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1

Enzymatic degradation of nitriles by Klebsiella oxytoca.  

PubMed

Klebsiella oxytoca, isolated from cyanide-containing wastewater, was able to utilize many nitriles as sole source of nitrogen. The major objective of this study was to explore the ability of K. oxytoca to utilize some nitriles and then further evaluate the pathways of transformation of cyanide compounds by K. oxytoca. Results from this study indicate that succinonitrile and valeronitrile were the most optimal sources of nitrogen for the growth of K. oxytoca. The biodegradation of acetonitrile proceeded with the formation of acetamide followed by acetic acid. The production of ammonia was also detected in this biodegradation experiment. Similar results were observed in the propionitrile biodegradation experiments. Collectively, this study suggests that the breakdown of acetonitrile or propionitrile by this bacterium was via a two-step enzymatic hydrolysis with amides as the intermediates and organic acids plus with ammonia as the end products. PMID:16184371

Kao, C M; Chen, K F; Liu, J K; Chou, S M; Chen, S C

2005-09-24

2

Characterization of bio-synthesized nanoparticles produced by Klebsiella oxytoca  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural and morphological properties of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles produced by bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca are investigated. The stability of water dispersions of biomineral particles produced by Klebsiella oxytoca was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Their chemical composition was determined by FT-IR spectroscopy. The vibrational spectra of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles revealed typical absorption peaks of exopolysaccharides. Morphological analysis based on Raman spectroscopy indicated the presence of exopolysaccharides on the surface as well as inside the pores of the ferrihydrite nanoparticles. Structural investigations of ultrasonic assisted samples of different concentration of water dispersed particles were performed using small angle X-ray scattering analysis. Model calculations and fitting procedures revealed scattering objects of an elongated shape with 6.73±0.16 nm radius of gyration.

Anghel, L.; Balasoiu, M.; Ishchenko, L. A.; Stolyar, S. V.; Kurkin, T. S.; Rogachev, A. V.; Kuklin, A. I.; Kovalev, Yu S.; Raikher, Yu L.; Iskhakov, R. S.; Duca, G.

2012-03-01

3

New, simple medium for selective recovery of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca from human feces.  

PubMed Central

A culture medium was developed which selectively favored the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca in Escherichia coli-rich fecal cultures, without the use of antibiotics. The discriminative capacity of this medium was based on the presence of only two carbon sources, citrate and inositol, which can be utilized by nearly all K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca strains but not by E. coli. The medium consisted of Simmons citrate agar (SCA) with 1% inositol (SCAI). Klebsiella strains from fecal samples subcultured on SCAI grew unhampered as yellow, dome-shaped, often mucoid colonies, whereas E. coli appeared as tiny, watery colonies. Apart from some Enterobacter strains, no other types of bacteria were found to mimic the typical appearance of klebsiellae. Recovery experiments from stool samples revealed a limiting ratio of Klebsiella to E. coli of 1:10(6) or more when samples were plated on SCAI versus ratios of 1:10(2) to 1:10(3) on blood agar or Macconkey agar. Compared with an existing Klebsiella culture method, the combination of SCA and MacConkey-inositol-carbenicillin (MIC) agar, Klebsiella yields with SCAI were not lower than those with the combination of MIC and SCA. Furthermore, the efficiency of the SCAI method was twice that of the latter combination. The SCAI plate could be a valuable tool in studies on the epidemiology of K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca, for example in nosocomial infections, especially those concerning immunocompromised patients. Images

Van Kregten, E; Westerdaal, N A; Willers, J M

1984-01-01

4

A proteomic analysis of Klebsiella oxytoca after exposure to succinonitrile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succinonitrile, an environmental pollutant, has been proved to be degraded by Klebsiella oxytoca. However, the growth rate of this bacterium was decreased by succinonitrile. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of succinonitrile on the physiological responses of K. oxytoca were investigated. Using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-MS, we identified the 7 differentially expressed proteins

Peturs Tang; Jong-Kang Liu; Shu-Min Chou; Lien-I. Hor; Wen-Jen Chen; Ssu Ching Chen

2008-01-01

5

Isolation and characterisation of lytic bacteriophages of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca.  

PubMed

Klebsiella bacteria have emerged as an increasingly important cause of community-acquired nosocomial infections. Extensive use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in hospitalised patients has led to both increased carriage of Klebsiella and the development of multidrug-resistant strains that frequently produce extended-spectrum ?-lactamases and/or other defences against antibiotics. Many of these strains are highly virulent and exhibit a strong propensity to spread. In this study, six lytic Klebsiella bacteriophages were isolated from sewage-contaminated river water in Georgia and characterised as phage therapy candidates. Two of the phages were investigated in greater detail. Biological properties, including phage morphology, nucleic acid composition, host range, growth phenotype, and thermal and pH stability were studied for all six phages. Limited sample sequencing was performed to define the phylogeny of the K. pneumoniae- and K. oxytoca-specific bacteriophages vB_Klp_5 and vB_Klox_2, respectively. Both of the latter phages had large burst sizes, efficient rates of adsorption and were stable under different adverse conditions. Phages reported in this study are double-stranded DNA bacterial viruses belonging to the families Podoviridae and Siphoviridae. One or more of the six phages was capable of efficiently lysing ~63 % of Klebsiella strains comprising a collection of 123 clinical isolates from Georgia and the United Kingdom. These phages exhibit a number of properties indicative of potential utility in phage therapy cocktails. PMID:23143289

Karumidze, Natia; Kusradze, Ia; Rigvava, Sophio; Goderdzishvili, Marine; Rajakumar, Kumar; Alavidze, Zemphira

2012-11-11

6

Epidemiology of Quinolone Resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of quinolone resistance and the concomitant resistance to other antibiotic classes was investigated in 445\\u000a Klebsiella pneumoniae and 238 Klebsiella oxytoca isolates. Decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was found in 7.2% and 3.4% of these two species, respectively. Ciprofloxacin\\u000a resistance was significantly linked to ceftazidime resistance, the hallmark of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase production, as\\u000a well as to resistance to all

S. Brisse; D. Milatovic; A. C. Fluit; J. Verhoef; F.-J. Schmitz

2000-01-01

7

First description of KPC-2-producing Klebsiella oxytoca in Brazil.  

PubMed

The present work reports the detection of the first case of nosocomial Klebsiella oxytoca producing class A carbapenemase KPC-2 in Brazil. The isolate KPN106 carried a 65-kb IncW-type plasmid that harbors the blaKPC gene and Tn4401b. Moreover, we detected the presence of a class 1 integron containing a new allele, arr-8, followed by a 5'-truncated dhfrIIIc gene. In view of the recent results, we emphasize the high variability of the bacterial and genetic hosts of this resistance determinant. PMID:23752512

Almeida, Anna C S; Cavalcanti, Felipe L S; Martins, Willames M B; Vilela, Marinalda A; Gales, Ana C; Morais Junior, Marcos A; Morais, Márcia M C

2013-06-10

8

Improvements In Ethanologenic Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella Oxytoca  

SciTech Connect

The current Verenium cellulosic ethanol process is based on the dilute-acid pretreatment of a biomass feedstock, followed by a two-stage fermentation of the pentose sugar-containing hydrolysate by a genetically modified ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain and a separate simultaneous saccharification-fermentation (SSF) of the cellulosic fraction by a genetically modified ethanologenic Klebsiella oxytoca strain and a fungal enzyme cocktail. In order to reduce unit operations and produce a fermentation beer with higher ethanol concentrations to reduce distillation costs, we have proposed to develop a simultaneous saccharification co-fermentation (SScF) process, where the fermentation of the pentose-containing hydrolysate and cellulosic fraction occurs within the same fermentation vessel. In order to accomplish this goal, improvements in the ethanologens must be made to address a number of issues that arise, including improved hydrolysate tolerance, co-fermentation of the pentose and hexose sugars and increased ethanol tolerance. Using a variety of approaches, including transcriptomics, strain adaptation, metagenomics and directed evolution, this work describes the efforts of a team of scientists from Verenium, University of Florida, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Genomatica to improve the E. coli and K. oxytoca ethanologens to meet these requirements.

Dr. David Nunn

2010-09-30

9

Natural antibiotic susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, K. planticola, K. ornithinolytica and K. terrigena strains.  

PubMed

The natural susceptibility of 221 Klebsiella strains to 71 antibiotics was examined. The strains were isolated from clinical specimens and the environment, and belonged to K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (n = 40), K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae (37), K. pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis (10), K. oxytoca (44), K. planticola (40), K. ornithinolytica (25) and K. terrigena (25). MIC values were determined by a microdilution procedure in IsoSensitest broth according to the German standard (DIN). All Klebsiella spp. were naturally resistant or intermediate to amoxicillin, ticarcillin and to antibiotics to which other Enterobacteriaceae are also intrinsically resistant. Klebsiella spp. were naturally sensitive or intermediate to several penicillins, all tested cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, quinolones, tetracyclines, trimethoprim, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin. K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae and subsp. rhinoscleromatis strains were generally more susceptible to antibiotics than strains of other Klebsiella taxa. K pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis was the most susceptible taxon, being highly susceptible to cefuroxime, anti-folates and naturally intermediate to erythromycin and clarithromycin. K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae was most susceptible to glycopeptides. K. oxytoca and K. terrigena strains were least susceptible to cefazoline, cefoperazone and fosfomycin, respectively. The results of the present study describe a database of the natural antimicrobial susceptibility of Klebsiella spp., which can be used for the validation of antibiotic susceptibility results of these bacteria. MIC patterns to beta-lactams indicate the expression of chromosomally encoded class A gamma-lactamases in all the species, including the subspecies of K. pneumoniae. Similar natural susceptibility patterns of K. planticola and K. ornithinolytica to all tested antibiotics support the status of K. ornithinolytica as a biovar of K. planticola. PMID:11339246

Stock, I; Wiedemann, B

2001-05-01

10

Refactoring the nitrogen fixation gene cluster from Klebsiella oxytoca  

PubMed Central

Bacterial genes associated with a single trait are often grouped in a contiguous unit of the genome known as a gene cluster. It is difficult to genetically manipulate many gene clusters because of complex, redundant, and integrated host regulation. We have developed a systematic approach to completely specify the genetics of a gene cluster by rebuilding it from the bottom up using only synthetic, well-characterized parts. This process removes all native regulation, including that which is undiscovered. First, all noncoding DNA, regulatory proteins, and nonessential genes are removed. The codons of essential genes are changed to create a DNA sequence as divergent as possible from the wild-type (WT) gene. Recoded genes are computationally scanned to eliminate internal regulation. They are organized into operons and placed under the control of synthetic parts (promoters, ribosome binding sites, and terminators) that are functionally separated by spacer parts. Finally, a controller consisting of genetic sensors and circuits regulates the conditions and dynamics of gene expression. We applied this approach to an agriculturally relevant gene cluster from Klebsiella oxytoca encoding the nitrogen fixation pathway for converting atmospheric N2 to ammonia. The native gene cluster consists of 20 genes in seven operons and is encoded in 23.5 kb of DNA. We constructed a “refactored” gene cluster that shares little DNA sequence identity with WT and for which the function of every genetic part is defined. This work demonstrates the potential for synthetic biology tools to rewrite the genetics encoding complex biological functions to facilitate access, engineering, and transferability.

Temme, Karsten; Zhao, Dehua; Voigt, Christopher A.

2012-01-01

11

Recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca Strains with Improved Efficiency in Removal of High Nitrate Loads  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella oxytoca CECT 4460 removes high nitrate loads from industrial wastewaters without accumulation of nitrite under optimal culture conditions; however, under nonoptimal conditions nitrite accumulates. This situation reflects an in vivo-limited functioning of nitrite reductase in this strain. As a way to overcome this limitation, an increase in the nitrite reductase gene dose in K. oxytoca CECT 4460 was considered. To achieve this, we cloned and transferred into this strain the Klebsiella pneumoniae nasB gene, which encodes assimilatory nitrite reductase (Lin et al., J. Bacteriol. 176:2551–2559, 1994). The delivery vector was either the wide-host-range plasmid pUPE2, in which the nasB gene is expressed from the Escherichia coli Plac promoter, or a mini-Tn5-Km vector, which upon random insertion in the host chromosome allowed expression of the nasB gene from an unidentified chromosomal host promoter. The effect of the increase in the dose of the nasB gene in K. oxytoca CECT 4460 on the accumulation of nitrite in the culture medium was tested in two recombinant strains. The results obtained showed that K. oxytoca CECT 4460 bearing pUPE2 accumulated 88% less nitrite than the wild-type strain, while the recombinant strain bearing the K. pneumoniae nasB gene in the host chromosome showed a 25% lower level of nitrite accumulation in the culture medium than that of the wild type.

Pinar, Guadalupe; Ramos, Juan L.

1998-01-01

12

Recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca strains with improved efficiency in removal of high nitrate loads  

SciTech Connect

Klebsiella oxytoca CECT 4460 removes high nitrate loads from industrial wastewaters without accumulation of nitrite under optimal culture conditions; however, under nonoptimal conditions nitrite accumulates. This situation reflects an in vivo-limited functioning of nitrite reductase in this strain. As a way to overcome this limitation, an increase in the nitrite reductase gene dose in K. oxytoca CECT 4460 was considered. To achieve this, the authors cloned and transferred into this strain the Klebsiella pneumoniae nasB gene, which encodes assimilatory nitrite reductase. The delivery vector was either the wide-host-range plasmid pUPE2, in which the nasB gene is expressed from the Escherichia coli P{sub lac} promoter, or a mini-Tn5-Km vector, which upon random insertion in the host chromosome allowed expression of the nasB gene from an unidentified chromosomal host promoter. The effect of the increase in the dose of the nasB gene in K. oxytoca CECT 4460 on the accumulation of nitrite in the culture medium was tested in two recombinant strains. The results obtained showed that K. oxytoca CECT 4460 bearing pUPE2 accumulated 88% less nitrite than the wild-type strain, while the recombinant strain bearing the K. pneumoniae nasB gene in the host chromosome showed a 25% lower level of nitrite accumulation in the culture medium than that of the wild type.

Pinar, G.; Ramos, J.L. [Estacion Experimental del Zaidin--Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Granada (Spain). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology of Plants

1998-12-01

13

Outbreak of OXY-2-Producing Klebsiella oxytoca in a Renal Transplant Unit?  

PubMed Central

We describe a Klebsiella oxytoca infection outbreak in a renal transplant unit that involved seven patients. All strains belonged to a single pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern and were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime, piperacillin-tazobactam, and aztreonam but susceptible to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime, and imipenem. Chromosomal ?-lactamase hyperproduction was caused by a point mutation in the blaOXY-2 gene promoter region.

Zarate, Mariela Soledad; Gales, Ana C.; Picao, Renata C.; Pujol, Gervasio Soler; Lanza, Alejandra; Smayevsky, Jorgelina

2008-01-01

14

Cadmium-Resistance Plasmid Affected Cd Uptake More Than Cd Adsorption in Klebsiella oxytoca  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial strain was isolated from Petra City Wastewater Treatment Plant. This isolate was identified as Klebsiella oxytoca based on 16S rDNA analysis. A single plasmid (> 23 kb) was detected in this strain and transformed into Esherichia coli JM83. The transformed E. coli cells exhibited elevated resistance to cadmium as compared to parental plasmid-free cells. The sodium dodecyl sulfate

Khaled M. Khleifat; Khaled Nawayseh; Nawel R. Adjeroud; Ali M. Khlaifat; Isam H. Aljundi; Khaled A. Tarawneh

2009-01-01

15

Fermentation of cellulose to ethanol by Klebsiella oxytoca containing chromosomally integrated Zymomonas mobilis genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose is generally required for efficient fermentation to ethanol. This hydrolysis requires endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and cellobiase. The Gram-negative bacterium, Klebsiella oxytoca, contains the native ability to transport and metabolize cellobiose, minimizing the need for extracellular cellobiase. Strain P2 is a recombinant derivative in which the Zymomonas mobilis pdc and adhB genes have been integrated

Joy B. Doran; L. O. Ingram

1993-01-01

16

Effect of IAA produced by Klebsiella oxytoca Rs-5 on cotton growth under salt stress.  

PubMed

Klebsiella oxytoca Rs-5 isolated with ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) deaminase activity as the sole nitrogen source could obviously promote cotton seedling growth under salt stress and produce phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The amount of IAA produced by the strain Rs-5 was measured, and the effect of IAA on cotton growth under salt stress was studied. Different treatments were set to treat cotton seeds with fermentation broth containing strain Rs-5 (FB), strain Rs-5, fermentation broth with bacteria removed (FB-NB), fermentation broth without bacteria or IAA (FB-NB-NI) and single IAA solutions (SI) according to the IAA concentration after strain Rs-5 culturing of 48, 72 and 120 h. The germination rate, dry weight, plant height, root length and malondialdehyde (MDA), proline and endogenous IAA content in roots were determined. The results showed that both IAA produced by strain Rs-5 and the strain were effective in promoting cotton growth under salt stress. The growth and ability to resist salt stress of cotton seedlings were increased with the enhancement of IAA concentration. The treatment of FB containing bacteria and IAA at 120 h obtained the best state of cotton growth, when the IAA content was the highest in the fermentation broth (42.14 ?g·L(-1)). The germination rate, dry weight, plant height and root length were increased by 29.4%, 24.3%, 27.2% and 27.2% , respectively, compared to the saline control. The strain Rs-5 and/or IAA could obviously reduce the MDA and proline content and increase the endogenous IAA content in cotton seedlings. However, the efficacy of other components in the fermentation broth was inconspicuous. PMID:23518519

Liu, Yan; Shi, Zaiqiang; Yao, Lixia; Yue, Haitao; Li, Hui; Li, Chun

2013-01-01

17

A study of the prevalence of cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic Klebsiella oxytoca fecal colonization in two patient populations  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Klebsiella oxytoca is a cause of antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis. Few reports of the occurrence of K oxytoca within stool exist and there is no gold standard method for its isolation. METHODS: MacConkey agar was modified to culture K oxytoca. Ampicillin was added and adonitol was substituted for lactose. Rectal swabs from 200 patients being screened for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and stool specimens from 429 patients who tested negative for Clostridium difficile cytotoxin were cultured. K oxytoca isolates were evaluated for cytotoxicity to HEp-2 cells. Available charts of K oxytoca-positive patients and a convenience sample of 93 K oxytoca-negative patients who underwent testing for C difficile cytotoxicity were reviewed retrospectively for documentation of bloody stool. RESULTS: K oxytoca was isolated from 14 of 200 patients (7.0%) being screened for VRE; only one of the 14 isolates (7.1%) was cytotoxic. The organism was isolated from 42 of 429 patients (9.8%) tested for C difficile cytotoxicity; 10 isolates (23.8%) were cytotoxic. Differences in isolation and cytotoxicity rates between groups were not statistically significant. Two of 13 (15.4%) K oxytoca-positive patients screened for VRE, three of 27 (11.1%) K oxytoca-positive patients tested for C difficile cytotoxicity, and 11 of 93 (11.8%) patients from the convenience sample had documented bloody stool. CONCLUSIONS: A medium that greatly facilitates isolation of K oxytoca was developed. Occurrence of K oxytoca colonization was similar in the two patient populations studied and isolation of cytotoxic K oxytoca was not usually associated with hematochezia. Current understanding of the occurrence and causality of antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis is insufficient for clinical laboratories to begin culturing K oxytoca and testing for cytotoxicity.

Smith, Stephen A; Campbell, Sarah J; Webster, Duncan; Curley, Michael; Leddin, Desmond; Forward, Kevin R

2009-01-01

18

Fermentation of 1,3-propanediol by a lactate deficient mutant of Klebsiella oxytoca under microaerobic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella oxytoca M5al is an excellent 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) producer, but too much lactic acid yielded greatly lessened the fermentation\\u000a efficiency for 1,3-PD. To counteract the disadvantage, four lactate deficient mutants were obtained by knocking out the ldhA gene of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of K. oxytoca M5al. The LDH activities of the four mutants were from 3.85 to 6.92% of the

Guang Yang; Jiesheng Tian; Jilun Li

2007-01-01

19

Inhibition of cyanide-insensitive respiration in Klebsiella oxytoca SYSU-011 by 8-hydroxyquinolone.  

PubMed

The inhibition of the cyanide (KCN)-insensitive respiration of Klebsiella oxytoca SYSU-011 by 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) was determined. Results showed that the profile of the rate of oxygen uptake of normal-grown and 8-HQ-grown K. oxytoca SYSU-011 was biphasic and similar, suggesting that 8-HQ did not inhibit the respiration of normal-grown K. oxytoca SYSU-011. A different biphasic KCN inhibition profile of respiration was observed for KCN-grown cells treated with and without 8-HQ. No decrease in respiration rate of KCN-grown cells and a 40% decrease in respiration rate of KCN-grown cells treated with 8-HQ were observed when KCN concentration was 10(-1) mM. Comparing differences of the profiles of oxygen uptake in KCN-grown cells with and without 8-HQ addition indicated that 8-HQ inhibited expression of the KCN-insensitive pathway carried out by nonheme oxidase. Greater inhibition of NADH oxidase activity by 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide from the cell membrane of the KCN-grown cells treated with 8-HQ, and more H2O2 production from these cells with than without 8-HQ, suggest that the function of the cyanide-insensitive pathway can stabilize the respiration of the cyanide-grown cells to prevent the production of H2O2. PMID:17277908

Kao, Chih Ming; Hseu, You Cheng; Huang, Yen Ling; Tang, Peturs; Chen, Ssu Ching

2007-03-01

20

Metabolism of cyclodextrins by Klebsiella oxytoca M5a1: purification and characterisation of a cytoplasmically located cyclodextrinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown previously that the products of 11 genes are required for metabolism of starch by Klebsiella oxytoca via a novel pathway. An extracellular cyclodextrin glucanotransferase first degrades starch into f- and g-cyclodextrins; evidence then has been presented that the cyclodextrins are transported into the cytoplasma via a specific system and that they are metabolised inside the cell.

Regina Feederle; Markus Pajatsch; Elisabeth Kremmer

1996-01-01

21

Klebsiella ornithinolytica sp. nov., formerly known as ornithine-positive Klebsiella oxytoca  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nameKlebsiella ornithinolytica sp. nov. is proposed for a group ofKlebsiella strains referred to previously as NIH Group 12 at the National Institute of Health, Tokyo. The members of this species are Gram-negative, encapsulated, nonmotile rods with the general characteristics of the familyEnterobacteriaceae and of the genusKlebsiella. They give positive results in tests for indole production, Voges-Proskauer, citrate utilization, lysine

R. Sakazaki; K. Tamura; Y. Kosako; E. Yoshizaki

1989-01-01

22

Phylogenetic diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolates revealed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, gyrA and parC genes sequencing and automated ribotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infra-specific phylogenetic diversity and genetic structure of both Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca was investigated using a combination of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, sequencing of gyrA and parC genes, and automated ribotyping. After RAPD analysis with four independent primers of 120 clinical isolates collected from 22 European hospitals in 13 countries, K. pneumoniae isolates fell into three

Sylvain Brisse; Jan Verhoef

23

Anaerobic degradation of malonate via malonyl-CoA by Sporomusa malonica, Klebsiella oxytoca , and Rhodobacter capsulatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic decarboxylation of malonate to acetate was studied withSporomusa malonica, Klebsiella oxytoca, andRhodobacter capsulatus. WhereasS. malonica could grow with malonate as sole substrate (Y=2.0 g·mol-1), malonate decarboxylation byK. oxytoca was coupled with anaerobic growth only in the presence of a cosubstrate, e.g. sucrose or yeast extract (Ys=1.1-1.8 g·mol malonate–1).R. capsulatus used malonate anaerobically only in the light, and growth yields

Irmtraut Dehning; Bernhard Schink

1994-01-01

24

Genetic control of nitrate assimilation in Klebsiella oxytoca. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Some microorganisms can use nitrate as the sole source of nitrogen for biosynthesis. This project focused on the bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, an enterobacterium found in soil and water. Mutagenesis and molecular cloning identified the nasFEDCBA operon encoding enzymes for the uptake and reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium, and the adjacent nasR regulatory gene. Analysis of nasF operon expression revealed that transcription is activated by the Ntr (general nitrogen regulation ) system in response to nitrogen limitation. Transcription antitermination control in response to nitrate and nitrite is mediated by the NasR protein. Additional work established that the NasR protein is an RNA-binding protein that interacts with nasF operon leader RNA to control transcription readthrough.

Stewart, Valley J.

2001-04-01

25

Enhancement of 2,3-Butanediol Production by Klebsiella oxytoca PTCC 1402  

PubMed Central

Optimal operating parameters of 2,3-Butanediol production using Klebsiella oxytoca under submerged culture conditions are determined by using Taguchi method. The effect of different factors including medium composition, pH, temperature, mixing intensity, and inoculum size on 2,3-butanediol production was analyzed using the Taguchi method in three levels. Based on these analyses the optimum concentrations of glucose, acetic acid, and succinic acid were found to be 6, 0.5, and 1.0 (% w/v), respectively. Furthermore, optimum values for temperature, inoculum size, pH, and the shaking speed were determined as 37°C, 8 (g/L), 6.1, and 150?rpm, respectively. The optimal combinations of factors obtained from the proposed DOE methodology was further validated by conducting fermentation experiments and the obtained results revealed an enhanced 2,3-Butanediol yield of 44%.

Anvari, Maesomeh; Safari Motlagh, Mohammad Reza

2011-01-01

26

Iron-binding characterization and polysaccharide production by Klebsiella oxytoca strain isolated from mine acid drainage  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate Klebsiella oxytoca strain BAS-10 growth on ferric citrate under anaerobic conditions for exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and localization on cell followed by the purification and the EPS determination of the iron-binding stability constant to EPS or biotechnological applications. Methods and Results: Klebsiella oxytoca ferments ferric citrate under anaerobic conditions and produces a ferric hydrogel, whereas ferrous ions were formed in solution. During growth, cells precipitate and a hydrogel formation was observed: the organic material was constituted of an EPS bound to Fe(III) ions, this was found by chemical analyses of the iron species and transmission electron microscopy of the cell cultures. Iron binding to EPS was studied by cyclic voltammetric measurements, either directly on the hydrogel or in an aqueous solutions containing Fe(III)-citrate and purified Fe(III)-EPS. From the voltammetric data, the stability constant for the Fe(III)-EPS complex can be assumed to have values of approx. 1012–1013. It was estimated that this is higher than for the Fe(III)-citrate complex. Conclusions: The production of Fe(III)-EPS under anaerobic conditions is a strategy for the strain to survive in mine drainages and other acidic conditions. This physiological feature can be used to produce large amounts of valuable Fe(III)-EPS, starting from a low cost substrate such as Fe(III)-citrate. Significant and Impact of the Study: The data herein demonstrates that an interesting metal-binding molecule can be produced as a novel catalyst for a variety of potential applications and the EPS itself is a valuable source for rhamnose purification.

Baldi, F; Marchetto, D; Battistel, D; Daniele, S; Faleri, C; De Castro, C; Lanzetta, R

2009-01-01

27

Carbapenem-Resistant Strain of Klebsiella oxytoca Harboring Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing ?-Lactamase KPC-2  

PubMed Central

We investigated a Klebsiella oxytoca isolate demonstrating resistance to imipenem, meropenem, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and aztreonam. The MICs of both imipenem and meropenem were 32 ?g/ml. The ?-lactamase activity against imipenem and meropenem was inhibited in the presence of clavulanic acid. Isoelectric focusing studies demonstrated five ?-lactamases with pIs of 8.2 (SHV-46), 6.7 (KPC-2), 6.5 (unknown), 6.4 (probable OXY-2), and 5.4 (TEM-1). The presence of the blaSHV and blaTEM genes was confirmed by specific PCR assays and DNA sequence analysis. Transformation and conjugation studies with Escherichia coli showed that the ?-lactamase with a pI of 6.7, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2), was encoded on an approximately 70-kb conjugative plasmid that also carried SHV-46, TEM-1, and the ?-lactamase with a pI of 6.5. The blaKPC-2 determinant was cloned in E. coli and conferred resistance to imipenem, meropenem, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and aztreonam. The amino acid sequence of KPC-2 showed a single amino acid difference, S174G, when compared with KPC-1, another carbapenem-hydrolyzing ?-lactamase from K. pneumoniae 1534. Hydrolysis studies showed that purified KPC-2 hydrolyzed not only carbapenems but also penicillins, cephalosporins, and aztreonam. KPC-2 had the highest affinity for meropenem. The kinetic studies revealed that KPC-2 was inhibited by clavulanic acid and tazobactam. An examination of the outer membrane proteins of the parent K. oxytoca strain demonstrated that it expressed detectable levels of OmpK36 (the homolog of OmpC) and a higher-molecular-weight OmpK35 (the homolog of OmpF). Thus, carbapenem resistance in K. oxytoca 3127 is due to production of the Bush group 2f, class A, carbapenem-hydrolyzing ?-lactamase KPC-2. This ?-lactamase is likely located on a transposon that is part of a conjugative plasmid and thus has a very high potential for dissemination.

Yigit, Hesna; Queenan, Anne Marie; Rasheed, J. Kamile; Biddle, James W.; Domenech-Sanchez, Antonio; Alberti, Sebastian; Bush, Karen; Tenover, Fred C.

2003-01-01

28

Final Technical Report: Genetic Control of Nitrogen Assimilation in Klebsiella oxytoca.  

SciTech Connect

Klebsiella oxytoca, an enterobacterium closely related to Escherichia coli and amenable to molecular genetic analysis, is a long-established model organism for studies of bacterial nitrogen assimilation. Our work concerned utilization of purines, nitrogen-rich compounds that are widespread in the biosphere. This project began with our observation that molybdenum cofactor (chlorate-resistant) mutants can use (hypo)xanthine as sole nitrogen source (Garzón et al., J. Bacteriol. 174:6298, 1992). Since xanthine dehydrogenase is a molybdoenzyme, Klebsiella must use an alternate route for (hypo)xanthine catabolsim. We identified and characterized a cluster of 22 genes that encode the enzymes, permeases and regulators for utilizing hypoxanthine and xanthine as sole nitrogen source. (Hypoxanthine and xanthine arise from deamination of adenine and guanine, respectively.) Growth and complementation tests with insertion mutants, combined with protein sequence comparisons, allow us to assign probable functions for the products of these genes and to deduce the overall pathway. We present genetic evidence that the first two enzymes for the Klebsiella purine utilization pathway have been recruited from pathways involved in catabolism of aromatic compounds. The first, HxaAB enzyme catalyzing (hypo)xanthine oxidation, is related to well-studied aromatic ring hydroxylating oxygenases such as phthalate dioxygenase. The second, HxbA enzyme catalyzing urate hydroxylation, is related to single-component monooxygenases. Thus, the Klebsiella purine utilization pathway has likely experienced non-orthologous gene displacement, substituting these oxygenases for the conventional enzymes, xanthine dehydrogenase and uricase. We also present evidence that transcription of the hxaAB operon is subject to dual regulation: global general nitrogen regulation (Ntr) through an unknown mechanism, and (hypo)xanthine induction mediated by a LysR-type activator.

Valley Stewart

2007-03-07

29

Biosynthesis of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by New Klebsiella oxytoca Free and Immobilized Cells on Inorganic Matrices  

PubMed Central

While many natural and synthetic compounds exhibit auxin-like activity in bioassays, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is recognized as the key auxin in most plants. IAA has been implicated in almost all aspects of plant growth and development and a large array of bacteria have been reported to enhance plant growth. Cells of Klebsiella oxytoca isolated from the rhizosphere of Aspidosperma polyneuron and immobilized by adsorption on different inorganic matrices were used for IAA production. The matrices were prepared by the sol-gel method and the silica-titanium was the most suitable matrix for effective immobilization. In operational stability assays, IAA production was maintained after four cycles of production, obtaining 42.80 ± 2.03??g?mL?1 of IAA in the third cycle, which corresponds to a 54% increase in production in relation to the first cycle, whereas free cells began losing activity after the first cycle. After 90 days of storage at 4°C the immobilized cells showed the slight reduction of IAA production without significant loss of activity.

Celloto, Valeria R.; Oliveira, Arildo J. B.; Goncalves, Jose E.; Watanabe, Cecilia S. F.; Matioli, Graciette; Goncalves, Regina A. C.

2012-01-01

30

Ethanolic fermentation of sucrose, sugarcane juice and molasses by Escherichia coli strain ko11 and Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli KO11 and Klebsiella oxytoca P2 recombinants fermented sucrose to ethanol. In minimal medium with 2% or 12% added sucrose KO11 produced 75% and 41%, respectively, of the maximum theoretical yield (0.54g ethanol\\/g sucrose). In Luria-Bertani (LB) broth with up to 8% sucrose, KO11 presented a 94-96% yield and with 12% sucrose, KO11 presented about 69% yield (44.5g ethanol\\/L).

Gervásio P. da Silva; Elza F. de Araújo; Daison O. Silva; Walter V. Guimarães

2005-01-01

31

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of amorphous cellulose to ethanol by recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca SZ21 without supplemental cellulase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A derivative of Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1 containing chromosomally integrated genes for ethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis (pdc, adhB) and endoglucanase genes from Erwinia chrysanthemi (celY, celZ) produced over 20 000 U endoglucanase l-1 activity during fermentation. In combination with the native ability to metabolize cellobiose and cellotriose, this strain was able to ferment amorphous cellulose to ethanol (58–76% of theoretical

Shengde Zhou; L. O. Ingram

2001-01-01

32

Metabolism of cyclodextrins by Klebsiella oxytoca M5a1: purification and characterisation of a cytoplasmically located cyclodextrinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown previously that the products of 11 genes are required for metabolism of starch byKlebsiella oxytoca via a novel pathway. An extracellular cyclodextrin glucanotransferase first degrades starch into a-and ß-cyclodextrins; evidence then has been presented that the cyclodextrins are transported into the cytoplasma via a specific system and that they are metabolised inside the cell. To provide

Regina Feederle; Markus Pajatsch; Elisabeth Kremmer

1996-01-01

33

Conversion of xylan to ethanol by ethanologenic strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca.  

PubMed Central

A two-stage process was evaluated for the fermentation of polymeric feedstocks to ethanol by a single, genetically engineered microorganism. The truncated xylanase gene (xynZ) from the thermophilic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum was fused with the N terminus of lacZ to eliminate secretory signals. This hybrid gene was expressed at high levels in ethanologenic strains of Escherichia coli KO11 and Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1(pLOI555). Large amounts of xylanase (25 to 93 mU/mg of cell protein) accumulated as intracellular products during ethanol production. Cells containing xylanase were harvested at the end of fermentation and added to a xylan solution at 60 degrees C, thereby releasing xylanase for saccharification. After cooling, the hydrolysate was fermented to ethanol with the same organism (30 degrees C), thereby replenishing the supply of xylanase for a subsequent saccharification. Recombinant E. coli metabolized only xylose, while recombinant K. oxytoca M5A1 metabolized xylose, xylobiose, and xylotriose but not xylotetrose. Derivatives of this latter organism produced large amounts of intracellular xylosidase, and the organism is presumed to transport both xylobiose and xylotriose for intracellular hydrolysis. By using recombinant M5A1, approximately 34% of the maximal theoretical yield of ethanol was obtained from xylan by this two-stage process. The yield appeared to be limited by the digestibility of commercial xylan rather than by a lack of sufficient xylanase or by ethanol toxicity. In general form, this two-stage process, which uses a single, genetically engineered microorganism, should be applicable for the production of useful chemicals from a wide range of biomass polymers. Images

Burchhardt, G; Ingram, L O

1992-01-01

34

Conversion of xylan to ethanol by ethanologenic strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca.  

PubMed

A two-stage process was evaluated for the fermentation of polymeric feedstocks to ethanol by a single, genetically engineered microorganism. The truncated xylanase gene (xynZ) from the thermophilic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum was fused with the N terminus of lacZ to eliminate secretory signals. This hybrid gene was expressed at high levels in ethanologenic strains of Escherichia coli KO11 and Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1(pLOI555). Large amounts of xylanase (25 to 93 mU/mg of cell protein) accumulated as intracellular products during ethanol production. Cells containing xylanase were harvested at the end of fermentation and added to a xylan solution at 60 degrees C, thereby releasing xylanase for saccharification. After cooling, the hydrolysate was fermented to ethanol with the same organism (30 degrees C), thereby replenishing the supply of xylanase for a subsequent saccharification. Recombinant E. coli metabolized only xylose, while recombinant K. oxytoca M5A1 metabolized xylose, xylobiose, and xylotriose but not xylotetrose. Derivatives of this latter organism produced large amounts of intracellular xylosidase, and the organism is presumed to transport both xylobiose and xylotriose for intracellular hydrolysis. By using recombinant M5A1, approximately 34% of the maximal theoretical yield of ethanol was obtained from xylan by this two-stage process. The yield appeared to be limited by the digestibility of commercial xylan rather than by a lack of sufficient xylanase or by ethanol toxicity. In general form, this two-stage process, which uses a single, genetically engineered microorganism, should be applicable for the production of useful chemicals from a wide range of biomass polymers. PMID:1599236

Burchhardt, G; Ingram, L O

1992-04-01

35

XAS analysis of a nanostructured iron polysaccharide produced anaerobically by a strain of Klebsiella oxytoca.  

PubMed

A strain of Klebsiella oxytoca, isolated from acid pyrite-mine drainage, characteristically produces a ferric hydrogel, consisting of branched heptasaccharide repeating units exopolysaccharide (EPS), with metal content of 36 wt%. The high content of iron in the EPS matrix cannot be explained by a simple ferric ion bond to the sugar skeleton. The bio-generated Fe-EPS is investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Fe K-edge XANES analysis shows that iron is mostly in trivalent form, with a non-negligible amount of Fe(2+) in the structure. The Fe EXAFS results indicate that iron in the sample is in a mineralized form, prevalently in the form of nano-sized particles of iron oxides/hydroxides, most probably a mixture of different nano-crystalline forms. TEM shows that these nanoparticles are located in the interior of the EPS matrix, as in ferritin. The strain produces Fe-EPS to modulate Fe-ions uptake from the cytoplasm to avoid iron toxicity under anaerobic conditions. This microbial material is potentially applicable as iron regulator. PMID:22585084

Ar?on, Iztok; Piccolo, Oreste; Paganelli, Stefano; Baldi, Franco

2012-05-15

36

Effects of Nano Zero-Valent Iron on Klebsiella oxytoca and Stress Response.  

PubMed

Nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) is a new option for contaminated soil and groundwater treatment, despite little is known on their impact on environmental microorganisms. Klebsiella oxytoca K5 strain, isolated from the NZVI-treated soil, was used to investigate the bacterial, phenotypical and molecular response to commercial NZVI exposure. Cytotoxicity assays at three NZVI concentrations (1, 5 and 10 mg mL(-1)) suggested a negligible bacteriostatic effect and the lack of bactericidal effect. Structural changes were analysed by electronic microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of NZVI around some bacterial cells, but no apparent morphological changes were seen. NZVI attachment to the cell surface was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, although most of them were not affected. A proteomic approach (two-dimensional electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) was used to investigate NZVI impact. For the first time to our knowledge, results revealed that exposure of a soil bacterium to NZVI resulted in the overproduction of tryptophanase, associated with oxidative stress response. K5 may set up an adaptative stress response involving indole as a signal molecule to inform the bacterial population about environmental changes. These findings would improve knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial response to NZVI exposure. PMID:23893265

Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Fajardo, Carmen; Nande, Mar; Martín, Margarita

2013-07-28

37

Engineering endoglucanase-secreting strains of ethanologenic Klebsiella oxytoca P2.  

PubMed

Recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca P2 was developed as a biocatalyst for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose by chromosomally integrating Zymomonas mobilis genes (pdc, adhB) encoding the ethanol pathway. This strain contains the native ability to transport and metabolize cellobiose, eliminating the need to supplement with beta-glucosidase during SSF. To increase the utility of this biocatalyst, we have now chromosomally integrated the celZ gene encoding the primary endoglucanase from Erwinia chrysanthemi. This gene was expressed at high levels by replacing the native promoter with a surrogate promoter derived from Z. mobilis DNA. With the addition of out genes encoding the type II protein secretion system from E. chrysanthemi, over half of the active endoglucanase (EGZ) was secreted into the extracellular environment. The two most active strains, SZ2(pCPP2006) and SZ6(pCPP2006), produced approximately 24 000 IU L-1 of CMCase activity, equivalent to 5% of total cellular protein. Recombinant EGZ partially depolymerized acid-swollen cellulose and allowed the production of small amounts of ethanol by SZ6(pCPP2006) without the addition of fungal cellulase. However, additional endoglucanase activities will be required to complete the depolymerization of cellulose into small soluble products which can be efficiently metabolized to ethanol. PMID:10455486

Zhou; Ingram

1999-06-01

38

Retrospective analysis of the genetic diversity of Klebsiella oxytoca isolated in Poland over a 50-year period.  

PubMed

Population genetics analyses and determination of the phylogenetic relationships between strains have proven to be extremely useful approaches, enabling deeper insights into the epidemiological pattern of bacterial species. There is no longitudinal data describing the molecular epidemiology of Klebsiella oxytoca strains that are opportunistic pathogens responsible for an increasing number of multi-resistant infections in hospitals. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of K. oxytoca strains over a 50-year period using internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction (ITS-PCR) and PCR MP (ang. PCR melting profiles) genotyping methods on a large collection of strains isolated from the patients of several hospitals in Poland. The phylogenetic analysis based on ITS-PCR exhibited six distinct branches. Two main groups, KoX and KoY, with four and two sub-groups within KoX and KoY, respectively, have been identified. Typing by the PCR MP method showed a higher level of genetic diversity. However, all K. oxytoca strains were also divided into six genotype groups (KoA, KoB, KoC, KoD, KoE and KoF). In conclusion, we found that the ITS-PCR and PCR MP methods are useful for the phylogenetic delineation of genetic groups in K. oxytoca. PMID:19562392

Stojowska, K; Krawczyk, B; Ka?uzewski, S; Kur, J

2009-06-28

39

Introduction of an NADH regeneration system into Klebsiella oxytoca leads to an enhanced oxidative and reductive metabolism of glycerol.  

PubMed

Redox cofactors play crucial roles in the metabolic and regulatory network of living organisms. We reported here the effect of introducing a heterogeneous NADH regeneration system into Klebsiella oxytoca on cell growth and glycerol metabolism. Expression of fdh gene from Candida boidinii in K. oxytoca resulted in higher intracellular concentrations of both NADH and NAD(+) during the fermentation metaphase, with the ratio of NADH to NAD(+) unaltered and cell growth unaffected, interestingly different from that in engineered Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis, and others. Metabolic flux analysis revealed that fluxes to 1,3-propanediol, ethanol, and lactate were all increased, suggesting both the oxidative and reductive metabolisms of glycerol were enhanced. It demonstrates that in certain microbial system NADH availability can be increased with NADH to NAD(+) ratio unaltered, providing a new strategy to improve the metabolic flux in those microorganisms where glycolysis is not the only central metabolic pathways. PMID:19100856

Zhang, Yanping; Huang, Zhihua; Du, Chenyu; Li, Yin; Cao, Zhu'an

2008-11-25

40

Characterization of FOX3, an AmpC-Type Plasmid-Mediated bLactamase from an Italian Isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella oxytoca 1731, which showed a wide spectrum of resistance to b-lactams, including cefoxitin, was isolated in 1994 from a patient in Genoa, Italy. This strain contained a plasmid-mediated AmpC b-lactamase with a pI of 7.25. Sequencing of the corresponding DNA of K. oxytoca 1731 revealed 96 and 97% identities of the deduced amino acid sequence with FOX-1 and FOX-2,

ANNA MARCHESE; GUILLAUME ARLET; GIAN CARLO SCHITO; PHILIPPE H. LAGRANGE; ALAIN PHILIPPON

1998-01-01

41

[The content of mimicry antigens in bacteria of the genus Klebsiella when they are cultured in plant tissue].  

PubMed

Bacteria of genus Klebsiella were found to possess group-specific antigens of ABO system. Representatives of conditionally pathogenic species, K. rhinoscleromatis, K. pneumoniae, K. ozaenae, K. oxytoca, contain 9.4 to 38% of the antigens. In the process of interaction of plant organisms and Klebsiella, which passed three times in green tomato fruits, the latter have been found to influence some biological features of the bacteria which is manifested in the loss of the mimicry antigens by a considerable part of the strains as well as in developing capsules by some capsule-free variants of klebsiellae. PMID:9181977

Turianitsa, A I; Petak, A M; Koval', G M; Sharga, B M

42

Genome-scale reconstruction and in silico analysis of Klebsiella oxytoca for 2,3-butanediol production  

PubMed Central

Background Klebsiella oxytoca, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, and facultative anaerobic bacterium, is one of the most promising 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) producers. In order to improve the metabolic performance of K. oxytoca as an efficient biofactory, it is necessary to assess its metabolic characteristics with a system-wide scope, and to optimize the metabolic pathways at a systems level. Provision of the complete genome sequence of K. oxytoca enabled the construction of genome-scale metabolic model of K. oxytoca and its in silico analyses. Results The genome-scale metabolic model of K. oxytoca was constructed using the annotated genome with biochemical and physiological information. The stoichiometric model, KoxGSC1457, is composed of 1,457 reactions and 1,099 metabolites. The model was further refined by applying biomass composition equations and comparing in silico results with experimental data based on constraints-based flux analyses. Then, the model was applied to in silico analyses to understand the properties of K. oxytoca and also to improve its capabilities for 2,3-BD production according to genetic and environmental perturbations. Firstly, in silico analysis, which tested the effect of augmenting the metabolic flux pool of 2,3-BD precursors, elucidated that increasing the pyruvate pool is primarily important for 2,3-BD synthesis. Secondly, we performed in silico single gene knockout simulation for 2,3-BD overproduction, and investigated the changes of the in silico flux solution space of a ldhA gene knockout mutant in comparison with that of the wild-type strain. Finally, the KoxGSC1457 model was used to optimize the oxygen levels during fermentation for 2,3-BD production. Conclusions The genome-scale metabolic model, KoxGSC1457, constructed in this study successfully investigated metabolic characteristics of K. oxytoca at systems level. The KoxGSC1457 model could be employed as an useful tool to analyze its metabolic capabilities, to predict its physiological responses according to environmental and genetic perturbations, and to design metabolic engineering strategies to improve its metabolic performance.

2013-01-01

43

The Periplasmic Cyclodextrin Binding Protein CymE from Klebsiella oxytoca and Its Role in Maltodextrin and Cyclodextrin Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella oxytoca M5a1 has the capacity to transport and to metabolize a-, b- and g-cyclodextrins. Cyclo- dextrin transport is mediated by the products of the cymE, cymF, cymG, cymD, and cymA genes, which are functionally homologous to the malE, malF, malG, malK, and lamB gene products of Escherichia coli. CymE, which is the periplasmic binding protein, has been overproduced and

MARKUS PAJATSCH; MARIA GERHART; RALF PEIST; REINHOLD HORLACHER; WINFRIED BOOS; AUGUST BOCK

1998-01-01

44

Complete sequences of two plasmids in a blaNDM-1-positive Klebsiella oxytoca isolate from Taiwan.  

PubMed

Genetic determinants of a bla(NDM-1)-positive, multidrug-resistant bacterial isolate that caused active infection was investigated by DNA sequencing. Two plasmids, pKOX_NDM1 and pKOX-R1, were identified for the Klebsiella oxytoca strain E718. Sequence annotation revealed a bla(NDM-1) gene in pKOX_NDM1 and two extended-spectrum ?-lactamase producers (bla(CTX-M-3) and blaSHV-12) and a wide array of resistance genes in pKOX-R1. These findings highlight the difficulty in treating multidrug-resistant bacterial infections and the potential danger of emerging resistant enterobacteria. PMID:23752513

Huang, Tzu-Wen; Wang, Jann-Tay; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Liao, Tsai-Lien; Lai, Jui-Fen; Tan, Mei-Chen; Lin, Ann-Chi; Chen, Ying-Tsong; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Chang, Shan-Chwen

2013-06-10

45

The Periplasmic Cyclodextrin Binding Protein CymE from Klebsiella oxytoca and Its Role in Maltodextrin and Cyclodextrin Transport  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella oxytoca M5a1 has the capacity to transport and to metabolize ?-, ?- and ?-cyclodextrins. Cyclodextrin transport is mediated by the products of the cymE, cymF, cymG, cymD, and cymA genes, which are functionally homologous to the malE, malF, malG, malK, and lamB gene products of Escherichia coli. CymE, which is the periplasmic binding protein, has been overproduced and purified. By substrate-induced fluorescence quenching, the binding of ligands was analyzed. CymE bound ?-cyclodextrin, ?-cyclodextrin, and ?-cyclodextrin, with dissociation constants (Kd) of 0.02, 0.14 and 0.30 ?M, respectively, and linear maltoheptaose, with a Kd of 70 ?M. In transport experiments, ?-cyclodextrin was taken up by the cym system of K. oxytoca three to five times less efficiently than maltohexaose by the E. coli maltose system. Besides ?-cyclodextrin, maltohexaose was also taken up by the K. oxytoca cym system, but because of the inability of maltodextrins to induce the cym system, growth of E. coli mal mutants on linear maltodextrin was not observed when the cells harbored only the cym uptake system. Strains which gained this capacity by mutation could easily be selected, however.

