-01

    Today, because systemic infections such as urinary tract infection (UTI) affect even pediatric patients, antibiotic resistant bacteria have become a constant clinical challenge. In the present study, a total of 1054 urine samples were collected from pediatric patients over 18 months. From these samples, 510 isolates of pathogenic bacteria were collected using HiCrome UTI agar. Antibiotic sensitivity tests of isolates were performed using the Kirby-Bauer method. Two Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus) and 7 Gram-negative bacteria (Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were isolated. Antibiograms of isolated bacteria were ascertained using antibiotics of 4 classes: aminoglycosides, β-lactams, fluoroquinolones and 2 stand-alones (co-trimoxazole and nitrofurantoin). Based on percent values of antibiotic resistance, isolated bacteria were (in decreasing order of number of isolated isolates): E. coli (109)>S. aureus (65)>E. faecalis (82)>E. aerogenes (64)>C. freundii (41)>P. aeruginosa (32)>K. pneumoniae (45)>K. oxytoca (50)>P. vulgaris (22). Surveillance results show that MDR isolates of 9 pathogenic bacteria were prevalent in the environment around the hospital. Thus, revisions to the antimicrobial stewardship program in this area of the country are required to increase clinician confidence in empiric therapy, which is often used for UTI cases. PMID:26617250

  8. Surveillance of multidrug resistant uropathogenic bacteria in hospitalized patients in Indian

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Monali Priyadarsini; Debata, Nagen Kumar; Padhy, Rabindra Nath

    2013-01-01

    Objective To record surveillance, antibiotic resistance of uropathogens of hospitalized patients over a period of 18 months. Methods Urine samples from wards and cabins were used for isolating urinary tract infection (UTI)-causing bacteria that were cultured on suitable selective media and identified by biochemical tests; and their antibiograms were ascertained by Kirby-Bauer's disc diffusion method, in each 6-month interval of the study period, using 18 antibiotics of five different classes. Results From wards and cabins, 1 245 samples were collected, from which 996 strains of bacteria belonging to 11 species were isolated, during April 2011 to September 2012. Two Gram-positive, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), and nine Gram-negative bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. Both S. aureus and E. faecalis were vancomycin resistant, and resistant-strains of all pathogens increased in each 6-month period of study. Particularly, all Gram-negatives were resistant to nitrofurantoin and co-trimoxazole, the most preferred antibiotics of empiric therapy for UTI. Conclusions Antibiograms of 11 UTI-causing bacteria recorded in this study indicated moderately higher numbers of strains resistant to each antibiotic studied, generating the fear of precipitating fervent episodes in public health particularly with bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and S. aureus. Moreover, vancomycin resistance in strains of S. aureus and E. faecalis is a matter of concern. PMID:23620859

  9. [Antimicrobial susceptibilityof clinical isolates of aerobic gram-negative bacteria in 2008].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Isamu; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kudo, Reiko; Fuji, Rieko; Takahashi, Choichiro; Oota, Reiko; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Okada, Masahiko; Horikawa, Yoshinori; Shiotani, Joji; Kino, Hiroyoshi; Ono, Yuka; Fujita, Shinichi; Matsuo, Shuji; Kono, Hisashi; Asari, Seishi; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Kusano, Nobuchika; Nose, Motoko; Hori, Toshinobu; Tanimoto, Ayako; Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Saikawa, Tetsunori; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Kohno, Shigeru; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Nakasone, Isamu; Maki, Hideki; Yamano, Yoshinori

    2012-02-01

    We determined MICs of antibacterial agents against 1145 clinical strains of aerobic Gram-negative bacteria (22 species) isolated at 16 Japanese facilities in 2008. MICs were determined using mostly broth microdilution method and antibacterial activity was assessed. Strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) accounted for 3.8% of Escherichia coli, 2.6% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 6.8% of Klebsiella oxytoca, 5.5% of Proteus mirabilis and 1.8% of Proteus vulgaris. ESBL produced strains were 6.8% at K. oxytoca that increased compared with 3.2% and 5.5% at P. mirabilis that decreased compared with 18.8% in 2006. Among Haemophilus influenzae, 61.7% that decreased compared with 67.7% in 2006, equaled 58.7% in 2004, were strains when classified by penicillin-binding protein 3 mutation. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the activity of most antibacterial agents was similar to that in 2006. Although two antibacterial agents that tobramycin showed an MIC90 of 1 microg/mL and doripenem showed an MIC90 of 4 microg/mL against P. aeruginosa have potent activity. Of all P. aeruginosa strains, 4.3% were resistant to six agents of nine antipseudomonal agents, that decreased compared to 12.2% in 2004 and 5.7% in 2006. Against other glucose-non-fermentative Gram-negative rods, the activity of most antibacterial agents was similar to that in 2006. PMID:22808694

  10. Bacteria on housefly eggs, Musca domestica, suppress fungal growth in chicken manure through nutrient depletion or antifungal metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Kevin; Thu, Kelsie; Tsang, Michelle; Moore, Margo; Gries, Gerhard

    2009-09-01

    Female houseflies, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), lay their eggs in ephemeral resources such as animal manure. Hatching larvae compete for essential nutrients with fungi that also colonize such resources. Both the well-known antagonistic relationship between bacteria and fungi and the consistent presence of the bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca on housefly eggs led us to hypothesize (1) that K. oxytoca, and possibly other bacteria on housefly eggs, help curtail the growth of fungal resource competitors and (2) that such fungi indeed adversely affect the development of housefly larvae. Bacteria washed from housefly eggs significantly reduced the growth of fungi in chicken manure. Nineteen bacterial strains and ten fungal strains were isolated from housefly eggs or chicken manure, respectively. Co-culturing each of all the possible bacterium-fungus pairs revealed that the bacteria as a group, but no single bacterium, significantly suppressed the growth of all fungal strains tested. The bacteria's adverse effect on fungi is due to resource nutrient depletion and/or the release of antifungal chemicals. Well-established fungi in resources significantly reduced the number of larval offspring that completed development to adult flies.

  11. Phosphate solubilizing and indole-3-acetic acid producing bacteria from the soil of Garhwal Himalaya aimed to improve the growth of rice.

    PubMed

    Gusain, Yogendra Singh; Kamal, Ranveer; Mehta, C M; Singh, U S; Sharma, A K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, soil bacteria from rainfed agriculture field of Garhwal Himalaya, just prior to sowing of summer crop, were isolated and initially tested for solubilization of inorganic phosphate, production of indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. Two bacterial isolates, having efficient P- solubilizing activity in solid medium, were identified using 16S rRNA sequence analysis as Pseudomonas koreensis strainYB1 Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus strainYB3 and three bacterial isolates, producing high amount of IAA in liquid medium, were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca strainYB2 and two strain of Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus, strainYB4 and YB5, respectively. In culture medium supplemented with L-Tryptophan, Klebsiella oxytoca produced high amount of IAA (337.44 μg l(-1)). The selected five bacterial strains were further tested for tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilizing abilities at three different incubation temperature viz., 4 degrees C, 10 degrees C and 28 degrees C, under in vitro conditions. At 28 degrees C, three bacterial strains Pseudomonas koreensis, Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus strainYB4 and Klebsiella oxytoca solubilized the phosphate efficiently. At 10 degrees C only two strains, Pseudomonas koreensis and Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus strainYB4 solubilized phosphate efficiently as compared to other strains. These five bacterial strains were tested for nitrogen, catalase activity, starch and cellulose hydrolysis as well as growth promotion activity on rice, under controlled conditions. All the five bacterial strains efficiently increased the biomass and phosphorus uptake in Swama and Swarna sub1 varieties of rice. PMID:26536808

  12. [Antibiotic resistance rates of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. strains isolated from urinary tract infections in a private hospital].

    PubMed

    Akyar, I?in

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the antibiotic resistance rates of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. strains isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Private Acibadem Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. A total of 1100 E. coli and 356 Klebsiella spp. strains isolated from 17.028 urine cultures which were processed between October 2006 and August 2007 in the clinical laboratory, were included to the study. Identification of bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by Phoenix (Becton Dickinson, USA) automated system. Of E. coli strains 12% (n= 132) were found positive for ESBL, while this rate was 12% (n= 41) for Klebsiella spp. strains (38 K.pneumoniae, 3 K. oxytoca). The resistance rates of ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiello spp. strains were found as follows respectively; 3% and 2.4% for amikacin, 3% and 85.4% for nitrofurantoin, 0% and 4.9% for fosfomycin, 5.3% and 100% for cefoxitin, 21.2% and 58.5% for piperacilin/tazobactam, 34.8% and 41.5% for gentamicin, 68.9% and 58% for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), 75.9% and 56.1% for tobramycin, 80.3% and 21.9% for ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. All of the ESBL positive E. coli and Klebsiella spp. strains were resistant to ampicilin, aztreonam, cefazolin, cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and cefuroxime-sodium; while all of the ESBL positive E. coli and Klebsiella spp. strains were sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. The rates of resistance obtained in this study were higher than the rates obtained in other studies performed in our country. This could be attributed to the different antibiotic use policies of different centers or to more frequent use of antibiotics by the patients applied to private hospitals, owing to their higher socioeconomical status and easier attainment of antibiotics without prescription. PMID:19149097

  13. Metabolic engineering of bacteria for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, L.O.; Gomez, P.F.; Lai, X.; Moniruzzaman, M.; Wood, B.E.; Yomano, L.P.; York, S.W.

    1998-04-20

    Technologies are available which will allow the conversion of lignocellulose into fuel ethanol using genetically engineered bacteria. Assembling these into a cost-effective process remains a challenge. The authors` work has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of enteric bacteria using a portable ethanol production pathway. Genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase have been integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B to produce strain KO11 for the fermentation of hemicellulose-derived syrups. This organism can efficiently ferment all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1 has been genetically engineered in a similar manner to produce strain P2 for ethanol production from cellulose. This organism has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes. The optimal pH for cellulose fermentation with this organism is near that of fungal cellulases. The general approach for the genetic engineering of new biocatalysts has been most successful with enteric bacteria thus far. However, this approach may also prove useful with gram-positive bacteria which have other important traits for lignocellulose conversion. Many opportunities remain for further improvements in the biomass to ethanol processes.

  14. Reduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol by ethanologenic strains of bacteria and its effect on ethanol production from xylose.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Tony; Buszko, Marian L; Ingram, Lonnie O; Preston, James F

    2002-01-01

    The ethanologenic bacteria Escherichia coli strains KO11 and LYO1, and Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2, were investigated for their ability to metabolize furfural. Using high performance liquid chromatography and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, furfural was found to be completely biotransformed into furfuryl alcohol by each of the three strains with tryptone and yeast extract as sole carbon sources. This reduction appears to be constitutive with NAD(P)H acting as electron donor. Glucose was shown to be an effective source of reducing power. Succinate inhibited furfural reduction, indicating that flavins are unlikely participants in this process. Furfural at concentrations >10 mM decreased the rate of ethanol formation but did not affect the final yield. Insight into the biochemical nature of this furfural reduction process may help efforts to mitigate furfural toxicity during ethanol production by ethanologenic bacteria. PMID:12018260

  15. [Resistance to fluoroquinolone among Klebsiella spp strains producing extended-spectrum betalactamases isolated from urine].

    PubMed

    Tlamçani, Z; Ellaia, K; Benomar, A; Kabbaj, H; Alaoui, Ae; Seffar, M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of resistance to fluoroquinolones in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLs) Klebsiella spp isolated from urines of consulting and hospitalized patients in Rabat Specialities Hospital. A retrospective survey was made over 3 years (2006-2008). Two hundred ant fifty three patients presented with confirmed urinary tractus infection (UTI). Klebsiella spp was the etiologic agent in 28% (72/253) of reported UTI. Among them, 86% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 14% of Klebsiella oxytoca. The frequency of Klebsiella spp resistance to fluoroquinolones was 33% and to third generation cephalosporins was 35%. Thirteen Klebsiella spp strains were producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase witch corresponds to 18% of all the klebsiella. The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase strains with resistance to fluoroquinolones were 85% (11/13) or 15 % of all klebsiella (11/72). None of those strains was resistant to imipenem. In conclusions resistance of enterobacteries such as Klebsiella spp to fluoroquinolones is becoming worrying among consulting and hospitalized patients. Eleven strains multiresistant (ESBL + resistance to fluoroquinolones), isolated probably because of plasmids carrying genes of ESBL and fluoroquinolones resistances. This increasingly frequent resistance mechanism should lead to a more careful use of first line fluoroquinolones for UTI. PMID:19789127

  16. Chemical structure and inhalation toxicity of lipopolysaccharides from bacteria on cotton.

    PubMed Central

    Helander, I; Salkinoja-Salonen, M; Rylander, R

    1980-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides from different bacteria isolated from cotton were purified and chemically analyzed. Their pulmonary toxicity to animals was tested in inhalation tests. Lipopolysaccharides from Agrobacterium and Xanthomonas were shown to differ from the others in that they contained no heptose and no non-hydroxylated fatty acids with a chain length of 12, 14, or 16 carbon atoms. Lipopolysaccharides from Pseudomonas putida, Enterobacter agglomerans, and Klebsiella oxytoca were found to cause an influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into the airways. Lipopolysaccharides from Agrobacterium sp. and Xanthomonas sinensis caused no significant invasion. The data point to substances in both the lipid A part and the core part of the lipopolysaccharides being responsible for the capacity to induce leukocyte invasion into the airways. PMID:7000706

  17. Prevalence of contagious and environmental mastitis-causing bacteria in bulk tank milk and its relationships with milking practices of dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island (Azores).

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Carla; Pacheco, Diana; Soares, Luísa; Romão, Ricardo; Moitoso, Mónica; Maldonado, Jaime; Guix, Roger; Simões, João

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the degree of contamination of bulk tank milk (BTM) by Staphylococcus spp. and coliform bacteria and to identify major milking practices that help perpetuate them in dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island. In July 2014, BTM was sampled and a survey concerning local milking practices was conducted on 100 herds. Semi quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and other coliform bacteria (Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens) in 100, 75, 59, and 35 % of BTM, respectively. According to multivariable univariate models, on herds not using hot water for cleaning the milking machine and teat liners, there was at least 3.4 more odds (P < 0.01) to have S. aureus or coliform bacteria contamination in BTM. The likelihood of finding S. aureus in BTM was higher (P < 0.001) on herds without high hygiene during milking, when milking mastitic cows at the end, on abrupt cessation of milking at dry-off, and official milk control implementation. The glove use also favored (odds ratio (OR) 5.8; P < 0.01) the detection of coliform bacteria in BTM. Poor milking practices identified in this study should be avoided in order to decrease S. aureus and coliform bacteria contamination of BTM. Other factors associated with milk quality in São Miguel Island also should be further investigated. PMID:26719295

  18. Production of 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella oxytoca from various sugars in microalgal hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Jae; Joo, Hyun Woo; Park, Juyi; Kim, Duk-Ki; Jeong, Ki Jun; Chang, Yong Keun

    2015-11-01

    A new fermentation process using a mixed sugar medium is proposed in this study for 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) production. The medium contained seven different monosugars known to be present in Nannochloropsis oceanica hydrolysate. The performance of each sugar when existing alone or together with glucose was evaluated. All the sugars except fucose were successfully metabolized for 2,3-BDO production. A 2,3-BDO yield of 0.31g/g was achieved with the mixed sugar medium, which was very close to that with the glucose-only medium. However, the 2,3-BDO productivity (0.28 g L(-1) h(-1) ) was found to be about 30% lower than that with glucose, implying, as expected, the existence of glucose repression on the uptake of other sugars. Strain development is in need to remove such negative effect of glucose for improved process efficiency. Fucose with the lowest uptake rate and no contribution to 2,3-BDO production can be a high value-added byproduct, once recovered and purified. 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 31:1669-1675, 2015. PMID:26400837

  19. Antimicrobial and Herbal Drug Resistance in Enteric Bacteria Isolated from Faecal Droppings of Common House Lizard/Gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhoj R.; Singh, Vidya; Ebibeni, N.; Singh, Raj K.

    2013-01-01

    From 194 faecal dropping samples of common house geckos collected from offices (60), houses (88), integrated farm units (IFS,18) and hostels, guest houses, and dining rooms of different canteen/mess (HGM, 28), 326 bacterial isolates of enteric bacteria belonging to 17 genera and 34 species were detected. Escherichia coli were the most frequently (39) isolated followed by Citrobacter freundii (33), Klebsiella pneumonia (27), Salmonella indica (12), Enterobacter gergoviae (12), and Ent. agglomerans (11). Other important bacteria isolated from gecko droppings were Listonella damsela (2), Raoultella terrigena (3), S. salamae (2), S. houtenae (3), Edwardsiella tarda (4), Edwardsiella hoshinae (1), and Klebsiella oxytoca (2). Of the 223 isolates tested for antimicrobial drug sensitivity, 27 (12.1%) had multiple drug resistance (MDR). None of the salmonellae or edwardsiellae had MDR however, MDR strains were significantly more common among Escherichia spp. (P = 1.9 × 10−5) and isolates from IFS units (P = 3.58 × 10−23). The most effective herbal drug, Ageratum conyzoides extract, inhibited growth of only 27.8% of strains tested followed by ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (13.9%), eucalyptus oil (5.4%), patchouli oil (5.4%), lemongrass oil (3.6%), and sandalwood oil (3.1%), and Artemisia vulgaris essential oil (3.1%). PMID:24223595

  20. Antimicrobial and Herbal Drug Resistance in Enteric Bacteria Isolated from Faecal Droppings of Common House Lizard/Gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus).

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhoj R; Singh, Vidya; Ebibeni, N; Singh, Raj K

    2013-01-01

    From 194 faecal dropping samples of common house geckos collected from offices (60), houses (88), integrated farm units (IFS,18) and hostels, guest houses, and dining rooms of different canteen/mess (HGM, 28), 326 bacterial isolates of enteric bacteria belonging to 17 genera and 34 species were detected. Escherichia coli were the most frequently (39) isolated followed by Citrobacter freundii (33), Klebsiella pneumonia (27), Salmonella indica (12), Enterobacter gergoviae (12), and Ent. agglomerans (11). Other important bacteria isolated from gecko droppings were Listonella damsela (2), Raoultella terrigena (3), S. salamae (2), S. houtenae (3), Edwardsiella tarda (4), Edwardsiella hoshinae (1), and Klebsiella oxytoca (2). Of the 223 isolates tested for antimicrobial drug sensitivity, 27 (12.1%) had multiple drug resistance (MDR). None of the salmonellae or edwardsiellae had MDR however, MDR strains were significantly more common among Escherichia spp. (P = 1.9 × 10(-5)) and isolates from IFS units (P = 3.58 × 10(-23)). The most effective herbal drug, Ageratum conyzoides extract, inhibited growth of only 27.8% of strains tested followed by ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (13.9%), eucalyptus oil (5.4%), patchouli oil (5.4%), lemongrass oil (3.6%), and sandalwood oil (3.1%), and Artemisia vulgaris essential oil (3.1%). PMID:24223595

  1. Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Deresinski, Stan

    2014-01-01

    The continuing emergence of infections due to multidrug resistant bacteria is a serious public health problem. Klebsiella pneumoniae, which commonly acquires resistance encoded on mobile genetic elements, including ones that encode carbapenemases, is a prime example. K. pneumoniae carrying such genetic material, including both blaKPC and genes encoding metallo-β-lactamases, have spread globally. Many carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae are resistant to multiple antibiotic classes beyond β-lactams, including tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. The optimal treatment, if any, for infections due to these organisms is unclear but, paradoxically, appears to often require the inclusion of an optimally administered carbapenem. PMID:25343037

  2. Isolation and characterization of polymeric galloyl-ester-degrading bacteria from a tannery discharge place.

    PubMed

    Franco, A R; Calheiros, C S C; Pacheco, C C; De Marco, P; Manaia, C M; Castro, P M L

    2005-11-01

    The culturable bacteria colonizing the rhizosphere of plants growing in the area of discharge of a tannery effluent were characterized. Relative proportions of aerobic, denitrifying, and sulfate-reducing bacteria were determined in the rhizosphere of Typha latifolia, Canna indica, and Phragmites australis. Aerobic bacteria were observed to be the most abundant group in the rhizosphere, and plant type did not seem to influence the abundance of the bacterial types analyzed. To isolate bacteria able to degrade polyphenols used in the tannery industry, enrichments were conducted under different conditions. Bacterial cultures were enriched with individual polyphenols (tannins Tara, Quebracho, or Mimosa) or with an undefined mixture of tannins present in the tannery effluent as carbon source. Cultures enriched with the effluent or Tara tannin were able to degrade tannic acid. Six bacterial isolates purified from these mixed cultures were able to use tannic acid as a sole carbon source in axenic culture. On the basis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, these isolates were closely related to organisms belonging to the taxa Serratia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Klebsiella oxytoca, Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum, and Pseudomonas putida. PMID:16341641

  3. Potential virulence of Klebsiella sp. isolates from enteral diets

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, S.C.L.; Vanetti, M.C.D.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the potential virulence of Klebsiella isolates from enteral diets in hospitals, to support nosocomial infection control measures, especially among critical-care patients. Phenotypic determination of virulence factors, such as capsular expression on the external membrane, production of aerobactin siderophore, synthesis of capsular polysaccharide, hemolytic and phospholipase activity, and resistance to antibiotics, which are used therapeutically, were investigated in strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca. Modular industrialized enteral diets (30 samples) as used in two public hospitals were analyzed, and Klebsiella isolates were obtained from six (20%) of them. The hypermucoviscous phenotype was observed in one of the K. pneumoniae isolates (6.7%). Capsular serotypes K1 to K6 were present, namely K5 and K4. Under the conditions of this study, no aerobactin production, hemolytic activity or lecithinase activity was observed in the isolates. All isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and ampicillin and sensitive to cefetamet, imipenem, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Most K. pneumoniae isolates (6/7, 85.7%) from hospital B presented with a higher frequency of resistance to the antibiotics tested in this study, and multiple resistance to at least four antibiotics (3/8; 37.5%) compared with isolates from Hospital A. The variations observed in the antibiotic resistance profiles allowed us to classify the Klebsiella isolates as eight antibiotypes. No production of broad-spectrum β-lactamases was observed among the isolates. Our data favor the hypothesis that Klebsiella isolates from enteral diets are potential pathogens for nosocomial infections. PMID:26176307

  4. Klebsiella pneumoniae survives within macrophages by avoiding delivery to lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Cano, Victoria; March, Catalina; Insua, Jose Luis; Aguiló, Nacho; Llobet, Enrique; Moranta, David; Regueiro, Verónica; Brennan, Gerard P; Millán-Lou, Maria Isabel; Martín, Carlos; Garmendia, Junkal; Bengoechea, José A

    2015-11-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Evidence indicates that Klebsiella might be able to persist intracellularly within a vacuolar compartment. This study was designed to investigate the interaction between Klebsiella and macrophages. Engulfment of K. pneumoniae was dependent on host cytoskeleton, cell plasma membrane lipid rafts and the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Microscopy studies revealed that K. pneumoniae resides within a vacuolar compartment, the Klebsiella-containing vacuole (KCV), which traffics within vacuoles associated with the endocytic pathway. In contrast to UV-killed bacteria, the majority of live bacteria did not co-localize with markers of the lysosomal compartment. Our data suggest that K. pneumoniae triggers a programmed cell death in macrophages displaying features of apoptosis. Our efforts to identify the mechanism(s) whereby K. pneumoniae prevents the fusion of the lysosomes to the KCV uncovered the central role of the PI3K-Akt-Rab14 axis to control the phagosome maturation. Our data revealed that the capsule is dispensable for Klebsiella intracellular survival if bacteria were not opsonized. Furthermore, the environment found by Klebsiella within the KCV triggered the down-regulation of the expression of cps. Altogether, this study proves evidence that K. pneumoniae survives killing by macrophages by manipulating phagosome maturation that may contribute to Klebsiella pathogenesis. PMID:26045209

  5. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CHEMOSTAT-GROWN 'YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA' AND 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE' TO CHLORINE DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The resistance of bacteria to antimicrobial agents could be influenced by growth environment. The susceptibility of two enteric bacteria, Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumoniae, to chlorine dioxide was investigated. These organisms were grown in a defined medium in a c...

  6. Microbiological investigation of Raphanus sativus L. grown hydroponically in nutrient solutions contaminated with spoilage and pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Settanni, Luca; Miceli, Alessandro; Francesca, Nicola; Cruciata, Margherita; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    The survival of eight undesired (spoilage/pathogenic) food related bacteria (Citrobacter freundii PSS60, Enterobacter spp. PSS11, Escherichia coli PSS2, Klebsiella oxytoca PSS82, Serratia grimesii PSS72, Pseudomonas putida PSS21, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PSS52 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19114(T)) was investigated in mineral nutrient solution (MNS) during the crop cycle of radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivated in hydroponics in a greenhouse. MNSs were microbiologically analyzed weekly by plate count. The evolution of the pure cultures was also evaluated in sterile MNS in test tubes. The inoculated trials contained an initial total mesophilic count (TMC) ranging between 6.69 and 7.78Log CFU/mL, while non-sterile and sterile control trials showed levels of 4.39 and 0.97Log CFU/mL, respectively. In general, all inoculated trials showed similar levels of TMC in MNS during the experimentation, even though the levels of the inoculated bacteria decreased. The presence of the inoculums was ascertained by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis applied on the isolates collected at 7-day intervals. At harvest, MNSs were also analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The last analysis, except P. putida PSS21 in the corresponding trial, did not detect the other bacteria, but confirmed that pseudomonads were present in un-inoculated MNSs. Despite the high counts detected (6.44 and 7.24CFU/g), only C. freundii PSS60, Enterobacter spp. PSS11 and K. oxytoca PSS82 were detected in radishes in a living form, suggesting their internalization. PMID:23290244

  7. Identification of clinical isolates of indole-positive Klebsiella spp., including Klebsiella planticola, and a genetic and molecular analysis of their beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Mee, B J; Mulgrave, L

    1997-09-01

    In a collection of 43 indole-positive Klebsiella clinical isolates, which were initially identified as Klebsiella oxytoca, there were 18 isolates which exhibited a pattern characteristic of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) resistance. This study aimed to confirm their identity by biochemical tests and by PCR and to determine the genetic basis for their resistance to the beta-lactams and broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Chromosomal beta-lactamase genes were analyzed by PCR, and plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase genes were analyzed by conjugation and transformation. There were 39 isolates which grew on melezitose but failed to grow on 3-hydroxybutyrate, confirming them as K. oxytoca. PCR analysis of their beta-lactamase genes divided these isolates into two groups, the bla(OXY-1) group and the bla(OXY-2) group. Each group had beta-lactamases with different isoelectric points; the bla(OXY-1) group had beta-lactamases with isoelectric points at 7.2, 7.8, 8.2, and 8.8, and the more common bla(OXY-2) group had beta-lactamases with pIs at 5.2, 5.4 (TEM-1), 5.7, 5.9, 6.4, and 6.8. A pI of 5.2 was the most frequently detected and accounted for 59% of all the bla(OXY-2) beta-lactamases. Hyperproduction of clavulanate-inhibited chromosomal beta-lactamases was detected in 17 K. oxytoca isolates, resulting in an ESBL phenotype. K. oxytoca isolates having a plasmid-mediated genetic basis for their ESBL phenotype were not found, confirming that, in K. oxytoca, plasmids are rarely involved in conferring resistance to the newer cephalosporins. Four isolates proved to be isolates of K. planticola in which the beta-lactamase genes failed to react with the primers used in the PCR. One K. planticola isolate contained a transferable plasmid harboring the SHV-5 beta-lactamase gene and showed an ESBL phenotype, while the other non-ESBL K. planticola isolates contained chromosomal beta-lactamases with isoelectric points at 7.2, 7.7, and 7.9 plus 7.2. PMID:9276417

  8. Empirical prediction and validation of antibacterial inhibitory effects of various plant essential oils on common pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Akdemir Evrendilek, Gulsun

    2015-06-01

    In this study, fractional compound composition, antioxidant capacity, and phenolic substance content of 14 plant essential oils-anise (Pimpinella anisum), bay leaves (Laurus nobilis), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), hop (Humulus lupulus), Istanbul oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum), Izmir oregano (Origanum onites), mint (Mentha piperita), myrtus (Myrtus communis), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), sage (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymbra spicata), and Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum)--were related to inhibition of 10 bacteria through multiple linear or non-linear (M(N)LR) models-four Gram-positive bacteria of Listeria innocua, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis, and six Gram-negative bacteria of Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella oxytoca. A total of 65 compounds with different antioxidant capacity, phenolic substance content and antibacterial properties were detected with 14 plant essential oils. The best-fit M(N)LR models indicated that relative to anise essential oil, the essential oils of oreganos, cinnamon, and thyme had consistently high inhibitory effects, while orange peel essential oil had consistently a low inhibitory effect. Regression analysis indicated that beta-bisabolene (Turkish and Istanbul oreganos), and terpinolene (thyme) were found to be the most inhibitory compounds regardless of the bacteria type tested. PMID:25764982

  9. Somatic Serogroups, Capsular Types, and Species of Fecal Klebsiella in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Toivanen, Paavo; Hansen, Dennis S.; Mestre, Francisca; Lehtonen, Leena; Vaahtovuo, Jussi; Vehma, Mari; Mttnen, Timo; Saario, Riitta; Luukkainen, Reijo; Nissil, Martti

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to find out whether patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) carry fecal Klebsiella strains that belong to serotypes or species specific for AS. Somatic serotypes (O groups), capsular (K) serotypes, and biochemically identified species were determined for fecal klebsiellae isolated from 187 AS patients and 195 control patients. The controls were patients with fibromyalgia or rheumatoid arthritis. The 638 isolates of Klebsiella that were obtained represented 161 strains; 81 from AS patients and 80 from the controls. The average number of Klebsiella strains per patient was 1.7 for the AS group and 1.5 for the control group. The most common O group was O1, which was observed for isolates from 23 of 187 AS patients and 24 of 195 control patients. Next in frequency was group O2, which was observed for isolates from 17 AS patients and 15 control patients. Regarding the K serotypes, 59 different types were identified, revealing a heterogeneous representation of Klebsiella strains, without a predominance of any serotype. By biochemical identification, Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequently occurring species, being found in 45 AS patients and 45 control patients. Next in the frequency was K. oxytoca, which was observed in 26 AS patients and in 29 control patients. K. planticola and K. terrigena occurred in only a minority of patients. Altogether, when analyzed either separately or simultaneously according to O groups, K serotypes, and biochemically identified species, no evidence of the existence of AS-specific Klebsiella strains was obtained. These findings do not indicate participation of Klebsiella in the etiopathogenesis of AS. PMID:10449457

  10. Effects of some metallic compounds on Klebsiella

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.H.

    1988-04-01

    Many industrial and waste disposal practices unconsciously pollute the environment by adding excess heavy metals to it. Although reports show an inconsistency in the toxic levels of heavy metals such as zinc, nickel, cadmium, mercury and silvery between microbial groups, the toxic effects of the metals on microorganisms have been well documented. Little is known of the differential effects these metals have on coliform K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca. These bacteria are widely recognized as antibiotic resistant opportunistic pathogens. Besides, they are able to fix dinitrogen. In this study, these metals were found to affect these organisms in a variety of concentrations. Such effect could affect the total coliform count in water, dinitrogen fixation, and removable of nitrate in soil and water.

  11. Effects of some metallic compounds on Klebsiella

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.H. )

    1988-05-01

    Many industrial and waste disposal practices unconsciously pollute the environment by adding excess heavy metals to it. Although reports show an inconsistency in the toxic levels of heavy metals such as zinc, nickel, cadmium, mercury and silver between microbial groups, the toxic effects of the metals on microorganisms have been well documented. Little is known of the differential effects these metals have on coliform K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca. These bacteria are widely recognized as antibiotic resistant opportunistic pathogens ubiquitously distributed in environments. Besides, they are able to fix dinitrogen. In this study, these metals were found to affect these organisms in a variety of concentrations. Such effect could affect the total coliform count in water, dinitrogen fixation, and removable of nitrate in soil and water.

  12. Nickel-Resistant Bacteria from Anthropogenically Nickel-Polluted and Naturally Nickel-Percolated Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Stoppel, R.; Schlegel, H. G.

    1995-01-01

    DNA fragments harboring the nickel resistance determinants from bacteria isolated from anthropogenically polluted ecosystems in Europe and Zaire were compared with those harboring the nickel resistance determinants from bacteria isolated from naturally nickel-percolated soils from New Caledonia by DNA-DNA hybridization. The biotinylated DNA probes were derived from the previously described Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans 31A, Alcaligenes denitrificans 4a-2, and Klebsiella oxytoca CCUG 15788 and four new nickel resistance-determining fragments cloned from strains isolated from soils under nickel-hyperaccumulating trees. Nine probes were hybridized with endonuclease-cleaved plasmid and total DNA samples from 56 nickel-resistant strains. Some of the New Caledonian strains were tentatively identified as Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas mendocina, Comamonas, Hafnia alvei, Burkholderia, Arthrobacter aurescens, and Arthrobacter ramosus strains. The DNA of most strains showed homologies to one or several of the following nickel resistance determinants: the cnr and ncc operons of the strains A. eutrophus CH34 and A. xylosoxidans 31A, respectively, the nre operon of strain 31A, and the nickel resistance determinants of K. oxytoca. On the basis of their hybridization reactions the nickel resistance determinants of the strains could be assigned to four groups: (i) cnr/ncc type, (ii) cnr/ncc/nre type, (iii) K. oxytoca type, and (iv) others. The majority of the strains were assigned to the known groups. Among the strains from Belgium and Zaire, exclusively the cnr/ncc and the cnr/ncc/nre types were found. Among the New Caledonian strains all four types were represented. Homologies to the nre operon were found only in combination with the cnr/ncc operon. The homologies to the cnr/ncc operon were the most abundant and were detected alone or together with homologies to the nre operon. Only the DNA of the strains isolated from soil in Scotland and the United States and that of five of the New Caledonian strains did not show any detectable homologies to any of our probes. The nickel resistance fragment isolated from Burkholderia strain 32W-2 was studied in some detail. This 15-kb BamHI fragment conferred resistance to 1 to 5 mM NiCl(inf2) to Escherichia coli and resistance to up to 25 mM NiCl(inf2) to A. eutrophus. It showed strong homologies to both the cnr/ncc operon and the nre operon and conferred strictly regulated (inducible) nickel resistance to A. eutrophus. PMID:16535048

  13. Impact of Gram-negative bacteria in interaction with a complex microbial consortium on biogenic amine content and sensory characteristics of an uncooked pressed cheese.

    PubMed

    Delbès-Paus, Céline; Pochet, Sylvie; Helinck, Sandra; Veisseire, Philippe; Bord, Cécile; Lebecque, Annick; Coton, Monika; Desmasures, Nathalie; Coton, Emmanuel; Irlinger, Françoise; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2012-05-01

    The impact of Gram-negative bacteria on sensory characteristics and production of volatile compounds as well as biogenic amines (BA) in the core of an uncooked pressed type model cheese was investigated in the presence of a defined complex microbial consortium. Eleven strains of Gram-negative bacteria, selected on the basis of their biodiversity and in vitro BA-production ability, were individually tested in a model cheese. Four out of 6 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (Citrobacter freundii UCMA 4217, Klebsiella oxytoca 927, Hafnia alvei B16 and Proteus vulgaris UCMA 3780) reached counts close to 6 log CFU g⁻¹ in the model cheese. In core of cheeses inoculated with Gram-negative bacteria, only slight differences were observed for microbial counts (Enterococcus faecalis or Lactobacillus plantarum count differences below 1 log CFU g⁻¹), acetate concentration (differences below 200 mg kg⁻¹) and texture (greater firmness) in comparison to control cheeses. Cheese core colour, odour and volatile compound composition were not modified. Although ornithine, the precursor of putrescine, was present in all cheeses, putrescine was only detected in cheeses inoculated with H. alvei B16 and never exceeded 2.18 mmol kg⁻¹ cheese dry matter. Cadaverine was only detected in cheeses inoculated with H. alvei B16, K. oxytoca 927, Halomonas venusta 4C1A or Morganella morganii 3A2A but at lower concentrations (<1.05 mmol kg⁻¹ cheese dry matter), although lysine was available. Only insignificant amounts of the detrimental BA histamine and tyramine, as well as isopentylamine, tryptamine or phenylethylamine, were produced in the cheese model by any of the Gram-negative strains, including those which produced these BA at high levels in vitro. PMID:22265286

  14. Klebsiella spp. as Nosocomial Pathogens: Epidemiology, Taxonomy, Typing Methods, and Pathogenicity Factors

    PubMed Central

    Podschun, R.; Ullmann, U.

    1998-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Klebsiella frequently cause human nosocomial infections. In particular, the medically most important Klebsiella species, Klebsiella pneumoniae, accounts for a significant proportion of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections, pneumonia, septicemias, and soft tissue infections. The principal pathogenic reservoirs for transmission of Klebsiella are the gastrointestinal tract and the hands of hospital personnel. Because of their ability to spread rapidly in the hospital environment, these bacteria tend to cause nosocomial outbreaks. Hospital outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella spp., especially those in neonatal wards, are often caused by new types of strains, the so-called extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) producers. The incidence of ESBL-producing strains among clinical Klebsiella isolates has been steadily increasing over the past years. The resulting limitations on the therapeutic options demand new measures for the management of Klebsiella hospital infections. While the different typing methods are useful epidemiological tools for infection control, recent findings about Klebsiella virulence factors have provided new insights into the pathogenic strategies of these bacteria. Klebsiella pathogenicity factors such as capsules or lipopolysaccharides are presently considered to be promising candidates for vaccination efforts that may serve as immunological infection control measures. PMID:9767057

  15. Volatiles emitted from eight wound-isolated bacteria differentially attract gravid screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to oviposit.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R; Sagel, A; Welch, J B

    2010-05-01

    Bovine blood inoculated with bacteria isolated from screwworm [Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)]-infested animal wounds was tested as an attractant for oviposition for gravid screwworms. Eight species of gram-negative coliform (Enterobacteriaceae) bacteria mixed with bovine blood singly or all species combined and incubated for various times produced volatiles that attracted gravid flies in a cage bioassay in varying numbers. In 15-min duration tests, volatiles from five species of bacteria (Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia rettgeri, and Providencia stuartii) attracted more females than volatiles of the three species (Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter sakazakii, and Serratia liquefaciens). In 1-h duration oviposition tests, volatiles from the substrate using the same five species of bacteria attracted more females to oviposit than the other three species. Volatiles from 24-h incubation period elicited least attraction and oviposition whereas volatiles from the 48- and 72-h incubation period resulted in significantly more attraction and oviposition. Attraction and oviposition decreased significantly when the substrates were incubated for 96 h. Volatiles from substrate with all species of bacteria combined attracted a significantly higher percentage of flies to land and oviposit than those from substrates prepared with single species. It is possible that multiple active chemicals present in volatiles of the all-species substrate may act as synergists resulting in greater response than those observed with volatiles from single-species substrate. Before oviposition flies took a bloodmeal from the oviposition substrate. It is possible that the oviposition is moderated by two different factors in screwworm-first, by using a chemical cue to land on a potential oviposition site and second, by using a bloodmeal to stimulate oviposition. PMID:20496582

  16. Antimicrobial Effect of the Triterpene 3β,6β,16β-Trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene on Planktonic Cells and Biofilms from Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Evaristo, Francisco Flávio Vasconcelos; Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R.; dos Santos, Hélcio Silva; Bandeira, Paulo Nogueira; Ávila, Fábio do Nascimento; da Silva, Bruno Rocha; Vasconcelos, Ariana Azevedo; Rabelo, Érica de Menezes; Nascimento-Neto, Luiz Gonzaga; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of 3β,6β,16β-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene (CLF1), a triterpene isolated from Combretum leprosum Mart., in inhibiting the planktonic growth and biofilms of Gram positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans and S. mitis. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The antibiofilm potential was determined by quantifying total biomass and enumerating biofilm-entrapped viable bacteria. In addition, the acute toxicity of CLF1 on Artemia sp. nauplii was also determined. The results showed that CLF1 was able in inhibiting the growth of S. mutans and S. mitis with MIC and MBC of 7.8 μg/mL and 15.6 μg/mL, respectively. CLF1 was highly effective on biofilms of both bacteria. Only 7.8 μg/mL CLF1 was enough to inhibit by 97% and 90% biomass production of S. mutans and S. mitis, respectively. On the other hand, such effects were not evident on Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella oxytoca. The toxicity tests showed that the LC50 of CLF1 was 98.19 μg/mL. Therefore, CLF1 isolated from C. leprosum may constitute an important natural agent for the development of new therapies for caries and other infectious diseases caused by S. mutans and S. mitis. PMID:25093179

  17. Epidemiological study of klebsiella infection in the special care baby unit of a London hospital

    PubMed Central

    Riser, EVE; Noone, Paul; Howard, Frances M

    1980-01-01

    Of the babies admitted to the Special Care Baby Unit of the Royal Free Hospital over 20 months, 102% were infected or colonised by klebsiella. The fluorescent antibody technique was used to identify epidemics caused by three strains: capsular type 8 K. aerogenes, type 68 K. oxytoca, or type 13 K. aerogenes, each of which was predominant at a different time, exhibited a difference in virulence, and showed a predilection for different sites of infection. Intestinal colonisation was frequently followed by the presence of sepsis in other sites by the same capsular type. Antibiotic administration led to a higher incidence of klebsiella infection, while the widespread use of compounds containing hexachlorophane could have contributed to skin colonisation and infection by klebsiella. An environmental survey indicated that 1% Hycolin failed to disinfect the incubators, that the babies were the reservoirs of the organisms, and that transmission was due to inadequate hand-washing of nurses and mothers. The mothers were found to have been uninformed of hygienic techniques. They were observed in various practices which could have contributed to the spread of the organism, including contaminating communal areas and handling babies other than their own. It has been recommended that the mothers of premature infants be instructed in the hygienic measures required in dealing with this susceptible population and that the nursing and medical staff be more strict in their own observance of these procedures. PMID:7400339

  18. Diversity of bacteria nesting the plant cover of north Sinai deserts, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Amira L; Youssef, Hanan H; Amer, Wafaa M; Monib, Mohammed; Fayez, Mohammed; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2013-01-01

    North Sinai deserts were surveyed for the predominant plant cover and for the culturable bacteria nesting their roots and shoots. Among 43 plant species reported, 13 are perennial (e.g. Fagonia spp., Pancratium spp.) and 30 annuals (e.g. Bromus spp., Erodium spp.). Eleven species possessed rhizo-sheath, e.g. Cyperus capitatus, Panicum turgidum and Trisetaria koelerioides. Microbiological analyses demonstrated: the great diversity and richness of associated culturable bacteria, in particular nitrogen-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs); the majority of bacterial residents were of true and/or putative diazotrophic nature; the bacterial populations followed an increasing density gradient towards the root surfaces; sizeable populations were able to reside inside the root (endorhizosphere) and shoot (endophyllosphere) tissues. Three hundred bacterial isolates were secured from studied spheres. The majority of nitrogen-fixing bacilli isolates belonged to Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus polymexa, Bacillus macerans, Bacillus circulans and Bacillus licheniformis. The family Enterobacteriaceae represented by Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter sackazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia adorifera, Serratia liquefaciens and Klebsiella oxytoca. The non-Enterobacteriaceae population was rich in Pantoae spp., Agrobacterium rdiobacter, Pseudomonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Chrysemonas luteola. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus were reported inside root and shoot tissues of a number of tested plants. The dense bacterial populations reported speak well to the very possible significant role played by the endophytic bacterial populations in the survival, in respect of nutrition and health, of existing plants. Such groups of diazotrophs are good candidates, as bio-preparates, to support the growth of future field crops grown in deserts of north Sinai and irrigated by the water of El-Salam canal. PMID:25685397

  19. Effect of Algae and Plant Lectins on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation in Clinically Relevant Bacteria and Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Silva, Helton Colares; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda; Cavada, Benildo; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the abilities of plant and algae lectins to inhibit planktonic growth and biofilm formation in bacteria and yeasts. Initially, ten lectins were tested on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and C. tropicalis at concentrations of 31.25 to 250 μg/mL. The lectins from Cratylia floribunda (CFL), Vatairea macrocarpa (VML), Bauhinia bauhinioides (BBL), Bryothamnion seaforthii (BSL), and Hypnea musciformis (HML) showed activities against at least one microorganism. Biofilm formation in the presence of the lectins was also evaluated; after 24 h of incubation with the lectins, the biofilms were analyzed by quantifying the biomass (by crystal violet staining) and by enumerating the viable cells (colony-forming units). The lectins reduced the biofilm biomass and/or the number of viable cells to differing degrees depending on the microorganism tested, demonstrating the different characteristics of the lectins. These findings indicate that the lectins tested in this study may be natural alternative antimicrobial agents; however, further studies are required to better elucidate the functional use of these proteins. PMID:24982871

  20. Effect of algae and plant lectins on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in clinically relevant bacteria and yeasts.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Silva, Helton Colares; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda; Cavada, Benildo; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Henriques, Mariana; Pereira, Maria Olivia

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the abilities of plant and algae lectins to inhibit planktonic growth and biofilm formation in bacteria and yeasts. Initially, ten lectins were tested on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and C. tropicalis at concentrations of 31.25 to 250  μ g/mL. The lectins from Cratylia floribunda (CFL), Vatairea macrocarpa (VML), Bauhinia bauhinioides (BBL), Bryothamnion seaforthii (BSL), and Hypnea musciformis (HML) showed activities against at least one microorganism. Biofilm formation in the presence of the lectins was also evaluated; after 24 h of incubation with the lectins, the biofilms were analyzed by quantifying the biomass (by crystal violet staining) and by enumerating the viable cells (colony-forming units). The lectins reduced the biofilm biomass and/or the number of viable cells to differing degrees depending on the microorganism tested, demonstrating the different characteristics of the lectins. These findings indicate that the lectins tested in this study may be natural alternative antimicrobial agents; however, further studies are required to better elucidate the functional use of these proteins. PMID:24982871

  1. Duodenal-mucosal bacteria associated with celiac disease in children.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ester; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Fernández-Murga, Maria Leonor; Sanz, Yolanda

    2013-09-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins. This disorder is associated with imbalances in the gut microbiota composition that could be involved in the pathogenesis of CD. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition and diversity of the cultivable duodenal mucosa-associated bacteria of CD patients and control children. Duodenal biopsy specimens from patients with active disease on a gluten-containing diet (n = 32), patients with nonactive disease after adherence to a gluten-free diet (n = 17), and controls (n = 8) were homogenized and plated on plate count agar, Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart agar, or yeast, Casitone, and fatty acid agar. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Renyi diversity profiles showed the highest diversity values for active CD patients, followed by nonactive CD patients and control individuals. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria were more abundant in patients with active CD than in the other child groups, while those of the phylum Firmicutes were less abundant. Members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae, particularly the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, were more abundant in patients with active disease than in controls. In contrast, members of the family Streptococcaceae were less abundant in patients with active CD than in controls. Furthermore, isolates of the Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus mutans groups were more abundant in controls than in both CD patient groups, regardless of inflammatory status. The findings indicated that the disease is associated with the overgrowth of possible pathobionts that exclude symbionts or commensals that are characteristic of the healthy small intestinal microbiota. PMID:23835180

  2. Duodenal-Mucosal Bacteria Associated with Celiac Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Ester; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Fernández-Murga, Maria Leonor

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins. This disorder is associated with imbalances in the gut microbiota composition that could be involved in the pathogenesis of CD. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition and diversity of the cultivable duodenal mucosa-associated bacteria of CD patients and control children. Duodenal biopsy specimens from patients with active disease on a gluten-containing diet (n = 32), patients with nonactive disease after adherence to a gluten-free diet (n = 17), and controls (n = 8) were homogenized and plated on plate count agar, Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart agar, or yeast, Casitone, and fatty acid agar. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Renyi diversity profiles showed the highest diversity values for active CD patients, followed by nonactive CD patients and control individuals. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria were more abundant in patients with active CD than in the other child groups, while those of the phylum Firmicutes were less abundant. Members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae, particularly the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, were more abundant in patients with active disease than in controls. In contrast, members of the family Streptococcaceae were less abundant in patients with active CD than in controls. Furthermore, isolates of the Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus mutans groups were more abundant in controls than in both CD patient groups, regardless of inflammatory status. The findings indicated that the disease is associated with the overgrowth of possible pathobionts that exclude symbionts or commensals that are characteristic of the healthy small intestinal microbiota. PMID:23835180

  3. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases in Gram Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Deepti; Nair, Deepthi

    2010-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are a group of plasmid-mediated, diverse, complex and rapidly evolving enzymes that are posing a major therapeutic challenge today in the treatment of hospitalized and community-based patients. Infections due to ESBL producers range from uncomplicated urinary tract infections to life-threatening sepsis. Derived from the older TEM is derived from Temoniera, a patient from whom the strain was first isolated in Greece. β-lactamases, these enzymes share the ability to hydrolyze third-generation cephalosporins and aztreonam and yet are inhibited by clavulanic acid. In addition, ESBL-producing organisms exhibit co-resistance to many other classes of antibiotics, resulting in limitation of therapeutic option. Because of inoculum effect and substrate specificity, their detection is also a major challenge. At present, however, organizations such as the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) provide guidelines for the detection of ESBLs in Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. In common to all ESBL-detection methods is the general principle that the activity of extended-spectrum cephalosporins against ESBL-producing organisms will be enhanced by the presence of clavulanic acid. Carbapenems are the treatment of choice for serious infections due to ESBL-producing organisms, yet carbapenem-resistant isolates have recently been reported. ESBLs represent an impressive example of the ability of gram-negative bacteria to develop new antibiotic-resistance mechanisms in the face of the introduction of new antimicrobial agents. Thus there is need for efficient infection-control practices for containment of outbreaks; and intervention strategies, e.g., antibiotic rotation to reduce further selection and spread of these increasingly resistant pathogens. PMID:20927289

  4. Rapid Identification of Gram-Negative Bacteria with and without CTX-M Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase from Positive Blood Culture Bottles by PCR Followed by Microchip Gel Electrophoresis▿

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Shin-ichi; Yosizaki, Kentaro; Ogushi, Thikako; Uechi, Kouhei; Takemori, Yukiko; Senda, Yasuko

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of PCR analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) followed by microchip gel electrophoresis (MGE) for direct identification and CTX-M detection of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from positive blood culture bottles. Of 251 GNB isolated from blood cultures containing a single bacterium, 225 (90%) were correctly identified at the species level directly from positive blood culture bottles by comparing the ITS-PCR patterns of the sample strain with those of the control strains. There were no cases of incorrect identification. Limitations encountered included the inability to detect mixed cultures (four bottles) as well as some species (Enterobacter species and Klebsiella oxytoca) demonstrating identical ITS-PCR patterns. A total of 109 ESBL-producing isolates from various clinical materials obtained between January 2005 and December 2008 were examined for blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes by PCR and sequences of PCR products. CTX-M ESBL was detected in 105 isolates, and SHV ESBL was detected in two isolates. The remaining two isolates (K. oxytoca) were shown to harbor blaOXY. Twenty (19%) of 104 Escherichia coli isolates from blood cultures were suspected to produce ESBL by the combination disk method, and these isolates were shown to harbor CTX-M ESBL by PCR-MGE. The results were obtained within 1.5 h at a calculated cost of $6.50 per specimen. In conclusion, simultaneous detection of ITS length polymorphisms and blaCTX-M by single PCR followed by MGE is useful for rapid, cost-effective, and reliable species-level identification of CTX-M ESBL-producing GNB responsible for bloodstream infections. PMID:21289149

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE' AMONG PULP AND PAPER MILL WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This one-year study measured fecal coliform and Klebsiella bacteria densities in several of Wisconsin's pulp and paper mill processing wash waters, treated waters, and waters receiving pulp and paper mill effluent discharge. The isolation of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from as...

  6. Transposition of IS1397 in the Family Enterobacteriaceae and First Characterization of ISKpn1, a New Insertion Sequence Associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae Palindromic Units

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Caroline; Bachellier, Sophie; Hofnung, Maurice; Clément, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    IS1397 and ISKpn1 are IS3 family members which are specifically inserted into the loop of palindromic units (PUs). IS1397 is shown to transpose into PUs with sequences close or identical to the Escherichia coli consensus, even in other enterobacteria (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca). Moreover, we show that homologous intergenic regions containing PUs constitute IS1397 transpositional hot spots, despite bacterial interspersed mosaic element structures that differ among the three species. ISKpn1, described here for the first time, is specific for PUs from K. pneumoniae, in which we discovered it. A sequence comparison between the two insertion sequences allowed us to define a motif possibly accounting for their specificity. PMID:11443073

  7. Transposition of IS1397 in the family Enterobacteriaceae and first characterization of ISKpn1, a new insertion sequence associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae palindromic units.