Pajatsch, Markus; Gerhart, Maria; Peist, Ralf; Horlacher, Reinhold; Boos, Winfried; Bock, August

1998-01-01

46

New Klebsiella oxytoca ?-Lactamase Genes blaOXY-3 and blaOXY-4 and a Third Genetic Group of K. oxytoca Based on blaOXY-3  

PubMed Central

The two genetic groups (oxy-1 and oxy-2) previously identified in the Klebsiella oxytoca taxon are recognizable by four independent molecular markers: (i) ERIC-1R profiles, (ii) 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) signature sequences, (iii) singular nucleotides in a defined fragment of the rpoB gene, and (iv) the type of the strain's blaOXY gene (i.e., blaOXY-1 or blaOXY-2). K. oxytoca strains SG266 and SG271 could not be classified into these genetic groups based on their ERIC-1R profile and blaOXY gene sequence. With regard to the gene identity percentages between the blaOXY-1 and blaOXY-2 gene groups (86.8% ± 0.4%) and within a blaOXY gene group (>99%), it was concluded that the blaOXY gene of strain SG271 was representative of a new blaOXY gene group (blaOXY-3), since the mean identity percentages between it and the two blaOXY gene groups were 85.5% ± 0.2% and 84.4% ± 0.4%, respectively. Since the corresponding percentages were 95.0% ± 0.4% and 86.2% ± 0.3% for strain SG266, it was impossible to classify its blaOXY gene, which was therefore named blaOXY-4. The 16S rDNA signature sequences of the two strains could be determined only after cloning experiments. The SG266 clones displayed the same signature sequence as that of the genetic group oxy-1, whereas the SG271 clones displayed three different 16S rDNA signature sequences that also differed from those of the two genetic groups. Singular nucleotides were found within the rpoB sequence of the two strains, allowing for their distinction from the two genetic groups. All of these results, combined with those previously obtained by the ERIC-1R PCR method, indicate that strain SG271 is representative of a new K. oxytoca genetic group (oxy-3), whereas strain SG266 could not be classified.

Granier, Sophie A.; Leflon-Guibout, Veronique; Goldstein, Fred W.; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Helene

2003-01-01

47

On-line monitoring of bioreactions of Bacillus polymyxa and Klebsiella oxytoca by membrane introduction tandem mass spectrometry with flow injection analysis sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane introduction mass spectrometry with flow injection analysis sampling has been utilized for on-line monitoring of the major products and the volatile metabolites of fermentation of the Bacillus polymyxa and Klebsiella oxytoca organisms. A flow injection sampling system was used to rapidly deliver fermentation broth or an external standard to the mass spectrometer. Analyte introduction occurred via a direct insertion

Mark J. Hayward; Tapio. Kotiaho; Anita K. Lister; R. Graham. Cooks; Glen D. Austin; Ramani. Narayan; George T. Tsao

1990-01-01

48

Influence of carbon source on nitrate removal by nitrate-tolerant Klebsiella oxytoca CECT 4460 in batch and chemostat cultures  

SciTech Connect

The nitrate-tolerant organism Klebsiella oxytoca CECT-4460 tolerates nitrate at concentrations up to 1 M and is used to treat wastewater with high nitrate loads in industrial wastewater treatment plants. The authors studied the influence of the C source (glycerol or sucrose or both) on the growth rate and the efficiency of nitrate removal under laboratory conditions. With sucrose as the sole C source the maximum specific growth rate was 0.3 h{sup {minus}1}, whereas with glycerol it was 0.45 h{sup {minus}1}. In batch cultures K. oxytoca cells grown on sucrose or glycerol were able to immediately use sucrose as a sole C source, suggesting that sucrose uptake and metabolism were constitutive. In contrast, glycerol uptake occurred preferentially in glycerol-grown cells. Independent of the preculture conditions, when sucrose and glycerol were added simultaneously to batch cultures, the sucrose was used first, and once the supply of sucrose was exhausted, the glycerol was consumed. Utilization of nitrate as an N source occurred without nitrite of ammonium accumulation when glycerol was used, but nitrite accumulated when sucrose was used. In chemostat cultures K. oxytoca CECT 4460 efficiently removed nitrate without accumulation of nitrite or ammonium when sucrose, glycerol, or mixtures of these two C sources were used. The growth yields and the efficiencies of C and N utilization were determined at different growth rates in chemostat cultures. Regardless of the C source, yield carbon (Y{sub C}) ranged between 1.3 and 1.0 g (dry weight) per g of sucrose C or glycerol C consumed. Regardless of the specific growth rate and the C source, yield nitrogen (Y{sub N}) ranged from 17.2 to 12.5 g (dry weight) per g of nitrate N consumed.

Pinar, G.; Ramos, J.L. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Granada (Spain); Kovarova, K.; Egli, T. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Environmental Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Dept. of Microbiology

1998-08-01

49

Comparative In Vitro Activities of Ciprofloxacin, Clinafloxacin, Gatifloxacin, Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, and Trovafloxacin against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, and Enterobacter aerogenes Clinical Isolates with Alterations in GyrA and ParC Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro activities of ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and trovafloxa- cin were tested against 72 ciprofloxacin-resistant and 28 ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates of Klebsiella pneu- moniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, and Enterobacter aerogenes. Irrespective of the alterations in GyrA and ParC proteins, clinafloxacin exhibited greater activity than all other fluoroquinolones tested against K. pneumoniae and E. aerogenes.

SYLVAIN BRISSE; DANA MILATOVIC; AD C. FLUIT; JAN VERHOEF; NELE MARTIN; SYBILLE SCHEURING; KARL KOHRER; FRANZ-JOSEF SCHMITZ

1999-01-01

50

Wastewater drainage system as an occult reservoir in a protracted clonal outbreak due to metallo-?-lactamase-producing Klebsiella oxytoca.  

PubMed

We describe the epidemiology of a protracted nosocomial clonal outbreak due to multidrug-resistant IMP-8 producing Klebsiella oxytoca (MDRKO) that was finally eradicated by removing an environmental reservoir. The outbreak occurred in the ICU of a Spanish hospital from March 2009 to November 2011 and evolved over four waves. Forty-two patients were affected. First basic (active surveillance, contact precautions and reinforcement of surface cleaning) and later additional control measures (nurse cohorting and establishment of a minimum patient/nurse ratio) were implemented. Screening of ICU staff was repeatedly negative. Initial environmental cultures, including dry surfaces, were also negative. The above measures temporarily controlled cross-transmission but failed to eradicate the epidemic MDRKO strain that reappeared two weeks after the last colonized patients in waves 2 and 3 had been discharged. Therefore, an occult environmental reservoir was suspected. Samples from the drainpipes and traps of a sink were positive; removal of the sink reduced the rate number but did not stop new cases that clustered in a cubicle whose horizontal drainage system was connected with the eliminated sink. The elimination of the horizontal drainage system finally eradicated the outbreak. In conclusion, damp environmental reservoirs (mainly sink drains, traps and the horizontal drainage system) could explain why standard cross-transmission control measures failed to control the outbreak; such reservoirs should be considered even when environmental cultures of surfaces are negative. PMID:23829434

Vergara-López, S; Domínguez, M C; Conejo, M C; Pascual, A; Rodríguez-Baño, J

2013-07-05

51

Dissemination of Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca Harboring CMY-31, VIM-1, and a New OXY-2-Type Variant in the Community ?  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiological link of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca isolates causing community-onset infections among patients attending our outpatient department and to investigate the underlying resistance mechanisms. The isolates were tested by agar dilution MICs, phenotypic carbapenemase testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PCR assays and nucleotide sequencing were employed for the identification of bla gene types and the mapping of the integron-containing metallo-?-lactamase (MBL) gene. During the study period (January 2005 to April 2007), nine broad-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant K. oxytoca clinical isolates were prospectively collected from separate outpatients with urinary tract infections. In all cases, the patients had been hospitalized or exposed to health care facilities during the preceding year. Molecular typing revealed that all isolates belonged to the same K. oxytoca clonal type, which contained five PFGE subtypes. A novel chromosomal OXY-2 ?-lactamase type variant (OXY-2-9) was detected in all isolates, but no mutations in the promoter region justifying blaOXY gene overproduction were detected. In addition, all isolates harbored the plasmidic CMY-31 (LAT-4) AmpC cephalosporinase, while three of them harbored VIM-1 MBL in a class 1 integron structure. This is the first study to present the dissemination in the community of multidrug-resistant K. oxytoca isolates causing extrahospital infections.

Tsakris, Athanassios; Poulou, Aggeliki; Markou, Fani; Pitiriga, Vassiliki; Piperaki, Evangelia-Theophano; Kristo, Ioulia; Pournaras, Spyros

2011-01-01

52

Chromosomal beta-lactamase genes of Klebsiella oxytoca are divided into two main groups, blaOXY-1 and blaOXY-2.  

PubMed Central

The chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase gene (blaOXY-2) of the wild-type Klebsiella oxytoca SL911 was cloned and sequenced. Its nucleotide sequence similarity with the previously sequenced K. oxytoca beta-lactamase gene (blaOXY-1) (Y. Arakawa, M. Ohta, N. Kido, M. Mori, H. Ito, T. Komatsu, Y. Fujii, and N. Kato, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:63-70, 1989) is 87.3%, and its amino acid similarity is 89.7%. This group of K. oxytoca beta-lactamases is related to chromosomal beta-lactamases of Citrobacter diversus, Proteus vulgaris, and Yersinia enterocolitica and to the plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum beta-lactamases MEN-1 and Toho-1. By colony hybridization with 86 strains susceptible and resistant to aztreonam, isolated in six countries, K. oxytoca beta-lactamase genes hybridized with either a specific blaOXY-1 DNA probe (668 bp) or a blaOXY-2 DNA probe (723 bp). Thus, beta-lactamase genes could be divided into two groups: blaOXY-1 (47% of the strains) and blaOXY-2 (53% of the strains). A study of isoelectric points confirmed the great variability reported in the literature. However, the two beta-lactamase groups were each represented by four different pIs: for OXY-2, 5.2, 5.7, 6.4, and 6.8, with the 5.2 form representing 59% of all OXY-2 enzymes, and for OXY-1, 7.1, 7.5, 8.2, and 8.8, with the 7.5 form representing 88% of all OXY-1 enzymes.

Fournier, B; Roy, P H; Lagrange, P H; Philippon, A

1996-01-01

53

Adaptative biochemical pathways and regulatory networks in Klebsiella oxytoca BAS-10 producing a biotechnologically relevant exopolysaccharide during Fe(III)-citrate fermentation  

PubMed Central

Background A bacterial strain previously isolated from pyrite mine drainage and named BAS-10 was tentatively identified as Klebsiella oxytoca. Unlikely other enterobacteria, BAS-10 is able to grow on Fe(III)-citrate as sole carbon and energy source, yielding acetic acid and CO2 coupled with Fe(III) reduction to Fe(II) and showing unusual physiological characteristics. In fact, under this growth condition, BAS-10 produces an exopolysaccharide (EPS) having a high rhamnose content and metal-binding properties, whose biotechnological applications were proven as very relevant. Results Further phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rDNA sequence, definitively confirmed that BAS-10 belongs to K. oxytoca species. In order to rationalize the biochemical peculiarities of this unusual enterobacteriun, combined 2D-Differential Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis and mass spectrometry procedures were used to investigate its proteomic changes: i) under aerobic or anaerobic cultivation with Fe(III)-citrate as sole carbon source; ii) under anaerobic cultivations using Na(I)-citrate or Fe(III)-citrate as sole carbon source. Combining data from these differential studies peculiar levels of outer membrane proteins, key regulatory factors of carbon and nitrogen metabolism and enzymes involved in TCA cycle and sugar biosynthesis or required for citrate fermentation and stress response during anaerobic growth on Fe(III)-citrate were revealed. The protein differential regulation seems to ensure efficient cell growth coupled with EPS production by adapting metabolic and biochemical processes in order to face iron toxicity and to optimize energy production. Conclusion Differential proteomics provided insights on the molecular mechanisms necessary for anaeorobic utilization of Fe(III)-citrate in a biotechnologically promising enterobacteriun, also revealing genes that can be targeted for the rational design of high-yielding EPS producer strains.

2012-01-01

54

Effect of pH on the metabolic flux of Klebsiella oxytoca producing 2,3-butanediol in continuous cultures at different dilution rates.  

PubMed

The efficiency of the bioconversion process and the achievable end-product concentration decides the economic feasibility of microbial 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) production. In 2,3-BDO production, optimization of culture condition is required for cell growth and metabolism. Also, the pH is an important factor that influences microbial performance. For different microorganisms and substrates, it has been shown that the distribution of the metabolites in 2,3-BDO fermentation is greatly affected by pH, and the optimum pH for 2,3-BDO production seems dependently linked to the particular strain and the substrate employed. Quantification analysis of intracellular metabolites and metabolic flux analysis (MFA) were used to investigate the effect of pH on the Klebsiella oxytoca producing 2,3-BDO and other organic acids. The main objectives of MFA are the estimation of intracellular metabolic fluxes and the identification of rate-limiting step and the key enzymes. This study was conducted under continuous aerobic conditions at different dilution rates (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 h(-1)) and different pH values (pH 5.5 and 7.0) for the steady-state experimental data. In order to obtain the flux distribution, the extracellular specific rates were calculated from the experimental data using the metabolic network model of K. oxytoca. Intracellular metabolite concentration profiles were generated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. PMID:23443450

Park, Changhun; Lu, Mingshou; Yun, Seokhun; Park, Kyungmoon; Lee, Jinwon

2013-02-27

55

Influence of blocking of 2,3-butanediol pathway on glycerol metabolism for 1,3-propanediol production by Klebsiella oxytoca.  

PubMed

Glycerol metabolism is a typical biological oxidoreductive reaction. 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD) is the final product of the reductive branch, while acetate, succinate, lactate, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), and ethanol were produced in the oxidative branch. 2,3-BD, which has similar properties of high boiling point and water solubility with 1,3-PD, not only contests the carbon flow and NADH with 1,3-PD but also serves as an obstacle for obtaining high purity 1,3-PD in downstream processes. In this study, a 2,3-BD pathway-deficient mutant of Klebsiella oxytoca ZG36 was constructed by knocking out the budA gene of the wild-type strain M5al. The results of fed-batch fermentation by ZG36 indicated that the glycerol flux and the distribution of metabolites were altered in the K. oxytoca when the 2,3-BD pathway was blocked. No 2,3-BD was produced, and the activity of ?-acetolactate decarboxylase (?-ALDC) can not be detected in the fermentation processes. The indexes of the 1,3-PD titer, the conversion from glycerol to 1,3-PD, and the productivity per cell dry weight (CDW) increased by 42%, 62%, and 46%, respectively, compared with the M5al, and the yield of the byproducts also increased obviously. The assay of the enzyme activities in the oxidative branch and the reductive branch of the glycerol metabolism, as well as the intracellular redox state, exposited the results logically. PMID:21915590

Zhang, Gang; Yang, Guang; Wang, Xu; Guo, Qingjuan; Li, Ying; Li, Jilun

2011-09-14

56

Saccharification and fermentation of sugar cane bagasse by Klebsiella oxytoca P2 containing chromosomally integrated genes encoding the Zymomonas mobilis ethanol pathway  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse is essential for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process which uses recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2 and Genencor Spezyme CE. Strain P2 has been genetically engineered to express Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding the ethanol pathway and retains the native ability to transport and metabolize cellobiose (minimizing the need for extracellular cellobiase). In SSF studies with this organism, both the rate of ethanol production and ethanol yield were limited by saccharification at 10 and 20 filter paper units (FPU) g[sup [minus]1] acid-treated bagasse. Dilute slurries of biomass were converted to ethanol more efficiently (over 72% of theoretical yield) in simple batch fermentations than slurries containing high solids, albeit with the production of lower levels of ethanol. With high solids (i.e., 160 g acid-treated bagasse L[sup [minus]1]), a combination of 20 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse, preincubation under saccharification conditions, and additional grinding (to reduce particle size) were required to produce ca. 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1]. Alternatively, almost 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1] was produced with 10 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse by incorporating a second saccharification step (no further enzyme addition) followed by a second inoculation and short fermentation. In this way, a theoretical ethanol yield of over 70% was achieved with the production of 20 g ethanol 800 FPU[sup [minus]1] of commercial cellulase.

Doran, J.B.; Aldrich, H.C.; Ingram, L.O. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science)

1994-06-20

57

Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC)-Producing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing bacteria are a group of emerging highly drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli causing infections associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Once confined to outbreaks in the northeastern United States (US), they have spread throughout the US and most of the world. KPCs are an important mechanism of resistance for an increasingly wide range of Gram-negative bacteria and are no longer limited to K pneumoniae. KPC-producing bacteria are often misidentified by routine microbiological susceptibility testing and incorrectly reported as sensitive to carbapenems; however, resistance to the carbapenem antibiotic ertapenem is common and a better indicator of the presence of KPCs. Carbapenem antibiotics are generally not effective against KPC-producing organisms. The best therapeutic approach to KPC-producing organisms has yet to be defined; however, common treatments based on in vitro susceptibility testing are the polymyxins, tigecycline, and less frequently aminoglycoside antibiotics. The purpose of this review is to identify the various challenges that KPC-producing bacteria present to clinicians. These include the need for special techniques for microbiological detection, the potential for nosocomial transmission, and therapeutic challenges related to limited, relatively unproven antimicrobial treatment options.

Arnold, Ryan S.; Thom, Kerri A.; Sharma, Saarika; Phillips, Michael; Johnson, J. Kristie; Morgan, Daniel J.

2010-01-01

58

Recommended Test Panel for Differentiation of Klebsiella Species on the Basis of a Trilateral Interlaboratory Evaluation of 18 Biochemical Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca are the two most frequently encountered Klebsiella species giving rise to infections in humans, but other Klebsiella species can also be found in clinical specimens: Klebsiella ozae- nae, Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis, Klebsiella terrigena, Klebsiella planticola, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, and Enterobac- ter aerogenes (Klebsiella mobilis). However, many of these species are indistinguishable by the conventional meth- ods employed

Dennis S. Hansen; Hazel M. Aucken; Titi Abiola; Rainer Podschun

2004-01-01

59

Bacteria on housefly eggs, Musca domestica , suppress fungal growth in chicken manure through nutrient depletion or antifungal metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female houseflies, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), lay their eggs in ephemeral resources such as animal manure. Hatching larvae compete for essential nutrients\\u000a with fungi that also colonize such resources. Both the well-known antagonistic relationship between bacteria and fungi and\\u000a the consistent presence of the bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca on housefly eggs led us to hypothesize (1) that K. oxytoca, and possibly

Kevin Lam; Kelsie Thu; Michelle Tsang; Margo Moore; Gerhard Gries

2009-01-01

60

A molecular phylogeny of enteric bacteria and implications for a bacterial species concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular phylogeny for seven taxa of enteric bacteria (Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Hafnia alvei, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia plymuthica) was made from multiple isolates per taxa taken from a collection of environmental enteric bacteria. Sequences from five housekeeping genes (gapA, groEL, gyrA, ompA, and pgi) and the 16s rRNA gene were used to infer individual

J. E. Wertz; C. Goldstone; D. M. Gordon; M. A. Riley

2003-01-01

61

Bacteria Associated with the Oesophageal Bulb of the Medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular Gram negative bacteria were found to be commonly associated to the oesophageal bulb of Ceratitis capitata with Klebsiella oxytoca and Enterobacter agglomerans as the most common species. All the isolates tested in vitro, except one, were sensitive to the antibacterial material present on the medfly laid egg surface.

Daniela Marchini; Marco Rosetto; Romano Dallai; Laura Marri

2002-01-01

62

Prevalence and characterization of extended spectrum ?-lactamases in Klebsiella-Enterobacter-Serratia group bacteria, in Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe authors had for aim to assess the local epidemiology, antibiotic resistance, and molecular typing of expanded spectrum betalactamase producing Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Serratia (ESBL KES).

S. Nedjai; A. Barguigua; N. Djahmi; L. Jamali; K. Zerouali; M. Dekhil; M. Timinouni

63

The "other" gram-negative bacteria in mastitis: Klebsiella, serratia, and more.  

PubMed

Mastitis caused by gram-negative infections is of increasing importance on modern and well-managed dairy farms. Without a doubt, E coli tends to be the most important cause of these gram-negative infections when the data are tallied across farms.1 However, more precise investigation of individual farms often reveals a farm-specific infection pattern where a single gram-negative bacterial species predominates. Several farms with a predominance of “other” gram-negative IMIs may be observed. We have shown the presence of outbreaks on individual dairy farms with K pneumoniae, S marcescens, and Enterobacter cloacae. On farms with a predominance of these “other” gram-negative infections, a detailed epidemiologic investigation may reveal the source of these infections. It is quite surprising to identify the difference in host immune response pattern and the associated clinical and subclinical presentations of IMIs due to the different gram-negative organisms. Experimental and field observations would suggest that among the gram-negative bacterial causes of mastitis, Klebsiella spp are causing the most severe cases, closely followed by E coli and then much less clinical severity is observed in Serratia spp and Enterobacter spp cases. The precise mechanisms that would explain the difference in clinical severity are not known, but the most likely explanation appears to be the structure of the lipid A fraction of the LPS of the bacterial species. Important differences in the lipid A fraction of LPS between and within bacterial species are observed. The prevention of IMIs with gram-negative bacteria has components that are generic across species and components that are species specific. Generic prevention may be obtained by improving hygiene and reducing exposure of teat ends to environmental contamination. Also the use of a J5 bacterin is expected to provide some reduction in severity of gram-negative IMIs across bacterial species. Specific prevention programs will depend on the actual transmission behavior of the dominant species causing IMIs in the herd. Several clonal outbreaks of gram-negative bacterial species have been described. In such situations, optimal milking procedures, segregation and culling of infected animals, and targeted treatment would be advisable. Even more specific are the prevention procedures associated with S marcescens outbreaks, where resistance against specific biocides will lead to transmission of infection through teat disinfectants. Removal of these biocides from the cow environment is than essential. Antimicrobial treatment of gram-negative bacteria has often considered to be of limited value and treatment should be more targeted toward cow survival and reduction of clinical symptoms. More recently, extended treatment with a third-generation cephalosporin was reported to be efficacious in the treatment of E coli and Klebsiella spp but not of E cloacae. Further investigations in effective treatment protocols for gram-negative IMIs are warranted. PMID:22664206

Schukken, Ynte; Chuff, Matt; Moroni, Paolo; Gurjar, Abhijit; Santisteban, Carlos; Welcome, Frank; Zadoks, Ruth

2012-07-01

64

Prevalence of clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. producing multiple extended-spectrum ?-lactamases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven thousand two hundred seventy-two Escherichia coli, 1109 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1124 Salmonella enterica, and 602 Klebsiella oxytoca unrelated clinical isolates were obtained between 2001 and 2004 in a university hospital in Salamanca, Spain. One hundred thirteen E. coli (1%), 32 K. pneumoniae (2.9%), 4 K. oxytoca (0.66%), and 5 S. enterica (0.44%) isolates produced extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs). We obtained 42.2%

Emilio David Valverde Romero; Trinidad Parras Padilla; Ana Herrero Hernández; Rosa Pérez Grande; Marta Fernández Vázquez; Inmaculada García García; José Angel García-Rodríguez; Juan Luis Muñoz Bellido

2007-01-01

65

Preparation and characterization of vanadia-titania mixed oxide for immobilization of Serratia rubidaea CCT 5732 and Klebsiella marcescens bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Vanadia-titania mixed oxide was synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized by several techniques. Texturally, it is formed by mesopores and presents high-specific surface area and controlled porosity. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that vanadium is homogeneously distributed in the material. Structurally, it was possible to identify characteristic V=O stretching bands by IR. The analysis of X-ray diffraction showed that the material, particularly vanadium, is highly dispersed. Application experiments were carried out through the immobilization of Serratia rubidae CCT 5732 and Klebsiella marcescens bacteria by adsorption on the surface of mixed oxide. The micrographies revealed that the bacteria were adsorbed on the entire support, with average surface densities of 8.55 x 10{sup 11} cells/m{sup 2} (Serratia rubidae CCT 5732) and 3.40 x 10{sup 11} cells/m{sup 2} (K. marcescens)

Saragiotto Colpini, Leda Maria [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringa, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: ledasaracol@yahoo.com.br; Correia Goncalves, Regina A. [Departamento de Farmacia e Farmacologia, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringa, PR (Brazil); Goncalves, Jose Eduardo [Centro Universitario de Maringa, Av. Guedner 1610, 87050-390 Maringa, PR (Brazil); Maieru Macedo Costa, Creusa [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringa, PR (Brazil)

2008-08-04

66

Volatilization of Mercury by Immobilized Bacteria ( Klebsiella pneumoniae ) in Different Support by Using Fluidized Bed Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae, a mercury-resistant bacterial strain able to reduce ionic mercury to metallic mercury, was isolated from wastewater of Casablanca.\\u000a This strain exhibits high minimal inhibition concentrations for heavy metals such as mercury 2400 ?M, lead 8000 ?M, silver 2400 ?M, and cadmium 1000 ?M. This bacterium was immobilized in alginate, polyacrylamide, vermiculite, and cooper beech and was used for

Youssef Zeroual; Adnane Moutaouakkil; Mohamed Blaghen

2001-01-01

67

Comparison of (GTG)5-oligonucleotide and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS)-PCR for molecular typing of Klebsiella isolates.  

PubMed

Molecular typing of Klebsiella species has become important for monitoring dissemination of ?-lactamase-producers in hospital environments. The present study was designed to evaluate poly-trinucleotide (GTG)(5)- and rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS)-PCR fingerprint analysis for typing of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca isolates. Multiple displacement amplified DNA derived from 19 K. pneumoniae (some with an ESBL-phenotype), 35 K. oxytoca isolates, five K. pneumoniae, two K. oxytoca, three Raoultella, and one Enterobacter aerogenes type and reference strains underwent (GTG)(5) and ITS-PCR analysis. Dendrograms were constructed using cosine coefficient and the Neighbour joining method. (GTG)(5) and ITS-PCR analysis revealed that K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca isolates, reference and type strains formed distinct cluster groups, and tentative subclusters could be established. We conclude that (GTG)(5) and ITS-PCR analysis combined with automated capillary electrophoresis provides promising tools for molecular typing of Klebsiella isolates. PMID:21129413

Ryberg, Anna; Olsson, Crister; Ahrné, Siv; Monstein, Hans-Jürg

2010-11-30

68

Influence of Asellus aquaticus on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Campylobacter jejuni and naturally occurring heterotrophic bacteria in drinking water.  

PubMed

Water lice, Asellus aquaticus (isopoda), frequently occur in drinking water distribution systems where they are a nuisance to consumers and water utilities. Whether they are solely an aesthetic problem or also affect the microbial water quality is a matter of interest. We studied the influence of A. aquaticus on microbial water quality in non-chlorinated drinking water in controlled laboratory experiments. Pure cultures of the indicator organisms Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the pathogen Campylobacter jejuni as well as naturally occurring heterotrophic drinking water bacteria (measured as heterotrophic plate counts, HPC) were investigated in microcosms at 7 °C, containing non-sterilised drinking water, drinking water sediment and A. aquaticus collected from a non-chlorinated ground water based drinking water supply system. Concentrations of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni decreased over time, following a first order decay with half lives of 5.3, 18.4 and 1.3 days, respectively. A. aquaticus did not affect survival of indicators and pathogens substantially whereas HPC were influenced by presence of dead A. aquaticus. Growth rates increased with an average of 48% for bacteria grown on R-2A agar and an average of 83% for bacteria grown on yeast extract agar when dead A. aquaticus were present compared to no and living A. aquaticus present. A. aquaticus associated E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni were measured (up to 25 per living and 500 per dead A. aquaticus) and so were A. aquaticus associated heterotrophic bacteria (>1.8*10(4) CFU per living and >6*10(4) CFU per dead A. aquaticus). A. aquaticus did not serve as an optimised habitat that increased survival of indicators and pathogens, since A. aquaticus associated E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni were only measured as long as the bacteria were also present in the water and sediment. PMID:22884244

Christensen, Sarah C B; Nissen, Erling; Arvin, Erik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

2012-07-20

69

Molecular characterization of class 1 integrons and gene cassettes in multidrug resistant (MDR) Klebsiella spp. isolated from hospitalized and outpatients in Iran, 2009  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives Klebsiella species are of the most common bacteria involved in nosocomial and urinary tract infections. Genetic elements such as class 1 integrons have an important role in the resistance development. In this study, the share of class 1 integrons, the genetic characterization of the integron cassettes and PFGE profiles of the clinical Klebsiella isolates are evaluated in Besat University hospital of Sanandaj, Iran. Methods Isolates from 17890 clinical specimens were identified by API20E. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and MIC were done for MDR isolates. For investigating class 1 integrons and gene cassettes, PCR by intI1 integrase and 5’-CS/3’-CS were performed. Integrated gene cassettes were analyzed by PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis was carried out for studying of clonality outbreak of isolates. Results Thirty five Klebsiella spp. were isolated and included 29 K. pneumoniae and 6 K. oxytoca. All the isolates were susceptible to carbapenems while other antibiotics showed high resistant profile. In all Klebsiella spp. PCR for intI1 integrase and 5’-CS/3’-CS were positive (100%). Sequencing for prevalent bands of internal variable regions between 5’-CS/3’-CS showed arr-5, orfD-aacA4 and aad5- dfrA17. PFGE Analysis showed 18 clusters in K. pneumoniae with clonality relatedness in some cases but no relatedness among K. oxytoca isolates. Conclusion High prevalence of class 1 integron carrying gene cassettes confirms that integron-mediated antimicrobial gene cassettes are important in Klebsiella spp. resistance profile. Clone diffusions of MDR Klebsiella spp. which harbor class 1 integrons have threaten the potential in the resistance development in our clinical settings.

Salimizand, Himen; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Kalantar, Enayatollah; Badmasti, Farzad

2013-01-01

70

Isolation and identification of ropy bacteria in raw milk.  

PubMed

Approximately 4.2% of 4,000 Maryland-Virginia raw milk tanker samples developed ropiness when incubated at 10 degrees C. Of the 56 bacterial isolates 30 were identified by species. Klebsiella oxytoca and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated most frequently. Other ropy isolates were identified as Pseudomonas spp., Chromobacterium, Flavobacterium multivorum, presumptive Yersinia pestis, Enterobacter agglomerans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pasteurella-Actinobacter spp. Six of the Klebsiella oxytoca isolates were mesophilic (optimum temperatures of 32.0 to 37.8 degrees C) with two isolates having psychrotrophic tendencies (optimum temperature of 26.8 degrees C). All Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates appeared to be psychrotropic in their temperature requirements (optimum temperature of 23.0 to 31.0 degrees C). Klebsiella oxytoca was significant in preliminary development of the ropy condition. All Klebsiella oxytoca isolates developed ropiness within 24 h. The Pseudomonas spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates required at long as 7 days to develop detectable ropiness at 10 degrees C. A recommended Klebsiella oxytoca differentiation agar is presented as a rapid screening method during outbreaks where Klebsiella oxytoca is the organism of significance. PMID:6685140

Cheung, B A; Westhoff, D C

1983-09-01

71

Klebsiella meningitis in Taiwan: an overview.  

PubMed

Klebsiella infection has been considered to be an uncommon cause of meningitis. To determine its incidence and clinical features, we reviewed the microbiologic records of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood cultures and the medical records of patients with bacterial meningitis admitted between 1981 and 1995. Klebsiella meningitis was diagnosed in 79 patients with 83 episodes. All patients had klebsiella isolated from CSF and/or blood and typical symptoms and signs of acute bacterial meningitis. Of these, 74 were over 16 years of age and 2 of the 5 children were infants. There was an increased prevalence rate of klebsiella meningitis after 1986. Of the 83 episodes, only 9 occurred between 1981 and 1986, accounting for 7.8% of 115 cases with CSF and/or blood culture-proven acute bacterial meningitis, whereas in 1987-95, there were 74 episodes accounting for 17.7% of 419 bacteriologically proven cases. K. pneumoniae accounted for 69 episodes, K. oxytoca, 11 episodes and K. ozaenae, 3 episodes. Male gender, diabetes mellitus and liver cirrhosis were commonly associated with K. pneumoniae meningitis. Neurosurgical procedures were frequently associated with K. oxytoca meningitis. All three patients with K. ozaenae meningitis had a primary disease of the nasopharyngeal pathway. The mortality rate due to K. pneumoniae was 48.5%, K. oxytoca, 10% and K. ozaenae, 0%. In patients with K. pneumoniae meningitis, poor prognostic factors included age over 60 years, diabetes mellitus, bacteremia and severe neurological deficits on the first day of treatment. PMID:9363011

Tang, L M; Chen, S T; Hsu, W C; Chen, C M

1997-10-01

72

IgA antibody response to klebsiella in ankylosing spondylitis measured by immunoblotting  

Microsoft Academic Search

IgA antibodies to Klebsiella pneumoniae var oxytoca and Proteus mirabilis were measured in 66 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and 31 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in 51 healthy control subjects, using an immunoblotting technique. The number of antigenic bands to klebsiella on nitrocellulose membrane was higher in 28 patients with active AS than in 38 patients with inactive AS,

F Shodjai-Moradi; A Ebringer; I Abuljadayel

1992-01-01

73

Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli  

SciTech Connect

Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

1980-05-01

74

Improvements In Ethanologenic Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella Oxytoca. (Final Report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current Verenium cellulosic ethanol process is based on the dilute-acid pretreatment of a biomass feedstock, followed by a two-stage fermentation of the pentose sugar-containing hydrolysate by a genetically modified ethanologenic Escherichia coli stra...

D. Nunn

2010-01-01

75

Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%),

G. U. Ochuba; V. L. Von Riesen

1980-01-01

76

Difficulties in identifying Klebsiella strains of clinical origin.  

PubMed

Two hundred and four strains of Gram-negative bacteria of clinical origin, initially identified as Klebsiella using the API 20 E system, and 10 reference strains were further analysed with the API 20 EC test system and the API 50 CH, API 50 AO, API 50 AA assimilation systems. Four clusters corresponding to the species Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, K. planticola, and K. terrigena were formed after numerical analysis of 155 selected tests and the 26 most discriminating tests were determined. A comparison was made between conventional identification using the API 20 E system and the results of the numerical analysis. The conventional method resulted in incorrect identification of 13% of the strains tested, especially for the new species: K. planticola and K. terrigena. After numerical analysis, 17 out of 204 strains (8.3%) of clinical origin were identified as K. planticola. Only 1 strain of clinical origin was identified as K. terrigena, and 1 strain as K. ornithinolytica. PMID:1863314

Monnet, D; Freney, J; Brun, Y; Boeufgras, J M; Fleurette, J

1991-01-01

77

Numerical taxonomy of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from clinical and nonclinical sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 180 clinical and nonclinical isolates ofKlebsiella pneumoniae, for which 99 characteristics were recorded, were subjected to numerical taxonomy analysis. Of these strains, 172 clustered\\u000a into five major groups, with an overall similarity of 64%. Intragroup similarities ranged from 77 to 82%, with the subgroups\\u000a corresponding to the speciesK. pneumoniae sensu stricto, K. oxytoca, andKlebsiella spp. 1, 2,

Laurie G. Naemura; Susan T. Bagley; Ramon J. Seidler; James B. Kaper; R. R. Colwellw

1979-01-01

78

Evaluation of virulent multidrug resistant Klebsiella infection status in a tertiary care hospital in Eastern India.  

PubMed

Klebsiella especially Klebsiella pneumoniae is gaining renewed interest because of emergence of multidrug resistance among klebsiellae associated with infections.These are now being recognised as one of the major threats to effective management of patients in hospital, especially in developing country like India. Pathogenic mechanism of klebsiella Infections are associated with virulence factors such as capsule and mucoid phenotype, etc. The present study was designed to determine the virulence factors and antibiogram of klebsiellae, isolated from various clinical specimen in a tertiary care hospital of West Bengal, India. A total of 2370 clinical specimens which include blood, urine, wound swab, sputum were processed for isolation and identification of klebsiella to the species level. For each klebsiella isolate demonstration of capsule was done by capsule relief stain and detection of mucoid phenotype was done by string test. Antibiogram was studied by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The results showed that klebsiella species were isolated and identified from 139 clinical samples (5.9% prevalence rate) among which 4 (2.9%) were Klebsiella oxytoca and the remaining 135 Isolates (97.1%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae. Out of 139 klebsiella isolates, capsule was demonstrated in 118 (84.9%) and 116 (83.4%) were positive for string test. Antibiogram revealed that most of isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were multidrug resistant. PMID:23785917

Chatterjee, Sumanta; Adhikari, Anjan; Ghosh, Reena Roy; Chatterjee, Nilay; Bhattacharyya, Kumkum; Bhattacharya, Sujata

2012-11-01

79

Cleanliness scores as indicator of Klebsiella exposure in dairy cows.  

PubMed

This study was designed to explore the relationship between cow and udder cleanliness scores and the risk of isolation of Klebsiella spp. from lower hind legs and teat ends, respectively. The distribution of Klebsiella species was compared among isolates from teat ends, legs, and cases of clinical mastitis obtained from 2 dairy farms in New York State, with 850 and 1,000 cows, respectively. Farms were visited twice approximately 4 wk apart in August and September 2007 to obtain cleanliness scores and swabs from legs and teats. Isolates of Klebsiella clinical mastitis from each farm were collected from July through October 2007. Two studies were conducted. In the first study, whole-cow cleanliness of a purposive sample of 200 lactating cows was scored using a 4-point scale, and swabs were taken from their lower hind legs. In the second study, udder cleanliness of a separate convenience sample of 199 lactating cows was scored in the milking parlor, and swabs were taken from their teat ends before and after premilking udder preparation. Prevalence of Klebsiella spp. on legs and teat ends before udder preparation was 59 and 60%, respectively. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between isolation of Klebsiella spp. and cleanliness scores. Cow cleanliness scores and udder cleanliness scores were not associated with detection of Klebsiella on legs and on teats before udder preparation, respectively. After udder preparation, 43% of previously Klebsiella positive teat end samples remained positive, with significant differences between farms and months. Teats from dirty udders were significantly more likely to test positive for Klebsiella after udder preparation than teats from clean udders. The proportion of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca isolates was similar for isolates from teat end swabs and clinical mastitis cases, supporting the notion that the presence of Klebsiella on teat ends may lead to opportunistic intramammary infections. Udder cleanliness scores could be used as a management tool to monitor the risk of exposure to Klebsiella spp. on teat ends. PMID:18832213

Munoz, M A; Bennett, G J; Ahlström, C; Griffiths, H M; Schukken, Y H; Zadoks, R N

2008-10-01

80

Development and Evaluation of a Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a novel real-time PCR assay to detect Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) and used this assay to screen clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca for the presence of blaKPC genes. The TaqMan real-time PCR assay amplified a 399-bp product from the blaKPC gene. The amplicon was designed so that the genes for isoenzymes KPC-1, -2, and -3

Justin M. Cole; Audrey N. Schuetz; Charles E. Hill; Frederick S. Nolte; Samantha Eells; Andrea Endimiani; Robert A. Bonomo; Alexis Deletoile; Dominique Decre; Stephanie Courant; Virginie Passet; Jennifer Audo; Patrick Grimont; Guillaume Arlet; Sylvain Brisse; Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa; Rosa del Campo; Teresa M. Coque; Angel Asensio; Marc Bonten; Rob Willems; Fernando Baquero; Rafael Canton; F. J. L. Robberts; P. C. Kohner; R. Patel; Athanassios Tsakris; Ioulia Kristo; Aggeliki Poulou; Alexandros Ikonomidis; Dimitra Petropoulou; Spyros Pournaras; Danai Sofianou

81

An allelic variant of the chromosomal gene for class A beta-lactamase K2, specific for Klebsiella pneumoniae, is the ancestor of SHV-1.  

PubMed

Fecal Klebsiella isolates from neonates in 22 Swedish special care units were examined by a PCR we developed for detection of the SHV-1 beta-lactamase gene. All 105 K. pneumoniae isolates and all 11 K. pneumoniae reference strains (including the K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, ozaenae, and rhinoscleromatis type strains) tested were positive, whereas all 67 K. oxytoca isolates and the K. oxytoca, K. planticola, and K. terrigena type strains tested were negative. Resistance to beta-lactams in K. pneumoniae was not transferable by conjugation, and the beta-lactamase gene was never found on a plasmid. Southern blot analysis showed that the gene had a defined chromosomal location. Isoelectric focusing and sequencing of 231-bp PCR amplicons from different isolates revealed many variants of the enzyme, with the two main groups being SHV-1 like (pI 7.6; 68 isolates) and LEN-1 like (pI 7.1; 14 isolates). Clavulanic acid markedly reduced the MICs of ampicillin for all the K. pneumoniae isolates tested. This fact, MIC profiles (penicillin rather than cephalosporin resistance), pIs, and sequence data showed that the chromosomal beta-lactamase of K. pneumoniae is a class A, group 2 enzyme distinct from the chromosomal AmpC enzymes found in several other gram-negative bacteria and from the chromosomal beta-lactamase K1 of K. oxytoca. We propose that the chromosomal beta-lactamase of K. pneumoniae be designated K2 and suggest that an allelic pI 7.6 variant of this enzyme is the ancestor of the SHV family of plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases. PMID:9420042

Haeggman, S; Löfdahl, S; Burman, L G

1997-12-01

82

An allelic variant of the chromosomal gene for class A beta-lactamase K2, specific for Klebsiella pneumoniae, is the ancestor of SHV-1.  

PubMed Central

Fecal Klebsiella isolates from neonates in 22 Swedish special care units were examined by a PCR we developed for detection of the SHV-1 beta-lactamase gene. All 105 K. pneumoniae isolates and all 11 K. pneumoniae reference strains (including the K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, ozaenae, and rhinoscleromatis type strains) tested were positive, whereas all 67 K. oxytoca isolates and the K. oxytoca, K. planticola, and K. terrigena type strains tested were negative. Resistance to beta-lactams in K. pneumoniae was not transferable by conjugation, and the beta-lactamase gene was never found on a plasmid. Southern blot analysis showed that the gene had a defined chromosomal location. Isoelectric focusing and sequencing of 231-bp PCR amplicons from different isolates revealed many variants of the enzyme, with the two main groups being SHV-1 like (pI 7.6; 68 isolates) and LEN-1 like (pI 7.1; 14 isolates). Clavulanic acid markedly reduced the MICs of ampicillin for all the K. pneumoniae isolates tested. This fact, MIC profiles (penicillin rather than cephalosporin resistance), pIs, and sequence data showed that the chromosomal beta-lactamase of K. pneumoniae is a class A, group 2 enzyme distinct from the chromosomal AmpC enzymes found in several other gram-negative bacteria and from the chromosomal beta-lactamase K1 of K. oxytoca. We propose that the chromosomal beta-lactamase of K. pneumoniae be designated K2 and suggest that an allelic pI 7.6 variant of this enzyme is the ancestor of the SHV family of plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases.

Haeggman, S; Lofdahl, S; Burman, L G

1997-01-01

83

Metabolic engineering of bacteria for ethanol production  

SciTech Connect

Technologies are available which will allow the conversion of lignocellulose into fuel ethanol using genetically engineered bacteria. Assembling these into a cost-effective process remains a challenge. The authors` work has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of enteric bacteria using a portable ethanol production pathway. Genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase have been integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B to produce strain KO11 for the fermentation of hemicellulose-derived syrups. This organism can efficiently ferment all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1 has been genetically engineered in a similar manner to produce strain P2 for ethanol production from cellulose. This organism has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes. The optimal pH for cellulose fermentation with this organism is near that of fungal cellulases. The general approach for the genetic engineering of new biocatalysts has been most successful with enteric bacteria thus far. However, this approach may also prove useful with gram-positive bacteria which have other important traits for lignocellulose conversion. Many opportunities remain for further improvements in the biomass to ethanol processes.

Ingram, L.O.; Gomez, P.F.; Lai, X.; Moniruzzaman, M.; Wood, B.E.; Yomano, L.P.; York, S.W. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science

1998-04-20

84

Reduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol by ethanologenic strains of bacteria and its effect on ethanol production from xylose.  

PubMed

The ethanologenic bacteria Escherichia coli strains KO11 and LYO1, and Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2, were investigated for their ability to metabolize furfural. Using high performance liquid chromatography and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, furfural was found to be completely biotransformed into furfuryl alcohol by each of the three strains with tryptone and yeast extract as sole carbon sources. This reduction appears to be constitutive with NAD(P)H acting as electron donor. Glucose was shown to be an effective source of reducing power. Succinate inhibited furfural reduction, indicating that flavins are unlikely participants in this process. Furfural at concentrations >10 mM decreased the rate of ethanol formation but did not affect the final yield. Insight into the biochemical nature of this furfural reduction process may help efforts to mitigate furfural toxicity during ethanol production by ethanologenic bacteria. PMID:12018260

Gutiérrez, Tony; Buszko, Marian L; Ingram, Lonnie O; Preston, James F

2002-01-01

85

The activity of antimicrobial peptide S-thanatin is independent on multidrug-resistant spectrum of bacteria.  

PubMed

In this study, the activity of S-thanatin (an analog of antimicrobial peptide derived from thanatin) against different bacterial pathogens frequently which can cause therapeutic problems was tested. The result showed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of S-thanatin against all isolates of the Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella ornithinolytica and Klebsiella oxytoca were in the range of 4-16?g/ml, no matter which antibiotic the bacterial was resistant or susceptible, while almost all MICs to Gram-positive bacterial were >128?g/ml except Enterococcus faecium. S-thanatin was more effective toward Gram-negative strains, especially for Enterobacter and Klebsiella. The MICs of S-thanatin were no significantly different in the same species regardless of antibiotic sensitive or -resistant isolates to single or multiple antibiotic (P>0.05). Likewise, no notable difference could be observed between E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, E. aerogenes, K. ornithinolytica which were sensitive to S-thanatin (P>0.05). It was implied that the antimicrobial activity of S-thanatin was independent on multi-drug resistance spectrum of bacteria. PMID:21453736

Wu, Guoqiu; Li, Xiaofang; Fan, Xiaobo; Wu, Hongbin; Wang, Shenglan; Shen, Zilong; Xi, Tao

2011-03-29

86

Alimentary tract bacteria isolated and identified with API-20E and molecular cloning techniques from Australian tropical fruit flies, Bactrocera cacuminata and B. tryoni.  

PubMed

Bacteria were isolated from the crop and midgut of field collected Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering) and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Two methods were used, firstly isolation onto two types of bacteriological culture media (PYEA and TSA) and identification using the API-20E diagnostic kit, and secondly, analysis of samples using the 16S rRNA gene molecular diagnostic method. Using the API-20E method, 10 genera and 17 species of bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae were identified from cultures growing on the nutrient agar. The dominant species in both the crop and midgut were Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella oxytoca. Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp ozaenae and Serratia marcescens were isolated from B. tryoni only. Using the molecular cloning technique that is based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, five bacteria classes were dignosed — Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Delta- Proteobacteria and Firmicutes — including five families, Leuconostocaceae, Enterococcaceae, Acetobacteriaceae, Comamonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. The bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes were found mainly in the crop while the Gammaproteobacteria, especially the family Enterobacteriaceae, was dominant in the midgut. This paper presents results from the first known application of molecular cloning techniques to study bacteria within tephritid species and the first record of Firmicutes bacteria in these flies. PMID:20883132

Thaochan, N; Drew, R A I; Hughes, J M; Vijaysegaran, S; Chinajariyawong, A

2010-01-01

87

Klebsiella michiganensis sp. nov., a new bacterium isolated from a tooth brush holder.  

PubMed

Isolate W14(T) recovered from a household tooth brush holder was found to be gram-negative, a facultative anaerobic, non-motile, capsulated, and a non-endospore-forming straight rod. Based on phylogenetic analysis with 16S rRNA gene sequence, isolate W14(T) was affiliated to the genus Klebsiella. The closest phylogenetic relative was K. oxytoca with 99 % similarity in the 16S rRNA gene sequence. The major whole-cell fatty acids were C(16:0) (31.23 %), C(18:1?6c)/C(18:1?7c) (21.10 %), and C(16:1?7c)/C(16:1?6c) (19.05 %). The sequence similarities of isolate W14(T) based on rpoB, gyrA, and gyrB were 97, 98, and 98 % with K. oxytoca, and 97, 93, and 90 % with K. mobilis (=Enterobacter aerogenes), respectively. The ribotyping pattern showed a 0.46 similarity with K. oxytoca ATCC 13182(T) and 0.24 with K. mobilis ATCC 13048(T). The DNA G+C content of isolate W14(T) was 54.6 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness was 55.7 % with K. oxytoca ATCC 13182(T). Using the identification technology of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, the top matches for this isolate were K. oxytoca ATCC 13182(T) (Match Factor Score 1.998) and K. mobilis (Score 1.797). On the basis of phenotypic, biochemical, chemotaxonomic, and molecular studies, isolate W14(T) could be differentiated from other members of the genus Klebsiella including K. mobilis. Therefore, it is proposed that isolate W14(T) (=ATCC BAA-2403(T)=DSM 25444(T)) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Klebsiella, K. michiganensis sp. nov. PMID:23053492

Saha, Ratul; Farrance, Christine E; Verghese, Bindhu; Hong, Sunhee; Donofrio, Robert S

2012-10-06

88

Characterization of Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from 19 Laboratories Using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards Extended-Spectrum  Lactamase Detection Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended-spectrum b-lactamases (ESBLs) are enzymes found in gram-negative bacilli that mediate resis- tance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam. In 1999, the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) published methods for screening and confirming the presence of ESBLs in Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Escherichia coli. To evaluate the confirmation protocol, we tested 139 isolates of K. pneumoniae that were

CHRISTINE D. STEWARD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; SUSANNAH K. HUBERT; JAMES W. BIDDLE; PATTI M. RANEY; GREGORY J. ANDERSON; PORTIA P. WILLIAMS; KELLEY L. BRITTAIN; ANTONIO OLIVER; FRED C. TENOVER

2001-01-01

89

Identification of Extended-Spectrum, AmpC, and Carbapenem Hydrolyzing -Lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by Disk Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ever increasing variety of -lactamases that have been reported in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae constitute a diagnostic challenge for the clinical microbiology laboratory (18, 22, 31). Many methods for the detection of extended-spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs), plasmid-mediated AmpC -lactamases, and carbapenemases have been pro- posed; but some procedures are technically demanding

George A. Jacoby; Kelley E. Walsh; Victoria J. Walker

90

Emergence of DHA1-Producing Klebsiella spp. in the Parisian Region: Genetic Organization of the ampC and ampR Genes Originating from Morganella morganii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates and one Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolate showing various pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types and producing an inducible DHA-1 class C -lactamase were isolated in the Parisian region between 1998 and 2003. The aim of this study was to compare the genetic organization of the blaDHA-1 genes in this collection of clinical isolates. In four isolates, the

Charlotte Verdet; Yahia Benzerara; Valerie Gautier; Olivier Adam; Zahia Ould-Hocine; Guillaume Arlet

2006-01-01

91

Molecular analysis of population structure and antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella isolates from a three-year surveillance program in Florence hospitals, Italy.  