    PubMed

    Wilde, C; Bachellier, S; Hofnung, M; Clément, J M

    2001-08-01

    IS1397 and ISKpn1 are IS3 family members which are specifically inserted into the loop of palindromic units (PUs). IS1397 is shown to transpose into PUs with sequences close or identical to the Escherichia coli consensus, even in other enterobacteria (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca). Moreover, we show that homologous intergenic regions containing PUs constitute IS1397 transpositional hot spots, despite bacterial interspersed mosaic element structures that differ among the three species. ISKpn1, described here for the first time, is specific for PUs from K. pneumoniae, in which we discovered it. A sequence comparison between the two insertion sequences allowed us to define a motif possibly accounting for their specificity. PMID:11443073

  8. Rapid Identification of Carbapenemase Genes in Gram-Negative Bacteria with an Oligonucleotide Microarray-Based Assay

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Sascha D.; Monecke, Stefan; Thürmer, Alexander; Ruppelt, Antje; Makarewicz, Oliwia; Pletz, Mathias; Reißig, Annett; Slickers, Peter; Ehricht, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Rapid molecular identification of carbapenemase genes in Gram-negative bacteria is crucial for infection control and prevention, surveillance and for epidemiological purposes. Furthermore, it may have a significant impact upon determining the appropriate initial treatment and greatly benefit for critically ill patients. A novel oligonucleotide microarray-based assay was developed to simultaneously detect genes encoding clinically important carbapenemases as well as selected extended (ESBL) and narrow spectrum (NSBL) beta-lactamases directly from clonal culture material within few hours. Additionally, a panel of species specific markers was included to identify Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii/braakii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii. The assay was tested using a panel of 117 isolates collected from urinary, blood and stool samples. For these isolates, phenotypic identifications and susceptibility tests were available. An independent detection of carbapenemase, ESBL and NSBL genes was carried out by various external reference laboratories using PCR methods. In direct comparison, the microarray correctly identified 98.2% of the covered carbapenemase genes. This included blaVIM (13 out of 13), blaGIM (2/2), blaKPC (27/27), blaNDM (5/5), blaIMP-2/4/7/8/13/14/15/16/31 (10/10), blaOXA-23 (12/13), blaOXA-40-group (7/7), blaOXA-48-group (32/33), blaOXA-51 (1/1) and blaOXA-58 (1/1). Furthermore, the test correctly identified additional beta-lactamases [blaOXA-1 (16/16), blaOXA-2 (4/4), blaOXA-9 (33/33), OXA-10 (3/3), blaOXA-51 (25/25), blaOXA-58 (2/2), CTX-M1/M15 (17/17) and blaVIM (1/1)]. In direct comparison to phenotypical identification obtained by VITEK or MALDI-TOF systems, 114 of 117 (97.4%) isolates, including Acinetobacter baumannii (28/28), Enterobacter spec. (5/5), Escherichia coli (4/4), Klebsiella pneumoniae (62/63), Klebsiella oxytoca (0/2), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12/12), Citrobacter freundii (1/1) and Citrobacter braakii (2/2), were correctly identified by a panel of species specific probes. This assay might be easily extended, adapted and transferred to point of care platforms enabling fast surveillance, rapid detection and appropriate early treatment of infections caused by multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25068267

  9. Rapid identification of carbapenemase genes in gram-negative bacteria with an oligonucleotide microarray-based assay.

    PubMed

    Braun, Sascha D; Monecke, Stefan; Thürmer, Alexander; Ruppelt, Antje; Makarewicz, Oliwia; Pletz, Mathias; Reiβig, Annett; Slickers, Peter; Ehricht, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Rapid molecular identification of carbapenemase genes in Gram-negative bacteria is crucial for infection control and prevention, surveillance and for epidemiological purposes. Furthermore, it may have a significant impact upon determining the appropriate initial treatment and greatly benefit for critically ill patients. A novel oligonucleotide microarray-based assay was developed to simultaneously detect genes encoding clinically important carbapenemases as well as selected extended (ESBL) and narrow spectrum (NSBL) beta-lactamases directly from clonal culture material within few hours. Additionally, a panel of species specific markers was included to identify Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii/braakii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii. The assay was tested using a panel of 117 isolates collected from urinary, blood and stool samples. For these isolates, phenotypic identifications and susceptibility tests were available. An independent detection of carbapenemase, ESBL and NSBL genes was carried out by various external reference laboratories using PCR methods. In direct comparison, the microarray correctly identified 98.2% of the covered carbapenemase genes. This included blaVIM (13 out of 13), blaGIM (2/2), blaKPC (27/27), blaNDM (5/5), blaIMP-2/4/7/8/13/14/15/16/31 (10/10), blaOXA-23 (12/13), blaOXA-40-group (7/7), blaOXA-48-group (32/33), blaOXA-51 (1/1) and blaOXA-58 (1/1). Furthermore, the test correctly identified additional beta-lactamases [blaOXA-1 (16/16), blaOXA-2 (4/4), blaOXA-9 (33/33), OXA-10 (3/3), blaOXA-51 (25/25), blaOXA-58 (2/2), CTX-M1/M15 (17/17) and blaVIM (1/1)]. In direct comparison to phenotypical identification obtained by VITEK or MALDI-TOF systems, 114 of 117 (97.4%) isolates, including Acinetobacter baumannii (28/28), Enterobacter spec. (5/5), Escherichia coli (4/4), Klebsiella pneumoniae (62/63), Klebsiella oxytoca (0/2), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12/12), Citrobacter freundii (1/1) and Citrobacter braakii (2/2), were correctly identified by a panel of species specific probes. This assay might be easily extended, adapted and transferred to point of care platforms enabling fast surveillance, rapid detection and appropriate early treatment of infections caused by multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25068267

  10. Hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Alyssa S.; Bajwa, Rajinder P.S.; Russo, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    A new hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) variant of Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged. First described in the Asian Pacific Rim, it now increasingly recognized in Western countries. Defining clinical features are the ability to cause serious, life-threatening community-acquired infection in younger healthy hosts, including liver abscess, pneumonia, meningitis and endophthalmitis and the ability to metastatically spread, an unusual feature for enteric Gram-negative bacilli in the non-immunocompromised. Despite infecting a healthier population, significant morbidity and mortality occurs. Although epidemiologic features are still being defined, colonization, particularly intestinal colonization, appears to be a critical step leading to infection. However the route of entry remains unclear. The majority of cases described to date are in Asians, raising the issue of a genetic predisposition vs. geospecific strain acquisition. The traits that enhance its virulence when compared with “classical” K. pneumoniae are the ability to more efficiently acquire iron and perhaps an increase in capsule production, which confers the hypermucoviscous phenotype. An objective diagnostic test suitable for routine use in the clinical microbiology laboratory is needed. If/when these strains become increasingly resistant to antimicrobials, we will be faced with a frightening clinical scenario. PMID:23302790

  11. Studies on water quality and pathogenic bacteria in coastal water Langkawi, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jalal, K C A; Faizul, H N Noor; Naim, M Azrul; John, B Akbar; Kamaruzzaman, B Y

    2012-07-01

    A study on physico-chemical parameters and pathogenic bacterial community was carried out at the coastal waters of Pulau Tuba island, Langkawi. The physico-chemical parameters such as temperature (27.43-28.88 degrees C), dissolved oxygen (3.79-6.49 mg l(-1)), pH (7.72-8.20), salinity (33.10-33.96 ppt), total dissolved solids (32.27-32.77 g l(-1)) and specific conductivity (49.83-51.63 mS cm(-1)) were observed. Station 3 and station 4 showed highest amount of nitrates (26.93 and 14.61 microg at N l(-1)) than station 1 (2.04 microg at N l(-1)) and station 2 (4.18 microg at N l(-1)). The highest concentration (12.4 +/- microg l(-1)) of chlorophyll a was observed in station 4 in October 2005. High phosphorus content (561 microg P l(-1)) was found in the station 2. Thirteen bacterial isolates were successfully identified using API 20E system. The highest amount of bacteria was observed at Station 4 (3400 CFU ml(-1)) and the lowest numberwas at Station 2 (890 CFU ml(-1)). Out of identified 13 Gram-negative bacterial isolates dominant species were Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas baumannii, Vibrio vulnificus, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia alcalifaciens and Serratia liquefaciens. Apart from this, oil biodegrading Pseudomonas putida were also identified. The study reveals the existing status of water quality is still conducive and the reasonably diverse with Gram-negative bacteria along the Pulau Tuba Langkawi. PMID:23360015

  12. Epidemiology and Virulence of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Steven; Murphy, Caitlin N

    2016-02-01

    Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae are frequently opportunistic pathogens implicated in urinary tract and catheter-associated urinary-tract infections of hospitalized patients and compromised individuals. Infections are particularly difficult to treat since most clinical isolates exhibit resistance to several antibiotics leading to treatment failure and the possibility of systemic dissemination. Infections of medical devices such as urinary catheters is a major site of K. pneumoniae infections and has been suggested to involve the formation of biofilms on these surfaces. Over the last decade there has been an increase in research activity designed to investigate the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae in the urinary tract. These investigations have begun to define the bacterial factors that contribute to growth and biofilm formation. Several virulence factors have been demonstrated to mediate K. pneumoniae infectivity and include, but are most likely not limited to, adherence factors, capsule production, lipopolysaccharide presence, and siderophore activity. The development of both in vitro and in vivo models of infection will lead to further elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae. As for most opportunistic infections, the role of host factors as well as bacterial traits are crucial in determining the outcome of infections. In addition, multidrug-resistant strains of these bacteria have become a serious problem in the treatment of Klebsiella infections and novel strategies to prevent and inhibit bacterial growth need to be developed. Overall, the frequency, significance, and morbidity associated with K. pneumoniae urinary tract infections have increased over many years. The emergence of these bacteria as sources of antibiotic resistance and pathogens of the urinary tract present a challenging problem for the clinician in terms of management and treatment of individuals. PMID:26999397

  13. Chronic Klebsiella pneumonia: a rare manifestation of Klebsiella pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Thungtitigul, Poungrat; Suwatanapongched, Thitiporn

    2015-01-01

    K. pneumoniae can present as two forms of community-acquired pneumonia, acute and chronic. Although acute pneumonia may turn into necrotizing pneumonia, which results in a prolonged clinical course, it often has a rapidly progressive clinical course. In contrast, chronic Klebsiella pneumonia runs a protracted indolent course that mimics other chronic pulmonary infections and malignancies. Herein, we present two cases of chronic Klebsiella pneumonia. The diagnosis was made by microorganism identification, as well as absence of other potential causes. Clinical and radiographic findings improved after a prolonged course of antibiotic therapy. PMID:26543615

  14. Klebsiella pneumoniae Bloodstream Infection

    PubMed Central

    Girometti, Nicolò; Lewis, Russell E.; Giannella, Maddalena; Ambretti, Simone; Bartoletti, Michele; Tedeschi, Sara; Tumietto, Fabio; Cristini, Francesco; Trapani, Filippo; Gaibani, Paolo; Viale, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Multidrug resistance associated with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) among K. pneumoniae is endemic in southern Europe. We retrospectively analyzed the impact of resistance on the appropriateness of empirical therapy and treatment outcomes of K. pneumoniae bloodstream infections (BSIs) during a 2-year period at a 1420-bed tertiary-care teaching hospital in northern Italy. We identified 217 unique patient BSIs, including 92 (42%) KPC-positive, 49 (23%) ESBL-positive, and 1 (0.5%) metallo-beta-lactamase-positive isolates. Adequate empirical therapy was administered in 74% of infections caused by non-ESBL non-KPC strains, versus 33% of ESBL and 23% of KPC cases (p < 0.0001). To clarify the impact of resistance on BSI treatment outcomes, we compared several different models comprised of non-antibiotic treatment-related factors predictive of patients’ 30-day survival status. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score determined at the time of positive blood culture was superior to other investigated models, correctly predicting survival status in 83% of the study cohort. In multivariate analysis accounting for APACHE II, receipt of inadequate empirical therapy was associated with nearly a twofold higher rate of death (adjusted hazard ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1–3.4; p = 0.02). Multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae accounted for two-thirds of all K. pneumoniae BSIs, high rates of inappropriate empirical therapy, and twofold higher rates of patient death irrespective of underlying illness. PMID:25398065

  15. Electrophoretic transfer from polyacrylamide gel to nitrocellulose sheets, a new method to characterize multilocus enzyme genotypes of Klebsiella strains.

    PubMed

    Combe, M L; Pons, J L; Sesboue, R; Martin, J P

    1994-01-01

    A new method for multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, based on electrophoretic transfers to nitrocellulose after polyacrylamide-agarose gel electrophoresis was explored. Electrophoretic separation was performed on 1-mm-thick slab gels with 6-mul samples of bacterial extracts and was followed by serial 5-min consecutive transfers. The transferability of 19 metabolic enzymes of Klebsiella strains was studied and allowed the simultaneous examination of one enzyme in the separation gel and at least five enzymes on nitrocellulose sheets. The resolution of enzyme bands was increased on nitrocellulose; thus, well-separated bands were recorded for nucleoside phosphorylase, peptidase, and phosphoglucose isomerase whereas their mobility variants could not be clearly distinguished in the separation gel because of stain diffusion. The study of genetic relationships of 42 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 24 strains of Klebsiella oxytoca demonstrated the reliability of the method, since clustering analysis of electrophoretic types, based on electrophoretic polymorphism of 10 metabolic enzymes, showed two main clusters well correlated with the two species. The 57 electrophoretic types described confirm the usefulness of the method for the study of genetic relationships between closely related strains. PMID:16349155

  16. Bacteriocine typing of Klebsiella spp

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Felicity A.

    1971-01-01

    One hundred and six strains of Klebsiella spp were examined for their ability to produce bacteriocine. Nine of these, together with one strain from the National Collection of Type Cultures, were selected and used to type Klebsiella strains from various sources. Strains were typed by testing their sensitivity to bacteriocines produced by the standard set of 10 strains. Eight hundred strains were tested and 77% of these were typable and could be divided into a relatively large number of groups, some of which occurred consistently more frequently than others. This simple method has been shown to have some value in epidemiological investigations. PMID:5167107

  17. Endophthalmitis caused by Klebsiella species

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Jayanth; Flynn, Harry W.; Kuriyan, Ajay E.; Dubovy, Sander; Miller, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report the clinical presentation, antibiotic sensitivities, treatment strategies, and visual outcomes associated with endophthalmitis caused by Klebsiella species. Methods A non-comparative consecutive case series. Microbiology database records were retrospectively reviewed for all patients with endophthalmitis caused by Klebsiella species from 1990 to 2012 at a large university referral center. The corresponding clinical records were then reviewed to evaluate the endophthalmitis clinical features and treatment outcomes. Results Seven patients were identified. Clinical settings included endogenous (n=3), post-traumatic (n=2), trabeculectomy bleb-associated (n=1), and post-penetrating keratoplasty (n=1). Five patients presented with hypopyon. Presenting visual acuity ranged from 20/60 to light perception in non-endogenous cases and 1/200 to light perception in endogenous cases. Klebsiella was sensitive to aminoglycosides, 3rd generation cephalosporins, and 2nd and 3rd generation fluoroquinolones in all cases. Initial treatment strategies were vitreous tap and injection (n=4), pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal antibiotics (n=2), and anterior chamber tap and injection (n=1). All three endogenous cases later underwent enucleation or evisceration. In non-endogenous cases, final visual acuity was 20/70 or better in all four patients. Conclusions Endophthalmitis caused by Klebsiella species is associated with poor visual outcomes. Endogenous cases had high rates of enucleation or evisceration. PMID:24801652

  18. [Amperometric enzyme immunosensor for determination of Klebsiella pneumoniae antigen].

    PubMed

    Safina, G R; Mediantseva, E P; Vaniagina, O N; Glushko, N I; Budnikov, G K

    2005-01-01

    An amperometric enzyme immunosensor for detecting the bacterial antigen Klebsiella pneumoniae has been developed. The biosensing part of this analytical device consists of cholinesterase and antibodies to Klebsiella pneumoniae co-immobilized into the cellulose nitrate membrane. The conditions of immunosensor functioning (ratio of enzyme and antibodies, substrate concentration, pH of working buffer solution) were chosen. The sensor with antibodies in dilution 1:20 demonstrated the best analytical characteristics. Working concentrations were ranged from 1 x 10(-9) to 1 x 10(-3) mg/ml, the detection limit was 5 x 10(-10) mg/ml. The cross-reactivity of used antibodies to antigens of bacteria, causing similar diseases was evaluated. The conditions of immunosensor reuse by regeneration of its biosensing part were chosen. The developed immunosensor was probed on blood sera of patients suffering from urea tract diseases. PMID:15945356

  19. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Bacteria from Milkmen and Cows with Clinical Mastitis in and around Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kateete, David Patrick; Kabugo, Usuf; Baluku, Hannington; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Kyobe, Samuel; Okee, Moses; Najjuka, Christine Florence; Joloba, Moses Lutaakome

    2013-01-01

    Background Identification of pathogens associated with bovine mastitis is helpful in treatment and management decisions. However, such data from sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. Here we describe the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from cows with clinical mastitis in Kampala, Uganda. Due to high concern of zoonotic infections, isolates from milkmen are also described. Methodology/Principal Findings Ninety seven milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis and 31 nasal swabs from milkmen were collected (one sample per cow/human). Fifty eight (60%) Gram-positive isolates namely Staphylococci (21), Enterococci (16), Streptococci (13), Lactococci (5), Micrococci (2) and Arcanobacteria (1) were detected in cows; only one grew Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, 24 (25%) coliforms namely Escherichia coli (12), Klebsiella oxytoca (5), Proteus vulgaris (2), Serratia (2), Citrobacter (1), Cedecea (1) and Leclercia (1) were identified. From humans, 24 Gram-positive bacteria grew, of which 11 were Staphylococci (35%) including four Staphylococcus aureus. Upon susceptibility testing, methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were prevalent; 57%, 12/21 in cows and 64%, 7/11 in humans. However, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was not detected. Furthermore, methicillin and vancomycin resistant CoNS were detected in cows (Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis) and humans (Staphylococcus scuiri). Also, vancomycin and daptomycin resistant Enterococci (Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively) were detected in cows. Coliforms were less resistant with three pan-susceptible isolates. However, multidrug resistant Klebsiella, Proteus, Serratia, Cedecea, and Citrobacter were detected. Lastly, similar species grew from human and bovine samples but on genotyping, the isolates were found to be different. Interestingly, human and bovine Staphylococcus aureus were genetically similar (spa-CC435, spa-type t645 corresponding to ST121) but with different susceptibility patterns. Conclusions/Significance CoNS, Enterococci, Streptococci, and Escherichia coli are the predominant pathogens associated with clinical bovine-mastitis in Kampala, Uganda. Multidrug resistant bacteria are also prevalent. While similar species occurred in humans and cows, transmission was not detected. PMID:23667611

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance and Resistance Genes in Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Pork at Slaughter.

    PubMed

    Li, Lili; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Ye, Lei; Yan, He; Nie, Qing; Meng, Hecheng; Shi, Lei

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance, integrons, and transferability of resistance markers in 243 aerobic bacteria recovered from pork at slaughter in the People's Republic of China. The organisms belonged to 22 genera of gram-negative bacteria (92.2%) and gram-positive bacteria (7.8%). High levels of resistance were detected to tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ampicillin (36.2 to 54.3%), and lower levels were detected to nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol (7.8 to 29.2%). Across species, genes conferring antimicrobial resistance were observed with the following frequencies: blaTEM, 40.7%; blaCMY-2, 15.2%; blaCTX-M, 11.5%; sul2, 27.2%; sul1, 14.4%; tet(A), 5.4%; tet(L), 5.4%; tet(M), 5.0%; tet(E), 3.7%; tet(C), 3.3%; tet(S), 2.5%; and tet(K), 0.8%. Various antimicrobial resistance genes were found in new carriers: blaTEM in Lactococcus garvieae, Myroides odoratimimus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Staphylococcus sciuri, Raoultella terrigena, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Acinetobacter ursingii, Sphingobacterium sp., and Oceanobacillus sp.; blaCMY-2 in Lactococcus lactis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Myroides phaeus; tet(L) in M. caseolyticus; sul1 in Vibrio cincinnatiensis; sul2 in Acinetobacter bereziniae, Acinetobacter johnsonii, and V. cincinnatiensis; and the class 1 integron and gene cassette aadA2 in V. cincinnatiensis. Approximately 6.6% of isolates contained class 1 integrons, and one isolate harbored class 2 integrons. Plasmid associated intI1 and androgen receptor- encoding genes were transferred into Escherichia coli J53 and E. coli DH5α by conjugation and transformation experiments, respectively. Our study highlights the importance of aerobic bacteria from pork as reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance genes and mobile genetic elements that can readily be transferred intra- and interspecies. PMID:27052863

  1. Characterization of extended-host-range pseudo-T-even bacteriophage Kpp95 isolated on Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lii-Tzu; Chang, Shu-Ying; Yen, Ming-Ren; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Tseng, Yi-Hsiung

    2007-04-01

    Kpp95, isolated on Klebsiella pneumoniae, is a bacteriophage with the morphology of T4-type phages and is capable of rapid lysis of host cells. Its double-stranded genomic DNA (ca. 175 kb, estimated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) can be cut only by restriction endonucleases with a cleavage site flanked either by A and T or by T, as tested, suggesting that it contains the modified derivative(s) of G and/or C. Over 26 protein bands were visualized upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the virion proteins. N-terminal sequencing indicated that the most abundant band (46 kDa) is the major coat protein (gp23) which has been cleaved from a signal peptide likely with a length similar to that of T4. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the central region (263 amino acid residues) of gp23 and the full length of gp18 and gp19 placed Kpp95 among the pseudo-T-even subgroup, most closely related to the coliphage JS98. In addition to being able to lyse many extended-spectrum beta-lactamase strains of K. pneumoniae, Kpp95 can lyse Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter agglomerans, and Serratia marcescens cells. Thus, Kpp95 deserves further studies for development as a component of a therapeutic cocktail, owing to its high efficiencies of host lysis plus extended host range. PMID:17337566

  2. In-vivo study of the nuclear quadrupole interaction of99Mo (β- 99)Tc in nitrogenase of Klebsiella pneumoniaein nitrogenase of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottner, P.; Lerf, A.; Ni, X.; Butz, T.; Erfkamp, J.; Müller, A.

    1990-08-01

    We report on the first TDPAC-measurements of the nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) of (NQI) of99Mo(β-)99Tc in the nitrogenase of the bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae. Because nitrogenase is the only Mo-containing enzyme in Klebsiella pneumoniae under the chosen conditions, no further isolation of this enzyme was necessary. The majority of the incorporated99Mo is subjected to a well defined NQI with ω=365(7) Mrad/s, η=1 and a reorientational correlation time of τcoττ≈10nsec and is attributed to the active site of the FeMo cofactor. During sample preparation we noted a pronounced affinity of the bacteria to99mTc.

  3. Klebsiella pneumoniae triggers a cytotoxic effect on airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is a capsulated Gram negative bacterial pathogen and a frequent cause of nosocomial infections. Despite its clinical relevance, little is known about the features of the interaction between K. pneumoniae and lung epithelial cells on a cellular level, neither about the role of capsule polysaccharide, one of its best characterised virulence factors, in this interaction. Results The interaction between Klebsiella pneumoniae and cultured airway epithelial cells was analysed. K. pneumoniae infection triggered cytotoxicity, evident by cell rounding and detachment from the substrate. This effect required the presence of live bacteria and of capsule polysaccharide, since it was observed with isolates expressing different amounts of capsule and/or different serotypes but not with non-capsulated bacteria. Cytotoxicity was analysed by lactate dehydrogenase and formazan measurements, ethidium bromide uptake and analysis of DNA integrity, obtaining consistent and complementary results. Moreover, cytotoxicity of non-capsulated strains was restored by addition of purified capsule during infection. While a non-capsulated strain was avirulent in a mouse infection model, capsulated K. pneumoniae isolates displayed different degrees of virulence. Conclusion Our observations allocate a novel role to K. pneumoniae capsule in promotion of cytotoxicity. Although this effect is likely to be associated with virulence, strains expressing different capsule levels were not equally virulent. This fact suggests the existence of other bacterial requirements for virulence, together with capsule polysaccharide. PMID:19650888

  4. Outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-2-Producing K. pneumoniae Sequence Type 11 in Taiwan in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Ming; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Lee, Wen-Sen; Liu, Yung-Ching; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-01-01

    From June to September 2011, a total of 305 ertapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates (MICs of ertapenem ? 1 ?g/ml) were collected from 11 hospitals in different parts of Taiwan. The MICs of 12 antimicrobial agents against these isolates were determined using the broth microdilution method, and genes for carbapenemases were detected using PCR. Genotypes of isolates possessing carbapenemase genes were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. The ertapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates included Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 219), Escherichia coli (n = 64), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 15), and other species (n = 7). Seven (2.3%) of the ertapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates exhibited colistin MICs of >4 ?g/ml, and 24 (7.9%) were not susceptible to tigecycline (MICs > 2 ?g/ml). A total of 29 (9.5%) isolates carried genes encoding carbapenemases, namely, K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2) in 16 (7.3%) isolates of K. pneumoniae (KPC-2-KP) and IMP-8 in 5 (2.3%) isolates of K. pneumoniae, 5 (33.3%) isolates of E. cloacae, 1 isolate of E. coli, 1 isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca, and one isolate of Citrobacter freundii. The 16 KPC-2-KP isolates were isolated from patients at four different hospitals in northern Taiwan. All 16 of the KPC-2-KP isolates were susceptible to amikacin and colistin and had a similar pulsotype (pulsotype 1) and the same sequence type (sequence type 11). Infections due to KPC-2-KP mainly occurred in severely ill patients in the intensive care unit (n = 14, 88%). Four patients with infections due to KPC-2-KP died within 14 days of hospitalization. The findings are the first to demonstrate intrahospital and interhospital dissemination of KPC-2-KP in northern Taiwan. PMID:22802253

  5. Outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2-producing K. pneumoniae sequence type 11 in Taiwan in 2011.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Ming; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Lee, Wen-Sen; Liu, Yung-Ching; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Meng-Chih; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-10-01

    From June to September 2011, a total of 305 ertapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates (MICs of ertapenem ≥ 1 μg/ml) were collected from 11 hospitals in different parts of Taiwan. The MICs of 12 antimicrobial agents against these isolates were determined using the broth microdilution method, and genes for carbapenemases were detected using PCR. Genotypes of isolates possessing carbapenemase genes were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. The ertapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates included Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 219), Escherichia coli (n = 64), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 15), and other species (n = 7). Seven (2.3%) of the ertapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates exhibited colistin MICs of >4 μg/ml, and 24 (7.9%) were not susceptible to tigecycline (MICs > 2 μg/ml). A total of 29 (9.5%) isolates carried genes encoding carbapenemases, namely, K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2) in 16 (7.3%) isolates of K. pneumoniae (KPC-2-KP) and IMP-8 in 5 (2.3%) isolates of K. pneumoniae, 5 (33.3%) isolates of E. cloacae, 1 isolate of E. coli, 1 isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca, and one isolate of Citrobacter freundii. The 16 KPC-2-KP isolates were isolated from patients at four different hospitals in northern Taiwan. All 16 of the KPC-2-KP isolates were susceptible to amikacin and colistin and had a similar pulsotype (pulsotype 1) and the same sequence type (sequence type 11). Infections due to KPC-2-KP mainly occurred in severely ill patients in the intensive care unit (n = 14, 88%). Four patients with infections due to KPC-2-KP died within 14 days of hospitalization. The findings are the first to demonstrate intrahospital and interhospital dissemination of KPC-2-KP in northern Taiwan. PMID:22802253

  6. Enhancement of electricity production in a mediatorless air-cathode microbial fuel cell using Klebsiella sp. IR21.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Yeong; Kim, Tae Gwan; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-06-01

    A novel dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria, Klebsiella sp. IR21, was isolated from the anode biofilm of an MFC reactor. Klebsiella sp. IR21 reduced 27.8 % of ferric iron to ferrous iron demonstrating that Klebsiella sp. IR21 has electron transfer ability. Additionally, Klebsiella sp. IR21 generated electricity forming a biofilm on the anode surface. When a pure culture of Klebsiella sp. IR21 was supplied into a single chamber, air-cathode MFC fed with a mixture of glucose and acetate (500 mg L(-1) COD), 40-60 mV of voltage (17-26 mA m(-2) of current density) was produced. Klebsiella sp. IR21 was also utilized as a biocatalyst to improve the electrical performance of a conventional MFC reactor. A single chamber, air-cathode MFC was fed with reject wastewater (10,000 mg L(-1) COD) from a H2 fermentation reactor. The average voltage, current density, and power density were 142.9 ± 25.74 mV, 60.5 ± 11.61 mA m(-2), and 8.9 ± 3.65 mW m(-2), respectively, in the MFC without inoculation of Klebsiella sp. IR21. However, these electrical performances of the MFC were significantly increased to 204.7 ± 40.24 mV, 87.5 ± 17.20 mA m(-2), and 18.6 ± 7.23 mW m(-2), respectively, with inoculation of Klebsiella sp. IR21. The results indicate that Klebsiella sp. IR21 can be utilized as a biocatalyst for enhancement of electrical performance in MFC systems. PMID:26956141

  7. Enzymatic Degradation of Polygalacturonic Acid by Yersinia and Klebsiella Species in Relation to Clinical Laboratory Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Mortimer P.; Chatterjee, Arun K.; Starr, Phoebe B.; Buchanan, Gordon E.

    1977-01-01

    As scored by several specified plating procedures, clinical and environmental strains of Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae “Oxytocum” showed detectable, albeit generally weak, ability to digest polygalacturonic (pectic) acid. None of these bacterial strains had the vigorous and rapid pectolytic activity on these polygalacturonic acid-containing media that is typical of soft-rot Erwinia species, although some of the Oxytocum strains came fairly close. Analyses of the pectolytic enzyme contents of the cells and culture supernatants of the Yersinia and Klebsiella species revealed that readily detectable quantities of cell-bound polygalacturonic acid trans-eliminase and hydrolytic polygalacturonase were formed by the Yersinia and Klebsiella species; however, the total units of enzyme activity produced by these bacteria were, in general, lower than were produced by soft-rot Erwinia species. Furthermore, unlike the situation in soft-rot Erwinia cultures, these pectolytic enzymes of Yersinia and Klebsiella species were not excreted rapidly and massively into the growth medium. Cultures of other enterobacteria (Citrobacter species, Enterobacter species, Erwinia amylovora, Erwinia herbicola, Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Salmonella typhimurium, and Serratia marcescens) showed no pectolytic ability whatsoever by any of the plating procedures used and (to the extent they were so examined) produced no pectolytic enzymes detectable either in their cells or culture supernatants. This slow or weak release of pectolytic enzymes by Yersinia and Klebsiella species has a bearing on clinical laboratory procedures suitable for detecting their pectolytic activity; methods adequate for this purpose are detailed. PMID:334794

  8. Enterobacter and Klebsiella species isolated from fresh vegetables marketed in Valencia (Spain) and their clinically relevant resistances to chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Falomir, María Pilar; Rico, Hortensia; Gozalbo, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Occurrence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic or commensal enterobacteria in marketed agricultural foodstuffs may contribute to their incorporation into the food chain and constitutes an additional food safety concern. In this work, we have determined the clinically relevant resistances to 11 common chemotherapeutic agents in Enterobacter and Klebsiella isolates from fresh vegetables from various sources (supermarkets and greengrocers' shops in Valencia, Spain). A total of 96 isolates were obtained from 160 vegetables analyzed (50% positive samples): 68 Enterobacter isolates (59 E. cloacae, two E. aerogenes, two E. cancerogenus, one E. gergoviae, and four E. sakazakii, currently Cronobacter spp.), and 28 Klebsiella isolates (19 K. oxytoca and 9 K. pneumoniae). Only seven isolates were susceptible to all agents tested, and no resistances to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol were detected. Most isolates were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (74 [58 Enterobacter and 16 Klebsiella]) or to ampicillin (80 [55/25]). Other resistances were less frequent: nitrofurantoin (13 isolates [12/1]), tetracycline (6 [5/1]), co-trimoxazole (3 [3/0]), cefotaxime (1 [1/0]), and streptomycin (2 [1/1]). Multiresistant isolates to two (56 [41/15]), three (10 E. cloacae isolates), four (one E. cloacae and one K. pneumoniae isolate), and five (two E. cloacae isolates) chemotherapeutic agents were also detected. The presence of potential pathogens points to marketed fresh produce, which often is eaten raw, as a risk factor for consumer health. In addition, these results support the usefulness of these bacterial species as indicators of the spreading of antibiotic resistances into the environment, particularly in the food chain, and suggest their role as carriers of resistance determinants from farms to consumers, which may constitute an additional "silent" food safety concern. Therefore, there is a need to improve the hygienic quality of marketed fresh vegetables, from better methods to prevent contamination in the farms to the use of sanitizing practices at home. PMID:23980710

  9. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    DOEpatents

    Triplett, Eric W.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Chelius, Marisa K.

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  10. Klebsiella pneumoniae Liver Abscess and Metastatic Endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jason T; Lewis, Catherine R; Danner, Omar K; Wilson, Kenneth L; Matthews, L Ray

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a well-known cause of liver abscess. Higher rates of liver abscess associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae are seen in Taiwan. Metastatic endophthalmitis is a common complication associated with a poor prognosis despite aggressive therapy. Case Report. We report a case of a 67-year-old Korean female with Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess. The patient developed metastatic endophthalmitis and ultimately succumbed to her disease despite aggressive medical and surgical treatment. Conclusion. Dissemination of Klebsiella pneumoniae is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Liver abscesses preferably should be treated with percutaneous drainage, but surgical treatment is needed in some cases. Metastatic spread to the eye is a common complication that must be treated aggressively with intravenous antibiotics and surgical intervention if necessary. PMID:26788530

  11. Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Other Gram-Negative Bacilli in Pneumonia-Prone Age Groups in Semarang, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Severin, Juliëtte A.; Gasem, M. Hussein; Keuter, Monique; van den Broek, Peterhans; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Wahyono, Hendro; Verbrugh, Henri A.

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) cause many cases of pneumonia in Indonesia. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of GNB in Semarang, Indonesia. Klebsiella pneumoniae carriage in adults (15%) was higher than in children (7%) (P = 0.004), while that of other GNB was comparable. Poor food and water hygiene are determinants of carriage of these bacteria. PMID:23486716

  12. [Detection of bla(CTX-M) beta-lactamase genes in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing gram-negative bacteria].

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Banu; Toksoy, Buket; Bulut, Emin

    2010-04-01

    Widespread production of CTX-M type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in Enterobacteriaceae strains which are resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is the most remarkable example for rapid and global spread of plasmid mediated antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Consecutive 200 ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae strains out of 1640 isolates that were obtained from clinical samples (167 urine, 11 wound, 7 bronchoalveolar lavage, 3 peritoneal fluid, 2 cerebrospinal fluid, 2 biopsy, 2 tracheal aspirate, 2 conjunctiva, 1 abscess, 1 catheter) between February to July 2009 in our laboratory were included to this study. Among the 200 ESBL positive isolates 141 (70.5%) were Escherichia coli, 51 (26%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 5 (2.5%) were Enterobacter spp. and one of each (0.5%) Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella oxytoca and Proteus mirabilis. ESBL positivity was 11% among the 123 community-acquired strains and 13% among the 77 hospital acquired strains, the statistical difference being insignificant (p > 0.05). The prevalence of bla(CTX-M) beta-lactamase genes were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction with the use of two general primer sets: CTX-MA1 and CTX-MA2 primers for the amplification of CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2 and CTX-M-9 enzymes group, and CTX825-F and CTX825-R primers for the amplification of CTX-M-8 and CTX-M-25 enzymes group. bla(CTX-M) genes were detected in 167 out of 200 strains (83.5%). CTX-M production rates in community and hospital acquired strains were found as 86.2% and 79.2%, respectively and no statistically significant difference was detected (p > 0.05). CTX-M producing strains were either E. coli (n = 132) or Klebsiella spp. (n = 35) and were expressing one of the enzymes from CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2 or CTX-M-9 groups. No strains carrying CTX-M-8 or CTX-M-25 group enzymes were detected. CTX-M production rates in ESBL producing E. coli strains in community and hospital were found as 92.5% and 95.7%, respectively, whereas the same rates for ESBL producing Klebsiella spp. strains were 67.8% and 66.7%. The difference between the CTX-M production rates of community and hospital acquired strains was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In conclusion, CTX-M prevalence was found high in ESBL producing strains of both E. coli and Klebsiella spp. Since bla(CTX-M) gene acquisition usually results in the emergence of multiple drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains, screening for CTX-M type ESBL production in the laboratory has an important impact on monitoring the resistant strains which have endemic potential. PMID:20549952

  13. Analysis of eight out genes in a cluster required for pectic enzyme secretion by Erwinia chrysanthemi: sequence comparison with secretion genes from other gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Lindeberg, M; Collmer, A

    1992-01-01

    Many extracellular proteins produced by Erwinia chrysanthemi require the out gene products for transport across the outer membrane. In a previous report (S. Y. He, M. Lindeberg, A. K. Chatterjee, and A. Collmer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:1079-1083, 1991) cosmid pCPP2006, sufficient for secretion of Erwinia chrysanthemi extracellular proteins by Escherichia coli, was partially sequenced, revealing four out genes sharing high homology with pulH through pulK from Klebsiella oxytoca. The nucleotide sequence of eight additional out genes reveals homology with pulC through pulG, pulL, pulM, pulO, and other genes involved in secretion by various gram-negative bacteria. Although signal sequences and hydrophobic regions are generally conserved between Pul and Out proteins, four out genes contain unique inserts, a pulN homolog is not present, and outO appears to be transcribed separately from outC through outM. The sequenced region was subcloned, and an additional 7.6-kb region upstream was identified as being required for secretion in E. coli. out gene homologs were found on Erwinia carotovora cosmid clone pAKC651 but were not detected in E. coli. The outC-through-outM operon is weakly induced by polygalacturonic acid and strongly expressed in the early stationary phase. The out and pul genes are highly similar in sequence, hydropathic properties, and overall arrangement but differ in both transcriptional organization and the nature of their induction. Images PMID:1429461

  14. A simple method for extracting C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis using Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Chen, X B; Wang, K B; Li, Y X; Bai, K Z; Kuang, T Y; Ji, H B

    2007-02-01

    C-phycocyanin (C-PC) was extracted from fresh Spirulina platensis by deploying a species of non-pathogenic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, namely, Klebsiella pneumoniae. The algal slurry was neither washed nor centrifuged; the bacterial culture was poured into the slurry, the vessel sealed, and crude C-PC extracted after about 24 h. The extraction was clean and efficient, and the purity and concentration of C-PC proved to be of adequate quality. PMID:17013600

  15. Environmental persistence of OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a French intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Pantel, Alix; Richaud-Morel, Brigitte; Cazaban, Michel; Bouziges, Nicole; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative rods is an emerging global problem. This study describes the epidemiologic features of an outbreak caused by an environmental reservoir of OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae caused by persistence of the bacteria during 20 months in an intensive care unit in France. This report emphasizes the importance of early environmental screening to interrupt the transmission of carbapenemase-producingEnterobacteriaceae. PMID:26521704

  16. Stability Analysis in a Model of 1,2-dichloroethane Biodegradation by Klebsiella Oxytoca va 8391Immobilized on Granulated Activated Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, M.; Dimitrova, N.

    2011-11-01

    We consider an ecological model for biodegradation of toxic substances in aquatic and atmospheric biotic systems. The model, which is described by a nonlinear system of four ordinary differential equations, is known to be experimentally validated. We compute the equilibrium points of the model and study their asymptotic stability. The Maple package BifTools is used to calculate one- and two-parameter bifurcations of the equilibrium points.

  17. The ability of airborne Klebsiella pneumoniae to colonize mouse lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Bolister, N. J.; Johnson, H. E.; Wathes, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    A strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae was aerosolized and its survival in air at different relative humidities was studied. Survival was dependent upon relative humidity and aerosols were most stable during storage at a relative humidity of 60%. Mice were exposed to aerosols of K. pneumoniae produced at this humidity and lung samples taken at timed intervals after exposure. Fifteen strains of K. pneumoniae were tested for their ability to colonize mice, but only five were detectable in mouse lungs 7 days after exposure. Three of these strains persisted without an increase in bacterial numbers, regardless of the initial inoculum used. Two strains of K. pneumoniae, designated strains 15 and 16, persisted in a similar manner when used at a low dose; however, when the dose received per lung was increased there was a rapid multiplication of bacteria in the lungs. PMID:1499666

  18. Clinical epidemiology of the global expansion of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases

    PubMed Central

    Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Poirel, Laurent; Bonomo, Robert A; Schwaber, Mitchell J; Daikos, George L; Cormican, Martin; Cornaglia, Giuseppe; Garau, Javier; Gniadkowski, Marek; Hayden, Mary K; Kumarasamy, Karthikeyan; Livermore, David M; Maya, Juan J; Nordmann, Patrice; Patel, Jean B; Paterson, David L; Pitout, Johann; Villegas, Maria Virginia; Wang, Hui; Woodford, Neil; Quinn, John P

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) were originally identified in the USA in 1996. Since then, these versatile β-lactamases have spread internationally among Gram-negative bacteria, especially K pneumoniae, although their precise epidemiology is diverse across countries and regions. The mortality described among patients infected with organisms positive for KPC is high, perhaps as a result of the limited antibiotic options remaining (often colistin, tigecycline, or aminoglycosides). Triple drug combinations using colistin, tigecycline, and imipenem have recently been associated with improved survival among patients with bacteraemia. In this Review, we summarise the epidemiology of KPCs across continents, and discuss issues around detection, present antibiotic options and those in development, treatment outcome and mortality, and infection control. In view of the limitations of present treatments and the paucity of new drugs in the pipeline, infection control must be our primary defence for now. PMID:23969216

  19. Genome of Klebsiella sp.-infecting bacteriophage vB_KleM_RaK2.

    PubMed

    Šimoliūnas, Eugenijus; Kaliniene, Laura; Truncaite, Lidija; Klausa, Vytautas; Zajančkauskaite, Aurelija; Meškys, Rolandas

    2012-05-01

    Despite the fact that multidrug-resistant Klebsiella sp. strains emerge rapidly (Xu J, et al., Adv. Mater. Res. 268-270:1954-1956, 2011) and bacteriophages have been reported to be useful in controlling these bacteria (Kumari S, Harjai K, Chhibber S, J. Med. Microbiol. 60:205-210, 2011), the complete genome sequences of only five Klebsiella phages (four siphoviruses and one myovirus) can be found in databases. In this paper, we report on the complete genome sequence of Klebsiella sp.-infecting bacteriophage vB_KleM_RaK2. With a genome size of 345,809 bp, this is the second largest myovirus and the largest Klebsiella phage sequenced to date. This phage differs substantially from other myoviruses since 411 out of 534 vB_KleM_RaK2 open reading frames have no known functions and lack any reliable database matches. Comparative analysis of the genome sequence of vB_KleM_RaK2 suggests that this phage forms a distinct phylogenetic branch within the family Myoviridae of tailed bacteriophages. PMID:22492928

  20. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of a Ureidoglycine Aminotransferase in the Klebsiella pneumoniae Uric Acid Catabolic Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-09-03

    Many plants, fungi, and bacteria catabolize allantoin as a mechanism for nitrogen assimilation. Recent reports have shown that in plants and some bacteria the product of hydrolysis of allantoin by allantoinase is the unstable intermediate ureidoglycine. While this molecule can spontaneously decay, genetic analysis of some bacterial genomes indicates that an aminotransferase may be present in the pathway. Here we present evidence that Klebsiella pneumoniae HpxJ is an aminotransferase that preferentially converts ureidoglycine and an {alpha}-keto acid into oxalurate and the corresponding amino acid. We determined the crystal structure of HpxJ, allowing us to present an explanation for substrate specificity.

  1. Frequency of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) and non-KPC-producing Klebsiella contamination of Healthcare workers and the environment

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Clare; Thom, Kerri A.; Masnick, Max; Johnson, J. Kristie; Harris, Anthony D.; Morgan, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    We examined contamination of healthcare worker (HCW) gown and gloves after caring for patients with Klebsiella Producing Carbapenemase-producing and non-KPC-producing Klebsiella as a proxy for horizontal transmission. Contamination rate with Klebsiella is similar to MRSA and VRE, with 14% (31/220) of HCW-patient interactions resulting in contamination of gloves and gowns. PMID:24602950

  2. Long-term dissemination of acquired AmpC β-lactamases among Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli in Portuguese clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Freitas, F; Machado, E; Ribeiro, T G; Novais, Â; Peixe, L

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the occurrence, diversity and molecular epidemiology of genes coding for acquired AmpC β-lactamases (qAmpC) among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae lacking inducible chromosomal AmpCs in Portugal. A total of 675 isolates non-susceptible to broad-spectrum cephalosporins obtained from four hospitals and three community laboratories during a 7-year period (2002-2008) were analysed. The presence of genes coding for qAmpC was investigated by phenotypic criteria, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Bacterial identification, antibiotic susceptibility testing, conjugation assays and clonal analysis were performed by standard procedures. The presence of bla(qAmpC) genes was detected in 50 % (50/100; 41 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 5 Escherichia coli, 4 Klebsiella oxytoca) of the presumptive qAmpC producers. DHA-1, detected in those species, was the most prevalent qAmpC (94 %, 47/50), being identified since 2003 and throughout the studied period in different institutions. Despite the high clonal diversity observed, three DHA-1-producing Klebsiella spp. clones were more frequently identified. CMY-2 (6 %, 3/50) was observed in B1-E. coli clones. Conjugative transfer was only observed in one (2 %) CMY-2-producing isolate. Most qAmpC producers (94 %, 47/50) co-expressed SHV-type and/or OXA-1 or CTX-M-32 extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of the molecular epidemiology and the long-term dissemination of qAmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Portuguese clinical settings, highlighting an evolution towards a more complex epidemiological situation regarding cephalosporin resistance in Portugal. PMID:24096741

  3. Identification and Characterization of Imipenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Susceptible Klebsiella variicola Isolates Obtained from the Same Patient.

    PubMed

    Garza-Ramos, Ulises; Moreno-Dominguez, Stephania; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Silva-Sanchez, Jesús; Barrios, Humberto; Reyna-Flores, Fernando; Sanchez-Perez, Alejandro; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Sanchez-León, María Carmen; Moncada-Barron, David

    2016-04-01

    Klebsiella variicola, a bacterium closely genetically related to Klebsiella pneumoniae, is commonly misidentified as K. pneumoniae by biochemical tests. To distinguish between the two bacteria, phylogenetic analysis of the rpoB gene and the identification of unique genes in both bacterial species by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provide the means to reliably identify and genotype K. variicola. In recent years, K. variicola has been described both as the cause of an intrahospital outbreak in a pediatric hospital, which resulted in sepsis in inpatients, and as a frequent cause of bloodstream infections. In the present study, K. pneumoniae and K. variicola were isolated from a unique patient displaying different antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes and different genotypes of virulence determinants. Eight clinical isolates were obtained at different time intervals; all during a 5-month period. The isolates were identified as K. pneumoniae by an automated identification system. The clinical (biochemical test) and molecular (multiplex-PCR and rpoB gene) characterization identified imipenem resistance in the first six K. pneumoniae ST258 isolates, which encode the SHV-12 cephalosporinase and KPC-3 carbapenemase genes. The two last remaining isolates corresponded to susceptible K. variicola. The bacterial species showed a specific profile of virulence-associated determinants, specifically the fimA, fimH, and ecpRAB fimbrial-encoding genes identified only in K. pneumoniae isolates. However, the entb (enterobactin), mrkD (fimbrial adhesin), uge (epimerase), ureA (urease), and wabG (transferase) genes were shared between both bacterial species. Recent studies attribute a higher mortality rate to K. variicola than to K. pneumonia. This work highlights the identification of K. pneumoniae and the closely related K. variicola isolated from the same patient. The value of distinguishing between these two bacterial species is in their clinical significance, their different phenotypes and genotypes, and the fact that they can be isolated from the same patient. PMID:26571390

  4. No Carbapenem Resistance in Pneumonia Caused by Klebsiella Species

    PubMed Central

    Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Klebsiella species are a common cause of community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia. Antibiotic resistance to the class of carbapenem in patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species is unusual. New studies report carbapenem resistance in patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species. This article examines, retrospectively, antibiotic resistance in patients with community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species. The data of all patients with community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species were collected from the hospital charts at the HELIOS Clinic, Witten/Herdecke University, Wuppertal, Germany, within the study period 2004 to 2014. An antibiogram was created from all of the study patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species. Sensitivity and resistance profiles were performed for the different antibiotics that have been consistently used in the treatment of patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species. All demographic, clinical, and laboratory data of all of the patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species were collected from the patients’ records. During the study period of January 1, 2004, to August 12, 2014, 149 patients were identified with community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia affected by Klebsiella species. These patients had a mean age of 70.6 ± 13 (107 [71.8%, 95% CI 64.6%–79%] men and 42 [28.2%, 95% CI 21%–35.4%] women). In all of the patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species, there was resistance to ampicillin (P < 0.0001). Many patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species (75.3%) also showed resistance to piperacillin (P < 0.0001). However, no patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species showed resistance to imipenem or meropenem (P < 0.0001). Antibiotic resistance to the antibiotic class of carbapenem was not detected in patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species. PMID:25674753

  5. Klebsiella pneumoniae Liver Abscess: An Emerging Disease.

    PubMed

    Fazili, Tasaduq; Sharngoe, Calden; Endy, Timothy; Kiska, Deana; Javaid, Waleed; Polhemus, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Most of the cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess reported early on were from Asia, predominantly Taiwan, with a significant number of patients being middle aged diabetic men, and developing metastatic complications, especially endophthalmitis. The entity is now being increasingly recognized in the United States. In this article, the authors review those reported cases, and also the literature regarding the pathophysiology of this intriguing syndrome. PMID:26992260

  6. Plasmid-Mediated Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence in Gram-negatives: the Klebsiella pneumoniae Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Maria S.; Traglia, German M.; Lin, David L.; Tran, Tung; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Plasmids harbor genes coding for specific functions including virulence factors and antibiotic resistance that permit bacteria to survive the hostile environment found in the host and resist treatment. Together with other genetic elements such as integrons and transposons, and using a variety of mechanisms, plasmids participate in the dissemination of these traits resulting in the virtual elimination of barriers among different kinds of bacteria. In this article we review the current information about physiology and role in virulence and antibiotic resistance of plasmids from the gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae. This bacterium has acquired multidrug resistance and is the causative agent of serious communityand hospital-acquired infections. It is also included in the recently defined ESKAPE group of bacteria that cause most of US hospital infections. PMID:25705573

  7. [Construction of polyhydroxybutyrate pathway in Klebsiella pneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaochen; Liu, Hongjuan; Wang, Yanping; Zhang, Jian'an; Liu, Dehua

    2013-10-01

    1,3-propanediol production with the byproduct of biodiesel production is important to increase the economic benefit of biodiesel industry. Accumulation of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde is one of the key problems in the 1,3-propanediol fermentation process, leading to the cell death and the fermentation abnormal ceasing. Different from the traditional way of reducing the accumulation of the 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, we introduced the polyhydroxybutyrate pathway into the Klebsiella pneumoniae for the first time to enhance the tolerance of K. pneumoniae to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, at the same time, to improve the 1,3-propanediol production. Plasmid pDK containing phbC, phbA, phbB gene was constructed and transformed into K. pneumoniae successfully. PHB was detected in the engineered K. pneumoniae after IPTG induction and its content enhanced with the IPTG concentration increasing. The optimized IPTG concentration was 0.5 mmol/L. The constructed K. pneumoniae could produce 1,3-propanediol normally, at the same time accumulate polyhydroxybutyrate. With the constructed strain, the fermentation proceeds normally with the initial glucose was 70 g/L which the wild type strain stopped growing and the fermentation was ceasing; 1,3-propanediol concentration and yield reached 31.3 g/L and 43.9% at 72 h. Our work is helpful for the deep understanding of 1,3-propanediol metabolic mechanism of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and also provides a new way for strain optimization of Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:24432665

  8. Complete genome sequence of the lignin-degrading bacterium Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hannah L; Ballor, Nicholas R; Hazen, Terry C; Fortney, Julian L; Simmons, Blake; Davenport, Karen Walston; Goodwin, Lynne; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Woyke, Tanja; Jansson, Janet; Kimbrel, Jeff; DeAngelis, Kristen M

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to discover anaerobic bacteria capable of lignin degradation, we isolated Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2 on minimal media with alkali lignin as the sole carbon source. This organism was isolated anaerobically from tropical forest soils collected from the Bisley watershed at the Ridge site in the El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico, USA, part of the Luquillo Long-Term Ecological Research Station. At this site, the soils experience strong fluctuations in redox potential and are characterized by cycles of iron oxidation and reduction. Genome sequencing was targeted because of its ability to grow on lignin anaerobically and lignocellulolytic activity via in vitro enzyme assays. The genome of Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2 is 5.80 Mbp with no detected plasmids, and includes a relatively small arsenal of genes encoding lignocellulolytic carbohydrate active enzymes. The genome revealed four putative peroxidases including glutathione and DyP-type peroxidases, and a complete protocatechuate pathway encoded in a single gene cluster. Physiological studies revealed Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2 to be relatively stress tolerant to high ionic strength conditions. It grows in increasing concentrations of ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate) up to 73.44 mM and NaCl up to 1.5 M. PMID:25566348

  9. Complete genome sequence of the lignin-degrading bacterium Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to discover anaerobic bacteria capable of lignin degradation, we isolated Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2 on minimal media with alkali lignin as the sole carbon source. This organism was isolated anaerobically from tropical forest soils collected from the Bisley watershed at the Ridge site in the El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico, USA, part of the Luquillo Long-Term Ecological Research Station. At this site, the soils experience strong fluctuations in redox potential and are characterized by cycles of iron oxidation and reduction. Genome sequencing was targeted because of its ability to grow on lignin anaerobically and lignocellulolytic activity via in vitro enzyme assays. The genome of Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2 is 5.80 Mbp with no detected plasmids, and includes a relatively small arsenal of genes encoding lignocellulolytic carbohydrate active enzymes. The genome revealed four putative peroxidases including glutathione and DyP-type peroxidases, and a complete protocatechuate pathway encoded in a single gene cluster. Physiological studies revealed Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2 to be relatively stress tolerant to high ionic strength conditions. It grows in increasing concentrations of ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate) up to 73.44 mM and NaCl up to 1.5 M. PMID:25566348

  10. Fermentation of D-xylose to ethanol by genetically modified Klebsiella planticola

    SciTech Connect

    Tolan, J.S.; Finn, R.K.

    1987-09-01

    D-Xylose is a plentiful pentose sugar derived from agricultural or forest residues. Enteric bacteria such as Klebsiella spp. ferment D-xylose to form mixed acids and butanediol in addition to ethanol. Thus, the ethanol yield is normally low. This report describes the fermentation of D-xylose by Klebsiella planticola ATCC 33531 bearing multicopy plasmids containing the pdc gene inserted from Zymomonas mobilis. Expression of the gene markedly increased the yield of ethanol to 1.3 mol/mol of xylose, or 25.1 g/liter. Concurrently, there were significant decreases in the yields of formate, acetate, lactate, and butanediol. Transconjugant Klebsiella spp. grew almost as fast as the wild type and tolerated up to 4% ethanol. The plasmid was retained by the cells during at least one batch culture, even in the absence of selective pressure by antibiotics to maintain the plasmid. Ethanol production was 31.6 g/liter from 79.6 g of mixed substrate per liter chosen to simulate hydrolyzed hemicellulose. The physiology of the wild-type of K. planticola is described in more detail than in the original report of its isolation.

  11. Carbapenemase-bearing Klebsiella spp. in sink drains: investigation into the potential advantage of copper pipes.

    PubMed

    Soothill, J S

    2016-06-01

    Sink drains have long been known to harbour pathogenic bacteria and efforts such as heated sink traps have been made to control them. Sink outlet pipes have been implicated in outbreaks of infection by multi-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. To investigate whether a change to copper pipes might prevent cross-infection, sections of standard sink outlet pipe were left in containers of water to which multi-resistant human strains of K. pneumoniae had been added. Bacterial counts from the water of containers to which copper pipe had been added were lower than those from containers to which PVC (polyvinyl chloride) pipe had been added. PMID:27112043

  12. Instant Typing Is Essential to Detect Transmission of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella Species

    PubMed Central

    Voor in 't holt, Anne F.; Severin, Juliëtte A.; Goessens, Wil H. F.; te Witt, René; Vos, Margreet C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms are an increasing threat to hospitalized patients. Although rapid typing of MDR microorganisms is required to apply targeted prevention measures, technical barriers often prevent this. We aimed to assess whether extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella species are transmitted between patients and whether routine, rapid typing is needed. Methods For 43 months, the clonality of all ESBL-producing Klebsiella isolates from patients admitted to Erasmus MC University Medical Center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands was assessed with Raman spectroscopy. A cluster was defined as n ≥2 patients who had identical isolates. Primary patients were the first patients in each cluster. Secondary patients were those identified with an isolate clonally related to the isolate of the primary patient. Results Isolates from 132 patients were analyzed. We identified 17 clusters, with 17 primary and 56 secondary patients. Fifty-nine patients had a unique isolate. Patients (n = 15) in four out of the 17 clusters were epidemiologically related. Ten of these 15 patients developed an infection. Conclusions Clonal outbreaks of ESBL-producing Klebsiella species were detected in our hospital. Theoretically, after Raman spectroscopy had detected a cluster of n ≥2, six infections in secondary patients could have been prevented. These findings demonstrate that spread of ESBL-producing Klebsiella species occurs, even in a non-outbreak setting, and underscore the need for routine rapid typing of these MDR bacteria. PMID:26317428

  13. Translocatable resistance to mercuric and phenylmercuric ions in soil bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, A.J.; Oliver, J.; Kelly, W.J.; Reaney, D.C.

    1981-08-01

    Of a sample of 42 grams-negative Hg-resistant bacteria, three (a Pseudomonas fluorescens, a Klebsiella sp. and a Citrobacter sp.) contained translocatable elements conferring resistance to Hgbj (all three) and to Hgbj and phenylmercuric acetate (P. fluorescens). The discovery of transposable phenylmercuric acetate resistance extends the range of known resistance ''transposons'' from heavy metals and antibiotics to organometallic compounds.