PubMed

We report the results of a three-year surveillance program of Klebsiella spp. in six hospitals in Florence (Italy). A total of 172 Klebsiella isolates were identified and typed by AFLP: 122 were K. pneumoniae and 50 were K. oxytoca. Most K. pneumoniae (80%) and K. oxytoca (93%) showed unrelated AFLP profiles. Beside this heterogeneous population structure, we found five small epidemic clonal groups of K. pneumoniae. Four of these groups were involved in outbreak events, three of which occurred in neonatal ICUs. The fifth clonal group spread in three different wards of two hospitals. Only one non-epidemic clonal group of K. oxytoca was detected. The frequencies of isolates with multiple antibiotic resistances increased with time; at the end of the study period, most K. pneumoniae were resistant to all the antibiotics tested. A PCR analysis of seven ertapenem resistant isolates was unable to detect any of the major genes known to underlie carbapenem resistance in K. pneumoniae. PMID:21744038

Donnarumma, F; Indorato, C; Mastromei, G; Goti, E; Nicoletti, P; Pecile, P; Fanci, R; Bosi, A; Casalone, E

2011-07-09

92

Isolation and Identification of Ropy Bacteria in Raw Milk1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 4.2% of 4,000 Mary- land-Virginia raw milk tanker samples developed ropiness when incubated at 10°C. Of the 56 bacterial isolates 30 were identified by species. Klebsiella oxytoca and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated most frequently. Other ropy isolates were identified as Pseudomonas spp., Chromo- bacterium, Flavobacterium multivorum, presumptive gersinia pestis, Enterobacter agglomerans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pasteurella-Actinobacter spp. Six of the

B. A. Cheung; D. C. Westhoff

1983-01-01

93

[Antibodies to Klebsiella pneumoniae in ankylosing spondylitis].  

PubMed

The authors investigated the incidence of antibodies against Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli in a group of patients with ankylosing spondylitis and in a group of healthy controls in all main immunoglobulin classes. The results revealed that in patients with ankylosing spondylitis there is a significantly higher incidence of specific antibodies of class IgA against Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli. This supports the thesis on the aetiopathogenetic interrelationship between enteric bacteria and the development of ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:2676185

Mateicka, F; Kozáková, D; Cebecauer, L; Ondrasík, M; Bosmanský, K

1989-01-27

94

Metabolic engineering of bacteria for ethanol production  

PubMed

Technologies are available which will allow the conversion of lignocellulose into fuel ethanol using genetically engineered bacteria. Assembling these into a cost-effective process remains a challenge. Our work has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of enteric bacteria using a portable ethanol production pathway. Genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase have been integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B to produce strain KO11 for the fermentation of hemicellulose-derived syrups. This organism can efficiently ferment all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1 has been genetically engineered in a similar manner to produce strain P2 for ethanol production from cellulose. This organism has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes. The optimal pH for cellulose fermentation with this organism (pH 5.0-5.5) is near that of fungal cellulases. The general approach for the genetic engineering of new biocatalysts has been most successful with enteric bacteria thus far. However, this approach may also prove useful with Gram-positive bacteria which have other important traits for lignocellulose conversion. Many opportunities remain for further improvements in the biomass to ethanol processes. These include the development of enzyme-based systems which eliminate the need for dilute acid hydrolysis or other pretreatments, improvements in existing pretreatments for enzymatic hydrolysis, process improvements to increase the effective use of cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes, improvements in rates of ethanol production, decreased nutrient costs, increases in ethanol concentrations achieved in biomass beers, increased resistance of the biocatalysts to lignocellulosic-derived toxins, etc. To be useful, each of these improvements must result in a decrease in the cost for ethanol production. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:10191391

Ingram; Gomez; Lai; Moniruzzaman; Wood; Yomano; York

1998-04-01

95

Sources of Klebsiella and Raoultella species on dairy farms: be careful where you walk.  

PubMed

Klebsiella spp. are a common cause of mastitis, milk loss, and culling on dairy farms. Control of Klebsiella mastitis is largely based on prevention of exposure of the udder to the pathogen. To identify critical control points for mastitis prevention, potential Klebsiella sources and transmission cycles in the farm environment were investigated, including oro-fecal transmission, transmission via the indoor environment, and transmission via the outdoor environment. A total of 305 samples was collected from 3 dairy farms in upstate New York in the summer of 2007, and included soil, feed crops, feed, water, rumen content, feces, bedding, and manure from alleyways and holding pens. Klebsiella spp. were detected in 100% of rumen samples, 89% of water samples, and approximately 64% of soil, feces, bedding, alleyway, and holding pen samples. Detection of Klebsiella spp. in feed crops and feed was less common. Genotypic identification of species using rpoB sequence data showed that Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common species in rumen content, feces, and alleyways, whereas Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella variicola, and Raoultella planticola were the most frequent species among isolates from soil and feed crops. Random amplified polymorphic DNA-based strain typing showed heterogeneity of Klebsiella spp. in rumen content and feces, with a median of 4 strains per 5 isolates. Observational and bacteriological data support the existence of an oro-fecal transmission cycle, which is primarily maintained through direct contact with fecal contamination or through ingestion of contaminated drinking water. Fecal shedding of Klebsiella spp. contributes to pathogen loads in the environment, including bedding, alleyways, and holding pens. Hygiene of alleyways and holding pens is an important component of Klebsiella control on dairy farms. PMID:21257074

Zadoks, R N; Griffiths, H M; Munoz, M A; Ahlstrom, C; Bennett, G J; Thomas, E; Schukken, Y H

2011-02-01

96

In vitro activity of aztreonam against gram negative bacteria from clinical specimens and its comparison with other commonly used antibiotics.  

PubMed

A total of 755 gram negative bacteria isolated from clinical specimens were tested against aztreonam by the disc agar diffusion test. The strains of bacteria used in this study consisted of Escherichia coli (314), Enterobacter aerogenes (30), E. agglomerans (7), E. cloacae, (39), Citrobacter diversus (9), C. freundii (13), Hafnia alvei (3), Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (10), Klebsiella oxytoca (6), K. ozaenae (5), K. pneumoniae (107), Morganella morganii (3), Moraxella sp. (10), Pasteurella multocida (1), Proteus mirabilis (66), P. vulgaris (4), Providencia rettgeri (12), P. stuartii (5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (85), P. fluorescens (2), P. maltophila (7), Salmonella sp. (1) and Serratia marcescens (17). In vitro activity against aztreonam was compared with amikacin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalosporin, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, piperacillin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and tobramycin. Over 99% of E. coli and Enterobacter species were susceptible to aztreonam. All the 118 strains of Klebsiella, 87 strains of Proteus-Providencia and 17 strains of S. marcescens were also susceptible. Aztreonam also showed good activity against P. aeruginosa, inhibiting 90% of the 85 isolates tested. PMID:3088346

Qadri, S M; Belobraydic, K A

1986-04-01

97

Virulence properties of extended spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Klebsiella species in meat samples.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to identify virulence properties (siderophores, serum resistance, and hemolysin) and antibiotic resistance in extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella isolates from 60 calf and chicken meat samples purchased from various supermarkets in Ankara, Turkey. Of the 45 Klebsiella isolates, 24 (53%) were identified as K. oxytoca and 21 (47%) were identified as K. pneumoniae. A high proportion of Klebsiella isolates had virulence factors such as hemolytic activity (67%), siderophore production (44%), and serum resistance (38%). The double-disk synergy test was used to determine ESBL production. ESBL production was detected in 13 (29%) of the 45 Klebsiella isolates. Resistance to 14 antimicrobials was tested in all Klebsiella isolates by the disk diffusion method. All isolates were resistant to two or more antimicrobial agents. All ESBL-producing Klebsiella isolates were highly resistant to cephalosporins and monobactams. Our findings indicate that meat and its products represent potential hazardous sources of multidrug-resistant and virulent Klebsiella species. PMID:21477469

Gundogan, Neslihan; Citak, Sumru; Yalcin, Emel

2011-04-01

98

Multilocus enzyme analysis in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria using gel electrophoresis–nitrocellulose blotting  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimized multilocus enzyme electrophoresis method, which involves polyacrylamide–agarose gel electrophoresis followed by electrophoretic transfers on nitrocellulose sheets, was developed for the analysis of enzyme polymorphism in several aerobic and anaerobic bacterial species including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. agalactiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca, Clostridium bifermentans and C. sordellii, and Prevotella bivia. Serial electrophoretic transfers (during 5–15 min each)

Marie-Laure Combe; Jean-François Lemeland; Martine Pestel-Caron; Jean-Louis Pons

2000-01-01

99

IgA antibody response to klebsiella in ankylosing spondylitis measured by immunoblotting.  

PubMed Central

IgA antibodies to Klebsiella pneumoniae var oxytoca and Proteus mirabilis were measured in 66 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and 31 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in 51 healthy control subjects, using an immunoblotting technique. The number of antigenic bands to klebsiella on nitrocellulose membrane was higher in 28 patients with active AS than in 38 patients with inactive AS, 31 patients with RA, and 51 healthy control subjects; comparatively smaller increases were found against proteus. In two patients with AS the synovial fluid and the corresponding serum sample showed an identical antibody pattern. Increases in IgA antibodies to klebsiella in patients with AS confirm previous studies using other techniques. Images

Shodjai-Moradi, F; Ebringer, A; Abuljadayel, I

1992-01-01

100

Microbiological investigation of Raphanus sativus L. grown hydroponically in nutrient solutions contaminated with spoilage and pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

The survival of eight undesired (spoilage/pathogenic) food related bacteria (Citrobacter freundii PSS60, Enterobacter spp. PSS11, Escherichia coli PSS2, Klebsiella oxytoca PSS82, Serratia grimesii PSS72, Pseudomonas putida PSS21, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PSS52 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19114(T)) was investigated in mineral nutrient solution (MNS) during the crop cycle of radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivated in hydroponics in a greenhouse. MNSs were microbiologically analyzed weekly by plate count. The evolution of the pure cultures was also evaluated in sterile MNS in test tubes. The inoculated trials contained an initial total mesophilic count (TMC) ranging between 6.69 and 7.78Log CFU/mL, while non-sterile and sterile control trials showed levels of 4.39 and 0.97Log CFU/mL, respectively. In general, all inoculated trials showed similar levels of TMC in MNS during the experimentation, even though the levels of the inoculated bacteria decreased. The presence of the inoculums was ascertained by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis applied on the isolates collected at 7-day intervals. At harvest, MNSs were also analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The last analysis, except P. putida PSS21 in the corresponding trial, did not detect the other bacteria, but confirmed that pseudomonads were present in un-inoculated MNSs. Despite the high counts detected (6.44 and 7.24CFU/g), only C. freundii PSS60, Enterobacter spp. PSS11 and K. oxytoca PSS82 were detected in radishes in a living form, suggesting their internalization. PMID:23290244

Settanni, Luca; Miceli, Alessandro; Francesca, Nicola; Cruciata, Margherita; Moschetti, Giancarlo

2012-11-20

101

Antibiotic resistance and production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases amongst Klebsiella spp. from intensive care units in Europe.  

PubMed

Consecutive klebsiellae were collected from ICU patients at 35 centres in Western and Southern Europe. Of 966 isolates obtained, 716 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 248 were Klebsiella oxytoca and two were Klebsiella ozaenae. Most were from Belgium, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Turkey and a few from Greece and the UK. Production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) was inferred in 220 isolates on the basis of synergy between ceftazidime and clavulanate. Putative ESBL producers were received from 23 centres, including 20 of the 27 that contributed more than 10 klebsiellae. Over 88% of putative ESBL producers were resistant to ceftazidime 2 mg/L, ceftriaxone 1 mg/L and aztreonam 1 mg/L, whereas, amongst ESBL-negative isolates, more than 98% of K. pneumoniae and 87% of K. oxytoca were susceptible to these concentrations. Putative ESBL producers wre also more resistant to cefuroxime and cefoxitin than non-producers, but not to biapenem. MIC distributions of ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam and aminoglycosides were bimodal for ESBL producers, with some isolates highly sensitive and others very resistant. For example, 70% of putative ESBL producers were susceptible to piperacillin/tazobactam 16 + 4 mg/L, but 30% were resistant, some highly so. Resistance to this combination, and to ciprofloxacin, was clustered in certain centres. Two other groups of cephalosporin-resistant isolates were identified besides ESBL producers, viz. (i) nine isolates, from three centres, with AmpC beta-lactamases and (ii) 20 K. oxytoca, from 15 centres, that hyperproduced K1 enzyme. Examination of the hospitals' own susceptibility data indicated that up to 33% of putative ESBL producers had been reported susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins or monobactams. This is disturbing, since ESBLs have been associated with clinical failure even when only low-level resistance was apparent in vitro. PMID:8889716

Livermore, D M; Yuan, M

1996-09-01

102

Nickel-resistant bacteria from anthropogenically nickel-polluted and naturally nickel-percolated ecosystems.  

PubMed

DNA fragments harboring the nickel resistance determinants from bacteria isolated from anthropogenically polluted ecosystems in Europe and Zaire were compared with those harboring the nickel resistance determinants from bacteria isolated from naturally nickel-percolated soils from New Caledonia by DNA-DNA hybridization. The biotinylated DNA probes were derived from the previously described Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans 31A, Alcaligenes denitrificans 4a-2, and Klebsiella oxytoca CCUG 15788 and four new nickel resistance-determining fragments cloned from strains isolated from soils under nickel-hyperaccumulating trees. Nine probes were hybridized with endonuclease-cleaved plasmid and total DNA samples from 56 nickel-resistant strains. Some of the New Caledonian strains were tentatively identified as Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas mendocina, Comamonas, Hafnia alvei, Burkholderia, Arthrobacter aurescens, and Arthrobacter ramosus strains. The DNA of most strains showed homologies to one or several of the following nickel resistance determinants: the cnr and ncc operons of the strains A. eutrophus CH34 and A. xylosoxidans 31A, respectively, the nre operon of strain 31A, and the nickel resistance determinants of K. oxytoca. On the basis of their hybridization reactions the nickel resistance determinants of the strains could be assigned to four groups: (i) cnr/ncc type, (ii) cnr/ncc/nre type, (iii) K. oxytoca type, and (iv) others. The majority of the strains were assigned to the known groups. Among the strains from Belgium and Zaire, exclusively the cnr/ncc and the cnr/ncc/nre types were found. Among the New Caledonian strains all four types were represented. Homologies to the nre operon were found only in combination with the cnr/ncc operon. The homologies to the cnr/ncc operon were the most abundant and were detected alone or together with homologies to the nre operon. Only the DNA of the strains isolated from soil in Scotland and the United States and that of five of the New Caledonian strains did not show any detectable homologies to any of our probes. The nickel resistance fragment isolated from Burkholderia strain 32W-2 was studied in some detail. This 15-kb BamHI fragment conferred resistance to 1 to 5 mM NiCl(inf2) to Escherichia coli and resistance to up to 25 mM NiCl(inf2) to A. eutrophus. It showed strong homologies to both the cnr/ncc operon and the nre operon and conferred strictly regulated (inducible) nickel resistance to A. eutrophus. PMID:16535048

Stoppel, R; Schlegel, H G

1995-06-01

103

Phenotypic characterization of human pathogenic bacteria in fish from the coastal waters of South West Cameroon: public health implications.  

PubMed

Increasing economic and recreational opportunities, attractive scenery and a perception of a better quality of life are luring people to the coast. Unfortunately, these activities together with the commensurate increase in population in the area inevitably result in pollution of coastal waters with excessive microorganisms and other pollutants. Microbial pollutants not only contaminate the coastal water but also aquatic food sources, thus posing a health risk to consumers. Fish is a major source of protein in Cameroon, especially in the coastal areas. In this study, we investigated the microbiological quality of fish from the Limbe and Tiko beaches in South West Cameroon from May to October 2007. We isolated human pathogenic bacteria from three anatomic sites (skin, gills, intestine) of 50 fish (150 specimens) and investigated their susceptibility patterns to a battery of antibiotics. Data were analyzed statistically using chi2 with significance set at p < .05. Eleven bacterial species were identified, including Escherichia coli type 1 (20.8%), Citrobacter fruendii (16.4%), Proteus vulgaris (13%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.1%), Klebsiella ozaenae (7.7%), Enterobacter cloacae (7.2%), Klebsiella oxytoca (5.8%), Serratia marcescens (4.8%), Serratia odorifera (4.8%), Hafnia alvei (4.4%) and Proteus penneri (2.9%). More contaminated fish were found at Limbe beach than at Tiko beach (61.4% versus 38.6%, respectively (p < .05)). When ranking contamination with respect to anatomic site, skin was the most contaminated (40.6%) specimen and gills the least (28.5%). Ciprofloxacillin, ofloxacillin, and cotrimoxazole were the most effective antibiotics against all isolates, exhibiting 100% sensitivity. Almost half of the isolates (45.7%) were resistant to ampicillin. The results of our study demonstrate that fish from the coastal waters of South West Cameroon are a source of human pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria; hence this finding has public health implications. PMID:19658320

Akoachere, Jane-Francis T K; Bughe, Rhoda N; Oben, Benedicta O; Ndip, Lucy M; Ndip, Roland N

104

Impact of Gram-negative bacteria in interaction with a complex microbial consortium on biogenic amine content and sensory characteristics of an uncooked pressed cheese.  

PubMed

The impact of Gram-negative bacteria on sensory characteristics and production of volatile compounds as well as biogenic amines (BA) in the core of an uncooked pressed type model cheese was investigated in the presence of a defined complex microbial consortium. Eleven strains of Gram-negative bacteria, selected on the basis of their biodiversity and in vitro BA-production ability, were individually tested in a model cheese. Four out of 6 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (Citrobacter freundii UCMA 4217, Klebsiella oxytoca 927, Hafnia alvei B16 and Proteus vulgaris UCMA 3780) reached counts close to 6 log CFU g?¹ in the model cheese. In core of cheeses inoculated with Gram-negative bacteria, only slight differences were observed for microbial counts (Enterococcus faecalis or Lactobacillus plantarum count differences below 1 log CFU g?¹), acetate concentration (differences below 200 mg kg?¹) and texture (greater firmness) in comparison to control cheeses. Cheese core colour, odour and volatile compound composition were not modified. Although ornithine, the precursor of putrescine, was present in all cheeses, putrescine was only detected in cheeses inoculated with H. alvei B16 and never exceeded 2.18 mmol kg?¹ cheese dry matter. Cadaverine was only detected in cheeses inoculated with H. alvei B16, K. oxytoca 927, Halomonas venusta 4C1A or Morganella morganii 3A2A but at lower concentrations (<1.05 mmol kg?¹ cheese dry matter), although lysine was available. Only insignificant amounts of the detrimental BA histamine and tyramine, as well as isopentylamine, tryptamine or phenylethylamine, were produced in the cheese model by any of the Gram-negative strains, including those which produced these BA at high levels in vitro. PMID:22265286

Delbès-Paus, Céline; Pochet, Sylvie; Helinck, Sandra; Veisseire, Philippe; Bord, Cécile; Lebecque, Annick; Coton, Monika; Desmasures, Nathalie; Coton, Emmanuel; Irlinger, Françoise; Montel, Marie-Christine

2011-12-14

105

Klebsiella ozaenae cholecystitis.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of Klebsiella ozaenae septicemia, cholecystitis and urinary tract infection in a 65-year-old morbidly obese woman with diabetes. Klebsiella ozaenae is considered a nonpathogen or colonizer rarely causing septicemia. This is the first reported case of cholecystitis due to this agent. PMID:21804376

Baig, Abdur; Gujral, Manmeet; Hameed, Rizwanullah; Borra, Sonia

2011-09-01

106

Effects of some metallic compounds on Klebsiella  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial and waste disposal practices unconsciously pollute the environment by adding excess heavy metals to it. Although reports show an inconsistency in the toxic levels of heavy metals such as zinc, nickel, cadmium, mercury and silvery between microbial groups, the toxic effects of the metals on microorganisms have been well documented. Little is known of the differential effects these metals have on coliform K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca. These bacteria are widely recognized as antibiotic resistant opportunistic pathogens. Besides, they are able to fix dinitrogen. In this study, these metals were found to affect these organisms in a variety of concentrations. Such effect could affect the total coliform count in water, dinitrogen fixation, and removable of nitrate in soil and water.

Wong, S.H.

1988-04-01

107

Effects of some metallic compounds on Klebsiella  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial and waste disposal practices unconsciously pollute the environment by adding excess heavy metals to it. Although reports show an inconsistency in the toxic levels of heavy metals such as zinc, nickel, cadmium, mercury and silver between microbial groups, the toxic effects of the metals on microorganisms have been well documented. Little is known of the differential effects these metals have on coliform K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca. These bacteria are widely recognized as antibiotic resistant opportunistic pathogens ubiquitously distributed in environments. Besides, they are able to fix dinitrogen. In this study, these metals were found to affect these organisms in a variety of concentrations. Such effect could affect the total coliform count in water, dinitrogen fixation, and removable of nitrate in soil and water.

Wong, S.H. (Univ. of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada))

1988-05-01

108

Activity of antibacterial impregnated central venous catheters against Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Antibiotically coated or impregnated catheters are effective in eliminating gram-positive bacteria from their surfaces. However, their activity against gram-negative bacteria is not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the adherence, persistence and colonization of Klebsiella pneumoniae on catheter surfaces and also to assess bacteriostatic and bactericidal levels. Design: Randomized, controlled, laboratory study. Setting:

Kaya Yorganci; Candace Krepel; John A. Weigelt; Charles E. Edmiston

2002-01-01

109

Evaluation of the MicroScan ESBL plus confirmation panel for detection of extended-spectrum b-lactamases in clinical isolates of oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We aimed to assess the performance of the MicroScan ESBL plus confirmation panel using a series of 87 oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative bacilli of various species. Methods: Organisms tested included 57 extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL) strains comprising Enterobacter aerogenes (3), Enterobacter cloacae (10), Escherichia coli (11), Klebsiella pneumoniae (26), Klebsiella oxytoca (3) and Proteus mirabilis (4). Also included were 30 strains resistant

Enno Sturenburg; Melanie Lang; Matthias A. Horstkotte; Rainer Laufs; Dietrich Mack

2004-01-01

110

A murine monoclonal antibody defines a unique epitope shared by Klebsiella lipopolysaccharides.  

PubMed Central

A hybridoma secreting a monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was derived from spleen cells of mice immunized a smooth, nonencapsulated Klebsiella strain (Friedländer 201; serogroup O1). The MAb, called V/9-5 (immunoglobulin G2a), cross-reacted with LPS preparations produced from reference strains for the Klebsiella O serogroups O1, O2ab, O2ac, O3, O4, O5, and O12. Furthermore, the MAb reacted with LPSs from serogroup reference strains O6/O8, O9, and O11, which are regarded as being identical to O1, O2, and O4, respectively. When testing the supernatant of clinically isolated Klebsiella strains by means of an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that 86 (92.4%) of 93 Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae isolates and 24 (96.0%) of 25 K. oxytoca isolates harbored the cross-reactive epitope. By contrast, two laboratory strains of K. pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis did not react with MAb V/9-5. The MAb proved to be specific for the genus Klebsiella, since it did not react with any of a total of 73 strains belonging to other gram-negative bacterial genera. In conjunction with other LPS-specific MAbs, MAb V/9-5 might become a useful reagent for rapid identification of klebsiellae in clinical specimens. Furthermore, the epitope recognized by MAb V/9-5 might serve as a target epitope for the production of human MAbs for immunotherapeutic purposes. Images

Trautmann, M; Vogt, K; Hammack, C; Cross, A S

1994-01-01

111

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production in symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and its optimization by Taguchi design.  

PubMed

Production of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in 35 different symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria strains isolated from soil and plant roots was studied and assayed by chromatography and colorimetric methods. These bacteria included Agrobacterium, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Azotobacter. The best general medium and synergism effects of isolates for IAA production were investigated. Effects of different variables containing physical parameters and key media components and optimization of condition for IAA production were performed using the Design of Experiments. Qualitek-4 (W32b) software for automatic design and analysis of the experiments, both based on Taguchi method was used. The results showed that Rhizobium strains, symbiotic, and Paenibacillus non-symbiotic bacteria yielded the highest concentrations of IAA (in the range of 5.23-0.27 and 4.90-0.19 ppm IAA/mg biomass, respectively) and IAA production was increased by synergism effect of them. Yeast Extract Mannitol medium supplemented with L-tryptophan was the best general medium for IAA production. The analysis of experimental data using Taguchi method indicated that nitrogen source is very prominent variable in affecting the yield and mannitol as carbon source, potassium nitrate (1%), and L-tryptophan (3 g/l) as nitrogen sources after 72-h incubation at 30 degrees C were the optimum conditions for production of IAA. 5.89 ppm IAA/mg biomass was produced under these optimal conditions. PMID:20526603

Shokri, Dariush; Emtiazi, Giti

2010-06-05

112

Phage Associated Bacteriocins Reveal a Novel Mechanism for Bacteriocin Diversification in Klebsiella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-six isolates of Klebsiellapneumoniae and K.oxytoca were recovered from wild mammals in Australia. 14.6% of these bacteria produce killing phenotypes that suggest the production of bacteriocin toxins. Cloning and sequencing of the gene clusters encoding two of these killing phenotypes revealed two instances of a bacteriocin associated with a bacteriophage gene, the first such genetic organization described. The newly identified

Milind Chavan; Hamid Rafi; John Wertz; Carla Goldstone; Margaret A. Riley

2005-01-01

113

Kinetics of Colonization of Adult Queensland Fruit Flies (Bactrocera tryoni) by Dinitrogen-Fixing Alimentary Tract Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The average total population of bacteria remained constant in the alimentary tracts of adult laboratory-raised Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni) although the insects had ingested large numbers of live bacteria as part of their diet. The mean number of bacteria (about 13 million) present in the gut of the insects from 12 to 55 days after emergence was not significantly modified when, at 5 days after emergence, the flies were fed antibiotic-resistant bacteria belonging to two species commonly isolated from the gut of field-collected B. tryoni. Flies were fed one marked dinitrogen-fixing strain each of either Klebsiella oxytoca or Enterobacter cloacae, and the gastrointestinal tracts of fed flies were shown to be colonized within 7 days by antibiotic-resistant isolates of K. oxytoca but not E. cloacae. The composition of the microbial population also appeared to be stable in that the distribution and frequency of bacterial taxa among individual flies exhibited similar patterns whether or not the flies had been bacteria fed. Isolates of either E. cloacae or K. oxytoca, constituting 70% of the total numbers, were usually dominant, with oxidative species including pseudomonads forming the balance of the population. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria could be spread from one cage of flies to the adjacent surfaces of a second cage within a few days and had reached a control group several meters distant by 3 weeks. Restriction of marked bacteria to the population of one in five flies sampled from the control group over the next 30 days suggested that the bacterial population in the gut of the insect was susceptible to alteration in the first week after emergence but that thereafter it entered a steady state and was less likely to be perturbed by the introduction of newly encountered strains. All populations sampled, including controls, included at least one isolate of the dinitrogen-fixing family Enterobacteriaceae; many were distinct from the marked strains fed to the flies. Nitrogenase activity detected by the acetylene reduction assay was associated with flies fed dinitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as with control groups given either no supplement or free access to a yeast hydrolysate preparation. Nitrogen fixed from the atmosphere may supplement the nutrition of the alimentary tract microbial population of B. tryoni. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the principal site of bacterial colonization in the abdominal alimentary tract was the lumen of the midgut inside the peritrophic membrane. No intracellular symbionts were seen in the gut tissues nor were bacteria found attached to the cuticular folds of the hindgut. The ultrastructure of the gut resembled that of other fly genera except that the intercellular spaces between rectal epithelial cells were more extensive, suggesting a role for unspecialized epithelium in water and solute uptake in B. tryoni. Images

Murphy, Kathleen M.; Teakle, David S.; MacRae, Ian C.

1994-01-01

114

Epidemiological Study of 'Klebsiella Pneumoniae' Among Pulp and Paper Mill Workers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This one-year study measured fecal coliform and Klebsiella bacteria densities in several of Wisconsin's pulp and paper mill processing wash waters, treated waters, and waters receiving pulp and paper mill effluent discharge. The isolation of fecal colifor...

M. S. Kanarek N. R . Caplenas

1981-01-01

115

Exopolysaccharide production by nitrogen-fixing bacteria within nodules of Medicago plants exposed to chronic radiation in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.  

PubMed

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from root nodules of Medicago plants growing in the 10 km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were screened for the production of new water-soluble acidic exopolysaccharides (EPSs). The different strains belonged to the Enteriobacteriaceae family (Enterobacter ludwigii, Raoultella terrigena, Klebsiella oxytoca), except for one which belonged to the Rhizobiaceae family (Sinorhizobium meliloti). All of the bacteria produced highly viscous EPS with an average molecular weight comprised between 1 x 10(6) and 3 x 10(6) Da. Five different compositions of EPS were characterized by physico-chemical analyses and (1)H NMR spectroscopy: galactose/mannose (2/1), galactose/glucose (1/1), galactose/glucose/mannose (1/2/1), fucose/galactose/glucose (2/1/1) and fucose/galactose/glucose/mannose (2/2/1/1 or 1/1/2/4). Glucuronic acid, a charged monosaccharide, was also recovered in most of the different EPSs. PMID:20080178

Pawlicki-Jullian, Nathalie; Courtois, Bernard; Pillon, Michelle; Lesur, David; Le Flèche-Mateos, Anne; Laberche, Jean-Claude; Goncharova, Nadia; Courtois, Josiane

2010-01-18

116

Two Transsulfurylation Pathways in Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

In most bacteria, inorganic sulfur is assimilated into cysteine, which provides sulfur for methionine biosynthesis via transsulfurylation. Here, cysteine is transferred to the terminal carbon of homoserine via its sulfhydryl group to form cystathionine, which is cleaved to yield homocysteine. In the enteric bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, these reactions are catalyzed by irreversible cystathionine-?-synthase and cystathionine-?-lyase enzymes. Alternatively, yeast and some bacteria assimilate sulfur into homocysteine, which serves as a sulfhydryl group donor in the synthesis of cysteine by reverse transsulfurylation with a cystathionine-?-synthase and cystathionine-?-lyase. Herein we report that the related enteric bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae encodes genes for both transsulfurylation pathways; genetic and biochemical analyses show that they are coordinately regulated to prevent futile cycling. Klebsiella uses reverse transsulfurylation to recycle methionine to cysteine during periods of sulfate starvation. This methionine-to-cysteine (mtc) transsulfurylation pathway is activated by cysteine starvation via the CysB protein, by adenosyl-phosphosulfate starvation via the Cbl protein, and by methionine excess via the MetJ protein. While mtc mutants cannot use methionine as a sulfur source on solid medium, they will utilize methionine in liquid medium via a sulfide intermediate, suggesting that an additional nontranssulfurylation methionine-to-cysteine recycling pathway(s) operates under these conditions.

Seiflein, Thomas A.; Lawrence, Jeffrey G.

2006-01-01

117

[Antibiotic susceptibility and molecular mechanisms of cephalosporins resistance in Klebsiella isolates from patients with hospital-acquired infections].  

PubMed

Antibiotic susceptibility of nosocomial Klebsiella isolates from inpatients of 30 medical centres in 15 various regions of Russia was studied. In total 212 strains were tested. The Klebsiella genus was represented by the following species: Klebsiella pmeumoniae ss. pneumoniae (182 isolates, 85.8%), Klebsiella pneumonia ss. ozaenae (1 isolate, 0.5%), Klebsiella oxytoca (29 isolates, 13.7%). The susceptibility was determined by the broth microdilution method. Carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) remained to be the most active antibacterial agents. However, 1 imipenem resistant strain and 2 meropenem resistant strains were isolated. As for the 3rd generation cephalosporins, the lowest MICs were observed with the use of the inhibitor-protected agents, such as ceftazidime/clavulanic acid (MIC50 0.25 mcg/ml, MIC90 64 mcg/ml). 48.8%, 16.9%, 29.7% and only 10.5% of the isolates was susceptible to cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefoperazone respectively. Detecting of the beta-lactamase genes (TEM, SHV and CTX) was performed by PCR in 42 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. pneumoniae. Alone or in various combination the TEM type beta-lactamases were detected in 16 (38.1%) isolates. SHV and CTX were detected in 29 (69%) and 27 (64.3%) isolates respectively. Combinations of 2 and 3 different determinants of resistance to beta-lactams were revealed in 23.8% and 26.2% of the isolates respectively. No isolates producing class B MBL among the carbapenem resistant nosocomial Klebsiella strains were detected. PMID:18318145

Ivanov, D V

2006-01-01

118

Characterization and identification of virulent Klebsiella oxytoca isolated from abalone ( Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) postlarvae with mass mortality in Fujian, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemic of mass mortality of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) postlarvae aged 40 days or less has existed across south coast of China since the second half of 2002. Among 20 bacterial strains isolated from diseased abalone postlarvae on 2216E marine agar plates during an outbreak of postlarval disease in August 2005, a predominant strain (designated strain 20) was demonstrated

Junpeng Cai; Zexiu Wang; Chuanhua Cai; Yiping Zhou

2008-01-01

119

Duodenal-mucosal bacteria associated with celiac disease in children.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins. This disorder is associated with imbalances in the gut microbiota composition that could be involved in the pathogenesis of CD. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition and diversity of the cultivable duodenal mucosa-associated bacteria of CD patients and control children. Duodenal biopsy specimens from patients with active disease on a gluten-containing diet (n = 32), patients with nonactive disease after adherence to a gluten-free diet (n = 17), and controls (n = 8) were homogenized and plated on plate count agar, Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart agar, or yeast, Casitone, and fatty acid agar. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Renyi diversity profiles showed the highest diversity values for active CD patients, followed by nonactive CD patients and control individuals. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria were more abundant in patients with active CD than in the other child groups, while those of the phylum Firmicutes were less abundant. Members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae, particularly the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, were more abundant in patients with active disease than in controls. In contrast, members of the family Streptococcaceae were less abundant in patients with active CD than in controls. Furthermore, isolates of the Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus mutans groups were more abundant in controls than in both CD patient groups, regardless of inflammatory status. The findings indicated that the disease is associated with the overgrowth of possible pathobionts that exclude symbionts or commensals that are characteristic of the healthy small intestinal microbiota. PMID:23835180

Sánchez, Ester; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Fernández-Murga, Maria Leonor; Sanz, Yolanda

2013-07-08

120

Klebsiella pneumoniae Flocculation Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae is a cause of community- and hospital-acquired lung, urinary tract and blood stream infections. It is a common contaminant\\u000a of indwelling catheters and it is theorized in that context that systemic infection follows shedding of aggregates off of\\u000a surface-adherent biofilm colonies. In an effort to better understand bacterial proliferation in the host bloodstream, we develop

D. M. Bortz; T. L. Jackson; K. A. Taylor; A. P. Thompson; J. G. Younger

2008-01-01

121

Prospective observational study of Klebsiella bacteremia in 230 patients: outcome for antibiotic combinations versus monotherapy.  

PubMed

Combination antimicrobial agent therapy has been advocated for treatment of gram-negative bacteremia, including that caused by Klebsiella spp. We performed a prospective, observational, 10-hospital collaborative study to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic combination therapy versus that of monotherapy for 230 consecutive patients with Klebsiella bacteremia. The species involved were K. pneumoniae (82%), K. oxytoca (15%), and K. ozaenae (0.4%). Of the bacteremias, 26% were polymicrobial in nature. A total of 53% of cases were nosocomial infections. The most common portals were the urinary tract (28%), biliary tract (12%), lung (10%), and abdomen (9%). Some 49 and 51% of the patients had received monotherapy and antibiotic combination therapy (beta-lactam plus aminoglycoside), respectively; 14-day mortalities in the two groups were 20 and 18%, respectively. However, for the subgroup of patients who experienced hypotension within 72 h prior to or on the day of the positive blood culture, those patients who received combination therapy experienced significantly lower mortality (24%) than did those who received monotherapy (50%). We conclude that monotherapy with an antibiotic that is active in vitro against Klebsiella (beta-lactam or aminoglycoside) is sufficient therapy for less severely ill patients (immunocompetent, urinary tract portal, mentally alert, normal vital signs). On the other hand, for severely ill patients who experience hypotension, antibiotic combination therapy with a beta-lactam and an aminoglycoside agent is preferred. PMID:1482131

Korvick, J A; Bryan, C S; Farber, B; Beam, T R; Schenfeld, L; Muder, R R; Weinbaum, D; Lumish, R; Gerding, D N; Wagener, M M

1992-12-01

122

Epidemiological study of klebsiella infection in the special care baby unit of a London hospital  

PubMed Central

Of the babies admitted to the Special Care Baby Unit of the Royal Free Hospital over 20 months, 10·2% were infected or colonised by klebsiella. The fluorescent antibody technique was used to identify epidemics caused by three strains: capsular type 8 K. aerogenes, type 68 K. oxytoca, or type 13 K. aerogenes, each of which was predominant at a different time, exhibited a difference in virulence, and showed a predilection for different sites of infection. Intestinal colonisation was frequently followed by the presence of sepsis in other sites by the same capsular type. Antibiotic administration led to a higher incidence of klebsiella infection, while the widespread use of compounds containing hexachlorophane could have contributed to skin colonisation and infection by klebsiella. An environmental survey indicated that 1% Hycolin failed to disinfect the incubators, that the babies were the reservoirs of the organisms, and that transmission was due to inadequate hand-washing of nurses and mothers. The mothers were found to have been uninformed of hygienic techniques. They were observed in various practices which could have contributed to the spread of the organism, including contaminating communal areas and handling babies other than their own. It has been recommended that the mothers of premature infants be instructed in the hygienic measures required in dealing with this susceptible population and that the nursing and medical staff be more strict in their own observance of these procedures.

Riser, EVE; Noone, Paul; Howard, Frances M

1980-01-01

123

Indole can act as an extracellular signal to regulate biofilm formation of Escherichia coli and other indole-producing bacteria.  

PubMed

We demonstrated previously that genetic inactivation of tryptophanase is responsible for a dramatic decrease in biofilm formation in the laboratory strain Escherichia coli S17-1. In the present study, we tested whether the biochemical inhibition of tryptophanase, with the competitive inhibitor oxindolyl-L-alanine, could affect polystyrene colonization by E. coli and other indole-producing bacteria. Oxindolyl-L-alanine inhibits, in a dose-dependent manner, indole production and biofilm formation by strain S17-1 grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Supplementation with indole at physiologically relevant concentrations restores biofilm formation by strain S17-1 in the presence of oxindolyl-L-alanine and by mutant strain E. coli 3714 (S17-1 tnaA::Tn5) in LB medium. Oxindolyl-L-alanine also inhibits the adherence of S17-1 cells to polystyrene for a 3-h incubation time, but mutant strain 3714 cells are unaffected. At 0.5 mg/mL, oxindolyl-L-alanine exhibits inhibitory activity against biofilm formation in LB medium and in synthetic urine for several clinical isolates of E. coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter koseri, Providencia stuartii, and Morganella morganii but has no affect on indole-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. In conclusion, these data suggest that indole, produced by the action of tryptophanase, is involved in polystyrene colonization by several indole-producing bacterial species. Indole may act as a signalling molecule to regulate the expression of adhesion and biofilm-promoting factors. PMID:14569285

Martino, P Di; Fursy, R; Bret, L; Sundararaju, B; Phillips, R S

2003-07-01

124

Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and ESBL prevalence in Klebsiella pneumoniae from urinary tract infections in the North-West of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are the most prevalent infections worldwide both in males and females. Klebsiella is one of the major pathogens causing UTIs. These bacteria also produce enzymes called Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) which render penicillins and cephalosporins inactive. The present study included 92 Klebsiella pneumoniae, isolated from urine of patients suffering from UTIs. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and ESBL

Farhat Ullah; Salman Akbar Malik; Jawad Ahmed

2009-01-01

125

[Spreading and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms, producing beta-lactamases. Molecular mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactams of Klebsiella spp. strains, isolated in cases of nosocomial infections].  

PubMed

Antibiotic sensivity of nosocomial Klebsiella spp. strains (n = 212), isolated from patients treated in 30 medical centers of 15 various regions of Russia was investigated. The Klebsiella genus was represented by the following species: Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. pneumoniae--182 (85.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. ozaenae--1 (0.5%), Klebsiella oxytoca--29 (13.7%) isolates. The most active antibacterial agents against the investigated strains were carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem). Among 3rd generation cephalosporine the lowest MICs were observed for ceftazidime/clavulanic acid (MIC50--0.25 microg/ml, MIC90--64 microg/ml) and cefoperazone/sulbactam (MIC50--16 microg/ml, MIC90--64 microg/ml). Beta-lactamase genes (TEM, SHV, CTX) were detected in 42 Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. pneumoniae strains by PCR. Alone or in various combinations TEM type beta-lactamases have been found in 16 (38.1%) isolates, SHV--in 29 (69%), and CTX--in 27 (64.3%). Combinations of 2 different determinants were detected in 23.8% of the isolates, 3--in 26.2%. There were not isolates producing MBL class B among resistant to carbapenems nosocomial Klebsiella spp. strains. PMID:18421915

Ivanov, D V; Egorov, A M

126

Studies on water quality and pathogenic bacteria in coastal water Langkawi, Malaysia.  

PubMed

A study on physico-chemical parameters and pathogenic bacterial community was carried out at the coastal waters of Pulau Tuba island, Langkawi. The physico-chemical parameters such as temperature (27.43-28.88 degrees C), dissolved oxygen (3.79-6.49 mg l(-1)), pH (7.72-8.20), salinity (33.10-33.96 ppt), total dissolved solids (32.27-32.77 g l(-1)) and specific conductivity (49.83-51.63 mS cm(-1)) were observed. Station 3 and station 4 showed highest amount of nitrates (26.93 and 14.61 microg at N l(-1)) than station 1 (2.04 microg at N l(-1)) and station 2 (4.18 microg at N l(-1)). The highest concentration (12.4 +/- microg l(-1)) of chlorophyll a was observed in station 4 in October 2005. High phosphorus content (561 microg P l(-1)) was found in the station 2. Thirteen bacterial isolates were successfully identified using API 20E system. The highest amount of bacteria was observed at Station 4 (3400 CFU ml(-1)) and the lowest numberwas at Station 2 (890 CFU ml(-1)). Out of identified 13 Gram-negative bacterial isolates dominant species were Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas baumannii, Vibrio vulnificus, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia alcalifaciens and Serratia liquefaciens. Apart from this, oil biodegrading Pseudomonas putida were also identified. The study reveals the existing status of water quality is still conducive and the reasonably diverse with Gram-negative bacteria along the Pulau Tuba Langkawi. PMID:23360015

Jalal, K C A; Faizul, H N Noor; Naim, M Azrul; John, B Akbar; Kamaruzzaman, B Y

2012-07-01

127

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE' AMONG PULP AND PAPER MILL WORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This one-year study measured fecal coliform and Klebsiella bacteria densities in several of Wisconsin's pulp and paper mill processing wash waters, treated waters, and waters receiving pulp and paper mill effluent discharge. The isolation of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from as...

128

Klebsiella to Salmonella gene transfer within rumen protozoa: Implications for antibiotic resistance and rumen defaunation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rumen has long been thought to be a site of gene transfer for microorganisms. Rumen protozoa (RPz) are active predators of bacteria that can harbor antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, RPz were assessed as sites of gene transfer between two bacterial species, Salmonella and Klebsiella. One Klebsiella isolate carried a plasmid bearing blaCMY-2, encoding an extended-spectrum ?-lactamase conferring

Z. P. McCuddin; S. A. Carlson; M. A. Rasmussen; S. K. Franklin

2006-01-01

129

Transposition of IS1397 in the family Enterobacteriaceae and first characterization of ISKpn1, a new insertion sequence associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae palindromic units.  

PubMed

IS1397 and ISKpn1 are IS3 family members which are specifically inserted into the loop of palindromic units (PUs). IS1397 is shown to transpose into PUs with sequences close or identical to the Escherichia coli consensus, even in other enterobacteria (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca). Moreover, we show that homologous intergenic regions containing PUs constitute IS1397 transpositional hot spots, despite bacterial interspersed mosaic element structures that differ among the three species. ISKpn1, described here for the first time, is specific for PUs from K. pneumoniae, in which we discovered it. A sequence comparison between the two insertion sequences allowed us to define a motif possibly accounting for their specificity. PMID:11443073

Wilde, C; Bachellier, S; Hofnung, M; Clément, J M

2001-08-01

130

Transposition of IS1397 in the Family Enterobacteriaceae and First Characterization of ISKpn1, a New Insertion Sequence Associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae Palindromic Units  

PubMed Central

IS1397 and ISKpn1 are IS3 family members which are specifically inserted into the loop of palindromic units (PUs). IS1397 is shown to transpose into PUs with sequences close or identical to the Escherichia coli consensus, even in other enterobacteria (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca). Moreover, we show that homologous intergenic regions containing PUs constitute IS1397 transpositional hot spots, despite bacterial interspersed mosaic element structures that differ among the three species. ISKpn1, described here for the first time, is specific for PUs from K. pneumoniae, in which we discovered it. A sequence comparison between the two insertion sequences allowed us to define a motif possibly accounting for their specificity.

Wilde, Caroline; Bachellier, Sophie; Hofnung, Maurice; Clement, Jean-Marie

2001-01-01

131

Role of Nutrient Limitation and Stationary-Phase Existence in Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilm Resistance to Ampicillin and Ciprofloxacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms formed by Klebsiella pneumoniae resisted killing during prolonged exposure to ampicillin or cipro- floxacin even though these agents have been shown to penetrate bacterial aggregates. Bacteria dispersed from biofilms into medium quickly regained most of their susceptibility. Experiments with free-floating bacteria showed that stationary-phase bacteria were protected from killing by either antibiotic, especially when the test was performed in

Jeff N. Anderl; Jeff Zahller; Frank Roe; Philip S. Stewart

2003-01-01

132

In-vivo study of the nuclear quadrupole interaction of99Mo (?- 99)Tc in nitrogenase of Klebsiella pneumoniaein nitrogenase of Klebsiella pneumoniae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the first TDPAC-measurements of the nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) of (NQI) of99Mo(?-)99Tc in the nitrogenase of the bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae. Because nitrogenase is the only Mo-containing enzyme in Klebsiella pneumoniae under the chosen conditions, no further isolation of this enzyme was necessary. The majority of the incorporated99Mo is subjected to a well defined NQI with ?=365(7) Mrad/s, ?=1 and a reorientational correlation time of ?co???10nsec and is attributed to the active site of the FeMo cofactor. During sample preparation we noted a pronounced affinity of the bacteria to99mTc.

Mottner, P.; Lerf, A.; Ni, X.; Butz, T.; Erfkamp, J.; Müller, A.

1990-08-01

133

Population dynamics of bacteria associated with different strains of the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus after inoculation in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).  

PubMed

For a long time it was thought that Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was the only agent of the pine wilt disease. Recently, it was discovered that there are bacteria associated with the nematodes that contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease, mainly through the release of toxins that promote the death of the pines. Among the species most commonly found, are bacteria belonging to the Bacillus, Pantoea, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas genera. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of inoculation of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) with four different nematode isolates, in the bacterial population of nematodes and trees, at different stages of disease progression. The monitoring of progression of disease symptoms was also recorded. Also, the identification of bacteria isolated from the xylem of trees and the surface of nematodes was performed by classical identification methods, by the API20E identification system and by sequencing of bacterial DNA. The results showed that for the symptoms progression, the most striking difference was observed for the pines inoculated with the avirulent isolate, C14-5, which led to a slower and less severe aggravation of symptoms than in pines inoculated with the virulent isolates. In general, it was found that bacterial population, inside the tree, increased with disease progression. A superior bacterial quantity was isolated from pines inoculated with the nematode isolates HF and 20, and, comparatively, few bacteria were isolated from pines inoculated with the avirulent isolate. The identification system API20E was insufficient in the identification of bacterial species; Enterobacter cloacae species was identified in 79% of the isolated bacterial colonies and seven of these colonies could not be identified by this method. Molecular identification methods, through bacterial DNA sequencing, allowed a more reliable identification: eleven different bacterial species within the Bacillus, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Paenibacillus, Pantoea and Terribacillus genera were identified. General bacterial diversity increased with the progression of the disease. Bacillus spp. were predominant at the earlier stage of disease progression and Klebsiella oxytoca at the later stages. Furthermore, bacterial species isolated from the surface of nematodes were similar to those isolated from the xylem of pines. In the present work new bacterial species were identified which have never been reported before in this type of study and may be associated with their geographical origin (Portugal). P. pinaster, the pine species used in this study, was different from those commonly grown in Japan and China. Furthermore, it was the first time that bacteria were isolated and identified from an avirulent pine wood nematode isolate. PMID:21570967

Roriz, Mariana; Santos, Carla; Vasconcelos, Marta W

2011-05-06

134

Kinetic behavior of some polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria isolates in the presence of nitrate and oxygen.  

PubMed

This paper studies the phosphate uptake by pure cultures of Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella oxytoca, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and Aquaspirillum dispar in the presence of both nitrate and oxygen. It is shown that species were able to respire both electron acceptors for phosphate accumulation. A. tumefaciens and A. dispar accumulated overall phosphate both in oxic and anoxic culture conditions, whereas A. hydrophila and K. oxytoca eliminated overall phosphate only in oxic conditions. A. dispar was able to remove phosphate by reducing oxygen and nitrate simultaneously with the production of dinitrogen gas. The anoxic denitrification observed in the cultures of adapted and nonadapted cells to nitrate showed that only A. dispar have a denitrification rate superior when the cells were adapted to nitrate. PMID:10355118

Merzouki, M; Bernet, N; Delgenès, J P; Moletta, R; Benlemlih, M

1999-05-01

135

Genetic Organization of Transposase Regions Surrounding blaKPC Carbapenemase Genes on Plasmids from Klebsiella Strains Isolated in a New York City Hospital?  

PubMed Central

Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella strains carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) are endemic to New York City and are spreading across the United States and internationally. Recent studies have indicated that the KPC structural gene is located on a 10-kb plasmid-borne element designated Tn4401. Fourteen Klebsiella pneumoniae strains and one Klebsiella oxytoca strain isolated at a New York City hospital in 2005 carrying either blaKPC-2 or blaKPC-3 were examined for isoforms of Tn4401. Ten of the Klebsiella strains contained a 100-bp deletion in Tn4401, corresponding to the Tn4401a isoform. The presence of this deletion adjacent to the upstream promoter region of blaKPC in Tn4401a resulted in a different ?35 promoter sequence of TGGAGA than that of CTGATT present in isoform Tn4401b. Complete sequencing of one plasmid carrying blaKPC from each of three nonclonal isolates indicated the presence of genes encoding other types of antibiotic resistance determinants. The 70.6-kb plasmid from K. pneumoniae strain S9 carrying blaKPC-2 revealed two identical copies of Tn4401b inserted in an inverse fashion, but in this case, one of the elements disrupted a group II self-splicing intron. In K. pneumoniae strain S15, the Tn4401a element carrying blaKPC-2 was found on both a large 120-kb plasmid and a smaller 24-kb plasmid. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis results indicate that the isolates studied represent a heterogeneous group composed of unrelated as well as closely related Klebsiella strains. Our results suggest that endemic KPC-positive Klebsiella strains constitute a generally nonclonal population comprised of various alleles of blaKPC on several distinct plasmid genetic backgrounds. This study increases our understanding of the genetic composition of the evolving and expanding role of KPC-producing, healthcare-associated, gram-negative pathogens.

Gootz, Thomas D.; Lescoe, Mary Kay; Dib-Hajj, Fadia; Dougherty, Brian A.; He, Wen; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Huard, Richard C.

2009-01-01

136

Hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

A new hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) variant of Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged. First described in the Asian Pacific Rim, it now increasingly recognized in Western countries. Defining clinical features are the ability to cause serious, life-threatening community-acquired infection in younger healthy hosts, including liver abscess, pneumonia, meningitis and endophthalmitis and the ability to metastatically spread, an unusual feature for enteric Gram-negative bacilli in the non-immunocompromised. Despite infecting a healthier population, significant morbidity and mortality occurs. Although epidemiologic features are still being defined, colonization, particularly intestinal colonization, appears to be a critical step leading to infection. However the route of entry remains unclear. The majority of cases described to date are in Asians, raising the issue of a genetic predisposition vs. geospecific strain acquisition. The traits that enhance its virulence when compared with “classical” K. pneumoniae are the ability to more efficiently acquire iron and perhaps an increase in capsule production, which confers the hypermucoviscous phenotype. An objective diagnostic test suitable for routine use in the clinical microbiology laboratory is needed. If/when these strains become increasingly resistant to antimicrobials, we will be faced with a frightening clinical scenario.

Shon, Alyssa S.; Bajwa, Rajinder P.S.; Russo, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

137

Molecular epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing SHV-5 beta- lactamase: parallel outbreaks due to multiple plasmid transfer.  

PubMed Central

Over a period of 22 months, 32 patients treated in three independent intensive care units of the Innsbruck University Hospital were infected with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (30 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, 1 Klebsiella oxytoca isolate, and 1 Escherichia coli isolate). As confirmed by sequencing of a bla gene PCR fragment, all isolates expressed the SHV-5-type beta-lactamase. Genomic fingerprinting of epidemic strains with XbaI and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis grouped 20 of 21 isolates from ward A into two consecutive clusters which included 1 of 3 ward B isolates. All six K. pneumoniae isolates from ward C formed a third cluster. Stool isolates of asymptomatic patients and environmental isolates belonged to these clusters as well. Additionally, 2,600 routine K. pneumoniae isolates from the surrounding provinces (population, 900,000) were screened for SHV-5 production. Only one of six nonepidemic isolates producing SHV-5 beta-lactamase was matched with the outbreak strains by genomic fingerprinting. Plasmid fingerprinting, however, revealed the epidemic spread of a predominant R-plasmid, with a size of approximately 80 kb, associated with 29 of the 30 K. pneumoniae isolates. This plasmid was also present in the single K. oxytoca and E. coli isolates from ward C and in three nonepidemic isolates producing SHV-5. Our results underline that strain typing exclusively on the genomic level can be misleading in the epidemiological investigation of plasmid-encoded extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Our evidence for multiple events of R-plasmid transfer between species of the family Enterobacteriaceae in this nosocomial outbreak stresses the need for plasmid typing, especially because SHV-5 beta-lactamase seems to be regionally spread predominantly via plasmid transfer.

Prodinger, W M; Fille, M; Bauernfeind, A; Stemplinger, I; Amann, S; Pfausler, B; Lass-Florl, C; Dierich, M P

1996-01-01

138

Bacteria Counts in Sawdust Bedding1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria counts in untreated sawdust bedding were compared with those in sawdust bedding after the addition of lime and after daily replacement of bed- ding in the back one-third of the stalls. Addition of 1 kg of lime to 10 kg of sawdust reduced Gram-negative bacteria, coliforms, Klebsiella spp., and streptococci prior to use as bedding. Sawdust treated with lime

J. S. Hogan; K. L. Smith

1997-01-01

139

Mechanisms of Sodium Transport in Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some bacteria, an Na^+ circuit is an important link between exergonic and endergonic membrane reactions. The physiological importance of Na^+ ion cycling is described in detail for three different bacteria. Klebsiella pneumoniae fermenting citrate pumps Na^+ outwards by oxaloacetate decarboxylase and uses the Na^+ ion gradient thus established for citrate uptake. Another possible function of the Na^+ gradient may

P. Dimroth

1990-01-01

140

Role of type 1 and type 3 fimbriae in Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important gram-negative opportunistic pathogen causing primarily urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, and bacteraemia. The ability of bacteria to form biofilms on medical devices, e.g. catheters, has a major role in development of many nosocomial infections. Most clinical K. pneumoniae isolates express two types of fimbrial adhesins, type 1 fimbriae and type 3 fimbriae. In this

Casper Schroll; Kim B Barken; Karen A Krogfelt; Carsten Struve

2010-01-01

141

Diversity of nif gene location and nitrogen fixation among root-associated Enterobacter and Klebsiella strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous work showed that strains of dinitrogen fixing enterobacter and Klebsiella were found associated with the roots of uncultivated grasses in Finland more commonly than other species of diazotrophic bacteria. In this paper we compare E. agglomerans strains to K. pneumoniae and K. terrigena strains, and show that the E. agglomerans strains fall into two biogroups. The groups differ

Outi Viiisiinen; Kielo Haahtela; Leea Bask; Kirsti Kari; Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen; Veronica Sundman

1985-01-01

142

Role of Antibiotic Penetration Limitation in Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilm Resistance to Ampicillin and Ciprofloxacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penetration of two antibiotics, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin, through biofilms developed in an in vitro model system was investigated. The susceptibilities of biofilms and corresponding freely suspended bacteria to killing by the antibiotics were also measured. Biofilms of Klebsiella pneumoniae were developed on microporous membranes resting on agar nutrient medium. The susceptibilities of planktonic cultures and biofilms to 10 times

JEFF N. ANDERL; MICHAEL J. FRANKLIN; PHILIP S. STEWART

2000-01-01

143

[The antimicrobial spectrum of the action of bacteriocins and bacteriophages from Klebsiella strains].  

PubMed

The percentage of bacteriocin-producing and phage-producing Klebsiella strains was as follows: K. pneumoniae-10%, K. ozaenae-7%, K. rhinoscleromatis-9%. The antimicrobial spectrum of the studied inducible particler was broad and was not limited by the frames of the genus and family. Bacteriocins and bacteriophages from Klebsiella were active to Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Shigella and Proteus representatives significant in medicine. Klebocins and Klebsiella phages exhibited antagonistic effects to phytopathogenic bacteria. Some strains of Erwinia and Pseudomonas were sensitive to phages or bacteriocins from Klebsiella. Bacteriocins protected corn and tomato seeds from contamination by erwinioses agents. All cultures of Agrobacterium, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus were resistant to action of phages and klebocins. Bacteriocins from Klebsiella were assayed for their sensitivity to trypsin, chymotrypsin, lysozyme, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease. Action of klebocins was associated with a protein component. Proceeding from data of diffusion through the disc ultrafiltration membranes molecular weight of klebocins was in the range of 30,000 and 50,000 Da. PMID:8162198

Sharga, B M; Turianitsa, A I

144

Klebsiella pneumoniae KE1 degrades endosulfan without formation of the toxic metabolite, endosulfan sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

For bioremediation of toxic endosulfan, endosulfan degradation bacteria, which do not form toxic endosulfan sulfate, were isolated from various soil samples using endosulfan as sole carbon and energy source. Among the 40 isolated bacteria, strain KE-1, which was identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae by physiological and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, showed superior endosulfan degradation activity. Analysis of culture pH, growth, free

Gi-Seok Kwon; Jang-Eok Kim; Taek-Kyum Kim; Ho-Yong Sohn; Sung-Cheol Koh; Kee-Sun Shin; Dong-Geol Kim

2002-01-01

145

Surface Antigen Exposure by Bismuth Dimercaprol Suppression of Klebsiella pneumoniae Capsular Polysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bismuth dimercaprol (BisBAL) at 1 ppm of Bi31 repressed Klebsiella pneumoniae capsule expression in defined medium by nearly 90%, which exposed subsurface structures. The phagocytic index for BisBAL-treated bacteria increased from <10 to 360 bacteria per 100 neutrophils in the presence of complement and anticapsular or anti-O antigen antiserum. BisBAL treatment also enhanced the reactivity of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific

PHILIP DOMENICO; J. M. TOMAS; S. MERINO; X. RUBIRES; BURKE A. CUNHA

1999-01-01

146

Thermotolerant non-fecal source Klebsiella pneumoniae: validity of the fecal coliform test in recreational waters.  

PubMed Central

Wisconsin pulp and paper mill processing plants were evaluated for fecal coliform and total Klebsiella (i.e., thermotolerant and thermointolerant) bacterial concentrations. Using the standard fecal coliform test, up to 90 per cent of non-fecal source thermotolerant K. pneumoniae was falsely identified as fecal source bacteria. Since there is a lack of specificity in the currently used standard for fecal coliform evaluation, a more reliable health risk assessment for fecal coliform bacteria is recommended.

Caplenas, N R; Kanarek, M S

1984-01-01

147

Internal obturator muscle abscess caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Obturator internus muscle abscess is an infrequent form of pyomyositis. To date, this disease has been described almost exclusively in children and young adults, and in most cases the causative agents are Gram-positive bacteria. We present the first report of obturator internus muscle abscess caused by a highly antibiotic resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, in an elderly diabetic patient. Once considered very rare, Gram-negative pyomyositis is increasingly reported, and is an important concern in diabetic patients. Since pyomyositis can easily be missed if not considered, physicians should become familiar with this condition, and consider it in the differential diagnosis of septic diabetic patients. PMID:17055584

Yahalom, G; Guranda, L; Meltzer, E

2006-10-20

148

21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3340 Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Klebsiella spp. serological reagents...

2009-04-01

149

21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3340 Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Klebsiella spp. serological reagents...

2010-04-01

150

Gas-chromatographic detection of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp.  

PubMed Central

A gas-chromatographic method for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. is described. A total of 96 urine samples from individuals with clinical symptoms of urinary tract infection or pyrexia of unknown origin were tested by conventional and gas-chromatographic methods for bacteriuria. The gas-chromatographic method showed complete agreement with the conventional method in diagnosing all of 16 cases of bacteriuria caused by E. coli and 4 cases caused by Klebsiella sp. The remaining two cases of bacteriuria, caused by other bacteria, were not detected by the gas-chromatographic method.

Manja, K S; Rao, K M

1983-01-01

151

Characterization of Extended-Host-Range Pseudo-T-Even Bacteriophage Kpp95 Isolated on Klebsiella pneumoniae?  

PubMed Central

Kpp95, isolated on Klebsiella pneumoniae, is a bacteriophage with the morphology of T4-type phages and is capable of rapid lysis of host cells. Its double-stranded genomic DNA (ca. 175 kb, estimated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) can be cut only by restriction endonucleases with a cleavage site flanked either by A and T or by T, as tested, suggesting that it contains the modified derivative(s) of G and/or C. Over 26 protein bands were visualized upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the virion proteins. N-terminal sequencing indicated that the most abundant band (46 kDa) is the major coat protein (gp23) which has been cleaved from a signal peptide likely with a length similar to that of T4. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the central region (263 amino acid residues) of gp23 and the full length of gp18 and gp19 placed Kpp95 among the pseudo-T-even subgroup, most closely related to the coliphage JS98. In addition to being able to lyse many extended-spectrum ?-lactamase strains of K. pneumoniae, Kpp95 can lyse Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter agglomerans, and Serratia marcescens cells. Thus, Kpp95 deserves further studies for development as a component of a therapeutic cocktail, owing to its high efficiencies of host lysis plus extended host range.

Wu, Lii-Tzu; Chang, Shu-Ying; Yen, Ming-Ren; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Tseng, Yi-Hsiung

2007-01-01

152

Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization for rapid detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae from positive blood cultures.  

PubMed

This study evaluated a novel peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe targeting a region of the 23S rRNA gene of Klebsiella pneumoniae by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Analytical performance was determined using 39 reference strains and other well-characterized strains of Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter aerogenes. The probe was found to be specific for the K. pneumoniae complex (K. pneumoniae including Klebsiella ozaenae and Klebsiella variicola). The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated with 264 blood cultures containing Gram-negative rods. Using conventional identification as the reference, performance specifications were as follows: sensitivity 98.8 %, specificity 99.5 %, positive predictive value 98.8 % and negative predictive value 99.5 %. Discrepancies were resolved by PNA FISH retest and phenotypic tests. In conclusion, the K. pneumoniae probe provided an accurate diagnosis within 3 h and may supplement other methods for direct identification of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:17577055

Søgaard, Mette; Hansen, Dennis S; Fiandaca, Mark J; Stender, Henrik; Schønheyder, Henrik C

2007-07-01

153

Antimicrobial-resistant Klebsiella species isolated from free-range chicken samples in an informal settlement  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sub-therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents are administered routinely to poultry to aid growth and to prevent disease, with prolonged exposure often resulting in bacterial resistance. Crossover of antibiotic resistant bacteria from poultry to humans poses a risk to human health. Material and methods In this study, 17 chicken samples collected from a vendor operating in an informal settlement in the Cape Town Metropolitan area, South Africa were screened for antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacilli using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion assay. Results In total, six antibiotics were screened: ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and trimethoprim. Surprisingly, Klebsiella ozaenae was identified in 96 and K. rhinoscleromatis in 6 (n=102) of the samples tested. Interestingly, ?40% of the isolated Klebsiella spp. showed multiple resistance to at least three of the six antibiotics tested. Conclusions Klebsiella ozaenae and K. rhinoscleromatis cause clinical chronic rhinitis and are almost exclusively associated with people living in areas of poor hygiene.

Fielding, Burtram C.; Mnabisa, Amanda; Gouws, Pieter A.

2012-01-01

154

Application of PCR ribotyping and tDNA-PCR for Klebsiella pneumoniae identification.  

PubMed

PCR analysis of 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (PCR ribotyping) and tRNA intergenic spacer (tDNA-PCR) were evaluated for their effectiveness in identification of clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and differentiation with related species. For this purpose both methods were applied to forty-three clinical isolates biochemically identified as K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae isolated from patients clinical specimens attended at five hospitals in three Brazilian cities. References strains of K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae, K. oxytoca, K. planticola and Enterobacter aerogenes were also analyzed. Both PCR methods showed specific patterns for each species. A conserved PCR ribotype pattern was observed for all clinical K. pneumoniae isolates, while differing from other related analyzed species. tDNA-PCR revealed five distinct patterns among the K. pneumoniae clinical isolates studied, demonstrating a predominant group with 90.6% of isolates presenting the same pattern of K. pneumoniae type strain. Both PCR-based methods were not able to differentiate K. pneumoniae subspecies. On the basis of the results obtained, both methods were efficient to differentiate the Klebsiella species analyzed, as well as E. aerogenes. Meanwhile tDNA-PCR revealed different tRNA arrangements in K. pneumoniae, suggesting intra-species heterogeneity of their genome organization, the polymorphism of the intergenic spacers between 16S and 23S rRNA genes appears to be highly conserved whithin K. pneumoniae clinical isolates, showing that PCR ribotyping can be an useful tool for identification of K. pneumoniae isolates. PMID:17992365

Lopes, Ana Catarina S; Rodrigues, Juliana Falcão; Clementino, Maysa B M; Miranda, Catia A C; Nascimento, Ana Paula A; de Morais Júnior, Marcos Antônio

2007-12-11

155

Molecular analysis of type 3 fimbrial genes from Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Citrobacter species  

PubMed Central

Background Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common nosocomial infection in the United States and is caused by a range of uropathogens. Biofilm formation by uropathogens that cause CAUTI is often mediated by cell surface structures such as fimbriae. In this study, we characterised the genes encoding type 3 fimbriae from CAUTI strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter koseri and Citrobacter freundii. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the type 3 fimbrial genes (mrkABCD) from 39 strains revealed they clustered into five distinct clades (A-E) ranging from one to twenty-three members. The majority of sequences grouped in clade A, which was represented by the mrk gene cluster from the genome sequenced K. pneumoniae MGH78578. The E. coli and K. pneumoniae mrkABCD gene sequences clustered together in two distinct clades, supporting previous evidence for the occurrence of inter-genera lateral gene transfer. All of the strains examined caused type 3 fimbriae mediated agglutination of tannic acid treated human erythrocytes despite sequence variation in the mrkD-encoding adhesin gene. Type 3 fimbriae deletion mutants were constructed in 13 representative strains and were used to demonstrate a direct role for type 3 fimbriae in biofilm formation. Conclusions The expression of functional type 3 fimbriae is common to many Gram-negative pathogens that cause CAUTI and is strongly associated with biofilm growth. Our data provides additional evidence for the spread of type 3 fimbrial genes by lateral gene transfer. Further work is now required to substantiate the clade structure reported here by examining more strains as well as other bacterial genera that make type 3 fimbriae and cause CAUTI.

2010-01-01

156

First Canadian outbreak of Enterobacteriaceae-expressing Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase type 3  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Organisms expressing Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) are found in several regions worldwide but are rarely detected in Canada. The first outbreak of KPC-expressing strains of Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates in a university-affiliated hospital intensive care unit (ICU) in Canada is described. METHODS: Enterobacteriaceae isolates that were flagged by the Vitek 2 (bioMérieux, France) system as possible carbapenemase producers were subjected to the modified Hodge test. Modified Hodge test-positive organisms were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, tested for KPC and other beta-lactamase genes by polymerase chain reaction analysis and underwent subsequent nucleic acid sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined by Vitek 2 and Etest (bioMérieux, France). A chart review was conducted to establish epidemiological links. RESULTS: During the study period, 10 unique Enterobacteriaceae isolates expressing KPC were detected from nine ICU patients. Five patients had infections (three pneumonias, one surgical site infection, one urinary tract infection). Isolates included Escherichia coli (5), Klebsiella oxytoca (2), Serratia marcescens (2) and Citrobacter freundii (1). Polymerase chain reaction analysis and sequencing confirmed the presence of KPC-3 in all isolates; four also carried TEM, two CTX-M and one CMY-2. The imipenem minimum inhibitory concentrations as determined by Etest ranged from 0.75 ?g/mL to ?32 ?g/mL. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis clonal patterns and patient location in the ICU revealed presumptive horizontal transmission events. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, Enterobacteriaceae isolates with KPC are emerging and can result in serious infections. The KPC gene can spread via plasmids to different genera of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The dissemination of KPC in Enterobacteriaceae and the consequences for treatment and infection control measures warrant a high degree of vigilance among clinicians and microbiologists.

Leung, Victor; Loo, Vivian G; Frenette, Charles; Domingo, Marc-Christian; Bourgault, Anne-Marie; Mulvey, Michael R; Robson, Hugh G

2012-01-01

157

Enzymatic Degradation of Polygalacturonic Acid by Yersinia and Klebsiella Species in Relation to Clinical Laboratory Procedures  

PubMed Central

As scored by several specified plating procedures, clinical and environmental strains of Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae “Oxytocum” showed detectable, albeit generally weak, ability to digest polygalacturonic (pectic) acid. None of these bacterial strains had the vigorous and rapid pectolytic activity on these polygalacturonic acid-containing media that is typical of soft-rot Erwinia species, although some of the Oxytocum strains came fairly close. Analyses of the pectolytic enzyme contents of the cells and culture supernatants of the Yersinia and Klebsiella species revealed that readily detectable quantities of cell-bound polygalacturonic acid trans-eliminase and hydrolytic polygalacturonase were formed by the Yersinia and Klebsiella species; however, the total units of enzyme activity produced by these bacteria were, in general, lower than were produced by soft-rot Erwinia species. Furthermore, unlike the situation in soft-rot Erwinia cultures, these pectolytic enzymes of Yersinia and Klebsiella species were not excreted rapidly and massively into the growth medium. Cultures of other enterobacteria (Citrobacter species, Enterobacter species, Erwinia amylovora, Erwinia herbicola, Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Salmonella typhimurium, and Serratia marcescens) showed no pectolytic ability whatsoever by any of the plating procedures used and (to the extent they were so examined) produced no pectolytic enzymes detectable either in their cells or culture supernatants. This slow or weak release of pectolytic enzymes by Yersinia and Klebsiella species has a bearing on clinical laboratory procedures suitable for detecting their pectolytic activity; methods adequate for this purpose are detailed.

Starr, Mortimer P.; Chatterjee, Arun K.; Starr, Phoebe B.; Buchanan, Gordon E.

1977-01-01

158

Binding to and Opsonophagocytic Activity of O-Antigen-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies against Encapsulated and Nonencapsulated Klebsiella pneumoniae Serotype O1 Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high mortality of nosocomial infections caused by Klebsiella spp. has acted as a stimulus to develop immunotherapeutic approaches targeted against surface molecules of these bacteria. Since O-antigen-specific antibodies may add to the protective effect of K antisera, we tested the functional and binding capacity of O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against different Klebsiella O antigens. The MAbs tested were

THOMAS K. HELD; NINA R. M. JENDRIKE; TOMISLAV RUKAVINA; RAINER PODSCHUN; MATTHIAS TRAUTMANN

2000-01-01

159

Ablation of SPA has a negative impact on the susceptibility of mice to Klebsiella pneumoniae infection after ozone exposure: sex differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein A (SP-A) enhances phagocytosis of bacteria, including Klebsiella pneumoniae, by alveolar macrophages. Ozone, a major air pollutant, can cause oxidation of surfactant and may influence lung immune function. Immune function may also be affected by sex-specific mechanisms. We hypothesized that ablation of SP-A has a negative impact on the susceptibility of mice to Klebsiella pneumoniae infection after

Anatoly N Mikerov; Rizwanul Haque; Xiaozhuang Gan; Xiaoxuan Guo; David S Phelps; Joanna Floros

2008-01-01

160

Stability Analysis in a Model of 1,2-dichloroethane Biodegradation by Klebsiella Oxytoca va 8391Immobilized on Granulated Activated Carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider an ecological model for biodegradation of toxic substances in aquatic and atmospheric biotic systems. The model, which is described by a nonlinear system of four ordinary differential equations, is known to be experimentally validated. We compute the equilibrium points of the model and study their asymptotic stability. The Maple package BifTools is used to calculate one- and two-parameter bifurcations of the equilibrium points.

Borisov, M.; Dimitrova, N.

2011-11-01

161

Utility of NCCLS guidelines for identifying extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in non-Escherichia coli and Non-Klebsiella spp. of Enterobacteriaceae.  

PubMed

NCCLS screening and confirmation methods for detecting extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) apply only to Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., yet ESBLs have been found in other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. We evaluated the effectiveness of NCCLS methods for detecting ESBLs in 690 gram-negative isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that excluded E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca. Isolates were collected between January 1996 and June 1999 from 53 U.S. hospitals participating in Project ICARE (Intensive Care Antimicrobial Resistance Epidemiology). The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates were determined by using the NCCLS broth microdilution method (BMD), and those isolates for which the MIC of ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, or aztreonam was >or=2 microg/ml or the MIC of cefpodoxime was >or=8 microg/ml (positive ESBL screen test) were further tested for a clavulanic acid (CA) effect by BMD and the disk diffusion method (confirmation tests). Although 355 (51.4%) of the isolates were ESBL screen test positive, only 15 (2.2%) showed a CA effect. Since 3 of the 15 isolates were already highly resistant to the five NCCLS indicator drugs, ESBL detection would have an impact on the reporting of only 1.7% of the isolates in the study. Only 6 of the 15 isolates that showed a CA effect contained a bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M), or bla(OXA) beta-lactamase gene as determined by PCR (with a corresponding isoelectric focusing pattern). Extension of the NCCLS guidelines for ESBL detection to Enterobacteriaceae other than E. coli and Klebsiella spp. does not appear to be warranted in the United States at present, since the test has poor specificity for this population and would result in changes in categorical interpretations for only 1.7% of Enterobacteriaceae tested. PMID:14715768

Schwaber, Mitchell J; Raney, Patti M; Rasheed, J Kamile; Biddle, James W; Williams, Portia; McGowan, John E; Tenover, Fred C

2004-01-01

162

Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth  

DOEpatents

A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

Triplett, Eric W. (Middleton, WI); Kaeppler, Shawn M. (Oregon, WI); Chelius, Marisa K. (Greeley, CO)

2008-07-01

163

Two-Center Collaborative Evaluation of Performance of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System for Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Gram-Negative Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

The performance of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD) was assessed for identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the majority of clinically encountered bacterial isolates in a European collaborative two-center trial. A total of 494 bacterial isolates including various species of the Enterobacteriaceae and 110 nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria were investigated: of these, 385 were single patient isolates, and 109 were challenge strains tested at one center. The performance of the Phoenix extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) test was also evaluated for 203 strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca included in the study. Forty-two antimicrobial drugs were tested, including members of the following drug classes: aminoglycosides, ?-lactam antibiotics, ?-lactam/?-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, cephems, monobactams, folate antagonists, quinolones, and others. Phoenix system ID results were compared to those of the laboratories' routine ID systems (API 20E and API CHE, ATB ID32E, ID32GN, and VITEK 2 [bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France]); Phoenix AST results were compared to those of frozen standard broth microdilution (SBM) panels according to NCCLS (now CLSI) guidelines (NCCLS document M100-S9, approved standard M7-A4). Discrepant results were repeated in duplicate. Concordant IDs of 98.4 and 99.1% were observed for the Enterobacteriaceae and the nonfermentative group, respectively. For AST results, the overall essential agreement was 94.2%; the category agreement was 97.3%; and the very major error rate, major error rate, and minor error rate were 1.6, 0.6, and 1.9%, respectively. In terms of ESBL detection, Phoenix results were 98.5% concordant with those of the reference system, with 98.0% sensitivity and 98.7% specificity. In conclusion, the Phoenix ID results showed high agreement with results of the systems to which they were being compared: the AST performance was highly equivalent to that of the SBM reference method, and the system proved to be very accurate for the detection of ESBL producers.

Menozzi, Maria Grazia; Eigner, Ulrich; Covan, Silvia; Rossi, Sabina; Somenzi, Pietro; Dettori, Giuseppe; Chezzi, Carlo; Fahr, Anne-Marie

2006-01-01

164

Signature-Tagged Mutagenesis of Klebsiella pneumoniae To Identify Genes That Influence Biofilm Formation on Extracellular Matrix Material  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae causes urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and septicemia in susceptible individuals. Strains of Klebsiella frequently produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, and infections with these strains can lead to relatively high mortality rates (approximately 15%). Other virulence factors include production of an antiphagocytic capsule and outer membrane lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mediates serum resistance, as well as fimbriae on the surface of the bacteria. Type 1 fimbriae mediate adherence to many types of epithelial cells and may facilitate adherence of the bacteria to the bladder epithelium. Type 3 fimbriae can bind in vitro to the extracellular matrix of urinary and respiratory tissues, suggesting that they mediate binding to damaged epithelial surfaces. In addition, type 3 fimbriae are required for biofilm formation by Klebsiella pneumoniae on plastics and human extracellular matrix; thus, they may facilitate the formation of treatment-resistant biofilm on indwelling plastic devices, such as catheters and endotracheal tubing. The presence of these devices may cause tissue damage, allowing Klebsiella to grow as a biofilm on exposed tissue basement membrane components. Though in vivo biofilm growth may be an important step in the infection process, little is known about the genetic factors required for biofilm formation by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Thus, we performed signature-tagged mutagenesis to identify factors produced by K. pneumoniae strain 43816 that are required for biofilm formation. We identified mutations in the cps capsule gene cluster, previously unidentified transcriptional regulators, fimbrial, and sugar phosphotransferase homologues, as well as genetic loci of unknown function, that affect biofilm formation.

Boddicker, Jennifer D.; Anderson, Rebecca A.; Jagnow, Jennifer; Clegg, Steven

2006-01-01

165

A simple method for extracting C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis using Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

C-phycocyanin (C-PC) was extracted from fresh Spirulina platensis by deploying a species of non-pathogenic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, namely, Klebsiella pneumoniae. The algal slurry was neither washed nor centrifuged; the bacterial culture was poured into the slurry, the vessel sealed,\\u000a and crude C-PC extracted after about 24 h. The extraction was clean and efficient, and the purity and concentration of C-PC\\u000a proved to

Y. Zhu; X. B. Chen; K. B. Wang; Y. X. Li; K. Z. Bai; T. Y. Kuang; H. B. Ji

2007-01-01

166

Electricity generation from glucose by a Klebsiella sp. in microbial fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

As electrochemically active bacteria play an important role in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), it is necessary to get a comprehensive\\u000a understanding of their electrogenesis mechanisms. In this study, a new electrochemically active bacterium, Klebsiella sp. ME17, was employed into an “H” typed MFC for electrogenesis, with glucose as the electron donor. The maximum power density\\u000a was 1,209 mW\\/m2 at a resistance

Xue Xia; Xiao-xin Cao; Peng Liang; Xia Huang; Su-ping Yang; Gen-gui Zhao

2010-01-01

167

Klebsiella Infection in Patients with Thalassemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella infection has previously been reported in a few patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia. The incidence and clinical spectrum of this infection in our cohort of patients were reviewed retrospectively. Among 160 patients observed for 12 years, there were 15 episodes of Klebsiella infection that occurred in 12 patients (7.5%), resulting in an incidence of 0.78 infections per 100 patient-years. The

B. H. Y. Chung; S. Y. Ha; G. C. F. Chan; A. Chiang; T. L. Lee; H. K. Ho; C. Y. Lee; C. W. Luk; Y. L. Lau

2003-01-01

168

A Novel Complex Mutant ?-Lactamase, TEM-68, Identified in a Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate from an Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiellae  

PubMed Central

Twenty-two Klebsiella pneumoniae and two K. oxytoca extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates were collected in 1996 from patients in two pediatric wards of the University Hospital in Wroc?aw, Poland. Molecular typing has revealed that the K. pneumoniae isolates represented four different epidemic strains. Three kinds of enzymes with ESBL activity (pI values of 5.7, 6.0, and 8.2) were identified. The pI 6.0 ?-lactamases belonged to the TEM family, and sequencing of the blaTEM genes amplified from representative isolates revealed that these enzymes were TEM-47, previously identified in K. pneumoniae isolates from pediatric hospitals in ?ód? and Warsaw. One of the TEM-47-producing strains from Wroc?aw was very closely related to the isolates from the other cities, and this indicated countrywide spread of the epidemic strain. The pI 5.7 ?-lactamase was produced by a single K. pneumoniae isolate for which, apart from oxyimino-?-lactams, the MICs of ?-lactam–inhibitor combinations were also remarkably high. Sequencing revealed that this was a novel TEM ?-lactamase variant, TEM-68, specified by the following combination of mutations: Gly238Ser, Glu240Lys, Thr265Met, and Arg275Leu. The new enzyme has most probably evolved from TEM-47 by acquiring the single substitution of Arg275, which before was identified only twice in enzymes with inhibitor resistance (IR) activity. TEM-68 was shown to be a novel complex mutant TEM ?-lactamase (CMT-2) which combines strong ESBL activity with relatively weak IR activity and, when expressed in K. pneumoniae, is able to confer high-level resistance to a wide variety of ?-lactams, including inhibitor combinations. This data confirms the role of the Arg275Leu mutation in determining IR activity and documents the first isolation of K. pneumoniae producing the complex mutant enzyme.

Fiett, Janusz; Palucha, Andrzej; Miaczynska, Beata; Stankiewicz, Maria; Przondo-Mordarska, Hanna; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Gniadkowski, Marek

2000-01-01

169

Biochemical and Structural Characterization of a Ureidoglycine Aminotransferase in the Klebsiella pneumoniae Uric Acid Catabolic Pathway  

SciTech Connect

Many plants, fungi, and bacteria catabolize allantoin as a mechanism for nitrogen assimilation. Recent reports have shown that in plants and some bacteria the product of hydrolysis of allantoin by allantoinase is the unstable intermediate ureidoglycine. While this molecule can spontaneously decay, genetic analysis of some bacterial genomes indicates that an aminotransferase may be present in the pathway. Here we present evidence that Klebsiella pneumoniae HpxJ is an aminotransferase that preferentially converts ureidoglycine and an {alpha}-keto acid into oxalurate and the corresponding amino acid. We determined the crystal structure of HpxJ, allowing us to present an explanation for substrate specificity.

French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell)

2010-09-03

170

The ability of airborne Klebsiella pneumoniae to colonize mouse lungs.  

PubMed Central

A strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae was aerosolized and its survival in air at different relative humidities was studied. Survival was dependent upon relative humidity and aerosols were most stable during storage at a relative humidity of 60%. Mice were exposed to aerosols of K. pneumoniae produced at this humidity and lung samples taken at timed intervals after exposure. Fifteen strains of K. pneumoniae were tested for their ability to colonize mice, but only five were detectable in mouse lungs 7 days after exposure. Three of these strains persisted without an increase in bacterial numbers, regardless of the initial inoculum used. Two strains of K. pneumoniae, designated strains 15 and 16, persisted in a similar manner when used at a low dose; however, when the dose received per lung was increased there was a rapid multiplication of bacteria in the lungs.

Bolister, N. J.; Johnson, H. E.; Wathes, C. M.

1992-01-01

171

Occurrence, Significance, and Detection of 'Klebsiella' in Water Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Widespread occurrences of Klebsiella in water distribution networks have resulted in much discussion about the organism's effect on public health and about action that should be taken when Klebsiella is detected in public water supplies. Results obtained ...

E. E. Geldreich E. W. Rice

1987-01-01

172

New, simple medium for selective, differential recovery of Klebsiella spp.  

PubMed Central

A highly selective, differential medium for the enumeration and isolation of Klebsiella spp. was developed. With pure cultures, 100% recovery of Klebsiella spp. was observed. Recovery of Klebsiella spp. on MacConkey-inositol-potassium tellurite (MCIK) agar was as good as or better than on MacConkey-inositol-carbenicillin agar either with pure cultures or environmental samples. Recovery and percent colony confirmation with MCIK agar were greater and easier to obtain than for other proposed Klebsiella selective media.

Tomas, J M; Ciurana, B; Jofre, J T

1986-01-01

173

Isolation of some pathogenic bacteria from the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans and its specific predator, Rhizophagus grandis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some bacteria were isolated from Dendroctonus micans and its specific predator, Rhizophagus grandis. Six bacteria from D. micans were identified as Bacillus pumilus, Enterobacter intermedius, Citrobacter freundii, Cellulomonas flavigena, Microbacterium liquefaciens and Enterobacter amnigenus, three bacteria from R. grandis as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea agglomerans and Serratia grimesii, on the basis of fatty acid methyl ester analysis and carbon utilization profile

M. Yaman; Ö. Ertürk; ?. Aslan

2010-01-01

174

Metabolism of acrylonitrile by Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium capable of utilizing acrylonitrile as the sole source of nitrogen was isolated from industrial sewage and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae. The isolate was capable of utilizing aliphatic nitriles containing 1 to 5 carbon atoms or benzonitrile as the sole source of nitrogen and either acetamide or propionamide as the sole source of both carbon and nitrogen.

Mohamed S. Nawaz; Wirt Franklin; Warren L. Campbell; Thomas M. Heinze; Carl E. Cerniglia

1991-01-01

175

Complete Genome Sequence of the N2Fixing Broad Host Range Endophyte Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and Virulence Predictions Verified in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342. Although K. pneumoniae 342 is a member of the enteric bacteria, it serves as a model for studies of endophytic, plant- bacterial associations due to its efficient colonization of plant tissues (including maize and wheat, two of the most important crops in the

Derrick E. Fouts; Heather L. Tyler; Robert T. DeBoy; Sean Daugherty; Qinghu Ren; Jonathan H. Badger; Anthony S. Durkin; Heather Huot; Susmita Shrivastava; Sagar Kothari; Robert J. Dodson; Yasmin Mohamoud; Hoda Khouri; Luiz F. W. Roesch; Karen A. Krogfelt; Carsten Struve; Eric W. Triplett; Barbara A. Methé

2008-01-01

176

Immunolocalization of dinitrogenase reductase produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae in association with Zea mays L.  

PubMed

The endophytic lifestyle of Klebsiella pneumoniae is described, including the production of dinitrogenase reductase by bacteria residing in maize root tissue. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to detect the colonization of maize by K. pneumoniae strains 2028 and 342. These strains were found to reside in intercortical layers of the stem and within the region of maturation in the root. The production of dinitrogenase reductase by GFP-tagged bacteria was visualized using immunolocalization. This activity was only apparent when bacteria were supplied with an exogenous carbon source. The results suggest that maize provides a suitable habitat for K. pneumoniae and that this species is capable of producing nitrogenase under the appropriate plant cultivation conditions. PMID:10653751

Chelius, M K; Triplett, E W

2000-02-01

177

KPC2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from a Czech patient previously hospitalized in Greece and in vivo selection of colistin resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria peak clinical interest due to their ability to hydrolyze most ?-lactams, including\\u000a carbapenems; moreover, their genes spread through bacterial populations by horizontal transfer. Bacteria with acquired carbapenemase\\u000a have sporadically been reported in the Czech Republic, so far only in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, we described the first finding of a KPC-2-producing strain of Klebsiella

Jaroslav Hrabák; Jana Niemczyková; Eva Chudá?ková; Marta Fridrichová; Vendula Študentová; Dana ?ervená; Pavla Urbášková; Helena Žemli?ková

2011-01-01

178

IgG and IgA immune response against klebsiella in HLA-B27-associated anterior uveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteric infections with Gram-negative bacteria are thought to play an important part in HLA-B27-associated disease such as Reiter's syndrome and reactive arthritis. But the role of bacterial infections in HLA-B27-positive ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and acute anterior uveitis (AU) is still controversial. A special interest has recently been devoted to the role of klebsiella infection in HLA-B27-associated disease. We studied the

A Kijlstra; L Luyendijk; R van der Gaag; E van Kregten; A Linssen; J M Willers

1986-01-01

179

Translocatable resistance to mercuric and phenylmercuric ions in soil bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Of a sample of 42 grams-negative Hg-resistant bacteria, three (a Pseudomonas fluorescens, a Klebsiella sp. and a Citrobacter sp.) contained translocatable elements conferring resistance to Hgbj (all three) and to Hgbj and phenylmercuric acetate (P. fluorescens). The discovery of transposable phenylmercuric acetate resistance extends the range of known resistance ''transposons'' from heavy metals and antibiotics to organometallic compounds.

Radford, A.J. (LaTrobe Univ., Victoria, Australia); Oliver, J.; Kelly, W.J.; Reaney, D.C.

1981-08-01

180

Factors affecting coliform bacteria growth in distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies were carried out to determine which factors influence the survival and growth of coliforms, particularly Klebsiella pneumoniae, in drinking water distribution systems. Tubercle material scraped from the lumen of distribution pipes adversely affected the maintenance of a free available chlorine residual and supported K. pneumoniae growth. The pH of the water markedly influenced the survival of bacteria; 50

R. S. Martin; W. H. Gates; R. S. Tobin; D. Grantham; R. Sumarah; P. Wolfe; P. Forestall

1982-01-01

181

Signature-tagged mutagenesis of Klebsiella pneumoniae to identify genes that influence biofilm formation on extracellular matrix material.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae causes urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and septicemia in susceptible individuals. Strains of Klebsiella frequently produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, and infections with these strains can lead to relatively high mortality rates (approximately 15%). Other virulence factors include production of an antiphagocytic capsule and outer membrane lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mediates serum resistance, as well as fimbriae on the surface of the bacteria. Type 1 fimbriae mediate adherence to many types of epithelial cells and may facilitate adherence of the bacteria to the bladder epithelium. Type 3 fimbriae can bind in vitro to the extracellular matrix of urinary and respiratory tissues, suggesting that they mediate binding to damaged epithelial surfaces. In addition, type 3 fimbriae are required for biofilm formation by Klebsiella pneumoniae on plastics and human extracellular matrix; thus, they may facilitate the formation of treatment-resistant biofilm on indwelling plastic devices, such as catheters and endotracheal tubing. The presence of these devices may cause tissue damage, allowing Klebsiella to grow as a biofilm on exposed tissue basement membrane components. Though in vivo biofilm growth may be an important step in the infection process, little is known about the genetic factors required for biofilm formation by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Thus, we performed signature-tagged mutagenesis to identify factors produced by K. pneumoniae strain 43816 that are required for biofilm formation. We identified mutations in the cps capsule gene cluster, previously unidentified transcriptional regulators, fimbrial, and sugar phosphotransferase homologues, as well as genetic loci of unknown function, that affect biofilm formation. PMID:16861646

Boddicker, Jennifer D; Anderson, Rebecca A; Jagnow, Jennifer; Clegg, Steven

2006-08-01

182

Fimbriae and Adhesive Properties in Klebsiella Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: F'imbriae were found in 125 of 154 non-motile Klebsiella strains examined by electron-microscope in serial aerobic broth cultures. Fimbriate strains occurred in each of the capsule serotypes 1-72 and mostly showed the biochemical reactions of saprophytic KZebsieZZa aerogenes. The fimbriae were clearly distinguishable from the capsules and occurred also in non-capsulate mutants. Most fimbriate strains showed evidence of varying

J. P. DUGUID

1959-01-01

183

Cyclodextrin-Glucanotransferase von Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.When growing with cyclodextrins, Klebsiella pneumoniae M 5 al produces extracellular cyclodextrin glucanotransferase in amounts comparable to those obtained during the growth with potato starch.2.Intracellular cyclodextrin glucanotransferase-activity was demonstrated to be present in the homogenates of cells grown with cyclodextrins. In addition, an amylomaltase-like enzyme and the maltodextrin phosphorylase could be pointed out. The cyclodextrins are metabolized to glucose-1-phosphate and

Hans Bender; Bundesrepublik Deutschland

1977-01-01

184

21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Klebsiella and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. These organisms can cause serious urinary tract and pulmonary infections, particularly in hospitalized patients. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

2013-04-01

185

Role of hydrogen generation by Klebsiella pneumoniae in the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Some gastrointestinal bacteria synthesize hydrogen (H(2)) by fermentation. Despite the presence of bactericidal factors in human saliva, a large number of bacteria also live in the oral cavity. It has never been shown that oral bacteria also produce H(2) or what role H(2) might play in the oral cavity. It was found that a significant amount of H(2) is synthesized in the oral cavity of healthy human subjects, and that its generation is enhanced by the presence of glucose but inhibited by either teeth brushing or sterilization with povidone iodine. These observations suggest the presence of H(2)-generating bacteria in the oral cavity. The screening of commensal bacteria in the oral cavity revealed that a variety of anaerobic bacteria generate H(2). Among them, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) generated significantly large amounts of H(2) in the presence of glucose. Biochemical analysis revealed that various proteins in K. pneumoniae are carbonylated under standard culture conditions, and that oxidative stress induced by the presence of Fe(++) and H(2)O(2) increases the number of carbonylated proteins, particularly when their hydrogenase activity is inhibited by KCN. Inhibition of H(2) generation markedly suppresses the growth of K. pneumoniae. These observations suggest that H(2) generation and/or the reduction of oxidative stress is important for the survival and growth of K. pneumoniae in the oral cavity. PMID:21221934

Kanazuru, Tomoko; Sato, Eisuke F; Nagata, Kumiko; Matsui, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kunihiko; Kasahara, Emiko; Jikumaru, Mika; Inoue, June; Inoue, Masayasu

2011-01-09

186

77 FR 735 - New Animal Drugs; Cephalosporin Drugs; Extralabel Animal Drug Use; Order of Prohibition  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes...

2012-01-06

187

Fecal shedding of Klebsiella pneumoniae by dairy cows.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle. Wood products are considered to be the main source of Klebsiella on dairy farms. Environmental hygiene and use of inorganic bedding materials such as sand are recommended to control Klebsiella mastitis. However, Klebsiella mastitis still occurs on well-managed dairy farms that use sand as bedding material. In a 5-mo study in a New York State dairy herd performed during the summer of 2005, all of 9 samples of unused sand bedding tested negative for Klebsiella, whereas 14 of 18 samples of used sand bedding contained Klebsiella at a median level of 10(4.6) cfu/g. We hypothesized that fecal shedding of Klebsiella by dairy cows contributes to the presence of Klebsiella in the environment. Using a cheap and simple method based on ampicillin-containing MacConkey agar for screening, and biochemical tests for confirmation of species identity, 595 fecal samples from healthy dairy cattle were screened for presence of Klebsiella. In a longitudinal study of 100 cows followed over 5 mo, more than 80% of fecal samples tested positive for K. pneumoniae. The average prevalence of K. pneumoniae-positive fecal samples was also above 80% in a cross-sectional study of 100 cows from 10 herds across New York and Massachusetts. Fecal shedding of K. pneumoniae by a large proportion of dairy cows may explain why Klebsiella mastitis occurs in herds that use inorganic bedding material or other bedding material that is free from Klebsiella upon introduction into the barn. PMID:16899675

Munoz, M A; Ahlström, C; Rauch, B J; Zadoks, R N

2006-09-01

188

Emergence of DHA-1-Producing Klebsiella spp. in the Parisian Region: Genetic Organization of the ampC and ampR Genes Originating from Morganella morganii  

PubMed Central

Eleven Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates and one Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolate showing various pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types and producing an inducible DHA-1 class C ?-lactamase were isolated in the Parisian region between 1998 and 2003. The aim of this study was to compare the genetic organization of the blaDHA-1 genes in this collection of clinical isolates. In four isolates, the Morganella morganii-derived genomic region containing blaDHA-1 was inserted in an entire complex sul1-type integron, including a region common to In6-In7 (CR1), as previously described in a blaDHA-1-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis KF92 isolate from Saudi Arabia in 1992. Different gene cassette arrays were characterized in each of these integrons. In two of them, an additional 10-kb fragment was inserted between the CR1 and the M. morganii-derived region and was similar to the sap (ABC transporter family) and psp (phage shock protein) operons originated from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The length of the M. morganii region was variable, suggesting that several independent recombination events have occurred and that open reading frame orf513 encodes a recombinase involved in the mobilization of the resistance genes. The genetic organization of blaDHA-1 was identical in the eight other isolates. This structure is likely derived from a complex integron following the insertion of IS26, leading to the deletion of the first part of integron. The horizontal transfer of one plasmid carrying that truncated integron was shown for seven of these isolates.

Verdet, Charlotte; Benzerara, Yahia; Gautier, Valerie; Adam, Olivier; Ould-Hocine, Zahia; Arlet, Guillaume

2006-01-01

189

OCCURRENCE, SIGNIFICANCE, AND DETECTION OF 'KLEBSIELLA' IN WATER SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Widespread occurrences of Klebsiella in water distribution networks have resulted in much discussion about the organism's effect on public health and about action that should be taken when Klebsiella is detected in public water supplies. Results obtained during development and te...

190

N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Production by Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Human Tongue Surface  

PubMed Central

Bacteria communicate by producing quorum sensing molecules called autoinducers, which include autoinducer-1, an N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (AHL), and autoinducer-2. Bacteria present in the human oral cavity have been shown to produce autoinducer-2, but not AHL. Here, we report the isolation of two AHL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from the posterior dorsal surface of the tongue of a healthy individual. Spent culture supernatant extracts from K. pneumoniae activated the biosensors Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4(pZLR4) and Escherichia coli [pSB401], suggesting the presence of both long and short chain AHLs. High resolution mass spectrometry analyses of these extracts confirmed that both K. pneumoniae isolates produced N-octanoylhomoserine lactone and N-3-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of K. pneumoniae from the posterior dorsal surface of the human tongue and the production of these AHLs by this bacterium.

Yin, Wai-Fong; Purmal, Kathiravan; Chin, Shenyang; Chan, Xin-Yue; Koh, Chong-Lek; Sam, Choon-Kook; Chan, Kok-Gan

2012-01-01

191

Small molecule suppression of carbapenem resistance in NDM-1 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

The already considerable global public health threat of multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria has become even more of a concern following the emergence of New-Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM-1) producing strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and other Gram-negative bacteria. As an alternative approach to the traditional development of new bactericidal entities, we have identified a 2-aminoimidazole derived small molecule that acts as an antibiotic adjuvant and is able to suppress resistance of a NDM-1 producing strain of K. pneumoniae to imipenem and meropenem, in addition to suppressing resistance of other ?-lactam non-susceptible K. pneumoniae strains. The small molecule is able to lower carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations by up to 16-fold while exhibiting little bactericidal activity itself.

Worthington, Roberta J.; Bunders, Cynthia A.; Reed, Catherine S.; Melander, Christian

2012-01-01

192

Effects of prevalent freshwater chemical contaminants on in vitro growth of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Many surface and ground waters in the continental US are contaminated with a variety of chemical pollutants, which are usually present in concentrations in the ppm and ppb range. The effects of these pollutants on coliform bacteria, which are prominent members of the aquatic flora, are poorly understood. Using a microtiter plate assay, isolates of Escherichia coli (from chicken intestine and fresh water), and an isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae (from bovine milk) were exposed to varying concentrations of common pollutants over a 24 h period. The herbicides/pesticides simazine, atrazine, and diazinon; the VOCs trichloroethene and MTBE; the estrogens estradiol and estrone; and caffeine, all failed to inhibit bacterial growth at ppm levels. Only ethylene glycol, and the herbicide 2,4-D, significantly inhibited bacterial growth compared to controls. These results suggest that the replication of coliform bacteria in fresh waters is not adversely impacted by many common pollutants. PMID:17681655

Higgins, James; Hohn, Christina

2007-08-03

193

Normal anti-Klebsiella lymphocytotoxicity in ankylosing spondylitis  

SciTech Connect

We compared in vitro lymphocytotoxicity (LCT) of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), obtained from patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and normal controls (NC). Assays were performed with antibacterial antisera prepared from AS- and NC-derived Klebsiella and coliforms Escherichia coli. LCT assessed by eosin staining was not significantly different in PBL of 12 AS patients and 28 controls when reacted with 3 Klebsiella and 1 E coli antisera. LCT assessed by /sup 51/Cr release was not significantly different for PBL of 20 age- and sex-matched pairs of AS patients and NC when reacted with 3 Klebsiella and 1 E coli antisera. Similarly, LCT-/sup 51/Cr of PBL of 15 matched AS and NC pairs was not significantly different for anti-K21, a serotype putatively implicated in Klebsiella-HLA-B27 antigenic cross-reactivity. Our results do not support the notion of molecular mimicry between Klebsiella and B27 in the pathogenesis of primary AS.