  14. Tannic acid degradation by Klebsiella strains isolated from goat feces

    PubMed Central

    Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Tabatabaee, Nooroldin; Khalkhali, Hossein; Amini, Imane

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Tannins are toxic polyphenols that either bind and precipitate or condense proteins. The high tannin content of some plants is the preliminary limitation of using them as a ruminant feed. So, the aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of tannic acid degrading bacterial strains from goat feces before and after feeding on Pistachio-Soft Hulls as tannin rich diet (TRD). Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains capable of utilizing tannic acid as sole carbon and energy source were isolated and characterized from goat feces before and after feeding on TRD. Tannase activity, maximum tolerable concentration and biodegradation potential were assessed. Results: Four tannase positive isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae. Isolated strains showed the maximum tolerable concentration of 64g/L of tannin. The tannic acid degradation percentage at a concentration of 15.0 g/L reached a maximum of 68% after 24 h incubation, and more than 98% after 72 h incubation. The pH of the medium also decreased along with tannic acid utilization. Conclusions: It is obvious that TRD induced adaptive responses. Thus, while the bacteria were able to degrade and detoxify the tannic acids, they had to adapt in the presence of high concentrations of tannic acid. So, these isolates have an amazing potential for application in bioremediation, waste water treatment, also reduction of tannins antinutritional effects in animal feeds. PMID:27092220

  15. OCCURRENCE, SIGNIFICANCE, AND DETECTION OF 'KLEBSIELLA' IN WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread occurrences of Klebsiella in water distribution networks have resulted in much discussion about the organism's effect on public health and about action that should be taken when Klebsiella is detected in public water supplies. Results obtained during development and te...

  16. O-antigen seroepidemiology of Klebsiella clinical isolates and implications for immunoprophylaxis of Klebsiella infections.

    PubMed Central

    Trautmann, M; Ruhnke, M; Rukavina, T; Held, T K; Cross, A S; Marre, R; Whitfield, C

    1997-01-01

    To provide a database for the development of an O-antigen-polysaccharide-containing vaccine against Klebsiella spp., we examined the O-antigen seroepidemiology of 378 Klebsiella clinical isolates collected prospectively in two university centers. Strains were typed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with rabbit antisera specific for serogroups O1 to O12 and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for serogroups O1, O2ab, O2ac, and the genus-specific core antigen. The numbers of isolates (percentages) of individual O serogroups were as follows: 148 (39.2) for serogroup O1, 40 (10.6) for serogroup O2ab, 4 (1.1) for serogroup O2ac, 89 (23.6) for serogroup O3, 2 (0.5) for serogroup O4, 32 (8.5) for serogroup O5, none for serogroups O7, O9, and O12, and 21 (5.6) for serogroup O11. Forty-two (11.1) of the strains were non-O-typeable. O-serogroup distributions were virtually identical between isolates from invasive infections and those from noninvasive infections or colonizations. A vaccine containing the O-specific polysaccharides of serogroups O1, O2ab, O3, and O5 would cover 82% of clinically occurring O-antigen specificities. Three hundred thirty-eight of 378 isolates (89.4%) reacted with the genus-specific MAb V/9-5, which recognizes an epitope of the outer core region of Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide. Antibodies directed against this epitope may represent a further alternative for O-antigen-targeted immunoprophylaxis of Klebsiella infections. These data support further experimental investigations on the protective potential of O-antigen-based vaccines and/or hyperimmune globulins in Klebsiella infection. PMID:9302204

  17. Electron transport to nitrogenase in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Nieva-Gómez, D; Roberts, G P; Klevickis, S; Brill, W J

    1980-05-01

    Cell-free extracts of nifF and nifJ mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae are unable to couple acetylene reduction (N2 fixation) by nitrogenase to the oxidation of organic metabolites. However, nifF and nifJ mutants can complement each other in vitro to establish the coupling. This indicates that the products of the nifF and nifJ genes constitute essential elements of the physiological electron pathway to nitrogenase. The electron-transfer-active product of the nifF gene, a flavoprotein, has been purified. PMID:6994100

  18. Normal anti-Klebsiella lymphocytotoxicity in ankylosing spondylitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.D.; Fritzler, M.J.; Lewkonia, R.M.

    1986-03-01

    We compared in vitro lymphocytotoxicity (LCT) of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), obtained from patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and normal controls (NC). Assays were performed with antibacterial antisera prepared from AS- and NC-derived Klebsiella and coliforms Escherichia coli. LCT assessed by eosin staining was not significantly different in PBL of 12 AS patients and 28 controls when reacted with 3 Klebsiella and 1 E coli antisera. LCT assessed by /sup 51/Cr release was not significantly different for PBL of 20 age- and sex-matched pairs of AS patients and NC when reacted with 3 Klebsiella and 1 E coli antisera. Similarly, LCT-/sup 51/Cr of PBL of 15 matched AS and NC pairs was not significantly different for anti-K21, a serotype putatively implicated in Klebsiella-HLA-B27 antigenic cross-reactivity. Our results do not support the notion of molecular mimicry between Klebsiella and B27 in the pathogenesis of primary AS.

  19. Nosocomial klebsiellas. II. Transfer in a hospital ward.

    PubMed

    Haverkorn, M J; Michel, M F

    1979-04-01

    During a 6-month period an epidemiological survey of the carriage of Klebsiella was conducted in a hospital ward where no outbreak of nosocomial infection occurred. In this endemic situation the regular sampling of several sites of patients, members of the nursing staff, and the environment, and the biotyping of Klebsiella made it possible to analyse the patterns of transmission between sites. There was abundant evidence for striking transmission of Klebsiella between the throat, hands, and faeces of patients. Transmission between patients seemed to be mainly through hands. The role of nurses' hands in transmission was not evident from this survey, probably due to the relatively long interval (a week) between samplings. Through the hands of patients, wash stands and the surrounding floor were contaminated with Klebsiella. The biotyping of Klebsiella facilitated the epidemiological analysis of the results. PMID:429786

  20. Description of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae sp. nov., isolated from human infections, with two subspecies, Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae subsp. nov. and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae subsp. nov., and demonstration that Klebsiella singaporensis is a junior heterotypic synonym of Klebsiella variicola.

    PubMed

    Brisse, Sylvain; Passet, Virginie; Grimont, Patrick A D

    2014-09-01

    Strains previously classified as members of Klebsiella pneumoniae phylogroups KpI, KpII-A, KpII-B and KpIII were characterized by 16S rRNA (rrs) gene sequencing, multilocus sequence analysis based on rpoB, fusA, gapA, gyrA and leuS genes, average nucleotide identity and biochemical characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that KpI and KpIII corresponded to K. pneumoniae and Klebsiella variicola, respectively, whereas KpII-A and KpII-B formed two well-demarcated sequence clusters distinct from other members of the genus Klebsiella. Average nucleotide identity between KpII-A and KpII-B was 96.4 %, whereas values lower than 94 % were obtained for both groups when compared with K. pneumoniae and K. variicola. Biochemical properties differentiated KpII-A, KpII-B, K. pneumoniae and K. variicola, with acid production from adonitol and l-sorbose and ability to use 3-phenylproprionate, 5-keto-d-gluconate and tricarballylic acid as sole carbon sources being particularly useful. Based on their genetic and phenotypic characteristics, we propose the names Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae subsp. nov. and K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae subsp. nov. for strains of KpII-A and KpII-B, respectively. The type strain of K. quasipneumoniae sp. nov. and of K. quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae subsp. nov. is 01A030(T) ( = SB11(T) = CIP 110771(T) = DSM 28211(T)). The type strain of K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae subsp. nov. is 07A044(T) ( = SB30(T) = CIP 110770(T) = DSM 28212(T)). Both strains were isolated from human blood cultures. This work also showed that Klebsiella singaporensis is a junior heterotypic synonym of K. variicola. PMID:24958762

  1. Dipeptidyl Peptidase I Controls Survival from Klebsiella pneumoniae Lung Infection by Processing Surfactant Protein D 1

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Joanna S.; Salantes, D. Brenda; Caughey, George H.; Wolters, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Prior work established that a deficiency in the cysteine protease dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI) improves survival following polymicrobial septic peritonitis. To test whether DPPI regulates survival from severe lung infections, DPPI −/− mice were studied in a Klebsiella pneumonia lung infection model, finding that survival in DPPI −/− mice is significantly better than in DPPI +/+ mice 8 d after infection. DPPI −/− mice have significantly fewer bacteria in the lung than infected DPPI +/+ mice, but no difference in lung histopathology, lung injury, or cytokine levels. To explore mechanisms of enhanced bacterial clearance in DPPI −/− mice, we examined the status of pulmonary collectins, finding that levels of surfactant protein D, but not of surfactant protein A, are higher in DPPI −/− than in DPPI +/+ BAL fluid, and that DPPI −/− BAL fluid aggregate bacteria more effectively than control BAL fluid. Sequencing of the amino terminus of surfactant protein D revealed two or eight additional amino acids in surfactant protein D isolated from DPPI −/− mice, suggesting processing by DPPI. These results establish that DPPI is a major determinant of survival following Klebsiella pneumoniae lung infection and suggest that the survival disadvantage in DPPI +/+ mice is in part due to processing of surfactant protein D by DPPI. PMID:24955853

  2. Emergence of DHA-1-Producing Klebsiella spp. in the Parisian Region: Genetic Organization of the ampC and ampR Genes Originating from Morganella morganii

    PubMed Central

    Verdet, Charlotte; Benzerara, Yahia; Gautier, Valérie; Adam, Olivier; Ould-Hocine, Zahia; Arlet, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    Eleven Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates and one Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolate showing various pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types and producing an inducible DHA-1 class C β-lactamase were isolated in the Parisian region between 1998 and 2003. The aim of this study was to compare the genetic organization of the blaDHA-1 genes in this collection of clinical isolates. In four isolates, the Morganella morganii-derived genomic region containing blaDHA-1 was inserted in an entire complex sul1-type integron, including a region common to In6-In7 (CR1), as previously described in a blaDHA-1-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis KF92 isolate from Saudi Arabia in 1992. Different gene cassette arrays were characterized in each of these integrons. In two of them, an additional 10-kb fragment was inserted between the CR1 and the M. morganii-derived region and was similar to the sap (ABC transporter family) and psp (phage shock protein) operons originated from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The length of the M. morganii region was variable, suggesting that several independent recombination events have occurred and that open reading frame orf513 encodes a recombinase involved in the mobilization of the resistance genes. The genetic organization of blaDHA-1 was identical in the eight other isolates. This structure is likely derived from a complex integron following the insertion of IS26, leading to the deletion of the first part of integron. The horizontal transfer of one plasmid carrying that truncated integron was shown for seven of these isolates. PMID:16436717

  3. Emergence of DHA-1-producing Klebsiella spp. in the Parisian region: genetic organization of the ampC and ampR genes originating from Morganella morganii.

    PubMed

    Verdet, Charlotte; Benzerara, Yahia; Gautier, Valérie; Adam, Olivier; Ould-Hocine, Zahia; Arlet, Guillaume

    2006-02-01

    Eleven Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates and one Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolate showing various pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types and producing an inducible DHA-1 class C beta-lactamase were isolated in the Parisian region between 1998 and 2003. The aim of this study was to compare the genetic organization of the bla(DHA-1) genes in this collection of clinical isolates. In four isolates, the Morganella morganii-derived genomic region containing bla(DHA-1) was inserted in an entire complex sul1-type integron, including a region common to In6-In7 (CR1), as previously described in a bla(DHA-1)-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis KF92 isolate from Saudi Arabia in 1992. Different gene cassette arrays were characterized in each of these integrons. In two of them, an additional 10-kb fragment was inserted between the CR1 and the M. morganii-derived region and was similar to the sap (ABC transporter family) and psp (phage shock protein) operons originated from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The length of the M. morganii region was variable, suggesting that several independent recombination events have occurred and that open reading frame orf513 encodes a recombinase involved in the mobilization of the resistance genes. The genetic organization of bla(DHA-1) was identical in the eight other isolates. This structure is likely derived from a complex integron following the insertion of IS26, leading to the deletion of the first part of integron. The horizontal transfer of one plasmid carrying that truncated integron was shown for seven of these isolates. PMID:16436717

  4. Genomic and Functional Characterization of qnr-Encoding Plasmids from Municipal Wastewater Biosolid Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Ella; Sela, Noa; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Cytryn, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities are considered to be "hotspots" for antibiotic resistance, since they conjoin high densities of environmental and fecal bacteria with selective pressure in the form of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics. Discharged effluents and biosolids from these facilities can disseminate antibiotic resistant genes to terrestrial and aquatic environments, potentially contributing to the increasing global trend in antibiotic resistance. This phenomenon is especially pertinent when resistance genes are associated with mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids, which can be transferred between bacterial phyla. Fluoroquinolones are among the most abundant antibiotic compounds detected in wastewater treatment facilities, especially in biosolids, where due to their hydrophobic properties they accumulate to concentrations that may exceed 40 mg/L. Although fluoroquinolone resistance is traditionally associated with mutations in the gyrA/topoisomerase IV genes, there is increasing evidence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, which is primarily encoded on qnr genes. In this study, we sequenced seven qnr-harboring plasmids from a diverse collection of Klebsiella strains, isolated from dewatered biosolids from a large wastewater treatment facility in Israel. One of the plasmids, termed pKPSH-11XL was a large (185.4 kbp), multi-drug resistance, IncF-type plasmid that harbored qnrB and 10 additional antibiotic resistance genes that conferred resistance to five different antibiotic families. It was highly similar to the pKPN3-like plasmid family that has been detected in multidrug resistant clinical Klebsiella isolates. In contrast, the six additional plasmids were much smaller (7-9 Kbp) and harbored a qnrS -type gene. These plasmids were highly similar to each other and closely resembled pGNB2, a plasmid isolated from a German wastewater treatment facility. Comparative genome analyses of pKPSH-11XL and other pKPN3-like plasmids concomitant to phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes from host Klebsiella strains, revealed that these plasmids are limited to a predominantly human-associated sub-clade of Klebsiella, suggesting that their host range is very narrow. Conversely, the pGNB2-like plasmids had a much broader host range and appeared to be associated with Klebsiella residing in natural environments. This study suggests that: (A) qnrB-harboring multidrug-resistant pKPN3-like plasmids can endure the rigorous wastewater treatment process and may therefore be disseminated to downstream environments; and (B) that small qnrS-harboring pGNB2-like plasmids are ubiquitous in wastewater treatment facilities and are most likely environmental in origin. PMID:26696974

  5. Genomic and Functional Characterization of qnr-Encoding Plasmids from Municipal Wastewater Biosolid Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Ella; Sela, Noa; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Cytryn, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities are considered to be “hotspots” for antibiotic resistance, since they conjoin high densities of environmental and fecal bacteria with selective pressure in the form of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics. Discharged effluents and biosolids from these facilities can disseminate antibiotic resistant genes to terrestrial and aquatic environments, potentially contributing to the increasing global trend in antibiotic resistance. This phenomenon is especially pertinent when resistance genes are associated with mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids, which can be transferred between bacterial phyla. Fluoroquinolones are among the most abundant antibiotic compounds detected in wastewater treatment facilities, especially in biosolids, where due to their hydrophobic properties they accumulate to concentrations that may exceed 40 mg/L. Although fluoroquinolone resistance is traditionally associated with mutations in the gyrA/topoisomerase IV genes, there is increasing evidence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, which is primarily encoded on qnr genes. In this study, we sequenced seven qnr-harboring plasmids from a diverse collection of Klebsiella strains, isolated from dewatered biosolids from a large wastewater treatment facility in Israel. One of the plasmids, termed pKPSH-11XL was a large (185.4 kbp), multi-drug resistance, IncF-type plasmid that harbored qnrB and 10 additional antibiotic resistance genes that conferred resistance to five different antibiotic families. It was highly similar to the pKPN3-like plasmid family that has been detected in multidrug resistant clinical Klebsiella isolates. In contrast, the six additional plasmids were much smaller (7–9 Kbp) and harbored a qnrS -type gene. These plasmids were highly similar to each other and closely resembled pGNB2, a plasmid isolated from a German wastewater treatment facility. Comparative genome analyses of pKPSH-11XL and other pKPN3-like plasmids concomitant to phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes from host Klebsiella strains, revealed that these plasmids are limited to a predominantly human-associated sub-clade of Klebsiella, suggesting that their host range is very narrow. Conversely, the pGNB2-like plasmids had a much broader host range and appeared to be associated with Klebsiella residing in natural environments. This study suggests that: (A) qnrB-harboring multidrug-resistant pKPN3-like plasmids can endure the rigorous wastewater treatment process and may therefore be disseminated to downstream environments; and (B) that small qnrS-harboring pGNB2-like plasmids are ubiquitous in wastewater treatment facilities and are most likely environmental in origin. PMID:26696974

  6. Characterization of Extended-Spectrum Beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli and Klebsiella Species from North Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Gadzama, Galadima Bala; Zailani, Sambo Bello; Aboderin, Aaron Oladipo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Resistance to antimicrobials has become a serious global health concern complicating treatment strategies and increasing health-care costs. The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing bacteria stand out as bacteria of great epidemic concern among Gram negative bacilli. Control and appropriate interventions for antimicrobial resistance depend on effective surveillance and knowledge of the patterns and determinants of resistance. Aim The present study was undertaken to detect and characterize ESBLs in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella Species from University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, North-Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods Confirmed variants of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella Species isolated from 439 patients that were admitted in various units of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH) were screened for ESBL using CLSI breakpoints. Suspected ESBLs producers were subjected to confirmation using double disk synergy method. Detection of ESBL genes was further done by multiplex PCR. Results Out of the 439 isolates screened; the result shows 147 (33.5%) were ESBL producers but only 121(23.6%) were confirmed by the double disk synergy method. The prevalence of ESBL amongst the organisms were; 41/172 (23.8%) for Escherichia coli and 80/267/(30.0%) for Klebsiella Species. Based on PCR analysis, the various percentage genotypes of the ESBL producers were 44 (36.4%) for SHV gene followed by 38(31.4%) for TEM gene and the lowest of 33(27.3%) for CTX-M gene. Conclusion ESBLs are prevalent among Species of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella Species in Maiduguri, Borno State, not only are there TEM and SHV but also CTX-M types. Antibiotic stewardship program to maximise use of available antibiotics is underscored as well as coordinated national efforts in combating resistance. PMID:27042460

  7. Lung adenocarcinoma masquerading as refractory Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    McCartney, Clair; Moghadam, Afshin; Sriram, Krishna B

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a middle-aged man where a diagnosis of Klebsiella pneumoniae obscured the underlying malignancy. The patient was hospitalised for management of a presumed refractory community-acquired pneumonia with radiological features of right lower lobe consolidation. Bronchoscopy did not identify an endobronchial lesion and washings grew K pneumoniae. CT-guided fine-needle aspirate samples did not detect any malignancy. However, despite appropriate antibiotic treatment there was no improvement in the patient’s clinical condition. Consequently, a CT-guided lung core biopsy was performed to obtain more tissue for histopathology, which was diagnostic of primary lung adenocarcinoma. This case highlights the need to continue to investigate a patient who is not progressing as clinically appropriate to their original diagnosis. PMID:24706703

  8. Confronting carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Markogiannakis, Antonis; Tzouvelekis, Leonidas S; Psichogiou, Mina; Petinaki, Efi; Daikos, George L

    2013-09-01

    The ongoing spread of carbapenemase-producing (CP) multidrug-resistant enterobacteria, primarily Klebsiella pneumoniae, has undoubtedly caused a public health crisis of unprecedented dimensions. The scientific community has been struggling with these highly problematic nosocomial pathogens for more than a decade. Faced with the current situation, one cannot help but wish we could have done better, earlier. However, significant steps have been and are currently being made towards a better understanding of transmission routes of CP microorganisms and in designing strategies that could effectively curb this devastating epidemic. Most importantly, the systematic evaluation of accumulating experimental and clinical data has paved the way to a more rational management of CP-infected patients. In addition, systematic efforts of the industry have led to the development of novel antibacterial agents that are active against CP strains and expected to be introduced to clinical practice in the immediate future. PMID:24020742

  9. Effects of rotating magnetic field exposure on the functional parameters of different species of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fijałkowski, Karol; Nawrotek, Paweł; Struk, Magdalena; Kordas, Marian; Rakoczy, Rafał

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the rotating magnetic field (RMF) on the growth, cell metabolic activity and biofilm formation by S. aureus, E. coli, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens, S. mutans, C. sakazakii, K. oxytoca and S. xylosus. Bacteria were exposed to the RMF (RMF magnetic induction B = 25-34 mT, RMF frequency f = 5-50 Hz, time of exposure t = 60 min, temperature of incubation 37 °C). The persistence of the effect of exposure (B = 34 mT, f = 50 Hz, t = 60 min) on bacteria after further incubation (t = 300 min) was also studied. The work showed that exposure to RMF stimulated the investigated parameters of S. aureus, E. coli, S. marcescens, S. mutans, C. sakazakii, K. oxytoca and S. xylosus, however inhibited cell metabolic activity and biofilm formation by A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. The results obtained in this study proved, that the RMF, depending on its magnetic induction and frequency can modulate functional parameters of different species of bacteria. PMID:24460420

  10. 'KLEBSIELLA' DENSITIES IN WATERS RECEIVING WOOD PULP EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface waters receiving pulp mill effluents were examined for the presence of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Salmonella species. Fecal coliforms were biochemically identified as belonging to the Escherichia, Klebsiella or Enterobacter genera. Sixty percent of the isolates...

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF KLEBSIELLA FROM TEXTILE FINISHING PLANT EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Klebsiella strains are found in abnormally high numbers in a stream receiving wastewater from a textile finishing plant. Representative strains are randomly selected to determine biochemical, serotype, and virulence patterns. All strains conform to the commonly accepted biochemic...

  12. Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection: A Virulent Cause of Visual Loss

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Wai Cheong; Pouncey, Anna; Ashley, Elizabeth; Bowen, Elizabeth Frances

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial endophthalmitis is endogenous in 2–6% of cases and is frequently misdiagnosed initially. Klebsiella pneumoniae is being increasingly recognised as an aggressive causative organism, and it is particularly prevalent in Asian populations. We describe the case of a 71-year-old female of Southeast Asian origin with type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented with visual loss secondary to bacterial endophthalmitis and concomitant cerebral abscesses. Imaging revealed the probable primary source of infection to be a liver abscess. She developed retinal detachment and subsequently underwent an evisceration of her right eye. A Klebsiella spp. was identified from the eye tissue by 16S rRNA amplification. Klebsiella pneumoniae endophthalmitis has a characteristic disease phenotype and a particularly aggressive course with poor visual outcomes observed in most cases. This case highlights the risks of metastatic infection including bacterial endophthalmitis in association with Klebsiella infection. PMID:25606041

  13. A mimicry of melioidosis by Klebsiella ozaenae infection.

    PubMed

    Ng, T H; How, S H; Kuan, Y C; Adzura; Aziz, A A; Fauzi, A R

    2009-12-01

    Klebsiella ozaenae is a Gram negative bacillus. It has been described as a colonizer of oral and nasopharyngeal mucosa and is a cause of atrophic rhinitis. Klebsiella ozaenae has seldom been isolated from serious infections. However, several reports have stated that Klebsiella ozaenae may cause invasive infections and even mortality. We report a 55-year-old man with Klebsiella ozaenae infection causing abscesses involving the right eye and left kidney and possibly also in the brain, lungs and prostate. The isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim but resistant to ampicillin. He responded well to 4 weeks of i.v. ceftazidime and i.v. amoxycillin-clavulanic acid. To our knowledge, such a multiorgan infection has not been reported previously for this organism. PMID:20514860

  14. [Notes on 2 cases of pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Didilescu, C; Nicola, V

    1981-01-01

    In two cases of bacterial pneumonia occurring in adults which were due to Klebsiella pneumoniae germs. The evolution became chronic with extensive invasion of the pulmonary tissues and destruction of the parenchyma. There was also multiple resistance of the germs to antibiotics as evidenced by sensitivity tests. The severe pleural complications have determined serious difficulties in the performance of the treatment. Confronted with such a condition the only therapeutical attitude consisted in testing the known antibiotics with efficiency in Klebsiella infections. PMID:6278566

  15. Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamases, AmpC Beta-Lactamases and Plasmid Mediated Quinolone Resistance in Klebsiella spp. from Companion Animals in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Valentina; Feltrin, Fabiola; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Svendsen, Christina Aaby; Cordaro, Gessica; García-Fernández, Aurora; Lorenzetti, Serena; Lorenzetti, Raniero; Battisti, Antonio; Franco, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    We report the genetic characterization of 15 Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) and 4 isolates of K. oxytoca (KO) from clinical cases in dogs and cats and showing extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) resistance. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC genes, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and co-resistances were investigated. Among KP isolates, ST101 clone was predominant (8/15, 53%), followed by ST15 (4/15, 27%). ST11 and ST340, belonging to Clonal Complex (CC)11, were detected in 2012 (3/15, 20%). MLST on KP isolates corresponded well with PFGE results, with 11 different PFGE patterns observed, including two clusters of two (ST340) and four (ST101) indistinguishable isolates, respectively. All isolates harbored at least one ESBL or AmpC gene, all carried on transferable plasmids (IncR, IncFII, IncI1, IncN), and 16/19 were positive for PMQR genes (qnr family or aac(6′)-Ib-cr). The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (11/19, 58%), detected in all KP ST101, in one KP ST15 and in both KP ST340. blaCTX-M-15 was carried on IncR plasmids in all but one KP isolate. All KP ST15 isolates harbored different ESC resistance genes and different plasmids, and presented the non-transferable blaSHV-28 gene, in association with blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-1 (on IncR, or on IncN), blaSHV-2a (on IncR) or blaCMY-2 genes (on IncI1). KO isolates were positive for blaCTX-M-9 gene (on IncHI2), or for the blaSHV-12 and blaDHA-1 genes (on IncL/M). They were all positive for qnr genes, and one also for the aac(6′)-Ib-cr gene. All Klebsiella isolates showed multiresistance towards aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, trimethoprim and amphenicols, mediated by strA/B, aadA2, aadB, ant (2")-Ia, aac(6′)-Ib, sul, tet, dfr and cat genes in various combinations. The emergence in pets of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella with ESBL, AmpC and PMQR determinants, poses further and serious challenges in companion animal therapy and raise concerns for possible bi-directional transmission between pets and humans, especially at household level. PMID:24595207

  16. Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases, AmpC beta-lactamases and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance in klebsiella spp. from companion animals in Italy.

    PubMed

    Donati, Valentina; Feltrin, Fabiola; Hendriksen, Rene S; Svendsen, Christina Aaby; Cordaro, Gessica; García-Fernández, Aurora; Lorenzetti, Serena; Lorenzetti, Raniero; Battisti, Antonio; Franco, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    We report the genetic characterization of 15 Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) and 4 isolates of K. oxytoca (KO) from clinical cases in dogs and cats and showing extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) resistance. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC genes, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and co-resistances were investigated. Among KP isolates, ST101 clone was predominant (8/15, 53%), followed by ST15 (4/15, 27%). ST11 and ST340, belonging to Clonal Complex (CC)11, were detected in 2012 (3/15, 20%). MLST on KP isolates corresponded well with PFGE results, with 11 different PFGE patterns observed, including two clusters of two (ST340) and four (ST101) indistinguishable isolates, respectively. All isolates harbored at least one ESBL or AmpC gene, all carried on transferable plasmids (IncR, IncFII, IncI1, IncN), and 16/19 were positive for PMQR genes (qnr family or aac(6')-Ib-cr). The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (11/19, 58%), detected in all KP ST101, in one KP ST15 and in both KP ST340. blaCTX-M-15 was carried on IncR plasmids in all but one KP isolate. All KP ST15 isolates harbored different ESC resistance genes and different plasmids, and presented the non-transferable blaSHV-28 gene, in association with blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-1 (on IncR, or on IncN), blaSHV-2a (on IncR) or blaCMY-2 genes (on IncI1). KO isolates were positive for blaCTX-M-9 gene (on IncHI2), or for the blaSHV-12 and blaDHA-1 genes (on IncL/M). They were all positive for qnr genes, and one also for the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene. All Klebsiella isolates showed multiresistance towards aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, trimethoprim and amphenicols, mediated by strA/B, aadA2, aadB, ant (2")-Ia, aac(6')-Ib, sul, tet, dfr and cat genes in various combinations. The emergence in pets of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella with ESBL, AmpC and PMQR determinants, poses further and serious challenges in companion animal therapy and raise concerns for possible bi-directional transmission between pets and humans, especially at household level. PMID:24595207

  17. Aeromonas punctata derived depolymerase that disrupts the integrity of Klebsiella pneumoniae capsule: optimization of depolymerase production.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Shruti; Soni, Sanjeev Kumar; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2014-07-01

    Formation of dense, highly hydrated biofilm structures pose a risk for public and environmental health. Extracellular polymeric substances encompassing biofilms offer 1000-fold greater resistance as compared to the planktonic cells. Using enzymes as anti-biofouling agents, will improve penetration of antimicrobials and increase susceptibility of biofilms to components of immune system. The challenge of using enzymes derived from unrelated bacteria for the degradation of capsular matrix of Klebsiella pneumoniae has not been dealt in the past. Thus, statistical optimization was done to enhance depolymerase production by Aeromonas punctata, directed against the exopolysaccharide matrix of Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055, capable of substituting the available phage borne depolymerase enzyme. Optimization via central composite design (CCD) resulted in 16-fold enhancement in depolymerase yield (166.65 µmoles ml(-1)  min(-1) ) over unoptimized medium. Out of the 19 variables, media composition giving maximum expression levels of the enzyme consisted of 1 mg ml(-1) galactose and ammonium chloride, 1.5 mg ml(-1) each of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and magnesium sulfate. Tryptic peptide analysis of the purified 29 kDa band by Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) showed a high homology with a protein of unknown function from Aeromonas cavaie Ae398. Further improvements in the enzyme can lead to its successful development as prophylactic and/or a therapeutic agent. PMID:23996303

  18. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of tigecycline non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance among Klebsiella pneumoniae to most antibiotics is on the rise. Tigecycline has been considered as one of the few therapeutic options available to treat multidrug-resistant bacteria. We investigated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of tigecycline non-susceptible K. pneumoniae bacteremia. Methods Adult patients with tigecycline non-susceptible K. pneumoniae bacteremia at a medical center in Taiwan over a 3-year period were enrolled. K. pneumoniae isolates were identified by the E-test using criteria set by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Data on the clinical features of patients were collected from medical records. Genes for β-lactamases, antimicrobial susceptibilities and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results were determined for all isolates. Results Of 36 patients, 27 had nosocomial bacteremia. Overall 28-day mortality was 38.9%. The MIC50 and MIC90 of tigecycline were 6 and 8 mg/L, respectively. No carbapenemase was detected among the 36 isolates. Twenty isolates carried extended spectrum β-lactamases and/or DHA-1 genes. No major cluster of isolates was found among the 36 isolates by PFGE. Intensive care unit onset of tigecycline non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia was the only independent risk factor for 28-day mortality. Conclusions The high mortality of patients with tigecycline non-susceptible K. pneumoniae bacteremia may suggest a critical problem. Further study to identify the possible risk factors for its development and further investigation of this type of bacteremia is necessary. PMID:24380631

  19. [Update on outbreaks reported from neonatal intensive care units: Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Kraus-Haas, Martina; Mielke, Martin; Simon, Arne

    2015-03-01

    In terms of the unique risk profile, the clinical course of nosocomial infections, and the most prevalent bacterial pathogens, literature on outbreaks of potentially pathogenic bacteria on neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) needs to be analyzed separately from reports derived from other intensive care units. With the purpose of updating important information for those involved in outbreak management and fostering preventive efforts, this article summarizes the results of a systematic literature analysis, referring to an earlier publication by Gastmeier et al. This review focuses on NICU outbreaks caused by Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:25665889

  20. Perianal Abscess and Proctitis by Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Woo Shin; Choi, Sung Youn; Jeong, Eun Haeng; Bang, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Sik; Lee, Dae Sung; Park, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) can at times cause invasive infections, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus and a history of alcohol abuse. A 61-year-old man with diabetes mellitus and a history of alcohol abuse presented with abdominal and anal pain for two weeks. After admission, he underwent sigmoidoscopy, which revealed multiple ulcerations with yellowish exudate in the rectum and sigmoid colon. The patient was treated with ciprofloxacin and metronidazole. After one week, follow up sigmoidoscopy was performed owing to sustained fever and diarrhea. The lesions were aggravated and seemed webbed in appearance because of damage to the rectal mucosa. Abdominal computed tomography and rectal magnetic resonance imaging were performed, and showed a perianal and perirectal abscess. The patient underwent laparoscopic sigmoid colostomy and perirectal abscess incision and drainage. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae was identified in pus culture. The antibiotics were switched to ertapenem. He improved after surgery and was discharged. K. pneumoniae can cause rapid invasive infection in patients with diabetes and a history of alcohol abuse. We report the first rare case of proctitis and perianal abscess caused by invasive K. pneumoniae infection. PMID:25691848

  1. Neonatal Brain Abscess due to Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Biswajit; Mondal, Monojit; Thapa, Rajoo; Mallick, Debkrishna; Datta, Asok Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) causing brain abscess in newborn infants is rare. Presented herein, is a 27-day-old male neonate who developed two frontal lobe abscesses in association with K. pneumoniae sepsis and meningitis. Antibiotic susceptibility testing utilizing the double-disk synergy method (Cefotaxime and Amoxycillin-Clavulanate) confirmed the extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production by the isolate. He was treated simultaneously with antibiotics (Meropenem and Amikacin) and abscess aspiration through the anterior fontanelle, with less than satisfactory outcome. ESBL producing K. pneumoniae brain abscess in neonates is extremely rare in the English literature. Emperical carbapenems and aminoglycoside coverage in neonates with K. pneumoniae sepsis and brain abscess, especially in areas with high rate of ESBL producing bacteria may be warranted. PMID:25584278

  2. Phagocytosis and Killing of Carbapenem-Resistant ST258 Klebsiella pneumoniae by Human Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Scott D; Porter, Adeline R; Dorward, David W; Brinkworth, Amanda J; Chen, Liang; Kreiswirth, Barry N; DeLeo, Frank R

    2016-05-15

    Carbapenem-resistantKlebsiella pneumoniaestrains classified as multilocus sequence type 258 (ST258) are among the most widespread multidrug-resistant hospital-acquired pathogens. Treatment of infections caused by these organisms is difficult, and mortality is high. The basis for the success of ST258, outside of antibiotic resistance, remains incompletely determined. Here we tested the hypothesis that ST258K. pneumoniaehas enhanced capacity to circumvent killing by human neutrophils, the primary cellular defense against bacterial infections. There was limited binding and uptake of ST258 by human neutrophils, and correspondingly, there was limited killing of bacteria. On the other hand, transmission electron microscopy revealed that any ingested organisms were degraded readily within neutrophil phagosomes, thus indicating that survival in the neutrophil assays is due to limited phagocytosis, rather than to microbicide resistance after uptake. Our findings suggest that enhancing neutrophil phagocytosis is a potential therapeutic approach for treatment of infection caused by carbapenem-resistant ST258K. pneumoniae. PMID:26768252

  3. Pulmonary Gangrene Due to Rhizopus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Probable Sarcina Organisms.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Abhijit; Muthu, Valliappan; Bal, Amanjit; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Dhooria, Sahajal; Das, Ashim; Singh, Harkant

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary gangrene is a life-threatening condition, which represents the fulminant end of the infectious lung diseases usually caused by polymicrobial infection. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria act synergistically to produce massive tissue necrosis which might be augmented by the angioinvasive nature of fungi like Mucor. We report a successfully treated case of pulmonary gangrene in a poorly controlled diabetic patient, which was associated with polymicrobial infection. It was caused by Rhizopus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and unusual anaerobic organism Sarcina. This is the first report describing the presence of Sarcina organisms in a case of pulmonary gangrene. Adequate glycemic control, treatment of coexisting polymicrobial infection and prompt antifungal therapy along with surgical intervention were useful in the index patient. This case also highlights the effectiveness of combined medical and surgical intervention in a case of pulmonary gangrene. PMID:26022794

  4. The nif promoters of Klebsiella pneumoniae have a characteristic primary structure.

    PubMed

    Beynon, J; Cannon, M; Buchanan-Wollaston, V; Cannon, F

    1983-09-01

    We have determined the precise point of transcription initiation for five nif (nitrogen fixation) operons of Klebsiella pneumoniae and sequenced the promoters. Our results show that nifF is transcribed in the opposite direction to that previously proposed for nif genes, that nifM is transcribed from two promoters, and that there is a promoter preceding nifU but not nifX, and we present a revised map of nif transcripts. The nif promoters have a characteristic structure of 26 bp located between positions--1 and --26 upstream of the site of transcription initiation: CTGG..8bp...TTGCA...9bp...Py(+1). This structure, which has two regions of conserved sequence, shows no homology to the "consensus promoter" of enteric bacteria. Our results suggest that the--10 homology is equivalent to a "Pribnow box" for promoters expressed under nitrogen-starved conditions and that the--23 homology confers activator specificity on the nif promoters. PMID:6311436

  5. Recent Research Examining Links Among Klebsiella pneumoniae from Food, Food Animals, and Human Extraintestinal Infections.

    PubMed

    Davis, Gregg S; Price, Lance B

    2016-06-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a colonizer of livestock, a contaminant of retail meats and vegetables, and a cause of extraintestinal infections in humans. Antibiotic-resistant strains of K. pneumoniae are becoming increasingly prevalent among hospital and community-acquired infections. Antibiotics are used extensively in conventional food-animal production, where they select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic-resistant K. pneumoniae has been isolated from livestock as well as from a variety of retail meats, seafood, and vegetables. Furthermore, recent phylogenetic analyses suggest close relationships between K. pneumoniae from humans and livestock. Therefore, it is essential that we quantify the contribution of foodborne K. pneumoniae to antibiotic-resistant human infections. PMID:27022987

  6. Tracking a hospital outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae with whole-genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Snitkin, Evan S; Zelazny, Adrian M; Thomas, Pamela J; Stock, Frida; Henderson, David K; Palmore, Tara N; Segre, Julia A

    2012-08-22

    The Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major cause of nosocomial infections, primarily among immunocompromised patients. The emergence of strains resistant to carbapenems has left few treatment options, making infection containment critical. In 2011, the U.S. National Institutes of Health Clinical Center experienced an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae that affected 18 patients, 11 of whom died. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on K. pneumoniae isolates to gain insight into why the outbreak progressed despite early implementation of infection control procedures. Integrated genomic and epidemiological analysis traced the outbreak to three independent transmissions from a single patient who was discharged 3 weeks before the next case became clinically apparent. Additional genomic comparisons provided evidence for unexpected transmission routes, with subsequent mining of epidemiological data pointing to possible explanations for these transmissions. Our analysis demonstrates that integration of genomic and epidemiological data can yield actionable insights and facilitate the control of nosocomial transmission. PMID:22914622

  7. Anti-Biofilm Activity: A Function of Klebsiella pneumoniae Capsular Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos Goncalves, Marina; Delattre, Cédric; Balestrino, Damien; Charbonnel, Nicolas; Elboutachfaiti, Redouan; Wadouachi, Anne; Badel, Stéphanie; Bernardi, Thierry; Michaud, Philippe; Forestier, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Competition and cooperation phenomena occur within highly interactive biofilm communities and several non-biocides molecules produced by microorganisms have been described as impairing biofilm formation. In this study, we investigated the anti-biofilm capacities of an ubiquitous and biofilm producing bacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae. Cell-free supernatant from K. pneumoniae planktonic cultures showed anti-biofilm effects on most Gram positive bacteria tested but also encompassed some Gram negative bacilli. The anti-biofilm non-bactericidal activity was further investigated on Staphylococcus epidermidis, by determining the biofilm biomass, microscopic observations and agglutination measurement through a magnetic bead-mediated agglutination test. Cell-free extracts from K. pneumoniae biofilm (supernatant and acellular matrix) also showed an influence, although to a lesser extend. Chemical analyses indicated that the active molecule was a high molecular weight polysaccharide composed of five monosaccharides: galactose, glucose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and glucosamine and the main following sugar linkage residues [→2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→]; [→4)-α-l-Rhap-(1→]; [α-d-Galp-(1→]; [→2,3)-α-d-Galp-(1→]; [→3)-β-d-Galp-(1→] and, [→4)-β-d-GlcAp-(1→]. Characterization of this molecule indicated that this component was more likely capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and precoating of abiotic surfaces with CPS extracts from different serotypes impaired the bacteria-surface interactions. Thus the CPS of Klebsiella would exhibit a pleiotropic activity during biofilm formation, both stimulating the initial adhesion and maturation steps as previously described, but also repelling potential competitors. PMID:24932475

  8. Anti-biofilm activity: a function of Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Marina Dos Santos; Delattre, Cédric; Balestrino, Damien; Charbonnel, Nicolas; Elboutachfaiti, Redouan; Wadouachi, Anne; Badel, Stéphanie; Bernardi, Thierry; Michaud, Philippe; Forestier, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Competition and cooperation phenomena occur within highly interactive biofilm communities and several non-biocides molecules produced by microorganisms have been described as impairing biofilm formation. In this study, we investigated the anti-biofilm capacities of an ubiquitous and biofilm producing bacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae. Cell-free supernatant from K. pneumoniae planktonic cultures showed anti-biofilm effects on most Gram positive bacteria tested but also encompassed some Gram negative bacilli. The anti-biofilm non-bactericidal activity was further investigated on Staphylococcus epidermidis, by determining the biofilm biomass, microscopic observations and agglutination measurement through a magnetic bead-mediated agglutination test. Cell-free extracts from K. pneumoniae biofilm (supernatant and acellular matrix) also showed an influence, although to a lesser extend. Chemical analyses indicated that the active molecule was a high molecular weight polysaccharide composed of five monosaccharides: galactose, glucose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and glucosamine and the main following sugar linkage residues [→ 2)-α-L-Rhap-(1 →]; [→ 4)-α-L-Rhap-(1 →]; [α-D-Galp-(1 →]; [→ 2,3)-α-D-Galp-(1 →]; [→ 3)-β-D-Galp-(1 →] and, [→ 4)-β-D-GlcAp-(1 →]. Characterization of this molecule indicated that this component was more likely capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and precoating of abiotic surfaces with CPS extracts from different serotypes impaired the bacteria-surface interactions. Thus the CPS of Klebsiella would exhibit a pleiotropic activity during biofilm formation, both stimulating the initial adhesion and maturation steps as previously described, but also repelling potential competitors. PMID:24932475

  9. 'KLEBSIELLA' OCCURRENCE, SIGNIFICANCE AND DETECTION IN WATER SYSTEMS: A PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Frequent occurrence of Klebsiella in coliform colonization problems found in water supply distribution has prompted the development of a new medium (m-Kleb agar) for specific detection. The medium has excellent differential characteristics, and an average 94% Klebsiella recovery ...

  10. Mapping the Evolution of Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Chandler C.; Stegger, Marc; Stahlhut, Steen G.; Hansen, Dennis S.; Engelthaler, David M.; Andersen, Paal S.; Driebe, Elizabeth M.; Keim, Paul; Krogfelt, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Highly invasive, community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infections have recently emerged, resulting in pyogenic liver abscesses. These infections are caused by hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKP) isolates primarily of capsule serotype K1 or K2. Hypervirulent K1 isolates belong to clonal complex 23 (CC23), indicating that this clonal lineage has a specific genetic background conferring hypervirulence. Here, we apply whole-genome sequencing to a collection of K. pneumoniae isolates to characterize the phylogenetic background of hvKP isolates with an emphasis on CC23. Most of the hvKP isolates belonged to CC23 and grouped into a distinct monophyletic clade, revealing that CC23 is a unique clonal lineage, clearly distinct from nonhypervirulent strains. Separate phylogenetic analyses of the CC23 isolates indicated that the CC23 lineage evolved recently by clonal expansion from a single common ancestor. Limited grouping according to geographical origin was observed, suggesting that CC23 has spread globally through multiple international transmissions. Conversely, hypervirulent K2 strains clustered in genetically unrelated groups. Strikingly, homologues of a large virulence plasmid were detected in all hvKP clonal lineages, indicating a key role in K. pneumoniae hypervirulence. The plasmid encodes two siderophores, aerobactin and salmochelin, and RmpA (regulator of the mucoid phenotype); all these factors were found to be restricted to hvKP isolates. Genomic comparisons revealed additional factors specifically associated with CC23. These included a distinct variant of a genomic island encoding yersiniabactin, colibactin, and microcin E492. Furthermore, additional novel genomic regions unique to CC23 were revealed which may also be involved in the increased virulence of this important clonal lineage. PMID:26199326

  11. Species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-negative aerobic bacteria in hospitalized cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Ashour, Hossam M; El-Sharif, Amany

    2009-01-01

    Background Nosocomial infections pose significant threats to hospitalized patients, especially the immunocompromised ones, such as cancer patients. Methods This study examined the microbial spectrum of gram-negative bacteria in various infection sites in patients with leukemia and solid tumors. The antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated bacteria were studied. Results The most frequently isolated gram-negative bacteria were Klebsiella pneumonia (31.2%) followed by Escherichia coli (22.2%). We report the isolation and identification of a number of less-frequent gram negative bacteria (Chromobacterium violacum, Burkholderia cepacia, Kluyvera ascorbata, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Salmonella arizona). Most of the gram-negative isolates from Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI), Gastro-intestinal Tract Infections (GITI), Urinary Tract Infections (UTI), and Bloodstream Infections (BSI) were obtained from leukemic patients. All gram-negative isolates from Skin Infections (SI) were obtained from solid-tumor patients. In both leukemic and solid-tumor patients, gram-negative bacteria causing UTI were mainly Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, while gram-negative bacteria causing RTI were mainly Klebsiella pneumoniae. Escherichia coli was the main gram-negative pathogen causing BSI in solid-tumor patients and GITI in leukemic patients. Isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter species were resistant to most antibiotics tested. There was significant imipenem -resistance in Acinetobacter (40.9%), Pseudomonas (40%), and Enterobacter (22.2%) species, and noticeable imipinem-resistance in Klebsiella (13.9%) and Escherichia coli (8%). Conclusion This is the first study to report the evolution of imipenem-resistant gram-negative strains in Egypt. Mortality rates were higher in cancer patients with nosocomial Pseudomonas infections than any other bacterial infections. Policies restricting antibiotic consumption should be implemented to avoid the evolution of newer generations of antibiotic resistant-pathogens. PMID:19228413

  12. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiang-hua; Song, Xiu-yu; Ma, Xiao-bo; Zhang, Shi-yang; Zhang, Jia-qin

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections worldwide. Selective pressure, the extensive use of antibiotics, and the conjugational transmission of antibiotic resistance genes across bacterial species and genera facilitate the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) K. pneumoniae. Here, we examined the occurrence, phenotypes and genetic features of MDR K. pneumoniae isolated from patients in intensive care units (ICUs) at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University in Xiamen, China, from January to December 2011. Thirty-eight MDR K. pneumoniae strains were collected. These MDR K. pneumoniae isolates possessed at least seven antibiotic resistance determinants, which contribute to the high-level resistance of these bacteria to aminoglycosides, macrolides, quinolones and β-lactams. Among these isolates, 24 strains were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers, 2 strains were AmpC producers, and 12 strains were both ESBL and AmpC producers. The 38 MDR isolates also contained class I (28/38) and class II integrons (10/38). All 28 class I-positive isolates contained aacC1, aacC4, orfX, orfX’ and aadA1 genes. β-lactam resistance was conferred through bla SHV (22/38), bla TEM (10/38), and bla CTX-M (7/38). The highly conserved bla KPC-2 (37/38) and bla OXA-23(1/38) alleles were responsible for carbapenem resistance, and a gyrAsite mutation (27/38) and the plasmid-mediated qnrB gene (13/38) were responsible for quinolone resistance. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) fingerprinting of these MDR strains revealed the presence of five groups and sixteen patterns. The MDR strains from unrelated groups showed different drug resistance patterns; however, some homologous strains also showed different drug resistance profiles. Therefore, REP-PCR-based analyses can provide information to evaluate the epidemic status of nosocomial infection caused by MDR K. pneumoniae; however, this test lacks the power to discriminate some isolates. Thus, we propose that both genotyping and REP-PCR typing should be used to distinguish genetic groups beyond the species level. PMID:26413058

  13. Persistence of nasal colonization with human pathogenic bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance in the German general population

    PubMed Central

    Köck, R.; Werner, P.; Friedrich, A.W.; Fegeler, C.; Becker, K.; Bindewald, O.; Bui, T.T.; Eckhoff, C.; Epping, R.; Kähmann, L.; Meurer, M.; Steger, J.; von Auenmüller, L.

    2015-01-01

    The nares represent an important bacterial reservoir for endogenous infections. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of nasal colonization by different important pathogens, the associated antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors. We performed a prospective cohort study among 1878 nonhospitalized volunteers recruited from the general population in Germany. Participants provided nasal swabs at three time points (each separated by 4–6 months). Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and important nonfermenters were cultured and subjected to susceptibility testing. Factors potentially influencing bacterial colonization patterns were assessed. The overall prevalence of S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenters was 41.0, 33.4 and 3.7%, respectively. Thirteen participants (0.7%) were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Enterobacteriaceae were mostly (>99%) susceptible against ciprofloxacin and carbapenems (100%). Extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing isolates were not detected among Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Several lifestyle- and health-related factors (e.g. household size, travel, livestock density of the residential area or occupational livestock contact, atopic dermatitis, antidepressant or anti-infective drugs) were associated with colonization by different microorganisms. This study unexpectedly demonstrated high nasal colonization rates with Enterobacteriaceae in the German general population, but rates of antibiotic resistance were low. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage was rare but highly associated with occupational livestock contact. PMID:26862431

  14. Persistence of nasal colonization with human pathogenic bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance in the German general population.

    PubMed

    Köck, R; Werner, P; Friedrich, A W; Fegeler, C; Becker, K

    2016-01-01

    The nares represent an important bacterial reservoir for endogenous infections. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of nasal colonization by different important pathogens, the associated antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors. We performed a prospective cohort study among 1878 nonhospitalized volunteers recruited from the general population in Germany. Participants provided nasal swabs at three time points (each separated by 4-6 months). Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and important nonfermenters were cultured and subjected to susceptibility testing. Factors potentially influencing bacterial colonization patterns were assessed. The overall prevalence of S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenters was 41.0, 33.4 and 3.7%, respectively. Thirteen participants (0.7%) were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Enterobacteriaceae were mostly (>99%) susceptible against ciprofloxacin and carbapenems (100%). Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates were not detected among Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Several lifestyle- and health-related factors (e.g. household size, travel, livestock density of the residential area or occupational livestock contact, atopic dermatitis, antidepressant or anti-infective drugs) were associated with colonization by different microorganisms. This study unexpectedly demonstrated high nasal colonization rates with Enterobacteriaceae in the German general population, but rates of antibiotic resistance were low. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage was rare but highly associated with occupational livestock contact. PMID:26862431

  15. Isolation of some pathogenic bacteria from the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans and its specific predator, Rhizophagus grandis.

    PubMed

    Yaman, M; Ertürk, O; Aslan, I

    2010-01-01

    Some bacteria were isolated from Dendroctonus micans and its specific predator, Rhizophagus grandis. Six bacteria from D. micans were identified as Bacillus pumilus, Enterobacter intermedius, Citrobacter freundii, Cellulomonas flavigena, Microbacterium liquefaciens and Enterobacter amnigenus, three bacteria from R. grandis as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea agglomerans and Serratia grimesii, on the basis of fatty acid methyl ester analysis and carbon utilization profile by using Microbial Identification and Biolog Microplate Systems. Their insecticidal effects were tested on larvae and adults of D. micans. PMID:20336502

  16. [Viable non-culturable bacteria].

    PubMed

    Năşcuţiu, Alexandra-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Viable but non-culturable cells (VBNC) are defined as live bacteria, but which do not either grow or divide. Such bacteria cannot be cultivated on conventional media (they do not form colonies on solid media, they do not change broth appearance), but their existence can be proved using other methods. The switch to the VBNC stage has been described and documented for several bacterial species: Vibrio spp. (cholerae, vulnificus and other species), Escherichia coli (including EHEC), Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolytica, Shigella spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Cronobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Providencia spp., Morganella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Enterococcus spp. The capacity of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria to enter the VBNC stage started to concern microbiologists in the field of food industry (food and water safety) and pharmaceutical industry. Many studies have shown that processes meant to achieve bactericidal effects can favour bacterial switch to VBNC. Viable but non-culturable stage is reversible. Concerns are due to the capacity of VBNC, especially of potentially pathogen cells, to switch to the infectious stage once in the host organism. PMID:21038700

  17. The use of bacteria in conformance control - Initial studies

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, F.A.; Lappin-Scott, H.M.; Cusack, F.; Costerton, J.W.

    1988-05-01

    Bacteria respond to nutrient starvation by reducing in size to form ultramicrobacteria (UMB) less than 0.3 ..mu..m in diameter. Work in the authors' laboratory has established that two bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae and a Psuedomonas species, isolated from oilwell waters decreased in size when deprived of nutrients. Subsequent restoration of nutrients resulted in the resuscitation of the UMB and they returned to normal size. When injected into model rock cores, the UMB penetrated deeper than the full-sized bacteria. Higher counts of bacteria and carbohydrate production were found around the core inlet with the full-sized bacteria. However, the UMB were located throughout the entire core. This work demonstrates that UMB may provide a new selective plugging technique by virtue of their superior penetration properties throughout solid matrices.

  18. Genome Sequences of Five Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, L. Letti; Rusconi, Brigida; Gildersleeve, Heidi; Qi, Chao; McLaughlin, Milena; Seshu, J.

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a nosocomial pathogen of emerging importance and displays resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as carbapenems. Here, we report the genome sequences of five clinical K. pneumoniae isolates, four of which are carbapenem resistant. Carbapenem resistance is conferred by hydrolyzing class A β-lactamases found adjacent to transposases. PMID:26966211

  19. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae YH43.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Tadayuki; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence ofKlebsiella pneumoniaestrain YH43, isolated from sweet potato. The genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 5,520,319 bp in length. It carries 8 copies of rRNA operons, 86 tRNA genes, 5,154 protein-coding genes, and thenifgene cluster for nitrogen fixation. PMID:27081127

  1. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  2. A Second Outer-Core Region in Klebsiella pneumoniae Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Regu, Miguel; Izquierdo, Luis; Fresno, Sandra; Piqu, Nria; Corsaro, Maria Michela; Naldi, Teresa; De Castro, Cristina; Waidelich, Dietmar; Merino, Susana; Toms, Juan M.