Kinsella, T.D.; Fritzler, M.J.; Lewkonia, R.M.

1986-03-01

194

IgG and IgA immune response against klebsiella in HLA-B27-associated anterior uveitis.  

PubMed

Enteric infections with Gram-negative bacteria are thought to play an important part in HLA-B27-associated disease such as Reiter's syndrome and reactive arthritis. But the role of bacterial infections in HLA-B27-positive ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and acute anterior uveitis (AU) is still controversial. A special interest has recently been devoted to the role of klebsiella infection in HLA-B27-associated disease. We studied the humoral immune response against a 'cross-reactive' strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae in 62 patients with anterior uveitis and 33 healthy controls. The anterior uveitis patients were subdivided into 25 HLA-B27-negative patients without AS (B27- AU+ AS-), 17 HLA-B27-positive patients without ankylosing spondylitis (B27+ AU+ AS-), and 19 HLA-B27-positive patients with ankylosing spondylitis (B27+ AU+ AS+). Total serum IgA was higher in patients than in controls in both the B27+ AU+ AS+ and B27+ AU+ AS- patients but not in the B27- AU+ AS- group. No abnormalities were observed in the total serum IgG levels. The level of both the IgG and IgA klebsiella antibodies did not differ in the various patient groups tested as compared with the controls. Comparisons between the patient groups showed that the IgG anti-klebsiella response was higher in B27-positive patients patients without AS than in those with AS. These results suggest that stimulation of mucosal surfaces may play a role in HLA-B27-associated anterior uveitis. Whether klebsiella organisms are involved in this stimulation remains unclear. PMID:3511961

Kijlstra, A; Luyendijk, L; van der Gaag, R; van Kregten, E; Linssen, A; Willers, J M

1986-02-01

195

Klebsiella singaporensis sp. nov., a novel isomaltulose-producing bacterium.  

PubMed

Cells of strain LX3(T), isolated from soil, were Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, capsulated and non-endospore-forming straight rods, able to grow at 10 degrees C, unable to produce gas from lactose at 45 degrees C and unable to produce indole. The isolate converted sucrose to isomaltulose and did not produce detectable glucose by-products. The G+C content of the DNA was 56.4 mol%. Furthermore, comparison of 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences showed that the isolate clearly belongs to the genus Klebsiella. The closest phylogenetic relative was Klebsiella pneumoniae, there being 99.3 and 97.5 % similarity in 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis demonstrated a very low level of relatedness to other members of the genus Klebsiella, indicating that the isolated strain and other species in the genus Klebsiella were not related at the species level. The isolate could be differentiated from other previously described members of the genus Klebsiella on the basis of phenotypic differences and 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence divergence, together with DNA-DNA reassociation data. Therefore, it is proposed that strain LX3(T) (=DSM 16265(T)=JCM 12419(T)) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species of genus Klebsiella, Klebsiella singaporensis sp. nov. PMID:15545446

Li, Xianzhen; Zhang, Daohai; Chen, Feng; Ma, Jie; Dong, Yihu; Zhang, Lianhui

2004-11-01

196

[Domestic chromogenic nutrient medium for differentiation of Klebsiella].  

PubMed

Studies to design a dry chromogenic nutrient medium for the diferentiation of Klebsiella were under way, by detecting the intracellular Klebsiella genus-specific enzyme of human potential pathogenicity--5-aminosalicylate decarboxylase. The composition of the proposed medium that ensured its high sensitivity and improved its differentiating properties as compared with the known traditional media was worked through. Klebsiella are isolated and identified on the proposed medium in one step, which substantially reduces diagnosis time and material costs and takes some burden from microbiologists. PMID:20737678

Iunusova, R Iu; Gorelova, V G; Stepanova, E D; Omarova, S M

2010-03-01

197

Action of iron and iron-complexes on Klebsiella pneumoniae (Klebsiella aerogenes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron in the Fe(III) oxidation state had a negligible effect on the growth ofKlebsiella pneumoniae even at the highest concentration (0.45mm) obtainable without precipitation in a minimal medium containing glucose and inorganic salts together with Tris as the buffer\\u000a and glycerol 2-phosphate as the phosphorus source. Nevertheless in its presence the toxic action of Cd2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ was antagonized

R. Chapman; A. C. R. Dean

1982-01-01

198

Confronting carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

The ongoing spread of carbapenemase-producing (CP) multidrug-resistant enterobacteria, primarily Klebsiella pneumoniae, has undoubtedly caused a public health crisis of unprecedented dimensions. The scientific community has been struggling with these highly problematic nosocomial pathogens for more than a decade. Faced with the current situation, one cannot help but wish we could have done better, earlier. However, significant steps have been and are currently being made towards a better understanding of transmission routes of CP microorganisms and in designing strategies that could effectively curb this devastating epidemic. Most importantly, the systematic evaluation of accumulating experimental and clinical data has paved the way to a more rational management of CP-infected patients. In addition, systematic efforts of the industry have led to the development of novel antibacterial agents that are active against CP strains and expected to be introduced to clinical practice in the immediate future. PMID:24020742

Markogiannakis, Antonis; Tzouvelekis, Leonidas S; Psichogiou, Mina; Petinaki, Efi; Daikos, George L

2013-09-01

199

Risk Factors for Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in the Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: Community-acquired infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria are an emerging problem. Digestive tract colonization is a prerequisite for infections by ESBL-producing microorganisms. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for fecal carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Klebsiella spp. in the community. Materials and Methods: A total of 928

Özlem KURT AZAP; Hande ARSLAN; Turhan TOGAN

200

Activity of the Antimicrobial Peptide and Thanatin Analog S-thanatin on Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae Resistant to Conventional Antibiotics with Different Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of infections caused by bacteria resistant to the vast majority of antibiotics is a challenge worldwide. To\\u000a evaluate the effect of S-thanatin (an analog of thanatin, a cationic antimicrobial peptide isolated from the hemipteran insect\\u000a Podisus maculiventris) against microbial resistant to antibiotics, we studied its bactericidal kinetics, synergistic effect, resistance, and activity\\u000a on clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae

Guo-Qiu Wu; Jia-Xuan Ding; Lin-Xian Li; Hai-liang Wang; Rui Zhao; Zi-Long Shen

2009-01-01

201

'KLEBSIELLA' DENSITIES IN WATERS RECEIVING WOOD PULP EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Surface waters receiving pulp mill effluents were examined for the presence of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Salmonella species. Fecal coliforms were biochemically identified as belonging to the Escherichia, Klebsiella or Enterobacter genera. Sixty percent of the isolates...

202

Association of Klebsiella organisms with pulmonary lesions in sheep.  

PubMed

Small nodules were seen on chest wall and in the lungs of sheep slaughtered in Al-Ahsa abattoir, Saudi Arabia. Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies ozaenae was isolated and characterized. The histopathology of the nodules was described. PMID:1818362

Gameel, A A; el-Sanousi, S M; al-Nawawi, F; al-Shazly, M O

1991-01-01

203

A mimicry of melioidosis by Klebsiella ozaenae infection.  

PubMed

Klebsiella ozaenae is a Gram negative bacillus. It has been described as a colonizer of oral and nasopharyngeal mucosa and is a cause of atrophic rhinitis. Klebsiella ozaenae has seldom been isolated from serious infections. However, several reports have stated that Klebsiella ozaenae may cause invasive infections and even mortality. We report a 55-year-old man with Klebsiella ozaenae infection causing abscesses involving the right eye and left kidney and possibly also in the brain, lungs and prostate. The isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim but resistant to ampicillin. He responded well to 4 weeks of i.v. ceftazidime and i.v. amoxycillin-clavulanic acid. To our knowledge, such a multiorgan infection has not been reported previously for this organism. PMID:20514860

Ng, T H; How, S H; Kuan, Y C; Adzura; Aziz, A A; Fauzi, A R

2009-12-01

204

Isolation of some pathogenic bacteria from the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans and its specific predator, Rhizophagus grandis.  

PubMed

Some bacteria were isolated from Dendroctonus micans and its specific predator, Rhizophagus grandis. Six bacteria from D. micans were identified as Bacillus pumilus, Enterobacter intermedius, Citrobacter freundii, Cellulomonas flavigena, Microbacterium liquefaciens and Enterobacter amnigenus, three bacteria from R. grandis as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea agglomerans and Serratia grimesii, on the basis of fatty acid methyl ester analysis and carbon utilization profile by using Microbial Identification and Biolog Microplate Systems. Their insecticidal effects were tested on larvae and adults of D. micans. PMID:20336502

Yaman, M; Ertürk, O; Aslan, I

2010-03-25

205

Prevalence of ESBL producing Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella species with their co-resistance pattern to antimicrobials.  

PubMed

Extended spectrum ?-lactamase producing bacteria are potential emerging pathogens and continue to be a major challenge in clinical setup worldwide. In the present study an attempt was made to study the prevalence of extended spectrum ?-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species from clinical isolates in a rural tertiary care hospital in West Bengal, India with their antimicrobial susceptibility as well as co-resistance pattern to different antimicrobials. A total of 179 Escherichia coli and 62 Klebsiella isolates recovered from various clinical samples of urine, pus, aural swabs and respiratory secretions (including sputum) for a period of six months were subjected to routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing and also tested for extended spectrum ?-lactamase production as per NCCLS recommendations. Extended spectrum ?-lactamase was detected in 32.40% of Escherichia coli and 40.32% of Klebsiella species isolates. Urine, pus and respiratory samples were common source of extended spectrum ?-lactamase producers and resistance rate of these organisms to third generation cephalosporins were more than 30 to 40%. Co-resistance pattern of these extended spectrum ?-lactamase producers to other commonly used antimicrobials were also statistically significant (p?0.05). From the study it is concluded that indiscriminate use of third generation cephalosporins may be responsible for the selection of extended spectrum ?-lactamase producing multidrug resistant strains in hospital setup and amikacin is a reliable drug against them. PMID:23715365

Biswas, T; Das, M; Mondal, R; Raj, H J; Mondal, S

2013-04-01

206

The Ecology of “fecal indicator” bacteria commonly found in Pulp and paper mill water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coliform bacteria have long been used to indicate fecal contamination of water and thus a health hazard. In this study, the in-mill water and external effluent treatment systems of seven typical Canadian pulp and paper mills were all shown to support the growth of numerous coliforms, especially Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter spp. In all mills and

Francis Gauthier; Frederick Archibald

2001-01-01

207

The use of bacteria in conformance control - Initial studies  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria respond to nutrient starvation by reducing in size to form ultramicrobacteria (UMB) less than 0.3 ..mu..m in diameter. Work in the authors' laboratory has established that two bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae and a Psuedomonas species, isolated from oilwell waters decreased in size when deprived of nutrients. Subsequent restoration of nutrients resulted in the resuscitation of the UMB and they returned to normal size. When injected into model rock cores, the UMB penetrated deeper than the full-sized bacteria. Higher counts of bacteria and carbohydrate production were found around the core inlet with the full-sized bacteria. However, the UMB were located throughout the entire core. This work demonstrates that UMB may provide a new selective plugging technique by virtue of their superior penetration properties throughout solid matrices.

MacLeod, F.A.; Lappin-Scott, H.M.; Cusack, F.; Costerton, J.W.

1988-05-01

208

Hessian fly-associated bacteria: transmission, essentiality, and composition.  

PubMed

Plant-feeding insects have been recently found to use microbes to manipulate host plant physiology and morphology. Gall midges are one of the largest groups of insects that manipulate host plants extensively. Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor) is an important pest of wheat and a model system for studying gall midges. To examine the role of bacteria in parasitism, a systematic analysis of bacteria associated with HF was performed for the first time. Diverse bacteria were found in different developmental HF stages. Fluorescent in situ hybridization detected a bacteriocyte-like structure in developing eggs. Bacterial DNA was also detected in eggs by PCR using primers targeted to different bacterial groups. These results indicated that HF hosted different types of bacteria that were maternally transmitted to the next generation. Eliminating bacteria from the insect with antibiotics resulted in high mortality of HF larvae, indicating that symbiotic bacteria are essential for the insect to survive on wheat seedlings. A preliminary survey identified various types of bacteria associated with different HF stages, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Ochrobactrum, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Nitrosomonas, Arcanobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, and Klebsiella. Similar bacteria were also found specifically in HF-infested susceptible wheat, suggesting that HF larvae had either transmitted bacteria into plant tissue or brought secondary infection of bacteria to the wheat host. The bacteria associated with wheat seedlings may play an essential role in the wheat-HF interaction. PMID:21858016

Bansal, Raman; Hulbert, Scot; Schemerhorn, Brandi; Reese, John C; Whitworth, R Jeff; Stuart, Jeffrey J; Chen, Ming-Shun

2011-08-16

209

Utilization of arginine by Klebsiella aerogenes.  

PubMed

Klebsiella aerogenes utilized arginine as the sole source of carbon or nitrogen for growth. Arginine was degraded to 2-ketoglutarate and not to succinate, since a citrate synthaseless mutant grows on arginine as the only nitrogen source. When glucose was the energy source, all four nitrogen atoms of arginine were utilized. Three of them apparently did not pass through ammonia but were transferred by transamination, since a mutant unable to produce glutamate by glutamate synthase or glutamate dehydrogenase utilized three of four nitrogen atoms of arginine. Urea was not involved as intermediate, since a unreaseless mutant did not accumulate urea and grew on arginine as efficiently as the wild-type strain. Ornithine appeared to be an intermediate, because cells grown either on glucose and arginine or arginine alone could convert arginine in the presence of hydroxylamine to ornithine. This indicates that an amidinotransferase is the initiating enzyme of arginine breakdown. In addition, the cells contained a transaminase specific for ornithine. In contrast to the hydroxylamine-dependent reaction, this activity could be demonstrated in extracts. The arginine-utilizing system (aut) is apparently controlled like the enzymes responsible for the degradation of histidine (hut) through induction, catabolite repression, and activation by glutamine synthetase. PMID:342501

Friedrich, B; Magasanik, B

1978-02-01

210

'KLEBSIELLA' OCCURRENCE, SIGNIFICANCE AND DETECTION IN WATER SYSTEMS: A PROGRESS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Frequent occurrence of Klebsiella in coliform colonization problems found in water supply distribution has prompted the development of a new medium (m-Kleb agar) for specific detection. The medium has excellent differential characteristics, and an average 94% Klebsiella recovery ...

211

Murine Monoclonal Antibody Defines a Unique Epitope Shared by Klebsiella Lipopolysaccharides. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hybridoma secreting a monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was derived from spleen cells of mice immunized with a smooth, nonencapsulated Klebsiella strain (Friedlaender 201; serogroup O1). The MAb, called V/9-5...

M. Trautmann K. Vogt C. Hammack A. S. Cross

1994-01-01

212

Aerosol and Intramuscular Prophylaxis of Respiratory 'Klebsiella pneumoniae' Infection in Mice and Squirrel Monkeys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerosol administration and intramuscular injection were compared for kanamycin prophylaxis against respiratory Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in both mice and squirrel monkeys. Mice challenged with an LD90 of Klebsiella 0.5, 4, 24, and 48 and 72 hours af...

R. F. Berendt M. A. Schneider H. W. Young F. R. Frola

1979-01-01

213

Use of microdilution panels with and without beta-lactamase inhibitors as a phenotypic test for beta-lactamase production among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, a number of new beta-lactamases have appeared in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that, unlike their predecessors, do not confer beta-lactam resistance that is readily detected in routine antibiotic susceptibility tests. Because optimal methodologies are needed to detect these important new beta-lactamases, a study was designed to evaluate the ability of a panel of various beta-lactam antibiotics tested alone and in combination with beta-lactamase inhibitors to discriminate between the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, AmpC beta-lactamases, high levels of K1 beta-lactamase, and other beta-lactamases in 141 isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens possessing well-characterized beta-lactamases. The microdilution panels studied contained aztreonam, cefpodoxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone, with and without 1, 2, and 4 microg of clavulanate per ml or 8 microg of sulbactam per ml and cefoxitin and cefotetan with and without 8 microg of sulbactam per ml. The results indicated that a minimum panel of five tests would provide maximum separation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase high AmpC, high K1, and other beta-lactamase production in Enterobacteriaceae. These included cefpodoxime, cefpodoxime plus 4 microg of clavulanate per ml, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and ceftriaxone plus 8 microg of sulbactam per ml. Ceftriaxone plus 2 microg of clavulanate per ml could be substituted for cefpodoxime plus 4 microg of clavulanate per ml without altering the accuracy of the tests. This study indicated that tests with key beta-lactam drugs, alone and in combination with beta-lactamase inhibitors, could provide a convenient approach to the detection of a variety of beta-lactamases in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:10348759

Thomson, K S; Sanders, C C; Moland, E S

1999-06-01

214

Klebsiella ozaenae Bacteremia in a Kidney Transplant Recipient.  

PubMed

Infections remain a dreadful complication after solid organ transplantation. Almost all microorganisms could cause this complication, including unusual ones. We report a 73-year-old patient, with a history of kidney transplant for 38 years on minimum immunosuppression, who presented with high-grade fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Klebsiella ozaenae was isolated from blood cultures. She had a prompt response to antibiotics and recovered completely in a short period. Subsequent evaluation of her nasal cavity and sinuses did not show any abnormalities. Klebsiella ozaenae is primarily a colonizer of the oral and nasopharyngeal mucosa, which does not usually cause severe infections. Only 12 cases of Klebsiella ozaenae bacteremia have been reported, none of them in the context of solid organ transplant recipient. PMID:23710409

Kumar, Shree; Alfaadhel, Talal; Albugami, Meteb M

2013-04-28

215

Combined Biochemical and Serological Typing of Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella  

PubMed Central

In a series of 640 strains of Klebsiella isolated from clinical specimens over a 7-month period, there were sufficient biochemical differences between strains to allow a biochemical typing system to be established. Biochemical tests were done in solid media inoculated with a modified Steers inocula replicator. Biotypes were designated by a numerical coding system; 29 distinct biotypes were found among the 640 strains of Klebsiella. Serotyping of 270 of the strains was done by the Quellung reaction, and 40 capsular types were identified. Numerical biotypes and serotypes of strains appeared to vary independently. When used in conjunction, the two methods subdivided the strains into many more distinct types than either used alone. With the combined method over 100 types of Klebsiella were distinguished among the 270 isolates.

Rennie, R. P.; Duncan, I. B. R.

1974-01-01

216

Klebsiella ozaenae Bacteremia in a Kidney Transplant Recipient  

PubMed Central

Infections remain a dreadful complication after solid organ transplantation. Almost all microorganisms could cause this complication, including unusual ones. We report a 73-year-old patient, with a history of kidney transplant for 38 years on minimum immunosuppression, who presented with high-grade fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Klebsiella ozaenae was isolated from blood cultures. She had a prompt response to antibiotics and recovered completely in a short period. Subsequent evaluation of her nasal cavity and sinuses did not show any abnormalities. Klebsiella ozaenae is primarily a colonizer of the oral and nasopharyngeal mucosa, which does not usually cause severe infections. Only 12 cases of Klebsiella ozaenae bacteremia have been reported, none of them in the context of solid organ transplant recipient.

Kumar, Shree; Alfaadhel, Talal; AlBugami, Meteb M.

2013-01-01

217

Medicinal smoke reduces airborne bacteria.  

PubMed

This study represents a comprehensive analysis and scientific validation of our ancient knowledge about the effect of ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care on airborne bacterial composition and dynamics, using the Biolog microplate panels and Microlog database. We have observed that 1h treatment of medicinal smoke emanated by burning wood and a mixture of odoriferous and medicinal herbs (havan sámagri=material used in oblation to fire all over India), on aerial bacterial population caused over 94% reduction of bacterial counts by 60 min and the ability of the smoke to purify or disinfect the air and to make the environment cleaner was maintained up to 24h in the closed room. Absence of pathogenic bacteria Corynebacterium urealyticum, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter aerogenes (Klebsiella mobilis), Kocuria rosea, Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. tardicrescens in the open room even after 30 days is indicative of the bactericidal potential of the medicinal smoke treatment. We have demonstrated that using medicinal smoke it is possible to completely eliminate diverse plant and human pathogenic bacteria of the air within confined space. PMID:17913417

Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nene, Yeshwant Laxman

2007-08-28

218

Mutations Which Uncouple Transport and Phosphorylation in the d-Mannitol Phosphotransferase System of Escherichia coli K-12 and Klebsiella pneumoniae 1033-5P14  

PubMed Central

Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 were isolated which lack the normal phosphotransferase system-dependent catabolic pathway for d-mannitol (Mtl). In some mutants the pts genes for the general proteins enzyme I and histidine protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems were deleted. Other mutants expressed truncated mannitol-specific enzymes II (IIMtl) which lacked the IIAMtl or IIBAMtl domain(s), and the mtlA genes originated either from E. coli K-12 or from Klebsiella pneumoniae 1033-5P14. The dalD gene from Klebsiella oxytoca M5a1 was cloned on single-copy plasmids and transformed into the strains described above. This gene encodes an NAD-dependent d-arabinitol dehydrogenase (DalD) which converts d-arabinitol into d-xylulose and also converts d-mannitol into d-fructose. The different strains were used to isolate mutations which allow efficient transport of mannitol through the nonphosphorylated IIMtl complexes by selecting for growth on this polyhydric alcohol. More than 40 different mutants were analyzed to determine their ability to grow on mannitol, as well as their ability to bind and transport free mannitol and, after restoration of the missing domain(s), their ability to phosphorylate mannitol. Four mutations were identified (E218A, E218V, H256P, and H256Y); all of these mutations are located in the highly conserved loop 5 of the IIC membrane-bound transporter, and two are located in its GIHE motif. These mutations were found to affect the various functions in different ways. Interestingly, in the presence of all IIMtl variants, whether they were in the truncated form or in the complete form, in the phosphorylated form or in the nonphosphorylated form, and in the wild-type form or in the mutated form, growth occurred on the low-affinity analogue d-arabinitol with good efficiency, while only the uncoupled mutated forms transported mannitol at a high rate.

Otte, Susanne; Scholle, Annette; Turgut, Sevket; Lengeler, Joseph W.

2003-01-01

219

Influence of cephalosporins and iron on surface protein antigens of Klebsiella pneumoniae in vivo.  

PubMed Central

The outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles of Klebsiella pneumoniae grown in a rabbit peritonitis model in the presence or absence of cephalosporins were investigated. Six high-molecular-weight OMPs (Mr 69,000 to 83,000) were induced under iron-depleted conditions in vitro. Three of these proteins (the 69,000-Mr protein [69K protein] and the 70K and 78K proteins) and trace amounts of the 73K and 75K proteins were induced in the OM of bacteria infecting the peritoneal cavity of rabbits. Addition of iron either to the growth medium in vitro or to the peritoneum in vivo repressed the expression of these proteins. Cephaloridine had no significant effect on the OMP profiles. An additional 56,000-Mr protein was observed in the OM of bacteria cultivated in vivo in the presence of CGP 17520 and also to a lesser extent in vivo under conditions of iron excess. A difference in recognition of OM antigens between cells grown in vitro and in vivo was observed by immunoblotting techniques. The 26K, 27.5K, and 28.5K antigens present in the OM of cells grown in vitro (but not in vivo) were recognized by antibodies raised against bacteria cultivated in vitro under conditions of iron depletion, but were not recognized by antisera raised against bacteria harvested directly from infections. Antisera raised against a nonencapsulated K. pneumoniae strain caused no agglutination of encapsulated K. pneumoniae grown in vivo in the absence of cephalosporins. Rapid agglutination was observed with this antiserum when the same encapsulated strain was grown in vivo in the presence of either cephalosporin, indicating less occlusion of critical antigens by the capsule. Images

Kadurugamuwa, J L; Anwar, H; Brown, M R; Hengstler, B; Kunz, S; Zak, O

1988-01-01

220

The I?B family member Bcl-3 coordinates the pulmonary defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae infection.  

PubMed

Bcl-3 is an atypical member of the I?B family that has the potential to positively or negatively modulate nuclear NF-?B activity in a context-dependent manner. Bcl-3's biologic impact is complex and includes roles in tumorigenesis and diverse immune responses, including innate immunity. Bcl-3 may mediate LPS tolerance, suppressing cytokine production, but it also seems to contribute to defense against select systemic bacterial challenges. However, the potential role of Bcl-3 in organ-specific host defense against bacteria has not been addressed. In this study, we investigated the relevance of Bcl-3 in a lung challenge with the Gram-negative pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae. In contrast to wild-type mice, Bcl-3-deficient mice exhibited significantly increased susceptibility toward K. pneumoniae pneumonia. The mutant mice showed increased lung damage marked by neutrophilic alveolar consolidation, and they failed to clear bacteria in lungs, which correlated with increased bacteremic dissemination. Loss of Bcl-3 incurred a dramatic cytokine imbalance in the lungs, which was characterized by higher levels of IL-10 and a near total absence of IFN-?. Moreover, Bcl-3-deficient mice displayed increased lung production of the neutrophil-attracting chemokines CXCL-1 and CXCL-2. Alveolar macrophages and neutrophils are important to antibacterial lung defense. In vitro stimulation of Bcl-3-deficient alveolar macrophages with LPS or heat-killed K. pneumoniae recapitulated the increase in IL-10 production, and Bcl-3-deficient neutrophils were impaired in intracellular bacterial killing. These findings suggest that Bcl-3 is critically involved in lung defense against Gram-negative bacteria, modulating functions of several cells to facilitate efficient clearance of bacteria. PMID:21228348

Pène, Frédéric; Paun, Andrea; Sønder, Søren Ulrik; Rikhi, Nimisha; Wang, Hongshan; Claudio, Estefania; Siebenlist, Ulrich

2011-01-12

221

Differentiation of Enterobacter aerogenes from Klebsiellae by Deoxyribonucleic Acid Reassociation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polynucleotide sequence relatedness tests were carried out to determine the extent of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) divergence among species of Klebsiella and Enterobacter aerogenes strains. Labeled, denatured DNA fragments from K. pneumoniae type 2 and E. aerogenes 1627-66 were each incubated with an excess of unlabeled DNA fragments from Klebsielia species and strains of E. aerogenes. Reassociated DNA duplexes were separated

DON J. BRENNER; A. G. STEIGERWALT; G. R. FANNING

1972-01-01

222

Multilocus Sequence Typing of Klebsiella pneumoniae Nosocomial Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was developed for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Sequences of seven housekeeping genes were obtained for 67 K. pneumoniae strains, including 19 ceftazidime- and ciprofloxacin- resistant isolates. Forty distinct allelic profiles were identified. MLST data were validated against ribotyping and showed high (96%) discriminatory power. The MLST approach provides unambiguous data useful for the epidemiology of K.

Laure Diancourt; Virginie Passet; Jan Verhoef; Patrick A. D. Grimont; Sylvain Brisse

2005-01-01

223

Klebsiella pneumoniae triggers a cytotoxic effect on airway epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a capsulated Gram negative bacterial pathogen and a frequent cause of nosocomial infections. Despite its clinical relevance, little is known about the features of the interaction between K. pneumoniae and lung epithelial cells on a cellular level, neither about the role of capsule polysaccharide, one of its best characterised virulence factors, in this interaction. RESULTS: The

Victoria Cano; David Moranta; Enrique Llobet-Brossa; José Antonio Bengoechea; Junkal Garmendia

2009-01-01

224

Identification and clinical significance of Klebsiella species in chest infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a short series of biochemical tests already in use in many routine laboratories, it is possible to identify strains of the genus Klebsiella and to differentiate K. aerogenes from other types. Marked production of slime is not peculiar to the group and colonial appearance alone is not a satisfactory basis for identification. K. aerogenes is the type most commonly

J. H. Darrell; A. D. F. Hurdle

1964-01-01

225

Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates causing liver abscess in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae has been the leading cause of pyogenic liver abscess in Taiwan during the period from 1985 to 1999, which is different from other countries. The present study investigated the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of 51 K. pneumoniae isolates collected from blood cultures of patients with liver abscess in Taiwan during the period from 1993–1997, and typed by pulsed-field

Shan-Chwen Chang; Chi-Tai Fang; Po-Ren Hsueh; Yee-Chun Chen; Kwen-Tay Luh

2000-01-01

226

Laryngeal scleroma associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae was isolated from the pharynx of a woman with laryngeal scleroma. K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae is rarely isolated from clinical infections and has never been reported in laryngeal scleroma, which is usually caused by K. pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis. PMID:16272528

De Champs, C; Vellin, J F; Diancourt, L; Brisse, S; Kemeny, J L; Gilain, L; Mom, T

2005-11-01

227

Laryngeal Scleroma Associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae was isolated from the pharynx of a woman with laryngeal scleroma. K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae is rarely isolated from clinical infections and has never been reported in laryngeal scleroma, which is usually caused by K. pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis.

De Champs, C.; Vellin, J. F.; Diancourt, L.; Brisse, S.; Kemeny, J. L.; Gilain, L.; Mom, T.

2005-01-01

228

Failure of Cefepime Therapy in Treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacteremia  

PubMed Central

A case of failure of cefepime treatment of a bloodstream infection with AmpC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae is reported. The failure was attributed to extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) acquisition by the isolate, possibly during therapy. Problems encountered with ESBL detection in AmpC-producing isolates are discussed.

Song, Wonkeun; Moland, Ellen S.; Hanson, Nancy D.; Lewis, James S.; Jorgensen, James H.; Thomson, Kenneth S.

2005-01-01

229

The functional significance of glucose dehydrogenase in Klebsiella aerogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the functional significance of the quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase recently found to be present in K+-limited Klebsiella aerogenes, a broad study was made of the influence of specific environmental conditions on the cellular content of this enzyme. Whereas high activities were manifest in cells from glucose containing chemostat cultures that were either potassium- or phosphate-limited, only low

R. W. J. Hommes; B. van Hell; P. W. Postma; O. M. Neijssel; D. W. Tempest

1985-01-01

230

Movement and retention of Klebsiella aerogenes in soil columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement and retention of two strains of Klebsiella aerogenes into saturated soil columns was found to depend on soil type, pH, and bacterial size. The movement of the cells was considered as a specific case of gel permeantion chromatography. The infiltration of the bacterial cells into dry soil columns was affected by soil type, and their upward movement was

Gabriel Bitton; N. Lahav; Y. Henis

1974-01-01

231

Naturally acquired infections of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from lesions in 2 dead and 82 ill animals in a breeding colony of 2300 Wistar rats. The clinical signs were unilaterial and bilateral fluctuating masses in the cervical and inguinal areas, and focal cutaneous ulcers in the ventral neck. Cervical and inguinal lymphadenitis with abscess formation were found on microscopic examination. Lesions also occurred

N. N. Jackson; H. G. Wall; Charlotte A. Miller; M. Rogul

1980-01-01

232

Experimental Phage Therapy in Treating Klebsiella pneumoniae-Mediated Liver Abscesses and Bacteremia in Mice?  

PubMed Central

Intragastric inoculation of mice with Klebsiella pneumoniae can cause liver abscesses, necrosis of liver tissues, and bacteremia. A newly isolated phage (?NK5) with lytic activity for K. pneumoniae was used to treat K. pneumoniae infection in an intragastric model. Both intraperitoneal and intragastric administration of a single dose of ?NK5 lower than 2 × 108 PFU at 30 min after K. pneumoniae infection was able to protect mice from death in a dose-dependent manner, but the efficacy achieved with a low dose of ?NK5 by intragastric treatment provided the more significant protection. Phage ?NK5 administered as late as 24 h after K. pneumoniae inoculation was still protective, while intraperitoneal treatment with phage was more efficient than intragastric treatment as a result of the dissemination of bacteria into the circulation at 24 h postinfection. Surveys of bacterial counts for mice treated with ?NK5 by the intraperitoneal route revealed that the bacteria were eliminated effectively from both blood and liver tissue. K. pneumoniae-induced liver injury, such as liver necrosis, as well as blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and inflammatory cytokine production, was significantly inhibited by ?NK5 treatment. These data suggest that a low dose of ?NK5 is a potential therapeutic agent for K. pneumoniae-induced liver infection.

Hung, Chih-Hsin; Kuo, Chih-Feng; Wang, Chiou-Huey; Wu, Ching-Ming; Tsao, Nina

2011-01-01

233

Effect of Klebsiella pneumoniae enterotoxin on intestinal transport in the rat.  

PubMed Central

The effects on intestinal transport of either a semipurified preparation of enterotoxin elaborated by Klebsiella pneumoniae or similaryly prepared control material were tested by marker perfusion studies in the small intestine of rats. At a concentration of 2 mg/ml, the enterotoxin produced net secretion of water, Na, and Cl in both jejunal and ileal segments; HCO3 transport was not affected. Net secretion was evident within 30 min after intorduction of the toxin and was maximal after 90 min. The addition of 56 mM glucose to the enterotoxin-containing perfusion fluid resulted in reversal of water and Na transport to net absorption in both intestinal segments. The enterotoxin also produced a significant depression of xylose absorption in both the jejunum and ileum but did not affect the absorption of either glucose or L-leucine. Intestinal structure was not altered after perfusion of the toxin but insillation of approximately one-quarter of the total perfusion dose into a ligated jejunal loop for 18 h produced fluid secretion and structural abnormalities. These observations confirm the fact that other species of coliform bacteria in addition to tescherichia coli are capable of elaborating an enterotoxin. Such species commonly contaminate the small intestine of persons with tropical sprue and it is suggested that chronic exposure of the intestinal mucosa to the enterotoxin elaborated by these bacteria may be a factor in the pathogenesis of intestinal abnormalities in thid disorder. Images

Klipstein, F A; Horowitz, I R; Engert, R F; Schnenk, E A

1975-01-01

234

Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from farm environments and retail products in Oklahoma.  

PubMed

Multidrug-resistant enteric bacteria were isolated from turkey, cattle, and chicken farms and retail meat products in Oklahoma. Among the isolated species, multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae was prevalently isolated from most of the collected samples. Therefore, a total of 132 isolates of K. pneumoniae were characterized to understand their potential roles in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes in the food chains. Multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae was most frequently recovered from a turkey farm and ground turkey products among the tested samples. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, gentamycin, and kanamycin. Class 1 integrons located in plasmids were identified as a common carrier of the aadA1 gene, encoding resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin. Production of beta-lactamase in the K. pneumoniae isolates played a major role in the resistance to beta-lactam agents. Most isolates (96%) possessed bla(SHV1). Five strains were able to express both SHV-11 (pI 6.2) and TEM-1 (pI 5.2) beta-lactamase. Transfer of these antibiotic-resistance genes to Escherichia coli was demonstrated by transconjugation. The bacterial genomic DNA restriction patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the same clones of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae remained in feathers, feed, feces, and drinking water in turkey environments, indicating the possible dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes in the ecosystem and cross-contamination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria during processing and distribution of products. PMID:16245702

Kim, Shin-Hee; Wei, Cheng-I; Tzou, Ywh-Min; An, Haejung

2005-10-01

235

Metabolic Response to Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection in an Experimental Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Bacteremia, the presence of viable bacteria in the blood stream, is often associated with several clinical conditions. Bacteremia can lead to multiple organ failure if managed incorrectly, which makes providing suitable nutritional support vital for reducing bacteremia-associated mortality. In order to provide such information, we investigated the metabolic consequences of a Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) infection in vivo by employing a combination of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. K. pneumoniae was intravenously infused in rats; urine and plasma samples were collected at different time intervals. We found that K. pneumoniae-induced bacteremia stimulated glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle and also promoted oxidation of fatty acids and creatine phosphate to facilitate the energy-demanding host response. In addition, K. pneumoniae bacteremia also induced anti-endotoxin, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidization responses in the host. Furthermore, bacteremia could cause a disturbance in the gut microbiotal functions as suggested by alterations in a range of amines and bacteria-host co-metabolites. Our results suggest that supplementation with glucose and a high-fat and choline-rich diet could ameliorate the burdens associated with bacteremia. Our research provides underlying pathological processes of bacteremia and a better understanding of the clinical and biochemical manifestations of bacteremia.

Dong, Fangcong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Lulu; Tang, Huiru; Li, Jieshou; Wang, Yulan

2012-01-01

236

Role of Bacterial Surface Structures on the Interaction of Klebsiella pneumoniae with Phagocytes  

PubMed Central

Phagocytosis is a key process of the immune system. The human pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae is a well known example of a pathogen highly resistant to phagocytosis. A wealth of evidence demonstrates that the capsule polysaccharide (CPS) plays a crucial role in resistance to phagocytosis. The amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum shares with mammalian macrophages the ability to phagocytose and kill bacteria. The fact that K. pneumoniae is ubiquitous in nature and, therefore, should avoid predation by amoebae, poses the question whether K. pneumoniae employs similar means to counteract amoebae and mammalian phagocytes. Here we developed an assay to evaluate K. pneumoniae-D. discoideum interaction. The richness of the growth medium affected the threshold at which the cps mutant was permissive for Dictyostelium and only at lower nutrient concentrations the cps mutant was susceptible to predation by amoebae. Given the critical role of bacterial surface elements on host-pathogen interactions, we explored the possible contribution of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) to combat phagoyctosis by D. discoideum. We uncover that, in addition to the CPS, the LPS O-polysaccharide and the first core sugar participate in Klebsiella resistance to predation by D. discoideum. K. pneumoniae LPS lipid A decorations are also necessary to avoid predation by amoebae although PagP-dependent palmitoylation plays a more important role than the lipid A modification with aminoarabinose. Mutants lacking OMPs OmpA or OmpK36 were also permissive for D. discoideium growth. Except the LPS O-polysaccharide mutants, all mutants were more susceptible to phagocytosis by mouse alveolar macrophages. Finally, we found a correlation between virulence, using the pneumonia mouse model, and resistance to phagocytosis. Altogether, this work reveals novel K. pneumoniae determinants involved in resistance to phagocytosis and supports the notion that Dictyostelium amoebae might be useful as host model to measure K. pneumoniae virulence and not only phagocytosis.

Moranta, David; Llobet, Enrique; Perez-Gutierrez, Camino; Tomas, Juan M.; Suarez, Teresa; Garmendia, Junkal; Bengoechea, Jose A.

2013-01-01

237

Gram-Negative Bacteria Produce Membrane Vesicles Which Are Capable of Killing Other Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Naturally produced membrane vesicles (MVs), isolated from 15 strains of gram-negative bacteria (Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Morganella, Proteus, Salmonella, and Shigella strains), lysed many gram-positive (including Mycobacterium) and gram-negative cultures. Peptidoglycan zymograms suggested that MVs contained peptidoglycan hydrolases, and electron microscopy revealed that the murein sacculi were digested, confirming a previous modus operandi (J. L. Kadurugamuwa and T. J. Beveridge, J. Bacteriol. 174:2767–2774, 1996). MV-sensitive bacteria possessed A1?, A4?, A1?, A2?, and A4? peptidoglycan chemotypes, whereas A3?, A3?, A3?, A4?, B1?, and B1? chemotypes were not affected. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 vesicles possessed the most lytic activity.

Li, Zusheng; Clarke, Anthony J.; Beveridge, Terry J.

1998-01-01

238

Comparison of screening methods for detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and their prevalence among blood isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in a Belgian teaching hospital.  

PubMed Central

Using a set of 33 well-defined extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, we compared three screening methods for ESBL detection: (i) a double-disk synergy test, (ii) a three-dimensional test (both the double-disk synergy test and the three-dimensional test were performed with ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, aztreonam, and cefepime), and (iii) the Etest ESBL screen (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden), based on the recognition of a reduction in the ceftazidime MIC in the presence of clavulanic acid. In the double-disk test, all four indicator antibiotics scored equally and 31 of the 33 reference strains were recognized. In the three-dimensional test, ceftriaxone was the only satisfactory indicator and 30 ESBL-positive strains were detected by this antibiotic. Both systems produced two false-positive results with cefepime. With the Etest ESBL screen, 15 of 16 TEM-related and 11 of 16 SHV-related ESBL-producing strains scored positive. In 10 cases the clavulanic acid on one end of the strip interfered with the MIC determination for ceftazidime, which was read on the opposite end. This MIC had to be determined with an extra ceftazidime-only strip. No false-positive results were noted. Eighty-six blood isolates of E. coli and Klebsiella species were screened for ESBL expression by the double-disk and three-dimensional tests, both with ceftriaxone. Six strains with suspicious antibiogram phenotypes also gave positive results by the double-disk test. One E. coli strain remained undetected by the three-dimensional test. Identification of the enzymes suspected of being ESBLs by isoelectric focusing (all strains) and DNA sequencing (1 strain) confirmed the screening test results except for one Klebsiella oxytoca strain, which proved to be a hyperproducer of its chromosomal enzyme and which also had a negative Etest score. The five true ESBL producers were all confirmed by the Etest ESBL screen. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis proved that the E. coli strains were unrelated, but that two of the three K. pneumoniae strains were closely related.

Vercauteren, E; Descheemaeker, P; Ieven, M; Sanders, C C; Goossens, H

1997-01-01

239

Endocarditis Due to Rare and Fastidious Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The etiologic diagnosis of infective endocarditis is easily made in the presence of continuous bacteremia with gram-positive cocci. However, the blood culture may contain a bacterium rarely associated with endocarditis, such as Lactobacillus spp., Klebsiella spp., or nontoxigenic Corynebacterium, Salmonella, Gemella, Campylobacter, Aeromonas, Yersinia, Nocardia, Pasteurella, Listeria, or Erysipelothrix spp., that requires further investigation to establish the relationship with endocarditis, or the blood culture may be uninformative despite a supportive clinical evaluation. In the latter case, the etiologic agents are either fastidious extracellular or intracellular bacteria. Fastidious extracellular bacteria such as Abiotrophia, HACEK group bacteria, Clostridium, Brucella, Legionella, Mycobacterium, and Bartonella spp. need supplemented media, prolonged incubation time, and special culture conditions. Intracellular bacteria such as Coxiella burnetii cannot be isolated routinely. The two most prevalent etiologic agents of culture-negative endocarditis are C. burnetti and Bartonella spp. Their diagnosis is usually carried out serologically. A systemic pathologic examination of excised heart valves including periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and molecular methods has allowed the identification of Whipple's bacillus endocarditis. Pathologic examination of the valve using special staining, such as Warthin-Starry, Gimenez, and PAS, and broad-spectrum PCR should be performed systematically when no etiologic diagnosis is evident through routine laboratory evaluation.

Brouqui, P.; Raoult, D.

2001-01-01

240

Bioflocculant produced by Klebsiella sp. MYC and its application in the treatment of oil-field produced water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventy-nine strains of bioflocculant-producing bacteria were isolated from 3 activated sludge samples. Among them, strain MYC was found to have the highest and stable flocculating rate for both kaolin clay suspension and oil-field produced water. The bacterial strain was identified as Klebsiella sp. MYC according to its morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16SrDNA sequence. The optimal medium for bioflocculant production by this bacterial strain was composed of cane sugar 20gL-1 KH2PO4 2g L-1, K2HPO45gL-1, (NH4)2SO4 0.2gL-1, urea 0.5 gL-1 and yeast extract 0.5 gL-1, the initial pH being 5.5. When the suspension of kaolin clay was treated with 0.5% of Klebsiella sp. MYC culture broth, the flocculating rate reached more than 90.0% in the presence of 500mgL1 CaCl2, while the flocculating rate for oil-field produced water was near 80.0% in a pH range of 7.0-9.0 with the separation of oil and suspended particles from the oil-field produced water under similar conditions. The environment-friendly nature of the bioflocculant and high flocculating rate of the strain make the bioflocculant produced by Klebsiella sp. MYC an attractive bioflocculant in oil-field produced water treatment.

Yue, Lixi; Ma, Chunling; Chi, Zhenming

2006-10-01

241

The salt stress relief and growth promotion effect of Rs5 on cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the Rs-5 bacteria strain, identified as Klebsiella oxytoca and isolated with ACC as the sole nitrogen source, on salt stressed cotton seedling growth was studied. It was demonstrated\\u000a that Rs-5 could obviously relieve salt stress and promote cotton seedling growth. After treatment with Rs-5, the individual\\u000a plant height and dry weight of cotton increased by 14.9 and

Haitao Yue; Wenping Mo; Chun Li; Yuanyuan Zheng; Hui Li

2007-01-01

242

Is a Klebsiella plasmid involved in the aetiology of Ankylosing Spondylitis in HLA-B27-positive individuals?  

PubMed

The possibility that plasmid genes, carried by enteric organisms previously indirectly implicated as disease agents, play a role in the pathogenesis of Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) was explored. A particular Klebsiella isolate (K21) previously found to cross-react with cells from HLA-B27 positive (B27+) patients with AS, but not with cells from normal individuals, was found to contain a plasmid(s). This coded for the organism's ability to produce a factor which could modify B27+ normal cells (AS-) rendering them lysable by the anti-Klebsiella serum. Curing of this isolate resulted in the loss of the plasmid concerned and a loss of ability of its culture filtrate to modify B27+ lymphocytes of clinically healthy subjects. When plasmids from K21 were transferred to a plasmid free laboratory strain, E. coli JP995, the recipient strain acquired the ability to elaborate modifying factor. These data suggest that plasmids, harboured by some enteric bacteria, and their products, may be implicated in modifying cells bearing certain Major Histocompatibility Complex genes, and that such modification may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases including the seronegative arthropathies. PMID:6348514

Cameron, F H; Russell, P J; Sullivan, J; Geczy, A F

1983-05-01

243

Cofactor engineering through heterologous expression of an NADH oxidase and its impact on metabolic flux redistribution in Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Background Acetoin is an important bio-based platform chemical. However, it is usually existed as a minor byproduct of 2,3-butanediol fermentation in bacteria. Results The present study reports introducing an exogenous NAD+ regeneration sysytem into a 2,3-butanediol producing strain Klebsiella pneumoniae to increse the accumulation of acetoin. Batch fermentation suggested that heterologous expression of the NADH oxidase in K. pneumoniae resulted in large decreases in the intracellular NADH concentration (1.4 fold) and NADH/NAD+ ratio (2.0 fold). Metabolic flux analysis revealed that fluxes to acetoin and acetic acid were enhanced, whereas, production of lactic acid and ethanol were decreased, with the accumualation of 2,3-butanediol nearly unaltered. By fed-batch culture of the recombinant, the highest reported acetoin production level (25.9 g/L) by Klebsiella species was obtained. Conclusions The present study indicates that microbial production of acetoin could be improved by decreasing the intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio in K. pneumoniae. It demonstrated that the cofactor engineering method, which is by manipulating the level of intracellular cofactors to redirect cellular metabolism, could be employed to achieve a high efficiency of producing the NAD+-dependent microbial metabolite.

2013-01-01

244

Klebsiella pneumoniae Peptidoglycan-Associated Lipoprotein and Murein Lipoprotein Contribute to Serum Resistance, Antiphagocytosis, and Proinflammatory Cytokine Stimulation.  

PubMed

Background.?Peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (Pal), murein lipoprotein (LppA), and outer membrane protein A (OmpA) are dominant outer membrane proteins (OMPs) that are released by gram-negative bacteria during sepsis. OMPs are implicated in the maintenance of cell envelope integrity. Here, we characterize the roles of these OMPs in pathogenesis during bacteremia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods.?pal-, lppA-, and ompA-deficient K. pneumoniae strains were constructed using an unmarked deletion method. Serum sensitivity, antiphagocytosis activity, outer membrane permeability, and sensitivity to anionic detergents and antimicrobial polypeptides were determined for these OMP gene deletion mutants. The ability of these OMP gene deletion mutants to induce immune responses was compared with that of the wild-type strain in a bacteremic mouse model. Results.?Klebsiella pneumoniae strains deleted for pal or lppA exhibited reduced protection from serum killing and phagocytosis; perturbation to the outer membrane permeability barrier and hypersensitivity to bile salts and sodium dodecyl sulfate. The strain mutated for lppA had reduced ability to activate Toll-like receptor 4. Immunization of mice with the pal or lppA mutant provided protection against infection by the wild-type strain. Conclusions.?Our findings indicate that K. pneumoniae Pal and LppA proteins are important in the maintenance of cell integrity, contribute to virulence, and could be used as attenuated vaccines. PMID:23911714

Hsieh, Pei-Fang; Liu, Ju-Yun; Pan, Yi-Jiun; Wu, Meng-Chuan; Lin, Tzu-Lung; Huang, Yen-Te; Wang, Jin-Town

2013-08-02

245

Klebsiella sp. strain C2A isolated from olive oil mill waste is able to tolerate and degrade tannic acid in very high concentrations.  

PubMed

Four bacterial strains capable of growing in the presence of tannic acid as sole carbon and energy source were isolated from olive mill waste mixtures. 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned them to the genus Klebsiella. The most efficient strain, Klebsiella sp. strain C2A, was able to degrade 3.5 g L(-1) tannic acid within 35 h with synthesizing gallic acid as main product. The capability of Klebsiella sp. strain C2A to produce tannase was evidenced at high concentrations of tannic acid up to 50 g L(-1) . The bacteria adapted to the toxicity of tannic acids by an increase in the membrane lipid fatty acids degree of saturation, especially in the presence of concentrations higher than 20 g L(-1) . The highly tolerant and adaptable bacterial strain characterized in this study could be used in bioremediation processes of wastes rich in polyphenols such as those derived from olive mills, winery or tanneries. PMID:23521025

Pepi, Milva; Cappelli, Serena; Hachicho, Nancy; Perra, Guido; Renzi, Monia; Tarabelli, Alessandro; Altieri, Roberto; Esposito, Alessandro; Focardi, Silvano E; Heipieper, Hermann J

2013-04-15

246

[Immunobiological properties and therapeutic effectiveness of preparations from Klebsiella bacteriophages].  

PubMed

The purified preparations of Klebsiella bacteriophages, viz. the monovalent preparation of K. pneumoniae bacteriophage and the polyvalent bacteriophage preparation for the treatment of infections caused by K. ozaenae, K. rhinoscleromatis scleromatis and K. pneumoniae sensu lato, have been obtained. The bacteriophage preparations have proved to be nontoxic and safe for laboratory animals after the intraperitoneal injection of these preparations followed by the pathomorphological study of the internal organs of the animals. The clinical study of the newly developed bacteriophage preparations in the course of the treatment of purulent inflammatory diseases in 109 patients has revealed that the preparations are not reactogenic and exhibit sufficient effectiveness in the therapy of ozena, rhinoscleroma and Klebsiella infections with different localization of the infectious process. PMID:1380753

Bogovazova, G G; Voroshilova, N N; Bondarenko, V M; Gorbatkova, G A; Afanas'eva, E V; Kazakova, T B; Smirnov, V D; Mamleeva, A G; Glukharev, Iu A; Erastova, E I

1992-03-01

247

Population shift in mannose-specific fimbriated phase of Klebsiella pneumoniae during experimental urinary tract infection in mice.  

PubMed

The infection rate (percentage of mice shedding 10(5) organisms per ml of urine) in 27 mice infected intravesicularly with a mannose-specific (MS+) phenotype of Klebsiella pneumoniae was 85% at day 7, and all the bacteria shed during the 7 days exhibited strong MS activity as estimated by a yeast aggregation assay. In contrast, the outcome of infection with an MS- phenotype of the same strain in 47 mice was heterogeneous: one group of 25 mice continued to shed the originally injected phenotype (MS-) throughout the investigation period, whereas the second group (22 mice) shed bacteria with various degrees of phenotypic conversion to MS+. In the first group, the rate of infection at day 7 was significantly reduced (28%) compared with that of the second group (68%). Mice infected with a mixture of 5% MS+ bacteria and 95% of an MS- variant which lost its ability to undergo phase variation had an infection rate of 89%, but at day 7 95% of the excreted bacteria were MS+. The infection rate of mice injected with the MS- variant was 14%, and none of the mice shed MS+ bacteria. The incidence of kidney pathology was higher in mice inoculated with the MS+ phenotype (3 of 10) or in the group in which the MS+ overgrew the MS- phenotype (4 of 10) as compared with the group of mice in which no such shift occurred (1 of 11). The kidneys of four mice which excreted mostly MS+ organisms harbored a population predominantly of the MS- phenotype. These results suggest that the MS adhesin confers an advantage in the initial steps of the infectious process in the bladder but not in later stages of infection in the kidney, emphasizing the importance of phase variation in the survival of bacteria at the various stages of the infectious process. PMID:2863215

Maayan, M C; Ofek, I; Medalia, O; Aronson, M

1985-09-01

248

Ankylosing spondylitis is linked to Klebsiella —the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory spinal and large-joint arthritic and potentially disabling condition,\\u000a mainly affecting males of young age groups. Extensive literature based on the results of various genetic, microbiological,\\u000a molecular and immunological studies carried out by independent research groups suggests that Klebsiella pneumoniae is the main microbial agent being implicated as a triggering and\\/or perpetuating factor in

Taha Rashid; Alan Ebringer

2007-01-01

249

Capsular Polysaccharide of Klebsiella pneumoniae Type A (Strain 1265)  

Microsoft Academic Search

PREVIOUS investigations1,2 have shown that the capsular polysaccharides of Klebsiella pneumoniae types A and B are glucose-containing polyuronides. Eriksen and Henriksen3 have tentatively identified glucose, fucose and a uronic acid as components of type A capsular polysaccharide. Hitherto, little work has been directed towards elucidation of the structure of these polysaccharides and we now report briefly on the structure of

S. A. Barker; J. S. Brimacombe; J. L. Eriksen; M. Stacey

1963-01-01

250

Nucleotide sequence and structure of the Klebsiella pneumoniae pqq operon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6940 by Klebsiella pneumoniae chromosomal DNA fragment, containing genes involved in pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) biosynthesis, was sequenced. Six open reading frames, pqqA, pqqB, pqqC, pqqD, pqqE and pqqF were identified in the pqq operon, which coded for polypeptides of 2764 (23 amino acids), 33 464, 28 986, 10 436, 42 881 and 83 616 Da, respectively. The transcription startpoint

J. J. M. Meulenberg; E. Sellink; N. H. Riegman; P. W. Postma

1992-01-01

251

Bacteriocin production by members of the genus Klebsiella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriocin production was tested in 36Klebsiella and 3Enterobacter aerogenes strains. Bacteriocins produced byK. pneumoniae were found to be active on most strains ofK. edwardsi, K. aerogenes, K. rhinoscleromatis andE. aerogenes. The bacteriocin produced byE. aerogenes 37 is also active onK. pneumoniae andK. ozaenae. The bacteriocins produced byK. rhinoscleromatis, K. edwardsi andK. aerogenes are active on only a few strains. The

A. H. Stouthamer; G. A. Tieze

1966-01-01

252

Most nonclinical Klebsiella strains are not K. pneumoniae sensu stricto  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-nine bacterial isolates identified by routine biochemical procedures asKlebsiella pneumoniae and included in a recent numerical, taxonomy study were analyzed for molecular heterogeneity by DNA hybridization competition\\u000a experiments. The isolates were obtained from clinical sources, from potable drinking water, trees, sawdust, pulp mill environs,\\u000a and fresh vegetables. Three distinct groups were formed based on hybridization levels to three reference, cultures.

Barton W. Woodward; Marie Carter; Ramon J. Seidler

1979-01-01

253

Complementation analysis of Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants defective in nitrogen fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of mutants defective in nitrogen fixation (nif) were isolated in Klebsiella pneunoniae strain M5a1. The nif mutations were either located on plasmid pRD1 or on the K. pneumoniae chromosome. A total of 37 plasmid mutants and 28 chromosomal mutants were employed in complementation tests using the acetylene reduction technique. Most mutants could be assigned to one of seven

Ray Dixon; Christina Kennedy; Adám Kondorosi; Viji Krishnapillai; Mike Merrick

1977-01-01

254

Isolation and characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae unencapsulated mutants  

SciTech Connect

Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants were obtained after UV irradiation and negative selection with anticapsular serum. Unencapsulation, rather than expression of a structurally altered capsule, was found in the mutants. The mutant strains showed no alterations in their outer membrane proteins and lipopolysaccharide, and a great similarity with the wild type in the properties tested (serum resistance, antimicrobial sensitivity, and lipopolysaccharide-specific bacteriophage sensitivity), with the exception of a higher cell surface hydrophobicity and resistance to bacteriophage FC3-9.

Benedi, V.J.; Ciurana, B.; Tomas, J.M.

1989-01-01

255

Emergence of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The emergence of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae has now become a global concern. KPC beta-lactamases are plasmid-borne and, like extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs), can accumulate and transfer resistance determinants to other classes of antibiotics. Therefore, infection control guidelines on early identification and control of the spread of organisms carrying these resistant determinants are needed. FINDINGS: Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)

Carla Fontana; Marco Favaro; Loredana Sarmati; Silvia Natoli; Anna Altieri; Maria C Bossa; Silvia Minelli; Francesca Leonardis; Cartesio Favalli

2010-01-01

256

Isolation and characterization of microcin E 492 from Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of a dialysable peptidic antibacterial named microcin E492 by the strain of faecal originKlebsiella pneumoniae RYC492 has previously been reported. In this paper, a procedure to extract this antibiotic from liquid cultures of the producer strain is described. This method was based in the quantitative retention of the microcin on the hydrophobic matrix Bondapak C18 and led to

Victor de Lorenzo

1984-01-01

257

Antibiotic Resistance of Indole-Positive Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance patterns to antibiotics differed markedly between indole-positive and indole-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Multiple-drug-resistant strains were almost exclusively indole-negative. Ampicillin and kanamycin resistances in the indole-positive strains tested were not transmissible, whereas many of those resistances in the indole-negative strains were transmissible, together with other drug resistances to an Escherichia coli recipient. The substrate profile of the ?-lactamase from the

Hitoshi Kojo; Hideo Asano; Takeo Murakawa; Minoru Nishida

1980-01-01

258

First report of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance qnrA1 gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate of animal origin.  

PubMed

One QnrA1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate GDKA1 from chicken was detected. The qnrA1 gene on plasmid pGDKA1 was located in a genetic environment similar to that in In36 on plasmid pHSH1 and could be cotransferred to Escherichia coli J53 Az(R) with other resistances by a conjugation experiment. Upstream of the qnrA1 gene, there was a class I integron with the dfrA27 and aadA2 cassettes. Similar genetic environments of qnrA1 in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from both human and animal origin might, to some extent, demonstrate similar mechanisms of qnrA distribution. The presence of qnrA1 in health animal commensal bacteria should be worthy of note. This is the first report of qnrA1 in K. pneumoniae and dfrA27 in an Enterobacteriaceae isolate of animal origin. PMID:21235404

Yue, Lei; Chen, Xueying; Li, Shujuan; Liao, Xiaoping; Zhuang, Na; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Ya-Hong

2011-01-16

259

Viable butNonculturable Bacteria inDrinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes,Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Streptococcus faecalis, Micro- coccusflavus, Bacillus subtilis, andPseudomonas strains L2and719were tested fortheability togrow and maintain viability indrinking water.Microcosms were employed inthestudy tomonitor growthandsurvival byplate counts, acridine orangedirect counts(AODC),anddirect viable counts(DVC).Plate countsdropped belowthedetection limit within 7daysforallstrains exceptthose ofBaciUus andPseudomonas. Inall cases, theAODC didnotchange. TheDVC alsodidnotchange exceptthattheDVC,on average, were ca. 10-fold lower thantheAODC. Bacteria initially presented withadequate nutrient

RITAR. COLWELL

1991-01-01

260

Antimicrobial activity of argon fluoride (ArF) excimer laser on gram-negative bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of argon fluoride (ArF) excimer laser radiation on clinically important strains of gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of ArF excimer laser radiation was evaluated on two Acinetobacter baumannii, one Enterobacter cloacae, three Escherichia coli, two Helicobacter pylori, one Klebsiella pneumoniae and two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The strains were isolated

E. Charvalos; A. Karoutis

2001-01-01

261

Group of Peptides That Act Synergistically with Hydrophobic Antibiotics against Gram-Negative Enteric Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthetic peptide, KFFKFFKFF, consisting of cationic lysine residues and hydrophobic phenylalanine residues was found to sensitize gram-negative bacteria to hydrophobic and amphipathic antibiotics. At a concentrationof3 mg\\/ml,itdecreasedtheMICofrifampinforsmooth,encapsulatedEscherichiacolibyafactor of 300. Other susceptible bacterial species includedEnterobacter cloacae,Klebsiella pneumoniae, andSalmonella typhimurium, butPseudomonas aeruginosawas resistant. Similar results were obtained with another synthetic peptide, IKFLKFLKFL. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices for the synergism of

MARTTI VAARA; ANDMASSIMO PORRO

1996-01-01

262

Antimicrobial Activities of Twenty Lysine-Peptoid Hybrids against Clinically Relevant Bacteria and Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This paper describes the antimicrobial activities of 20 lysine-peptoid hybrids against a selection of clinically relevant bacteria and fungi. Methods: Minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (ATCC 33591), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (ATCC 700699 MU50), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 700221), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Salmonella typhimurium (clinical isolate), Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate),

Trine S. Ryge; Niels Frimodt-Møller; Paul R. Hansen

2008-01-01

263

Bacterial volatilization of mercury by immobilized bacteria in fixed and fluidized bed bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, mercury resistant bac- terial strains, which are able to grow at 1200 µM HgCl2 and to reduce mercuric ion to volatile metal mercury, were isolated from hydrocarbons-contaminated river in Morocco. These bacteria were used for removing mercury from synthetic water polluted by mercu- ry using fixed bioreactor and fluidized bed bioreactor. This mercury bio-decontamination system

F. Z. DZAIRI; Y. ZEROUAL; A. MOUTAOUAKKIL; J. TAOUFIK; M. TALBI; M. LOUTFI; K. LEE; M. BLAGHEN

264

Antibiofilm efficacy of silver nanoparticles against biofilm of extended spectrum ?-lactamase isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of bacteria to develop antibiotic resistance and colonize abiotic surfaces by forming biofilms is a major cause of medical implant-associated infections and results in prolonged hospitalization periods and patient mortality. Different approaches have been used for preventing biofilm-related infections in health care settings. Many of these methods have their own demerits that include chemical-based complications; emergent antibiotic-resistant strains, and so on. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are renowned for their influential antimicrobial activity. We demonstrate the biofilm formation by extended spectrum ?-lactamases-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. by direct visualization applying tissue culture plate, tube, and Congo red agar methods. Double fluorescent staining for confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) consisted of propidium iodide staining to detect bacterial cells and concanavalin A-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining to detect the exopolysaccharides matrix were used. Scanning electron microscopy observations clearly indicate that AgNPs reduced the surface coverage by E. coli and Klebsiella spp. thus prevent the biofilm formations. Double-staining technique using CLSM provides the visual evidence that AgNPs arrested the bacterial growth and prevent the exopolysaccharides formation. The AgNPs-coated surfaces effectively restricted biofilm formation of the tested bacteria. In our study, we could demonstrate the complete antibiofilm activity AgNPs at a concentration as low as 50 ?g/ml. Our findings suggested that AgNPs can be exploited towards the development of potential antibacterial coatings for various biomedical and environmental applications. These formulations can be used for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections caused by biofilms, at much lower nanosilver loading with higher efficiency.

Ansari, Mohammad Azam; Khan, Haris M.; Khan, Aijaz A.; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Pal, Ruchita

2013-09-01

265

Effects of electrolyzed oxidizing water and ice treatments on reducing histamine-producing bacteria on fish skin and food contact surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EO water) and ice (EO ice) treatments in reducing histamine-producing bacteria (Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii and Proteus hauseri) on food contact surfaces (ceramic tile and stainless steel) and fish skin (Atlantic salmon and yellowfin tuna). Soaking ceramic tile and stainless steel in EO water (50ppm chlorine) for 5min

Sureerat Phuvasate; Yi-Cheng Su

2010-01-01

266

The Prevalence of TEM and SHV Genes among Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Producing Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella Pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) Production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) by enteric bacteria continues to be a major problem in hospitals and community. ESBLs producing bacteria cause many serious infections including urinary tract infections, peritonitis, cholangitis and intra-abdominal abscess. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBLs producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria isolated from clinical samples of patients attending Imam Reza and Ghaem University Hospitals, Mashhad, Northeast of Iran. Materials and Methods During 2009 and 2010, 82 strains of E. coli and 78 strains of K. pneumoniae were isolated from out-patients and hospitalized patients and they were examined by Oxoid combination disk test and PCR methods. Results We found that 43.9% of E. coli and 56.1% of K. pneumoniae produced ESBLs. The frequency of SHV and TEM among the ESBLs producing isolates were 14.4% and 20.6%, respectively. Ratios of ESBLs positive isolates from out-patients to hospitalized patients were 24/33. Conclusion This study shows that the prevalence of ESBLs producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae is high in both study groups (out-patients and hospitalized patients). Therefore it seems that continuous surveillance is essential to monitor the ESBLs producing microorganisms in hospitals and community.

Zaniani, Fatemeh Riyahi; Meshkat, Zahra; Naderi Nasab, Mahboubeh; Khaje-Karamadini, Mehrangiz; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Rezaee, Abdolrahim; Esmaily, Habibollah; Nabavinia, Maryam Sadat; Darban Hoseini, Mahboubeh

2012-01-01

267

First report of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Iran.  

PubMed

New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) is a novel metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL). Sporadic cases of NDM-1 positive strains have been reported from different countries, suggesting a widespread dissemination. The aim of this study was the detection of MBLs in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from patients in Tehran hospitals. After identification tests, the susceptibility to the antibiotics was done by Kirby-Bauer method and broth microdilution. Carbapenem-resistant isolates were tested for carbapenemase production using the modified Hodge test (MHT). Carbapenem-resistant strains screened for bla(KPC) gene and genes encoding MBLs. Twenty-three isolates (6.3%) were resistant to meropenem, eleven isolates (3%) were resistant to ertapenem, and four isolates (1.1%) were resistant to imipenem. MHT was positive in 11 (47.8%) of the carbapenem-resistant isolates. In March 2011, we detected a multiple drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate that was resistant to all tested antibiotics except colistin. PCR confirmed that this isolate contained bla(NDM-1), bla(TEM), bla(SHV), and bla(CTX-M). This is the first report on the detection of MBL NDM-1 in Iran. The rapid spread of NDM-1-positive bacteria proved to be a major challenge for the treatment and control of infectious diseases. PMID:22984942

Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Nobari, Saman; Rahmati Ghezelgeh, Fatemeh; Nasiri, Siavash; Owlia, Parviz; Nikbin, Vajihe Sadat; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali

2012-09-17

268

Biofilm formation of Klebsiella pneumoniae on urethral catheters requires either type 1 or type 3 fimbriae.  

PubMed

Urinary catheters are standard medical devices utilized in both hospital and nursing home settings, but are associated with a high frequency of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). In particular, biofilm formation on the catheter surface by uropathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae causes severe problems. Here we demonstrate that type 1 and type 3 fimbriae expressed by K. pneumoniae enhance biofilm formation on urinary catheters in a catheterized bladder model that mirrors the physico-chemical conditions present in catheterized patients. Furthermore, we show that both fimbrial types are able to functionally compensate for each other during biofilm formation on urinary catheters. In situ monitoring of fimbrial expression revealed that neither of the two fimbrial types is expressed when cells are grown planktonically. Interestingly, during biofilm formation on catheters, both fimbrial types are expressed, suggesting that they are both important in promoting biofilm formation on catheters. Additionally, transformed into and expressed by a nonfimbriated Escherichia coli strain, both fimbrial types significantly increased biofilm formation on catheters compared with the wild-type E. coli strain. The widespread occurrence of the two fimbrial types in different species of pathogenic bacteria stresses the need for further assessment of their role during urinary tract infections. PMID:22448614

Stahlhut, Steen G; Struve, Carsten; Krogfelt, Karen A; Reisner, Andreas

2012-04-23

269

Electricity generation from glucose by a Klebsiella sp. in microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

As electrochemically active bacteria play an important role in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), it is necessary to get a comprehensive understanding of their electrogenesis mechanisms. In this study, a new electrochemically active bacterium, Klebsiella sp. ME17, was employed into an "H" typed MFC for electrogenesis, with glucose as the electron donor. The maximum power density was 1,209 mW/m2 at a resistance of 340 Omega and the maximum current was 1.47 mA. Given the original anode medium, fresh medium, and the supernatant of the anode medium in the same MFC, respectively, the polarization curves illustrated that the strain produced mediators to promote extracellular electron transfer. The anode medium supernatant was electrochemically active, based on cyclic voltammogram, and the supernatant was very likely to contain quinone-like substances, as indicated by spectrophotometric and excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy analysis. Further investigation on the color and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm of the filtered anode medium showed that the redox states of mediators strongly associated with the electricity generation states in MFCs. PMID:20419297

Xia, Xue; Cao, Xiao-xin; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia; Yang, Su-ping; Zhao, Gen-gui

2010-04-24

270

Preliminary investigation of a mice model of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae induced pneumonia.  

PubMed

In the present study, we comparatively assessed the pathophysiological mechanisms developed during lung infection of BALB/C female mice infected by an original wild type Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae strain (CH137) or by a referent subspecies K. pneumoniae. subsp. pneumoniae strain (ATCC10031). The mice infected with 2.10? CFU K. p. subsp. pneumoniae (n = 10) showed transient signs of infection and all of them recovered. All of those infected with 1.10? CFU K. p. subsp. ozaenae (n = 10) developed pneumonia within 24 h and died between 48 and 72 h. Few macrophages, numerous polymorphonuclear cells and lymphocytes were observed in their lungs in opposite to K. p. subsp. pneumoniae. In bronchoalveolar lavage, a significant increase in MIP-2, IL-6, KC and MCP-1 levels was only observed in K. p. subsp. ozaenae infected mice whereas high levels of TNF-? were evidenced with the two subspecies. Our findings indicated a lethal effect of a wild type K. p. subsp. ozaenae strain by acute pneumonia reflecting an insufficient alveolar macrophage response. This model might be of a major interest to comparatively explore the pathogenicity of K. p. subsp ozaenae strains and to further explore the physiopathological mechanisms of gram-negative bacteria induced human pneumonia. PMID:21723409

Renois, Fanny; Jacques, Jérôme; Guillard, Thomas; Moret, Hélène; Pluot, Michel; Andreoletti, Laurent; de Champs, Christophe

2011-06-30

271

Biofilm formation of Klebsiella pneumoniae on urethral catheters requires either type 1 or type 3 fimbriae  

PubMed Central

Urinary catheters are standard medical devices utilized in both hospital and nursing home settings, but are associated with a high frequency of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). In particular, biofilm formation on the catheter surface by uropathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae causes severe problems. Here we demonstrate that type 1 and type 3 fimbriae expressed by K. pneumoniae enhance biofilm formation on urinary catheters in a catheterized bladder model that mirrors the physico-chemical conditions present in catheterized patients. Furthermore, we show that both fimbrial types are able to functionally compensate for each other during biofilm formation on urinary catheters. In situ monitoring of fimbrial expression revealed that neither of the two fimbrial types is expressed when cells are grown planktonically. Interestingly, during biofilm formation on catheters, both fimbrial types are expressed, suggesting that they are both important in promoting biofilm formation on catheters. Additionally, transformed into and expressed by a nonfimbriated Escherichia coli strain, both fimbrial types significantly increased biofilm formation on catheters compared with the wild-type E. coli strain. The widespread occurrence of the two fimbrial types in different species of pathogenic bacteria stresses the need for further assessment of their role during urinary tract infections.

Stahlhut, Steen G; Struve, Carsten; Krogfelt, Karen A; Reisner, Andreas

2012-01-01

272

Ovine pulmonary surfactant induces killing of Pasteurella haemolytica, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae by normal serum.  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary surfactant has been shown to play an increasingly important role in bacterial clearance at the alveolar surface in the lung. This study describes a bactericidal mechanism in which ovine pulmonary surfactant induces killing of Pasteurella haemolytica by normal serum. To demonstrate killing, six bacterial species were incubated first with pulmonary surfactant for 60 min at 37 degrees C and then with serum for an additional 60 min at 37 degrees C. P. haemolytica type A1 strains 82-25 and L101, a P. haemolytica type 2 strain, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were susceptible and Pasteurella multocida, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not susceptible to killing by ovine pulmonary surfactant and normal serum. No bacteria incubated with bovine pulmonary surfactant were killed by normal serum. Although the species origin of pulmonary surfactant was selective, the species origin of serum was not. P. haemolytica incubated with ovine pulmonary surfactant was killed by fetal calf serum, gnotobiotic calf serum, pooled normal sheep serum, pooled normal rabbit serum, and pooled guinea pig serum. Ultrastructurally, killed P. haemolytica suspensions contained dead cells and cells distorted with vacuoles between the cytoplasmic membrane and the cytoplasm. The mechanism of killing did not correlate with concentrations of complement or lysozyme or titers of residual antibody in either the pulmonary surfactant or the serum, and killing was reduced by preincubation of surfactant with P. haemolytica lipopolysaccharide. Preliminary characterization of both surfactant and serum implicate a low-molecular-weight proteinaceous component in the surfactant and serum albumin in the serum. This mechanism may help clear certain gram-negative bacteria from the lungs of sheep as a part of the pulmonary innate defense system. Images

Brogden, K A

1992-01-01

273

Interaction of Lipocalin 2, Transferrin, and Siderophores Determines the Replicative Niche of Klebsiella pneumoniae during Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Pathogenic bacteria require iron for replication within their host. Klebsiella pneumoniae and other Gram-negative pathogens produce the prototypical siderophore enterobactin (Ent) to scavenge iron in vivo. In response, mucosal surfaces secrete lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), an innate immune protein that binds Ent to disrupt bacterial iron acquisition and promote acute inflammation during colonization. A subset of K. pneumoniae isolates attempt to evade Lcn2 by producing glycosylated Ent (Gly-Ent, salmochelin) or the alternative siderophore yersiniabactin (Ybt). However, these siderophores are not functionally equivalent and differ in their abilities to promote growth in the upper respiratory tract, lungs, and serum. To understand how Lcn2 exploits functional differences between siderophores, isogenic mutants of an Ent+ Gly-Ent+ Ybt+ K. pneumoniae strain were inoculated into Lcn2+/+ and Lcn2?/? mice, and the pattern of pneumonia was examined. Lcn2 effectively protected against the iroA ybtS mutant (Ent+ Gly-Ent? Ybt?). Lcn2+/+ mice had small foci of pneumonia, whereas Lcn2?/? mice had many bacteria in the perivascular space. The entB mutant (Ent? Ybt+ Gly-Ent?) caused moderate bronchopneumonia but did not invade the transferrin-containing perivascular space. Accordingly, transferrin blocked Ybt-dependent growth in vitro. The wild type and the iroA mutant, which both produce Ent and Ybt, had a mixed phenotype, causing a moderate bronchopneumonia in Lcn2+/+ mice and perivascular overgrowth in Lcn2?/? mice. Together, these data indicate that Lcn2, in combination with transferrin, confines K. pneumoniae to the airways and prevents invasion into tissue containing the pulmonary vasculature.

Bachman, Michael A.; Lenio, Steven; Schmidt, Lindsay; Oyler, Jennifer E.; Weiser, Jeffrey N.

2012-01-01

274

Sequential studies in ankylosing spondylitis. Association of Klebsiella pneumoniae with active disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of 163 patients with ankylosing spondylitis seen on 433 occasions showed that active inflammatory disease was strongly associated with the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae in the faeces (P less than 0.001). Sequential studies showed that in patients with inactive disease the presence of a positive culture for Klebsiella was associated with the subsequent development of active inflammatory disease

R W Ebringer; D R Cawdell; P Cowling; A Ebringer

1978-01-01

275

Caracterización de Klebsiella pneumoniae productora de la ?-lactamasa SHV-5, en una unidad de cuidados intensivos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To perform the molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from pediatric patients and health care workers at the intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Material and Methods. Fif- teen Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected during an out- break in June 1996 were analyzed; eight were from patients and seven from health care workers of Mexico's

Verónica Andrade

276

The Klebsiella pneumoniae cytochrome bd' terminal oxidase complex and its role in microaerobic nitrogen fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome bdH has been implicated in having an important role in microaerobic nitrogen fixation in the enteric bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, where it is expressed under all conditions that permit diazotrophy. In this paper the sequence of the genes encoding this terminal oxidase (cydAB )o f Klebsiella pneumoniae and the characterization of a cyd mutant are reported. The deduced amino acid

Navtej S. Juty; Farhad Moshiri; Mike Merrick; Christopher Anthony; Susan Hill

1997-01-01

277

Klebsiella pneumoniae Brain Abscess in Neonates: A Report of 2 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain abscesses are uncommon in neonates. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a very uncommon microbial agent to cause brain abscess. We report 2 infants with Klebsiella pneumoniae sepsis who developed brain abscesses. One infant was a premature neonate who required mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome and subsequently developed nosocomial sepsis and brain abscess without evidence of preceding meningitis. Another infant was

Venkataseshan Sundaram; Sunil Agrawal; Swathi Chacham; Kanya Mukhopadhyay; Sourabh Dutta; Praveen Kumar

2010-01-01

278

Prevalence and spread of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in patients with hematological malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in patients with acute leukemias, to assess their clinical significance, and to define the sources and ways of their spread using genetic analysis. Thirty-four patients were investigated during the observed period. Twenty-one strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 35 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were

Milan Kolar; Pavel Sauer; Edgar Faber; Jarmila Kohoutova; Tatana Stosová; Michaela Sedlackova; Magdalena Chroma; Dagmar Koukalova; Karel Indrak

2009-01-01

279

Identification of Clinical Isolates of Indole-Positive and Indole-Negative Klebsiella spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochemical methods employed to classify bacterial species have limitations and may have contributed to the taxonomic complexity recently reported for the genus Klebsiella. The objective of the present study was to apply a simple biochemical test panel to classify a collection of human Klebsiella isolates. We found that with only three additional tests, it is possible to place most isolates

Maria Silvana Alves; Rubens Clayton da Silva Dias; Angela Christina; Dias de Castro; Lee W. Riley; Beatriz Meurer Moreira

280

CTX-M-12 beta-lactamase in a Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate in Colombia.  

PubMed

We describe the detection of the CTX-M-12 beta-lactamase from a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Colombia. Screening of nosocomial Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli isolates from a network of teaching hospitals revealed the presence of CTX-M enzymes in multiple cities. This is the first description of CTX-M in Colombia. PMID:14742223

Villegas, Maria Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Perez, Federico; Zuluaga, Tania; Radice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Casellas, José María; Ayala, Juan; Lolans, Karen; Quinn, John P

2004-02-01

281

CTX-M-12 ?-Lactamase in a Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolate in Colombia  

PubMed Central

We describe the detection of the CTX-M-12 ?-lactamase from a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Colombia. Screening of nosocomial Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli isolates from a network of teaching hospitals revealed the presence of CTX-M enzymes in multiple cities. This is the first description of CTX-M in Colombia.

Villegas, Maria Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Perez, Federico; Zuluaga, Tania; Radice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Casellas, Jose Maria; Ayala, Juan; Lolans, Karen; Quinn, John P.

2004-01-01

282

Klebsiella pneumoniae K1 Liver Abscess and Septic Endophthalmitis in a U.S. Resident  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae K1 is a major agent of hepatic abscess with metastatic disease in East Asia, with sporadic reports originating elsewhere. We report a case of abscess complicated by septic endophthalmitis caused by a wzyAKpK1-positive Klebsiella strain in a U.S. resident, raising concern for global emergence.

Sachdev, Darpun D.; Yin, Michael T.; Horowitz, Jason D.; Mukkamala, Sri Krishna; Lee, Song Eun

2013-01-01

283

Back To Bacteria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores new research about bacteria. Discusses bacterial genomes, archaea, unusual environments, evolution, pathogens, bacterial movement, biofilms, bacteria in the body, and a bacterial obsession. Contains 29 references. (JRH)|

Flannery, Maura C.

1997-01-01

284

Absorption Coefficient Imaging by Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy in Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method for obtaining a position-dependent absorption coefficient from near-field scanning optical transmission microscopy. We show that the optical transmission intensity can be combined with the topography, resulting into an absorption coefficient that simplifies the analysis of different materials within a sample. The method is tested with the dye rhodamine 6G, and we show some analysis in biological samples such as bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The calculated absorption coefficient images show important details of the bacteria, in particular for P. aeruginosa , in which membrane vesicles are clearly seen.

de Paula, Ana M.; Chaves, Claudilene R.; Silva, Haroldo B.; Weber, Gerald

2003-06-01

285

O-antigen protects gram-negative bacteria from histone killing.  

PubMed

Beyond their traditional role of wrapping DNA, histones display antibacterial activity to Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. To identify bacterial components that allow survival to a histone challenge, we selected resistant bacteria from homologous Escherichia coli libraries that harbor plasmids carrying pieces of the chromosome in different sizes. We identified genes required for exopolysaccharide production and for the synthesis of the polysaccharide domain of the lipopolysaccharide, called O-antigen. Indeed, O-antigen and exopolysaccharide conferred further resistance to histones. Notably, O-antigen also conferred resistance to histones in the pathogens Shigella flexneri and Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:23951089

Chaput, Catherine; Spindler, Eileen; Gill, Ryan T; Zychlinsky, Arturo

2013-08-08

286

O-Antigen Protects Gram-Negative Bacteria from Histone Killing  

PubMed Central

Beyond their traditional role of wrapping DNA, histones display antibacterial activity to Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. To identify bacterial components that allow survival to a histone challenge, we selected resistant bacteria from homologous Escherichia coli libraries that harbor plasmids carrying pieces of the chromosome in different sizes. We identified genes required for exopolysaccharide production and for the synthesis of the polysaccharide domain of the lipopolysaccharide, called O-antigen. Indeed, O-antigen and exopolysaccharide conferred further resistance to histones. Notably, O-antigen also conferred resistance to histones in the pathogens Shigella flexneri and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Chaput, Catherine; Spindler, Eileen; Gill, Ryan T.; Zychlinsky, Arturo

2013-01-01

287

Endogenous endophthalmitis associated with liver abscess caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

To report two unusual cases of endogenous endophthalmitis associated with liver abscess caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Retrospective, interventional case series. Two patients, known to have type II diabetes mellitus, presented with sudden visual loss following several days of abdominal pain. Examinations and investigations revealed endogenous endophthalmitis caused by K. pneumoniae. Despite treatment in the form of intravitreal injection of antibiotics in the first patient and pars plana vitrectomy coupled with intravitreal injection of antibiotics in the second patient the final visual outcome was poor in both cases. The possibility of K. pneumoniae endogenous endophthalmitis should be suspected in diabetic patients presenting with intraocular inflammation. PMID:21264489

Al-Mahmood, Ammar M; Al-Binali, Ghada Y; Alkatan, Hind; Abboud, Emad B; Abu El-Asrar, Ahmed M

2011-01-25

288

On taxonomy of the klebsiella-aerobacter group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  It follows from this comparative study of the biochemical and partly also serological properties of a relatively large number\\u000a of motile, non-motile, capsulated and non-capsulated cultures of gram-negative rods of the familyEnterobacteriaceae that:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (1) \\u000a \\u000a Biochemical methods must form the basis for the systematic classification of cultures of theKlebsiella-Aerobacter Group. In this connection, amino acid tests (arginine dihydrolase, ornithine and lysine

J. Sedlák; M. Šlajsová

1959-01-01

289

First report of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Croatia.  

PubMed

In February 2011, a 78-year-old male patient was admitted to Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb with subdural haematoma. Klebsiella pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems was isolated. PCR revealed the presence of bla(KPC), bla(TEM), and bla(SHV) genes. Sequencing of bla(KPC) gene identified K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-2 beta-lactamase. The strain belonged to ST37 clone by multilocus sequence typing. Infection control efforts limited the spread of KPC-producing clone of K. pneumoniae in our hospital so far. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Croatia. PMID:23040691

Bedeni?, Branka; Mazzariol, Annarita; Ple?ko, Vanda; Bošnjak, Zrinka; Barl, Petra; Vraneš, Jasmina; Cornaglia, Giuseppe

2012-08-01

290

KPC-producer gram negative bacteria among burned infants in Motahari Hospital, Tehran: first report from Iran  

PubMed Central

Summary To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Klebsiella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC) among burn infants in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the phenotypic detection of these KPC among isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella spp. A cross-sectional study was performed (February to September 2011) at a tertiary burn hospital in Tehran, Iran. Sixty-four strains were isolated from 20 patients. Strain and genus of isolates were confirmed, antibiotic susceptibility testing was implemented, and KPC determined by Modified Hodge Test. Fifteen of 36 strains (six Pseudomonas aeruginosa, six Acinetobacter baumannii, and three Klebsiella pneumoniae) were resistant to imipenem. Ten strains of 36 Gram negative isolates were resistant to all tested antibiotics except for Colistin. Thirteen of 15 resistant imipenem strains were confirmed as KPC-producer bacteria that isolated from nine patients. Six of 36 isolated strains were extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria, of which four strains were both KPC and ESBL. A high percentage of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains in our centre with positive KPC have created a major challenge in terms of mortality and morbidity. The findings of this study highlight the importance of implementing an effective infection control strategy to prevent and decrease the prevalence of KPC-producing organisms.

Azimi, L.; Rastegar Lari, A.; Alaghehbandan, R.; Alinejad, F.; Mohammadpoor, M.; Rahbar, M.

2012-01-01

291

Phagocytic and chemiluminescent responses of mouse peritoneal macrophages to living and killed Salmonella typhimurium and other bacteria  

SciTech Connect

In the presence of luminol, resident as well as thioglycolate-induced and immunized macrophages emitted chemiluminescence more efficiently when the cells were exposed to living Salmonella typhimurium than when they were exposed to the same bacterium killed by ultraviolet light or heat. This phenomenon was observed whether or not the bacterium was opsonized. The different response to living and killed bacteria was also found with Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus morganii, and Enterobacter aerogenes, but not with Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Propionibacterium acnes. The results suggest that macrophages respond better to living, motile bacteria than to nonmotile or killed bacteria. The experimental results obtained with motility mutants of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa confirm that macrophages exposed to the motile bacteria emit chemiluminescence more efficiently and ingest the motile bacteria at a much faster rate than the nonmotile bacteria.

Tomita, T.; Blumenstock, E.; Kanegasaki, S.

1981-06-01

292

Numerical taxonomy and ecology of petroleum-degrading bacteria.  

PubMed Central

A total of 99 strains of petroleum-degrading bacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay water and sediment were identified by using numerical taxonomy procedures. The isolates, together with 33 reference cultures, were examined for 48 biochemical, cultural, morphological, and physiological characters. The data were analyzed by computer, using both the simple matching and the Jaccard coefficients. Clustering was achieved by the unweighted average linkage method. From the sorted similarity matrix and dendrogram, 14 phenetic groups, comprising 85 of the petroleum-degrading bacteria, were defined at the 80 to 85% similarity level. These groups were identified as actinomycetes (mycelial forms, four clusters), coryneforms, Enterobacteriaceae, Klebsiella aerogenes, Micrococcus spp. (two clusters), Nocardia species (two clusters), Pseudomonas spp. (two clusters), and Sphaerotilus natans. It is concluded that the degradation of petroleum is accomplished by a diverse range of bacterial taxa, some of which were isolated only at given sampling stations and, more specifically, from sediment collected at a given station.

Austin, B; Calomiris, J J; Walker, J D; Colwell, R R

1977-01-01

293

Nitrogen fixation by immobilized NIF derepressed Klebsiella pneumoniae cells  

SciTech Connect

In vitro production of ammonia through biological means poses a number of challenges. The organisms should be able to accumulate considerable concentrations of ammonia in the medium. Secondly, nonphotosynthetic organisms must be supplied with high-energy substrates to carry out the fixation reaction. Thirdly, the organisms must be kept in a viable state to produce ammonia over long periods of time. In this article, preliminary results on the production of ammonia by a mutant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae in continuous reactor systems are discussed. Continuous production of ammonia becomes feasible through the immobilization of the whole microbial cells and then through the use of the resulting catalyst system in a flow-through reactor. The rationale for immobilizing microbial cells and the advantages of such an approach over traditional fermentation processes are briefly described as they relate to the microbial production of ammonia. The microbial cells can be immobilized in such a way that their viability is still maintained in the immobilized state. This, in turn, obviates addition of cofactors, which is often an expensive step associated with immobilized multi-enzyme systems. Reconstituted bovine-hide collagen as the carrier matrix for fixing the cells was the carrier of choice for our work on immobilized Klebsiella cells. Polyacrylamide gels were examined as an alternate carrier matrix but results from this were found to be inferior to those collagen immobilized cell system.

Venkatasubramanian, K.; Toda, Y.

1980-01-01

294

Molecular Epidemiology of Two Klebsiella pneumoniae Mastitis Outbreaks on a Dairy Farm in New York State?  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella spp. have become an important cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in New York State. We describe the occurrence of two Klebsiella mastitis outbreaks on a single dairy farm. Klebsiella isolates from milk, feces, and environmental sources were compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR typing. The first mastitis outbreak was caused by a single strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, RAPD type A, which was detected in milk from eight cows. RAPD type A was also isolated from the rubber liners of milking machine units after milking of infected cows and from bedding in the outbreak pen. Predominance of a single strain could indicate contagious transmission of the organism or exposure of multiple cows to an environmental point source. No new cases with RAPD type A were observed after implementation of intervention measures that targeted the prevention of transmission via the milking machine as well as improvement of environmental hygiene. A second outbreak of Klebsiella mastitis that occurred several weeks later was caused by multiple RAPD types, which rules out contagious transmission and indicates opportunistic infections originating from the environment. The diversity of Klebsiella strains as quantified with Simpson's index of discrimination was significantly higher for isolates from fecal, feed, and water samples than for isolates from milk samples. Several isolates from bedding material that had the phenotypic appearance of Klebsiella spp. were identified as being Raoultella planticola and Raoultella terrigena based on rpoB sequencing.

Munoz, Marcos A.; Welcome, Francis L.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Zadoks, Ruth N.

2007-01-01

295

Molecular epidemiology of two Klebsiella pneumoniae mastitis outbreaks on a dairy farm in New York State.  

PubMed

Klebsiella spp. have become an important cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in New York State. We describe the occurrence of two Klebsiella mastitis outbreaks on a single dairy farm. Klebsiella isolates from milk, feces, and environmental sources were compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR typing. The first mastitis outbreak was caused by a single strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, RAPD type A, which was detected in milk from eight cows. RAPD type A was also isolated from the rubber liners of milking machine units after milking of infected cows and from bedding in the outbreak pen. Predominance of a single strain could indicate contagious transmission of the organism or exposure of multiple cows to an environmental point source. No new cases with RAPD type A were observed after implementation of intervention measures that targeted the prevention of transmission via the milking machine as well as improvement of environmental hygiene. A second outbreak of Klebsiella mastitis that occurred several weeks later was caused by multiple RAPD types, which rules out contagious transmission and indicates opportunistic infections originating from the environment. The diversity of Klebsiella strains as quantified with Simpson's index of discrimination was significantly higher for isolates from fecal, feed, and water samples than for isolates from milk samples. Several isolates from bedding material that had the phenotypic appearance of Klebsiella spp. were identified as being Raoultella planticola and Raoultella terrigena based on rpoB sequencing. PMID:17928424

Munoz, Marcos A; Welcome, Francis L; Schukken, Ynte H; Zadoks, Ruth N

2007-10-10

296

Legionella pneumophila Persists within Biofilms Formed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Flavobacterium sp., and Pseudomonas fluorescens under Dynamic Flow Conditions  

PubMed Central

Legionella pneumophila, the agent of Legionnaires' disease pneumonia, is transmitted to humans following the inhalation of contaminated water droplets. In aquatic systems, L. pneumophila survives much of time within multi-organismal biofilms. Therefore, we examined the ability of L. pneumophila (clinical isolate 130b) to persist within biofilms formed by various types of aquatic bacteria, using a bioreactor with flow, steel surfaces, and low-nutrient conditions. L. pneumophila was able to intercalate into and persist within a biofilm formed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Flavobacterium sp. or Pseudomonas fluorescens. The levels of L. pneumophila within these biofilms were as much as 4×104 CFU per cm2 of steel coupon and lasted for at least 12 days. These data document that K. pneumoniae, Flavobacterium sp., and P. fluorescens can promote the presence of L. pneumophila in dynamic biofilms. In contrast to these results, L. pneumophila 130b did not persist within a biofilm formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, confirming that some bacteria are permissive for Legionella colonization whereas others are antagonistic. In addition to colonizing certain mono-species biofilms, L. pneumophila 130b persisted within a two-species biofilm formed by K. pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. Interestingly, the legionellae were also able to colonize a two-species biofilm formed by K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa, demonstrating that a species that is permissive for L. pneumophila can override the inhibitory effect(s) of a non-permissive species.

Stewart, Catherine R.; Muthye, Viraj; Cianciotto, Nicholas P.

2012-01-01

297

Plant essential oils and their constituents in coping with multidrug-resistant bacteria.  

PubMed

Antibiotic resistance is documented to be a serious problem that affects the choice of appropriate antibiotic therapy and increases the probability of unfavorable infection outcome. One of the proposed methods to cope with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is the use of alternative antibacterial treatments, which include natural antimicrobial substances such as plant essential oils (EOs). The aim of the present article is to review published studies on the activity of EOs and their constituents against MDR bacteria and to formulate perspectives for the future. In general, published studies indicate that EOs can be used as effective antiseptics against many species, including MDR bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and others; certain EOs may potentiate the effectiveness of antibiotics against MDR bacteria; EOs can be synergistic with bacteriophages; and polymeric nanoparticles can be used for delivery of EOs and enhancement of their activity at the site of infection. PMID:22943401

Kon, Kateryna Volodymyrivna; Rai, Mahendra Kumar

2012-07-01

298

Modified Double Disc Synergy Test to Detect ESBL Production in Urinary Isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Background and Objectives: Various phenotypic methods are recommended in the routine practice to detect the ESBL production in gram negative bacilli. Among them, the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST) which uses the third generation cephalosporins (3GC), is a simple and a reliable method. But the coexistence of AmpC may give false negative results. In such cases, the ESBL detection can be improved by using cefepime along with the third generation cephalosporins in DDST. Methods: A total of 350 urinary isolates (224 Escherichia coli and 126 Klebsiella pneumoniae) were studied for ESBL production by the modified double disc test (MDDST) i.e. by using cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefpopdoxime (third generation cephalosporins) and cefepime ( fourth generation cephalosporin) along with a amoxicillin-clavulanate disc. Results and Interpretation: ESBL production was seen in 63.4% (142/224) Escherichia coli and in 60.3% (76/126) Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates by MDDST. Among these, in twelve E.coli and five K.pneumoniae strains, only cefepime but none of the third generation cephalosporins showed synergism with amoxicillin-clavulanate. All these seventeen strains showed a clear extension of the edge of inhibition which was produced by cefepime towards the amoxicillin-clavulanate disc. These strains were further tested for AmpC co-production by the AmpC disc test and all these strains were found to be AmpC positive, thus revealing the superior activity of cefepime in detecting ESBLs in the bacteria which co-produced AmpC. A high degree of coresistance was found in the ESBL producers. Conclusion: The ESBL detection can be improved by MDDST by using cefepime along with the third generation cephalosporins. PMID:23543257

Kaur, Jaspal; Chopra, Shashi; Sheevani; Mahajan, Gomty

2013-02-01

299

Modified Double Disc Synergy Test to Detect ESBL Production in Urinary Isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Various phenotypic methods are recommended in the routine practice to detect the ESBL production in gram negative bacilli. Among them, the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST) which uses the third generation cephalosporins (3GC), is a simple and a reliable method. But the coexistence of AmpC may give false negative results. In such cases, the ESBL detection can be improved by using cefepime along with the third generation cephalosporins in DDST. Methods: A total of 350 urinary isolates (224 Escherichia coli and 126 Klebsiella pneumoniae) were studied for ESBL production by the modified double disc test (MDDST) i.e. by using cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefpopdoxime (third generation cephalosporins) and cefepime ( fourth generation cephalosporin) along with a amoxicillin-clavulanate disc. Results and Interpretation: ESBL production was seen in 63.4% (142/224) Escherichia coli and in 60.3% (76/126) Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates by MDDST. Among these, in twelve E.coli and five K.pneumoniae strains, only cefepime but none of the third generation cephalosporins showed synergism with amoxicillin-clavulanate. All these seventeen strains showed a clear extension of the edge of inhibition which was produced by cefepime towards the amoxicillin-clavulanate disc. These strains were further tested for AmpC co-production by the AmpC disc test and all these strains were found to be AmpC positive, thus revealing the superior activity of cefepime in detecting ESBLs in the bacteria which co-produced AmpC. A high degree of coresistance was found in the ESBL producers. Conclusion: The ESBL detection can be improved by MDDST by using cefepime along with the third generation cephalosporins.

Kaur, Jaspal; Chopra, Shashi; Sheevani; Mahajan, Gomty

2013-01-01

300

Klebsiella necrotizing soft tissue infections in liver transplant recipients: a case series.  

PubMed

Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI) are rare but carry high mortality rates. NSTI with Klebsiella species have been previously described as associated with Klebsiella liver abscesses and endophthalmitis. Here, we describe 6 cases of NSTI in liver transplant recipients associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae, 4 of which were K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae (CRKP). Increased awareness of this emerging pathogen and its association with necrotizing skin and soft tissue infection is critical, as early recognition and debridement may improve survival. Antimicrobial treatment of CRKP infections remains an ongoing challenge and implementation of enhanced infection control measures is essential. PMID:23782431

Rana, M M; Sturdevant, M; Patel, G; Huprikar, S

2013-06-19

301

Purified C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis (Nordstedt) Geitler: a novel and potent agent against drug resistant bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental data on the study of the antibacterial activity of purified phycocyanin, a protein-bound pigment isolated\\u000a from blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis (Nordstedt) Geitler, Oscillatoriaceae are generalized and it was shown that phycocyanin was able to markedly inhibit the\\u000a growth of drug resistant bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and\\u000a Staphylococcus aureus while, no activity was recorded in Acinetobacter

Dronamraju V. L. Sarada; Chinnadurai Sreenath Kumar; Ramasamy Rengasamy

2011-01-01

302

Glycolytic Breakdown of Sulfoquinovose in Bacteria: a Missing Link in the Sulfur Cycle  

PubMed Central

Sulfoquinovose (6-deoxy-6-sulfo-d-glucopyranose), formed by the hydrolysis of the plant sulfolipid, is a major component of the biological sulfur cycle. However, pathways for its catabolism are poorly delineated. We examined the hypothesis that mineralization of sulfoquinovose to inorganic sulfate is initiated by reactions of the glycolytic and/or Entner-Doudoroff pathways in bacteria. Metabolites of [U-13C]sulfoquinovose were identified by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in strains of Klebsiella and Agrobacterium previously isolated for their ability to utilize sulfoquinovose as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth, and cell extracts were analyzed for enzymes diagnostic for the respective pathways. Klebsiella sp. strain ABR11 grew rapidly on sulfoquinovose, with major accumulations of sulfopropandiol (2,3-dihydroxypropanesulfonate) but no detectable release of sulfate. Later, when sulfoquinovose was exhausted and growth was very slow, sulfopropandiol disappeared and inorganic sulfate and small amounts of sulfolactate (2-hydroxy-3-sulfopropionate) were formed. In Agrobacterium sp. strain ABR2, growth and sulfoquinovose disappearance were again coincident, though slower than that in Klebsiella sp. Release of sulfate was still late but was faster than that in Klebsiella sp., and no metabolites were detected by 13C-NMR. Extracts of both strains grown on sulfoquinovose contained phosphofructokinase activities that remained unchanged when fructose 6-phosphate was replaced in the assay mixture with either glucose 6-phosphate or sulfoquinovose. The results were consistent with the operation of the Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas (glycolysis) pathway for catabolism of sulfoquinovose. Extracts of Klebsiella but not Agrobacterium also contained an NAD+-dependent sulfoquinovose dehydrogenase activity, indicating that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway might also contribute to catabolism of sulfoquinovose.