    2005-01-01

    Up to now only one major type of core oligosaccharide has been found in the lipopolysaccharide of all Klebsiella pneumoniae strains analyzed. Applying a different screening approach, we identified a novel Klebsiella pneumoniae core (type 2). Both Klebsiella core types share the same inner core and the outer-core-proximal disaccharide, GlcN-(1,4)-GalA, but they differ in the GlcN substituents. In core type 2, the GlcpN residue is substituted at the O-4 position by the disaccharide ?-Glcp(1-6)-?-Glcp(1, while in core type 1 the GlcpN residue is substituted at the O-6 position by either the disaccharide ?-Hep(1-4)-?-Kdo(2 or a Kdo residue (Kdo is 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid). This difference correlates with the presence of a three-gene region in the corresponding core biosynthetic clusters. Engineering of both core types by interchanging this specific region allowed studying the effect on virulence. The replacement of Klebsiella core type 1 in a highly type 2 virulent strain (52145) induces lower virulence than core type 2 in a murine infection model. PMID:15937181

  3. Genome Sequences of Five Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Lopez, L Letti; Rusconi, Brigida; Gildersleeve, Heidi; Qi, Chao; McLaughlin, Milena; Scheetz, Marc H; Seshu, J; Eppinger, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a nosocomial pathogen of emerging importance and displays resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as carbapenems. Here, we report the genome sequences of five clinical K. pneumoniae isolates, four of which are carbapenem resistant. Carbapenem resistance is conferred by hydrolyzing class A β-lactamases found adjacent to transposases. PMID:26966211

  4. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  7. Hessian Fly-Associated Bacteria: Transmission, Essentiality, and Composition

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Raman; Hulbert, Scot; Schemerhorn, Brandi; Reese, John C.; Whitworth, R. Jeff; Stuart, Jeffrey J.; Chen, Ming-Shun

    2011-01-01

    Plant-feeding insects have been recently found to use microbes to manipulate host plant physiology and morphology. Gall midges are one of the largest groups of insects that manipulate host plants extensively. Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor) is an important pest of wheat and a model system for studying gall midges. To examine the role of bacteria in parasitism, a systematic analysis of bacteria associated with HF was performed for the first time. Diverse bacteria were found in different developmental HF stages. Fluorescent in situ hybridization detected a bacteriocyte-like structure in developing eggs. Bacterial DNA was also detected in eggs by PCR using primers targeted to different bacterial groups. These results indicated that HF hosted different types of bacteria that were maternally transmitted to the next generation. Eliminating bacteria from the insect with antibiotics resulted in high mortality of HF larvae, indicating that symbiotic bacteria are essential for the insect to survive on wheat seedlings. A preliminary survey identified various types of bacteria associated with different HF stages, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Ochrobactrum, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Nitrosomonas, Arcanobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, and Klebsiella. Similar bacteria were also found specifically in HF-infested susceptible wheat, suggesting that HF larvae had either transmitted bacteria into plant tissue or brought secondary infection of bacteria to the wheat host. The bacteria associated with wheat seedlings may play an essential role in the wheat-HF interaction. PMID:21858016

  8. Hessian fly-associated bacteria: transmission, essentiality, and composition.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Raman; Hulbert, Scot; Schemerhorn, Brandi; Reese, John C; Whitworth, R Jeff; Stuart, Jeffrey J; Chen, Ming-Shun

    2011-01-01

    Plant-feeding insects have been recently found to use microbes to manipulate host plant physiology and morphology. Gall midges are one of the largest groups of insects that manipulate host plants extensively. Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor) is an important pest of wheat and a model system for studying gall midges. To examine the role of bacteria in parasitism, a systematic analysis of bacteria associated with HF was performed for the first time. Diverse bacteria were found in different developmental HF stages. Fluorescent in situ hybridization detected a bacteriocyte-like structure in developing eggs. Bacterial DNA was also detected in eggs by PCR using primers targeted to different bacterial groups. These results indicated that HF hosted different types of bacteria that were maternally transmitted to the next generation. Eliminating bacteria from the insect with antibiotics resulted in high mortality of HF larvae, indicating that symbiotic bacteria are essential for the insect to survive on wheat seedlings. A preliminary survey identified various types of bacteria associated with different HF stages, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Ochrobactrum, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Nitrosomonas, Arcanobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, and Klebsiella. Similar bacteria were also found specifically in HF-infested susceptible wheat, suggesting that HF larvae had either transmitted bacteria into plant tissue or brought secondary infection of bacteria to the wheat host. The bacteria associated with wheat seedlings may play an essential role in the wheat-HF interaction. PMID:21858016

  9. [Enzymatic resistance to cefotaxime in 56 strains of Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. at a Tunisian hospital (1984-1988)].

    PubMed

    Ben Hassen, A; Fournier, G; Kechrid, A; Fendri, C; Ben Redjeb, S; Philippon, A

    1990-05-01

    The enzymatic and plasmid-encoded resistance towards oxyimino-beta-lactams has been recently reported as related to the production of an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (e.g. SHV-2, CTX-1 or TEM-3), in particular in our hospital since 1984. The prevalence of that resistance has been examined from January 1984 to December 1988 in function of specimen, unit and type of enzyme among 8,421 isolates of Klebsiella spp., E. coli, Salmonella spp. Each isolate showing a diameter of inhibition zone size inferior or equal to 25 mm for cefotaxime, the double disk synergy test was performed between a disk of amoxicillin and a clavulanic acid disk of cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and aztreonam. In case of synergy, sonicated extracts have been prepared and examined by isoelectrofocusing with the detection of beta-lactamase activity by ceftriaxone and nitrocefin. 56 isolates (K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, E. coli, S. wien, S. typhimurium scored positive including 27 in pediatrics, 18 in surgery, and 8 in medicine. 41% of isolates have been obtained from blood cultures and 26.8% from urines. A majority of isolates (49/56) produced the SHV-2 type, but other types mediating the resistance phenotype CTX have been individualized initially by their isoelectric points e.g. 5.4 (TEM-20 in K. pneumoniae in July 1986), 6.4 (TEM-21 in E. coli, 1 K. pneumoniae in July 1988). The prevalence of resistance to cefotaxime from 1984 to 1988 has increased (from 0.3 to 1.4%), the highest rate being observed in pediatrics (5.6% in 1984 and 22.1% in 1988). PMID:2195457

  10. Structure of a quinolone-stabilized cleavage complex of topoisomerase IV from Klebsiella pneumoniae and comparison with a related Streptococcus pneumoniae complex

    PubMed Central

    Veselkov, Dennis A.; Laponogov, Ivan; Pan, Xiao-Su; Selvarajah, Jogitha; Skamrova, Galyna B.; Branstrom, Arthur; Narasimhan, Jana; Prasad, Josyula V. N. Vara; Fisher, L. Mark; Sanderson, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium that is responsible for a range of common infections, including pulmonary pneumonia, bloodstream infections and meningitis. Certain strains of Klebsiella have become highly resistant to antibiotics. Despite the vast amount of research carried out on this class of bacteria, the molecular structure of its topoisomerase IV, a type II topoisomerase essential for catalysing chromosomal segregation, had remained unknown. In this paper, the structure of its DNA-cleavage complex is reported at 3.35 Å resolution. The complex is comprised of ParC breakage-reunion and ParE TOPRIM domains of K. pneumoniae topoisomerase IV with DNA stabilized by levofloxacin, a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent. This complex is compared with a similar complex from Streptococcus pneumoniae, which has recently been solved. PMID:27050128

  11. Structure of a quinolone-stabilized cleavage complex of topoisomerase IV from Klebsiella pneumoniae and comparison with a related Streptococcus pneumoniae complex.

    PubMed

    Veselkov, Dennis A; Laponogov, Ivan; Pan, Xiao Su; Selvarajah, Jogitha; Skamrova, Galyna B; Branstrom, Arthur; Narasimhan, Jana; Prasad, Josyula V N Vara; Fisher, L Mark; Sanderson, Mark R

    2016-04-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium that is responsible for a range of common infections, including pulmonary pneumonia, bloodstream infections and meningitis. Certain strains of Klebsiella have become highly resistant to antibiotics. Despite the vast amount of research carried out on this class of bacteria, the molecular structure of its topoisomerase IV, a type II topoisomerase essential for catalysing chromosomal segregation, had remained unknown. In this paper, the structure of its DNA-cleavage complex is reported at 3.35 Å resolution. The complex is comprised of ParC breakage-reunion and ParE TOPRIM domains of K. pneumoniae topoisomerase IV with DNA stabilized by levofloxacin, a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent. This complex is compared with a similar complex from Streptococcus pneumoniae, which has recently been solved. PMID:27050128

  12. Magnetic Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jane Bray; Nelson, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Describes the history of Richard Blakemore's discovery of magnetotaxic organisms. Discusses possible reasons why the magnetic response in bacteria developed. Proposes research experiments integrating biology and physics in which students investigate problems using cultures of magnetotaxic organisms. (MDH)

  13. Absence of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Klebsiella pneumoniae antigens within inflammatory bowel disease tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Walmsley, R S; Anthony, A; Sim, R; Pounder, R E; Wakefield, A J

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli, listeria, and streptococcal antigens have been found in Crohn's disease tissues. Antibodies to Klebsiella pneumoniae have been found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and ankylosing spondylitis. The presence of these bacterial antigens in Crohn's granulomas would be of aetiological interest, while their presence in ulcers alone would be more likely to indicate secondary infection. AIM: To investigate inflammatory bowel disease tissues for the presence of these bacteria. METHODS: Formalin fixed, paraffin processed sections from 53 patients (19 ulcerative colitis, 23 Crohn's disease; 11 normal tissues from cancer resections) were studied by immunohistochemistry. Control tissue consisted of normal human small bowel injected submucosally with either E coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis, or Klebsiella pneumoniae serotypes K2, 3, 17, 21, 26, 36, and 50, and colonic biopsies from a child with E coli 0114 infection. Tissues were stained by Gram-Twort, and with specific antibodies for E coli (Dako B357), L monocytogenes (Difco 2302-50), and K pneumoniae (Biogenesis 5580-5208) using an immunoperoxidase technique. RESULTS: Positive staining for E coli was observed on the luminal surface epithelium and in ulcers in 35% of Crohn's disease patients, 26% of ulcerative colitis patients, and no normal controls. Superficial staining for L monocytogenes was observed in one case of ulcerative colitis only. Staining for K pneumoniae was observed in one case of ulcerative colitis and one of Crohn's disease. No granulomas, giant cells, or germinal centres stained positively for any of the three bacterial antigens. CONCLUSIONS: These data do not support a primary role for E coli, L monocytogenes, and K pneumoniae in inflammatory bowel disease. The presence of E coli antigens in ulcers suggests secondary infection in these lesions. Images PMID:9930068

  14. Rapid Induction of High-Level Carbapenem Resistance in Heteroresistant KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Adams-Sapper, Sheila; Nolen, Shantell; Donzelli, Grace Fox; Lal, Mallika; Chen, Kunihiko; Justo da Silva, Livia Helena; Moreira, Beatriz M.

    2015-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae strains producing the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) have disseminated worldwide, causing an urgent threat to public health. KPC-producing strains often exhibit low-level carbapenem resistance, which may be missed by automated clinical detection systems. In this study, eight Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with heterogeneous resistance to imipenem were used to elucidate the factors leading from imipenem susceptibility to high-level resistance as defined by clinical laboratory testing standards. Time-kill analysis with an inoculum as low as 3 × 106 CFU/ml and concentrations of imipenem 8- and 16-fold higher than the MIC resulted in the initial killing of 99.9% of the population. However, full recovery of the population occurred by 20 h of incubation in the same drug concentrations. Population profiles showed that recovery was mediated by a heteroresistant subpopulation at a frequency of 2 × 10−7 to 3 × 10−6. Samples selected 2 h after exposure to imipenem were as susceptible as the unexposed parental strain and produced the major outer membrane porin OmpK36. However, between 4 to 8 h after exposure, OmpK36 became absent, and the imipenem MIC increased at least 32-fold. Individual colonies isolated from cultures after 20 h of exposure revealed both susceptible and resistant subpopulations. Once induced, however, the high-level imipenem resistance was maintained, and OmpK36 remained unexpressed even without continued carbapenem exposure. This study demonstrates the essential coordination between blaKPC and ompK36 expression mediating high-level imipenem resistance from a population of bacteria that initially exhibits a carbapenem-susceptibility phenotype. PMID:25801565

  15. Experimental phage therapy in treating Klebsiella pneumoniae-mediated liver abscesses and bacteremia in mice.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chih-Hsin; Kuo, Chih-Feng; Wang, Chiou-Huey; Wu, Ching-Ming; Tsao, Nina

    2011-04-01

    Intragastric inoculation of mice with Klebsiella pneumoniae can cause liver abscesses, necrosis of liver tissues, and bacteremia. A newly isolated phage (φNK5) with lytic activity for K. pneumoniae was used to treat K. pneumoniae infection in an intragastric model. Both intraperitoneal and intragastric administration of a single dose of φNK5 lower than 2 × 10(8) PFU at 30 min after K. pneumoniae infection was able to protect mice from death in a dose-dependent manner, but the efficacy achieved with a low dose of φNK5 by intragastric treatment provided the more significant protection. Phage φNK5 administered as late as 24 h after K. pneumoniae inoculation was still protective, while intraperitoneal treatment with phage was more efficient than intragastric treatment as a result of the dissemination of bacteria into the circulation at 24 h postinfection. Surveys of bacterial counts for mice treated with φNK5 by the intraperitoneal route revealed that the bacteria were eliminated effectively from both blood and liver tissue. K. pneumoniae-induced liver injury, such as liver necrosis, as well as blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and inflammatory cytokine production, was significantly inhibited by φNK5 treatment. These data suggest that a low dose of φNK5 is a potential therapeutic agent for K. pneumoniae-induced liver infection. PMID:21245450

  16. Inhibiting biofilm formation by Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055 using an iron antagonizing molecule and a bacteriophage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Success of biofilm dwelling bacteria in causing persistent and chronic infections is attributed to their resistance towards antibiotics and immune defences. Free iron is critical for the growth of biofilm associated bacteria. Therefore in the present study, the effect of limiting iron levels by addition of divalent Co[II] ions in combination with a bacteriophage was used for preventing/disrupting Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilms. Results A significantly higher reduction (p < 0.005) in bacterial numbers in the younger as well as older biofilms treated with Co[II] and depolymerase producing phage in combination was observed in comparison to when either of the agents was used alone. The role of phage borne depolymerase was confirmed, as an insignificant eradication of biofilm by non-depolymerase producing bacteriophage in combination with cobalt ions was observed. The results of viable count were further confirmed by visual examination of biofilms. Conclusion From the study it can be concluded, that iron antagonizing molecules and bacteriophages can be used as adjunct therapy for preventing biofilm development. PMID:23889975

  17. Metabolic Response to Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection in an Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fangcong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Lulu; Tang, Huiru; Li, Jieshou; Wang, Yulan

    2012-01-01

    Bacteremia, the presence of viable bacteria in the blood stream, is often associated with several clinical conditions. Bacteremia can lead to multiple organ failure if managed incorrectly, which makes providing suitable nutritional support vital for reducing bacteremia-associated mortality. In order to provide such information, we investigated the metabolic consequences of a Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) infection in vivo by employing a combination of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. K. pneumoniae was intravenously infused in rats; urine and plasma samples were collected at different time intervals. We found that K. pneumoniae-induced bacteremia stimulated glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle and also promoted oxidation of fatty acids and creatine phosphate to facilitate the energy-demanding host response. In addition, K. pneumoniae bacteremia also induced anti-endotoxin, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidization responses in the host. Furthermore, bacteremia could cause a disturbance in the gut microbiotal functions as suggested by alterations in a range of amines and bacteria-host co-metabolites. Our results suggest that supplementation with glucose and a high-fat and choline-rich diet could ameliorate the burdens associated with bacteremia. Our research provides underlying pathological processes of bacteremia and a better understanding of the clinical and biochemical manifestations of bacteremia. PMID:23226457

  18. Effect of subinihibitory and inhibitory concentrations of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng essential oil on Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Thially Braga; Braga, Milena Aguiar; de Oliveira, Francisco F M; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Carvalho, Cibele B M; Brito e Cabral, Paula; de Melo Santiago, Thiago; Sousa, Jeanlex S; Barros, Eduardo Bedê; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida T

    2012-08-15

    We evaluated the antimicrobial activity and some mechanisms used by subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil, obtained from leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus, against a standard strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 5 multiresistant clinical isolates of the bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), the rate of kill and the pH sensitivity of the essential oil were determined by microdilution tests performed in 96-well plates. Subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil were tested in order to check its action on K. pneumoniae membrane permeability, capsule expression, urease activity and cell morphology. The MIC and MBC of the essential oil were 0.09±0.01%. A complete inhibition of the bacterial growth was observed after 2 h of incubation with twice the MIC of the essential oil. A better MIC was found when neutral or alkaline pH broth was used. Alteration in membrane permeability was found by the increase of crystal violet uptake when the bacteria were incubated with twice the MIC levels of the essential oil. The urease activity could be prevented when all the subinhibitory concentrations were tested in comparison to the untreated group (p<0.001). Alteration of the bacterial morphology besides inhibition of the capsule expression was verified by atomic force microscopy, and Anthony's stain method, respectively. Our data allow us to conclude that the essential oil of P. amboinicus can be a good candidate for future research. PMID:22776104

  19. Free versus liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamide in treatment of experimental Klebsiella pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed Central

    Melissen, P M; van Vianen, W; Rijsbergen, Y; Bakker-Woudenberg, I A

    1992-01-01

    The effect of free and liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamide (MTPPE) on resistance to Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in mice was investigated. It was shown that administration of MTPPE, at 24 h before bacterial inoculation, led to a dose-dependent antibacterial resistance in terms of increased clearance of bacteria from the blood and bacterial killing in various organs. The lowest effective dose of MTPPE was 50 micrograms per mouse. Administration of liposome-encapsulated MTPPE was also effective at a dose of 25 micrograms per mouse. The time of administration of both free and liposome-encapsulated MTPPE, with respect to the appearance of bacteria in the blood, was very important and indicated that repeated administration is necessary to obtain protection for a prolonged period. In view of the toxicity of MTPPE, it was an important observation that repeated administration of MTPPE in the liposome-encapsulated form also produced antibacterial resistance. Administration of free and liposome-encapsulated MTPPE resulted in increased numbers of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes in the blood of uninfected mice and prevented leukopenia in infected mice. PMID:1729201

  20. Medicinal smoke reduces airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nene, Yeshwant Laxman

    2007-12-01

    This study represents a comprehensive analysis and scientific validation of our ancient knowledge about the effect of ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care on airborne bacterial composition and dynamics, using the Biolog microplate panels and Microlog database. We have observed that 1h treatment of medicinal smoke emanated by burning wood and a mixture of odoriferous and medicinal herbs (havan sámagri=material used in oblation to fire all over India), on aerial bacterial population caused over 94% reduction of bacterial counts by 60 min and the ability of the smoke to purify or disinfect the air and to make the environment cleaner was maintained up to 24h in the closed room. Absence of pathogenic bacteria Corynebacterium urealyticum, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter aerogenes (Klebsiella mobilis), Kocuria rosea, Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. tardicrescens in the open room even after 30 days is indicative of the bactericidal potential of the medicinal smoke treatment. We have demonstrated that using medicinal smoke it is possible to completely eliminate diverse plant and human pathogenic bacteria of the air within confined space. PMID:17913417

  1. Bioflocculant produced by Klebsiella sp. MYC and its application in the treatment of oil-field produced water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Lixi; Ma, Chunling; Chi, Zhenming

    2006-10-01

    Seventy-nine strains of bioflocculant-producing bacteria were isolated from 3 activated sludge samples. Among them, strain MYC was found to have the highest and stable flocculating rate for both kaolin clay suspension and oil-field produced water. The bacterial strain was identified as Klebsiella sp. MYC according to its morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16SrDNA sequence. The optimal medium for bioflocculant production by this bacterial strain was composed of cane sugar 20gL-1 KH2PO4 2g L-1, K2HPO45gL-1, (NH4)2SO4 0.2gL-1, urea 0.5 gL-1 and yeast extract 0.5 gL-1, the initial pH being 5.5. When the suspension of kaolin clay was treated with 0.5% of Klebsiella sp. MYC culture broth, the flocculating rate reached more than 90.0% in the presence of 500mgL1 CaCl2, while the flocculating rate for oil-field produced water was near 80.0% in a pH range of 7.0-9.0 with the separation of oil and suspended particles from the oil-field produced water under similar conditions. The environment-friendly nature of the bioflocculant and high flocculating rate of the strain make the bioflocculant produced by Klebsiella sp. MYC an attractive bioflocculant in oil-field produced water treatment.

  2. Comparative effects of carbapenems on bacterial load and host immune response in a Klebsiella pneumoniae murine pneumonia model.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, Jamese J; Melton, John L; Hall, LeRoy; Abbanat, Darren; Fernandez, Jeffrey; Ward, Christine K; Bunting, Rachel A; Barron, A; Lynch, A Simon; Flamm, Robert K

    2011-02-01

    Doripenem is a carbapenem with potent broad-spectrum activity against Gram-negative pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. As the incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacilli is increasing, it was of interest to examine the in vivo comparative efficacy of doripenem, imipenem, and meropenem against a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate expressing the TEM-26 ESBL enzyme. In a murine lethal lower respiratory infection model, doripenem reduced the Klebsiella lung burden by 2 log(10) CFU/g lung tissue over the first 48 h of the infection. Treatment of mice with meropenem or imipenem yielded reductions of approximately 1.5 log(10) CFU/g during this time period. Seven days postinfection, Klebsiella titers in the lungs of treated mice decreased an additional 2 log(10) CFU/g relative to those in the lungs of untreated control animals. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin release assays indicated that 6 h postinfection, meropenem- and imipenem-treated animals had 10-fold more endotoxin in lung homogenates and sera than doripenem-treated mice. Following doripenem treatment, the maximum endotoxin release postinfection (6 h) was 53,000 endotoxin units (EU)/ml, which was 2.7- and 6-fold lower than imipenem or meropenem-treated animals, respectively. While the levels of several proinflammatory cytokines increased in both the lungs and sera following intranasal K. pneumoniae inoculation, doripenem treatment, but not meropenem or imipenem treatment, resulted in significantly increased interleukin 6 levels in lung homogenates relative to those in lung homogenates of untreated controls, which may contribute to enhanced neutrophil killing of bacteria in the lung. Histological examination of tissue sections indicated less overall inflammation and tissue damage in doripenem-treated mice, consistent with improved antibacterial efficacy, reduced LPS endotoxin release, and the observed cytokine induction profile. PMID:21135187

  3. Methanotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, R S; Hanson, T E

    1996-01-01

    Methane-utilizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria that are related to other members of the Proteobacteria. These bacteria are classified into three groups based on the pathways used for assimilation of formaldehyde, the major source of cell carbon, and other physiological and morphological features. The type I and type X methanotrophs are found within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria and employ the ribulose monophosphate pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, whereas type II methanotrophs, which employ the serine pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, form a coherent cluster within the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Methanotrophic bacteria are ubiquitous. The growth of type II bacteria appears to be favored in environments that contain relatively high levels of methane, low levels of dissolved oxygen, and limiting concentrations of combined nitrogen and/or copper. Type I methanotrophs appear to be dominant in environments in which methane is limiting and combined nitrogen and copper levels are relatively high. These bacteria serve as biofilters for the oxidation of methane produced in anaerobic environments, and when oxygen is present in soils, atmospheric methane is oxidized. Their activities in nature are greatly influenced by agricultural practices and other human activities. Recent evidence indicates that naturally occurring, uncultured methanotrophs represent new genera. Methanotrophs that are capable of oxidizing methane at atmospheric levels exhibit methane oxidation kinetics different from those of methanotrophs available in pure cultures. A limited number of methanotrophs have the genetic capacity to synthesize a soluble methane monooxygenase which catalyzes the rapid oxidation of environmental pollutants including trichloroethylene. PMID:8801441

  4. [Extended spectrum beta-lactamases in Danish Klebsiella isolates].

    PubMed

    Hansen, D S; Sirot, D; Kolmos, H J

    1998-04-01

    This study presents the first two cases of infections with Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended spectrum betalactamases (ESBL) that have been recorded in Denmark. They presented as a urinary tract infection and a generalized infection in a patient admitted to an intensive care unit. Both patients had been treated with broad spectrum antibiotics prior to infection. Presumably, one of the strains had been imported from Turkey. The ESBL of the two strains were characterized as SHV-2 and SHV-5, respectively. Patients transferred from hospitals abroad should be screened for Klebsiella producing ESBL, in addition to MRSA and other multiresistant organisms. A restrictive antibiotic policy and strict hygienic precautions are essential measures to control the selection and spread of such organisms in the hospital environment. PMID:9599523

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Klebsiella variicola Plant Isolates.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Silva-Sanchez, Jesús; Barrios, Humberto; Rodríguez-Medina, Nadia; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesús; Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Gómez-Barreto, Rosa Elena; Garza-Ramos, Ulises

    2015-01-01

    Three endophytic Klebsiella variicola isolates-T29A, 3, and 6A2, obtained from sugar cane stem, maize shoots, and banana leaves, respectively-were used for whole-genome sequencing. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of circular chromosomes and plasmids. The genomes contain plant colonization and cellulases genes. This study will help toward understanding the genomic basis of K. variicola interaction with plant hosts. PMID:26358599

  6. Limiting and controlling carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Borer, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is resistant to almost all antimicrobial agents, is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, and poses a serious threat to public health. The ongoing worldwide spread of this pathogen emphasizes the need for immediate intervention. This article reviews the global spread and risk factors for CRKP colonization/infection, and provides an overview of the strategy to combat CRKP dissemination. PMID:24353433

  7. Isolation and characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae unencapsulated mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Benedi, V.J.; Ciurana, B.; Tomas, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants were obtained after UV irradiation and negative selection with anticapsular serum. Unencapsulation, rather than expression of a structurally altered capsule, was found in the mutants. The mutant strains showed no alterations in their outer membrane proteins and lipopolysaccharide, and a great similarity with the wild type in the properties tested (serum resistance, antimicrobial sensitivity, and lipopolysaccharide-specific bacteriophage sensitivity), with the exception of a higher cell surface hydrophobicity and resistance to bacteriophage FC3-9.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae YH43

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae strain YH43, isolated from sweet potato. The genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 5,520,319 bp in length. It carries 8 copies of rRNA operons, 86 tRNA genes, 5,154 protein-coding genes, and the nif gene cluster for nitrogen fixation. PMID:27081127

  9. Isolation and characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae unencapsulated mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Benedí, V J; Ciurana, B; Tomás, J M

    1989-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants were obtained after UV irradiation and negative selection with anticapsular serum. Unencapsulation, rather than expression of a structurally altered capsule, was found in the mutants. The mutant strains showed no alterations in their outer membrane proteins and lipopolysaccharide, and a great similarity with the wild type in the properties tested (serum resistance, antimicrobial sensitivity, and lipopolysaccharide-specific bacteriophage sensitivity), with the exception of a higher cell surface hydrophobicity and resistance to bacteriophage FC3-9. Images PMID:2643625

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Klebsiella variicola Plant Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Silva-Sanchez, Jesús; Barrios, Humberto; Rodríguez-Medina, Nadia; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesús; Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Gómez-Barreto, Rosa Elena

    2015-01-01

    Three endophytic Klebsiella variicola isolates—T29A, 3, and 6A2, obtained from sugar cane stem, maize shoots, and banana leaves, respectively—were used for whole-genome sequencing. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of circular chromosomes and plasmids. The genomes contain plant colonization and cellulases genes. This study will help toward understanding the genomic basis of K. variicola interaction with plant hosts. PMID:26358599

  11. Infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Freire, M P; Pierrotti, L C; Filho, H H C; Ibrahim, K Y; Magri, A S G K; Bonazzi, P R; Hajar, L; Diz, M P E; Pereira, J; Hoff, P M; Abdala, E

    2015-02-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) is an emergent pathogen in healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The aim of this study was to describe HAIs due to KPC-Kp, as well as identify mortality risk factors in cancer patients. In patients diagnosed with HAIs due to KPC-Kp between January 2009 and July 2013, we evaluated only the first infection episode of each patient, analyzing mortality separately for patients treated for ≥48 h with at least one antimicrobial agent proven to display in vitro activity against KPC-Kp. We evaluated variables related to the malignancy, the severity and characteristics of the HAI, and the antimicrobial therapy. We identified 83 HAIs due to KPC-Kp. The 30-day mortality was 57.8 % for all infections and 72.7 % for bacteremic infections. Of the 83 patients, 60 patients received ≥48 h of appropriate treatment and 44 (53 %) developed bacteremia. Ten patients (12 %) were neutropenic at HAI diagnosis and 33 (39.8 %) had infection at the tumor site. The most common HAI was urinary tract infection, seen in 26 patients (31.3 %), followed by primary bloodstream infection, seen in 24 patients (28.9 %). Forty-four patients (73.3 %) received combination antimicrobial therapy, most often including polymyxin (68.3 %). Risk factors for 30-day mortality are high sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, need for intensive care stay at diagnosis of infection, and acute kidney injury; the removal of invasive devices related to infection and treatment with effective antibiotics for KPC-Kp are protective factors. In cancer patients, high mortality is associated with HAI due to KPC-Kp and mortality risk factors are more often related to acute infection than to the underlying disease. PMID:25169967

  12. A hospital epidemic caused by gentamicin-resistant Klebsiella aerogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Curie, K.; Speller, D. C.; Simpson, R. A.; Stephens, M.; Cooke, D. I.

    1978-01-01

    In the 15 months, February 1976 to April 1977, more than 241 patients became colonized with a strain of Klebsiella aerogenes, capsular serotype K2, resistant to most antibiotics. Urinary tract infection was the most common clinical manifestation but bacteraemia and, occasionally, infections of other sites were encountered. The main reservoir of the epidemic klebsiella was the gut, urine and skin of colonized patients. Gut carriage among staff was very uncommon. The most susceptible patients were elderly males, with debilitating illnesses and urinary tract abnormalities, especially if they were catheterized or receiving antibiotics. Likely vehicles for spread were the hands of staff, and contaminated bedpans and urinals. Control measures were directed at these factors. At the end of April 1977 no new cases had occurred for 3 months in the ward in which the outbreak began, and which had been the main focus of infection, and only 5 patients in the affected hospitals were known to be colonized by the epidemic klebsiella. PMID:340580

  13. Ankylosing spondylitis, HLA-B27, and Klebsiella: a study of lymphocyte reactivity of anti-Klebsiella sera.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, B; Milton, J D; Woodrow, J C

    1986-01-01

    Twenty three anti-Klebsiella antisera were tested for their cytotoxic activity and four for their binding capacity for peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from patients with HLA-B27 positive ankylosing spondylitis (AS+B27+) and from B27 positive (AS-B27+) and B27 negative (AS-B27-) healthy individuals. None of the antisera showed specific activity against PBL from any particular group. The antisera tested included two anti-Klebsiella K43 sera provided by an Australian group, who have reported them to be specifically cytotoxic for AS+B27+ PBL, four antisera raised against a Klebsiella K43 strain provided by this group, and an antiserum from another group, who have reported it as having increased binding capacity for AS+B27+ and AS-B27+ PBL compared with AS-B27- PBL. The results of other workers who have attempted to reproduce the results of either group are reviewed and the possible reasons for the repeated failure to confirm the reported findings are discussed. PMID:3485408

  14. Containment of carbapenem resistance rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii in a Greek hospital with a concomitant increase in colistin, gentamicin and tigecycline resistance.

    PubMed

    Meletis, Georgios; Oustas, Efstathios; Botziori, Christina; Kakasi, Eleni; Koteli, Asimoula

    2015-07-01

    In 2010 the Hellenic center for disease control and prevention launched the "Prokroustes" nationwide action plan to tackle the increasing rates of carbapenem resistance among gram-negative nosocomial pathogens. In the present report, data from a Greek tertiary-care hospital are presented three years after the adoption of the infection control measures. Carbapenem resistance rates have been contained for Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii but not for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. More worryingly, in accordance with their overuse against carbapenem-resistant bacteria, resistance rates to colistin and tigecycline have risen significantly. PMID:26147150

  15. Bacteria Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Science Applications, Inc.'s ATP Photometer makes a rapid and accurate count of the bacteria in a body fluid sample. Instrument provides information on the presence and quantity of bacteria by measuring the amount of light emitted by the reaction between two substances. Substances are ATP adenosine triphosphate and luciferase. The reactants are applied to a human body sample and the ATP Photometer observes the intensity of the light emitted displaying its findings in a numerical output. Total time lapse is usually less than 10 minutes, which represents a significant time savings in comparison of other techniques. Other applications are measuring organisms in fresh and ocean waters, determining bacterial contamination of foodstuffs, biological process control in the beverage industry, and in assay of activated sewage sludge.

  16. Tolerance of Anaerobic Bacteria to Chlorinated Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Joanna C.; Groissmeier, Kathrin D.; Manefield, Mike J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of four chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), perchloroethene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), chloroform (CF) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), on the growth of eight anaerobic bacteria: four fermentative species (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Clostridium sp. and Paenibacillus sp.) and four respiring species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Geobacter sulfurreducens, Shewanella oneidensis and Desulfovibrio vulgaris). Effective concentrations of solvents which inhibited growth rates by 50% (EC50) were determined. The octanol-water partition coefficient or log Po/w of a CAH proved a generally satisfactory measure of its toxicity. Most species tolerated approximately 3-fold and 10-fold higher concentrations of the two relatively more polar CAHs CF and 1,2-DCA, respectively, than the two relatively less polar compounds PCE and CT. EC50 values correlated well with growth rates observed in solvent-free cultures, with fast-growing organisms displaying higher tolerance levels. Overall, fermentative bacteria were more tolerant to CAHs than respiring species, with iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in particular appearing highly sensitive to CAHs. These data extend the current understanding of the impact of CAHs on a range of anaerobic bacteria, which will benefit the field of bioremediation. PMID:24441515

  17. Endocarditis Due to Rare and Fastidious Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Brouqui, P.; Raoult, D.

    2001-01-01

    The etiologic diagnosis of infective endocarditis is easily made in the presence of continuous bacteremia with gram-positive cocci. However, the blood culture may contain a bacterium rarely associated with endocarditis, such as Lactobacillus spp., Klebsiella spp., or nontoxigenic Corynebacterium, Salmonella, Gemella, Campylobacter, Aeromonas, Yersinia, Nocardia, Pasteurella, Listeria, or Erysipelothrix spp., that requires further investigation to establish the relationship with endocarditis, or the blood culture may be uninformative despite a supportive clinical evaluation. In the latter case, the etiologic agents are either fastidious extracellular or intracellular bacteria. Fastidious extracellular bacteria such as Abiotrophia, HACEK group bacteria, Clostridium, Brucella, Legionella, Mycobacterium, and Bartonella spp. need supplemented media, prolonged incubation time, and special culture conditions. Intracellular bacteria such as Coxiella burnetii cannot be isolated routinely. The two most prevalent etiologic agents of culture-negative endocarditis are C. burnetti and Bartonella spp. Their diagnosis is usually carried out serologically. A systemic pathologic examination of excised heart valves including periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and molecular methods has allowed the identification of Whipple's bacillus endocarditis. Pathologic examination of the valve using special staining, such as Warthin-Starry, Gimenez, and PAS, and broad-spectrum PCR should be performed systematically when no etiologic diagnosis is evident through routine laboratory evaluation. PMID:11148009

  18. Tolerance of anaerobic bacteria to chlorinated solvents.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Joanna C; Groissmeier, Kathrin D; Manefield, Mike J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of four chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), perchloroethene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), chloroform (CF) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), on the growth of eight anaerobic bacteria: four fermentative species (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Clostridium sp. and Paenibacillus sp.) and four respiring species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Geobacter sulfurreducens, Shewanella oneidensis and Desulfovibrio vulgaris). Effective concentrations of solvents which inhibited growth rates by 50% (EC50) were determined. The octanol-water partition coefficient or log Po/w of a CAH proved a generally satisfactory measure of its toxicity. Most species tolerated approximately 3-fold and 10-fold higher concentrations of the two relatively more polar CAHs CF and 1,2-DCA, respectively, than the two relatively less polar compounds PCE and CT. EC50 values correlated well with growth rates observed in solvent-free cultures, with fast-growing organisms displaying higher tolerance levels. Overall, fermentative bacteria were more tolerant to CAHs than respiring species, with iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in particular appearing highly sensitive to CAHs. These data extend the current understanding of the impact of CAHs on a range of anaerobic bacteria, which will benefit the field of bioremediation. PMID:24441515

  19. [Microbiological characteristics and detection of capsular forms of bacteria of the intestinal group in confectionery produced at the candy-chocolate factories].

    PubMed

    Kuvaeva, I B; Troshina, M Iu

    1988-01-01

    Five types of confectionery and its semifinished products were investigated for contamination with Klebsiella, mesophilic aerobic and elective anaerobic, coliform bacteria, E. coli, etc. after a long-term storage. E. coli and St. aureus were not detected after inoculation on 1 g of the product; mold fungi were identified only in singular samples, their level did not exceed 20 CFU/g; the level of mesophilic aerobic and elective anaerobic bacteria varied from several hundreds to 3000-5500 CFU/g; coliform bacteria were identified in the amounts from 11 to 100 CFU/g. The identification of coliform bacteria has evidenced the presence of Enterobacter aerogenes and Kl. pneumoniae in the products investigated. Klebsiella were detected in 28-30% of the samples analyzed, their level did not exceed 100 CFU/g. The authors have proved the necessity of microbiological control of starting material, semifinished and finished confectionery products for the above bacteria. PMID:3232341

  20. Antibiofilm efficacy of silver nanoparticles against biofilm of extended spectrum β-lactamase isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Mohammad Azam; Khan, Haris M.; Khan, Aijaz A.; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Pal, Ruchita

    2014-10-01

    The ability of bacteria to develop antibiotic resistance and colonize abiotic surfaces by forming biofilms is a major cause of medical implant-associated infections and results in prolonged hospitalization periods and patient mortality. Different approaches have been used for preventing biofilm-related infections in health care settings. Many of these methods have their own demerits that include chemical-based complications; emergent antibiotic-resistant strains, and so on. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are renowned for their influential antimicrobial activity. We demonstrate the biofilm formation by extended spectrum β-lactamases-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. by direct visualization applying tissue culture plate, tube, and Congo red agar methods. Double fluorescent staining for confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) consisted of propidium iodide staining to detect bacterial cells and concanavalin A-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining to detect the exopolysaccharides matrix were used. Scanning electron microscopy observations clearly indicate that AgNPs reduced the surface coverage by E. coli and Klebsiella spp. thus prevent the biofilm formations. Double-staining technique using CLSM provides the visual evidence that AgNPs arrested the bacterial growth and prevent the exopolysaccharides formation. The AgNPs-coated surfaces effectively restricted biofilm formation of the tested bacteria. In our study, we could demonstrate the complete antibiofilm activity AgNPs at a concentration as low as 50 μg/ml. Our findings suggested that AgNPs can be exploited towards the development of potential antibacterial coatings for various biomedical and environmental applications. These formulations can be used for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections caused by biofilms, at much lower nanosilver loading with higher efficiency.

  1. Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae-bacteriophage combination from the caecal effluent of a healthy woman.

    PubMed

    Hoyles, Lesley; Murphy, James; Neve, Horst; Heller, Knut J; Turton, Jane F; Mahony, Jennifer; Sanderson, Jeremy D; Hudspith, Barry; Gibson, Glenn R; McCartney, Anne L; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2015-01-01

    A sample of caecal effluent was obtained from a female patient who had undergone a routine colonoscopic examination. Bacteria were isolated anaerobically from the sample, and screened against the remaining filtered caecal effluent in an attempt to isolate bacteriophages (phages). A lytic phage, named KLPN1, was isolated on a strain identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (capsular type K2, rmpA (+)). This Siphoviridae phage presents a rosette-like tail tip and exhibits depolymerase activity, as demonstrated by the formation of plaque-surrounding haloes that increased in size over the course of incubation. When screened against a panel of clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, phage KLPN1 was shown to infect and lyse capsular type K2 strains, though it did not exhibit depolymerase activity on such hosts. The genome of KLPN1 was determined to be 49,037 bp (50.53 %GC) in length, encompassing 73 predicted ORFs, of which 23 represented genes associated with structure, host recognition, packaging, DNA replication and cell lysis. On the basis of sequence analyses, phages KLPN1 (GenBank: KR262148) and 1513 (a member of the family Siphoviridae, GenBank: KP658157) were found to be two new members of the genus "Kp36likevirus." PMID:26246963

  2. Structural changes induced by a lytic bacteriophage make ciprofloxacin effective against older biofilm of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vivek; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2010-08-01

    Bacteria have evolved multiple mechanisms, such as biofilm formation, to thwart antibiotic action. Yet antibiotics remain the drug of choice against clinical infections. It has been documented that young biofilm of Klebsiella pneumoniae could be eradicated significantly by ciprofloxacin treatment alone. Since age of biofilm is a decisive factor in determining the outcome of antibiotic treatment, in the present study biofilm of K. pneumoniae, grown for extended periods was treated with ciprofloxacin and/or depolymerase producing lytic bacteriophage (KPO1K2). The reduction in bacterial numbers of older biofilm was greater after application of the two agents in combination as ciprofloxacin alone could not reduce bacterial biomass significantly in older biofilms (P > 0.05). Confocal microscopy suggested the induction of structural changes in the biofilm matrix and a decrease in micro-colony size after KPO1K2 treatment. The role of phage associated depolymerase was emphasized by the insignificant eradication of biofilm by a non-depolymerase producing bacteriophage that, however, eradicated the biofilm when applied concomitantly with purified depolymerase. These findings demonstrate that a lytic bacteriophage alone can eradicate older biofilms significantly and its action is primarily depolymerase mediated. However, application of phage and antibiotic in combination resulted in slightly increased biofilm eradication confirming the speculation that antibiotic efficacy can be augmented by bacteriophage. PMID:20711894

  3. Therapeutic potential of bacteriophage in treating Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055-mediated lobar pneumonia in mice.

    PubMed

    Chhibber, Sanjay; Kaur, Sandeep; Kumari, Seema

    2008-12-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae causes infections in humans especially in immunocompromised patients. About 80 % of nosocomial infections caused by K. pneumoniae are due to multidrug-resistant strains. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains necessitates the exploration of alternative antibacterial therapies, which led our group to study the ability of bacterial viruses (known as bacteriophages or simply phages) to treat mice challenged with K. pneumoniae. Phage SS specific for K. pneumoniae B5055 was isolated and characterized, and its potential as a therapeutic agent was evaluated in an experimental model of K. pneumoniae-mediated lobar pneumonia in mice. Mice were challenged by intranasal (i.n.) inoculation with bacteria (10(8) c.f.u. ml(-1)). A single intraperitoneal injection of 10(10) p.f.u. ml(-1) phage administered immediately after i.n. challenge was sufficient to rescue 100 % of animals from K. pneumoniae-mediated respiratory infections. Administration of the phage preparation 3 h prior to i.n. bacterial challenge provided significant protection in infected mice, while even 6 h delay of phage administration after the induction of infection rendered the phage treatment ineffective. The results of this study therefore suggest that the timing of starting the phage therapy after initiation of infection significantly contributes towards the success of the treatment. PMID:19018021

  4. Evidences of gentamicin resistance amplification in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from faeces of hospitalized newborns.

    PubMed

    Barros, J C; Pinheiro, S R; Bozza, M; Gueiros-Filho, F J; Bello, A R; Lopes, U G; Pereira, J A

    1999-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota, a barrier to the establishment of pathogenic bacteria, is also an important reservoir of opportunistic pathogens. It plays a key role in the process of resistance-genes dissemination, commonly carried by specialized genetic elements, like plasmids, phages, and conjugative transposons. We obtained from strains of enterobacteria, isolated from faeces of newborns in a university hospital nursery, indication of phenotypical gentamicin resistance amplification (frequencies of 10(-3) to 10(-5), compatible with transposition frequencies). Southern blotting assays showed strong hybridization signals for both plasmidial and chromosomal regions in DNA extracted from variants selected at high gentamicin concentrations, using as a probe a labeled cloned insert containing aminoglycoside modifying enzyme (AME) gene sequence originated from a plasmid of a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain previously isolated in the same hospital. Further, we found indications of inactivation to other resistance genes in variants selected under similar conditions, as well as, indications of co-amplification of other AME markers (amikacin). Since the intestinal environment is a scenario of selective processes due to the therapeutic and prophylactic use of antimicrobial agents, the processes of amplification of low level antimicrobial resistance (not usually detected or sought by common methods used for antibiotic resistance surveillance) might compromise the effectiveness of antibiotic chemotherapy. PMID:10585658

  5. Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae–bacteriophage combination from the caecal effluent of a healthy woman

    PubMed Central

    Neve, Horst; Heller, Knut J.; Turton, Jane F.; Mahony, Jennifer; Sanderson, Jeremy D.; Hudspith, Barry; Gibson, Glenn R.; McCartney, Anne L.

    2015-01-01

    A sample of caecal effluent was obtained from a female patient who had undergone a routine colonoscopic examination. Bacteria were isolated anaerobically from the sample, and screened against the remaining filtered caecal effluent in an attempt to isolate bacteriophages (phages). A lytic phage, named KLPN1, was isolated on a strain identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (capsular type K2, rmpA+). This Siphoviridae phage presents a rosette-like tail tip and exhibits depolymerase activity, as demonstrated by the formation of plaque-surrounding haloes that increased in size over the course of incubation. When screened against a panel of clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, phage KLPN1 was shown to infect and lyse capsular type K2 strains, though it did not exhibit depolymerase activity on such hosts. The genome of KLPN1 was determined to be 49,037 bp (50.53 %GC) in length, encompassing 73 predicted ORFs, of which 23 represented genes associated with structure, host recognition, packaging, DNA replication and cell lysis. On the basis of sequence analyses, phages KLPN1 (GenBank: KR262148) and 1513 (a member of the family Siphoviridae, GenBank: KP658157) were found to be two new members of the genus “Kp36likevirus.” PMID:26246963

  6. Electricity generation from glucose by a Klebsiella sp. in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xue; Cao, Xiao-xin; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia; Yang, Su-ping; Zhao, Gen-gui

    2010-06-01

    As electrochemically active bacteria play an important role in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), it is necessary to get a comprehensive understanding of their electrogenesis mechanisms. In this study, a new electrochemically active bacterium, Klebsiella sp. ME17, was employed into an "H" typed MFC for electrogenesis, with glucose as the electron donor. The maximum power density was 1,209 mW/m2 at a resistance of 340 Omega and the maximum current was 1.47 mA. Given the original anode medium, fresh medium, and the supernatant of the anode medium in the same MFC, respectively, the polarization curves illustrated that the strain produced mediators to promote extracellular electron transfer. The anode medium supernatant was electrochemically active, based on cyclic voltammogram, and the supernatant was very likely to contain quinone-like substances, as indicated by spectrophotometric and excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy analysis. Further investigation on the color and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm of the filtered anode medium showed that the redox states of mediators strongly associated with the electricity generation states in MFCs. PMID:20419297

  7. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates producing KPC-2 carbapenemase in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones, D; Hart, M; Espinosa, F; Garcia, S; Carmona, Y; Ghosh, S; Urushibara, N; Kawaguchiya, M; Kobayashi, N

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing carbapenemase (KPC) has now become a global concern. As a part of a nationwide multicentre surveillance study in Cuba, three K. pneumoniae clinical isolates resistant to carbapenems were detected for a 1-month period (September to October 2011). PCR and sequence analysis revealed that the three strains harboured blaKPC-2. They showed resistance or intermediate susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, other β-lactams, a β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination, and gentamicin. Two strains were susceptible only to colistin, whereas the other strain showing colistin resistance was susceptible to fluoroquinolones. These blaKPC-2-positive K. pneumoniae strains were classified into ST1271 (CC29), a novel clone harbouring blaKPC-2, and were revealed to be genetically identical by PCR-based DNA fingerprinting. The three patients infected with the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae had common risk factors, and had no overseas travel experience outside Cuba, suggesting local acquisition of the resistant pathogen. This is the first report of a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Cuba. Although detection of KPC in Enterobacteriaceae is still rare in Cuba, our finding indicated that KPC-producing bacteria are a global concern and highlighted the need to identify these microorganisms in clinical laboratories. PMID:25356357

  8. Inhibitory potential of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) colostrum immunoglobulin G on Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    L S, Mamatha Bhanu; Nishimura, S-I; H S, Aparna

    2016-07-01

    The unique components of colostrum like free oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates are known to offer resistance to enzymatic digestion in the gastrointestinal tract and have the ability to inhibit the localized adherence of enteropathogens to the digestive tract of the neonates. In this context, we have evaluated the in vitro effect of buffalo colostrum immunoglobulin G on human pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae, a predominant multidrug resistant pathogen associated with nasocomial infections. The investigation revealed growth inhibitory potential of immunoglobulin G in a dose dependent manner supported by scanning electron microscopic studies. The N-glycan enriched fraction of immunoglobulin G after PNGase treatment was found more effective, comparable to ampicillin than native immunoglobulin G supporting the fact that colostrum derived oligosaccharides is crucial and act as ideal substrates for undesirable and pathogenic bacteria. The MALDI TOF/TOF analysis confirmed the glycostructures of abundant N-glycans of immunoglobulin G exerting antibacterial activity. The proteomic analysis revealed variations between control and treated cells and expression of chemotaxis-CheY protein (14kDa) was evidenced in response to immunoglobulin G treatment. Hence, it would be interesting to investigate the mode of inhibition of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae by buffalo colostrum immunoglobulin G with the identification of a newly expressed signalling protein. PMID:27017977

  9. Growth and heavy metal removal by Klebsiella aerogenes at different pH and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Shahwani, M.F.; Jazrawi, S.F.; Al-Rawi, E.H.; Ayar, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    A strain of Klebsiella aerogenes isolated from Rustamiyah Station for treatment of wastewater was examined for its ability to grow in a media supplemented with maximum tolerance concentrations of Pb/sup + +/, Zn/sup + +/, Ni/sup + +/, and Cd/sup + +/, separately, at different temperatures and initial pH. The results indicated that at 28/sup 0/C during the first 24 hr, Pb/sup + +/ and Ni/sup + +/ had no effect on the growth of the bacteria, while the presence of Zn/sup + +/ and Cd/sup + +/ decreased the cell count. The growth reached a maximum level after the second day and started to decrease gradually. The bacterial count at 37/sup 0/C was less than that at 28/sup 0/C. No bacterial multiplication occurred at 44/sup 0/C. There was little difference between heavy metal removal at 28 and 37/sup 0/C. At 44/sup 0/C, little removal took place. In general, slightly acidic or neutral medium was better for both bacterial growth and metal removal.

  10. Molecular dissection of the evolution of carbapenem-resistant multilocus sequence type 258 Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    DeLeo, Frank R.; Chen, Liang; Porcella, Stephen F.; Martens, Craig A.; Kobayashi, Scott D.; Porter, Adeline R.; Chavda, Kalyan D.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Mathema, Barun; Olsen, Randall J.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Musser, James M.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are a major problem worldwide. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, most notably isolates classified as multilocus sequence type (ST) 258, have emerged as an important cause of hospital deaths. ST258 isolates are predominantly multidrug resistant, and therefore infections caused by them are difficult to treat. It is not known why the ST258 lineage is the most prevalent cause of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae infections in the United States and other countries. Here we tested the hypothesis that carbapenem-resistant ST258 K. pneumoniae is a single genetic clone that has disseminated worldwide. We sequenced to closure the genomes of two ST258 clinical isolates and used these genomes as references for comparative genome sequencing of 83 additional clinical isolates recovered from patients at diverse geographic locations worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis of the SNPs in the core genome of these isolates revealed that ST258 K. pneumoniae organisms are two distinct genetic clades. This unexpected finding disproves the single-clone hypothesis. Notably, genetic differentiation between the two clades results from an ?215-kb region of divergence that includes genes involved in capsule polysaccharide biosynthesis. The region of divergence appears to be a hotspot for DNA recombination events, and we suggest that this region has contributed to the success of ST258 K. pneumoniae. Our findings will accelerate research on novel diagnostic, therapeutic, and vaccine strategies designed to prevent and/or treat infections caused by multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae. PMID:24639510

  11. Deep transcriptome profiling of clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates reveals strain and sequence type-specific adaptation.

    PubMed

    Bruchmann, Sebastian; Muthukumarasamy, Uthayakumar; Pohl, Sarah; Preusse, Matthias; Bielecka, Agata; Nicolai, Tanja; Hamann, Isabell; Hillert, Roger; Kola, Axel; Gastmeier, Petra; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Häussler, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Health-care-associated infections by multi-drug-resistant bacteria constitute one of the greatest challenges to modern medicine. Bacterial pathogens devise various mechanisms to withstand the activity of a wide range of antimicrobial compounds, among which the acquisition of carbapenemases is one of the most concerning. In Klebsiella pneumoniae, the dissemination of the K. pneumoniae carbapenemase is tightly connected to the global spread of certain clonal lineages. Although antibiotic resistance is a key driver for the global distribution of epidemic high-risk clones, there seem to be other adaptive traits that may explain their success. Here, we exploited the power of deep transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) to shed light on the transcriptomic landscape of 37 clinical K. pneumoniae isolates of diverse phylogenetic origins. We identified a large set of 3346 genes which was expressed in all isolates. While the core-transcriptome profiles varied substantially between groups of different sequence types, they were more homogenous among isolates of the same sequence type. We furthermore linked the detailed information on differentially expressed genes with the clinically relevant phenotypes of biofilm formation and bacterial virulence. This allowed for the identification of a diminished expression of biofilm-specific genes within the low biofilm producing ST258 isolates as a sequence type-specific trait. PMID:26261087

  12. Multicellularity and Antibiotic Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae Grown Under Bloodstream-Mimicking Fluid Dynamic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Margaret M.; Chung-Esaki, Hangyul M.; Irvin, Charlene B.; Bortz, David M.; Solomon, Michael J.; Younger, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Background. While the importance of fluid dynamical conditions is well recognized in the growth of biofilms, their role during bacteremia is unknown. We examined the impact of physiological fluid shear forces on the development of multicellular aggregates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods. Wild-type and O-antigen or capsular mutants of K. pneumoniae were grown as broth culture in a Taylor-Couette flow cell configured to provide continuous shear forces comparable to those encountered in the human arterial circulation (ie, on the order of 1.0 Pa). The size distribution and antibiotic resistance of aggregates formed in this apparatus were determined, as was their ability to persist in the bloodstream of mice following intravenous injection. Results. Unlike growth in shaking flasks, bacteria grown in the test apparatus readily formed aggregates, a phenotype largely absent in capsular mutants and to a lesser degree in O-antigen mutants. Aggregates were found to persist in the bloodstream of mice. Importantly, organisms grown under physiological shear were found to have an antibiotic resistance phenotype intermediate between that of fully planktonic and biofilm states. Conclusions. When grown under intravascular-magnitude fluid dynamic conditions, K. pneumoniae spontaneously develops into multicellular aggregates that are capable of persisting in the circulation and exhibit increased antibiotic resistance. PMID:22711903

  13. Effect of a Metalloantibiotic Produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa on Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Kerbauy, Gilselena; Vivan, Ana C P; Simões, Glenda C; Simionato, Ane S; Pelisson, Marsileni; Vespero, Eliana C; Costa, Silvia F; de J Andrade, Celia G T; Barbieri, Daiane M; Mello, João C P; Morey, Alexandre T; Yamauchi, Lucy M; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli F; de Oliveira, Admilton G; Andrade, Galdino

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) are a great problem in hospitals, where thousands of people are infected daily, with the occurrence of high mortality rates, especially in infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-producing Kpn). The challenge is to find new compounds that can control KPC producing-Kpn infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic activity of the F3d fraction produced by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LV strain against clinical isolates of KPC-producing Kpn. The results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of F3d (62.5 µg mL(-1)), containing an organic metallic compound, killed planktonic cells of KPC-producing Kpn strains after 30 min of incubation. At the same concentration, this fraction also showed an inhibitory effect against biofilm of these bacteria after 24 h of incubation. Treatment with the F3d fraction caused pronounced morphological alterations in both planktonic and biofilm cells of the bacteria. The inhibitory effect of the F3d fraction seems to be more selective for the bacteria than the host cells, indicating its potential in the development of new drugs for the treatment of infections caused by KPC-producing Kpn and other MDRO. PMID:26891742

  14. Intrathecal administration of colistin for meningitis due to New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1(NDM-1)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Inamasu, Joji; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Oheda, Motoki; Nakae, Shunsuke; Hirose, Yuichi; Yoshida, Shunji

    2016-03-01

    Infection by bacteria carrying New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) is becoming a global health problem. We report a case of meningitis caused by NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, for which intrathecal administration of colistin was curative. A previously healthy 38-year-old Japanese man, who lived in Hyderabad, India, suddenly collapsed and was brought to a local hospital. He was diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage and underwent emergency surgery which included partial skull removal. Approximately 1 month after surgery, he was repatriated to Japan and was admitted to our institution with information that he had been treated for multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter infection with colistin. A week after admission, he developed aspiration pneumonia due to NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae, which was successfully treated by intravenous (IV) administration of colistin. Subsequently, he underwent a surgical procedure to repair his skull defect. He developed high-grade fever and altered mental status on postoperative day 2. NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae was identified in the cerebrospinal fluid, establishing the diagnosis of meningitis. Although IV colistin was only partially effective, intrathecal colistin (10 mg daily by lumbar puncture for 14 days) successfully eradicated the meningitis. Because of economic globalization, NDM-1-producing bacteria may be brought to Japan by those who are repatriated after sustaining critical illnesses and being treated in foreign countries. This report may provide useful information on the treatment of central nervous system infection by NDM-1-producing bacteria. PMID:26683242

  15. CTX-M-12 β-Lactamase in a Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolate in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Maria Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Perez, Federico; Zuluaga, Tania; Radice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Casellas, José María; Ayala, Juan; Lolans, Karen; Quinn, John P.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the detection of the CTX-M-12 β-lactamase from a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Colombia. Screening of nosocomial Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli isolates from a network of teaching hospitals revealed the presence of CTX-M enzymes in multiple cities. This is the first description of CTX-M in Colombia. PMID:14742223

  16. Klebsiella pneumoniae pharyngitis mimicking malignancy: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Yeh, C-F; Li, W-Y; Hsu, Y-B

    2014-12-01

    Acute pharyngitis is a common disease. However, acute pharyngitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae with a gross appearance mimicking hypopharyngeal malignancy has never previously been reported. We report the case of a 57-year-old man with a right hypopharyngeal tumor which was disclosed by fiberoptic laryngoscopy and computed tomography scan. However, both the frozen and final pathologies showed no evidence of malignant cells, and a bacterial culture revealed the growth of K. pneumoniae. The hypopharyngeal lesion completely regressed after 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment. Clinicians should perform biopsy along with tissue culture for tumor-like lesions because infectious agents can lead to lesions with malignancy-like appearance. PMID:24925476

  17. Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying bla NDM-1 gene in orthopedic practice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Varsha; Bansal, Neha; Gupta, Ravi; Chander, Jagdish

    2014-09-01

    Emergence and spread of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae is a cause of concern worldwide, the latest threat being New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1). This report is of an orthopedic case with fracture femur managed with internal fixation and bone grafting, who subsequently developed secondary infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring bla NDM-1 gene. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of imipenem was ≥8 μg/ml by E-test, suggestive of carbapenemase production. Phenotypic and further genotypic detection confirmed the presence of bla NDM-1 gene. The isolate remained susceptible only to tigecycline, colistin, and polymyxin B. PMID:25298566

  18. Colistin Resistance Mechanisms in Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains from Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yi-Hsiang; Lin, Tzu-Lung; Pan, Yi-Jiun; Wang, Yu-Ping; Lin, Yi-Tsung

    2015-01-01

    Colistin is one of the antibiotics of last resort for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. This study showed that capsular type K64 (50%) and ST11 (53.9%) are the prevalent capsular and sequence types in the colistin-resistant strains in Taiwan. The interruption of transcripts (38.5%) and amino acid mutation (15.4%) in mgrB are the major mechanisms contributing to colistin resistance. In addition, novel single amino acid changes in MgrB (Stop48Tyr) and PhoQ (Leu26Pro) were observed to contribute to colistin resistance. PMID:25691646

  19. R-plasmid-encoded adhesive factor in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains responsible for human nosocomial infections.

    PubMed Central

    Darfeuille-Michaud, A; Jallat, C; Aubel, D; Sirot, D; Rich, C; Sirot, J; Joly, B

    1992-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae strains involved in hospital outbreaks of nosocomial infections, such as suppurative lesions, bacteremia, and septicemia, were resistant to multiple antibiotics including broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Epidemiologic investigations revealed that the reservoir for these K. pneumoniae strains was the gastrointestinal tracts of the patients. The study of the adherence ability of the strains reported here showed that these bacteria adhered to the microvilli of the Caco-2 cell line. This adhesion was mediated by a nonfimbrial protein with a molecular mass of 29,000 Da designated CF29K. Pretreatment of bacteria with antibodies raised against CF29K or Caco-2 cells with purified CF29K prevented the adhesion of K. pneumoniae strains to Caco-2 cells. CF29K immunologically cross-reacted with the CS31A surface protein of Escherichia coli strains involved in septicemia in calves. Genes encoding CF29K were located on a high-molecular-weight conjugative R plasmid, which transferred to E. coli K-12. Transconjugants expressed a large amount of CF29K protein and adhered to the brush border of Caco-2 cells. These findings show that K. pneumoniae strains were able to colonize the human intestinal tract through a plasmid-encoded 29,000-Da surface protein. Hybridization experiments indicated that the gene encoding resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins by the production of CAZ-1 enzyme and the gene encoding the adhesive property to intestinal cells were both located on a 20- to 22-kb EcoRI restriction DNA fragment. Genes encoding aerobactin and the ferric aerobactin receptor were also found on this R plasmid. Images PMID:1345909

  20. Susceptibility of Austrian Clinical Klebsiella and Enterobacter Isolates Linked to Patient-Related Data

    PubMed Central

    Badura, Alexandra; Pregartner, Gudrun; Holzer, Judith C.; Feierl, Gebhard; Grisold, Andrea J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility of Austrian clinical Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp. isolates linked to patient-related data over a time period from 1998 to 2014. The main findings of this study were (i) a marked difference of antibiotic susceptibility rates between different infection sites for both Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp., (ii) significantly greater percentages of resistant isolates among both Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp. in male patients compared to female patients and (iii) significantly greater percentages of resistant isolates among both Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp. from hospital-derived samples compared to samples from the community. In conclusion, our statistical data analysis clearly indicated a strong association of patient-related data and Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp. susceptibility profiles. PMID:26903953

  1. Mannose-inhibitable adhesins and T3-T7 receptors of Klebsiella pneumoniae inhibit phagocytosis and intracellular killing by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Pruzzo, C; Debbia, E; Satta, G

    1982-01-01

    It has recently been shown that Klebsiella pneumoniae strains adhere to human epithelial cells and that adherence is mediated by mannose-inhibitable adhesins which are also receptors for coliphages T3 and T7. We have now found that Klebsiella strain K59, which adheres to human epithelial cells and carries the receptors for coliphages T3 and T7, adheres to human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) at 4 degrees C. Strains KRTT1 and KRTT2, which are spontaneous mutants unable to adsorb coliphages T3 and T7 and adhere to human epithelial cells, at this temperature did not adhere to PMN. Adherence of K59 cells to PMN at 4 degrees C was inhibited by D-mannose, by UV-inactivated T7 phages, and by pepsin-digested anti-K59 antibodies absorbed with KRTT1 cells. At 37 degrees C the number of PMN with KRTT bacteria associated was fourfold higher than at 4 degrees C. On the contrary, the number of PMN with K59 bacteria associated at this temperature was fourfold lower than at 4 degrees C. Phagocytosis and intracellular killing experiments performed at 37 degrees C showed that KRTT1 and KRTT2 were phagocytized and killed at a higher rate than K59. After blocking of the mannose-inhibitable adhesins and T3-T7 receptors (MIAT) by D-mannose, UV-inactivated bacteriophage T7, or specific antibodies, K59 cells became more sensitive to phagocytosis and intracellular killing at 37 degrees C. K59 cells lysogenic for prophage AP3 were approximately as sensitive to phagocytosis and intracellular killing by human PMN as strains KRTT1 and KRTT2. Unencapsulated Klebsiella strains isolated from clinical specimens were found to carry MIAT most often. Four such strains were found much more resistant to phagocytosis and intracellular killing than their spontaneous mutants resistant to bacteriophages T3 and T7. PMID:7047402

  2. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Lavandula coronopifolia essential oil against antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ait Said, L; Zahlane, K; Ghalbane, I; El Messoussi, S; Romane, A; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of the essential oil (EO) of Lavandula coronopifolia from Morocco and to evaluate its in vitro antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from clinical infections. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by a broth micro-well dilution method using multiresistant clinical isolates of 11 pathogenic bacteria: Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Providencia rettgeri, Citrobacter freundii, Hafnia alvei, Salmonella spp., Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The main compounds of the oil were carvacrol (48.9%), E-caryophyllene (10.8%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.7%). The oil showed activity against all tested strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging between 1% and 4%. For most of the strains, the MIC value was equivalent to the minimal bactericidal concentration value, indicating a clear bactericidal effect of L. coronopifolia EO. PMID:25174508

  3. Epidemiology and Outcome of Klebsiella Species Bloodstream Infection: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hasan, Majdi N.; Lahr, Brian D.; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.; Baddour, Larry M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence rate, seasonal variation, and short- and long-term outcomes of Klebsiella species bloodstream infection (BSI) in a population-based setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified 127 unique patients in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2007, who had Klebsiella spp BSI. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to examine temporal change and seasonal variation in incidence rate, and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine predictors of mortality. RESULTS: The age-adjusted incidence rate of Klebsiella spp BSI per 100,000 person-years was 15.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.6-19.2) in men and 9.4 (95% CI, 7.0-11.8) in women. There was no linear increase in incidence rate of Klebsiella spp BSI during the study period (P=.55). The incidence rate of Klebsiella spp BSI increased at quadratic rate with age (P=.005). No significant difference was noted in incidence rate of Klebsiella spp BSI during the warmest 4 months compared to the rest of the year (incidence rate ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.66-1.38; P=.95). The overall 28-day and 1-year all-cause mortality rates of Klebsiella spp BSI were 14% (95% CI, 9%-22%) and 35% (95% CI, 27%-44%), respectively. Respiratory source of BSI was associated with a higher 28-day mortality (hazard ratio, 4.90; 95% CI, 1.73-13.84; P=.003). CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of Klebsiella spp BSI increased with age. There was no temporal change or seasonal variation in incidence rate of Klebsiella spp BSI during the past decade. The 28-day all-cause mortality rate of Klebsiella spp BSI was relatively low; however, a respiratory source of BSI was associated with a poorer outcome. PMID:20118389

  4. Nitrogen fixation by immobilized NIF derepressed Klebsiella pneumoniae cells

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatasubramanian, K.; Toda, Y.

    1980-01-01

    In vitro production of ammonia through biological means poses a number of challenges. The organisms should be able to accumulate considerable concentrations of ammonia in the medium. Secondly, nonphotosynthetic organisms must be supplied with high-energy substrates to carry out the fixation reaction. Thirdly, the organisms must be kept in a viable state to produce ammonia over long periods of time. In this article, preliminary results on the production of ammonia by a mutant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae in continuous reactor systems are discussed. Continuous production of ammonia becomes feasible through the immobilization of the whole microbial cells and then through the use of the resulting catalyst system in a flow-through reactor. The rationale for immobilizing microbial cells and the advantages of such an approach over traditional fermentation processes are briefly described as they relate to the microbial production of ammonia. The microbial cells can be immobilized in such a way that their viability is still maintained in the immobilized state. This, in turn, obviates addition of cofactors, which is often an expensive step associated with immobilized multi-enzyme systems. Reconstituted bovine-hide collagen as the carrier matrix for fixing the cells was the carrier of choice for our work on immobilized Klebsiella cells. Polyacrylamide gels were examined as an alternate carrier matrix but results from this were found to be inferior to those collagen immobilized cell system.

  5. High isolation rates of multidrug-resistant bacteria from water and carpets of mosques

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Ali, Mostafa Mohamed; Alemary, Fuoad; Alrtail, Amna; Rzeg, Moftah M.; Albakush, Abdulla M.; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is little information regarding the isolation of antimicrobial-resistant potentially pathogenic bacteria from water and carpets of mosques worldwide. The objective of the present investigation is to determine the bacteriological quality of water and carpets of mosques in Elkhomes city in Libya. Methods Potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from water samples (n=44) and dust samples from carpets (n=50) of 50 mosques in Elkhomes city, Libya, using standard bacteriological procedures. Susceptibility of isolated bacteria to antimicrobial agents was determined by the disc-diffusion method. Results Of the water samples examined, 12 (27.3%) were positive for Escherichia coli, 10 (22.7%) for Klebsiella spp., and 15 (34.1%) for other enteric bacteria. Of the dust samples of carpets examined, 6 (12%) were positive for E. coli, 33 (66%) for Klebsiella spp., and 30 (60%) for Staphylococcus spp. Multidrug resistance (MDR, resistance to three or more antimicrobial groups) was found among 48.7% (19/37) and 46.9% (30/64) of the examined enterobacteria from water and carpets, respectively, and among 66.7% (20/30) of Staphylococcus spp. from carpets. In addition, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from a carpet of one mosque. Conclusion Presence of multidrug-resistant potentially pathogenic bacteria in examined water and carpets indicate that mosques as communal environments may play a role in the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria in the community and pose a serious health risk to worshipers. PMID:25128691

  6. Faecal carriage of klebsiella by patients with ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, R E; Brewerton, D A

    1980-01-01

    In consecutive samples submitted to a clinical microbiology laboratory 22 out of 99 from outpatients and 23 out of 51 from inpatients yielded Klebsiella sp. A clinical reassessment of outpatients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had not been inpatients within the last year was made for disease activity and drug requirements. 124 patients with AS and 92 with RA were requested at assessment to submit a stool specimen for klebsiella examination, this being carried out without disclosure of the patient's clinical category. Two months later a questionnaire on symptom changes was collected and the results correlated with klebsiella carriage. Eighty-nine patients with AS and 82 patients with RA fulfilled all criteria for assessment. Of those assessed, 24 out of 89 AS patients and 26 out of 82 RA patients had klebsiella in the faeces. There was no correlation betweeh the initial clinical assessment category and klebsiella carriage. Seventy patients with AS and 57 paients with RA had no change in symptoms over the 2-month period. Nineteen AS patients and 31 RA patients noted symptom improvement or worsening. Of these, 3 AS and 10 RA patients had klebsiella in their faeces. There was no correlation between worsening of symptoms over a 2-month period and klebsiella carriage at initial assessment. PMID:7377857

  7. Expansion of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospitalized patients: a successful story of international clones (ST15, ST147, ST336) and epidemic plasmids (IncR, IncFIIK).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carla; Machado, Elisabete; Ramos, Helena; Peixe, Luísa; Novais, Ângela

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize by a multi-level approach extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates other than E. coli from Portuguese hospitals. Eighty-eight ESBL-producing clinical isolates (69 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 13 Enterobacter cloacae complex, 3 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Enterobacter asburiae, 1 Proteus mirabilis and 1 Serratia marcescens) recovered from hospitals located in the North (A) or Centre (B, C) regions during two time periods (2006-7 and 2010) were analyzed. Standard methods were used for bacterial identification, antibiotic susceptibility testing, ESBL characterization, clonal (PFGE, MLST) and plasmid (S1-PFGE, I-CeuI-PFGE, replicon typing, hybridization) analysis. Isolates produced mostly CTX-M-15 (47%) or SHV-12 (30%), and less frequently other SHV- (15%; SHV-2, -5, -28, -55, -106) or TEM- (9%; TEM-10, -24, -199)-types, with marked local and temporal variations. The increase of CTX-M-15 and diverse SHV ESBL-types observed in Hospital A was associated with the amplification of multidrug-resistant (MDR) K. pneumoniae epidemic clones (ST15, ST147, ST336). SHV-12 and TEM-type ESBLs were mostly identified in diverse isolates of different Enterobacteriaceae species in Hospitals B and C in 2006-7. Particular plasmid types were linked to blaCTX-M-15 (IncR or non-typeable plasmids), blaSHV-12 (IncR or IncHI2), blaSHV-28/-55/-106 (IncFIIK1 or IncFIIK5), blaTEM-10 (IncL/M) or blaTEM-24 (IncA/C), mostly in epidemic clones. In our country, the amplification of CTX-M-15 and diverse SHV-type ESBL among non-E. coli Enterobacteriaceae is linked to international MDR K. pneumoniae clones (ST15, ST147, ST336) and plasmid types (IncR, IncFIIK). Furthermore, we highlight the potential of IncFIIK plasmids (here firstly associated with blaSHV-2/-28/-55/-106) to disseminate as antibiotic resistance plasmids. PMID:25190354

  8. Mechanisms of polymyxin resistance: acquired and intrinsic resistance in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Olaitan, Abiola O; Morand, Serge; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Polymyxins are polycationic antimicrobial peptides that are currently the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant, Gram-negative bacterial infections. The reintroduction of polymyxins for antimicrobial therapy has been followed by an increase in reports of resistance among Gram-negative bacteria. Some bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii, develop resistance to polymyxins in a process referred to as acquired resistance, whereas other bacteria, such as Proteus spp., Serratia spp., and Burkholderia spp., are naturally resistant to these drugs. Reports of polymyxin resistance in clinical isolates have recently increased, including acquired and intrinsically resistant pathogens. This increase is considered a serious issue, prompting concern due to the low number of currently available effective antibiotics. This review summarizes current knowledge concerning the different strategies bacteria employ to resist the activities of polymyxins. Gram-negative bacteria employ several strategies to protect themselves from polymyxin antibiotics (polymyxin B and colistin), including a variety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modifications, such as modifications of lipid A with phosphoethanolamine and 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose, in addition to the use of efflux pumps, the formation of capsules and overexpression of the outer membrane protein OprH, which are all effectively regulated at the molecular level. The increased understanding of these mechanisms is extremely vital and timely to facilitate studies of antimicrobial peptides and find new potential drugs targeting clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25505462

  9. Mechanisms of polymyxin resistance: acquired and intrinsic resistance in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Olaitan, Abiola O.; Morand, Serge; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Polymyxins are polycationic antimicrobial peptides that are currently the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant, Gram-negative bacterial infections. The reintroduction of polymyxins for antimicrobial therapy has been followed by an increase in reports of resistance among Gram-negative bacteria. Some bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii, develop resistance to polymyxins in a process referred to as acquired resistance, whereas other bacteria, such as Proteus spp., Serratia spp., and Burkholderia spp., are naturally resistant to these drugs. Reports of polymyxin resistance in clinical isolates have recently increased, including acquired and intrinsically resistant pathogens. This increase is considered a serious issue, prompting concern due to the low number of currently available effective antibiotics. This review summarizes current knowledge concerning the different strategies bacteria employ to resist the activities of polymyxins. Gram-negative bacteria employ several strategies to protect themselves from polymyxin antibiotics (polymyxin B and colistin), including a variety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modifications, such as modifications of lipid A with phosphoethanolamine and 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose, in addition to the use of efflux pumps, the formation of capsules and overexpression of the outer membrane protein OprH, which are all effectively regulated at the molecular level. The increased understanding of these mechanisms is extremely vital and timely to facilitate studies of antimicrobial peptides and find new potential drugs targeting clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25505462

  10. Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae phage JD001.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zelin; Shen, Wenbin; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Haotian; Me, Rao; Wang, Yanchun; Zeng, Lingbin; Zhu, Yongzhang; Qin, Jinhong; He, Ping; Guo, Xiaokui

    2012-12-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, opportunistic pathogens that are among the eight most prevalent infectious agents in hospitals. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of K. pneumoniae has became a public health problem globally. To develop an effective antimicrobial agent, we isolated a bacteriophage, named JD001, from seawater and sequenced its genome. Comparative genome analysis of phage JD001 with other K. pneumoniae bacteriophages revealed that phage JD001 has little similarity to previously published K. pneumoniae phages KP15, KP32, KP34, and phiKO2. Here we announce the complete genome sequence of JD001 and report major findings from the genomic analysis. PMID:23166250

  11. Stepwise evolution of pandrug-resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Zowawi, Hosam M; Forde, Brian M; Alfaresi, Mubarak; Alzarouni, Abdulqadir; Farahat, Yasser; Chong, Teik-Min; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan; Li, Jian; Schembri, Mark A; Beatson, Scott A; Paterson, David L

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) pose an urgent risk to global human health. CRE that are non-susceptible to all commercially available antibiotics threaten to return us to the pre-antibiotic era. Using Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing we determined the complete genome of a pandrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate, representing the first complete genome sequence of CRE resistant to all commercially available antibiotics. The precise location of acquired antibiotic resistance elements, including mobile elements carrying genes for the OXA-181 carbapenemase, were defined. Intriguingly, we identified three chromosomal copies of an ISEcp1-bla(OXA-181) mobile element, one of which has disrupted the mgrB regulatory gene, accounting for resistance to colistin. Our findings provide the first description of pandrug-resistant CRE at the genomic level, and reveal the critical role of mobile resistance elements in accelerating the emergence of resistance to other last resort antibiotics. PMID:26478520

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Phage JD001

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zelin; Shen, Wenbin; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Haotian; Me, Rao; Wang, Yanchun; Zeng, Lingbin; Zhu, Yongzhang; Qin, Jinhong

    2012-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, opportunistic pathogens that are among the eight most prevalent infectious agents in hospitals. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of K. pneumoniae has became a public health problem globally. To develop an effective antimicrobial agent, we isolated a bacteriophage, named JD001, from seawater and sequenced its genome. Comparative genome analysis of phage JD001 with other K. pneumoniae bacteriophages revealed that phage JD001 has little similarity to previously published K. pneumoniae phages KP15, KP32, KP34, and phiKO2. Here we announce the complete genome sequence of JD001 and report major findings from the genomic analysis. PMID:23166250

  13. Metabolism of benzonitrile and butyronitrile by Klebsiella pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Nawaz, M.S.; Heinze, T.M.; Cerniglia, C.E. )

    1992-01-01

    A strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae that used aliphatic nitriles as the sole source of nitrogen was adapted to benzonitrile as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Gas chromatographic and mass spectral analyses of culture filtrates indicated that K. pneumoniae metabolized 8.4 mM benzonitrile to 4.0 mM benzoic acid and 2.7 mM ammonia. In addition, butyronitrile was metabolized to butyramide and ammonia. The isolate also degraded mixtures of benzonitrile and aliphatic nitriles. Cell extracts contained nitrile hydratase and amidase activities. The enzyme activities were higher with butyronitrile and butyramide than with benzonitrile and benzamide, and amidase activities were twofold higher than nitrile hydratase activities. K. pneumoniae appears promising for the bioremediation of sites contaminated with aliphatic and aromatic nitriles.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in France.

    PubMed

    Liapis, E; Pantel, A; Robert, J; Nicolas-Chanoine, M-H; Cavalié, L; van der Mee-Marquet, N; de Champs, C; Aissa, N; Eloy, C; Blanc, V; Guyeux, C; Hocquet, D; Lavigne, J-P; Bertrand, X

    2014-12-01

    We characterized 53 OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (OXA-48-Kp) isolated between 2011 and 2013 in 21 French hospitals. All the isolates were genotyped using MLST and PFGE and the population structure of the species was determined by a nucleotide-based analysis of the entire K. pneumoniae MLST database. Most of the OXA-48-Kp isolates also produced CTX-M-15 and remained susceptible to imipenem and meropenem. The isolates were distributed into 20 STs, of which five were dominant (ST15, ST101, ST147, ST395 and ST405). All the OXA-48-Kp clustered in the major clade of K. pneumoniae KpI. PMID:24942039

  15. Correlation between antimicrobial resistance and virulence in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Robin, F

    2016-03-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is responsible for a wide range of infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bacteremia, and liver abscesses. In addition to susceptible clinical isolates involved in nosocomial infections, multidrug-resistant (MDR) and hypervirulent (hvKP) strains have evolved separately in distinct clonal groups. The rapid geographic spread of these isolates is of particular concern. However, we still know little about the virulence of K. pneumoniae except for hvKP, whose secrets are beginning to be revealed. The treatment of K. pneumoniae infections is threatened by the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The dissemination of resistance is associated with genetic mobile elements, such as plasmids that may also carry virulence determinants. A proficient pathogen should be virulent, resistant to antibiotics, and epidemic. However, the interplay between resistance and virulence is poorly understood. Here, we review current knowledge on the topic. PMID:26718943

  16. Transcriptional regulation of a second flavodoxin gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Achenbach, L A; Genova, E G

    1997-07-31

    A second flavodoxin gene, distinct from the nifF gene encoding nitrogenase flavodoxin, has been isolated from Klebsiella pneumoniae. This flavodoxin gene is a homologue of the E. coli fldA gene and is located 286 bp upstream of the K. pneumoniae fur gene. Primer extension analysis revealed an unusual promoter region upstream of the K. pneumoniae fldA gene that does not match the -35/-10 consensus sequence. Transcriptional analyses using a Fur titration assay and fldA gene fusions demonstrated that, unlike E. coli fldA, the K. pneumoniae fldA gene is not constitutively expressed. Rather, the fldA gene of K. pneumoniae is repressed in high iron conditions by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. Expression of K. pneumoniae fldA is also induced by heat shock but not by salt stress. PMID:9272865

  17. Antibiotic Resistance Related to Biofilm Formation in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Vuotto, Claudia; Longo, Francesca; Balice, Maria Pia; Donelli, Gianfranco; Varaldo, Pietro E.

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, Klebsiella pneumoniae, is responsible for causing a spectrum of community-acquired and nosocomial infections and typically infects patients with indwelling medical devices, especially urinary catheters, on which this microorganism is able to grow as a biofilm. The increasingly frequent acquisition of antibiotic resistance by K. pneumoniae strains has given rise to a global spread of this multidrug-resistant pathogen, mostly at the hospital level. This scenario is exacerbated when it is noted that intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents dramatically increases when K. pneumoniae strains grow as a biofilm. This review will summarize the findings about the antibiotic resistance related to biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae. PMID:25438022

  18. Molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Greece.

    PubMed

    Karampatakis, Theodoros; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Iosifidis, Elias; Tsakris, Athanassios; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Hospital infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) constitute a worldwide problem associated with high rates of treatment failure and mortality. In Greece, CRKP have emerged in 2002 due to VIM carbapenemase production and later due to KPC, NDM and OXA-48-like carbapenemases that have become endemic. The molecular epidemiology of CRKP strains is dynamic, as antibiotic consumption and worldwide traveling are strongly associated with global spread of CRKP isolates. Lately, porin defects, such as disruption of OmpK35 and production of OmpK36 variant, have also contributed to carbapenem resistance. In the coming years, the high prevalence of CRKP will require intense infection control measures, while novel molecular patterns may appear. To our knowledge, this is the first review analyzing the molecular epidemiology of CRKP strains in Greece. PMID:27206024

  19. Biodegradation of tributyl phosphate using Klebsiella pneumoniae sp. S3.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S V; Markad, V L; Melo, J S; D'Souza, S F; Kodam, K M

    2014-01-01

    Tributyl phosphate (TBP) has enormous applications in the field of extraction, fuel reprocessing, as defoamers and/or plasticizers. Excessive usage of this organophosphorus compound, poses an environmental threat. The present study deals with microbial degradation of TBP using Klebsiella pneumoniae S3 isolated from the soil. Diauxic growth curve pattern explains a preferential utilization of TBP. The strain S3 was able to biotransform TBP (1,000 mg L⁻¹) to dibutyl phosphate within 48 h and showed higher tolerance towards TBP up to 17.0 g L⁻¹. Toxicity of the parent as well as degraded product was assessed using comet assay. Generation of reactive oxygen species elaborates the oxidative stress imposed upon the bacterial strain by TBP. The antioxidant defense mechanism was studied using various biomarkers namely catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase. The present study describes a faster and eco-friendly alternative for disposal of TBP. PMID:23644771

  20. Stepwise evolution of pandrug-resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Zowawi, Hosam M.; Forde, Brian M.; Alfaresi, Mubarak; Alzarouni, Abdulqadir; Farahat, Yasser; Chong, Teik-Min; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan; Li, Jian; Schembri, Mark A.; Beatson, Scott A.; Paterson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) pose an urgent risk to global human health. CRE that are non-susceptible to all commercially available antibiotics threaten to return us to the pre-antibiotic era. Using Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing we determined the complete genome of a pandrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate, representing the first complete genome sequence of CRE resistant to all commercially available antibiotics. The precise location of acquired antibiotic resistance elements, including mobile elements carrying genes for the OXA-181 carbapenemase, were defined. Intriguingly, we identified three chromosomal copies of an ISEcp1-blaOXA-181 mobile element, one of which has disrupted the mgrB regulatory gene, accounting for resistance to colistin. Our findings provide the first description of pandrug-resistant CRE at the genomic level, and reveal the critical role of mobile resistance elements in accelerating the emergence of resistance to other last resort antibiotics. PMID:26478520

  1. Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: molecular and genetic decoding.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Mathema, Barun; Chavda, Kalyan D; DeLeo, Frank R; Bonomo, Robert A; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2014-12-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) were first identified in 1996 in the USA. Since then, regional outbreaks of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) have occurred in the USA, and have spread internationally. Dissemination of blaKPC involves both horizontal transfer of blaKPC genes and plasmids, and clonal spread. Of epidemiological significance, the international spread of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is primarily associated with a single multilocus sequence type (ST), ST258, and its related variants. However, the molecular factors contributing to the success of ST258 largely remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the recent progresses in understanding KPC-producing K. pneumoniae that are contributing to our knowledge of plasmid and genome composition and structure among the KPC epidemic clone, and we identify possible factors that influence its epidemiological success. PMID:25304194

  2. Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: molecular and genetic decoding

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Mathema, Barun; Chavda, Kalyan D.; DeLeo, Frank R.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) were first identified in 1996 in the USA. Since then, regional outbreaks of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae have occurred in the USA, and have spread internationally. Dissemination of blaKPC involves both horizontal transfer of blaKPC genes and plasmids, and clonal spread. Of epidemiological significance, the international spread of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is primarily associated with a single multilocus sequence type (ST), ST258, and its related variants. However, the molecular factors contributing to the success of ST258 largely remain unclear. Here, we review the recent progresses in understanding KPC-producing K. pneumoniae that is contributing to our knowledge of plasmid and genome composition and structure among the KPC epidemic clone, and identify possible factors that influence its epidemiological success. PMID:25304194

  3. Distinct but Spatially Overlapping Intestinal Niches for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium and Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Silvia; Carter, Rebecca; Ke, Xu; Sušac, Bože; Leiner, Ingrid M.; Kim, Grace J.; Miller, Liza; Ling, Lilan; Manova, Katia; Pamer, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance among enterococci and γ-proteobacteria is an increasing problem in healthcare settings. Dense colonization of the gut by antibiotic-resistant bacteria facilitates their spread between patients and also leads to bloodstream and other systemic infections. Antibiotic-mediated destruction of the intestinal microbiota and consequent loss of colonization resistance are critical factors leading to persistence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The mechanisms underlying microbiota-mediated colonization resistance remain incompletely defined and are likely distinct for different antibiotic-resistant bacterial species. It is unclear whether enterococci or γ-proteobacteria, upon expanding to high density in the gut, confer colonization resistance against competing bacterial species. Herein, we demonstrate that dense intestinal colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) does not reduce in vivo growth of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Reciprocally, K. pneumoniae does not impair intestinal colonization by VRE. In contrast, transplantation of a diverse fecal microbiota eliminates both VRE and K. pneumoniae from the gut. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that VRE and K. pneumoniae localize to the same regions in the colon but differ with respect to stimulation and invasion of the colonic mucus layer. While VRE and K. pneumoniae occupy the same three-dimensional space within the gut lumen, their independent growth and persistence in the gut suggests that they reside in distinct niches that satisfy their specific in vivo metabolic needs. PMID:26334306

  4. Ethanol production from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Klebsiella variicola shows maximum productivity under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshihiro; Nishikawa, Chiaki; Seta, Kohei; Shigeno, Toshiya; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki

    2014-05-25

    Biodiesel fuel (BDF) waste contains large amounts of crude glycerol as a by-product, and has a high alkaline pH. With regard to microbial conversion of ethanol from BDF-derived glycerol, bacteria that can produce ethanol at alkaline pH have not been reported to date. Isolation of bacteria that shows maximum productivity under alkaline conditions is essential to effective production of ethanol from BDF-derived glycerol. In this study, we isolated the Klebsiella variicola TB-83 strain, which demonstrated maximum ethanol productivity at alkaline pH. Strain TB-83 showed effective usage of crude glycerol with maximum ethanol production at pH 8.0-9.0, and the culture pH was finally neutralized by formate, a by-product. In addition, the ethanol productivity of strain TB-83 under various culture conditions was investigated. Ethanol production was more efficient with the addition of yeast extract. Strain TB-83 produced 9.8 g/L ethanol (0.86 mol/mol glycerol) from cooking oil-derived BDF waste. Ethanol production from cooking oil-derived BDF waste was higher than that of new frying oil-derived BDF and pure-glycerol. This is the first report to demonstrate that the K. variicola strain TB-83 has the ability to produce ethanol from glycerol at alkaline pH. PMID:24681408

  5. A Common Flanking Region in Promiscuous Plasmids Encoding blaNDM-1 in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Tsong; Siu, L Kristopher; Tsai, Yu-Kuo; Lin, Fu-Mei; Koh, Tse Hsien; Chen, Jiun-Han

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria encoding the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene (blaNDM-1) are regarded as superbugs for their resistance to multiple antibiotics. Plasmids encoding blaNDM-1 have been observed to be spreading among gram-negative bacteria around the world. Previous studies have demonstrated that multiple modifications of blaNDM-1-harboring plasmids might contribute to the spread of the gene. In this study, we analyzed blaNDM-1-encoding plasmids from two Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, DU7433 and DU1301, found to be unrelated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequencing typing (DU7433: ST14 and DU1301: ST11), and compared them with previously published plasmids. Although strains DU1301, DU7433, and previously published strain DU43320 carried unrelated plasmids, their transconjugants exhibited similar antimicrobial resistance profiles. Transconjugants lacked the resistance to aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole when compared with the corresponding clinical isolates. Plasmids pTR1 from DU1301 and pTR2 from DU7433 had completely different plasmid backbones except a short conserved region of blaNDM-1 and ble flanked with truncated or nontruncated ISAba125 and trpF. The presence of this common region among known blaNDM-1-carrying plasmids implies that the dissemination of blaNDM-1 may be facilitated by mobilization of this conserved immediate region among different plasmids. Control measures should be strictly enforced whenever increasing incidences of epidemiological unrelated strains were identified. PMID:26308279

  6. Photodynamic inactivation of Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilms and planktonic cells by 5-aminolevulinic acid and 5-aminolevulinic acid methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengcheng; Zhou, Yingli; Wang, Li; Han, Lei; Lei, Jin'e; Ishaq, Hafiz Muhammad; Nair, Sean P; Xu, Jiru

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae, particularly extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing K. pneumoniae, is currently a great challenge. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy is a promising approach for killing antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and its derivative 5-ALA methyl ester (MAL) in the presence of white light to cause photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of K. pneumoniae planktonic and biofilm cells. In the presence of white light, 5-ALA and MAL inactivated planktonic cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Biofilms were also sensitive to 5-ALA and MAL-mediated PDI. The mechanisms by which 5-ALA and MAL caused PDI of ESBL-producing K. pneumonia were also investigated. Exposure of K. pneumonia to light in the presence of either 5-ALA or MAL induced cleavage of genomic DNA and the rapid release of intracellular biopolymers. Intensely denatured cytoplasmic contents and aggregated ribosomes were also detected by transmission electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy showed that PDI of biofilms caused aggregated bacteria to detach and that the bacterial cell envelope was damaged. This study provides insights into 5-ALA and MAL-mediated PDI of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae. PMID:26886586

  7. Distinct but Spatially Overlapping Intestinal Niches for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium and Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Silvia; Carter, Rebecca; Ke, Xu; Sušac, Bože; Leiner, Ingrid M; Kim, Grace J; Miller, Liza; Ling, Lilan; Manova, Katia; Pamer, Eric G

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance among enterococci and γ-proteobacteria is an increasing problem in healthcare settings. Dense colonization of the gut by antibiotic-resistant bacteria facilitates their spread between patients and also leads to bloodstream and other systemic infections. Antibiotic-mediated destruction of the intestinal microbiota and consequent loss of colonization resistance are critical factors leading to persistence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The mechanisms underlying microbiota-mediated colonization resistance remain incompletely defined and are likely distinct for different antibiotic-resistant bacterial species. It is unclear whether enterococci or γ-proteobacteria, upon expanding to high density in the gut, confer colonization resistance against competing bacterial species. Herein, we demonstrate that dense intestinal colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) does not reduce in vivo growth of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Reciprocally, K. pneumoniae does not impair intestinal colonization by VRE. In contrast, transplantation of a diverse fecal microbiota eliminates both VRE and K. pneumoniae from the gut. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that VRE and K. pneumoniae localize to the same regions in the colon but differ with respect to stimulation and invasion of the colonic mucus layer. While VRE and K. pneumoniae occupy the same three-dimensional space within the gut lumen, their independent growth and persistence in the gut suggests that they reside in distinct niches that satisfy their specific in vivo metabolic needs. PMID:26334306

  8. Legionella pneumophila Persists within Biofilms Formed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Flavobacterium sp., and Pseudomonas fluorescens under Dynamic Flow Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Catherine R.; Muthye, Viraj; Cianciotto, Nicholas P.

    2012-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the agent of Legionnaires' disease pneumonia, is transmitted to humans following the inhalation of contaminated water droplets. In aquatic systems, L. pneumophila survives much of time within multi-organismal biofilms. Therefore, we examined the ability of L. pneumophila (clinical isolate 130b) to persist within biofilms formed by various types of aquatic bacteria, using a bioreactor with flow, steel surfaces, and low-nutrient conditions. L. pneumophila was able to intercalate into and persist within a biofilm formed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Flavobacterium sp. or Pseudomonas fluorescens. The levels of L. pneumophila within these biofilms were as much as 4104 CFU per cm2 of steel coupon and lasted for at least 12 days. These data document that K. pneumoniae, Flavobacterium sp., and P. fluorescens can promote the presence of L. pneumophila in dynamic biofilms. In contrast to these results, L. pneumophila 130b did not persist within a biofilm formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, confirming that some bacteria are permissive for Legionella colonization whereas others are antagonistic. In addition to colonizing certain mono-species biofilms, L. pneumophila 130b persisted within a two-species biofilm formed by K. pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. Interestingly, the legionellae were also able to colonize a two-species biofilm formed by K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa, demonstrating that a species that is permissive for L. pneumophila can override the inhibitory effect(s) of a non-permissive species. PMID:23185637

  9. Cloning and expression of Klebsiella phage K11 lysozyme gene.

    PubMed

    Junn, Hyun Jung; Youn, Jooho; Suh, Kyong Hoon; Lee, Sang Soo

    2005-07-01

    Previously, the lysozyme gene of the Klebsiella phage K11 was partially sequenced in our lab. Using the sequence information the lysozyme gene of the Klebsiella phage K11 was amplified and cloned using the polymerase chain reaction of the pfu DNA polymerase. The nucleotide sequence of phage K11 lysozyme gene was determined. The open reading frame corresponds to a polypeptide with 151 amino acids and molecular weight of 16,932 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of this polypeptide shows 74-75% homologies to the T7 and T3 phage lysozymes. Although the gene was efficiently expressed under the control of tac promoter in Escherichia coli XL1-blue cells at 37 degrees C, most of the K11 lysozyme produced was insoluble. When the temperature of cell growth was lowered, however, solubility of the K11 lysozyme was increased gradually. The insoluble protein expressed at 37 degrees C was solubilized in 5 M guanidine-HCl and refolded in the presence of oxido-shuffling agent (GSH/GSSG). Through the refolding process the recombinant lysozyme was solubilized and purified. The purified K11 lysozyme showed transcription inhibition of K11 RNA polymerase as well as amidase activity. These results showed that the lysozyme of bacteriophage K11 is a bifunctional protein that cuts a bond in the bacterial cell wall and selectively inhibits K11 phage RNA polymerase. Also, transcription inhibition ability of K11 lysozyme with T7 or SP6 phage RNA polymerase was measured. T7 RNA polymerase was less inhibited than K11 RNA polymerase by K11 lysozyme. But SP6 RNA polymerase was not nearly inhibited by K11 lysozyme. PMID:15882950

  10. Absorption Coefficient Imaging by Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy in Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula, Ana M.; Chaves, Claudilene R.; Silva, Haroldo B.; Weber, Gerald

    2003-06-01

    We present a method for obtaining a position-dependent absorption coefficient from near-field scanning optical transmission microscopy. We show that the optical transmission intensity can be combined with the topography, resulting into an absorption coefficient that simplifies the analysis of different materials within a sample. The method is tested with the dye rhodamine 6G, and we show some analysis in biological samples such as bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The calculated absorption coefficient images show important details of the bacteria, in particular for P. aeruginosa , in which membrane vesicles are clearly seen.

  11. Back To Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1997-01-01

    Explores new research about bacteria. Discusses bacterial genomes, archaea, unusual environments, evolution, pathogens, bacterial movement, biofilms, bacteria in the body, and a bacterial obsession. Contains 29 references. (JRH)

  12. Cadmium-tolerant bacteria induce metal stress tolerance in cereals.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Mitter, Birgit; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-09-01

    Cadmium usually hampers plant growth, but bacterial inoculation may improve stress tolerance in plants to Cd by involving various mechanisms. The objective was to characterize and identify bacteria that improve plant growth under Cd stress and reduce Cd uptake. Cadmium-tolerant bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere soil, which was irrigated with tannery effluent, and six strains were selected as highly tolerant to Cd, showing minimum inhibitory concentration as 500 mg L(-1) or 4.45 mmol L(-1). These strains were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis and functional analysis in regard to plant growth promotion characteristics. To determine their effect on cereal growth under Cd stress, seeds were inoculated with these strains individually and grown in soil contaminated with three Cd levels (0, 40 and 80 mg kg(-1)). Biomass production, relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage (ELL) and tissue Cd concentration were measured. Biomass of both cereals was inhibited strongly when exposed to Cd; however, bacterial inoculation significantly reduced the suppressive effect of Cd on cereal growth and physiology. The bacterial isolates belonged to the genera Klebsiella, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus and Serratia. Maize was more sensitive than wheat to Cd. Klebsiella sp. strain CIK-502 had the most pronounced effects in promoting maize and wheat growth and lowering Cd uptake under Cd stress. PMID:24849374

  13. Identification of Outer Membrane and Exoproteins of Carbapenem-Resistant Multilocus Sequence Type 258 Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Brinkworth, Amanda J.; Hammer, Carl H.; Olano, L. Renee; Kobayashi, Scott D.; Chen, Liang; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains have emerged as a cause of life-threatening infections in susceptible individuals (e.g., transplant recipients and critically ill patients). Strains classified as multilocus sequence type (ST) 258 are among the most prominent causes of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infections worldwide, but the basis for the success of this lineage remains incompletely determined. To gain a more comprehensive view of the molecules potentially involved in the success of ST258, we used a proteomics approach to identify surface-associated and culture supernatant proteins produced by ST258. Protein samples were prepared from varied culture conditions in vitro, and were analyzed by a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We identified a total of 193 proteins in outer membrane preparations from bacteria cultured in Luria-Bertani broth (LB) or RPMI 1640 tissue culture media (RPMI). Compared with LB, several iron-acquisition proteins, including IutA, HmuR, HmuS, CirA, FepA, FitA, FoxA, FhuD, and YfeX, were more highly expressed in RPMI. Of the 177 proteins identified in spent media, only the fimbrial subunit, MrkA, was predicted to be extracellular, a finding that suggests few proteins (or a limited quantity) are freely secreted by ST258. Notably, we discovered 203 proteins not reported in previous K. pneumoniae proteome studies. In silico modeling of proteins with unknown function revealed several proteins with beta-barrel transmembrane structures typical of porins, as well as possible host-interacting proteins. Taken together, these findings contribute several new targets for the mechanistic study of drug-resistance and pathogenesis by ST258 K. pneumoniae isolates. PMID:25893665

  14. Carriage rate of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospitalised patients during a national outbreak.

    PubMed

    Wiener-Well, Y; Rudensky, B; Yinnon, A M; Kopuit, P; Schlesinger, Y; Broide, E; Lachish, T; Raveh, D

    2010-04-01

    During a national outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in Israel, we conducted a point prevalence survey to determine the extent of asymptomatic carriage. Subsequently, a retrospective case-control study was done, comparing carriers of CRKP with non-carriers, in order to detect risk factors for carriage. Oral, perianal and rectal swabs were obtained from all hospitalised eligible and consenting patients. Selective media for carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria were used and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) helped to determine clonal source. Culture was obtained from 298 patients. Sixteen (5.4%) were carriers of CRKP, with a higher carriage rate in medical and surgical wards. Only 18% of carriers were treated with any carbapenem prior to the survey. Five of the 16 carriers had a positive clinical specimen for CRKP, hence a clinical infection versus asymptomatic carriage ratio of 1:3. The rectum was the most sensitive site sampled, detecting 15/16 carriers, and the overall sensitivity of the method was 94% with a negative predictive value of 99.6%. In a multivariate analysis of risk factors for CRKP carriage, three variables were significantly related to carriage state: diaper use, longer duration of hospital stay and vancomycin use. PFGE demonstrated that all 16 isolates were identical, confirming clonal origin. A point prevalence survey performed at a single medical centre during an outbreak of CRKP demonstrated a carriage rate of 5.4%. The clonal origin of these isolates suggests that strict adherence to isolation procedure may contain this outbreak. PMID:19783067

  15. Molecular Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance Determinants and Plasmids in Malaysian Isolates of Multidrug Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Al-Marzooq, Farah; Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Tay, Sun Tee

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae have been increasingly reported in many parts of the world. A total of 93 Malaysian multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae isolated from patients attending to University of Malaya Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 2010-2012 were investigated for antibiotic resistance determinants including extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), aminoglycoside and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance genes and plasmid replicons. CTX-M-15 (91.3%) was the predominant ESBL gene detected in this study. aacC2 gene (67.7%) was the most common gene detected in aminoglycoside-resistant isolates. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance (90.3%) was attributed to the presence of sul1 (53.8%) and dfrA (59.1%) genes in the isolates. Multiple plasmid replicons (1-4) were detected in 95.7% of the isolates. FIIK was the dominant replicon detected together with 13 other types of plasmid replicons. Conjugative plasmids (1-3 plasmids of ~3-100 kb) were obtained from 27 of 43 K. pneumoniae isolates. An ESBL gene (either CTX-M-15, CTX-M-3 or SHV-12) was detected from each transconjugant. Co-detection with at least one of other antibiotic resistance determinants [sul1, dfrA, aacC2, aac(6ˊ)-Ib, aac(6ˊ)-Ib-cr and qnrB] was noted in most conjugative plasmids. The transconjugants were resistant to multiple antibiotics including β-lactams, gentamicin and cotrimoxazole, but not ciprofloxacin. This is the first study describing the characterization of plasmids circulating in Malaysian multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae isolates. The results of this study suggest the diffusion of highly diverse plasmids with multiple antibiotic resistance determinants among the Malaysian isolates. Effective infection control measures and antibiotic stewardship programs should be adopted to limit the spread of the multidrug resistant bacteria in healthcare settings. PMID:26203651

  16. Inhibition of Klebsiella β-Lactamases (SHV-1 and KPC-2) by Avibactam: A Structural Study.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Nikhil P; Nguyen, Nhu Q; Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M; Bonomo, Robert A; van den Akker, Focco

    2015-01-01

    β-Lactamase inhibition is an important clinical strategy in overcoming β-lactamase-mediated resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in Gram negative bacteria. A new β-lactamase inhibitor, avibactam, is entering the clinical arena and promising to be a major step forward in our antibiotic armamentarium. Avibactam has remarkable broad-spectrum activity in being able to inhibit classes A, C, and some class D β-lactamases. We present here structural investigations into class A β-lactamase inhibition by avibactam as we report the crystal structures of SHV-1, the chromosomal penicillinase of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and KPC-2, an acquired carbapenemase found in the same pathogen, complexed with avibactam. The 1.80 Å KPC-2 and 1.42 Å resolution SHV-1 β-lactamase avibactam complex structures reveal avibactam covalently bonded to the catalytic S70 residue. Analysis of the interactions and chair-shaped conformation of avibactam bound to the active sites of KPC-2 and SHV-1 provides structural insights into recently laboratory-generated amino acid substitutions that result in resistance to avibactam in KPC-2 and SHV-1. Furthermore, we observed several important differences in the interactions with amino acid residues, in particular that avibactam forms hydrogen bonds to S130 in KPC-2 but not in SHV-1, that can possibly explain some of the different kinetic constants of inhibition. Our observations provide a possible reason for the ability of KPC-2 β-lactamase to slowly desulfate avibactam with a potential role for the stereochemistry around the N1 atom of avibactam and/or the presence of an active site water molecule that could aid in avibactam desulfation, an unexpected consequence of novel inhibition chemistry. PMID:26340563

  17. Characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H; Ali, Mohamed S; Al-Ahdal, Mohammad N; Aljohi, Mohammad A; Shibl, Atef M

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalences, genotypes, and clonal relationships of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains in 98 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Riyadh. The prevalence of ESBLs in these strains was 37·75%. All isolates that were confirmed to have ESBLs were completely resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanate, aztreonam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, and gentamicin and were susceptible to tigecycline, colistin, and imipenem. In total, 16·6, 77, and 91·6% of isolates were resistant to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin/tazobactam, respectively. The prevalences of isolates producing the beta-lactamases SHV, CTX-M, and TEM were 91·9, 86·5, and 54·05%, respectively. The most frequent ESBL gene detected was blaCTX-M-15, which was observed in 75% of isolates. Other frequent ESBL genes were blaSHV-12 (29·73% of isolates) and blaSHV-5 (5·4% of isolates); additionally, blaCTX-M-3, blaCTX-M-27, blaCTX-M-57, and blaCTX-M-82 were each detected in one isolate. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed the presence of diverse and unrelated clones. The high prevalence of ESBL producers among the strains examined in our study was not due to the spread of a single clone of bacteria. Clone A was detected in six isolates, indicating intra-hospital spread. Our study documented a high prevalence of the CTX-M-15 product in K. pneumoniae and demonstrated that SHV-12 was also highly prevalent. This study represents the first report of CTX-M-3, CTX-M-27, CTX-M-57, and CTX-M-82 beta-lactamases in K. pneumoniae isolates from Saudi Arabia. PMID:24091155

  18. Evaluation of Biofilm Formation Among Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates and Molecular Characterization by ERIC-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Kimia; Kazemian, Hossein; Heidari, Hamid; Rezagholizadeh, Fereshteh; Saee, Yasaman; Shirvani, Fariba; Houri, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is among the most frequently recovered etiologic agents from nosocomial infections. This opportunistic pathogen can generate a thick layer of biofilm as one of its important virulence factors, enabling the bacteria to attach to living or abiotic surfaces, which contributes to drug resistance. Objectives: The resistance of biofilm-mediated infections to effective chemotherapy has adverse effects on patient outcomes and survival. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the biofilm-formation capacity of clinical K. pneumoniae isolates and to perform a molecular characterization using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) to determine the dominant biofilm-producing genotype. Patients and Methods: In the present study, 94 K. pneumoniae isolates were obtained from two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Biofilm formation was assayed by a modified procedure, then ERIC-PCR was carried out. Results: The distributions of the clinical specimens used in this study were 61.7% from urine, 18.1% from wounds, 11.7% from sputum, and 8.5% from blood. Among these isolates, 33% formed fully established biofilms, 52.1% were categorized as moderately biofilm-producing, 8.5% formed weak biofilms, and 6.4% were non-biofilm-producers. Genotyping of K. pneumoniae revealed 31 different ERIC types. Biofilm-formation ability in a special ERIC type was not observed. Conclusions: Our results indicated that an enormous proportion of K. pneumoniae isolated from sputum and surgical-wound swabs produced fully established biofilms. It is reasonable to assume the existence of a relationship between the site of infection and the formation of biofilm. A high level of genetic diversity among the K. pneumoniae strains was observed. PMID:27099694

  19. Interhospital spread of NDM-7-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae belonging to ST437 in Spain.

    PubMed

    Seara, Nieves; Oteo, Jesús; Carrillo, Raquel; Pérez-Blanco, Verónica; Mingorance, Jesús; Gómez-Gil, Rosa; Herruzo, Rafael; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Astray, Jenaro; García-Rodríguez, Julio; Ruiz-Velasco, Luis Moisés; Campos, José; de Burgos, Carmen; Ruiz-Carrascoso, Guillermo

    2015-08-01

    This study describes an interhospital spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) producing NDM-7 carbapenemase that started in December 2013 in Madrid, Spain. NDM-7-producing CRKP were isolated from urine, rectal swabs or blood samples from seven patients admitted to three different hospitals (Hospital Universitario La Paz, Hospital de Cantoblanco and Hospital Central de la Cruz Roja). The isolates were resistant to all antimicrobials tested except colistin and fosfomycin. One blood isolate was susceptible to minocycline and tigecycline but was resistant to fosfomycin. All isolates were closely related by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab(®) analysis and belonged to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence type 437. In addition, blaNDM-7, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15 and aac(3)-IIa were identified. Family contacts of the index case were negative for NDM-producing bacteria. The outbreak occurred in two separate waves and the cases associated with Hospital de Cantoblanco had been admitted to the same room. Environmental samples from the trap of a sink and a shower in this room were positive for NDM-7-producing CRKP. To our knowledge, this is the first reported worldwide outbreak of NDM-7-producing CRKP. No relationship with the Indian continent, the Balkans or the Middle East could be established. Frequent transfer of aged or chronically ill patients between the facilities involved may have favoured the spread of NDM-7-producing CRKP. The spread of the second wave in Hospital de Cantoblanco probably occurred as a result of transmission from an environmental reservoir. PMID:25982912

  20. Presence of Nitrogen Fixing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the gut of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Coptotermes formosanus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A gram-negative facultative anaerobic enteric bacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from the hindgut of the Formosan subterranean termite (FST). It was characterized using, Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, BIOLOG assay, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-...

  1. Enzyme-linked immunospecific antibody test for detecting antibody to Klebsiella.

    PubMed

    Rissing, J P; Buxton, T B; Moore, W L; Ozawa, T; Moore, W L

    1978-12-01

    The enzyme-linked immunospecific antibody test was performed in standard test tubes and microtiter plates to meausre high-titer antibody against Klebsiella capsular polysaccharide. Initial studies were conducted with rabbit sera; other studies were conducted with the serum of a patient infected with type 9 Klebsiella. Both immunized rabbits and an infected patient disclosed high titers of anticapsular antibody. Control sera from other immunized rabbits and other infected humans failed to show this substantial antibody titer against type 9 Klebsiella. Comparisons between counterimmunoelectrophoresis and indirect immunofluorescence disclosed that the sensitivity of the enzyme-linked immunospecific antibody test for anti-Klebsiella antibody ranged between 400 and 10,000 times that of these tests. PMID:370145

  2. Enzyme-linked immunospecific antibody test for detecting antibody to Klebsiella.

    PubMed Central

    Rissing, J P; Buxton, T B; Moore, W L; Ozawa, T; Moore, W L

    1978-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunospecific antibody test was performed in standard test tubes and microtiter plates to meausre high-titer antibody against Klebsiella capsular polysaccharide. Initial studies were conducted with rabbit sera; other studies were conducted with the serum of a patient infected with type 9 Klebsiella. Both immunized rabbits and an infected patient disclosed high titers of anticapsular antibody. Control sera from other immunized rabbits and other infected humans failed to show this substantial antibody titer against type 9 Klebsiella. Comparisons between counterimmunoelectrophoresis and indirect immunofluorescence disclosed that the sensitivity of the enzyme-linked immunospecific antibody test for anti-Klebsiella antibody ranged between 400 and 10,000 times that of these tests. PMID:370145

  3. Antagonistic bacteria from live corals, Tuticorin coastal waters, Southeastern India.

    PubMed

    Chellaram, Chinnachamy; Sreenivasan, Subramani; Anand, Thankappan Prem; Kumaran, Sekargounder; Kesavan, Dhamodaran; Priya, Govindarajan

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to isolate and production of secondary metabolites with bioactive substances by coral reef (Acropora formosa and Favia palida) associated bacteria was carried out from the Tuticorin coastal waters, Southeastern India. The isolated coral associated bacteria were found to have an antagonistic effect against 10 human pathogens. The pathogens were Escherichia coli, Shigella dysentriae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aerogenosa, Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. faecalis and Bacillus cereus. It was observed that, out of the total 689 bacterial strains isolated, 10 and 13% of isolates from A. formosa and Favia palida, respectively were found to have antagonistic activity against the pathogens, A higher percentage of antagonistic strains were conferred from Favia palida with 13%. It was observed that all antagonistic strains were able to inhibit at least two of the human pathogens. PMID:21454167

  4. Numerical taxonomy and ecology of petroleum-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, B; Calomiris, J J; Walker, J D; Colwell, R R

    1977-01-01

    A total of 99 strains of petroleum-degrading bacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay water and sediment were identified by using numerical taxonomy procedures. The isolates, together with 33 reference cultures, were examined for 48 biochemical, cultural, morphological, and physiological characters. The data were analyzed by computer, using both the simple matching and the Jaccard coefficients. Clustering was achieved by the unweighted average linkage method. From the sorted similarity matrix and dendrogram, 14 phenetic groups, comprising 85 of the petroleum-degrading bacteria, were defined at the 80 to 85% similarity level. These groups were identified as actinomycetes (mycelial forms, four clusters), coryneforms, Enterobacteriaceae, Klebsiella aerogenes, Micrococcus spp. (two clusters), Nocardia species (two clusters), Pseudomonas spp. (two clusters), and Sphaerotilus natans. It is concluded that the degradation of petroleum is accomplished by a diverse range of bacterial taxa, some of which were isolated only at given sampling stations and, more specifically, from sediment collected at a given station. PMID:889329

  5. Phagocytic and chemiluminescent responses of mouse peritoneal macrophages to living and killed Salmonella typhimurium and other bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, T.; Blumenstock, E.; Kanegasaki, S.