Roy, Alexander B.; Hewlins, Michael J. E.; Ellis, Andrew J.; Harwood, John L.; White, Graham F.

2003-01-01

303

The fur gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae: characterization, genomic organization and phylogenetic analysis.  

PubMed

The Fur (ferric uptake regulator) protein controls the expression of a number of bacterial virulence determinants including those involved in iron uptake. The fur gene was cloned and characterized from Klebsiella pneumoniae. The gene is preceded by a single autoregulated promoter whose -10 region overlaps the putative Fur binding site. The autoregulated nature of the K. pneumoniae fur gene and functionality of the encoded Fur repressor were tested in Fur titration and complementation assays. A partial open reading frame upstream from the fur gene was identified as a flavodoxin (fldA) gene. An open reading frame located 50 bases downstream from the fur stop codon appears to be a truncated citA gene that, if functional, would encode only the carboxy terminus of a citrate utilization protein. The fldA-fur arrangement is also present in Escherichia coli. However, the fur-citA arrangement found in K. pneumoniae is novel. It appears that the chromosomal region downstream from the fur gene is unstable and, thus, variable even in closely related bacterial lineages. To assess of the ability of the Fur protein sequence to reflect organismal phylogeny, the Fur protein tree was compared to the tree of 16S rRNA (ribosomal RNA). The Fur dataset comprises almost an order of magnitude fewer characters than the 16S rRNA but is nonetheless able to track the phylogenetic signal reasonably well, suggesting that the fur gene, like the 16S rDNA, may not be subject to horizontal gene transfer in these bacteria. PMID:9055816

Achenbach, L A; Yang, W

1997-02-01

304

Nitrogenase MoFe protein subunits from Klebsiella pneumoniae expressed in foreign hosts. Characteristics and interactions.  

PubMed

The expression of selected nitrogen fixation (nif) genes from Klebsiella pneumoniae in foreign hosts provides an approach to determine the pathway, minimal genetic requirements, and host dependence of nitrogenase assembly. In this study, we investigated the assembly of the alpha 2 beta 2 MoFe protein, responsible for substrate binding and reduction, by introducing nifD and nifK (encoding respectively, the alpha and beta subunits) into Escherichia coli and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In E. coli, both genes were expressed from the nifHDKY operon; in yeast, the genes, separately fused to the yeast ADH1 promoter, were introduced on two different plasmids. Denaturing immunoblot analyses demonstrated the presence of significant amounts of NifD and NifK in both hosts. In E. coli, the level or perhaps modification of NifD depended on the growth medium of the bacteria. Nondenaturing, anaerobic immunoblot assays revealed in E. coli, nif-specific antigens of lower electrophoretic mobility than Kp1, which may represent assembly intermediates. In yeast, no putative assembled products were evident, and the predominant antigens corresponded to the monomeric forms of the polypeptides. These results indicate that, unlike NifH, the Fe protein subunit (Berman, J., Gershoni, J. M., and Zamir, A. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 5240-5243), NifD and NifK are insufficient for the assembly of an electrophoretically Kp1-like structure. Homodimerization of nifK and probably of nifD primary gene products does not appear to occur spontaneously and hence is unlikely to represent the initial step in the assembly. The difference between the two hosts suggests that the cellular environment or mode of expression could affect the interaction between the two subunits. PMID:3298241

Holland, D; Zilberstein, A; Govezensky, D; Salomon, D; Zamir, A

1987-06-25

305

Metabolism of benzonitrile and butyronitrile by Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed Central

A strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae that used aliphatic nitriles as the sole source of nitrogen was adapted to benzonitrile as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Gas chromatographic and mass spectral analyses of culture filtrates indicated that K. pneumoniae metabolized 8.4 mM benzonitrile to 4.0 mM benzoic acid and 2.7 mM ammonia. In addition, butyronitrile was metabolized to butyramide and ammonia. The isolate also degraded mixtures of benzonitrile and aliphatic nitriles. Cell extracts contained nitrile hydratase and amidase activities. The enzyme activities were higher with butyronitrile and butyramide than with benzonitrile and benzamide, and amidase activities were twofold higher than nitrile hydratase activities. K. pneumoniae appears promising for the bioremediation of sites contaminated with aliphatic and aromatic nitriles.

Nawaz, M S; Heinze, T M; Cerniglia, C E

1992-01-01

306

Intensive care management of community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

The clinical features of 18 patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae requiring intensive care unit (ICU) management are presented. All patients required ventilatory support; 17 were given constant positive pressure ventilation and 10 required greater than 10 cm positive end expiratory pressure. The clinical picture was characteristic: pre-existing medical disease, clinical features of severe pneumonia and copious purulent bronchial secretions, Gram--ve organisms on Gram's stain and lobar consolidation on the chest radiograph were common. Septicaemic shock, confusion and uncompensated metabolic acidosis were the presenting clinical features predicting a poor outcome. Antimicrobial chemotherapy, that combined an aminoglycoside and a third generation cephalosporin to ensure adequate early antibiotic serum levels, may help to improve the prognosis. PMID:2014354

Hammond, J M; Potgieter, P D; Linton, D M; Forder, A A

1991-01-01

307

Ribitol dehydrogenase of Klebsiella aerogenes. Sequence of the structural gene.  

PubMed Central

The ribitol dehydrogenase gene was cloned from wild-type Klebsiella aerogenes and also from a transducing phage lambda prbt which expresses the rbt operon constitutively. The coding sequence for 249 amino acids is separated from the following D-ribulokinase gene by 31 base pairs containing three stop codons, one of which overlaps the ribosome binding site for D-ribulokinase. Three residues in the amino acid sequence differ from that predicted from the DNA sequence: Asp-212 for Asn-212 is probably a protein sequencing error, but -Ala-Val- for -Ser-Ser- at 146-147 appears to be a 'neutral mutation' that may have arisen during prolonged chemostat selection of a strain that superproduces the enzyme from which the protein sequence was determined.

Loviny, T; Norton, P M; Hartley, B S

1985-01-01

308

Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess associated with septic spinal epidural abscess.  

PubMed

A 56-year-old Japanese man with hypertension presented with a 10 days history of high fever, right and left upper quadrant tenderness. An abdominal ultrasonography and computerized tomographic scan revealed a large collection in the right lobe of the liver that was consistent with an abscess. A drainage catheter was placed and purulent fluid was drained. Cultures of the fluid and blood were positive for a strain of ampicillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Six days after admission, paraplegia and urinary retention were found. On the neurological examination, deep tendon reflexes of the lower extremities were absent bilaterally. Magnetic resonance imaging scan detected thoracic spinal epidural abscess and paraspinal abscess. He received the emergent decompressive laminectomy. Culture of surgical specimen grew ampicillin-resistant K. pneumoniae. The patient was treated with biapenem intravenously. Thereafter, clinical symptoms improved gradually and he was removed to the professional hospital to continue rehabilitation for gait disturbance on hospital day 147. PMID:15652471

Kuramochi, Gen; Takei, Shin-Ichi; Sato, Munehiro; Isokawa, Osamu; Takemae, Takashi; Takahashi, Akira

2005-01-01

309

Biodegradation of tributyl phosphate using Klebsiella pneumoniae sp. S3.  

PubMed

Tributyl phosphate (TBP) has enormous applications in the field of extraction, fuel reprocessing, as defoamers and/or plasticizers. Excessive usage of this organophosphorus compound, poses an environmental threat. The present study deals with microbial degradation of TBP using Klebsiella pneumoniae S3 isolated from the soil. Diauxic growth curve pattern explains a preferential utilization of TBP. The strain S3 was able to biotransform TBP (1,000 mg L(-1)) to dibutyl phosphate within 48 h and showed higher tolerance towards TBP up to 17.0 g L(-1). Toxicity of the parent as well as degraded product was assessed using comet assay. Generation of reactive oxygen species elaborates the oxidative stress imposed upon the bacterial strain by TBP. The antioxidant defense mechanism was studied using various biomarkers namely catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase. The present study describes a faster and eco-friendly alternative for disposal of TBP. PMID:23644771

Kulkarni, S V; Markad, V L; Melo, J S; D'Souza, S F; Kodam, K M

2013-05-01

310

Synergistic antibiotic combinations for colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

In this study antibiotic combinations for multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains were investigated. The study included a colistin-susceptible and a colistin-resistant KPC-2 producing K. pneumoniae ST258 strains isolated in 2008 and 2009 during an outbreak in Hungary. Antibiotic combinations were analyzed by checkerboard technique and fractional inhibitory concentration indices were calculated. The following antibiotics were tested: ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ampicillin, imipenem, ertapenem, amikacin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, rifampicin, polymyxin B and colistin. Combinations including 0.25 ?g/ml colistin plus 1 ?g/ml rifampicin, 0.25 ?g/ml polymyxin B plus 1 ?g/ml rifampicin, 1 ?g/ml imipenem plus 2 ?g/ml tobramycin, were found synergistic.These in vitro synergistic combinations suggest potential therapeutical options against infections caused by KPC-2 producing, multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae ST258. PMID:23827751

Kádár, Béla; Kocsis, Béla; Tóth, Ákos; Damjanova, Ivelina; Szász, Máté; Kristóf, Katalin; Nagy, Károly; Szabó, Dóra

2013-06-01

311

Production of 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD) has numerous applications from polymers to cosmetics, foods, lubricants, and medicines. Recently, there are strong industrial interests in a new kind of polyester, polytrimethylene terephthalate, with 1,3-PD as a monomer. This new polyester shows significant promise for use in carpeting and textiles. In this article we introduce a mild aerobic fermentation process using a strain screened from Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 25955, which is insensitive to oxygen, to produce 1,3-PD. We also describe a two-step fermentation process starting with glucose that was converted into glycerol with a glycerol-producing yeast, followed by K. pneumoniae that converts glycerol into 1,3-PD without intermediate isolation and purification of glycerol. PMID:12018293

Huang, He; Gong, Cheng S; Tsao, George T

2002-01-01

312

Metabolism of benzonitrile and butyronitrile by Klebsiella pneumoniae  

SciTech Connect

A strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae that used aliphatic nitriles as the sole source of nitrogen was adapted to benzonitrile as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Gas chromatographic and mass spectral analyses of culture filtrates indicated that K. pneumoniae metabolized 8.4 mM benzonitrile to 4.0 mM benzoic acid and 2.7 mM ammonia. In addition, butyronitrile was metabolized to butyramide and ammonia. The isolate also degraded mixtures of benzonitrile and aliphatic nitriles. Cell extracts contained nitrile hydratase and amidase activities. The enzyme activities were higher with butyronitrile and butyramide than with benzonitrile and benzamide, and amidase activities were twofold higher than nitrile hydratase activities. K. pneumoniae appears promising for the bioremediation of sites contaminated with aliphatic and aromatic nitriles.

Nawaz, M.S.; Heinze, T.M.; Cerniglia, C.E. (Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AK (United States))

1992-01-01

313

Presence of Nitrogen Fixing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the gut of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Coptotermes formosanus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A gram-negative facultative anaerobic enteric bacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from the hindgut of the Formosan subterranean termite (FST). It was characterized using, Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, BIOLOG assay, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-...

314

Health Significance of Klebsiella Pneumoniae in Drinking Water Emanating from Redwood Tanks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is divided into four sections dealing with different ramifications of the presence of Klebsiella coliforms in drinking water emanating from redwood tanks. The first section documents the results of a field survey of 33 public and private water ...

R. J. Seidler

1977-01-01

315

A Threat of the Klebsiella Pneumoniae Carbapenemase–Producing Strains Among Transplant Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInfections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are associated with increased therapeutic failure and mortality. Our laboratory recognized several strains producing KPC, most of which originated from transplantation ward patients.

G. Mlynarczyk; E. Kosykowska; S. Walter de Walthoffen; K. Szymanek-Majchrzak; A. Sawicka-Grzelak; T. Baczkowska; J. Pazik; M. Durlik; M. Ciszek; L. Paczek; A. Chmura; A. Mlynarczyk

2011-01-01

316

Short communication: Patterns of fecal shedding of Klebsiella by dairy cows.  

PubMed

Patterns and persistency of fecal shedding of Klebsiella spp. by healthy adult dairy cattle were explored with probabilistic, statistical, and molecular methods. Fecal shedding was monitored longitudinally in 92 animals in 1 herd for 5 mo. Shedding patterns followed a random binomial distribution, and associations with host factors were not detected. For 12 animals from 4 herds, strain-typing of multiple fecal Klebsiella isolates was performed by means of random-amplified polymorphic DNA typing. For 2 animals, additional typing was performed on isolates from samples collected on several consecutive days. A large variety of Klebsiella strains was detected within samples (on average, 3.1 strains per 4 isolates) and between samples (18 of 20 strains were detected only once in feces from cows that were sampled for 5 d consecutively). Results from each method suggest that fecal shedding of Klebsiella is associated with transient rather than persistent presence of the organism in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:17297098

Munoz, M A; Zadoks, R N

2007-03-01

317

Subhuman Primate Model for the Study of Infection Induced by 'Klebsiella pneumoniae'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Squirrel monkeys were instilled intratracheally with 700 Klebsiella pneumoniae organisms and developed lobar pneumonia in about 24 h. Characteristic clinical findings were fever, anorexia, and coughing. Laboratory findings included leukocytosis or leukope...

R. F. Berendt G. L . Knutsen M. C. Powanda

1978-01-01

318

Bacteria Inactivation During Lithotripsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of extracorporeal and intracorporeal lithotripsy on the viability of bacteria contained inside artificial kidney stones was investigated in vitro. Two different bacteria were exposed to the action of one extracorporeal shock wave generator and four intracorporeal lithotripters.

Del Sol Quintero, María; Mora, Ulises; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Mues, Enrique; Castaño, Eduardo; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M.

2006-09-01

319

Nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) of root-associated, cold-climate azospirillum, enterobacter, Klebsiella, and pseudomonas species during growth on various carbon sources and at various partial pressures of oxygen.  

PubMed

A comprehensive view of the diazotrophic bacterial flora of plants requires that attention be paid to the appropriate carbon and oxygen requirements during isolation of the bacteria. Twenty compounds (monosaccharides, disaccharides, polyols, and organic acids) were therefore examined as carbon and energy sources for nitrogenase activity in semisolid stab cultures at pO(2) values of 0.21, 0.02, and bacteria. With the facultatively anaerobic bacteria of the genera Klebsiella and Enterobacter, the best substrate was sucrose, followed by fructose and mannitol, whereas among the organic acids, only malic and fumaric acids supported any activity. With the obligately aerobic bacteria of the genera Azospirillum and Pseudomonas, disaccharides were not utilized for nitrogen fixation, but several organic acids were accepted in addition to monosaccharides and polyols; malate and glucose were the best substrates. The patterns of the carbon sources utilized for nitrogen fixation were coherent within the species, with the exception of one Klebsiella pneumoniae and one Enterobacter agglomerans strain, both isolated from the same individual grass plant, which were unable to utilize lactose. Anaerobic conditions (pO(2) value of bacteria, with the exception of one strain of E. agglomerans, which required atmospheric oxygen (pO(2) value of 0.21). Also, the obligately aerobic diazotrophs required atmospheric oxygen for maximum nitrogenase activity. The maximum specific nitrogenase activities (expressed as micromoles of C(2)H(4) . milligram of bacterial protein . hour) noted during the exponential growth phase of the bacteria were the following: 2.68 with Azospirillum lipoferum on malate, 2.41 with K. pneumoniae and 1.58 with E. agglomerans on sucrose, and 0.95 with Pseudomonas sp. on malate. PMID:16346205

Haahtela, K; Kari, K; Sundman, V

1983-02-01

320

Serum and secretory IgA immune response to Klebsiella pneumoniae in ankylosing spondylitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Serum and salivary IgA antibodies toKlebsiella pneumoniae were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 53 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and 30 healthy controls. The concentrations of total serum IgA, salivary secretory component (SC) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were also measured. In the serum of AS patients there was a positive correlation between Klebsiella IgA antibodies and the

A. K. Trull; G. S. Panayi

1983-01-01

321

Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of SHV-56, a Novel Inhibitor-Resistant  Lactamase from Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinical strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae was found to possess the chromosomal gene blaSHV-56, encoding a new inhibitor-resistant -lactamase with a pI of 7.6. SHV-56 is derived from SHV-11 by the single substitution K234R. This mutation therefore evidences a new critical site for inhibitor resistance among SHV enzymes. Klebsiella pneumoniae is responsible for a wide range of community- and hospital-acquired

Veronique Dubois; Laurent Poirel; Francois Demarthe; Corinne Arpin; Laure Coulange; Luciene A. R. Minarini; Marie-Christine Bezian; Patrice Nordmann; Claudine Quentin

2008-01-01

322

Surfactant Protein D Enhances Phagocytosis and Killing of Unencapsulated Phase Variants of Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a collagenous C-type lectin (collectin) that is secreted into the alveoli and distal airways of the lung. We have studied the interactions of SP-D and alveolar macrophages with Klebsiella pneumoniae, a common cause of nosocomial pneumonia. SP-D does not agglutinate encapsulated K. pneumoniae but selectively agglutinates spontaneous, unencapsulated phase variants, such as Klebsiella strain

ITZHAK OFEK; ADI MESIKA; MOSHE KALINA; YONA KEISARI; RANIER PODSCHUN; HANY SAHLY; DONALD CHANG; DAVID MCGREGOR; ERIKA CROUCH

2001-01-01

323

Detection of plasmid-mediated AmpC in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims:This study investigated the prevalence of plasmid-mediated AmpC production in selected clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Proteus mirabilis, and compared the results of boronic acid disc screening with conventional susceptibility testing for the detection of AmpC-positive isolates.Methods:E coli, Klebsiella species and P mirabilis with reduced susceptibility to amoxycillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime and cephalexin, but without phenotypic evidence of extended-spectrum

T Y Tan; S Y Ng; L Teo; Y Koh; C H Teok

2008-01-01

324

Comparative analysis of diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Background Klebsiella pneumoniae can be found in environmental habitats as well as in hospital settings where it is commonly associated with nosocomial infections. One of the factors that contribute to virulence is its capacity to form biofilms on diverse biotic and abiotic surfaces. The second messenger Bis-(3’-5’)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous signal in bacteria that controls biofilm formation as well as several other cellular processes. The cellular levels of this messenger are controlled by c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation catalyzed by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) and phophodiesterase (PDE) enzymes, respectively. Many bacteria contain multiple copies of these proteins with diverse organizational structure that highlight the complex regulatory mechanisms of this signaling network. This work was undertaken to identify DGCs and PDEs and analyze the domain structure of these proteins in K. pneumoniae. Results A search for conserved GGDEF and EAL domains in three sequenced K. pneumoniae genomes showed that there were multiple copies of GGDEF and EAL containing proteins. Both single domain and hybrid GGDEF proteins were identified: 21 in K. pneumoniae Kp342, 18 in K. pneumoniae MGH 78578 and 17 in K. pneumoniae NTUH-K2044. The majority had only the GGDEF domain, most with the GGEEF motif, and hybrid proteins containing both GGDEF and EAL domains were also found. The I site for allosteric control was identified only in single GGDEF domain proteins and not in hybrid proteins. EAL-only proteins, containing either intact or degenerate domains, were also identified: 15 in Kp342, 15 in MGH 78578 and 10 in NTUH-K2044. Several input sensory domains and transmembrane segments were identified, which together indicate complex regulatory circuits that in many cases can be membrane associated. Conclusions The comparative analysis of proteins containing GGDEF/EAL domains in K. pneumoniae showed that most copies were shared among the three strains and that some were unique to a particular strain. The multiplicity of these proteins and the diversity of structural characteristics suggest that the c-di-GMP network in this enteric bacterium is highly complex and reflects the importance of having diverse mechanisms to control cellular processes in environments as diverse as soils or plants and clinical settings.

2012-01-01

325

First outbreak of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Norwegian neonatal intensive care unit; associated with contaminated breast milk and resolved by strict cohorting.  

PubMed

Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are vulnerable to nosocomial outbreaks caused by multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae, but no reports of NICU outbreaks of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae have previously been published from countries with a low level of antimicrobial resistance such as the Scandinavian countries. We describe a clonal outbreak of CTX-M-15 -producing Klebsiella pneumoniae affecting 58 infants in the neonatal intensive care unit at Stavanger University Hospital, Norway, during a period of 4 months, 2008-2009. The clone spread widely and rapidly in the NICU, and extensive interventions were required to terminate the outbreak. In contrast to previous outbreaks, only one infant acquired a systemic infection caused by the outbreak strain, probably due to a favourable epidemic strain lacking the most common virulence factors. A probable index case was identified, due to multiple positive breast milk samples collected from the infant's mother before and after the infant's transfer from another hospital. Breast milk samples from 3/18 (17%) mothers of colonized infants were positive for ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae. Vertical transmission of ESBL-producing bacteria has been shown previously,?but the possibility of transmission of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae through expressed breast milk is reported here for the first time. The increasing occurrence of ESBL-producing?Enterobacteriaceae should therefore encourage changes in diagnostic routines for bacterial screening of breast milk. PMID:22779683

Rettedal, Siren; Löhr, Iren H; Natås, Olav; Giske, Christian G; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Øymar, Knut

2012-03-24

326

Epidemiology of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, and Proteus mirabilis strains producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamases from clinical samples in the Kinki Region of Japan.  

PubMed

In the present study, nonduplicate, clinical isolates of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, and Proteus mirabilis were collected during a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 at several hospitals in the Kinki region, Japan. The detection rate of E coli markedly increased from 0.24% to 7.25%. The detection rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae increased from 0% to 2.44% and that of P mirabilis from 6.97% to 12.85%. The most frequently detected genotypes were the CTX-M9 group for E coli, the CTX-M2 group for K pneumoniae, and the CTX-M2 group for P mirabilis. E coli clone O25:H4-ST131 producing CTX-M-15, which is spreading worldwide, was first detected in 2007. The most common replicon type of E coli was the IncF type, particularly FIB, detected in 466 strains (69.7%). Of the K pneumoniae strains, 47 (55.3%) were of the IncN type; 77 P mirabilis strains (96.3%) were of the IncT type. In the future, the surveillance of various resistant bacteria, mainly ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, should be expanded to prevent their spread. PMID:22431539

Nakamura, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Masaru; Yamasaki, Katsutoshi; Fukuda, Saori; Miyamoto, Yugo; Higuchi, Takeshi; Ono, Tamotsu; Nishio, Hisaaki; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Kida, Kenji; Satoh, Kaori; Toda, Hirofumi; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Nishi, Isao; Sakamoto, Masako; Akagi, Masahiro; Nakai, Isako; Kofuku, Tomomi; Orita, Tamaki; Wada, Yasunao; Zikimoto, Takuya; Koike, Chihiro; Kinoshita, Shohiro; Hirai, Itaru; Takahashi, Hakuo; Matsuura, Nariaki; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

2012-04-01

327

Harvesting energy of interaction between bacteria and bacteriophage in a membrane-less fuel cell.  

PubMed

When a fuel and oxidant flow in laminar contact through a micro-fluidic channel, a sharp interface appears between the two liquids, which eliminate the need of a proton exchange membrane. This principle has been used to generate potential in a membrane-less fuel cell. This study use such a cell to harvest energy of interaction between a bacteria having negative charge on its surface and a bacteriophage with positive and negative charges on its tail and head, respectively. When Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp6) and phage (P-Kp6) are pumped through a fuel cell fitted with two copper electrodes placed at its two sides, interaction between these two charged species at the interface results in a constant open circuit potential which varies with concentration of charged species but gets generated for both specific and non-specific bacteria and phage system. Oxygenation of bacteria or phage however diminishes the potential unlike in conventional microbial fuel cells. PMID:24021411

Gupta, Ragini; Bekele, Wasihun; Ghatak, Animangsu

2013-08-23

328

Systemic and mucosal antibodies to Klebsiella in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and Crohn's disease.  

PubMed Central

Whole gut lavage fluid is a useful source of material for the study of intestinal immunity and inflammation in humans. Systemic and mucosal antibodies to Klebsiella pneumoniae were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum samples and whole gut lavage fluid from 14 patients with ankylosing spondylitis, 14 with Crohn's disease, and 16 immunologically normal controls. As the concentration of IgG in whole gut lavage fluid reflects disease activity in Crohn's disease, this approach was used to detect intestinal inflammation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis who also had disease activity and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) recorded. Small intestinal permeability to cellobiose and mannitol was also studied. In serum samples, levels of IgA antibody to klebsiella were high in patients with Crohn's disease and in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis, and were significantly correlated with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Levels of IgG antibody to klebsiella were also high in patients with Crohn's disease. Studies of whole gut lavage fluid showed similar levels of IgA antibody to klebsiella in the three study groups, but levels of whole gut lavage fluid IgM and IgG antibodies to klebsiella were high in patients with Crohn's disease. Levels of IgG in whole gut lavage fluid were high in patients with Crohn's disease but in only one patient with ankylosing spondylitis, though the cellobiose/mannitol permeability ratio was abnormal in eight of 13 patients with ankylosing spondylitis. It is concluded that high levels of serum IgA antibody to klebsiella are not specific to ankylosing spondylitis, and that there is no evidence of an abnormal intestinal IgA antibody response to klebsiella in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

O'Mahony, S; Anderson, N; Nuki, G; Ferguson, A

1992-01-01

329

Identification and Characterization of the fis Operon in Enteric Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The small DNA binding protein Fis is involved in several different biological processes in Escherichia coli. It has been shown to stimulate DNA inversion reactions mediated by the Hin family of recombinases, stimulate integration and excision of phage ? genome, regulate the transcription of several different genes including those of stable RNA operons, and regulate the initiation of DNA replication at oriC. fis has also been isolated from Salmonella typhimurium, and the genomic sequence of Haemophilus influenzae reveals its presence in this bacteria. This work extends the characterization of fis to other organisms. Very similar fis operon structures were identified in the enteric bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Erwinia carotovora, and Proteus vulgaris but not in several nonenteric bacteria. We found that the deduced amino acid sequences for Fis are 100% identical in K. pneumoniae, S. marcescens, E. coli, and S. typhimurium and 96 to 98% identical when E. carotovora and P. vulgaris Fis are considered. The deduced amino acid sequence for H. influenzae Fis is about 80% identical and 90% similar to Fis in enteric bacteria. However, in spite of these similarities, the E. carotovora, P. vulgaris, and H. influenzae Fis proteins are not functionally identical. An open reading frame (ORF1) preceding fis in E. coli is also found in all these bacteria, and their deduced amino acid sequences are also very similar. The sequence preceding ORF1 in the enteric bacteria showed a very strong similarity to the E. coli fis P region from ?53 to +27 and the region around ?116 containing an ihf binding site. Both ?-galactosidase assays and primer extension assays showed that these regions function as promoters in vivo and are subject to growth phase-dependent regulation. However, their promoter strengths vary, as do their responses to Fis autoregulation and integration host factor stimulation.

Beach, Michael B.; Osuna, Robert

1998-01-01

330

Transport of cyclitols by a proton symport in Klebsiella aerogenes.  

PubMed

The respiration and the ATP content of Klebsiella aerogenes in the presence of various inhibitors were compared to the transport of scyllo-inositol. The ATPase was found to be inhibited by dicyclohexyl carbodiimide. The transport has been tested in anaerobiosis and aerobiosis. From the results obtained it is concluded that either ATP or respiration can sustain the transport activity in independent manner. 2. The energy derived from the respiratory chain reactions or the ATP hydrolysis results in electrogenic extrusion of protons. The electrochemical potential created drives the accumulation of scyllo-inositol, as shown by an increase of pH of the medium on addition of the substrate to cells in anaerobiosis. With non-induced cells no change in pH occurs, which demonstrates that proton flow is really linked to the transport. No H+/Na+ or K+ exchange is observed and the proton conductor carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone abolishes the pH shift caused by substrate addition. The stoichiometry of the symport H+/cyclitol is 1 and the half-maximum value of the pH variation as a function of the amount of scyllo-inositol added corresponds to a concentration of scyllo-inositol very close to the KT of influx. PMID:12979

Reber, G; Mermod, M; Deshusses, J

1977-01-01

331

Multiple biotypes of Klebsiella pneumoniae in single clinical specimens.  

PubMed

The occurence of multiple biotypes of Klebsiella pneumoniae within single specimens was determined in 59 clinical specimens. Biotyping was performed on five colonies of K. pneumoniae from each specimen, using the API 20E system (Analytab, Inc., New York) for identification of Enterobacteriaceae with strict adherence to the manufacturer's instructions. Multiple biotypes of K. pneumoniae were present in 31% (18) of the clinical specimens. Twenty-eight colonies representative of specimens with single and multiple biotypes were tested further for biotype reproducibility. Whereas genus and species identification was 100% reproducible, variation of one or more biochemical tests on serial transfers resulted in biotype reproducibility of only 64%. The greatest variation in biochemical tests occurred with urease (14%), indole production (10%) and citrate utilization (9%). Multiple biotypes in single specimens appear to be due to both inherent differences among the colonies in the specimen and variability in the system used to determine biochemical reactions. The presence of multiple biotypes limits the usefulness of biochemical typing for epidemiological surveilance of K. pneumoniae. PMID:319111

de Silva, M I; Rubin, S J

1977-01-01

332

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF A PUTATIVE OXIDOREDUCTASE FROM KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE  

SciTech Connect

Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram-negative enteric bacterium, is found in nosocomial infections which are acquired during hospital stays for about 10% of hospital patients in the United States. The crystal structure of a putative oxidoreductase from K. pneumoniae has been determined. The structural information of this K. pneumoniae protein was used to understand its function. Crystals of the putative oxidoreductase enzyme were obtained by the sitting drop vapor diffusion method using Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, Bis-Tris buffer, pH 5.5 as precipitant. These crystals were used to collect X-ray data at beam line X12C of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The crystal structure was determined using the SHELX program and refi ned with CNS 1.1. This protein, which is involved in the catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction, has an alpha/beta structure. It utilizes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) or nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to perform its function. This structure could be used to determine the active and co-factor binding sites of the protein, information that could help pharmaceutical companies in drug design and in determining the protein’s relationship to disease treatment such as that for pneumonia and other related pathologies.

Baig, M.; Brown, A.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; Swaminathan, S.

2009-01-01

333

Export and secretion of the lipoprotein pullulanase by Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Pullulanase, a secreted lipoprotein of Klebsiella pneumoniae, is initially localized to the outer face of the outer membrane, as shown by protease and substrate accessibility and by immunofluorescence tests. Freeze-thaw disruption of these cells released both membrane-associated and apparently soluble forms of pullulanase. Membrane-associated pullulanase co-fractionated with authentic outer membrane vesicles upon isopycnic sucrose-gradient centrifugation, whereas the quasi-soluble form had the same equilibrium density as inner membrane vesicles and extracellular pullulanase aggregates. The latter also contained outer membrane maltoporin, but were largely devoid of other membrane components including LPS and lipids. K. pneumoniae carrying multiple copies of the pullulanase structural gene (pulA) produced increased amounts of cell-associated and secreted pullulanase, but a large proportion of the enzyme was neither exposed on the cell surface nor released into the medium, even after prolonged incubation. This suggests that factors necessary for pullulanase secretion were saturated by the over-produced pullulanase. When pulA was expressed under lacZ promotor control, the pullulanase which was produced was not exposed on the cell surface at any time, suggesting that pullulanase secretion genes are not expressed constitutively, and raising the possibility that they, like pulA, may be part of the maltose regulon. PMID:2838722

d'Enfert, C; Chapon, C; Pugsley, A P

1987-07-01

334

A Lemierre syndrome variant caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Lemierre syndrome is an extremely rare disease characterized by oropharyngeal infection, septicemia, internal jugular vein thrombosis, and skip lesions. The most common causative pathogen is Fusobacterium necrophorum. We reported a 45-year-old woman who presented with left neck painful swelling and septicemia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head and neck demonstrated venous thrombosis extending from the left internal jugular vein to the sigmoid sinus. During admission we discovered that the patient had uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. We also found a metastatic lesion through chest radiography. Klebsiella pneumoniae was cultivated from both blood samples and pus from deep neck spaces. Surgical drainage, early and adequate antibiotic treatment, anticoagulation, and strict control of blood glucose led to the patient's complete recovery. Because Lemierre syndrome is a forgotten disease in the era of antibiotics, awareness of the signs and symptoms of this disease is important because of its associated high mortality rate. This case illustrated that the presence of K pneumoniae can lead to Lemierre syndrome. PMID:22817819

Tsai, Yih-Jeng; Lin, Yu-Chi; Harnnd, Dor-Ji; Chiang, Rayleigh Ping-Ying; Wu, Hsing-Mei

2012-04-08

335

Isolation and characterization of an alginate lyase from Klebsiella aerogenes.  

PubMed

The bacterium Klebsiella aerogenes (type 25) produced an inducible alginate lyase, whose major activity was located intracellularly during all growth phases. The enzyme was purified from the soluble fraction of sonicated cells by ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion- and cation-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The apparent molecular weight of purified alginate lyase of 28,000 determined by gel filtration and of 31,600 determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the active enzyme was composed of a single polypeptide. The alginate lyase displayed a pH optimum around 7.0 and a temperature optimum around 37 degrees C. The purified enzyme depolymerized alginate by a lyase reaction in an endo manner releasing products which reacted in the thiobarbituric acid assay and absorbed strongly in the ultraviolet region at 235 nm. The alginate lyase was specific for guluronic acid-rich alginate preparations. Propylene glycol esters of alginate and O-acetylated bacterial alginates were poorly degraded by the lyase compared with unmodified polysaccharide. The guluronate-specific lyase activity was applied in an enzymatic method to detect mannuronan C-5 epimerase in three different mucoid (alginate-synthesizing) strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This enzyme which converts polymannuronate to alginate could not be demonstrated either extracellularly or intracellularly in all strains suggesting the absence of a polymannuronate-modifying enzyme in P. aeruginosa. PMID:2673122

Lange, B; Wingender, J; Winkler, U K

1989-01-01

336

Community spread of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis: a long-term study in Japan.  

PubMed

Community-acquired infections caused by extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria, particularly CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli, are a rising concern worldwide. There are few data from Japan on the acquisition of ESBLs in the community or the influx of these bacteria into hospitals. Therefore, we examined the prevalence of ESBL carriage in outpatients, in order to estimate the spread of ESBLs in community settings. We analysed bacterial isolates from outpatient samples at our institution over a 9-year period from 2003 to 2011, with respect to epidemiological data on ESBL-producing bacteria and their genotypic features. Out of 5137 isolates, 321 (6.3?%) were ESBL producers, including E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The detection rates of the ESBL-producing isolates gradually increased and reached 14.3, 8.7 and 19.6?% for E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis strains, respectively, in 2011. Genotyping analysis showed that many of the strains produced multiple ?-lactamases, including TEM, SHV and CTX-M, rather than just CTX-M. The CTX-M-9 group was dominant among the CTX-M genotypes; further, the CTX-M-1 and M-2 groups were also detected (~30?%). This is believed to be the first report from Japan showing a definite increase in ESBL detection in outpatients. In addition, our findings suggest the simultaneous community spread of diverse ESBL genotypes, not an expansion of particular ESBL genes. PMID:23538565

Chong, Yong; Shimoda, Shinji; Yakushiji, Hiroko; Ito, Yoshikiyo; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Kamimura, Tomohiko; Shimono, Nobuyuki; Akashi, Koichi

2013-03-28

337

Antibody coated bacteria in urine of patients with recent spinal injury.  

PubMed Central

Twenty patients with an acute spinal injury were prospectively studied to assess the clinical importance of antibody coated bacteria (ACB) in the urine and the association among the different bacterial species with a positive antibody coated bacteria test. Clinical urinary tract infection was associated with a positive ACB test on 45% of occasions. Three hundred and ninety nine urine samples containing 541 bacterial isolates were assessed for the presence of ACB; 13% were found to be positive and 87% negative for ACB; 67% of urines contained a single bacterial isolate. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was most commonly associated with clinical urinary tract infection, found in 25% of episodes, followed by Proteus mirabilis (17.5%), Klebsiella sp (12.5%), and Proteus morganii (10%). Providencia stuartii, however, was most commonly associated with a positive ACB test (found in 17%). Other bacteria associated with a positive ACB test included Klebsiella sp (14%), Acinetobacter sp (12.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12%), Citrobacter sp (11.5%). A positive ACB test is not to be expected from a patient with spinal injury who has a catheter in place, and the test may provide a useful guide to identify those patients with an invasive infection. It is doubtful that a decision to treat or not treat bacteriuria could rest on the identification of the bacterial species alone.

Galloway, A; Green, H T; Menon, K K; Gardner, B P; Pemberton, S; Krishnan, K R

1990-01-01

338

Specific modification of a Na+ binding site in NADH:quinone oxidoreductase from Klebsiella pneumoniae with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide.  

PubMed

The respiratory NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I) (NDH-1) is a multisubunit enzyme that translocates protons (or in some cases Na+) across energy-conserving membranes from bacteria or mitochondria. We studied the reaction of the Na+-translocating complex I from the enterobacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae with N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), with the aim of identifying a subunit critical for Na+ binding. At low Na+ concentrations (0.6 mM), DCCD inhibited both quinone reduction and Na+ transport by NDH-1 concurrent with the covalent modification of a 30-kDa polypeptide. In the presence of 50 mM Na+, NDH-1 was protected from inhibition by DCCD, and the modification of the 30-kDa polypeptide with [14C]DCCD was prevented, indicating that Na+ and DCCD competed for the binding to a critical carboxyl group in NDH-1. The 30-kDa polypeptide was assigned to NuoH, the homologue of the ND1 subunit from mitochondrial complex I. It is proposed that Na+ binds to the NuoH subunit during NADH-driven Na+ transport by NDH-1. PMID:16621819

Vgenopoulou, Irini; Gemperli, Anja C; Steuber, Julia

2006-05-01

339

Interactions between the bioactive glass S53P4 and the atrophic rhinitis-associated microorganism klebsiella ozaenae.  

PubMed

In an aqueous environment, ions are released from a bioactive glass (BAG) and the pH rises in its vicinity. This may influence both growth and colonization of microorganisms. We studied the effects of the BAG S53P4 on the atrophic rhinitis-associated microorganism Klebsiella ozaenae. The glass was used in the form of granules or discs. Growth inhibition was studied using an agar plate test. Adhesion was studied by incubating bacterial suspension with the glass. The effect of the presence of the bacteria on the formation of the Si-rich layer on the bioactive glass was also analyzed. Furthermore, a follow up study of 19-74 months with ozena patients surgically treated with the BAG S53P4 was performed. The bioactive glass showed no clear growth inhibition of K. ozaenae in the agar plate test. K. ozaenae showed low adherence to the BAG S53P4. No growth of the microbe was seen on the glass during the 8 h incubations and the Si-rich layer was formed normally. The clinical follow-up study showed no infections of the implants and the symptoms of the patients were markedly reduced. Thus, the BAG S53P4 did not favor adhesion and colonization of K. ozaenae, in vitro, which is supported by the in vivo findings showing no BAG-associated infections or reinfections. PMID:10556853

Stoor, P; Söderling, E; Grenman, R

1999-01-01

340

Luminescent Bacteria Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The luminescent bacteria test has become a basic test for ecotoxicological testing of chemicals, waste water and eluates from\\u000a soil and sediment. It has been selected for the basic test set as a representative method to assess the ecotoxicological hazard\\u000a potential of waste eluates to terrestrial invertebrates. The luminescent bacteria test can be carried out by using freshly\\u000a prepared bacteria,

M. Pattard; H. Moser

341

Species Numbers in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A modified biological species definition (BSD), i.e., that bacteria exchange genes within a species, but not usually between species, is shown to apply to bacteria. The formal definition of bacterial species, which is more conservative than the modified BSD, is framed in terms of DNA hybridization. From this I estimate there are a million species of bacteria in 30 grams of rich forest topsoil and propose that there will be at least a billion species worldwide.

Dykhuizen, Daniel

2010-01-01

342

Bacteria and lignin degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material. It is degraded and\\u000a modified by bacteria in the natural world, and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.\\u000a Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling, erosion, and cavitation. With the advantages\\u000a of immense environmental

Jing Li; Hongli Yuan; Jinshui Yang

2009-01-01

343

Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

344

Survival of pathogenic bacteria in various freshwater sediments.  

PubMed Central

Four human-associated bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella newport, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, were tested for survival in five freshwater sediments. Bacterial survival in continuous-flow chambers was monitored over 14-day periods on sediments ranging from organically rich high-clay fractions to organically poor sandy fractions. Bacterial die-off ranged from 1 to 5 orders of magnitude in sediments. E. coli survived as long as or longer than S. newport. P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae tended to survive longer than E. coli. Survival of E. coli and S. newport was greater in sediments containing at least 25% clay. Good reproducibility allowed the development of linear models to describe die-off rates.

Burton, G A; Gunnison, D; Lanza, G R

1987-01-01

345

Histamine-producing bacteria in decomposing skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis).  

PubMed Central

Spoilage in skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) was studied under controlled conditions by incubating whole, fresh fish in seawater at 38 degrees C, the optimum temperature for histamine formation. Bacterial isolates were obtained from the loin tissue of a decomposing tuna containing 134 mg of histamine per 100 g and a total anaerobic count of 3.5 x 10(5)/g after incubation for 24 h. Over 92% of the 134 isolates obtained were facultatively or obligately anaerobic bacteria. Eighteen isolates produced histamine in culture media containing histidine, and these were identified as Clostridium perfringens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Vibrio alginolyticus. Histidine decarboxylase activity of several isolates was measured in a tuna broth medium and with resting cells suspended in a buffered histidine solution.

Yoshinaga, D H; Frank, H A

1982-01-01

346

PCR-based identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, the agent of rhinoscleroma.  

PubMed

Rhinoscleroma is a chronic granulomatous infection of the upper airways caused by the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis. The disease is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, but its diagnosis remains difficult. As a consequence, and despite available antibiotherapy, some patients evolve advanced stages that can lead to disfiguration, severe respiratory impairment and death by anoxia. Because identification of the etiologic agent is crucial for the definitive diagnosis of the disease, the aim of this study was to develop two simple PCR assays. We took advantage of the fact that all Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis isolates are (i) of capsular serotype K3; and (ii) belong to a single clone with diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The complete sequence of the genomic region comprising the capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) gene cluster was determined. Putative functions of the 21 genes identified were consistent with the structure of the K3 antigen. The K3-specific sequence of gene Kr11509 (wzy) was exploited to set up a PCR test, which was positive for 40 K3 strains but negative when assayed on the 76 other Klebsiella capsular types. Further, to discriminate Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis from other K3 Klebsiella strains, a specific PCR assay was developed based on diagnostic SNPs in the phosphate porin gene phoE. This work provides rapid and simple molecular tools to confirm the diagnostic of rhinoscleroma, which should improve patient care as well as knowledge on the prevalence and epidemiology of rhinoscleroma. PMID:21629720

Fevre, Cindy; Passet, Virginie; Deletoile, Alexis; Barbe, Valérie; Frangeul, Lionel; Almeida, Ana S; Sansonetti, Philippe; Tournebize, Régis; Brisse, Sylvain

2011-05-24

347

PCR-Based Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, the Agent of Rhinoscleroma  

PubMed Central

Rhinoscleroma is a chronic granulomatous infection of the upper airways caused by the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis. The disease is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, but its diagnosis remains difficult. As a consequence, and despite available antibiotherapy, some patients evolve advanced stages that can lead to disfiguration, severe respiratory impairment and death by anoxia. Because identification of the etiologic agent is crucial for the definitive diagnosis of the disease, the aim of this study was to develop two simple PCR assays. We took advantage of the fact that all Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis isolates are (i) of capsular serotype K3; and (ii) belong to a single clone with diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The complete sequence of the genomic region comprising the capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) gene cluster was determined. Putative functions of the 21 genes identified were consistent with the structure of the K3 antigen. The K3-specific sequence of gene Kr11509 (wzy) was exploited to set up a PCR test, which was positive for 40 K3 strains but negative when assayed on the 76 other Klebsiella capsular types. Further, to discriminate Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis from other K3 Klebsiella strains, a specific PCR assay was developed based on diagnostic SNPs in the phosphate porin gene phoE. This work provides rapid and simple molecular tools to confirm the diagnostic of rhinoscleroma, which should improve patient care as well as knowledge on the prevalence and epidemiology of rhinoscleroma.

Fevre, Cindy; Passet, Virginie; Deletoile, Alexis; Barbe, Valerie; Frangeul, Lionel; Almeida, Ana S.; Sansonetti, Philippe; Tournebize, Regis; Brisse, Sylvain

2011-01-01

348

Antibiotic Resistance and Its Transfer Among Clinical and Nonclinical Klebsiella Strains in Botanical Environments †  

PubMed Central

A total of 183 isolates of Klebsiella from drinking water, market vegetables, wood, sawdust, industrial effluents, and human and animal origin were examined for susceptibility to 10 antibacterial agents. Incidence of resistance to two or more antibiotics tested was: 65% of the human clinical isolates, 59% among bovine mastitis, and 24% among the nonclinical isolates. The five different multiple resistance patterns among nonclinically derived Klebsiella were also found among the human and bovine mastitis isolates. Statistical analyses revealed that patterns of resistance among Klebsiella isolates from drinking water, market vegetables, and industrial effluents were highly correlated with each other and with resistance patterns of human clinical isolates. Antibiotic resistance was transferred between Klebsiella growing in two habitat-simulated environments (growing radish plants and aqueous sawdust suspensions). Transconjugants were detected in 5 of 21 and 6 of 21 mating pairs, respectively. Average transconjugants/donor ranged from 10?3 to 10?6 in Penassay broth, from 10?6 to 10?7 on radish plants, and from 10?5 to 10?8 in sawdust suspensions. Although antibiotic resistance transfer under simulated environmental conditions can occur, regrowth of clinical strains is probably the major cause for the widespread occurrence of antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella in the nonclinical environment.

Talbot, Henry W.; Yamamoto, Deborah K.; Smith, Martin W.; Seidler, Ramon J.

1980-01-01

349

Klebsiella spp as a 1, 3-propanediol producer: the metabolic engineering approach.  

PubMed

Klebsiella spp are one of the best natural producers of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD). However, their usage in the biotechnological production of the diol is limited, since the species belong to the second hazard group. Nevertheless, multiple advantageous traits of Klebsiella spp justify the international effort devoted to develop a biotechnological process of 1,3-PD production with these microorganisms. Apart from the process engineering approach aiming at improvement of 1,3-PD production by Klebsiella spp, plethora of metabolic engineering approaches have been reported. Different strategies have been undertaken to genetically improve Klebsiella strains and provide them with the ability to synthesize 1,3-PD more efficiently. These include over-expression of both homologous and heterologous genes of the 1,3-PD synthesis pathway, protein and cofactor engineering, deletion of the genes involved in by-products formation. This review provides an overview of the initial and most recent reports on the metabolic engineering of Klebsiella spp with the aim of improvement of 1,3-PD biosynthesis. PMID:21995522

Celi?ska, E

2011-10-13

350

Use of a Dictyostelium Model for Isolation of Genetic Loci Associated with Phagocytosis and Virulence in Klebsiella pneumoniae?  

PubMed Central

Phagocytosis resistance is an important virulence factor in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Dictyostelium has been used to study the interaction between phagocytes and bacteria because of its similarity to mammalian macrophages. In this study, we used a Dictyostelium model to investigate genes for resistance to phagocytosis in NTUH-K2044, a strain of K. pneumoniae causing pyogenic liver abscess that is highly resistant to phagocytosis. A total of 2,500 transposon mutants were screened by plaque assay, and 29 of them permitted phagocytosis by Dictyostelium. In the 29 mutants, six loci were identified; three were capsular synthesis genes. Of the other three, one was related to carnitine metabolism, one encoded a subunit of protease (clpX), and one encoded a lipopolysaccharide O-antigen transporter (wzm). Deletion and complementation of these genes showed that only ?clpX and ?wzm mutants became susceptible to Dictyostelium phagocytosis, and their complementation restored the phagocytosis resistance phenotype. These two mutants were also susceptible to phagocytosis by human neutrophils and revealed attenuated virulence in a mouse model, implying that they play important roles in the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae. Furthermore, we demonstrated that clpP, which exists in an operon with clpX, was also involved in resistance to phagocytosis. The transcriptional profile of ?clpX was examined by microarray analysis and revealed a 3-fold lower level of expression of capsular synthesis genes. Therefore, we have identified genes involved in resistance to phagocytosis in K. pneumoniae using Dictyostelium, and this model is useful to explore genes associated with resistance to phagocytosis in heavily encapsulated bacteria.

Pan, Yi-Jiun; Lin, Tzu-Lung; Hsu, Chun-Ru; Wang, Jin-Town

2011-01-01

351

Insights into the evolution of gene organization and multidrug resistance from Klebsiella pneumoniae plasmid pKF3-140.  

PubMed

Plasmid-mediated transfer of drug-resistance genes among various bacterial species is considered one of the most important mechanisms for the spread of multidrug resistance. To gain insights into the evolution of gene organization and antimicrobial resistance in clinical bacterial samples, a complete plasmid genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae pKF3-140 is determined, which has a circular chromosome of 147,416bp in length. Among the 203 predicted genes, 142 have function assignment and about 50 appear to be involved in plasmid replication, maintenance, conjugative transfer, iron acquisition and transport, and drug resistance. Extensive comparative genomic analyses revealed that pKF3-140 exhibits a rather low sequence similarity and structural conservation with other reported K. pneumoniae plasmids. In contrast, the overall organization of pKF3-140 is highly similar to Escherichia coli plasmids p1ESCUM and pUTI89, which indicates the possibility that K. pneumoniae pKF3-140 may have a potential origin in E. coli. Meanwhile, interestingly, several drug resistant genes show high similarity to the plasmid pU302L in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium U302 strain G8430 and the plasmid pK245 in K. pneumoniae. This mosaic pattern of sequence similarities suggests that pKF3-140 might have arisen from E. coli and acquired the resistance genes from a variety of enteric bacteria and underscores the importance of a further understanding of horizontal gene transfer among enteric bacteria. PMID:23402892

Bai, Jie; Liu, Qi; Yang, Yang; Wang, Junrong; Yang, Yanmei; Li, Jinsong; Li, Peizhen; Li, Xueying; Xi, Yali; Ying, Jun; Ren, Ping; Yang, Lei; Ni, Liyan; Wu, Jinyu; Bao, Qiyu; Zhou, Tieli

2013-02-09

352

Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection and Classification of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase Gene (blaKPC) Variants?  