    1981-06-01

    In the presence of luminol, resident as well as thioglycolate-induced and immunized macrophages emitted chemiluminescence more efficiently when the cells were exposed to living Salmonella typhimurium than when they were exposed to the same bacterium killed by ultraviolet light or heat. This phenomenon was observed whether or not the bacterium was opsonized. The different response to living and killed bacteria was also found with Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus morganii, and Enterobacter aerogenes, but not with Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Propionibacterium acnes. The results suggest that macrophages respond better to living, motile bacteria than to nonmotile or killed bacteria. The experimental results obtained with motility mutants of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa confirm that macrophages exposed to the motile bacteria emit chemiluminescence more efficiently and ingest the motile bacteria at a much faster rate than the nonmotile bacteria.

  6. Klebsiella serotype 25 capsular polysaccharide: primary structure and depolymerization by a bacteriophage-borne glycanase.

    PubMed Central

    Niemann, H; Kwiatkowski, B; Westphal, U; Stirm, S

    1977-01-01

    By partial acid hydrolysis, methylation and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the methylated monomers (as the alditol acetates), mass spectrometry of trimethylsilylated disaccharide alditols, as well as proton magnetic resonance, the primary structure of the Klebsiella serotype 25 capsular polysaccharide was elucidated. A glycanase activity, associated with the particles of newly isolated Klebsiella bacteriophage no. 25, was shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycan. Images PMID:853030

  7. Acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis caused by multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Sanghi, Shekhar; Pathengay, Avinash; Jindal, Animesh; Raval, Vishal; Nayak, Sameera; Sharma, Savitri; Bawdekar, Abhishek; Flynn, Harry W

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report outcomes of intravitreal imipenem in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella-related postoperative endophthalmitis. This observational case series consists of three eyes from three patients seen between 2013 and 2014. Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is characterized by a rapid, fulminant course and severe intraocular inflammation. Intravitreal imipenem may be used to treat such infection. PMID:25258505

  8. Ferric ammonium citrate decomposition--a taxonomic tool for gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Szentmihályi, A; Lányi, B

    1986-01-01

    The iron uptake test of Szabó and Vandra has been modified and used for the differentiation of Gram-negative bacteria. Nutrient agar containing 20 g per litre of ferric ammonium citrate was distributed into narrow tubes and solidified so as to form butts and slants. Considering the localization of the rusty-brown coloration produced after seeding and incubation, 2367 strains were classified into four groups. (1) Unchanged medium: Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Yersinia spp., Hafnia alvei and Morganella morganii 100% each, Klebsiella spp., 50%, Enterobacter cloacae 37%, Proteus vulgaris 59%, Acinetobacter spp. 42%, Pseudomonas fluorescens 19%, some other bacteria 2-12%. (2) Rusty-brown slant, unchanged butt: Salmonella subgenera II, III and IV 98%, Citrobacter freundii 65%, E. cloacae 55%, P. vulgaris 41%, Proteus mirabilis 98%, Providencia rettgeri 100%, urease-negative Providencia 96%, Acinetobacter spp. 58%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 100%, P. fluorescens 81%, UFP (unclassified fluorescent pseudomonads) 100%, other Pseudomonas spp. 55%. (3) Unchanged slant, brown butt: S. typhi 88%, Salmonella subgenus I 3%, Klebsiella spp. 31%, some other bacteria 2-3%. (4) Rusty-brown slant, brown butt: Salmonella subgenus I 75%, C. freundii 20%, Klebsiella spp. 12%, some other bacteria 1-5%. Colour reactions in ferric ammonium citrate agar are associated with the accumulation of ferric hydroxide: bacteria giving positive reactions on the slant took up as an average, 63 times more iron than those with negative test. The localization of colour reaction correlated partly with aerobic and anaerobic citrate utilization or decomposition in Simmons' minimal and in Kauffmann's peptone water medium. PMID:3529797

  9. Klebsiella pneumoniae related community-acquired acute lower respiratory infections in Cambodia: Clinical characteristics and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In many Asian countries, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the second pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Yet, very little is known about KP etiology in ALRI in Cambodia, a country that has one of the weakest medical infrastructures in the region. We present here the first clinico-radiological description of KP community-acquired ALRI in hospitalized Cambodian patients. Methods Through ALRI surveillance in two provincial hospitals, KP was isolated from sputum and blood cultures, and identified by API20E gallery from patients ≥ 5 years-old with fever and respiratory symptoms onset ≤14 days. Antibiotics susceptibility testing was provided systematically to clinicians when bacteria were isolated. We collected patients' clinical, radiological and microbiological data and their outcome 3 months after discharge. We also compared KP-related with other bacteria-related ALRI to determine risk factors for KP infection. Results From April 2007 to December 2009, 2315 ALRI patients ≥ 5 years-old were enrolled including 587 whose bacterial etiology could be assigned. Of these, 47 (8.0%) had KP infection; their median age was 55 years and 68.1% were females. Reported prior medication was high (42.5%). Patients' chest radiographs showed pneumonia (61.3% including 39% that were necrotizing), preexisting parenchyma lesions (29.5%) and pleural effusions alone (4.5%) and normal parenchyma (4.5%). Five patients had severe conditions on admission and one patient died during hospitalization. Of the 39 patients that were hospital discharged, 14 died including 12 within 1 month after discharge. Only 13 patients (28%) received an appropriate antibiotherapy. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) - producing strains were found in 8 (17.0%) patients. Female gender (Odds ratio (OR) 2.1; p = 0.04) and diabetes mellitus (OR 3.1; p = 0.03) were independent risk factors for KP-related ALRI. Conclusions KP ALRI in Cambodia has high fatality rate, are more frequently found in women, and should be considered in diabetic patients. The extremely high frequency of ESBL-producing strains in the study is alarming in the context of uncontrolled antibiotic consumption and in absence of microbiology capacity in most public-sector hospitals. PMID:22233322

  10. Prevalence of Extended Spectrum β-lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ali Abdel Rahim, Khalid Abdalla; Ali Mohamed, Ahmed Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are gram-negative bacteria that produce the enzyme, β-lactamase, which can break down commonly used antibiotics, such as penicillin and cephalosporins, making infections with ESBL producing bacteria more difficult to treat. Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae were first reported in 1983 from Germany, and since then a steady increase in resistance against cephalosporins has been seen causing health problems. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL in strains of K. pneumoniae isolated from different clinical samples. Patients and Methods: One hundred and thirty isolates of K. pneumoniae were isolated from different clinical specimens from King Khalid hospital, Hafr Elbatin, Kingdom Saudi Arabia. These isolates were then characterized, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and screened for ESBL production by the MicroScan WalkAway-96 SI System. Extended spectrum β-lactamase production was confirmed by the phenotypic confirmatory disc diffusion test (PCDDT) and the double disc synergy test (DDST). Results: Overall, 76.9% (100) of the isolates were resistant to cefuroxime, cefepime and cefazolin, 69.23% (90) were resistant to cefotaxime, and 46.15% (60) were resistant to cefoxitin. Extended spectrum β-lactamase was detected in 53.8% (70) of K. pneumoniae as detected by the MicroScan “WalkAway-96” SI System and 50.07% (66) by PCDDT and 46.15% (60) by DDST. All K. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to ampicillin followed by both piperacillin and mezlocillin 92.30% (120). K. pneumoniae isolates showed high sensitivity to imipenem (15.38%) (20), followed by ertapenem, tetracycline, tigecycline pipracilline/tazobactam and amikacin (23.07%) (30). Conclusions: Our study showed that the prevalence of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae at King Khalid Hospital was significantly high. Routine detection of ESBL-producing microorganisms is required by each of the laboratory standard detection methods to control the spread of these infections and allow a proper therapeutic strategy. For detection, the phenotypic confirmatory disc diffusion test is simple, sensitive and cost effective. However, there is a need for larger scale drug susceptibility surveillance. PMID:25774279

  11. Characterization of Siphoviridae phage Z and studying its efficacy against multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae planktonic cells and biofilm.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Muhsin; Hussain, Tahir; Das, Chythanya Rajanna; Andleeb, Saadia

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm has many serious consequences for public health and is a major virulence factor contributing to the chronicity of infections. The aim of the current study was to isolate and characterize a bacteriophage that inhibits multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia (M) in planktonic form as well as biofilm. This phage, designated bacteriophage Z, was isolated from wastewater. Its adsorption rate to its host bacterium was significantly enhanced by MgCl2 and CaCl2. It has a wide range of pH and heat stability. From its one-step growth, latent time and burst size were determined to be 24 min and about 320 virions per cell, respectively. As analysed by transmission electron microscopy, phage Z had an icosahedral head of width 76±10 nm, length 92±14 nm and icosahedron side 38 nm, and a non-contractile tail 200±15 nm long and 14-29 nm wide. It belongs to the family Siphoviridae in the order Caudovirales. Six structural proteins ranging from 18 to 65 kDa in size were revealed by SDS-PAGE. The genome was found to comprise double-stranded DNA with an approximate size of 36 kb. Bacteria were grown in suspension and as biofilms to compare the susceptibility of both phenotypes to the phage lytic action. Phage Z was effective in reducing biofilm biomass after 24 and 48 h, showing more than twofold and threefold reduction, respectively. Biofilm cells and stationary-phase planktonic bacteria were killed at a lower rate than exponential-phase planktonic bacteria. PMID:25681321

  12. Plant essential oils and their constituents in coping with multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kon, Kateryna Volodymyrivna; Rai, Mahendra Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Antibiotic resistance is documented to be a serious problem that affects the choice of appropriate antibiotic therapy and increases the probability of unfavorable infection outcome. One of the proposed methods to cope with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is the use of alternative antibacterial treatments, which include natural antimicrobial substances such as plant essential oils (EOs). The aim of the present article is to review published studies on the activity of EOs and their constituents against MDR bacteria and to formulate perspectives for the future. In general, published studies indicate that EOs can be used as effective antiseptics against many species, including MDR bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and others; certain EOs may potentiate the effectiveness of antibiotics against MDR bacteria; EOs can be synergistic with bacteriophages; and polymeric nanoparticles can be used for delivery of EOs and enhancement of their activity at the site of infection. PMID:22943401

  13. Bacteriocins active against multi-resistant gram negative bacteria implicated in nosocomial infections.

    PubMed

    Ghodhbane, Hanen; Elaidi, Sabrine; Sabatier, Jean-Marc; Achour, Sami; Benhmida, Jeannette; Regaya, Imed

    2015-01-01

    Multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria are the prime mover of nosocomial infections. Some are naturally resistant to antibiotics, their genetic makes them insensitive to certain families of antibiotics and they transmit these resistors to their offspring. Moreover, when bacteria are subjected to antibiotics, they eventually develop resistance against drugs to which they were previously sensitive. In recent years, many bacteriocins active against gram-negative bacteria have been identified proving their efficacy in treating infections. While further investigation remains necessary before the possibilities for bacteriocins in clinical practice can be described more fully, this review provides an overview of bacteriocins acting on the most common infectious gram negative bacteria (Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli). PMID:24853876

  14. In Vitro Action of Carbenicillin Against Bacteria Isolated from Clinical Material

    PubMed Central

    Isenberg, Henry D.; Siegel, Marie

    1969-01-01

    More than 500 bacteria isolated from patient material were tested against carbenicillin (disodium α-carboxybenzylpenicillin) by diffusion and dilution modalities. The same bacteria, which included Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella-Aerobacter-Enterobacter group, various species of Proteus, Staphylococcus aureus and epiddermidis, enterococci, pneumococci, Streptococcus pyogenes, etc., were examined for susceptibility to other antibiotics commonly used with special emphasis on ampicillin and cephalothin. The responses of pyocine-typed P. aeruginosa were the most remarkable. The majority of these bacteria displayed susceptibility to carbenicillin by both the dilution and the diffusion techniques. The concentrations of this antibiotic used in the laboratory were of the same order of magnitude as that of the other drugs. The laboratory behavior of the other bacteria, toward this new semisynthetic penicillin derivative approximated their response to ampicillin and cephalothin. PMID:4392088

  15. Pneumonia and bacteremia in a golden-headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae during a translocation program of free-ranging animals in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Marina G; Iovine, Renata O; Torres, Luciana N; Catão-Dias, José L; Pissinatti, Alcides; Kierulff, Maria C M; Carvalho, Vania M

    2015-05-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important emerging pathogen in humans, particularly the invasive hypermucoviscosity (HMV) phenotype. In addition, the organism is an important public health concern because of nosocomial infections and antimicrobial resistance. Nonhuman primates in captivity are susceptible to Klebsiella, particularly when a stress factor is involved. Infections vary depending on the species but can cause significant morbidity and mortality in these animals. The objective of this study was to describe a case of bronchopneumonia and bacteremia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a free-ranging golden-headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) caught and maintained in quarantine during a translocation program for conservation purposes. An adult male, that had showed emaciation and apathy, was clinically examined and, despite being provided supportive therapy, died 2 days after onset of clinical signs. At postmortem examination, generalized bilateral pneumonia and pericarditis were observed. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin for histology, and pulmonary tissues and cardiac blood were collected for microbiologic diagnostic procedures. Bacteria that were shown to be HMV K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae strains were isolated from the pulmonary fluids and cardiac blood in pure cultures. Severe bronchopneumonia was the main pathological finding. The consequences of the confirmed presence of the HMV phenotype of K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae in this wildlife species for human, animal, and ecosystem health should be determined. These results demonstrate the importance of quarantine and potential pathogen screening during wildlife translocation procedures. PMID:25943130

  16. Report on a transborder spread of carbapenemase-producing bacteria by a patient injured during Euromaidan, Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Hrabák, J.; Študentová, V.; Adámková, V.; Šemberová, L.; Kabelíková, P.; Hedlová, D.; Čurdová, M.; Zemlickova, H.; Papagiannitsis, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Spread of carbapenemase-producing bacteria has been described all over the world. This phenomenon may be accelerated by many factors, including wars and natural disasters. In this report, we described an NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumonia ST11 recovered from a patient injured during the Maidan revolution in Ukraine. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Ukraine and one of several reports describing wound colonization/infection of humans injured during war. PMID:26594376

  17. Report on a transborder spread of carbapenemase-producing bacteria by a patient injured during Euromaidan, Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Hrabák, J; Študentová, V; Adámková, V; Šemberová, L; Kabelíková, P; Hedlová, D; Čurdová, M; Zemlickova, H; Papagiannitsis, C C

    2015-11-01

    Spread of carbapenemase-producing bacteria has been described all over the world. This phenomenon may be accelerated by many factors, including wars and natural disasters. In this report, we described an NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumonia ST11 recovered from a patient injured during the Maidan revolution in Ukraine. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Ukraine and one of several reports describing wound colonization/infection of humans injured during war. PMID:26594376

  18. Removal of bacteria from stallion semen by colloid centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Morrell, J M; Klein, C; Lundeheim, N; Erol, E; Troedsson, M H T

    2014-02-01

    Bacteria (environmental contaminants and occasionally potential pathogens) are found in most stallion ejaculates and may negatively affect sperm quality during storage. Since the use of antibiotics can lead to the development of resistance, an alternative means of microbial control is desirable. The removal of bacteria from stallion semen using Single Layer Centrifugation through Androcoll-E was investigated. Known doses of cultured bacteria were added to freshly collected ejaculates (15mL aliquots) before processing by Single Layer Centrifugation. The resulting sperm pellets and controls (not processed by Single Layer Centrifugation) were cultured and the bacteria identified. In experiment 1, doses of E. coli from 210(2) to 210(7) colony forming units were added to aliquots of semen. In experiment 2, Taylorella equigenitalis or a mix of E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (approximately 710(6), 510(6), and 610(6)cfu, respectively) were added to 15mL aliquots of semen. In experiment 1, more than 90% of the bacteria were removed where loading doses were >10(4)cfu/mL. In experiment 2, varying proportions of different bacteria were removed, ranging from 68% for naturally occurring Corynebacterium spp. to >97% for added cultured E. coli. Thus, Single Layer Centrifugation can separate spermatozoa from many, but not all bacteria in stallion ejaculates and could be a useful alternative to adding antibiotics to semen extenders to control bacterial contamination. However, further research is needed to determine the effect of small numbers of bacteria on sperm quality. PMID:24485764

  19. Infected Hydatid Cysts Bacteria in Slaughtered Livestock and Their Effects on Protoscoleces Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Mohammad; Kavand, Abdollah; Yousefi Mashouf, Rasoul

    2014-01-01

    Background: The protoscoleces of fertile hydatid cysts are considered as major risks in surgery and producing secondary cysts if rupture the cyst during operation and, cause infecting the dogs with adult worm if eaten by this animal. Bacterial infection of the hydatid fluid can lead to sterilization of the cyst. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial infection rate of livestock hydatid cysts in Hamedan, Iran, and test the isolated bacteria effects on viable protoscoleces, in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total of 5709 slaughtered livestock were inspected to detect the presence of hydatid cysts. The hydatid fluid of all cysts was cultured separately to isolate and identify the bacteria. The effect of isolated bacteria was tested on viable protoscoleces in culture tubes, in vitro. The culture tubes were observed and examined under a light microscope every two hours for 24 hours, and then, after 36 and 48 hours. Results: Infected cysts were found in 74% of animals in Hamedan (46% were calcified and the bacteria was isolated from 52%) and 62% in Borujerd. The isolated bacteria in the infected cysts were as follows: Escherichia coli, E. blattae, Klebsiella pnoumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Edwardsiella tarda. The protoscoleces incubated with the isolated bacteria totally degenerated, but 55% of the protoscoleces in the control groups were intact and viable even after one week. Conclusions: This study indicated a high percentage of cysts bacterial infections in two provinces of Iran. The common isolated bacteria were E. coli and Klebsiella. The isolated bacteria degenerated the protoscoleces during short-time incubation, in vitro. PMID:25371792

  20. Structure of 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Michalska, Karolina; Cuff, Marianne E.; Tesar, Christine; Feldmann, Brian; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2011-08-01

    The crystal structure of 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase from the De Ley–Doudoroff pathway of galactose metabolism has been determined at 2.1 Å resolution. In most organisms, efficient d-galactose utilization requires the highly conserved Leloir pathway that converts d-galactose to d-glucose 1-phosphate. However, in some bacterial and fungal species alternative routes of d-galactose assimilation have been identified. In the so-called De Ley–Doudoroff pathway, d-galactose is metabolized into pyruvate and d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate in five consecutive reactions carried out by specific enzymes. The penultimate step in this pathway involves the phosphorylation of 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate to 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate 6-phosphate catalyzed by 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase, with ATP serving as a phosphoryl-group donor. Here, a crystal structure of 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase from Klebsiella pneumoniae determined at 2.1 Å resolution is reported, the first structure of an enzyme from the De Ley–Doudoroff pathway. Structural comparison indicates that the enzyme belongs to the ASKHA (acetate and sugar kinases/hsc70/actin) family of phosphotransferases. The protein is composed of two α/β domains, each of which contains a core common to all family members. Additional elements introduced between conserved structural motifs define the unique features of 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase and possibly determine the biological function of the protein.

  1. [Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis associated with liver abscess: a case report].

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, T; Nakamura, H; Takei, I; Maruyama, H; Kataoka, K; Saruta, T; Kobayashi, Y

    1989-10-01

    We report a rare case of Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis associated with liver abscess, which was successfully treated with cefotaxime (CTX), one of the third-generation cephalosporins. A 53-year-old man was admitted to Keio University Hospital on June 13, 1988, because of a fever and a headache. On June 3, he suddenly started shivering and his temperature rose to 39 degrees C. He then began to complain of polydipsia, polyuria, and a weight loss of 4 kg a week. On June 11, he developed a severe headache. Four years prior to this incident, he had been diagnosed as having diabetes after a routine medical examination, but had neglected to undergo medical treatment. On admission, laboratory data showed leukocytosis, hyperglycemia (394 mg/dl) and ketonuria (4+). A lumbar puncture yielded cloudy cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing 500/3 cells/mm8, of which about 70% were neutrophils. A diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and purulent meningitis was made. A treatment with ampicillin (ABPC) and CTX, (12 g/day, each) was begun. On the third day, cultures of a blood specimen and CSF yielded both K. pneumoniae. The MICs of CTX to K. pneumoniae isolated from blood and CSF were both 0.05 microgram/ml. ABPC was discontinued, gentamicin was administered for 2 days, CTX was continued at the same dosage level and an administration of prednisolone 40 mg daily was begun.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2691713

  2. Structure of 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Karolina; Cuff, Marianne E.; Tesar, Christine; Feldmann, Brian; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    In most organisms, efficient d-galactose utilization requires the highly conserved Leloir pathway that converts d-galactose to d-glucose 1-phosphate. However, in some bacterial and fungal species alternative routes of d-galactose assimilation have been identified. In the so-called De LeyDoudoroff pathway, d-galactose is metabolized into pyruvate and d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate in five consecutive reactions carried out by specific enzymes. The penultimate step in this pathway involves the phosphorylation of 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate to 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate 6-phosphate catalyzed by 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase, with ATP serving as a phosphoryl-group donor. Here, a crystal structure of 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase from Klebsiella pneumoniae determined at 2.1? resolution is reported, the first structure of anenzyme from the De LeyDoudoroff pathway. Structural comparison indicates that the enzyme belongs to the ASKHA (acetate and sugar kinases/hsc70/actin) family of phosphotransferases. The protein is composed of two ?/? domains, each of which contains a core common to all family members. Additional elements introduced between conserved structural motifs define the unique features of 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase and possibly determine the biological function of the protein. PMID:21795809

  3. Klebsiella pneumoniae FimK Promotes Virulence in Murine Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Rosen, David A; Hilliard, Julia K; Tiemann, Kristin M; Todd, Elizabeth M; Morley, S Celeste; Hunstad, David A

    2016-02-15

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a chief cause of nosocomial pneumonia, is a versatile and commonly multidrug-resistant human pathogen for which further insight into pathogenesis is needed. We show that the pilus regulatory gene fimK promotes the virulence of K. pneumoniae strain TOP52 in murine pneumonia. This contrasts with the attenuating effect of fimK on urinary tract virulence, illustrating that a single factor may exert opposing effects on pathogenesis in distinct host niches. Loss of fimK in TOP52 pneumonia was associated with diminished lung bacterial burden, limited innate responses within the lung, and improved host survival. FimK expression was shown to promote serum resistance, capsule production, and protection from phagocytosis by host immune cells. Finally, while the widely used K. pneumoniae model strain 43816 produces rapid dissemination and death in mice, TOP52 caused largely localized pneumonia with limited lethality, thereby providing an alternative tool for studying K. pneumoniae pathogenesis and control within the lung. PMID:26347570

  4. Complementation analysis of Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants defective in nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R; Kennedy, C; Kondorosi, A; Krishnapillai, V; Merrick, M

    1977-11-29

    A series of mutants defective in nitrogen fixation (nif) were isolated in Klebsiella pneumoniae strain M5a1. The nif mutations were either located on plasmid pRD1 or on the K. pneumoniae chromosome. A total of 37 plasmid mutants and 28 chromosomal mutants were employed in complementation tests using the acetylene reduction technique. Most mutants could be assigned to one of seven nif cistrons: nifA, nifB, nifD, nifE, nifF, nifH, and nifK. Complementation analysis of two nif deletion mutants confirmed transductional evidence that these strains carry nifB-A-F deletions. One deletion mutant had, in contrast to previous transductional analysis, a functional nifK cistron and presumably is deleted for nifB-A-F-E. Examination of the biochemical phenotype of several mutants suggests that the nifA product has a regulatory function, and nifK, nifD and nifH are most probably the structural genes for nitrogenase. PMID:340923

  5. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF A PUTATIVE OXIDOREDUCTASE FROM KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE

    SciTech Connect

    Baig, M.; Brown, A.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram-negative enteric bacterium, is found in nosocomial infections which are acquired during hospital stays for about 10% of hospital patients in the United States. The crystal structure of a putative oxidoreductase from K. pneumoniae has been determined. The structural information of this K. pneumoniae protein was used to understand its function. Crystals of the putative oxidoreductase enzyme were obtained by the sitting drop vapor diffusion method using Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, Bis-Tris buffer, pH 5.5 as precipitant. These crystals were used to collect X-ray data at beam line X12C of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The crystal structure was determined using the SHELX program and refi ned with CNS 1.1. This protein, which is involved in the catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction, has an alpha/beta structure. It utilizes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) or nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to perform its function. This structure could be used to determine the active and co-factor binding sites of the protein, information that could help pharmaceutical companies in drug design and in determining the protein’s relationship to disease treatment such as that for pneumonia and other related pathologies.

  6. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1995-05-30

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  7. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  8. Protein secretion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the xcpA gene encodes an integral inner membrane protein homologous to Klebsiella pneumoniae secretion function protein PulO.

    PubMed Central

    Bally, M; Ball, G; Badere, A; Lazdunski, A

    1991-01-01

    xcp mutations have pleiotropic effects on the secretion of proteins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO. The nucleotide sequence of a 1.2-kb DNA fragment that complements the xcp-1 mutation has been determined. Sequence analysis shows the xcpA gene product to be a 31.8-kDa polypeptide, with a highly hydrophobic character. This is consistent with a localization in the cytoplasmic membrane in P. aeruginosa, determined after specific expression of the xcpA gene under control of the T7 phi 10 promoter. A very strong homology was found between XcpA and PulO, a membrane protein required for pullulanase secretion in Klebsiella pneumoniae. This suggests the existence of a signal sequence-dependent secretion process common to these two unrelated gram-negative bacteria. Images PMID:1898929

  9. CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saishu, Nobukazu; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Murase, Toshiyuki

    2014-08-01

    Three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) were obtained from three dairy cows with clinical mastitis in two farms in western Japan. Two of the 3 isolates from cows in different farms were able to transfer plasmids carrying the blaCTX-M-2 gene to Escherichia coli recipient. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the 2 isolates were different from each other, although restricted-fragment patterns of the two conjugative plasmids were similar to each other. Additionally, PCR-based replicon typing revealed that both the plasmids belonged to type Inc.T. These results suggest that ESBL-encoding genes can be distributed in bacteria on dairy farms through the plasmids. PMID:24784438

  10. Occurrence of bacteriophages infecting Aeromonas, Enterobacter, and Klebsiella in water and association with contamination sources in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wangkahad, Bencharong; Bosup, Suchada; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee

    2015-06-01

    The co-residence of bacteriophages and their bacterial hosts in humans, animals, and environmental sources directed the use of bacteriophages to track the origins of the pathogenic bacteria that can be found in contaminated water. The objective of this study was to enumerate bacteriophages of Aeromonas caviae (AecaKS148), Enterobacter sp. (EnspKS513), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (KlpnKS648) in water and evaluate their association with contamination sources (human vs. animals). Bacterial host strains were isolated from untreated wastewater in Bangkok, Thailand. A double-layer agar technique was used to detect bacteriophages. All three bacteriophages were detected in polluted canal samples, with likely contamination from human wastewater, whereas none was found in non-polluted river samples. AecaKS148 was found to be associated with human fecal sources, while EnspKS513 and KlpnKS648 seemed to be equally prevalent in both human and animal fecal sources. Both bacteriophages were also present in polluted canals that could receive contamination from other fecal sources or the environment. In conclusion, all three bacteriophages were successfully monitored in Bangkok, Thailand. This study provided an example of bacteriophages for potential use as source identifiers of pathogen contamination. The results from this study will assist in controlling sources of pathogen contamination, especially in developing countries. PMID:26042992

  11. Effect of antimicrobial peptides on colistin-susceptible and colistin-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter asburiae.

    PubMed

    Kádár, Béla; Kocsis, Béla; Kristof, Katalin; Tóth, Ákos; Szabó, Dóra

    2015-12-01

    In this study susceptibility to different antimicrobial peptides was investigated on colistin-susceptible and colistin-resistant identical pulsotype strains of KPC-2 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 as well as colistin-susceptible and colistin-resistant Enterobacter asburiae strains isolated from clinical samples. In our test, bacteria were exposed to 50 mg/ml lactoferrin, lysozyme and protamine - cationic antimicrobial peptides belonging to innate immune system and having structural similarity to polymyxins - in separate reactions. After 18 hours incubation of colonies were counted. 40% of colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae strains and 97% of colistin-susceptible counterpart strains were lysed by protamine whereas 87% and 100% colony forming unit decrease by lysozyme was seen, respectively. In the case of colistin-resistant E. asburiae strains 1 log10 cell count increase were observed after treatment with lysozyme and 1.56 log10 after lactoferrin exposure compared to the initial number whereas the colistin-susceptible showed no relevant cell count increase. Our findings suggest that acquired colistin-resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is associated with tolerance against antimicrobial peptides. PMID:26689883

  12. S-thanatin functionalized liposome potentially targeting on Klebsiella pneumoniae and its application in sepsis mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaobo; Fan, Juxiang; Wang, Xiyong; Wu, Pengpeng; Wu, Guoqiu

    2015-01-01

    S-thanatin (Ts) was a short antimicrobial peptide with selective antibacterial activity. In this study, we aimed to design a drug carrier with specific bacterial targeting potential. The positively charged Ts was modified onto the liposome surface by linking Ts to the constituent lipids via a PEG linker. The benefits of this design were evaluated by preparing a series of liposomes and comparing their biological effects in vitro and in vivo. The particle size and Zeta potential of the constructed liposomes were measured with a Zetasizer Nano ZS system and a confocal laser scanning microscope. The in vitro drug delivery potential was evaluated by measuring the cellular uptake of encapsulated levofloxacin using HPLC. Ts-linked liposome or its conjugates with quantum dots favored bacterial cells, and increased the bacterial uptake of levofloxacin. In antimicrobial assays, the Ts and levofloxacin combination showed a synergistic effect, and Ts-LPs-LEV exhibited excellent activity against the quality control stain Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 and restored the susceptibility of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae clinical isolates to levofloxacin in vitro. Furthermore, Ts-LPs-LEV markedly reduced the lethality rate of the septic shock and resulted in rapid bacterial clearance in mouse models receiving clinical multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates. These results suggest that the Ts-functionalized liposome may be a promising antibiotic delivery system for clinical infectious disorders caused by MDR bacteria, in particular the sepsis related diseases. PMID:26578959

  13. Comparison of biofilm and attachment mechanisms of a phytopathological and clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae Subsp. pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Nicolau Korres, Adriana Marcia; Aquije, Gloria Maria de Farias V; Buss, David S; Ventura, Jose Aires; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Some bacterial species can colonize humans and plants. It is almost impossible to prevent the contact of clinically pathogenic bacteria with food crops, and if they can persist there, they can reenter the human food chain and cause disease. On the leaf surface, microorganisms are exposed to a number of stress factors. It is unclear how they survive in such different environments. By increasing adhesion to diverse substrates, minimizing environmental differences, and providing protection against defence mechanisms, biofilms could provide part of the answer. Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae is clinically important and also associated with fruit diseases, such as "pineapple fruit collapse." We aimed to characterize biofilm formation and adhesion mechanisms of this species isolated from pineapple in comparison with a clinical isolate. No differences were found between the two isolates quantitatively or qualitatively. Both tested positive for capsule formation and were hydrophobic, but neither produced adherence fibres, which might account for their relatively weak adhesion compared to the positive control Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984. Both produced biofilms on glass and polystyrene, more consistently at 40°C than 35°C, confirmed by atomic force and high-vacuum scanning electron microscopy. Biofilm formation was maintained in an acidic environment, which may be relevant phytopathologically. PMID:24222755

  14. Effects of the hindlimb-unloading model of spaceflight conditions on resistance of mice to infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belay, Tesfaye; Aviles, Hernan; Vance, Monique; Fountain, Kimberly; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been well documented in several studies that many immunologic parameters are altered in experimental animals and human subjects who have flown in space. However, it is not fully known whether these immunologic changes could result in increased susceptibility to infection. Hindlimb (antiorthostatic) unloading of rodents has been used successfully to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight on physiologic systems. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hindlimb unloading on the outcome of Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in mice. METHODS: Hindlimb-unloaded, hindlimb-restrained, and control mice were intraperitoneally infected with one 50% lethal dose of K pneumoniae 2 days after suspension. Mortality and bacterial load in several organs were compared among the groups. RESULTS: Unloaded mice showed significantly increased mortality and reduced mean time to death compared with that seen in the control groups. Kinetics of bacterial growth with smaller infective doses revealed that control mice were able to clear bacteria from the organs after 30 hours. In contrast, unloaded mice had continued bacterial growth at the same time point. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that hindlimb unloading might enhance the dissemination of K pneumoniae, leading to increased mortality. The complex physiologic changes observed during hindlimb unloading, including stress, have a key role in the pathophysiology of this infection.

  15. Degradation of the metal-cyano complex tetracyanonickelate(II) by cyanide-utilizing bacterial isolates. [Klebsiella; Pseudomonas putida

    SciTech Connect

    Silva-Avalos, J.; Richmond, M.G.; Nagappan, O.; Kunz, D.A. )

    1990-12-01

    Ten bacterial isolates capable of growth on tetracyanonickelate(II) {l brace}K{sub 2}(Ni(CN){sub 4}){r brace} (TCN) as the sole nitrogen source were isolated from soil, freshwater, and sewage sludge enrichments. Seven of the 10 were identified as pseudomonads, while the remaining 3 were classified as Klebsiella species. A detailed investigation of one isolate, Pseudomonas putide BCN3, revealed a rapid growth rate on TCN (generation time, 2 h), with substrate removal and growth occurring in parallel. In addition to TCN, all isolates were able to utilize KCN, although the latter was significantly more toxic; MICs ranged from 0.2 to 0.8 mM for KCN and {ge}50 mM for TCN. While growth occurred over a wide range of TCN concentrations (0.25 to 16 mM), degradation was most substantial under growth-limiting conditions and did not occur when ammonia was present. In addition, cells grown on TCN were found to accumulate nickel cyanide (Ni(CN){sub 2}) as a major biodegradation product. The results show that bacteria capable of growth on TCN can readily be isolated and that degradation (i) appears to parallel the capacity for growth on KCN, (ii) does not occur in the presence of ammonia, and (iii) proceeds via the formation of Ni(CN){sub 2} as a biological metabolite.

  16. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis treated successfully with polymyxin B.

    PubMed

    Parchuri, Suhba; Mohan, Sowjanya; Cunha, Burke A

    2005-01-01

    Peritonitis is not an infrequent complication of inpatients with chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). CAPD peritonitis may be related to the catheter or secondary to perforation of an intra-abdominal viscus. The most common organisms usually associated with CAPD peritonitis are Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (coagulase-negative staphylococci). Rarely, aerobic gram-negative bacilli have been the causative agents of CAPD peritonitis. The treatment of CAPD peritonitis usually requires removal of the peritoneal catheter and treatment with parenteral antibiotics active against the causative pathogen. We report a case of CAPD-associated peritonitis caused by an extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The case presented had this strain of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae present in blood cultures and the peritoneal fluid. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria, for example, K. pneumoniae, are multidrug-resistant and sensitive to few antibiotics. This isolate was intermediately sensitive to amikacin and meropenem, but the patient did not clinically improve on these 2 antibiotics. Polymyxin B therapy was initiated after lack of clinical improvement after dialysis catheter removal and 1 week of meropenem and amikacin therapy. The patient responded rapidly to therapy with polymyxin B. Polymyxin B has a unique mechanism of action on bacterial cells and is highly active against all multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms except Proteus species and Serratia marcescens. No toxicity was observed during therapy. Polymyxin B is being used increasingly as a therapeutic alternative to multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms. PMID:16157192

  17. Emergence of OXA-48-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ling; Wang, Jann-Tay; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Siu, L Kristopher; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Lin, Jung-Chung; Lu, Min-Chi; Lu, Po-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The isolation of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae has increased dramatically in Mediterranean countries in the past 10 years, and has recently emerged in Asia. Between January 2012 and May 2014, a total of 760 carbapenem non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (CnSKP) isolates were collected during a Taiwan national surveillance. Carbapenemases were detected in 210 CnSKP isolates (27.6%), including 162 KPC-2 (n = 1), KPC-3, KPC-17, and NDM-1 (n = 1 each), OXA-48 (n = 4), IMP-8 (n = 18), and VIM-1 (n = 24). The four blaOXA-48 CnSKP isolates were detected in late 2013. Herein we report the emergence OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae isolates in Taiwan. PFGE analysis revealed that the four isolates belonged to three different pulsotypes. Three isolates harboured blaCTX-M genes and belonged to MLST type ST11. In addition, the plasmids belonged to the incompatibility group, IncA/C. One isolate belonged to ST116 and the plasmid incompatibility group was non-typeable. The sequence upstream of the blaOXA-48 gene in all four isolates was identical to pKPOXA-48N1, a blaOXA-48-carrying plasmid. This is the first report of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Taiwan and the second report to identify blaOXA-48 on an IncA/C plasmid in K. pneumoniae. Given that three isolates belong to the same pandemic clone (ST11) and possess the IncA/C plasmid and similar plasmid digestion profile that indicated the role of clonal spread or plasmid for dissemination of blaOXA-48 gene, the emergence of OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae in Taiwan is of great concern. PMID:26414183

  18. Properties of Klebsiella phage P13 and associated exopolysaccharide depolymerase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Guiyang; Mo, Zhaolan; Chai, Zihan; Shang, Anqi; Mou, Haijin

    2013-11-01

    The bacteriophage P13 that infects Klebsiella serotype K13 contains a heat-stable depolymerase capable of effective degradation of exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by this microorganism. In this study, the titer of phage P13, initially 2.0 × 107 pfu mL-1, was found increasing 20 min after infection and reached 5.0 × 109 pfu mL-1 in 60 min. Accordingly, the enzyme activity of depolymerase approached the maximum 60 min after infection. Treatment at 70°C for 30 min inactivated all the phage, but retained over 90% of the depolymerase activity. Addition of acetone into the crude phage lysate led to precipitation of the protein, with a marked increase in bacterial EPS degradation activity and a rapid drop in the titer of phage. After partial purification by acetone precipitation and ultrafiltration centrifugation, the enzyme was separated from the phage particles, showing two components with enzyme activity on Q-Sepharose Fast Flow. The soluble enzyme had an optimum degradation activity at 60°C and pH 6.5. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the phage P13 particles were spherical with a diameter of 50 nm and a short stumpy tail. It was a doublestrand DNA virus consisting of a nucleic acid molecule of 45976 bp. This work provides an efficient purification operation including thermal treatment and ultrafiltration centrifugation, to dissociate depolymerase from phage particles. The characterization of phage P13 and associated EPS depolymerase is beneficial for further application of this enzyme.

  19. Emergence of OXA-48-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ling; Wang, Jann-Tay; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Siu, L. Kristopher; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Lin, Jung-Chung; Lu, Min-Chi; Lu, Po-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The isolation of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae has increased dramatically in Mediterranean countries in the past 10 years, and has recently emerged in Asia. Between January 2012 and May 2014, a total of 760 carbapenem non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (CnSKP) isolates were collected during a Taiwan national surveillance. Carbapenemases were detected in 210 CnSKP isolates (27.6%), including 162 KPC-2 (n = 1), KPC-3, KPC-17, and NDM-1 (n = 1 each), OXA-48 (n = 4), IMP-8 (n = 18), and VIM-1 (n = 24). The four blaOXA-48 CnSKP isolates were detected in late 2013. Herein we report the emergence OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae isolates in Taiwan. PFGE analysis revealed that the four isolates belonged to three different pulsotypes. Three isolates harboured blaCTX-M genes and belonged to MLST type ST11. In addition, the plasmids belonged to the incompatibility group, IncA/C. One isolate belonged to ST116 and the plasmid incompatibility group was non-typeable. The sequence upstream of the blaOXA-48 gene in all four isolates was identical to pKPOXA-48N1, a blaOXA-48-carrying plasmid. This is the first report of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Taiwan and the second report to identify blaOXA-48 on an IncA/C plasmid in K. pneumoniae. Given that three isolates belong to the same pandemic clone (ST11) and possess the IncA/C plasmid and similar plasmid digestion profile that indicated the role of clonal spread or plasmid for dissemination of blaOXA-48 gene, the emergence of OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae in Taiwan is of great concern. PMID:26414183

  20. The volatile metabolome of Klebsiella pneumoniae in human blood.

    PubMed

    Rees, Christiaan A; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Hill, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of bloodstream infections in critically-ill patients, with mortality exceeding 50% for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant strains. Despite its importance as a bacteremia-causing agent, there is little known about the metabolism of K. pneumoniae during growth in pure human blood. Here, we comprehensively profile the volatile metabolites produced by K. pneumoniae during growth in human blood to approximately mid-exponential (7 h) and early stationary (12 h) phases using 2D gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). We identified 33 volatile molecules that were significantly more abundant in K. pneumoniae cultures relative to sterile blood, of which 22 were detected in cultures only. We identified nine molecules that have not previously been reported as K. pneumoniae-associated headspace volatiles, four of which we believe to be novel bacterial-associated volatiles. We also identified a set of 17 volatile molecules that discriminate between 7 h and 12 h K. pneumoniae cultures, indicating either growth phase or cell density-associated changes in the composition of headspace volatiles. Our analysis of the volatile molecules produced by K. pneumoniae during growth in human blood using GC×GC-TOFMS has doubled the number of volatiles reported for this organism in blood-containing media, and increased the total number of K. pneumoniae-associated volatiles by 20%. The volatile molecules produced by K. pneumoniae in blood may represent novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of bacteremia. PMID:27163334

  1. Identification of antigenic proteins of the nosocomial pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Sebastian; Bier, Frank F; von Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The continuous expansion of nosocomial infections around the globe has become a precarious situation. Key challenges include mounting dissemination of multiple resistances to antibiotics, the easy transmission and the growing mortality rates of hospital-acquired bacterial diseases. Thus, new ways to rapidly detect these infections are vital. Consequently, researchers around the globe pursue innovative approaches for point-of-care devices. In many cases the specific interaction of an antigen and a corresponding antibody is pivotal. However, the knowledge about suitable antigens is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify novel antigens as specific diagnostic markers. Additionally, these proteins might be aptly used for the generation of vaccines to improve current treatment options. Hence, a cDNA-based expression library was constructed and screened via microarrays to detect novel antigens of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a prominent agent of nosocomial infections well-known for its extensive antibiotics resistance, especially by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). After screening 1536 clones, 14 previously unknown immunogenic proteins were identified. Subsequently, each protein was expressed in full-length and its immunodominant character examined by ELISA and microarray analyses. Consequently, six proteins were selected for epitope mapping and three thereof possessed linear epitopes. After specificity analysis, homology survey and 3d structural modelling, one epitope sequence GAVVALSTTFA of KPN_00363, an ion channel protein, was identified harboring specificity for K. pneumoniae. The remaining epitopes showed ambiguous results regarding the specificity for K. pneumoniae. The approach adopted herein has been successfully utilized to discover novel antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica antigens before. Now, we have transferred this knowledge to the key nosocomial agent, K. pneumoniae. By identifying several novel antigens and their linear epitope sites, we have paved the way for crucial future research and applications including the design of point-of-care devices, vaccine development and serological screenings for a highly relevant nosocomial pathogen. PMID:25333280

  2. Hospital Readmissions in Patients With Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Messina, Julia A; Cober, Eric; Richter, Sandra S; Perez, Federico; Salata, Robert A; Kalayjian, Robert C; Watkins, Richard R; Scalera, Nikole M; Doi, Yohei; Kaye, Keith S; Evans, Scott; Bonomo, Robert A; Fowler, Vance G; van Duin, David

    2016-03-01

    BACKGROUND Various transmission routes contribute to spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in hospitalized patients. Patients with readmissions during which CRKP is again isolated ("CRKP readmission") potentially contribute to transmission of CRKP. OBJECTIVE To evaluate CRKP readmissions in the Consortium on Resistance against Carbapenems in K. pneumoniae (CRaCKLe). DESIGN Cohort study from December 24, 2011, through July 1, 2013. SETTING Multicenter consortium of acute care hospitals in the Great Lakes region. PATIENTS All patients who were discharged alive during the study period were included. Each patient was included only once at the time of the first CRKP-positive culture. METHODS All readmissions within 90 days of discharge from the index hospitalization during which CRKP was again found were analyzed. Risk factors for CRKP readmission were evaluated in multivariable models. RESULTS Fifty-six (20%) of 287 patients who were discharged alive had a CRKP readmission. History of malignancy was associated with CRKP readmission (adjusted odds ratio [adjusted OR], 3.00 [95% CI, 1.32-6.65], P<.01). During the index hospitalization, 160 patients (56%) received antibiotic treatment against CRKP; the choice of regimen was associated with CRKP readmission (P=.02). Receipt of tigecycline-based therapy (adjusted OR, 5.13 [95% CI, 1.72-17.44], using aminoglycoside-based therapy as a reference in those treated with anti-CRKP antibiotics) was associated with CRKP readmission. CONCLUSION Hospitalized patients with CRKP-specifically those with a history of malignancy-are at high risk of readmission with recurrent CRKP infection or colonization. Treatment during the index hospitalization with a tigecycline-based regimen increases this risk. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(3):281-288. PMID:26686227

  3. Hypermucoviscosity as a Virulence Factor in Experimental Klebsiella pneumoniae Endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Wiskur, B.J.; Hunt, J.J.; Callegan, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis, a disease that frequently results in a poor visual outcome. Hypermucoviscosity has been identified as a virulence factor among clinical bacteremia isolates of K. pneumoniae. In this study, we established an experimental murine model of K. pneumoniae endophthalmitis and analyzed the role of hypermucoviscosity in pathogenesis. Methods C57BL/6J mice were intravitreally injected with 100 CFU of hypermucoviscous (HMV+) or non-hypermucoviscous (HMV−) K. pneumoniae. Intraocular bacterial growth, retinal function, gross pathology, and inflammatory responses were monitored every 3 h until the eyes lost significant (>90%) retinal function or appeared to clear the infection. Results The HMV+ strain grew logarithmically in eyes until approximately 15 h postinfection, reaching a stationary phase of growth at approximately 8.0 log10 CFU/eye. The HMV− strain grew logarithmically to approximately 7.6 log10 by 18 h, but bacterial numbers declined to approximately 6.4 log10 CFU/eye by 21 h postinfection. Eyes infected with the HMV+ strain retained approximately 35% A-wave and <10% B-wave function by 18 h postinfection. These eyes also had a cumulative clinical score of 14+ by 18 h and underwent phthisis between 21–24 h. Eyes infected with the HMV− strain had a cumulative clinical score of <6 and retained >60% A-wave and >50% B-wave function throughout 21 h. Five of 7 eyes had <100 CFU HMV− K. pneumoniae at 27 h postinfection. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate the site-threatening consequences of K. pneumoniae endophthalmitis and the importance of the hypermucoviscosity phenotype in the pathogenesis of experimental K. pneumoniae endophthalmitis. PMID:18586871

  4. CHAPTER IV-2 BACTERIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic bacteria provide an alternative to chemical pesticides used in insect control programs. Today, the principal microbial insecticides utilize spore forming bacteria or toxins produced by these bacteria as their active ingredients, either in formulations or by incorporation of toxin g...

  5. Fungi outcompete bacteria under increased uranium concentration in culture media.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2013-06-01

    As a key part of water management at the Ranger Uranium Mine (Northern Territory, Australia), stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water was applied to natural woodland on the mine lease in accordance with regulatory requirements. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium concentrations. Soil samples were collected from LAAs with different concentrations of uranium and extracts were plated onto LB media containing no (0 ppm), low (3 ppm), medium (250 ppm), high (600 ppm) and very high (1500 ppm) uranium concentrations. These concentrations were similar to the range of measured uranium concentrations in the LAAs soils. Bacteria grew on all plates except for the very high uranium concentrations, where only fungi were recovered. Identifications based on bacterial 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria belonged to the genus Bacillus. Members of the genera Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Klebsiella, Microbacterium and Chryseobacterium were also isolated from the LAAs soil samples. Fungi were identified by sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer region, and members of the genera Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Penicillium and Curvularia were dominant on plates with very high uranium concentrations. Members of the Paecilomyces and Alternaria were also present but in lower numbers. These findings indicate that fungi can tolerate very high concentrations of uranium and are more resistant than bacteria. Bacteria and fungi isolated at the Ranger LAAs from soils with high concentrations of uranium may have uranium binding capability and hence the potential for uranium bioremediation. PMID:23416228

  6. Insect Antimicrobial Peptide Complexes Prevent Resistance Development in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chernysh, Sergey; Gordya, Natalia; Suborova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades much attention has been paid to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as natural antibiotics, which are presumably protected from resistance development in bacteria. However, experimental evolution studies have revealed prompt resistance increase in bacteria to any individual AMP tested. Here we demonstrate that naturally occurring compounds containing insect AMP complexes have clear advantage over individual peptide and small molecule antibiotics in respect of drug resistance development. As a model we have used the compounds isolated from bacteria challenged maggots of Calliphoridae flies. The compound isolated from blow fly Calliphora vicina was found to contain three distinct families of cell membrane disrupting/permeabilizing peptides (defensins, cecropins and diptericins), one family of proline rich peptides and several unknown antimicrobial substances. Resistance changes under long term selective pressure of the compound and reference antibiotics cefotaxime, meropenem and polymyxin B were tested using Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains. All the strains readily developed resistance to the reference antibiotics, while no signs of resistance growth to the compound were registered. Similar results were obtained with the compounds isolated from 3 other fly species. The experiments revealed that natural compounds containing insect AMP complexes, in contrast to individual AMP and small molecule antibiotics, are well protected from resistance development in bacteria. Further progress in the research of natural AMP complexes may provide novel solutions to the drug resistance problem. PMID:26177023

  7. In vitro fermentation of lactulose by human gut bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mao, Bingyong; Li, Dongyao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Gu, Zhennan; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2014-11-12

    Lactulose has been known as a prebiotic that can selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Recent studies have indicated that Streptococcus mutans, Clostridium perfringens, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii are also able to utilize lactulose. However, the previous studies mainly focused on the utilization of lactulose by individual strains, and few studies were designed to identify the species that could utilize lactulose among gut microbiota. This study aimed to identify lactulose-metabolizing bacteria in the human gut, using in silico and traditional culture methods. The prediction results suggested that genes for the transporters and glycosidases of lactulose are well distributed in the genomes of 222 of 453 strains of gastrointestinal-tract bacteria. The screening assays identified 35 species with the ability to utilize lactulose, of which Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas putida were reported for the first time to be capable of utilizing lactulose. In addition, significant correlations between lactulose and galactooligosaccharide metabolism were found. Thus, more attention should be paid to bacteria besides bifidobacteria and lactobacilli to further investigate the relationship between functional oligosaccharides and gut bacteria. PMID:25340538

  8. Isolation of a salt tolerant pleomorphic Klebsiella strain from a case of diabetic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Linke, H A; Sánchez-Cordero, S; Hoffman, H

    1980-01-01

    An unusual Klebsiella strain was isolated from a deep periodontal pocket of a diabetic patient. According to its biochemical reactions the new strain differed from Klebsiella pneumoniae and other described biotypes. In addition, the new isolate was very salt tolerant; in the presence of 7.5% sodium chloride the bacterium changed into a spirillum-like form, with highly pleomorphic filaments, and reverted immediately to the short rod form at lower sodium chloride concentrations or in the absence of sodium chloride. Optimum growth was observed in the presence of 2% sodium chloride. A wide range of carbohydrates was fermented with a large amount of gas production. It appears that the adaptation of the isolated Klebsiella strain to sodium chloride allows it to enter the ecological niche of periodontal lesions. PMID:7432188

  9. The Role of Klebsiella in Crohn's Disease with a Potential for the Use of Antimicrobial Measures

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Taha; Ebringer, Alan; Wilson, Clyde

    2013-01-01

    There is a general consensus that Crohn's disease (CD) develops as the result of immune-mediated tissue damage triggered by infections with intestinal microbial agents. Based on the results of existing microbiological, molecular, and immunological studies, Klebsiella microbe seems to have a key role in the initiation and perpetuation of the pathological damage involving the gut and joint tissues in patients with CD. Six different gastroenterology centres in the UK have reported elevated levels of antibodies to Klebsiella in CD patients. There is a relationship between high intake of starch-containing diet, enhanced growth of gut microbes, and the production of pullulanases by Klebsiella. It is proposed that eradication of these microbes by the use of antibiotics and low starch diet, in addition to the currently used treatment, could help in alleviating or halting the disease process in CD. PMID:24223596

  10. The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae endogenous endophthalmitis in the USA: basic and clinical advances

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) is a rare but devastating infection that occurs secondary to seeding of the intraocular cavity from an extraocular focus. Recent reports suggest the increasing prevalence and incidence of Klebsiella pneumoniae as a causative organism in Asian countries. Analysis of the largest cohorts published to date suggests that K. pneumoniae endogenous endophthalmitis (KPEE) is 10 to 15 times more prevalent than other causes of EE. The incidence of KPEE among patients with systemic Klebsiella infection appears to be >100-fold more common than other causes of EE. The exact reason for these observations is not clear, but a number of studies now suggest that Klebsiella serotypes K1 and K2 have virulence factors that enhance their survival in diabetic patients and increase their pathogenicity. Here, we report two cases of KPEE in the USA. We also review the recent clinical and basic science literature on the prevalence, incidence, and pathophysiology of this emerging and devastating infection. PMID:23514342

  11. CXCL1 Regulates Pulmonary Host Defense to Klebsiella Infection via CXCL2 , CXCL5, NF-κB and MAPKs

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shanshan; Batra, Sanjay; Lira, Sergio A.; Kolls, Jay K.; Jeyaseelan, Samithamby

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary bacterial infections are a leading cause of death. Since the introduction of antibiotics, multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) became an escalating threat. Therefore, development of methods to augment antibacterial defense is warranted. Neutrophil recruitment is critical to clear bacteria and neutrophil migration in the lung requires the production of ELR+ CXC chemokines. Although lung specific CXCL1/KC transgene expression causes neutrophil-mediated clearance of Kp, the mechanisms underlying KC-mediated host defense against Kp have not been explored. Here we delineated the host defense functions of KC during pulmonary Kp infection using KC-/- mice. Our findings demonstrate that KC is important for expression of CXCL2/MIP-2 and CXCL5/LIX and activation of NF-κB, and MAPKs in the lung. Furthermore, KC-derived from both hematopoietic and resident cells contributes to host defense against Kp. Neutrophil depletion in mice prior to Kp infection reveals no differences in the production of MIP-2 and LIX or activation of NF-κB and MAPKs in the lung. Using murine bone marrow-derived (BMMs) and alveolar macrophages, we confirmed KC-mediated upregulation of MIP-2 and activation of NF-κB and MAPKs upon Kp infection. Moreover, neutralizing KC in BMMs prior to Kp challenge decreases bacteria-induced production of KC, MIP-2 and activation of NF-κB and MAPKs. These findings reveal the importance of KC produced by hematopoietic and resident cells in regulating pulmonary host defense against a bacterial pathogen via the activation of transcription factors and MAPKs as well as the expression of cell adhesion molecules and other neutrophil chemoattractants. PMID:20937845

  12. Insights into the evolution of gene organization and multidrug resistance from Klebsiella pneumoniae plasmid pKF3-140.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Liu, Qi; Yang, Yang; Wang, Junrong; Yang, Yanmei; Li, Jinsong; Li, Peizhen; Li, Xueying; Xi, Yali; Ying, Jun; Ren, Ping; Yang, Lei; Ni, Liyan; Wu, Jinyu; Bao, Qiyu; Zhou, Tieli

    2013-04-25

    Plasmid-mediated transfer of drug-resistance genes among various bacterial species is considered one of the most important mechanisms for the spread of multidrug resistance. To gain insights into the evolution of gene organization and antimicrobial resistance in clinical bacterial samples, a complete plasmid genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae pKF3-140 is determined, which has a circular chromosome of 147,416bp in length. Among the 203 predicted genes, 142 have function assignment and about 50 appear to be involved in plasmid replication, maintenance, conjugative transfer, iron acquisition and transport, and drug resistance. Extensive comparative genomic analyses revealed that pKF3-140 exhibits a rather low sequence similarity and structural conservation with other reported K. pneumoniae plasmids. In contrast, the overall organization of pKF3-140 is highly similar to Escherichia coli plasmids p1ESCUM and pUTI89, which indicates the possibility that K. pneumoniae pKF3-140 may have a potential origin in E. coli. Meanwhile, interestingly, several drug resistant genes show high similarity to the plasmid pU302L in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium U302 strain G8430 and the plasmid pK245 in K. pneumoniae. This mosaic pattern of sequence similarities suggests that pKF3-140 might have arisen from E. coli and acquired the resistance genes from a variety of enteric bacteria and underscores the importance of a further understanding of horizontal gene transfer among enteric bacteria. PMID:23402892

  13. In Silico Analysis of Usher Encoding Genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Characterization of Their Role in Adhesion and Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Khater, Fida; Balestrino, Damien; Charbonnel, Nicolas; Dufayard, Jean François; Brisse, Sylvain; Forestier, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Chaperone/usher (CU) assembly pathway is used by a wide range of Enterobacteriaceae to assemble adhesive surface structures called pili or fimbriae that play a role in bacteria-host cell interactions. In silico analysis revealed that the genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae LM21 harbors eight chromosomal CU loci belonging to γκп and ϭ clusters. Of these, only two correspond to previously described operons, namely type 1 and type 3-encoding operons. Isogenic usher deletion mutants of K. pneumoniae LM21 were constructed for each locus and their role in adhesion to animal (Intestine 407) and plant (Arabidopsis thaliana) cells, biofilm formation and murine intestinal colonization was investigated. Type 3 pili usher deleted mutant was impaired in all assays, whereas type 1 pili usher deleted mutant only showed attenuation in adhesion to plant cells and in intestinal colonization. The LM21ΔkpjC mutant was impaired in its capacity to adhere to Arabidopsis cells and to colonize the murine intestine, either alone or in co-inoculation experiments. Deletion of LM21kpgC induced a significant decrease in biofilm formation, in adhesion to animal cells and in colonization of the mice intestine. The LM21∆kpaC and LM21∆kpeC mutants were only attenuated in biofilm formation and the adhesion abilities to Arabidopsis cells, respectively. No clear in vitro or in vivo effect was observed for LM21∆kpbC and LM21∆kpdC mutants. The multiplicity of CU loci in K. pneumoniae genome and their specific adhesion pattern probably reflect the ability of the bacteria to adhere to different substrates in its diverse ecological niches. PMID:25751658

  14. Oncocin Onc72 is efficacious against antibiotic-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 43816 in a murine thigh infection model.

    PubMed

    Knappe, Daniel; Adermann, Knut; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    Oncocins and apidaecins are short proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) representing novel antibiotic drug lead compounds that kill bacteria after internalization and inhibition of intracellular targets (e.g. 70S ribosome and DnaK). Oncocin Onc72 is highly active against Gram-negative bacteria in vitro and in vivo protecting mice in systemic infection models with Escherichia coli and KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Here we studied its efficacy in a murine thigh infection model using meropenem as antibiotic comparator that had a 44-fold higher molar in vitro activity than Onc72. Male CD1 mice were rendered neutropenic using cyclophosphamide for four days before intramuscular infection with K. pneumoniae ATCC 43816. After 75 min oncocin Onc72 or the antibiotic comparator meropenem were administered subcutaneously with 100 mg (43 µmol) and 25 mg (65 µmol) per kg of body weight, respectively, six times every 75 min. Onc72 and meropenem administered subcutaneously reduced the thigh tissue burden of K. pneumoniae ATCC 43816 in neutropenic mice significantly by 4.14 and 4.65 a log10 cfu/g, respectively. The bacterial counts were ∼0.5 and ∼1 log10 below the pre-treatment burden, respectively, indicating bactericidal effects for both compounds. Thus, Onc72 was as efficacious as meropenem in vivo despite its much lower in vitro activity determined according to CLSI standard antimicrobial activity tests. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 104:707-711, 2015. PMID:25968331

  15. Susceptibility of various oral antibacterial agents against extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Masaru; Yamasaki, Katsutoshi; Fukuda, Saori; Higuchi, Takeshi; Ono, Tamotsu; Nishio, Hisaaki; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Kida, Kaneyuki; Satoh, Kaori; Toda, Hirofumi; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Nishi, Isao; Sakamoto, Masako; Akagi, Masahiro; Mizutani, Tetsu; Nakai, Isako; Kofuku, Tomomi; Orita, Tamaki; Zikimoto, Takuya; Natsume, Seiko; Wada, Yasunao

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in the community, cases are often seen in which treatment of infectious diseases with oral antimicrobial agents is difficult. Therefore, we measured the antimicrobial activities of 14 currently available oral antimicrobial agents against ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Based on the standard of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), E. coli showed high susceptibility rates of 99.4% to faropenem (FRPM). In terms of fluoroquinolones, the susceptibility rate of E. coli to levofloxacin (LVFX) was low at 32.2%, whereas it showed a good susceptibility rate of 93.1% to sitafloxacin (STFX). With respect to other antimicrobial agents, susceptibility rates to fosfomycin (FOM) and colistin (CL) were more than 90% each, whereas rates of the two antimicrobial agents expected as therapeutic agents, minocycline (MINO) and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (ST), were low at 62.4% and 44.3%, respectively. Based on the CLSI standard, K. pneumoniae showed high susceptibility rates to ceftibuten (CETB) (91.89%), LVFX (86.49%), and STFX (94.6%), indicating that K. pneumoniae showed higher rates than those of E. coli, particularly to fluoroquinolones. Comparison of susceptibility rates according to E. coli genotype showed that many antimicrobial agents existed to which the CTX-M-9 group showed high susceptibility rates. However, there were many agents to which the CTX-M-1 group showed low susceptibility rates, particularly to CETB (51.1%) and LVFX (17.0%). Although there was no significant difference by genotype between FRPM, STFX, and FOM, a significant difference was observed between LVFX, MINO, and ST. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria with highly pathogenic strains have spread in the community, appropriate use of oral antimicrobial agents is required. PMID:24462425

  16. Identification of the plasmid-mobilization potential of the strain Klebsiella pneumoniae ozenae KIIIA isolated from a polluted aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Albiger, B; Hubert, J C; Lett, M C

    1999-01-01

    The Klebsiella pneumoniae ozenae KIIIA strain was isolated from the River Rhine soon after a serious mercury pollution episode and was selected for mercury resistance as well as for intergeneric DNA mobilization helper potential. This transfer helper capacity was shown to be related to the presence of a Tn3-like transposable element, Tn5403. Because transposon-mediated fusion was found to be involved in the mobilization potential of KIIIA, the visualization and the identification of the conjugative element, responsible for the transfer, were necessary. Our results show that, in addition to the four nonconjugative plasmids visualized in a previous study, K. pneumoniae ozenae KIIIA harbors two other plasmids, pK130 and pK45, of respective sizes of 130 and 45 kb, but none of these plasmids is involved in the mobilization mechanism. The presence of yet another extrachromosomal element pK225, with a size of 225 kb, was established by indirect methods, since yields of pK225 isolated from KIIIA were low and the plasmid was difficult to visualize directly. However, the integration of this plasmid into the chromosome was not detected. The present paper highlights the problem of detecting some plasmids in bacteria which have been isolated from the environment. For these plasmids, indirect approaches, that detect conjugative functions, constitute a feasible alternative for the investigation of the plasmid content of bacteria, if the direct approach fails. An analysis of the different types of transconjugants indicated that the mercury-resistance marker as well as the mobilization potentials, expressed by KIIIA, are linked to pK225. This plasmid could not be assigned to a described Inc group either by DNA hybridization or by PCR amplification. PMID:9887304

  17. Surveillance of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: Tracking Molecular Epidemiology and Outcomes through a Regional Network

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Federico; Rudin, Susan D.; Cober, Eric; Hanrahan, Jennifer; Ziegler, Julie; Webber, Raymond; Fox, Jacqueline; Mason, Pamela; Richter, Sandra S.; Cline, Marianne; Hall, Geraldine S.; Kaye, Keith S.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Kalayjian, Robert C.; Salata, Robert A.; Segre, Julia A.; Conlan, Sean; Evans, Scott; Fowler, Vance G.

    2014-01-01

    Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is on the rise in the United States. A regional network was established to study microbiological and genetic determinants of clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with carbapenem-resistant (CR) Klebsiella pneumoniae in a prospective, multicenter, observational study. To this end, predefined clinical characteristics and outcomes were recorded and K. pneumoniae isolates were analyzed for strain typing and resistance mechanism determination. In a 14-month period, 251 patients were included. While most of the patients were admitted from long-term care settings, 28% of them were admitted from home. Hospitalizations were prolonged and complicated. Nonsusceptibility to colistin and tigecycline occurred in isolates from 7 and 45% of the patients, respectively. Most of the CR K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) types A and B (both sequence type 258) and carried either blaKPC-2 (48%) or blaKPC-3 (51%). One isolate tested positive for blaNDM-1, a sentinel discovery in this region. Important differences between strain types were noted; rep-PCR type B strains were associated with blaKPC-3 (odds ratio [OR], 294; 95% confidence interval [CI], 58 to 2,552; P < 0.001), gentamicin nonsusceptibility (OR, 24; 95% CI, 8.39 to 79.38; P < 0.001), amikacin susceptibility (OR, 11.0; 95% CI, 3.21 to 42.42; P < 0.001), tigecycline nonsusceptibility (OR, 5.34; 95% CI, 1.30 to 36.41; P = 0.018), a shorter length of stay (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.00; P = 0.043), and admission from a skilled-nursing facility (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.26 to 8.08; P = 0.013). Our analysis shows that (i) CR K. pneumoniae is seen primarily in the elderly long-term care population and that (ii) regional monitoring of CR K. pneumoniae reveals insights into molecular characteristics. This work highlights the crucial role of ongoing surveillance of carbapenem resistance determinants. PMID:24798270

  18. The Resistance Mechanism and Clonal Distribution of Tigecycline-Nonsusceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Chulsoo; Yoon, Sang Sun; Yong, Tae Soon; Lee, Kyungwon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Tigecycline is one of the drugs used to treat multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) infections, including complicated skin and soft tissue infections, complicated intra-abdominal infection, and community-acquired pneumonia in the Republic of Korea. However, since its commercial release, K. pneumoniae resistance against tigecycline has been reported, and there is a serious concern about the spread of tigecycline resistant bacteria. Materials and Methods In this study, we collected and analyzed 342 isolates from 23 hospitals in the Republic of Korea to determine the mechanisms of tigecycline susceptibility and their clonal types. The hospitals include several from each province in the Republic of Korea, except Jeju, an island province, and nonsusceptibility among the isolates was tested by the disk diffusion method. In our lab, susceptibility was checked again using the broth dilution method, and clonal types were determined using the multilocus sequence typing protocol. Real-time PCR was performed to measure the ramR mutation in the isolates nonsusceptible to tigecycline, which would suggest an increased expression of the AcrAB multidrug pump. Results Fifty-six K. pneumoniae isolates were found to be nonsusceptible, 16% of the 342 collected. Twenty-seven and nine isolates of the tigecycline nonsusceptible isolates had mutations in the ramR and rpsJ genes, respectively; while 18 nonsusceptible isolates harbored the tetA gene. Comparison of isolates with and without ramR mutation showed a significant statistical difference (p<0.05) for expression of AcrAB. Moreover, the most common clonal types, as observed in our study, appear to be ST11 and ST789. Conclusion Several dominate clonal types infer tigecycline resistance to K. pneumoniae, including ST11, ST768, ST15, ST23, ST48, and ST307. There does not seem to be a transferrable medium, such as plasmid, for the resistance yet, although mutation of the ramR gene may be a common event, accounting for 48% of the nonsusceptibility in this study. PMID:26996563

  19. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Serves a Protective Role during Klebsiella pneumoniae - Induced Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Achouiti, Ahmed; de Vos, Alex F.; van ‘t Veer, Cornelis; Florquin, Sandrine; Tanck, Michael W.; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bierhaus, Angelika; van der Poll, Tom; van Zoelen, Marieke A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella species is the second most commonly isolated gram-negative organism in sepsis and a frequent causative pathogen in pneumonia. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is expressed on different cell types and plays a key role in diverse inflammatory responses. We here aimed to investigate the role of RAGE in the host response to Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae pneumonia and intransally inoculated rage gene deficient (RAGE-/-) and normal wild-type (Wt) mice with K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumonia resulted in an increased pulmonary expression of RAGE. Furthermore, the high-affinity RAGE ligand high mobility group box-1 was upregulated during K. pneumoniae pneumonia. RAGE deficiency impaired host defense as reflected by a worsened survival, increased bacterial outgrowth and dissemination in RAGE-/- mice. RAGE-/- neutrophils showed a diminished phagocytosing capacity of live K. pneumoniae in vitro. Relative to Wt mice, RAGE-/- mice demonstrated similar lung inflammation, and slightly elevated—if any—cytokine and chemokine levels and unchanged hepatocellular injury. In addition, RAGE-/- mice displayed an unaltered response to intranasally instilled Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with respect to pulmonary cell recruitment and local release of cytokines and chemokines. These data suggest that (endogenous) RAGE protects against K. pneumoniae pneumonia. Also, they demonstrate that RAGE contributes to an effective antibacterial defense during K. pneumoniae pneumonia, at least partly via its participation in the phagocytic properties of professional granulocytes. Additionally, our results indicate that RAGE is not essential for the induction of a local and systemic inflammatory response to either intact Klebsiella or Klebsiella LPS. PMID:26824892

  20. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Serves a Protective Role during Klebsiella pneumoniae - Induced Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Achouiti, Ahmed; de Vos, Alex F; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Florquin, Sandrine; Tanck, Michael W; Nawroth, Peter P; Bierhaus, Angelika; van der Poll, Tom; van Zoelen, Marieke A D

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella species is the second most commonly isolated gram-negative organism in sepsis and a frequent causative pathogen in pneumonia. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is expressed on different cell types and plays a key role in diverse inflammatory responses. We here aimed to investigate the role of RAGE in the host response to Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae pneumonia and intransally inoculated rage gene deficient (RAGE-/-) and normal wild-type (Wt) mice with K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumonia resulted in an increased pulmonary expression of RAGE. Furthermore, the high-affinity RAGE ligand high mobility group box-1 was upregulated during K. pneumoniae pneumonia. RAGE deficiency impaired host defense as reflected by a worsened survival, increased bacterial outgrowth and dissemination in RAGE-/- mice. RAGE-/- neutrophils showed a diminished phagocytosing capacity of live K. pneumoniae in vitro. Relative to Wt mice, RAGE-/- mice demonstrated similar lung inflammation, and slightly elevated-if any-cytokine and chemokine levels and unchanged hepatocellular injury. In addition, RAGE-/- mice displayed an unaltered response to intranasally instilled Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with respect to pulmonary cell recruitment and local release of cytokines and chemokines. These data suggest that (endogenous) RAGE protects against K. pneumoniae pneumonia. Also, they demonstrate that RAGE contributes to an effective antibacterial defense during K. pneumoniae pneumonia, at least partly via its participation in the phagocytic properties of professional granulocytes. Additionally, our results indicate that RAGE is not essential for the induction of a local and systemic inflammatory response to either intact Klebsiella or Klebsiella LPS. PMID:26824892

  1. Klebsiella pneumonia: An unusual cause of ophthalmia neonatorum in a healthy newborn.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jaya B; Silverstein, Evan; Wallace, David K

    2015-12-01

    Ophthalmia neonatorum is one of the most common infections during the neonatal period. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea must be ruled out, given their high virulence and systemic complications. We describe a case of ophthalmia neonatroum from Klebsiella pneumonia. Gram-negative organisms have been reported in hospital-acquired conjunctivitis (HAC), but we are unaware of any published reports of K. pneumonia conjunctivitis in an otherwise healthy full-term infant born in the United States who has received prophylaxis. It is important to promptly identify and treat Klebsiella conjunctivitis because it can lead to severe complications. PMID:26691043

  2. Comparision of Three Laboratory Tests for Detection of AmpC β Lactamases in Klebsiella Species and E. Coli

    PubMed Central

    Deotale, V.S.; Mendiratta, D.K.; Narang, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: AmpC β lactamases are one of the important causes of drug resistance in gram negative bacteria. Failure to detect these enzymes in the laboratory has contributed to therapeutic failures but there are till date no standard guideline available. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate three phenotypic laboratory tests and the inhibitors used in two of the tests to detect AmpC β lactamases produced by E. coli and Klebsiella species as they are most commonly isolated organisms. Methods: E. coli and Klebsiella isolates from different clinical samples were tested for ESBLs production as per CLSI guidelines and excluded from the study. The non-ESBLs isolates were then screened for AmpC β lactamases production, by cefoxitin and then confirmed by three different methods, i.e., Disc Potentiation Test (DPT) , Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST) and Modified Three Dimensional Test (M3DT) which in the absence of molecular methods, was taken as the gold standard. Boronic acid and cloxacillin were used as inhibitory agents in the Disc Potentiation and Double Disc synergy Tests. Results: A total of 2,933 isolates were tested out of which 165 isolates were detected as non ESBLs producers,135 (81.82%) when screened for AmpC β lactamases based on resistance to cefoxitin were labelled as positive. 30 (18.18%) cefoxitin sensitive isolates were labelled as probably non AmpC producers . M3DT, in addition to detecting all the 135 (100%) cefoxitin resistant isolates, also detected 5 (16.67%) cefoxitin sensitive isolates as AmpC producers. Other phenotypic tests, DPT and DDST with different inhibitors like boronic acid and cloxacillin in different potencies were all found to be less sensitive. The best results among these two methods were obtained with DDST using cloxacillin 500μg. Conclusion: In the absence of recommended guidelines for AmpC detection, the study reports, among the tests performed, M3DT as the best phenotypic method for AmpC confirmation, as it is not only the most sensitive but also specific test for AmpC as it rules out the resistance due to other mechanisms like the porin channel. PMID:25120977

  3. Molecular characterization, metal uptake and copper induced transcriptional activation of efflux determinants in copper resistant isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Zulfiqar, Soumble; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf

    2012-11-15

    An efflux system, comprising cus determinants, plays an important role in pumping out this metal in gram negative bacteria exposed to high concentration of copper. Cus determinants comprise two operons, one regulatory (cusRS) and the other structural (cusCFBA). Although the efflux system has been described in quite a few members of Enterobacteriaceae, little is known about this system in Klebsiella spp. We are describing cus determinants in Klebsiella pneumoniae for the first time and also providing evidence for their metal-induced expression, both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Copper resistant K. pneumoniae, capable of copper uptake and later efflux of excessive copper, was isolated from industrial waste water. Expression of both cusRS and cusCFBA was quantified at transcriptional level through real time PCR. The results demonstrated that cus determinants were functional under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The mRNA level of both operons increased several fold in the presence of non-lethal as well as sub-lethal copper concentrations. The increase in cusCFBA transcripts was 74.8 fold 15 min after exposure to 3mM Cu(++) under aerobic conditions compared to the 16 fold increase in cusRS under the same conditions. Under anaerobic conditions the cusCFBA transcripts increased 32.65 fold and the cusRS five fold within 15 min after exposure to 3mM Cu(++). It is concluded that cus genetic determinants in K. pneumoniae comprise structural component (cusCFBA) and a regulatory component (cusRS), which show several fold expression under copper induction both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, the structural genes express 4.7 fold more than the regulatory genes, whereas under anaerobic conditions, this expression is 6.5 fold. Finally, time course study revealed a novel pattern of immediate up-regulated expression followed by decreased and another increased in the transcript level of both operons of cus determinants in the presence of copper. PMID:22960400

  4. Harvesting energy of interaction between bacteria and bacteriophage in a membrane-less fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ragini; Bekele, Wasihun; Ghatak, Animangsu

    2013-11-01

    When a fuel and oxidant flow in laminar contact through a micro-fluidic channel, a sharp interface appears between the two liquids, which eliminate the need of a proton exchange membrane. This principle has been used to generate potential in a membrane-less fuel cell. This study use such a cell to harvest energy of interaction between a bacteria having negative charge on its surface and a bacteriophage with positive and negative charges on its tail and head, respectively. When Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp6) and phage (P-Kp6) are pumped through a fuel cell fitted with two copper electrodes placed at its two sides, interaction between these two charged species at the interface results in a constant open circuit potential which varies with concentration of charged species but gets generated for both specific and non-specific bacteria and phage system. Oxygenation of bacteria or phage however diminishes the potential unlike in conventional microbial fuel cells. PMID:24021411

  5. [Sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics (Zurich, 2000)].

    PubMed

    Zbinden, R; Pfyffer, G E; Wüst, J

    2001-12-13

    This paper describes the frequency of susceptibility of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria against antibacterial agents. Data are based on all susceptibility tests performed at the Department of Medical Microbiology of the University of Zurich in 2000. The evaluation of the results from 1987 to 2000 shows that susceptibilities against the antimicrobial agents tested have not markedly changed with the following exceptions: 7% of Staphylococcus aureus are resistant against methicillin, 8% of pneumococci have a reduced susceptibility to penicillin, 1% is resistant to penicillin, and 10% are resistant to macrolides. 9% of group A streptococci are resistant to macrolides. Quinolone resistance is markedly high in the medical practice with 10% of E. coli strains and 32% of Campylobacter sp. Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli producing extended spectrum betalactamases are isolated occasionally. Of all strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from clinical specimens in 2000, 4% were multi-drug resistant. The tables may be a help for the physician in his decision for a "calculated chemotherapy" of bacterial infections. PMID:11793839

  6. [Study of Rapid Species Identification of Bacteria in Water].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiu-yue; Zhao, Nan-jing; Duan, Jing-bo; Fang, Li; Meng, De-shuo; Yang, Rui-fang; Xiao, Xue; Liu, Jian-guo; Liu, Wen-qing

    2015-09-01

    Multi-wavelength ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) transmission spectra of bacteria combined the forward scattering and absorption properties of microbes, contains substantial information on size, shape, and the other chemical, physiological character of bacterial cells, has the bacterial species specificity, which can be applied to rapid species identification of bacterial microbes. Four different kinds of bacteria including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumonia which were commonly existed in water were researched in this paper. Their multi-wavelength UV-Vis transmission spectra were measured and analyzed. The rapid identification method and model of bacteria were built which were based on support vector machine (SVM) and multi-wavelength UV-Vis transmission spectra of the bacteria. Using the internal cross validation based on grid search method of the training set for obtaining the best penalty factor C and the kernel parameter g, which the model needed. Established the bacteria fast identification model according to the optimal parameters and one-against-one classification method included in LibSVM. Using different experimental bacteria strains of transmission spectra as a test set of classification accuracy verification of the model, the analysis results showed that the bacterial rapid identification model built in this paper can identification the four kinds bacterial which chosen in this paper as the accuracy was 100%, and the model also can identified different subspecies of E. coli test set as the accuracy was 100%, proved the model had a good stability in identification bacterial species. In this paper, the research results of this study not only can provide a method for rapid identification and early warning of bacterial microbial in drinking water sources, but also can be used as the microbes identified in biomedical a simple, rapid and accurate means. PMID:26669181

  7. Identification and Characterization of the fis Operon in Enteric Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Michael B.; Osuna, Robert

    1998-01-01

    The small DNA binding protein Fis is involved in several different biological processes in Escherichia coli. It has been shown to stimulate DNA inversion reactions mediated by the Hin family of recombinases, stimulate integration and excision of phage λ genome, regulate the transcription of several different genes including those of stable RNA operons, and regulate the initiation of DNA replication at oriC. fis has also been isolated from Salmonella typhimurium, and the genomic sequence of Haemophilus influenzae reveals its presence in this bacteria. This work extends the characterization of fis to other organisms. Very similar fis operon structures were identified in the enteric bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Erwinia carotovora, and Proteus vulgaris but not in several nonenteric bacteria. We found that the deduced amino acid sequences for Fis are 100% identical in K. pneumoniae, S. marcescens, E. coli, and S. typhimurium and 96 to 98% identical when E. carotovora and P. vulgaris Fis are considered. The deduced amino acid sequence for H. influenzae Fis is about 80% identical and 90% similar to Fis in enteric bacteria. However, in spite of these similarities, the E. carotovora, P. vulgaris, and H. influenzae Fis proteins are not functionally identical. An open reading frame (ORF1) preceding fis in E. coli is also found in all these bacteria, and their deduced amino acid sequences are also very similar. The sequence preceding ORF1 in the enteric bacteria showed a very strong similarity to the E. coli fis P region from −53 to +27 and the region around −116 containing an ihf binding site. Both β-galactosidase assays and primer extension assays showed that these regions function as promoters in vivo and are subject to growth phase-dependent regulation. However, their promoter strengths vary, as do their responses to Fis autoregulation and integration host factor stimulation. PMID:9811652

  8. Understanding the patterns of antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria causing urinary tract infection in West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sunayana; Nayak, Sridhara; Bhattacharyya, Indrani; Saha, Suman; Mandal, Amit K.; Chakraborty, Subhanil; Bhattacharyya, Rabindranath; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Franco, Octavio L.; Mandal, Santi M.; Basak, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level. In order to assess the adequacy of empirical therapy, the susceptibility of antibiotics and resistance pattern of bacteria responsible for UTI in West Bengal, India, were evaluated throughout the period of 20082013. The infection reports belonging to all age groups and both sexes were considered. Escherichia coli was the most abundant uropathogen with a prevalence rate of 67.1%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (22%) and Pseudomonas spp. (6%). Penicillin was least effective against UTI-causing E. coli and maximum susceptibility was recorded for the drugs belonging to fourth generation cephalosporins. Other abundant uropathogens, Klebsiella spp., were maximally resistant to broad-spectrum penicillin, followed by aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporin. The antibiotic resistance pattern of two principal UTI pathogens, E. coli and Klebsiella spp. in West Bengal, appears in general to be similar to that found in other parts of the Globe. Higher than 50% resistance were observed for broad-spectrum penicillin. Fourth generation cephalosporin and macrolides seems to be the choice of drug in treating UTIs in Eastern India. Furthermore, improved maintenance of infection incident logs is needed in Eastern Indian hospitals in order to facilitate regular surveillance of the occurrence of antibiotic resistance patterns, since such levels continue to change. PMID:25278932

  9. Histamine-producing bacteria in decomposing skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis).

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, D H; Frank, H A

    1982-08-01

    Spoilage in skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) was studied under controlled conditions by incubating whole, fresh fish in seawater at 38 degrees C, the optimum temperature for histamine formation. Bacterial isolates were obtained from the loin tissue of a decomposing tuna containing 134 mg of histamine per 100 g and a total anaerobic count of 3.5 x 10(5)/g after incubation for 24 h. Over 92% of the 134 isolates obtained were facultatively or obligately anaerobic bacteria. Eighteen isolates produced histamine in culture media containing histidine, and these were identified as Clostridium perfringens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Vibrio alginolyticus. Histidine decarboxylase activity of several isolates was measured in a tuna broth medium and with resting cells suspended in a buffered histidine solution. PMID:6289747

  10. Histamine-producing bacteria in decomposing skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis).

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaga, D H; Frank, H A

    1982-01-01

    Spoilage in skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) was studied under controlled conditions by incubating whole, fresh fish in seawater at 38 degrees C, the optimum temperature for histamine formation. Bacterial isolates were obtained from the loin tissue of a decomposing tuna containing 134 mg of histamine per 100 g and a total anaerobic count of 3.5 x 10(5)/g after incubation for 24 h. Over 92% of the 134 isolates obtained were facultatively or obligately anaerobic bacteria. Eighteen isolates produced histamine in culture media containing histidine, and these were identified as Clostridium perfringens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Vibrio alginolyticus. Histidine decarboxylase activity of several isolates was measured in a tuna broth medium and with resting cells suspended in a buffered histidine solution. PMID:6289747

  11. Survival of pathogenic bacteria in various freshwater sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Burton, G A; Gunnison, D; Lanza, G R

    1987-01-01

    Four human-associated bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella newport, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, were tested for survival in five freshwater sediments. Bacterial survival in continuous-flow chambers was monitored over 14-day periods on sediments ranging from organically rich high-clay fractions to organically poor sandy fractions. Bacterial die-off ranged from 1 to 5 orders of magnitude in sediments. E. coli survived as long as or longer than S. newport. P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae tended to survive longer than E. coli. Survival of E. coli and S. newport was greater in sediments containing at least 25% clay. Good reproducibility allowed the development of linear models to describe die-off rates. PMID:3107467

  12. Sensitization of Gram-negative bacteria to rifampin and OAK combinations

    PubMed Central

    Jammal, Joanna; Zaknoon, Fadia; Kaneti, Galoz; Goldberg, Keren; Mor, Amram

    2015-01-01

    While individually inefficient against Gram-negative bacteria, in-vitro combinations of rifampin and OAK were mutually synergistic since sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations of one compound have potentiated the other by 2–4 orders of magnitude. Synergy persisted in-vivo as single-dose systemic treatment of Klebsiella infected mice resulted in 10–20% versus 60% survival, respectively accomplished by individual and combined compounds. This outcome was achieved without drug formulation, rather, pharmacokinetic considerations have inspired the therapeutic regimen. PMID:25782773

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Klebsiella pneumonia recovered from nonhuman primates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a zoonotic, Gram-negative member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and is the causative agent of nosocomial septicemic, pneumonic, and urinary tract infections. Recently, pathogenic strains of K. pneumoniae sharing a hypermucoviscosity (HMV) phenotype have been attributed to ...

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Carbapenemase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Myophage Matisse.

    PubMed

    Provasek, Vincent E; Lessor, Lauren E; Cahill, Jesse L; Rasche, Eric S; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a leading cause of nosocomial infections in the United States. Due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, phages targeting K. pneumoniae may be a useful alternative against this pathogen. Here, we announce the complete genome of K. pneumoniae pseudo-T-even myophage Matisse and describe its features. PMID:26430049

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae Myophage Miro

    PubMed Central

    Mijalis, Eleni M.; Lessor, Lauren E.; Cahill, Jesse L.; Rasche, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen frequently associated with antibiotic-resistant nosocomial infections. Bacteriophage therapy against K. pneumoniae may be possible to combat these infections. The following describes the complete genome sequence and key features of the pseudo-T-even K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae myophage Miro. PMID:26430050

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Carbapenemase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Myophage Matisse

    PubMed Central

    Provasek, Vincent E.; Lessor, Lauren E.; Cahill, Jesse L.; Rasche, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a leading cause of nosocomial infections in the United States. Due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, phages targeting K. pneumoniae may be a useful alternative against this pathogen. Here, we announce the complete genome of K. pneumoniae pseudo-T-even myophage Matisse and describe its features. PMID:26430049

  17. Whole genome analysis of Klebsiella pneumoniae T2-1-1 from human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Xin-Yue

    2016-03-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae T2-1-1 was isolated from the human tongue debris and subjected to whole genome sequencing on HiSeq platform and annotated on RAST. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JAQL00000000. PMID:26981378

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae Siphophage Sushi

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Dat T.; Lessor, Lauren E.; Cahill, Jesse L.; Rasche, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is associated with numerous nosocomial infections, including respiratory and urinary tract infections in humans. The following reports the complete genome sequence of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae T1-like siphophage Sushi and describes its major features. PMID:26337889

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae Siphophage Sushi.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dat T; Lessor, Lauren E; Cahill, Jesse L; Rasche, Eric S; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is associated with numerous nosocomial infections, including respiratory and urinary tract infections in humans. The following reports the complete genome sequence of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae T1-like siphophage Sushi and describes its major features. PMID:26337889

  20. Liver Abscess Caused by Infection with Community-Acquired Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Breurec, Sebastien; Melot, Benedicte; Hoen, Bruno; Passet, Virginie; Schepers, Kinda; Bastian, Sylvaine

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of pyogenic liver abscess caused by community-acquired Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae. The infecting isolate had 2 prominent features of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains: the capsular polysaccharide synthesis region for K1 serotype and the integrative and conjugative element ICEKp1, which encodes the virulence factors yersiniabactin, salmochelin, and RmpA. PMID:26890371

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae Myophage Miro.

    PubMed

    Mijalis, Eleni M; Lessor, Lauren E; Cahill, Jesse L; Rasche, Eric S; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen frequently associated with antibiotic-resistant nosocomial infections. Bacteriophage therapy against K. pneumoniae may be possible to combat these infections. The following describes the complete genome sequence and key features of the pseudo-T-even K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae myophage Miro. PMID:26430050

  2. Role of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1/3 in Klebsiella-derived pneumosepsis.

    PubMed

    Hommes, Tijmen J; Dessing, Mark C; Veer, Cornelis van 't; Florquin, Sandrine; Colonna, Marco; de Vos, Alex F; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 and -2 can affect Toll-like receptor-mediated activation of immune cells. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of pneumonia-derived sepsis. Here we studied the role of TREM-1/3 and TREM-2 in the host response during Klebsiella pneumonia. Macrophages lacking either TREM-1/3 or TREM-2 were tested for their responsiveness toward K. pneumoniae and for their capacity to internalize this pathogen in vitro. TREM-1/3- and TREM-2-deficient mice were infected with K. pneumoniae via the airways, and their responses were compared with those in wild-type mice. TREM-1/3-deficient macrophages produced lower cytokine levels upon exposure to K. pneumoniae, whereas TREM-2-deficient macrophages released higher cytokine concentrations. TREM-2-deficient, but not TREM-1/3-deficient, macrophages showed a reduced capacity to phagocytose K. pneumoniae. TREM-1/3-deficient mice showed an impaired host defense during Klebsiella pneumonia, as reflected by worsened survival and increased bacterial growth and dissemination. In contrast, TREM-2 deficiency did not affect disease outcome. Although TREM-1/3 and TREM-2 influence macrophage responsiveness to K. pneumoniae in vitro, only TREM-1/3 contribute to the host response during Klebsiella pneumonia in vivo, serving a protective role. PMID:25860078

  3. Neonatal Klebsiella Septicaemia in Ibadan: Implications for Neonatal Care in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omokhodion, S. I.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The antecedent events, clinical features, prevalence, and complications of neonatal Klebsiella septicaemia in 73 infants admitted to a special care baby unit in Nigeria are retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 72 infants who had no risk factors for sepsis admitted to the same unit during the same period. A nosocomial acquisition of…

  4. Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Producing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Spain: Microbiological and Clinical Features▿

    PubMed Central

    de Alegría, C. Ruiz; Rodríguez-Baño, J.; Cano, M. E.; Hernández-Bello, J. R.; Calvo, J.; Román, E.; Díaz, M. A.; Pascual, A.; Martínez-Martínez, L.

    2011-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) of the CTX-M, SHV, and TEM families were recognized in 76 (67%), 31 (27%), and 6 (5%) isolates, respectively, among 162 ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp) strains obtained in a multicenter study in Spain. Predisposing factors for ESBL-Kp acquisition included invasive procedures, mechanical ventilation, and previous antimicrobial use. PMID:21191059

  5. Two cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess necessitating liver resection for effective treatment

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Chandler, A; Kumar, N

    2015-01-01

    We report two British cases of liver abscess, due to Klebsiella pneumoniae and associated with synchronous infection elsewhere, which required liver resection for definitive treatment. They illustrate the geographic spread of aggressive K pneumoniae liver infection and demonstrate the importance of early aggressive treatment. PMID:26263824

  6. Successful Treatment of Carbapenemase-Producing Pandrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Simkins, Jacques; Beduschi, Thiago; Tekin, Akin; Aragon, Laura; Pérez-Cardona, Armando; Prado, Clara E.; Morris, Michele I.; Abbo, Lilian M.

    2015-01-01

    New antibiotic options are urgently needed for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections. We report a 64-year-old female with prolonged hospitalization following an intestinal transplant who developed refractory bacteremia due to a serine carbapenemase-producing pandrug-resistant isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae. After failing multiple antimicrobial regimens, the patient was successfully treated. PMID:26386029

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of a Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Positive Sequence Type 111 Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Gabrielle A.; Dekker, John P.; Palmore, Tara N.; Segre, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a sequence type 111 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated in 2014 from a patient at the NIH Clinical Center. This P. aeruginosa strain exhibits pan-drug resistance and harbors the blaKPC-2 gene, encoding the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase enzyme, on a plasmid. PMID:26868386

  8. Genomic Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae IIEMP-3, a Vitamin B12-Producing Strain from Indonesian Tempeh

    PubMed Central

    Yulandi, Adi; Sugiokto, Febri Gunawan; Febrilina

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae strain IIEMP-3, isolated from Indonesian tempeh, is a vitamin B12-producing strain that exhibited a different genetic profile from pathogenic isolates. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain IIEMP-3, which may provide insights on the nature of fermentation, nutrition, and immunological function of Indonesian tempeh. PMID:26950331

  9. Complete genome sequence of a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated from a known cotton insect boll vector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (associated with bacterial pneumonia) was previously isolated from Nezara viridula, a significant vector of cotton boll-rot pathogens. We provide the first annotated genome sequence of the cotton opportunistic strain K. pneumoniae 5-1. This data provides guidance to study the...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae UCD-JA29 Isolated from a Patient with Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Alexiev, Alexandra; Coil, David A; Jospin, Guillaume; Eisen, Jonathan A; Adams, Jason Y

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the 6,155,188-bp draft genome sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae UCD-JA29, isolated from blood cultures from a patient with sepsis at the University of California, Davis Medical Center in Sacramento, California, USA. PMID:27151785

  11. THERMOTOLERANT NON-FECAL SOURCE 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE': VALIDITY OF THE FECAL COLIFORM TEST IN RECREATIONAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wisconsin pulp and paper mill processing plants were evaluated for fecal coliform and total Klebsiella (i.e., thermotolerant and thermointolerant) bacterial concentrations. Using the standard fecal coliform test, up to 90 per cent of non-fecal source thermo-tolerant K. pneumoniae...

  12. Suppurative peritonitis by Klebsiella pneumoniae in captive gold-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas midas).

    PubMed

    Guerra, Maria F L; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Ribeiro, Vanessa L; Cunha, Marcos P V; Oliveira, Maria G X; Davies, Yamê M; Silva, Ketrin C; Silva, Ana P S; Lincopan, Nilton; Moreno, Andrea M; Knöbl, Terezinha

    2016-02-01

    This report describes an outbreak of suppurative peritonitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in an adult female of captive golden-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas midas). Two virulent and multidrug-resistant strains were isolated and classified through MLST as ST60 and ST1263. The microbiological diagnosis works as a support tool for preventive measures. PMID:26620445

  13. Whole genome analysis of Klebsiella pneumoniae T2-1-1 from human oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Xin-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae T2-1-1 was isolated from the human tongue debris and subjected to whole genome sequencing on HiSeq platform and annotated on RAST. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JAQL00000000. PMID:26981378

  14. Genomic Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae IIEMP-3, a Vitamin B12-Producing Strain from Indonesian Tempeh.

    PubMed

    Yulandi, Adi; Sugiokto, Febri Gunawan; Febrilina; Suwanto, Antonius

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae strain IIEMP-3, isolated from Indonesian tempeh, is a vitamin B12-producing strain that exhibited a different genetic profile from pathogenic isolates. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain IIEMP-3, which may provide insights on the nature of fermentation, nutrition, and immunological function of Indonesian tempeh. PMID:26950331

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae UCD-JA29 Isolated from a Patient with Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Alexiev, Alexandra; Coil, David A.; Jospin, Guillaume; Adams, Jason Y.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the 6,155,188-bp draft genome sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae UCD-JA29, isolated from blood cultures from a patient with sepsis at the University of California, Davis Medical Center in Sacramento, California, USA. PMID:27151785

  16. Immunoproteomic to analysis the pathogenicity factors in leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyan; Cheng, Zhongle; Song, Wen; Wu, Wenyong; Zhou, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Incidences of leukopenia caused by bacteremia have increased significantly and it is associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased cost. Immunoproteomic is a promising method to identify pathogenicity factors of different diseases. In the present study, we used immunoproteomic to analysis the pathogenicity factors in leukopenia caused by Klebsiella Pneumonia bacteremia. Approximately 40 protein spots localized in the 4 to 7 pI range were detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, and 6 differentially expressed protein spots between 10 and 170 kDa were identified. Pathogenicity factors including S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, glutathione synthetase, UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, acetate kinase A and elongation factor tu (EF-Tu). In validation of the pathogenicity factor, we used western blotting to show that Klebsiella pneumonia had higher (EF-Tu) expression when they accompanied by leukopenia rather than leukocytosis. Thus, we report 6 pathogenicity factors of leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia bacteremia, including 5 housekeeping enzymes and EF-Tu. We suggest EF-Tu could be a potential pathogenicity factor for leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia. PMID:25330314

  17. Neonatal Klebsiella Septicaemia in Ibadan: Implications for Neonatal Care in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omokhodion, S. I.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The antecedent events, clinical features, prevalence, and complications of neonatal Klebsiella septicaemia in 73 infants admitted to a special care baby unit in Nigeria are retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 72 infants who had no risk factors for sepsis admitted to the same unit during the same period. A nosocomial acquisition of

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain CAV1193

    PubMed Central

    Sebra, Robert; Kasarskis, Andrew; Deikus, Gintaras; Anson, Luke; Walker, A. Sarah; Peto, Tim E.; Crook, Derrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenem resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae, frequently conferred by the blaKPC gene, is a major public health threat. We sequenced a blaKPC-containing strain of K. pneumoniae belonging to the emergent lineage ST941, in order to better understand the evolution of blaKPC within this species. PMID:26823590

  19. Microbiological and Genetic Characterization of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated From Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Dara, Jasmeen S; Chen, Liang; Levi, Michael H; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Pellett Madan, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    This manuscript reports the clinical, microbiological, and genetic characteristics of carbapenem-resistant K. pnuemoniae isolates from pediatric patients at a tertiary-care children's hospital. Although there is an extensive body of literature describing carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella infections in adults, pediatric data are comparatively limited. PMID:24567846

  20. Liver Abscess Caused by Infection with Community-Acquired Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Breurec, Sebastien; Melot, Benedicte; Hoen, Bruno; Passet, Virginie; Schepers, Kinda; Bastian, Sylvaine; Brisse, Sylvain

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of pyogenic liver abscess caused by community-acquired Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae. The infecting isolate had 2 prominent features of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains: the capsular polysaccharide synthesis region for K1 serotype and the integrative and conjugative element ICEKp1, which encodes the virulence factors yersiniabactin, salmochelin, and RmpA. PMID:26890371

  1. Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

  2. Differential elimination of enteric bacteria by protists in a freshwater system.

    PubMed

    Iriberri, J; Azúa, I; Labirua-Iturburu, A; Artolozaga, I; Barcina, I

    1994-11-01

    The short-term (1 h) and long-term (3 d) elimination of low and high densities of five enteric bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, by flagellate and ciliate protists were measured in a freshwater system. In addition, the two processes, ingestion and digestion, which cause the disappearance of those enteric bacteria as time passes, were quantified. The results showed that the elimination of these enteric bacteria by protists depends on their initial density, which confirms that the lower the bacterial density the more difficult is their elimination. On the other hand, the short-term and long-term elimination rates of each enteric bacteria were different, and moreover, the order of priority for elimination in the two cases was not the same. Escherichia coli showed the highest elimination rate in short-term experiments, while Aer. hydrophila disappeared at highest rates in long-term experiments. This different order of priority in the elimination rates and the different digestion rates on the five enteric bacteria by phagotrophic protists indicated that the elimination in time is very much influenced by the digestive capacity on each enteric bacteria of those protists. Thus, the low digestion rates of Ent. faecalis and Staph. epidermidis by flagellates and ciliates as well as their low disappearance percentages in the long-term experiments confirm that enteric Gram-positive bacteria are eliminated from the aquatic systems at lower rates, because their digestion is difficult. PMID:8002473

  3. Antibacterial efficacy of lytic bacteriophages against antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella species.

    PubMed

    Karamoddini, M Khajeh; Fazli-Bazzaz, B S; Emamipour, F; Ghannad, M Sabouri; Jahanshahi, A R; Saed, N; Sahebkar, A

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a leading and highly prevalent problem in the treatment of infectious diseases. Bacteriophages (phages) appear to be effective and safe alternatives for the treatment of resistant infections because of their specificity for bacterial species and lack of infectivity in eukaryotic cells. The present study aimed to isolate bacteriophages against Klebsiella spp. and evaluate their efficacy against antibiotic-resistant species. Seventy-two antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella spp. were isolated from samples of patients who referred to the Ghaem Hospital (Mashhad, Iran). Lytic bacteriophages against Klebsiella spp. were isolated from wastewater of the septic tank of the same hospital. Bactericidal activity of phages against resistant Klebsiella spp. was tested in both liquid (tube method; after 1 and 24 h of incubation) and solid (double-layer agar plate method; after 24 h of incubation) phases. In each method, three different concentrations of bacteriophages (low: <10(4) PFU/mL, medium: 10(4)-10(7) PFU/mL, and high: >10(7) PFU/mL) were used. Bacteriophages showed promising bactericidal activity at all assessed concentrations, regardless of the test method and duration of incubation. Overall, bactericidal effects were augmented at higher concentrations. In the tube method, higher activity was observed after 24 h of incubation compared to the 1-h incubation. The bactericidal effects were also higher in the tube method compared to the double-layer agar plate method after 24 h of incubation. The findings of the present study suggest that bacteriophages possess effective bactericidal activity against resistant Klebsiella spp. These bactericidal activities are influenced by phage concentration, duration of incubation, and test method. PMID:21789469

  4. Modeling Klebsiella pneumoniae Pathogenesis by Infection of the Wax Moth Galleria mellonella

    PubMed Central

    Insua, Jos Luis; Llobet, Enrique; Moranta, David; Prez-Gutirrez, Camino; Toms, Anna; Garmendia, Junkal

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of infection models that approximate human disease is essential for understanding pathogenesis at the molecular level and for testing new therapies before they are entered into clinical stages. Insects are increasingly being used as surrogate hosts because they share, with mammals, essential aspects of the innate immune response to infections. We examined whether the larva of the wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used as a host model to conceptually approximate Klebsiella pneumoniae-triggered pneumonia. We report that the G. mellonella model is capable of distinguishing between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Klebsiella strains. Moreover, K. pneumoniae infection of G. mellonella models some of the known features of Klebsiella-induced pneumonia, i.e., cell death associated with bacterial replication, avoidance of phagocytosis by phagocytes, and the attenuation of host defense responses, chiefly the production of antimicrobial factors. Similar to the case for the mouse pneumonia model, activation of innate responses improved G. mellonella survival against subsequent Klebsiella challenge. Virulence factors necessary in the mouse pneumonia model were also implicated in the Galleria model. We found that mutants lacking capsule polysaccharide, lipid A decorations, or the outer membrane proteins OmpA and OmpK36 were attenuated in Galleria. All mutants activated G. mellonella defensive responses. The Galleria model also allowed us to monitor Klebsiella gene expression. The expression levels of cps and the loci implicated in lipid A remodeling peaked during the first hours postinfection, in a PhoPQ- and PmrAB-governed process. Taken together, these results support the utility of G. mellonella as a surrogate host for assessing infections with K. pneumoniae. PMID:23836821

  5. Outcomes and Risk Factors for Mortality among Patients Treated with Carbapenems for Klebsiella spp. Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Biehle, Lauren R.; Cottreau, Jessica M.; Thompson, David J.; Filipek, Rachel L.; O’Donnell, J. Nicholas; Lasco, Todd M.; Mahoney, Monica V.; Hirsch, Elizabeth B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Extensive dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae has led to increased resistance among Klebsiella species. Carbapenems are used as a last resort against resistant pathogens, but carbapenemase production can lead to therapy failure. Identification of risk factors for mortality and assessment of current susceptibility breakpoints are valuable for improving patient outcomes. Aim The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes and risk factors for mortality among patients treated with carbapenems for Klebsiella spp. bacteremia. Methods Patients hospitalized between 2006 and 2012 with blood cultures positive for Klebsiella spp. who received ≥ 48 hours of carbapenem treatment within 72 hours of positive culture were included in this retrospective study. Patient data were retrieved from electronic medical records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for 30-day hospital mortality. Results One hundred seven patients were included. The mean patient age was 61.5 years and the median APACHE II score was 13 ± 6.2. Overall, 30-day hospital mortality was 9.3%. After adjusting for confounding variables, 30-day mortality was associated with baseline APACHE II score (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01–1.35; P = 0.03), length of stay prior to index culture (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00–1.06; P = 0.04), and carbapenem non-susceptible (imipenem or meropenem MIC > 1 mg/L) infection (OR, 9.08; 95% CI, 1.17–70.51; P = 0.04). Conclusions Baseline severity of illness and length of stay prior to culture were associated with 30-day mortality and should be considered when treating patients with Klebsiella bacteremia. These data support the change in carbapenem breakpoints for Klebsiella species. PMID:26618357

  6. Influence of Inoculum Size and Marbofloxacin Plasma Exposure on the Amplification of Resistant Subpopulations of Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Rat Lung Infection Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Kesteman, Anne-Sylvie; Ferran, Aude A.; Perrin-Guyomard, Agnès; Laurentie, Michel; Sanders, Pascal; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the bacterial load at the infection site could impact considerably on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters of fluoroquinolones. Using a rat lung infection model, we measured the influence of different marbofloxacin dosage regimens on selection of resistant bacteria after infection with a low (105 CFU) or a high (109 CFU) inoculum of Klebsiella pneumoniae. For daily fractionated doses of marbofloxacin, prevention of resistance occurred for an area-under-the-concentration-time-curve (AUC)/MIC ratio of 189 h for the low inoculum, whereas for the high inoculum, resistant-subpopulation enrichment occurred for AUC/MIC ratios up to 756 h. For the high-inoculum-infected rats, the AUC/MIC ratio, Cmax/MIC ratio, and time within the mutant selection window (TMSW) were not found to be effective predictors of resistance prevention upon comparison of fractionated and single administrations. An index corresponding to the ratio of the time that the drug concentrations were above the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) over the time that the drug concentrations were within the MSW (T>MPC/TMSW) was the best predictor of the emergence of resistance: a T>MPC/TMSW ratio of 0.54 was associated with prevention of resistance for both fractionated and single administrations. These results suggest that the enrichment of resistant bacteria depends heavily on the inoculum size at the start of an antimicrobial treatment and that classical PK/PD parameters cannot adequately describe the impact of different dosage regimens on enrichment of resistant bacteria. We propose an original index, the T>MPC/TMSW ratio, which reflects the ratio of the time that the less susceptible bacterial subpopulation is killed over the time that it is selected, as a potentially powerful indicator of prevention of enrichment of resistant bacteria. This ratio is valid only if plasma concentrations achieve the MPC. PMID:19738020

  7. Klebsiella pneumonia, a Microorganism that Approves the Non-linear Responses to Antibiotics and Window Theory after Exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, M.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Moradi, M.; Mansouri, Sh.; Nouri, F.; Mortazavi, S. A. R.; Bahmanzadegan, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug resistance is widely believed to be an increasingly serious threat to global public health. We have previously reported that short term exposure of microorganisms to diagnostic ultrasound waves could significantly alter their sensitivity to antibiotics. In our previous studies, Klebsiella pneumoniae showed major differences in the sensitivity to antibiotics in exposed and non-exposed samples. This study was aimed at investigating the alteration of antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella pneumonia, after exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation. Materials and Methods In this in vitro study, three replicate agar plates were used for each test. The antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out using disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plates and the inhibition zones in both control and exposed groups were measured. A common Wi-Fi router was used in this study as the radiofrequency exposure source. Irradiated samples were exposed to Wi-Fi radiofrequency radiation for 3, 4.5 and 8 hours. Results Statistically significant variations of sensitivity to antibiotics were found for all studied antibiotics after 4.5 hours of RF exposure, compared to non-exposed bacteria. Interestingly, the mean diameters of the inhibition zones after 3 hours of exposure were less than those exposed for 4.5 hours. Following this rise in the sensitivity to antibiotics, a fall was observed in the bacteria exposed for 8 hours for all studied antibiotics. Conclusion The findings of this study show a statistically significant rise in the sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumoniae to different antibiotics after 4.5 hours of exposure to 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation, followed by a fall after 8 hours of exposure. These observations can be interpreted by the concept of non-linearity in the responses of Klebsiella pneumoniae to different antibiotics after exposure to electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation. As in this study a minimum level of effect was needed for the induction of adaptive response, these results also confirm the validity of the so-called “window theory”. PMID:26396967

  8. Bacteria turn tiny gears

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Swarms of bacteria turn two 380-micron long gears, opening the possibility of building hybrid biological machines at the microscopic scale. Read more at Wired: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/12/bacterial-micro-machine/#more-15684 or Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=brownian-motion-bacteria

  9. Bleach vs. Bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inside Life Science > Bleach vs. Bacteria Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds ... For Proteins, Form Shapes Function This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  10. Evidence to support the therapeutic potential of bacteriophage Kpn5 in burn wound infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Seema; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2010-05-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains is one of the most critical problems of modern medicine. Bacteriophages have been suggested as an alternative therapeutic agent for such bacterial infections. In the present study, we examined the therapeutic potential of phage Kpn5 in the treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055-induced burn wound infection in a mouse model. An experimental model of contact burn wound infection was established in mice employing K. pneumoniae B5055 to assess the efficacy of phage Kpn5 in vivo. Survival and stability of phage Kpn5 were evaluated in mice and the maximum phage count in various organs was obtained at 6 h and persisted until 36 h. The Kpn5 phage was found to be effective in the treatment of Klebsiella-induced burn wound infection in mice when phage was administered immediately after bacterial challange. Even when treatment was delayed up to 18 h post infection, when all animals were moribund, approximately 26.66% of the mice could be rescued by a single injection of this phage preparation. The ability of this phage to protect bacteremic mice was demonstrated to be due to the functional capabilities of the phage and not due to a nonspecific immune effect. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and TNF-alpha) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) were significantly lower in sera and lungs of phage-treated mice than phage untreated control mice. The results of the present study bring out the potential of bacteriophage therapy as an alternate preventive approach to treat K. pneumoniae B5055- induced burn wound infections. This approach not only helps in the clearance of bacteria from the host but also protects against the ensuing inflammatory damage due to the exaggerated response seen in any infectious process. PMID:20519918

  11. A Multicenter Study of Beta-Lactamase Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Reveals High Level Chromosome Mediated Extended Spectrum ? Lactamase Resistance in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeyankinnu, Folasoge A; Motayo, Babatunde O; Akinduti, Akinniyi; Akinbo, John; Ogiogwa, Joseph I; Aboderin, Bukola W; Agunlejika, R A

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the ever increasing problem of multiresistant bacteria, we instituted a surveillance program with the aim of identifying the basic molecular properties of ESBL in our environment. About 197 isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were selected and tested for ESBL production and antimicrobial susceptibility. Plasmid profiles were determined and curing ability was tested. ESBL prevalence was 26.4% for all isolates tested, with E. coli having a greater proportion. There was absolute resistance to ampicilin, tetracycline, and co-trimaxole among tested isolates. There was above average susceptibility to the 2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporins. Plasmid profiles of tested isolates ranged from 9?kbp to 26?kbp with average of 14.99 2.3?kbp for E. coli and 20.98 1.8?kbp K. pneumoniae, 9.6% of ESBL positive E. coli plasmids were cured, while 3.9% of K. pneumoniae plasmids were cured after treatment. The present study shows an upsurge in ESBL acquisition by gram negative bacteria and evidence of cocirculation of varying subtypes of ESBL with both plasmid transmissible and chromosome encoded subtypes. This calls for universal surveillance and more effort towards molecular epidemiology of this public health treatment. PMID:24790598

  12. Syntrophic co-culture of Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumonia for degradation of kraft lignin discharged from rayon grade pulp industry.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sangeeta; Chandra, Ram

    2015-07-01

    In order to search the degradability of kraft lignin, the potential bacterial strains Bacillus subtilis (GU193980) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (GU193981) were isolated, screened and applied in axenic and co-culture conditions. Results revealed that mixed culture showed better decolorization efficiency (80%) and reduction of pollution parameters (COD 73% and BOD 62%) than axenic culture. This indicated syntrophic growth of these two bacteria rather than any antagonistic effect. The HPLC analysis of degraded samples of kraft lignin has shown the reduction in peak area compared to control, suggesting that decrease in color intensity might be largely attributed to the degradation of lignin by isolated bacteria. Further, the GC-MS analysis showed that most of the compounds detected in control were diminished after bacterial treatment. Further, the seed germination test using Phaseolus aureus has supported the detoxification of bacterial decolorized kraft lignin for environmental safety. All these observations have revealed that the developed bacterial co-culture was capable for the effective degradation and decolorization of lignin containing rayon grade pulp mill wastewater for environmental safety. PMID:26141897

  13. Mechanism of nitrogenase switch-off by oxygen. [Klebsiella pneumoniae; Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides f. sp. denitrificans; Rhodopseudomonas capsulate

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, I.; Nadler, V.; Hochman, A.

    1987-02-01

    Oxygen caused a reversible inhibition (switch-off) of nitrogenase activity in whole cells of four strains of diazotrophs, the facultative anaerobe Klebsiella pneumoniae and three strains of photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides f. sp. denitrificans and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata strians AD2 and BK5). In K. pneumoniae 50% inhibition of acetylene reduction was attained at an O/sub 2/ concentration of 0.37 ..mu..M. Cyanide (90 ..mu..M), which did not affect acetylene reduction but inhibited whole-cell respiration by 60 to 70%, shifted the O/sub 2/ concentration that caused 50% inhibition of nitrogenase activity to 2.9 ..mu..M. A mutant strain of K. pneumoniae, strain AH11, has a respiration rate that is 65 to 75% higher than that of the wild type, but is nitrogenase activity is similar to wild-type activity. Acetylene reduction by whole cells of this mutant was inhibited 50% by 0.20 ..mu..M O/sub 2/. Inhibition by CN/sup -/ of 40 to 50% of the O/sub 2/ uptake in the mutant shifted the O/sub 2/ concentration that caused 50% inhibition of nitrogenase to 1.58 ..mu..M. Thus, when the respiration rates were lower, higher oxygen concentrations were required to inhibit nitrogenase. Reversible inhibition of nitrogenase activity in vivo was caused under anaerobic conditions by other electron acceptors. Addition of 2 mM sulfite to cell suspensions of R. capsulata B10 and R. sphaeroides inhibited nitrogenase activity. Nitrite also inhibited acetylene reduction in whole cells of the photodenitrifier R. sphaeroides but not in R. capsulata B10, which is not capable of enzymatic reduction of NO/sub 2//sup -/. Lower concentrations of NO/sub 2//sup -/ were required to inhibit the activity in NO/sub 3//sup -/-grown cells, which have higher activities of nitrite reductase.

  14. A Dimeric Chlorite Dismutase Exhibits O2-Generating Activity and Acts as a Chlorite Antioxidant in Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH 78578

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chlorite dismutases (Clds) convert chlorite to O2 and Cl–, stabilizing heme in the presence of strong oxidants and forming the O=O bond with high efficiency. The enzyme from the pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpCld) represents a subfamily of Clds that share most of their active site structure with efficient O2-producing Clds, even though they have a truncated monomeric structure, exist as a dimer rather than a pentamer, and come from Gram-negative bacteria without a known need to degrade chlorite. We hypothesized that KpCld, like others in its subfamily, should be able to make O2 and may serve an in vivo antioxidant function. Here, it is demonstrated that it degrades chlorite with limited turnovers relative to the respiratory Clds, in part because of the loss of hypochlorous acid from the active site and destruction of the heme. The observation of hypochlorous acid, the expected leaving group accompanying transfer of an oxygen atom to the ferric heme, is consistent with the more open, solvent-exposed heme environment predicted by spectroscopic measurements and inferred from the crystal structures of related proteins. KpCld is more susceptible to oxidative degradation under turnover conditions than the well-characterized Clds associated with perchlorate respiration. However, wild-type K. pneumoniae has a significant growth advantage in the presence of chlorate relative to a Δcld knockout strain, specifically under nitrate-respiring conditions. This suggests that a physiological function of KpCld may be detoxification of endogenously produced chlorite. PMID:25437493

  15. A dimeric chlorite dismutase exhibits O2-generating activity and acts as a chlorite antioxidant in Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH 78578.

    PubMed

    Celis, Arianna I; Geeraerts, Zachary; Ngmenterebo, David; Machovina, Melodie M; Kurker, Richard C; Rajakumar, Kumar; Ivancich, Anabella; Rodgers, Kenton R; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S; DuBois, Jennifer L

    2015-01-20

    Chlorite dismutases (Clds) convert chlorite to O2 and Cl(-), stabilizing heme in the presence of strong oxidants and forming the O═O bond with high efficiency. The enzyme from the pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpCld) represents a subfamily of Clds that share most of their active site structure with efficient O2-producing Clds, even though they have a truncated monomeric structure, exist as a dimer rather than a pentamer, and come from Gram-negative bacteria without a known need to degrade chlorite. We hypothesized that KpCld, like others in its subfamily, should be able to make O2 and may serve an in vivo antioxidant function. Here, it is demonstrated that it degrades chlorite with limited turnovers relative to the respiratory Clds, in part because of the loss of hypochlorous acid from the active site and destruction of the heme. The observation of hypochlorous acid, the expected leaving group accompanying transfer of an oxygen atom to the ferric heme, is consistent with the more open, solvent-exposed heme environment predicted by spectroscopic measurements and inferred from the crystal structures of related proteins. KpCld is more susceptible to oxidative degradation under turnover conditions than the well-characterized Clds associated with perchlorate respiration. However, wild-type K. pneumoniae has a significant growth advantage in the presence of chlorate relative to a Δcld knockout strain, specifically under nitrate-respiring conditions. This suggests that a physiological function of KpCld may be detoxification of endogenously produced chlorite. PMID:25437493

  16. Bloodstream infections in intensive care unit patients: distribution and antibiotic resistance of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Russotto, Vincenzo; Cortegiani, Andrea; Graziano, Giorgio; Saporito, Laura; Raineri, Santi Maurizio; Mammina, Caterina; Giarratano, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are among the leading infections in critically ill patients. The case-fatality rate associated with BSIs in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) reaches 35%–50%. The emergence and diffusion of bacteria with resistance to antibiotics is a global health problem. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were detected in 50.7% of patients with BSIs in a recently published international observational study, with methicillin resistance detected in 48% of Staphylococcus aureus strains, carbapenem resistance detected in 69% of Acinetobacter spp., in 38% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and in 37% of Pseudomonas spp. Prior hospitalization and antibiotic exposure have been identified as risk factors for infections caused by resistant bacteria in different studies. Patients with BSIs caused by resistant strains showed an increased risk of mortality, which may be explained by a higher incidence of inappropriate empirical therapy in different studies. The molecular genetic characterization of resistant bacteria allows the understanding of the most common mechanisms underlying their resistance and the adoption of surveillance measures. Knowledge of epidemiology, risk factors, mechanisms of resistance, and outcomes of BSIs caused by resistant bacteria may have a major influence on global management of ICU patients. The aim of this review is to provide the clinician an update on BSIs caused by resistant bacteria in ICU patients. PMID:26300651

  17. Multidrug Resistance in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Large amounts of antibiotics used for human therapy, as well as for farm animals and even for fish in aquaculture, resulted in the selection of pathogenic bacteria resistant to multiple drugs. Multidrug resistance in bacteria may be generated by one of two mechanisms. First, these bacteria may accumulate multiple genes, each coding for resistance to a single drug, within a single cell. This accumulation occurs typically on resistance (R) plasmids. Second, multidrug resistance may also occur by the increased expression of genes that code for multidrug efflux pumps, extruding a wide range of drugs. This review discusses our current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in both types of resistance. PMID:19231985

  18. Interspecies communication in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Federle, Michael J.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2003-01-01

    Until recently, bacteria were considered to live rather asocial, reclusive lives. New research shows that, in fact, bacteria have elaborate chemical signaling systems that enable them to communicate within and between species. One signal, termed AI-2, appears to be universal and facilitates interspecies communication. Many processes, including virulence factor production, biofilm formation, and motility, are controlled by AI-2. Strategies that interfere with communication in bacteria are being explored in the biotechnology industry with the aim of developing novel antimicrobials. AI-2 is a particularly attractive candidate for such studies because of its widespread use in the microbial kingdom. PMID:14597753

  19. Mössbauer spectroscopy of the nitrogenase proteins from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Structural assignments and mechanistic conclusions

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Barry E.; Lang, George

    1974-01-01

    The Mo–Fe protein and the Fe protein which together constitute the nitrogenase of Klebsiella pneumoniae were prepared from bacteria grown in 57Fe-enriched medium. The Mössbauer spectrum of the Mo–Fe protein, as isolated in the presence of Na2S2O4, showed that the protein contained three iron species, called M4, M5 and M6. The area of the spectrum associated with species M4, with δ=0.65mm/s and ΔE=3.05mm/s at 4.2°K, corresponded to two iron atoms/molecule of protein and it is interpreted as being due to a high-spin ferrous, spin-coupled pair of iron atoms. The iron atoms of species M4 may be involved in the quaternary structure of the protein. Species M5, with δ=0.61mm/s and ΔE=0.83mm/s at 77°K, corresponded to eight iron atoms/molecule of protein and is interpreted as being due to Fe4S4 or Fe2S2 low-spin ferrous iron clusters. Species M6, with δ=0.37mm/s and ΔE=0.71mm/s at 77°K, also corresponded to eight iron atoms/molecule of protein and, at 4.2°K, became a broad shallow absorption, characteristic of magnetic hyperfine interaction. Oxidation of the Mo–Fe protein with the redox dye Lauth's Violet did not affect the activity of the protein but changed species M4, M5 and M6 into the species M1 (δ=0.37mm/s, ΔE=0.75mm/s at 77°K, broad magnetic component at 4.2°K) and M2 (δ=0.35mm/s, ΔE=0.9mm/s at 4.2°K). In the presence of the Fe protein, Na2S2O4, ATP and Mg2+, the M6 component of the Mo–Fe protein was replaced by species M7 with δ=0.46mm/s, ΔE=1.04mm/s at 4.2°K. The change in Mössbauer parameters associated with the M6 → M7 transformation was very similar to the change observed on reduction of the high-potential Fe protein from Chromatium vinosum. In contrast, Na2S2O4-reduced Fe protein contained only one type of iron cluster (F4). Species F4 had δ=0.50mm/s, ΔE=0.9mm/s at 195°K, and at 4.2°K broadened in a manner characteristic of a magnetic hyperfine interaction, associated with half-integral spin, equally distributed over all four atoms of the Fe protein. The Mössbauer spectra of the Mo–Fe and the Fe protein under argon were unaffected by the reducible substrates N2 and C2H2 and the inhibitor CO in the presence of ATP, Mg2+ and Na2S2O4. A number of Mössbauer spectral species associated with inactivated Mo–Fe and Fe proteins are described and discussed. PMID:4596139

  20. Indicator For Pseudomonas Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Characteristic protein extracted and detected. Natural protein marker found in Pseudomonas bacteria. Azurin, protein containing copper readily extracted, purified, and used to prepare antibodies. Possible to develop simple, fast, and accurate test for marker carried out in doctor's office.

  1. Biosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles using Klebsiella pneumoniae and their recovery by a simple sterilization process

    PubMed Central

    Fesharaki, Parisa Jafari; Nazari, Pardis; Shakibaie, Mojtaba; Rezaie, Sassan; Banoee, Maryam; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2010-01-01

    The use of biologically derived metal nanoparticles for various proposes is going to be an issue of considerable importance; thus, appropriate methods should be developed and tested for the biological synthesis and recovery of these nanoparticles from bacterial cells. In this research study, a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae was tested for its ability to synthesize elemental selenium nanoparticles from selenium chloride. A broth of Klebsiella pneumoniae culture containing selenium nanoparticles was subjected to sterilization at 121oC and 17 psi for 20 minutes. Released selenium nanoparticles ranged in size from 100 to 550 nm, with an average size of 245 nm. Our study also showed that no chemical changes occurred in selenium nanoparticles during the wet heat sterilization process. Therefore, the wet heat sterilization process can be used successfully to recover elemental selenium from bacterial cells. PMID:24031517

  2. Whole genome sequencing of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from a patient in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Tokajian, Sima; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Jospin, Guillaume; Farra, Anna; Coil, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria is now a critical concern. The ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae constitutes one of the most common multidrug-resistant (MDR) groups of gram-negative bacteria involved in nosocomial infections worldwide. In this study we report on the molecular characterization through whole genome sequencing of an ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strain, LAU-KP1, isolated from a stool sample from a patient admitted for a gastrointestinal procedure/surgery at the Lebanese Amrican University Medical Center-Rizk Hospital (LAUMCRH) in Lebanon. Methods: Illumina paired-end libraries were prepared and sequenced, which resulted in 4,220,969 high-quality reads. All sequence processing and assembly were performed using the A5 assembly pipeline. Results: The initial assembly produced 86 contigs, for which no scaffolding was obtained. The final collection of contigs was submitted to GenBank. The final draft genome sequence consists of a combined 5,632,663 bases with 57% G+C content. Automated annotation was performed using the RAST annotation server. Sequencing analysis revealed that the isolate harbored different β-lactamase genes, including blaoxa−1, blaCTX−M−15, blaSHV−11, and blaTEM−1b. The isolate was also characterized by the concomitant presence of other resistance determinants most notably acc(6′)-lb-cr and qnrb1. The entire plasmid content was also investigated and revealed homology with four major plasmids pKPN-IT, pBS512_2, pRSF1010_SL1344, and pKPN3. Conclusions: The potential role of K. pneumonia as a reservoir for ESBL genes and other resistance determinants is along with the presence of key factors that favor the spread of antimicrobial resistance a clear cause of concern and the problem that Carbapenem-non-susceptible ESBL isolates are posing in hospitals should be reconsidered through systematic exploration and molecular characterization. PMID:25905047

  3. Community-Acquired Pyelonephritis in Pregnancy Caused by KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Asma; Naeger Murphy, Nina; Wiest, Peter; Osborn, Melissa; Garber, Kathleen; Hecker, Michelle; Hurless, Kelly; Rudin, Susan D.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Kalayjian, Robert C.; Salata, Robert A.; van Duin, David; Harris, Patrick N. A.

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) usually infect patients with significant comorbidities and health care exposures. We present a case of a pregnant woman who developed community-acquired pyelonephritis caused by KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Despite antibiotic treatment, she experienced spontaneous prolonged rupture of membranes, with eventual delivery of a healthy infant. This report demonstrates the challenge that CRE may pose to the effective treatment of common infections in obstetric patients, with potentially harmful consequences to maternal and neonatal health. PMID:26185273

  4. Oxygen sensitivity of the nifLA promoter of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Q.T.; Wu, Q.L.; Ma, Z.F.; Shen, S.C.

    1986-05-01

    Oxygen sensitivity of the nifLA promoter of Klebsiella pneumoniae has been demonstrated. Studies on the oxygen regulation of nifB-lacZ and nifH-lacZ fusions in the presence of the nifLA operon, which contains either an intact or a deleted nifL gene, indicate that possible both the nifL promoter and the nifL product are responsible for nif repression by oxygen.

  5. A case of acute postoperative keratitis after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty by multidrug resistant Klebsiella

    PubMed Central

    Bajracharya, Leena; Sharma, Binita; Gurung, Reeta

    2015-01-01

    A healthy lady of 42 years underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for granular dystrophy. The very next day, it was complicated by development of infectious keratitis. The organism was identified as multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Donor corneal button may be implicated in the transmission of infection in an otherwise uneventful surgery and follow-up. Nosocomial infections are usually severe, rapidly progressive and difficult to treat. Finally, the lady had to undergo therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty for complete resolution of infection. PMID:26044477

  6. Whole-Genome Sequence of the Microcin E492-Producing Strain Klebsiella pneumoniae RYC492.

    PubMed

    Marcoleta, Andrés; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Sergio; Maturana, Daniel; Monasterio, Octavio; Lagos, Rosalba

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Gram-negative strain Klebsiella pneumoniae RYC492, which produces the amyloid-forming and antibacterial peptide microcin E492. The sequenced genome consists of a 5,095,761-bp assembled open chromosome where the gene cluster for microcin production is located in a putative 31-kb genomic island flanked by sequence repeats and containing a putative integrase-coding gene. PMID:23661477

  7. Whole-Genome Sequence of the Microcin E492-Producing Strain Klebsiella pneumoniae RYC492

    PubMed Central

    Marcoleta, Andrés; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Sergio; Maturana, Daniel; Monasterio, Octavio

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Gram-negative strain Klebsiella pneumoniae RYC492, which produces the amyloid-forming and antibacterial peptide microcin E492. The sequenced genome consists of a 5,095,761-bp assembled open chromosome where the gene cluster for microcin production is located in a putative 31-kb genomic island flanked by sequence repeats and containing a putative integrase-coding gene. PMID:23661477

  8. First Isolate of KPC-2-Producing Klebsiella pneumonaie Sequence Type 23 from the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Cejas, Daniela; Fernández Canigia, Liliana; Rincón Cruz, Giovanna; Elena, Alan X.; Maldonado, Ivana; Gutkind, Gabriel O.

    2014-01-01

    KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates mainly correspond to clonal complex 258 (CC258); however, we describe KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates belonging to invasive sequence type 23 (ST23). KPC-2 has scarcely been reported to occur in ST23, and this report describes the first isolation of this pathogen in the Americas. Acquisition of resistant markers in virulent clones could mark an evolutionary step toward the establishment of these clones as major nosocomial pathogens. PMID:25031447

  9. First Report of Ceftazidime-Avibactam Resistance in a KPC-3-Expressing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shangxin; Hemarajata, Peera; Ward, Kevin W.; Miller, Shelley A.; Gregson, Aric

    2015-01-01

    Ceftazidime-avibactam is the first antimicrobial approved by the U.S. FDA for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Avibactam, a non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor, inactivates class A serine carbapenemases, including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). We report a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolate resistant to ceftazidime-avibactam (MIC, 32/4 μg/ml) from a patient with no prior treatment with ceftazidime-avibactam. PMID:26195508

  10. Emerging Severe and Fatal Infections Due to Klebsiella pneumoniae in Two University Hospitals in France▿

    PubMed Central

    Decré, Dominique; Verdet, Charlotte; Emirian, Aurélie; Le Gourrierec, Thibault; Petit, Jean-Claude; Offenstadt, Georges; Maury, Eric; Brisse, Sylvain; Arlet, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    Severe infections caused by hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae have been reported in Southeast Asian countries over the past several decades. This report shows their emergence in France, with 12 cases observed during a 2-year period in two university hospitals. Two clones (sequence type 86 [ST86] and ST380) of serotype K2 caused five rapidly fatal bacteremia cases, three of which were associated with pneumonia, whereas seven liver abscess cases were caused by K1 strains of ST23. PMID:21677064

  11. Emerging severe and fatal infections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae in two university hospitals in France.

    PubMed

    Decré, Dominique; Verdet, Charlotte; Emirian, Aurélie; Le Gourrierec, Thibault; Petit, Jean-Claude; Offenstadt, Georges; Maury, Eric; Brisse, Sylvain; Arlet, Guillaume

    2011-08-01

    Severe infections caused by hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae have been reported in Southeast Asian countries over the past several decades. This report shows their emergence in France, with 12 cases observed during a 2-year period in two university hospitals. Two clones (sequence type 86 [ST86] and ST380) of serotype K2 caused five rapidly fatal bacteremia cases, three of which were associated with pneumonia, whereas seven liver abscess cases were caused by K1 strains of ST23. PMID:21677064

  12. Activity of Imipenem against Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilms In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ping; Seth, Akhil K.; Abercrombie, Johnathan J.; Mustoe, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulated Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged as one of the most clinically relevant and more frequently encountered opportunistic pathogens in combat wounds as the result of nosocomial infection. In this report, we show that imipenem displayed potent activity against established K. pneumoniae biofilms under both static and flow conditions in vitro. Using a rabbit ear model, we also demonstrated that imipenem was highly effective against preformed K. pneumoniae biofilms in wounds. PMID:24247132

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of the First Hypermucoviscous Klebsiella variicola Clinical Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Sanchez, Jesus; Barrios, Humberto; Rodriguez-Medina, Nadia; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesus; Andrade, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    An antibiotic-susceptible and hypermucoviscous clinical isolate of Klebsiella variicola (K. variicola 8917) was obtained from the sputum of an adult patient. This work reports the complete draft genome sequence of K. variicola 8917 with 103 contigs and an annotation that revealed a 5,686,491-bp circular chromosome containing a total of 5,621 coding DNA sequences, 65 tRNA genes, and an average G+C content of 56.98%. PMID:25858850

  14. Overview of the epidemiology and the threat of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Luke F; Anderson, Deverick J; Paterson, David L

    2012-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) confer resistance to nearly all β-lactams. This broad-spectrum drug resistance mechanism has rapidly spread in the United States and is reportedly increasing elsewhere in the world. Thus, the emergence of KPC resistance is a major threat to global health. This article reviews the epidemiology and provides an overview of the dissemination of KPC-producing organisms. PMID:23055754

  15. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the α-1, α-3, and α-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of the N2-Fixing Broad Host Range Endophyte Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and Virulence Predictions Verified in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fouts, Derrick E.; Tyler, Heather L.; DeBoy, Robert T.; Daugherty, Sean; Ren, Qinghu; Badger, Jonathan H.; Durkin, Anthony S.; Huot, Heather; Shrivastava, Susmita; Kothari, Sagar; Dodson, Robert J.; Mohamoud, Yasmin; Khouri, Hoda; Roesch, Luiz F. W.; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Struve, Carsten; Triplett, Eric W.; Methé, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342. Although K. pneumoniae 342 is a member of the enteric bacteria, it serves as a model for studies of endophytic, plant-bacterial associations due to its efficient colonization of plant tissues (including maize and wheat, two of the most important crops in the world), while maintaining a mutualistic relationship that encompasses supplying organic nitrogen to the host plant. Genomic analysis examined K. pneumoniae 342 for the presence of previously identified genes from other bacteria involved in colonization of, or growth in, plants. From this set, approximately one-third were identified in K. pneumoniae 342, suggesting additional factors most likely contribute to its endophytic lifestyle. Comparative genome analyses were used to provide new insights into this question. Results included the identification of metabolic pathways and other features devoted to processing plant-derived cellulosic and aromatic compounds, and a robust complement of transport genes (15.4%), one of the highest percentages in bacterial genomes sequenced. Although virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were predicted, experiments conducted using mouse models showed pathogenicity to be attenuated in this strain. Comparative genomic analyses with the presumed human pathogen K. pneumoniae MGH78578 revealed that MGH78578 apparently cannot fix nitrogen, and the distribution of genes essential to surface attachment, secretion, transport, and regulation and signaling varied between each genome, which may indicate critical divergences between the strains that influence their preferred host ranges and lifestyles (endophytic plant associations for K. pneumoniae 342 and presumably human pathogenesis for MGH78578). Little genome information is available concerning endophytic bacteria. The K. pneumoniae 342 genome will drive new research into this less-understood, but important category of bacterial-plant host relationships, which could ultimately enhance growth and nutrition of important agricultural crops and development of plant-derived products and biofuels. PMID:18654632

  17. Carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria: current epidemics, antimicrobial susceptibility and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Jean, Shio-Shin; Lee, Wen-Sen; Lam, Carlos; Hsu, Chin-Wang; Chen, Ray-Jade; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenemases, with versatile hydrolytic capacity against β-lactams, are now an important cause of resistance of Gram-negative bacteria. The genes encoding for the acquired carbapenemases are associated with a high potential for dissemination. In addition, infections due to Gram-negative bacteria with acquired carbapenemase production would lead to high clinical mortality rates. Of the acquired carbapenemases, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (Ambler class A), Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase (Ambler class B), New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (Ambler class B) and many OXA enzymes (OXA-23-like, OXA-24-like, OXA-48-like, OXA-58-like, class D) are considered to be responsible for the worldwide resistance epidemics. As compared with monotherapy with colistin or tigecycline, combination therapy has been shown to effectively lower case-fatality rates. However, development of new antibiotics is crucial in the present pandrug-resistant era. PMID:25812463

  18. Novel antimicrobial agents against multi-drug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: an overview.

    PubMed

    Karras, George; Giannakaki, Venetia; Kotsis, Vasilios; Miyakis, Spiros

    2012-12-01

    No novel antimicrobial agents against multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have been available to daily clinical practice during the last 5 years. On the other hand, resistance rates and mechanisms of those pathogens are increasing worldwide. Pan-resistant (against which none of the currently available antibiotics is effective) strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been described. Encouraging is the fact that several novel compounds (some of them with mechanisms of action different to those of the antibiotics commercially available) are through the development stages. We summarize the main such compounds that show potential for offering solution to the treatment of Gram-negative multi-resistant bacteria along with the discussion of some patents associated with the topic. PMID:23061790

  19. Growth inhibition of selected food-borne bacteria, particularly Listeria monocytogenes, by plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Chung, K T; Thomasson, W R; Wu-Yuan, C D

    1990-10-01

    Six extracts from Chinese medicinal plants: Tin Men Chu, Sey Lau Pai, Siu Mao Heung, Bak Tao Yung, Kam Chin Chiu and Liao Ya, were tested for their inhibitory effect on selected food-borne bacteria by the well assay technique. Among them, Tin Men Chu, Siu Mao Heung and Sey Lau Pai inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Streptococcus faecalis, Salmonella paratyphi, Salm. enteritidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Proteus vulgaris, Alcaligenes faecalis, and three strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Two of these three extracts, Tin Men Chu and Siu Mao Heung, suppressed the growth of L. monocytogenes Scott A in cabbage juice. This inhibition was prevented by the addition of protein but not sodium chloride. Plant extracts show potential to control the growth of food-borne bacteria. PMID:2127264

  20. Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria: a product of globalization.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, P M

    2015-04-01

    Global trade and mobility of people has increased rapidly over the last 20 years. This has had profound consequences for the evolution and the movement of antibiotic resistance genes. There is increasing exposure of populations all around the world to resistant bacteria arising in the emerging economies. Arguably the most important development of the last two decades in the field of antibiotic resistance is the emergence and spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) of the CTX-M group. A consequence of the very high rates of ESBL production among Enterobacteriaceae in Asian countries is that there is a substantial use of carbapenem antibiotics, resulting in the emergence of plasmid-mediated resistance to carbapenems. This article reviews the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, focuses on three particular carbapenemases--imipenem carbapenemases, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase--and highlights the importance of control of antibiotic use. PMID:25737092

  1. An outbreak of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Netherlands (July to December 2013), with inter-institutional spread.

    PubMed

    Weterings, V; Zhou, K; Rossen, J W; van Stenis, D; Thewessen, E; Kluytmans, J; Veenemans, J

    2015-08-01

    We describe an outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-KP) ST258 that occurred in two institutions (a hospital and a nursing home) in the Netherlands between July and December 2013. In total, six patients were found to be positive for KPC-KP. All isolates were resistant to colistin and exhibited reduced susceptibility to gentamicin and tigecycline. In all settings, extensive environmental contamination was found. Whole genome sequencing revealed the presence of bla KPC-2 and bla SHV-12 genes, as well as the close relatedness of patient and environmental isolates. In the hospital setting, one transmission was detected, despite contact precautions. After upgrading to strict isolation, no further spread was found. After the transfer of the index patient to a nursing home in the same region, four further transmissions occurred. The outbreak in the nursing home was controlled by transferring all KPC-KP-positive residents to a separate location outside the nursing home, where a dedicated nursing team cared for patients. This outbreak illustrates that the spread of pan-resistant Enterobacteriaceae can be controlled, but may be difficult, particularly in long-term care facilities. It, therefore, poses a major threat to patient safety. Clear guidelines to control reservoirs in and outside the hospitals are urgently needed. PMID:26067658

  2. Carbapenemase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Romania: A Six-Month Survey

    PubMed Central

    Straut, Monica; Usein, Codruta Romanita; Cristea, Dana; Ciontea, Simona; Codita, Irina; Rafila, Alexandru; Nica, Maria; Buzea, Mariana; Baicus, Anda; Ghita, Mihaela Camelia; Nistor, Irina; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Indreas, Marina; Antohe, Felicia; Glasner, Corinna; Grundmann, Hajo; Jasir, Aftab; Damian, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the first characterization of carbapenem-non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates by means of a structured six-month survey performed in Romania as part of an Europe-wide investigation. Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates from different anatomical sites were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by phenotypic methods and confirmed by PCR for the presence of four carbapenemase genes. Genome macrorestriction fingerprinting with XbaI was used to analyze the relatedness of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected from eight hospitals. Among 75 non-susceptible isolates, 65 were carbapenemase producers. The most frequently identified genotype was OXA-48 (n = 51 isolates), eight isolates were positive for blaNDM-1 gene, four had the blaKPC-2 gene, whereas two were positive for blaVIM-1. The analysis of PFGE profiles of OXA-48 and NDM-1 producing K. pneumoniae suggests inter-hospitals and regional transmission of epidemic clones. This study presents the first description of K. pneumoniae strains harbouring blaKPC-2 and blaVIM-1 genes in Romania. The results of this study highlight the urgent need for the strengthening of hospital infection control measures in Romania in order to curb the further spread of the antibiotic resistance. PMID:26599338

  3. wzi Gene Sequencing, a Rapid Method for Determination of Capsular Type for Klebsiella Strains

    PubMed Central

    Passet, Virginie; Haugaard, Anita Bjrk; Babosan, Anamaria; Kassis-Chikhani, Najiby; Struve, Carsten; Decr, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens of the genus Klebsiella have been classified into distinct capsular (K) types for nearly a century. K typing of Klebsiella species still has important applications in epidemiology and clinical microbiology, but the serological method has strong practical limitations. Our objective was to evaluate the sequencing of wzi, a gene conserved in all capsular types of Klebsiella pneumoniae that codes for an outer membrane protein involved in capsule attachment to the cell surface, as a simple and rapid method for the prediction of K type. The sequencing of a 447-nucleotide region of wzi distinguished the K-type reference strains with only nine exceptions. A reference wzi sequence database was created by the inclusion of multiple strains representing K types associated with high virulence and multidrug resistance. A collection of 119 prospective clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were then analyzed in parallel by wzi sequencing and classical K typing. Whereas K typing achieved typeability for 81% and discrimination for 94.4% of the isolates, these figures were 98.1% and 98.3%, respectively, for wzi sequencing. The prediction of K type once the wzi allele was known was 94%. wzi sequencing is a rapid and simple method for the determination of the K types of most K. pneumoniae clinical isolates. PMID:24088853

  4. Development of a new trend conjugate vaccine for the prevention of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Tarek A.; Haroun, Medhat; Hussein, Ahmad A.; El Ashry, El Sayed H.; El-Sayed, Laila H.

    2012-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major cause of nosocomial pneumonia, septicemia and urinary tract infections, especially in newborns, blood cancer patients, and other immunocompromised candidates. The control of K. pneumoniae is a complicated issue due to its tight pathogenesis. Immuno-prophylactic preparations, especially those directed toward the bacterium O-antigen, showed to be the most successful way to prevent the infection incidence. However, all previously proposed preparations were either of limited spectrum or non-maternal, and hence not targeting the main Klebsiella patients. Moreover, all preparations were directed only to prevent the respiratory diseases due to that pathogen. This article addresses the development of a method originally used to purify the non-capsular bacterial-endotoxins, as a new and easy method for vaccine production against K. pneumoniae. The application of this method was preceded by a biotechnological control of capsular polysaccharide production in K. pneumoniae. The new produced natural conjugate between the bacterial O-antigen and its outer membrane proteins was evaluated by physicochemical and immunological methods to investigate its purity, integrity, safety and immunogenicity. It showed to be pure, stable, safe for use, and able to elicit a protective immunoglobulin titer against different Klebsiella infections. This immune-response proved to be transferable to the offspring of the vaccinated experimental rabbits via placenta. PMID:24470947

  5. Competitive adsorption of heavy metals by extracellular polymeric substances extracted from Klebsiella sp. J1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jixian; Wei, Wei; Pi, Shanshan; Ma, Fang; Li, Ang; Wu, Dan; Xing, Jie

    2015-11-01

    The adsorption of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from Klebsiella sp. J1 and competitive adsorption mechanism were investigated. Equilibrium adsorption capacities of Cu(2+) (1.77mMg(-1)) on Klebsiella sp. J1 EPS were higher than those of Zn(2+) (1.36mMg(-1)) in single systems. The competitive Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models were proven to be effective in describing the experimental data of binary component system. The three dimensional sorption surfaces of binary component system demonstrated that the presence of Cu(2+) more significantly decreased the sorption of Zn(2+), but the sorption of Cu(2+) was not disturbed by the presence of Zn(2+). FTIR and EEM results revealed the adsorption sites of Cu(2+) entirely overlapped with those of Zn(2+). Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) showed competitive adsorption in binary systems, and Cu(2+) was preferentially adsorbed because of the stronger complexation ability of the protein-like substances in Klebsiella sp. J1 EPS. PMID:26291413

  6. Endogenous Klebsiella Endophthalmitis Associated with Liver Abscess: First Case Report from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, A.R.; Masjedi, A.; Fazel, F.; Ghanbari, H.; Akhlaghi, M.; Karbasi, N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To report the first case of endogenous Klebsiella endophthalmitis associated with liver abscess in Iran. Case Report A 79-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to severe pain and visual loss in the left eye. On physical examination, conjunctival hyperemia, corneal edema, hypopyon and severe vitreous cellular reaction were identified in the left eye; however, yellowish conjunctival discoloration was more apparent in the right eye. Abdominal CT scan showed a right liver lobe abscess that was confirmed by sonographically guided percutaneous liver mass biopsy. Blood, vitreous and liver mass aspirate cultures revealed Klebsiella pneumoniae growth. The patient was thus diagnosed with endogenous Klebsiella endophthalmitis secondary to bacteremia associated with liver abscess. Conclusion This report suggests that, rather than being confined to Taiwan, endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to a liver abscess due to K. pneumoniae may be a global problem. Therefore, physicians should be aware of the possibility of endophthalmitis whenever a patient with K. pneumoniae liver abscess complains of ocular symptoms. PMID:21532995

  7. Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Honey is a natural substance produced by honeybees and has nutritional and therapeutic uses. In Ethiopia, honeys are used traditionally to treat wounds, respiratory infections and diarrhoea. Recent increase of drug resistant bacteria against the existing antibiotics forced investigators to search for alternative natural remedies and evaluate their potential use on scientific bases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of different types of honeys in Ethiopia which are used traditionally to treat different types of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. Methods Mueller Hinton agar (70191) diffusion and nutrient broth culture medium assays were performed to determine susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and resistant clinical isolates (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA), Escherichia coli(R) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), using honeys of Apis mellifera and stingless bees in northern and north western Ethiopia. Results Honey of the stingless bees produced the highest mean inhibition (22.27 ± 3.79 mm) compared to white honey (21.0 ± 2.7 mm) and yellow honey (18.0 ± 2.3 mm) at 50% (v/v) concentration on all the standard and resistant strains. Stingless bees honey was found to have Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 6.25% (6.25 mg/ml) for 80% of the test organisms compared to 40% for white and yellow Apis mellifera honeys. All the honeys were found to have minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 12.5% (12.5 mg/ml) against all the test organisms. Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) was susceptible to amoxicillin, methicillin, kanamycine, tetracycline, and vancomycine standard antibiotic discs used for susceptibility tests. Similarly, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) was found susceptible for kanamycine, tetracycline and vancomycine. Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) has not been tested for amoxicillin ampicillin and methicillin. The susceptibility tests performed against Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli (R) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (R) using three of methicillin, erythromycin, ampicillin, Penicillin and amoxicillin discs were resistant. But, these drug resistant strains were susceptible to antibacterial agents found in the honeys and inhibited from 16 mm to 20.33 mm. Conclusions Honeys in Ethiopia can be used as therapeutic agents for drug resistant bacteria after pharmaceutical standardization and clinical trials. PMID:24138782

  8. Plasmid Mediated Antibiotic Resistance in Isolated Bacteria From Burned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beige, Fahimeh; Baseri Salehi, Majid; Bahador, Nima; Mobasherzadeh, Sina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, the treatment of burned patients is difficult because of the high frequency of infection with antibiotic resistance bacteria. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the level of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria and its relation with the existence of plasmid. Materials and Methods: The samples were collected from two hundred twenty hospitalized burned patients in Isfahan burn hospital during a three-month period (March 2012 to June 2012). The samples were isolated and the Gram-negative bacteria were identified using phenotypic method and API 20E System. Antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profile were determined by standard Agar disc diffusion and plasmid spin column extraction methods. Results: Totally 117 Gram-negative bacteria were isolated, the most common were Pseudomonas aerugionsa (37.6%), P. fluorescens (25.6%), Acinetobacter baumanii (20/5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.6%), respectively. The isolates showed high frequency of antibiotic resistance against ceftazidime and co-amoxiclave (100%) and low frequency of antibiotic resistance against amikacin with (70%).The results indicated that 60% of the isolates harboured plasmid. On the other hand, the patients infected with A. baumanii and P. aeruginosa were cured (with 60% frequency) whereas, those infected with P. fluorescens were not cured. Hence, probably antibiotic resistance markers of A. baumanii and P. aeruginosa are plasmid mediated; however, P. fluorescens is chromosomally mediated. Conclusions: Based on our findings, P. aerugionsa is a major causative agent of wound infections and amikacin could be considered as a more effective antibiotic for treatment of the burned patients. PMID:25789121

  9. Use of a bacteriophage-encoded glycanase enzyme in the generation of lipopolysaccharide O side chain deficient mutants of Escherichia coli O9:K30 and Klebsiella O1:K20: role of O and K antigens in resistance to complement-mediated serum killing.

    PubMed

    McCallum, K L; Laakso, D H; Whitfield, C

    1989-11-01

    Coliphage K30 lysates contain free and phage-associated forms of a bacteriophage-encoded capsule depolymerase (glycanase) enzyme, active against the serotype K30 capsular polysaccharide of Escherichia coli. The free glycanase has been purified to apparent homogeneity. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated at 450,000, and when heated in SDS at 100 degrees C, the enzyme dissociated into two subunits of 90,000 and 52,000. The glycanase enzyme was used as a reagent to reversibly degrade the capsular layers on cells of Escherichia coli O9:K30 and Klebsiella O1:K20. This treatment rendered these bacteria sensitive to their respective lipopolysaccharide-specific bacteriophages, coliphage O9-1 and Klebsiella phage O1-3. This novel approach facilitated isolation of lipopolysaccharide O antigen side chain deficient mutants which retained the ability to synthesize the capsule. The response of defined mutants, O+:K-, O-:K+, and O-:K-, to exposure to nonimmune rabbit serum was measured. Results showed that the primary barrier against complement-mediated serum killing in both Escherichia coli O9:K30 and Klebsiella O1:K20 was the O antigen side chains of the lipopolysaccharide molecules. In both strains, the capsule played no role in the determination of serum resistance. PMID:2482125

  10. The fecal bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sadowsky, Michael J., (Edited By); Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  11. Assessment of pathogenic bacteria in treated graywater and irrigated soils.

    PubMed

    Benami, Maya; Gross, Amit; Herzberg, Moshe; Orlofsky, Ezra; Vonshak, Ahuva; Gillor, Osnat

    2013-08-01

    Reuse of graywater (GW) for irrigation is recognized as a sustainable solution for water conservation. One major impediment for reuse of GW is the possible presence of pathogenic microorganisms. The presence and abundance of six pathogens and indicators were investigated in three GW recirculating vertical flow constructed wetland treatment systems and their respective irrigated yard soils. The treated GW and soils were monitored once every two months for six months using real-time quantitative PCR. As a control, samples from four soils irrigated with fresh water (FW) were similarly analyzed for pathogens and indicators. Comparable types of pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, and Shigella spp., were found in the treated GW, their corresponding irrigated soils and the FW-irrigated soils. Moreover, the abundance of these bacteria in the GW- and FW-irrigated soils was of the same order of magnitude, suggesting that the source of the pathogens cannot be established. Our results suggest that GW irrigation has no effect on the diversity and abundance of the tested pathogens and indicators in yard soils. PMID:23666359

  12. Biokinetic evaluation and modeling of continuous thiocyanate biodegradation by Klebsiella sp.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Johng-Hwa; Kim, Jaai; Lim, Juntaek; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2004-01-01

    Biokinetics for autotrophic degradation of thiocyanate using batch culture of Klebsiella sp. were evaluated both analytically and numerically. A sequential approach with an analytical method followed by a numerical approximation was used to evaluate and to ensure the accuracy of the parameter estimation. The nonlinear least-squares method with a 95% confidence interval was employed. The growth conditions were maintained at pH 7 and 38 degrees C for all experiments. With an automated incubation and turbidity reader, a total of 16 different initial thiocyanate concentrations, ranging from 10 to 300 mg L(-1), were used to develop a kinetic expression of specific growth rate as a function of substrate concentration. The biodegradation of thiocyanate with Klebsiella sp. followed a substrate inhibition pattern. Three identical automated bioreactors with working volumes of 1.5 L, equipped with sterilizable sampling ports, were also used for the numerical approximation of the biokinetic parameters in batch mode. A fourth order Runge-Kutta method was used to approximate the substrate inhibition kinetics of the Klebsiella sp. utilizing thiocyanate. Although the kinetic coefficients estimated by analytical and numerical methods were not statistically different at a 0.05 alpha level, model responses of numerical approximation generated a better prediction of changes in thiocyanate and cell mass concentrations. The hypothetical maximum growth rate, micro m, half saturation coefficient, Ks, microbial yield coefficient, Y, cell mass decay rate coefficient, kd, and substrate inhibition coefficient, Ksi, were evaluated as being 0.62 +/- 0.05 d(-1), 85 +/- 8 mg SCN- L(-1), 0.076 +/- 0.011 mg cell mass (mg SCN)(-1), 0.03 +/- 0.002 d(-1), and 131 +/- 22 mg SCN- L(-1), respectively. The calculated maximal substrate concentration, Sm, and apparent maximum specific growth rate, micro'm, were 105.5 +/- 8.7 mg SCN- L(-1) and 0.24 +/- 0.01 d(-1), respectively. Using these estimated parameters, the theoretical performance of the continuous operation was also illustrated, which depicts the residual thiocyanate and Klebsiella sp. concentrations in the non-steady and steady states at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). Assuming the influent concentration of 250 mg SCN- L(-1), the expected treatment efficiency ranged from 94.9% to 69.4% between 20 and 5 days HRT, respectively. Klebsiella sp. was expected to be washed out at 4.8 days HRT, thus resulting in no treatment of thiocyanate. PMID:15296431

  13. Identification of Gram-Negative Bacteria and Genetic Resistance Determinants from Positive Blood Culture Broths by Use of the Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Multiplex Microarray-Based Molecular Assay.

    PubMed

    Ledeboer, Nathan A; Lopansri, Bert K; Dhiman, Neelam; Cavagnolo, Robert; Carroll, Karen C; Granato, Paul; Thomson, Richard; Butler-Wu, Susan M; Berger, Heather; Samuel, Linoj; Pancholi, Preeti; Swyers, Lettie; Hansen, Glen T; Tran, Nam K; Polage, Christopher R; Thomson, Kenneth S; Hanson, Nancy D; Winegar, Richard; Buchan, Blake W

    2015-08-01

    Bloodstream infection is a serious condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The outcome of these infections can be positively affected by the early implementation of effective antibiotic therapy based on the identification of the infecting organism and genetic markers associated with antibiotic resistance. In this study, we evaluated the microarray-based Verigene Gram-negative blood culture (BC-GN) assay in the identification of 8 genus or species targets and 6 genetic resistance determinants in positive blood culture broths. A total of 1,847 blood cultures containing Gram-negative organisms were tested using the BC-GN assay. This comprised 729 prospective fresh, 781 prospective or retrospective frozen, and 337 simulated cultures representing 7 types of aerobic culture media. The results were compared to those with standard bacterial culture and biochemical identification with nucleic acid sequence confirmation of the resistance determinants. Among monomicrobial cultures, the positive percent agreement (PPA) of the BC-GN assay with the reference method was as follows; Escherichia coli, 100%; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 92.9%; Klebsiella oxytoca, 95.5%; Enterobacter spp., 99.3%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 98.9%; Proteus spp., 100%; Acinetobacter spp., 98.4%; and Citrobacter spp., 100%. All organism identification targets demonstrated >99.5% negative percent agreement (NPA) with the reference method. Of note, 25/26 cultures containing K. pneumoniae that were reported as not detected by the BC-GN assay were subsequently identified as Klebsiella variicola. The PPA for identification of resistance determinants was as follows; blaCTX-M, 98.9%; blaKPC, 100%; blaNDM, 96.2%; blaOXA, 94.3%; blaVIM, 100%; and blaIMP, 100%. All resistance determinant targets demonstrated >99.9% NPA. Among polymicrobial specimens, the BC-GN assay correctly identified at least one organism in 95.4% of the broths and correctly identified all organisms present in 54.5% of the broths. The sample-to-result processing and automated reading of the detection microarray results enables results within 2 h of culture positivity. PMID:25994165

  14. Identification of Gram-Negative Bacteria and Genetic Resistance Determinants from Positive Blood Culture Broths by Use of the Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Multiplex Microarray-Based Molecular Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.; Lopansri, Bert K.; Dhiman, Neelam; Cavagnolo, Robert; Carroll, Karen C.; Granato, Paul; Thomson, Richard; Butler-Wu, Susan M.; Berger, Heather; Samuel, Linoj; Pancholi, Preeti; Swyers, Lettie; Hansen, Glen T.; Tran, Nam K.; Polage, Christopher R.; Thomson, Kenneth S.; Hanson, Nancy D.; Winegar, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Bloodstream infection is a serious condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The outcome of these infections can be positively affected by the early implementation of effective antibiotic therapy based on the identification of the infecting organism and genetic markers associated with antibiotic resistance. In this study, we evaluated the microarray-based Verigene Gram-negative blood culture (BC-GN) assay in the identification of 8 genus or species targets and 6 genetic resistance determinants in positive blood culture broths. A total of 1,847 blood cultures containing Gram-negative organisms were tested using the BC-GN assay. This comprised 729 prospective fresh, 781 prospective or retrospective frozen, and 337 simulated cultures representing 7 types of aerobic culture media. The results were compared to those with standard bacterial culture and biochemical identification with nucleic acid sequence confirmation of the resistance determinants. Among monomicrobial cultures, the positive percent agreement (PPA) of the BC-GN assay with the reference method was as follows; Escherichia coli, 100%; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 92.9%; Klebsiella oxytoca, 95.5%; Enterobacter spp., 99.3%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 98.9%; Proteus spp., 100%; Acinetobacter spp., 98.4%; and Citrobacter spp., 100%. All organism identification targets demonstrated >99.5% negative percent agreement (NPA) with the reference method. Of note, 25/26 cultures containing K. pneumoniae that were reported as not detected by the BC-GN assay were subsequently identified as Klebsiella variicola. The PPA for identification of resistance determinants was as follows; blaCTX-M, 98.9%; blaKPC, 100%; blaNDM, 96.2%; blaOXA, 94.3%; blaVIM, 100%; and blaIMP, 100%. All resistance determinant targets demonstrated >99.9% NPA. Among polymicrobial specimens, the BC-GN assay correctly identified at least one organism in 95.4% of the broths and correctly identified all organisms present in 54.5% of the broths. The sample-to-result processing and automated reading of the detection microarray results enables results within 2 h of culture positivity. PMID:25994165

  15. In vitro growth inhibition of mastitis causing bacteria by phenolics and metal chelators

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, B.P.; Tjoelker, L.W.; Tanaka, T.S.

    1985-11-01

    Antimicrobial activities of three phenolic compounds and four metal chelators were tested at 0, 250, 500, and 1000 ppm in vitro against four major mastitis-causing bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pnuemoniae, and Escherichia coli. Overall, butylated hydroxyanisole and tert-butylhydroquinone showed the greatest antimicrobial activity. These phenolics were bactericidal at 250 to 500 ppm against all four bacteria tested. The butylated hydroxytoluene was bactericidal against the gram-positive bacteria but was ineffective against the coliforms. At 250 ppm, disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was bactericidal against the gram-positive bacteria but much less effective against the gram-negatives. However, diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid was more growth inhibitory than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid against the gram-negative bacteria and especially against Escherichia coli. All other compounds were generally much less effective or ineffective against all four microorganisms. Therefore, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, tert-butylhydroquinone, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid may have practical implications in the prevention or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  16. Prevention of biofilm colonization by Gram-negative bacteria on minocycline-rifampin-impregnated catheters sequentially coated with chlorhexidine.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Mohamed A; Rosenblatt, Joel S; Hachem, Ray Y; Ying, Jiang; Pravinkumar, Egbert; Nates, Joseph L; Chaftari, Anne-Marie P; Raad, Issam I

    2014-01-01

    Resistant Gram-negative bacteria are increasing central-line-associated bloodstream infection threats. To better combat this, chlorhexidine (CHX) was added to minocycline-rifampin (M/R) catheters. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of CHX-M/R catheters against multidrug resistant, Gram-negative Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was tested. M/R and CHX-silver sulfadiazine (CHX/SS) catheters were used as comparators. The novel CHX-M/R catheters were significantly more effective (P < 0.0001) than CHX/SS or M/R catheters in preventing biofilm colonization and showed better antimicrobial durability. PMID:24165191

  17. Influence of the Biliary System on Biliary Bacteria Revealed by Bacterial Communities of the Human Biliary and Upper Digestive Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fuqiang; Shen, Hongzhang; Li, Zhen; Meng, Fei; Li, Lei; Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Ying; Bo, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Ni, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Biliary bacteria have been implicated in gallstone pathogenesis, though a clear understanding of their composition and source is lacking. Moreover, the effects of the biliary environment, which is known to be generally hostile to most bacteria, on biliary bacteria are unclear. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities of the biliary tract, duodenum, stomach, and oral cavity from six gallstone patients by using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We found that all observed biliary bacteria were detectable in the upper digestive tract. The biliary microbiota had a comparatively higher similarity with the duodenal microbiota, versus those of the other regions, but with a reduced diversity. Although the majority of identified bacteria were greatly diminished in bile samples, three Enterobacteriaceae genera (Escherichia, Klebsiella, and an unclassified genus) and Pyramidobacter were abundant in bile. Predictive functional analysis indicated enhanced abilities of environmental information processing and cell motility of biliary bacteria. Our study provides evidence for the potential source of biliary bacteria, and illustrates the influence of the biliary system on biliary bacterial communities. PMID:26930491

  18. Influence of the Biliary System on Biliary Bacteria Revealed by Bacterial Communities of the Human Biliary and Upper Digestive Tracts.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fuqiang; Shen, Hongzhang; Li, Zhen; Meng, Fei; Li, Lei; Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Ying; Bo, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Ni, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Biliary bacteria have been implicated in gallstone pathogenesis, though a clear understanding of their composition and source is lacking. Moreover, the effects of the biliary environment, which is known to be generally hostile to most bacteria, on biliary bacteria are unclear. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities of the biliary tract, duodenum, stomach, and oral cavity from six gallstone patients by using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We found that all observed biliary bacteria were detectable in the upper digestive tract. The biliary microbiota had a comparatively higher similarity with the duodenal microbiota, versus those of the other regions, but with a reduced diversity. Although the majority of identified bacteria were greatly diminished in bile samples, three Enterobacteriaceae genera (Escherichia, Klebsiella, and an unclassified genus) and Pyramidobacter were abundant in bile. Predictive functional analysis indicated enhanced abilities of environmental information processing and cell motility of biliary bacteria. Our study provides evidence for the potential source of biliary bacteria, and illustrates the influence of the biliary system on biliary bacterial communities. PMID:26930491

  19. Characterization of pKP-M1144, a Novel ColE1-Like Plasmid Encoding IMP-8, GES-5, and BEL-1 β-Lactamases, from a Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 252 Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Dolejska, Monika; Izdebski, Radoslaw; Dobiasova, Hana; Studentova, Vendula; Esteves, Francisco J.; Derde, Lennie P. G.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Hrabák, Jaroslav; Gniadkowski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    IMP-8 metallo-β-lactamase was identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 252 (ST252), isolated in a Portuguese hospital in 2009. blaIMP-8 was the first gene cassette of a novel class 3 integron, In1144, also carrying the blaGES-5, blaBEL-1, and aacA4 cassettes. In1144 was located on a ColE1-like plasmid, pKP-M1144 (12,029 bp), with a replication region of limited nucleotide similarity to those of other RNA-priming plasmids, such as pJHCMW1. In1144 and pKP-M1144 represent an interesting case of evolution of resistance determinants in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26033721

  20. Bacteria-surface interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tuson, Hannah H.; Weibel, Douglas B.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of bacteria with surfaces has important implications in a range of areas, including bioenergy, biofouling, biofilm formation, and the infection of plants and animals. Many of the interactions of bacteria with surfaces produce changes in the expression of genes that influence cell morphology and behavior, including genes essential for motility and surface attachment. Despite the attention that these phenotypes have garnered, the bacterial systems used for sensing and responding to surfaces are still not well understood. An understanding of these mechanisms will guide the development of new classes of materials that inhibit and promote cell growth, and complement studies of the physiology of bacteria in contact with surfaces. Recent studies from a range of fields in science and engineering are poised to guide future investigations in this area. This review summarizes recent studies on bacteria-surface interactions, discusses mechanisms of surface sensing and consequences of cell attachment, provides an overview of surfaces that have been used in bacterial studies, and highlights unanswered questions in this field. PMID:23930134