PubMed Central

Carbapenem resistance mediated by plasmid-borne Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) is an emerging problem of significant clinical importance in Gram-negative bacteria. Multiple KPC gene variants (blaKPC) have been reported, with KPC-2 (blaKPC-2) and KPC-3 (blaKPC-3) associated with epidemic outbreaks in New York City and various international settings. Here, we describe the development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay using molecular beacons (MB-PCR) for rapid and accurate identification of blaKPC variants. The assay consists of six molecular beacons and two oligonucleotide primer pairs, allowing for detection and classification of all currently described blaKPC variants (blaKPC-2 to blaKPC-11). The MB-PCR detection limit was 5 to 40 DNA copies per reaction and 4 CFU per reaction using laboratory-prepared samples. The MB-PCR probes were highly specific for each blaKPC variant, and cross-reactivity was not observed using DNA isolated from several bacterial species. A total of 457 clinical Gram-negative isolates were successfully characterized by our MB-PCR assay, with blaKPC-3 and blaKPC-2 identified as the most common types in the New York/New Jersey metropolitan region. The MB-PCR assay described herein is rapid, sensitive, and specific and should be useful for understanding the ongoing evolution of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. As novel blaKPC variants continue to emerge, the MB-PCR assay can be modified in response to epidemiologic developments.

Chen, Liang; Mediavilla, Jose R.; Endimiani, Andrea; Rosenthal, Marnie E.; Zhao, Yanan; Bonomo, Robert A.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.

2011-01-01

353

A rapid low-cost real-time PCR for the detection of klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase genes  

PubMed Central

Background Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemases (KPCs) are able to hydrolyze the carbapenems, which cause many bacteria resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, so the rapid dissemination of KPCs is worrisome. Laboratory identification of KPCs-harboring clinical isolates would be a key to limit the spread of the bacteria. This study would evaluate a rapid low-cost real-time PCR assay to detect KPCs. Methods Real-time PCR assay based on SYBR GreenIwas designed to amplify a 106bp product of the blaKPC gene from the159 clinical Gram-negative isolates resistant to several classes of -lactam antibiotics through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We confirmed the results of real-time PCR assay by the conventional PCR-sequencing. At the same time, KPCs of these clinical isolates were detected by the modified Hodge test (MHT). Then we compared the results of real-time PCR assay with those of MHT from the sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, we evaluated the sensitivity of the real-time PCR assay. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the results of the real-time PCR assay compared with those of MHT was 29/29(100%) and 130/130(100%), respectively. The results of the real-time PCR and the MHT were strongly consistent (Exact Sig. (2-tailed) =1. 000; McNemar test). The real-time PCR detection limit was about 0.8cfu using clinical isolates. Conclusion The real-time PCR assay could rapidly and accurately detect KPCs -harboring strains with high analytical sensitivity and specificity.

2012-01-01

354

Contribution of Mucoviscosity-Associated Gene A (magA) to Virulence in Experimental Klebsiella pneumoniae Endophthalmitis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess is a blinding infection that is being reported more frequently in the literature. The K1 capsule and magA contribute to virulence of systemic infection in mice; however, little is known about the role of magA in secondary ocular infections. Methods. To assess the role of K. pneumoniae capsule in endophthalmitis, the authors induced experimental endophthalmitis by direct inoculation of 100 colony-forming unit wild-type, magA-deficient, or magA-complemented K. pneumoniae into the posterior segments of mouse eyes. Eyes were analyzed by quantitation of viable bacteria, retinal function, and inflammatory cell influx as well as by histology. Results. Wild-type K1 K. pneumoniae caused significant ocular disease. At the end point of 24 hours postinfection, eyes infected with wild-type K. pneumoniae retained significantly less retinal A-wave function than eyes infected with an isogenic magA-mutant strain. B-wave function retention was also greater in eyes infected with the magA mutant than with wild-type K. pneumoniae. Additionally, intraocular growth of the magA-deficient strain was less than it was in the wild-type strain. The amount of myeloperoxidase elicited was also significantly higher for wild-type–infected eyes at 24 hours. Conclusions. These results indicate that in the eye, the K1 capsule of invasive K. pneumoniae significantly contributes to the ability of the bacteria to disrupt retinal function, to grow to high density, and to persist despite immune cell recruitment.

Hunt, Jonathan J.; Wang, Jin-Town

2011-01-01

355

Extracellular melibiose and fructose are intermediates in raffinose catabolism during fermentation to ethanol by engineered enteric bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Contrary to general concepts of bacterial saccharide metabolism, melibiose (25 to 32 g/liter) and fructose (5 to 14 g/liter) accumulated as extracellular intermediates during the catabolism of raffinose (O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-1, 6-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D-fructofuranoside) (90 g/liter) by ethanologenic recombinants of Escherichia coli B, Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1, and Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16. Both hydrolysis products (melibiose and fructose) were subsequently transported and further metabolized by all three organisms. Raffinose catabolism was initiated by beta-fructosidase; melibiose was subsequently hydrolyzed to galactose and glucose by alpha-galactosidase. Glucose and fructose were completely metabolized by all three organisms, but galactose accumulated in the fermentation broth with EC16(pLOI555) and P2. MM2 (a raffinose-positive E. coli mutant) was the most effective biocatalyst for ethanol production (38 g/liter) from raffinose. All organisms rapidly fermented sucrose (90 g/liter) to ethanol (48 g/liter) at more than 90% of the theoretical yield. During sucrose catabolism, both hydrolysis products (glucose and fructose) were metabolized concurrently by EC16(pLOI555) and P2 without sugar leakage. However, fructose accumulated extracellularly (27 to 28 g/liter) at early stages of fermentation with KO11 and MM2. Sequential utilization of glucose and fructose correlated with a diauxie in base utilization (pH maintenance). The mechanism of sugar escape remains unknown but may involve downhill leakage via permease which transports precursor saccharides or novel sugar export proteins. If sugar escape occurs in nature with wild organisms, it could facilitate the development of complex bacterial communities which are based on the sequence of saccharide catabolism and the hierarchy of sugar utilization.

Moniruzzaman, M; Lai, X; York, S W; Ingram, L O

1997-01-01

356

Biodegradation of 4-chloroaniline by bacteria enriched from soil.  

PubMed

4-Chloroaniline has been released into the environment due to extensive use in chemical industries and intensive agriculture; hence, it becomes one of the hazardous pollutants in the priority pollutant list. In this study, three gram-negative bacteria were enriched and isolated from agricultural soil as 4-chloroaniline-degrading bacteria. They were identified as Acinetobacter baumannii CA2, Pseudomonas putida CA16 and Klebsiella sp. CA17. They were able to utilize 4-chloroaniline as a sole carbon and nitrogen source without stimulation or cocultivation with aniline or another cosubstrate. The biodegradation in these bacteria was occurred via a modified ortho-cleavage pathway of which the activity of chlorocatechol 1, 2-dioxygenase was markedly induced. They grew well on 0.2-mM 4-chloroaniline exhibiting a 60-75% degradation efficiency and equimolar liberation of chloride. The isolates were able to survive in the presence of 4-chloroaniline at higher concentrations (up to 1.2 mM). 2-Chloroaniline, 3-chloroaniline and aniline, but not 3, 4-dichloroaniline, were also growth substrates for these isolates. The results of cosubstrate supplementation illustrated the suitable conditions of each isolate to improve growth rate and 4-chloroaniline biodegradation efficiency. These results suggest that these isolates have a potential use for bioremediation of the site contaminated with 4-chloroaniline. PMID:17328747

Vangnai, Alisa S; Petchkroh, Wansiri

2007-03-01

357

Signature-Tagged Mutagenesis of Klebsiella pneumoniae To Identify Genes That Influence Biofilm Formation on Extracellular Matrix Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae causes urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and septicemia in suscep- tible individuals. Strains of Klebsiella frequently produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, and infections with these strains can lead to relatively high mortality rates (approximately 15%). Other virulence factors include production of an antiphagocytic capsule and outer membrane lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which medi- ates serum resistance, as well as fimbriae on

Jennifer D. Boddicker; Rebecca A. Anderson; Jennifer Jagnow; Steven Clegg

2006-01-01

358

Impact of Empiric Antimicrobial Therapy on Outcomes in Patients with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacteremia: A Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy improves outcomes in patients with bacteremia due to Escherichia coli or Klebsiella. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy on in-hospital mortality and post-infection length of stay in patients with Escherichia coli or Klebsiella bacteremia while adjusting for important confounding variables. METHODS: We

Kerri A Thom; Marin L Schweizer; Regina B Osih; Jessina C McGregor; Jon P Furuno; Eli N Perencevich; Anthony D Harris

2008-01-01

359

Synthesis of Fe3O4 poly(styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) magnetic porous microspheres and application in the immobilization of Klebsiella sp. FD-3 to reduce Fe(III)EDTA in a NO(x) scrubbing solution.  

PubMed

Magnetic poly(styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) porous microspheres (MPPM) with high magnetic contents were prepared by surfactant reverse micelles and emulsion polymerization of monomers, in which the well-dispersed Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and oleic acid (OA) respectively. The characterizations showed that both of the OA-MPPM and the PEG-MPPM were ferromagnetic, however, the OA-MPPM was used to immobilize the bacteria for more advantages. Therefore, the effects of monomer ratio, surfactant, crosslinker and amount of Fe(3)O(4) on the structure, morphology and magnetic contents of the OA-MPPM were investigated. Then, the OA-MPPM was utilized to immobilize Klebsiella sp. FD-3, an iron-reducing bacterium for Fe(III)EDTA reduction applied in NO(x) removal. Compared with free bacteria, the immobilized FD-3 showed a better tolerance to the unbeneficial pH and temperature conditions. PMID:23334160

Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Zuoming; Jing, Guohua

2012-12-12

360

BACTERIA DETENTION BY NANOTEXTILES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes experiments concerning filtra tion by nanotextiles of microbiologically contaminated water. The aim of the project is to ve rify the filtering abilities of the chosen nanotext ile materials. A high nanotextile porosity with the por es size of tens of nanometres, is a presumption for the use of nanotextiles for bacteria filtration. The si ze of bacteria

361

Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today,

J. A. Muller; R. P. Ross; G. F. Fitzgerald; C. Stanton

2009-01-01

362

Survival of Oral Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global distribution of individual species of oral bacteria demonstrates their ability to survive among their human hosts. Such an ubiquitous existence is the result of efficient transmission of strains and their persistence in the oral environment. Genetic analysis has identified specific clones of pathogenic bacteria causing infection. Presumably, these express virulence-associated characteristics enhancing colonization and survival in their hosts.

G. H. W. Bowden; I. R. Hamilton

1998-01-01

363

Factors associated with airway colonisation and invasion due to Klebsiella spp.  

PubMed

The clinical significance of a heavy growth of Klebsiella spp. in sputum was studied in 54 patients. All but 3 patients had significant factors potentially associated with respiratory tract colonisation or invasion. Risk factors identified for colonisation of the airway and for invasive disease were similar. Patients with community-acquired Klebsiella infections were more likely to have underlying chronic respiratory diseases. Prior antibiotic use was a risk factor for nosocomial infections which occurred more commonly with antibiotic-resistant organisms. The most common diagnoses were airway colonisation, acute community-acquired chest infections, and nosocomial chest infections. Primary acute community-acquired pneumonia was uncommon. The sensitivity and specificity of the sputum Gram stain (in the setting of positive sputum cultures) in suggesting the presence of invasive disease due to Klebsiella spp. were 42% and 69% respectively. PMID:8093134

Feldman, C; Smith, C; Kaka, S; de Jong, P; Goolam Mahomed, A; Frankel, A; Koornhof, H J

1993-09-01

364

Gastrointestinal colonization with ESBL-producing Klebsiella in preterm babies--is vancomycin to blame?  

PubMed

In this study, we examine the possible association between treatment with vancomycin and colonization with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Variables compared between newborns which developed rectal colonization and those who did not include: gestational age, birth weight, gender, and total length of hospital stay until positive stool culture or discharge, treatment with vancomycin, and positive blood culture for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. We found that lower birth weight, younger gestational age, and treatment with vancomycin were statistically significant risk factors for gastrointestinal colonization with ESBL-producing Klebsiella. When applying a multivariate model, treatment with vancomycin, both for a full 10-day course and for a short 3-day empirical treatment, remained statistically significant. Treatment with vancomycin is a risk factor for gastrointestinal colonization with ESBL-producing Klebsiella in premature babies. PMID:21814760

Ofek-Shlomai, N; Benenson, S; Ergaz, Z; Peleg, O; Braunstein, R; Bar-Oz, B

2011-08-04

365

Silent destruction of aortic and mitral valve by Klebsiella pneumoniae endocarditis.  

PubMed

Klebsiella endocarditis rarely affects the native valve especially in the immunocompromised and the elderly. We report a case of Klebsiella endocarditis in a 60-year-old man who had a nidus of infection on the aortic valve which led to severe aortic regurgitation. This possibly spread to the anterior mitral leaflet (AML) leading to AML perforation therefore causing moderate mitral regurgitation. The reason for this suspicion was that there was perforation of the AML in the absence of vegetation. Noteworthy is that he was asymptomatic apart from generalised fatigue. This case draws our attention to the nature of Klebsiella valvular affection due to the fact that it had bitten the aortic and mitral valve silently and compelled the patient to undergo double valve replacement without having a prolonged duration of symptomatic illness thereby calling for high suspicion especially in individuals in the extremes of ages where the symptoms are less-guiding than the signs. PMID:24057412

Srinivas, K H; Sharma, Rajni; Agrawal, Navin; Manjunath, C N

2013-09-20

366

Characterization of Klebsiella Isolates from Natural Receiving Waters and Comparison with Human Isolates  

PubMed Central

Two hundred sixty-six strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from natural water sources in geographically diverse areas (Florida, Massachusetts, and Oregon) were analyzed to determine the serotype, biochemical, virulence, and antimicrobial susceptibility differences between these natural strains and human Klebsiella isolates. Sixty of 72 defined serotypes were found among 210 typable strains. Geographic patterns were present, but in general were not pronounced among serotypes. Reactions with 28 biochemical tests showed percentage responses which were very similar to the summaries of primarily human Klebsiella isolates (as reported by Edwards and Ewing, 1972) and that represented diverse geographic sampling. Virulence studies in representative strains showed no geographic variability and little difference from comparable hospital patient-obtained isolates. In contrast to human hospital isolates, strains demonstrated 90% or greater susceptibility to all antibiotics except ampicillin and carbenicillin; and in further contrast, there was little multiple antibiotic resistance beyond that with ampicillin and carbenicillin.

Matsen, John M.; Spindler, Joyce A.; Blosser, Russell O.

1974-01-01

367

Molecular characterization, metal uptake and copper induced transcriptional activation of efflux determinants in copper resistant isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

An efflux system, comprising cus determinants, plays an important role in pumping out this metal in gram negative bacteria exposed to high concentration of copper. Cus determinants comprise two operons, one regulatory (cusRS) and the other structural (cusCFBA). Although the efflux system has been described in quite a few members of Enterobacteriaceae, little is known about this system in Klebsiella spp. We are describing cus determinants in Klebsiella pneumoniae for the first time and also providing evidence for their metal-induced expression, both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Copper resistant K. pneumoniae, capable of copper uptake and later efflux of excessive copper, was isolated from industrial waste water. Expression of both cusRS and cusCFBA was quantified at transcriptional level through real time PCR. The results demonstrated that cus determinants were functional under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The mRNA level of both operons increased several fold in the presence of non-lethal as well as sub-lethal copper concentrations. The increase in cusCFBA transcripts was 74.8 fold 15 min after exposure to 3mM Cu(++) under aerobic conditions compared to the 16 fold increase in cusRS under the same conditions. Under anaerobic conditions the cusCFBA transcripts increased 32.65 fold and the cusRS five fold within 15 min after exposure to 3mM Cu(++). It is concluded that cus genetic determinants in K. pneumoniae comprise structural component (cusCFBA) and a regulatory component (cusRS), which show several fold expression under copper induction both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, the structural genes express 4.7 fold more than the regulatory genes, whereas under anaerobic conditions, this expression is 6.5 fold. Finally, time course study revealed a novel pattern of immediate up-regulated expression followed by decreased and another increased in the transcript level of both operons of cus determinants in the presence of copper. PMID:22960400

Zulfiqar, Soumble; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf

2012-08-30

368

Preliminary examinations on the enterotoxigenicity of isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from seafoods.  

PubMed

One hundred and eighty-five seafood samples, consisting of 96 freshwater fish, 37 marine fish, 13 freshwater prawn, 13 marine prawn and 26 molluscs were screened for presence of Klebsiella. Out of these, 12 isolates of Klebsiella were identified, Four K. pneumoniae var. ozaenae were isolated from marine fish samples and eight K. pneumoniae var. pneumoniae, six from freshwater fish and two from freshwater prawns. All 12 isolates were tested for enterotoxigenicity by the vasopermeability factor test in rabbits, the mouse foot pad test, the latex agglutination test and the coagglutination test. One isolate of K. pneumoniae var pneumoniae, isolated from fresh water prawn was found enterotoxigenic. PMID:1457293

Singh, B R; Kulshreshtha, S B

1992-08-01

369

Dinitrogen-fixing bacteria: computer-assisted identification of soil isolates.  

PubMed

Dinitrogen-fixing (acetylene-reducing) bacteria may be readily isolated from soils but extensive biochemical or immunobiological testing, or both, are required to identify them absolutely. A computer-assisted scheme for identification of nine genera of dinitrogen-fixing bacteria was developed and tested. The computer program is based on interpretation of the 70 biochemical tests of the API 20E and 50E, supplemented with tests for acetylene reduction, nitrate and nitrite reduction, catalase, oxidase, motility, and growth on MacConkey's bile salt medium. Dinitrogen-fixing Enterobacteriaceae (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Erwinia herbicola) were accurately identified using the data base in the API analytical profile index. Nonenteric dinitrogen-fixing bacteria (Azotobacter spp., Azospirillum spp., Derxia sp., Rhodospirillum sp., Clostridium sp., and Bacillus spp.) were subjected to these tests to form a new data base for these bacteria. The API tests agreed with standard biochemical tests commonly used to identify these bacteria, were reproducible with time, and were sufficiently unique to permit accurate identification of each species. The use of the API 20E and 50E tests plus the additional seven tests with these known data bases permitted rapid and precise identification of acetylene reducing bacteria from various agricultural ecosystems. PMID:7214218

Rennie, R J

1980-11-01

370

Inactivation of biofilm bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The current project was developed to examine inactivation of biofilm bacteria and to characterize the interaction of biocides with pipe surfaces. Unattached bacteria were quite susceptible to the variety of disinfectants tested. Viable bacterial counts were reduced 99% by exposure to 0.08 mg of hypochlorous acid (pH 7.0) per liter (1 to 2 degrees C) for 1 min. For monochloramine, 94 mg/liter was required to kill 99% of the bacteria within 1 min. These results were consistent with those found by other investigators. Biofilm bacteria grown on the surfaces of granular activated carbon particles, metal coupons, or glass microscope slides were 150 to more than 3,000 times more resistant to hypochlorous acid (free chlorine, pH 7.0) than were unattached cells. In contrast, resistance of biofilm bacteria to monochloramine disinfection ranged from 2- to 100-fold more than that of unattached cells. The results suggested that, relative to inactivation of unattached bacteria, monochloramine was better able to penetrate and kill biofilm bacteria than free chlorine. For free chlorine, the data indicated that transport of the disinfectant into the biofilm was a major rate-limiting factor. Because of this phenomenon, increasing the level of free chlorine did not increase disinfection efficiency. Experiments where equal weights of disinfectants were used suggested that the greater penetrating power of monochloramine compensated for its limited disinfection activity. These studies showed that monochloramine was as effective as free chlorine for inactivation of biofilm bacteria. The research provides important insights into strategies for control of biofilm bacteria. Images

LeChevallier, M W; Cawthon, C D; Lee, R G

1988-01-01

371

Multidrug Resistance in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Large amounts of antibiotics used for human therapy, as well as for farm animals and even for fish in aquaculture, resulted in the selection of pathogenic bacteria resistant to multiple drugs. Multidrug resistance in bacteria may be generated by one of two mechanisms. First, these bacteria may accumulate multiple genes, each coding for resistance to a single drug, within a single cell. This accumulation occurs typically on resistance (R) plasmids. Second, multidrug resistance may also occur by the increased expression of genes that code for multidrug efflux pumps, extruding a wide range of drugs. This review discusses our current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in both types of resistance.

Nikaido, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

372

Asparagine synthetases of Klebsiella aerogenes: properties and regulation of synthesis.  

PubMed

We isolated pleiotropic mutants of Klebsiella aerogenes with the transposon Tn5 which were unable to utilize a variety of poor sources of nitrogen. The mutation responsible was shown to be in the asnB gene, one of two genes coding for an asparagine synthetase. Mutations in both asnA and asnB were necessary to produce an asparagine requirement. Assays which could distinguish the two asparagine synthetase activities were developed in strains missing a high-affinity asparaginase. The asnA and asnB genes coded for ammonia-dependent and glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetases, respectively. Asparagine repressed both enzymes. When growth was nitrogen limited, the level of the ammonia-dependent enzyme was low and that of the glutamine-dependent enzyme was high. The reverse was true in a nitrogen-rich (ammonia-containing) medium. Furthermore, mutations in the glnG protein, a regulatory component of the nitrogen assimilatory system, increased the level of the ammonia-dependent enzyme. The glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetase was purified to 95%. It was a tetramer with four equal 57,000-dalton subunits and catalyzed the stoichiometric generation of asparagine, AMP, and inorganic pyrophosphate from aspartate, ATP, and glutamine. High levels of ammonium chloride (50 mM) could replace glutamine. The purified enzyme exhibited a substrate-independent glutaminase activity which was probably an artifact of purification. The tetramer could be dissociated; the monomer possessed the high ammonia-dependent activity and the glutaminase activity, but not the glutamine-dependent activity. In contrast, the purified ammonia-dependent asparagine synthetase, about 40% pure, had a molecular weight of 80,000 and is probably a dimer of identical subunits. Asparagine inhibited both enzymes. Kinetic constants and the effect of pH, substrate, and product analogs were determined. The regulation and biochemistry of the asparagine synthetases prove the hypothesis strongly suggested by the genetic and physiological evidence that a glutamine-dependent enzyme is essential for asparagine synthesis when the nitrogen source is growth rate limiting. PMID:6125499

Reitzer, L J; Magasanik, B

1982-09-01

373

The Function of UreB in Klebsiella aerogenes Urease†  

PubMed Central

Urease from Klebsiella aerogenes is composed of three subunits (UreA, UreB, and UreC) which assemble into a (UreABC)3 quaternary structure. UreC harbors the dinuclear nickel active site, whereas the functions of UreA and UreB remain unknown. UreD and UreF accessory proteins previously were suggested to reposition UreB and increase exposure of the nascent urease active site, thus facilitating metallocenter assembly. In this study, cells were engineered to separately produce (UreAC)3 or UreB, and the purified proteins were characterized. Monomeric UreB spontaneously binds to the trimeric heterodimer of UreA plus UreC to form (UreABC*)3 apoprotein, as shown by gel filtration chromatography, integration of electrophoretic gel band intensities, and mass spectrometry. Similar to authentic urease apoprotein, active enzyme is produced by incubation of (UreABC*)3 with Ni2+ and bicarbonate. Conversely, UreB?1-19, lacking the 19 residue potential hinge and tether to UreC, does not form a complex with (UreAC)3 and yields negligible levels of active enzyme when incubated under activation conditions with (UreAC)3. Comparison of activities and nickel contents for (UreAC)3, (UreABC*)3, and (UreABC)3 samples treated with Ni2+ and bicarbonate and then desalted indicates that UreB facilitates efficient incorporation of the metal into the active site and protects the bound metal from chelation. Amylose resin pull-down studies reveal that MBP-UreD (a fusion of maltose binding protein with UreD) forms complexes with (UreABC)3, (UreAC)3, and UreB in vivo, but not in vitro. By contrast, MBP-UreD does not form an in vivo complex with UreB?1-19. The soluble MBP-UreD:UreF:UreG complex binds in vitro to (UreABC)3, but not to (UreAC)3 or UreB. Together these data demonstrate that UreB facilitates the interaction of urease with accessory proteins during metallocenter assembly, with the N-terminal hinge and tether region being specifically required for this process. In addition to its role in urease activation, UreB enhances the stability of UreC against proteolytic cleavage.

Carter, Eric L.; Boer, Jodi L.; Farrugia, Mark A.; Flugga, Nicholas; Towns, Christopher L.; Hausinger, Robert P.

2011-01-01

374

[Darwin and bacteria].  

PubMed

As in 2009 the scientific world celebrates two hundreds years from the birthday of Charles Darwin and one hundred and fifty from the publication of The Origin of Species, an analysis of his complete work is performed, looking for any mention of bacteria. But it seems that the great naturahst never took knowledge about its existence, something rather improbable in a time when the discovery of bacteria shook the medical world, or he deliberately ignored them, not finding a place for such microscopic beings into his theory of evolution. But the bacteria badly affected his familiar life, killing scarlet fever one of his children and worsening to death the evolution of tuberculosis of his favourite Annie. Darwin himself could suffer the sickness of Chagas, whose etiological agent has a similar level to bacteria in the scale of evolution. PMID:19350162

Ledermann D, Walter

2009-03-23

375

Anaerobic Bacteria Growth Promotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Sterile membrane preparations from certain bacteria rapidly remove oxygen from aqueous solutions. The addition of such membranes to a variety of bacteriological medi...

1982-01-01

376

Cultivation Media for Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common bacteriological culture media (tryptic soy agar, chocolate agar, Thayer-Martin agar, MacConkey agar, eosin-methylene blue agar, hektoen agar, mannitol salt agar, and sheep blood agar) are shown uninoculated and inoculated with bacteria.

American Society For Microbiology;

2009-12-08

377

Ecophysiology of Magnetotactic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetotactic bacteria are a physiologically diverse group of prokaryotes whose main common features\\u000a are the biomineralization of magnetosomes and magnetotaxis, the passive alignment and active motility along\\u000a geomagnetic field lines. Magnetotactic bacteria exist in their highest numbers at or near the oxic–anoxic\\u000a interfaces (OAI) of chemically stratified aquatic habitats that contain inverse concentration gradients\\u000a of oxidants and reductants. Few species are

Dennis A. Bazylinski; Timothy Williams

378

The fur gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae: characterization, genomic organization and phylogenetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fur (ferric uptake regulator) protein controls the expression of a number of bacterial virulence determinants including those involved in iron uptake. The fur gene was cloned and characterized from Klebsiella pneumoniae. The gene is preceded by a single autoregulated promoter whose ?10 region overlaps the putative Fur binding site. The autoregulated nature of the K. pneumoniae fur gene and

Laurie A Achenbach; Wei Yang

1997-01-01

379

Immune response and pathophysiological features of Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscesses in an animal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsular serotypes K1 and K2, the rmpA gene (a regulator of the mucoid phenotype) and aerobactin from Klebsiella pneumoniae have been identified as the major virulence factors for pyogenic liver abscesses with high morbidity, mortality and severe complications. The pathological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we compared liver immune responses and pathological changes in response to different serotypes of

Feng-Yee Chang; Jung-Chung Lin; Donald Ming-Tak Ho; Chiung-Tong Chen; Jiun-Han Chen; Kuo-Ming Yeh; Te-Li Chen; Yi-Tsung Lin; L Kristopher Siu

2011-01-01

380

Extended-Spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacter aerogenes phenotypically misidentified as Klebsiella pneumoniae or K. terrigena  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae are common isolates in clinical microbiology and important as producers of extended spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL). The discrimination between both species, which is routinely based on biochemical characteristics, is generally accepted to be straightforward. Here we report that genotypically unrelated strains of E. aerogenes can be misidentified as K. pneumoniae by routine laboratories using standard

Geert Claeys; Thierry De Baere; Georges Wauters; Patricia Vandecandelaere; Gerda Verschraegen; An Muylaert; Mario Vaneechoutte

2004-01-01

381

Isolation of a Chromosomal Region of Klebsiella pneumoniae Associated with Allantoin Metabolism and Liver Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess with metastatic complications is an emerging infectious disease in Taiwan. To identify genes associated with liver infection, we used a DNA microarray to compare the tran- scriptional profiles of three strains causing liver abscess and three strains not associated with liver infection. There were 13 clones that showed higher RNA expression levels in the three liver

Huei-Chi Chou; Cha-Ze Lee; Li-Chen Ma; Chi-Tai Fang; Shan-Chwen Chang; Jin-Town Wang

2004-01-01

382

A Novel Virulence Gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Causing Primary Liver Abscess and Septic Metastatic Complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess complicated with metastatic meningitis or endophthalmi- tis is a globally emerging infectious disease. Its pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. The bacterial virulence factors were explored by comparing clinical isolates. Differences in muco- viscosity were observed between strains that caused primary liver abscess (invasive) and those that did not (noninvasive). Hypermucoviscosity correlated with a high serum resistance

Chi-Tai Fang; Yi-Ping Chuang; Chia-Tung Shun; Shan-Chwen Chang; Jin-Town Wang

383

Emergence of Oxacillinase-Mediated Resistance to Imipenem in Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae strain 11978 was isolated in Turkey in 2001 and was found to be resistant to all -lactams, including carbapenems. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli identified five -lactamases, including two novel oxacillinases. The -lactamase OXA-48 hydrolyzed imipenem at a high level and was remotely related (less than 46% amino acid identity) to the other oxacillinases. It hydrolyzed penicillins

Laurent Poirel; Claire Heritier; Venus Tolun; Patrice Nordmann

2004-01-01

384

[Results of identifying Klebsiella in various diseases of newborn and young infants].  

PubMed

457 Klebsiella strains isolated from newborns and young children with different clinical manifestations of infections, as well as from adults having contacts with them and from various objects of the environment in the foci of these infections, have been studied. All the isolated cultures, with the exception of one strain isolated from the pus of a gluteal abscess and identified as K. ozaenae K4, have been identified as K. pneumoniae. The use of experimental Klebsiella K-sera has allowed one to establish the presence of 27 K-antigen varieties in K. pneumoniae; among them K2, K9, K10, K13, K18, K20, K24, K33, K46, K47 have been found to occur most frequently . In group diseases of infants serovars K2, K9, K10, K18, K20, K24, K33 have been identified, serovars K9, K10 and K20 being detected for the first time in such cases. The data confirming the etiological role of the isolated Klebsiella organisms point out to the necessity of maintaining the constant microbiological control of Klebsiella infection in maternity homes and children's somatic hospitals. PMID:7124210

Kiseleva, B S; Gedze, G I; Solodova, T L; Tsvang, M B; Urazaev, R A

1982-07-01

385

Repressor properties of the nifL gene product in Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain mutations in the nifL gene of the Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogen fixation (nif) gene cluster resulted in altered nif regulaiton such that nitrogenase synthesis was no longer repressed by low levels of exogenous fixed nitrogen, by oxygen or by high temperature. Introduction of a plasmid with a nifL+ allele restored fixed nitrogen and oxygen repression. We therefore conclude that the

Mike Merrick; Susan Hill; Hauke Hennecke; Matthias Hahn; Ray Dixon; Christina Kennedy

1982-01-01

386

Identification of Genes Present Specifically in a Virulent Strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of septicemia and urinary tract infections. The PCR-supported genomic subtractive hybridization was employed to identify genes specifically present in a virulent strain of K. pneumoniae. Analysis of 25 subtracted DNA clones has revealed 19 distinct nucleotide sequences. Two of the sequences were found to be the genes encoding the transposase of Tn3926 and a

YI-CHYI LAI; SHU-LI YANG; HWEI-LING PENG; HWAN-YOU CHANG

2000-01-01

387

Identification of a Major Cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Patients with Liver Abscess in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged as the leading liver abscess pathogen in Taiwan, with the percentage rising from 30% in the 1980s to over 80% in the 1990s. Most of the patients with K. pneumoniae liver abscess are diabetic and without biliary tract disease. Some patients develop serious extrahepatic complications such as endophthalmitis, meningitis, lung abscess, and necrotizing fasciitis. Pulsed-field gel

YEU-JUN LAU; BOR-SHEN HU; WAN-LING WU; YU-HUI LIN; HWAN-YOU CHANG; ZHI-YUAN SHI

2000-01-01

388

Mouse Lysozyme M Is Important in Pulmonary Host Defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common virulent causative agent for pneu- monia. Lysozyme has previously been shown to play an important role in nonimmune host defense of the airways. This study was undertaken to assess the role of lysozyme M, the major isoform of lysozyme in mouse lung, in the killing of K. pneumoniae in lysozyme M \\/ mice and transgenic

Philipp Markart; Thomas R. Korfhagen; Timothy E. Weaver; Henry T. Akinbi

389

Molecular Serotyping of Klebsiella Species Isolates by Restriction of the Amplified Capsular Antigen Gene Cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present work was to develop a molecular method that would enable determination of the capsular serotypes of Klebsiella isolates without the use of antiserum. PCR amplification of the capsular antigen gene cluster (cps) was followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme HincII (cps PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis). The profiles (C patterns) obtained for 224

Sylvain Brisse; Sylvie Issenhuth-Jeanjean; Patrick A. D. Grimont

2004-01-01

390

Restriction mapping of deletions in the nif region of the Klebsiella pneumoniae chromosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal DNA restriction fragments carrying the nitrogen fixation (nif) and his genes of Klebsiella pneumoniae were identified in hybridization experiments using a plasmid derived from pRD1 as a radioactive probe. Restriction mapping of 26 genetically characterized chromosomal nif deletions provided a map showing the physical location of nif genes along the chromosome.

Edward R. Appelbaum; Richard A. Kramer

1980-01-01

391

The distribution of Klebsiella pneumoniae serotypes from different sources and their sensitivity to cephalosporins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 153 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae from 16 microbiological institutes in Germany, Austria and Switzerland were typed biochemically and serologically; their sensitivities to cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, lamoxactam, thienamycin and gentamicin were determined. The strains could be classified into seven biotypes and 43 K-antigen types. The distribution of the K-antigen types was random, and spread over the whole spectrum of

U. Ullmann

1983-01-01

392

Treatment of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Respiratory Infection of Squirrel Monkeys with Aerosols of Kanamycin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The therapeutic efficacy of IM-administered kanamycin was compared to that of aerosols in Klebsiella pneumoniae-infected squirrel monkeys. No difference in mortality of morbidity were seen with equivalent doses of antibiotic ranging from 15 to 6.9 mg/kg/d...

R. F. Berendt . D. Magruder . R. Frola

1979-01-01

393

Analysis of regulation of Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogen fixation (nif) gene cluster with gene fusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene fusions in which the lac genes are under the control of each promoter in the Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogen fixation (nif) gene cluster have been constructed. These fusions have been used to examine positive control of the cluster and the response of individual genes to repression by ammonia and oxygen. De-repression of nif transcriptional units is coordinate and molybdate is

Ray Dixon; Robert R. Eady; Guadalupe Espin; Susan Hill; Maurizio Iaccarino; Daniel Kahn; Mike Merrick

1980-01-01

394

Outbreak of pan-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal intensive care unit.  

PubMed

Abstract We describe the outbreak of a pan-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae strain in a neonatal intensive care unit. A total of 7 neonates developed bacteraemia (37% attack rate), of whom 3 died (43% case fatality rate). A birth weight < 1500 g was the only statistically significant risk factor. Despite an extensive environmental investigation, the source was not identified. PMID:23902586

Maltezou, Helena C; Papacharalambous, Efthimia; Tryfinopoulou, Kyriaki; Ftika, Lemonia; Maragos, Antonios; Kyriakeli, Georgia; Katerelos, Panos; Trakateli, Christina; Polemis, Michalis; Roilides, Emmanuel; Vatopoulos, Alkiviadis; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

2013-08-01

395

Carbapenem Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae Due to the New Delhi Metallo-?-lactamase  

PubMed Central

(See editorial commentary by Bronomo, on pages 485–487.) Carbapenem resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae is most notably due to the K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) ?-lactamase. In this report, we describe the occurrence of a newly described mechanism of carbapenem resistance, the NDM-1 ?-lactamase, in a patient who received medical attention (but was not hospitalized) in India.

Sidjabat, Hanna; Nimmo, Graeme R.; Walsh, Timothy R.; Binotto, Enzo; Htin, Anthony; Hayashi, Yoshiro; Li, Jian; Nation, Roger L.; George, Narelle

2011-01-01

396

Therapeutic potential of bacteriophage in treating Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055-mediated lobar pneumonia in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae causes infections in humans especially in immunocompromised patients. About 80% of nosocomial infections caused by K. pneumoniae are due to multidrug-resistant strains. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains necessitates the exploration of alternative antibacterial therapies, which led our group to study the ability of bacterial viruses (known as bacteriophages or simply phages) to treat mice challenged with K.

Sanjay Chhibber; Sandeep Kaur; Seema Kumari

2008-01-01

397

Genome Sequence of OXA-48 Carbapenemase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae KpO3210  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae KpO3210 is a OXA-48 carbapenemase-producing isolate obtained from a blood culture in the context of an outbreak in Hospital Universitario La Paz (Madrid, Spain) in 2010. It belongs to the major clone detected during the outbreak and is resistant to all beta-lactams and to several other antibiotics.

Wesselink, Jan-Jaap; Lopez-Camacho, Elena; de la Pena, Santiago; Ramos-Ruiz, Ricardo; Ruiz-Carrascoso, Guillermo; Lusa-Bernal, Silvia; Fernandez-Soria, Victor M.; Gomez-Gil, Rosa

2012-01-01

398

Comparision of Aerosol and Intramuscular Kanamycin Treatment of Respiratory 'Klebsiella pneumoniae' Infection in a Subhuman Primate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of i.m.- and aerosol-administered kanamycin for the treatment of pneumonia due to Klebsiella pneumoniae in the squirrel monkey. Both routes were equally effective in preventing mortality, inhibiting ...

R. F. Berendt M. A. Schneider F. R. Frola H. W. Young M. C. Powanda

1978-01-01

399

Novel VIM Metallo-?-Lactamase Variant, VIM-24, from a Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate from Colombia?  

PubMed Central

We report the emergence of a novel VIM variant (VIM-24) in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate in Colombia. The isolate displays MICs for carbapenems below the resistance breakpoints, posing a real challenge for its detection. The blaVIM-24 gene was located within a class 1 integron carried on a large plasmid. Further studies are needed to clarify its epidemiological and clinical impact.

Montealegre, Maria Camila; Correa, Adriana; Briceno, David F.; Rosas, Natalia C.; De La Cadena, Elsa; Ruiz, Sory J.; Mojica, Maria F.; Camargo, Ruben Dario; Zuluaga, Ivan; Marin, Adriana; Quinn, John P.; Villegas, Maria Virginia

2011-01-01

400

Evaluation of Methods To Identify the Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase in Enterobacteriaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenem (KPC) -lactamase occurs in Enterobacteriaceae and can confer resistance to all -lactam agents including carbapenems. The enzyme may confer low-level carbapenem resistance, and the failure of susceptibility methods to identify this resistance has been reported. Automated and nonautomated methods for carbapenem susceptibility were evaluated for identification of KPC-mediated resistance. Ertapenem was a more sensitive indicator of

K. F. Anderson; D. R. Lonsway; J. K. Rasheed; J. Biddle; B. Jensen; L. K. McDougal; R. B. Carey; A. Thompson; S. Stocker; B. Limbago; J. B. Patel

2007-01-01

401

Development of a Fermentation Process for Production of an Alginate G-Lyase from 'Klebsiella pneumoniae'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high-cell-density fermentation process for production of an extracellular alginate lyase from Klebsiella pneumoniae on a defined medium has been developed. The process employs a strategy using two carbon sources. One low-molecular-mass, low-viscosity ca...

N. Dyrset K. Q. Lystad D. W. Levine

1994-01-01

402

Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Producing Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamases in Spain: Microbiological and Clinical Features?  

PubMed Central

Extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL) of the CTX-M, SHV, and TEM families were recognized in 76 (67%), 31 (27%), and 6 (5%) isolates, respectively, among 162 ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp) strains obtained in a multicenter study in Spain. Predisposing factors for ESBL-Kp acquisition included invasive procedures, mechanical ventilation, and previous antimicrobial use.

de Alegria, C. Ruiz; Rodriguez-Bano, J.; Cano, M. E.; Hernandez-Bello, J. R.; Calvo, J.; Roman, E.; Diaz, M. A.; Pascual, A.; Martinez-Martinez, L.

2011-01-01

403

Protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis against Klebsiella pneumoniae induced pneumonia in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & objectives: Emblica officinalis (amla), which is a good source of vitamin C, has been shown to be beneficial due to its immune system enhancing property coupled with its tonifying and antiageing effect. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of E. officinalis feeding on the susceptibility of experimental mice to respiratory tract infection induced by Klebsiella

A. Saini; S. Sharma; S. Chhibber

404

A naturally acquired infection of laboratory mice with Klebsiella Capsule type 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY An epizootic causing high morbidity and high mortality in Swiss White and Nude mice over a period of 3 weeks was caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae Capsule type 6, which is considered to be nonpathogenic for mice. Experimental inoculation of this organism into laboratory animals caused death within 36 hours, further substantiating its virulence. 305

Helen D. Schneemilch

1976-01-01

405

Neonatal Klebsiella Septicaemia in Ibadan: Implications for Neonatal Care in Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The antecedent events, clinical features, prevalence, and complications of neonatal Klebsiella septicaemia in 73 infants admitted to a special care baby unit in Nigeria are retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 72 infants who had no risk factors for sepsis admitted to the same unit during the same period. A nosocomial acquisition of…

Omokhodion, S. I.; And Others

1993-01-01

406

Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates Producing Inducible DHA1 Lactamase in a University Hospital in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten nonrepetitive clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae exhibiting an unusual inducible -lactam resis- tance phenotype were identified between January 1999 and September 2001 in a university hospital in Taiwan. In the presence of 2 g of clavulanic acid, the isolates showed a one to four twofold concentration increase in the MICs of ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and aztreonam but remained susceptible to

Jing-Jou Yan; Wen-Chien Ko; Yun-Chih Jung; Chin-Luan Chuang; Jiunn-Jong Wu

407

Absence of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Klebsiella pneumoniae antigens within inflammatory bowel disease tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli, listeria, and streptococcal antigens have been found in Crohn's disease tissues. Antibodies to Klebsiella pneumoniae have been found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and ankylosing spondylitis. The presence of these bacterial antigens in Crohn's granulomas would be of aetiological interest, while their presence in ulcers alone would be more likely to indicate secondary infection. AIM: To

R. S. Walmsley; A. Anthony; R. Sim; R. E. Pounder; A. J. Wakefield

1998-01-01

408

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Klebsiella pneumonia recovered from nonhuman primates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a zoonotic, Gram-negative member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and is the causative agent of nosocomial septicemic, pneumonic, and urinary tract infections. Recently, pathogenic strains of K. pneumoniae sharing a hypermucoviscosity (HMV) phenotype have been attributed to ...

409

PCR-Based Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, the Agent of Rhinoscleroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhinoscleroma is a chronic granulomatous infection of the upper airways caused by the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis. The disease is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, but its diagnosis remains difficult. As a consequence, and despite available antibiotherapy, some patients evolve advanced stages that can lead to disfiguration, severe respiratory impairment and death by anoxia. Because identification of the

Cindy Fevre; Virginie Passet; Alexis Deletoile; Valérie Barbe; Lionel Frangeul; Ana S. Almeida; Philippe Sansonetti; Régis Tournebize; Sylvain Brisse

2011-01-01

410

Early identification and control of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, originating from contaminated endoscopic equipment.  

PubMed

Klebsiella producing carbapenemase is an emerging pathogen. We report transmission of this organism by contaminated endoscopic instruments. Quick identification of source, staff education, contact precautions, and emphasis on hand and environmental hygiene led to case control and prevention of outbreak. PMID:23171594

Alrabaa, Sally F; Nguyen, Phuong; Sanderson, Roger; Baluch, Aliyah; Sandin, Ramon L; Kelker, Danashree; Karlapalem, Chaitanya; Thompson, Peggy; Sams, Kay; Martin, Stacy; Montero, Jose; Greene, John N

2012-11-18

411

New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM-1)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: case report and laboratory detection strategies.  

PubMed

The spread of antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is a significant clinical threat. We report the first case of an Enterobacteriaceae strain harboring the NDM-1 metallo-?-lactamase in a pediatric patient in the United States. We describe strategies for the detection of this novel resistance mechanism encountered in an isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:21325558

Mochon, A Brian; Garner, Omai B; Hindler, Janet A; Krogstad, Paul; Ward, Kevin W; Lewinski, Michael A; Rasheed, James K; Anderson, Karen F; Limbago, Brandi M; Humphries, Romney M

2011-02-16

412

Genetic Diversity of Mastitis-Associated Klebsiella pneumoniae in Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the level of genetic diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae iso- lated from clinical mastitis cases and to define geno- types most commonly associated with the disease. Indi- vidual quarter milk samples were collected from a sin- gle privately owned dairy herd over a 2-yr period and submitted to the Laboratory for Udder Health,

G. G. Paulin-Curlee; R. S. Singer; S. Sreevatsan; R. Isaacson; J. Reneau; D. Foster; R. Bey

2007-01-01

413

Complete Genome Sequence of the 2,3-Butanediol-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain KCTC 2242  

PubMed Central

Here we report the full genome sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae KCTC 2242,consisting of a 5.26-Mb chromosome (57.6% GC%; 5,035 genes [4,923 encoding known proteins, 112 RNA genes]) and a 202-kb plasmid (50.2% GC%; 229 genes [229 encoding known proteins]).

Shin, Sang Heum; Kim, Sewhan; Kim, Jae Young; Lee, Soojin; Um, Youngsoon; Oh, Min-Kyu; Kim, Young-Rok; Lee, Jinwon

2012-01-01

414

A simple and rapid serum bactericidal assay and its evaluation in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and rapid assay for the determination of serum bactericidal activity was developed and evaluated in 125 clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The serum reactivity against these isolates was concomitantly determined by the conventional viable count technique in order to compare the efficacy of the two techniques. The rapid assay could be completed within 5–8 h and the results

Satish K Sharma; Tasneem Fatma; S. S Thukral

1999-01-01

415

Regulation of Gene Expression and Cellular Localization of Cloned Klebsiella aerogenes (K. pneumoniae) Urease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes for Klebsiella aerogenes (K. pneumoniae) urease were cloned and the protein was overexpressed (up to 18% of total protein consisted of this enzyme) in several hosts. The small size of the DNA encoding urease (3.5 kb), the restriction map, and the regulation of enzyme expression directed by the recombinant plasmid are distinct from other cloned ureases. Nickel concentration

SCOTT B. MULROONEY; H. S. PANKRATZ; ROBERT P. HAUSINGER

1989-01-01

416

Molecular analysis of type 3 fimbrial genes from Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Citrobacter species  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common nosocomial infection in the United States and is caused by a range of uropathogens. Biofilm formation by uropathogens that cause CAUTI is often mediated by cell surface structures such as fimbriae. In this study, we characterised the genes encoding type 3 fimbriae from CAUTI strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae,

Cheryl-lynn Y Ong; Scott A Beatson; Makrina Totsika; Christiane Forestier; Alastair G McEwan; Mark A Schembri

2010-01-01

417

Multiple-Antibiotic Resistance Mediated by Plasmids and Integrons in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infection (UTI) is a growing public health problem in the world. In this study, a total of 182 uropathogens were isolated from patients with symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI). Escherichia coli (88%) was the most prevalent isolate, while Klebsiella pneumoniae was recovered from 12% cases. The male\\/female ratio was 1:3. About 56% female and

Taslima Taher Lina; Sabita Rezwana Rahman; Donald James Gomes

2007-01-01

418

Effect of Amino Acids on the Nitrogenase System of Klebsiella Pneumoniae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of exogenous amino acids and the free amino acid pool on the synthesis of the nitrogenase system of Klebsiella pneumoniae M5al (formerly Aerobacter aerogenes M5al) was investigated. When an actively N2-fixing culture was used to inoculate a med...

D. C. Yoch R. M. Pengra

1966-01-01

419

Multidrug resistance in hydrocarbon-tolerant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

New Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from Poeni oily sludge, using enrichment procedures. The six Gram-positive strains belong to Bacillus, Lysinibacillus and Rhodococcus genera. The eight Gram-negative strains belong to Shewanella, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella genera. Isolated bacterial strains were tolerant to saturated (i.e., n-hexane, n-heptane, n-decane, n-pentadecane, n-hexadecane, cyclohexane), monoaromatic (i.e., benzene, toluene, styrene, xylene isomers, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene) and polyaromatic (i.e., naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, fluorene) hydrocarbons, and also resistant to different antimicrobial agents (i.e., ampicillin, kanamycin, rhodamine 6G, crystal violet, malachite green, sodium dodecyl sulfate). The presence of hydrophilic antibiotics like ampicillin or kanamycin in liquid LB-Mg medium has no effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria resistance to toxic compounds. The results indicated that Gram-negative bacteria are less sensitive to toxic compounds than Gram-positive bacteria, except one bacteria belonging to Lysinibacillus genus. There were observed cellular and molecular modifications induced by ampicillin or kanamycin to isolated bacterial strains. Gram-negative bacteria possessed between two and four catabolic genes (alkB, alkM, alkB/alkB1, todC1, xylM, PAH dioxygenase, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase), compared with Gram-positive bacteria (except one bacteria belonging to Bacillus genus) which possessed one catabolic gene (alkB/alkB1). Transporter genes (HAE1, acrAB) were detected only in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:21478643

Stancu, Mihaela Marilena; Grifoll, Magdalena

2011-01-01

420

The role of horizontal gene transfer in the dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in an endemic setting  

PubMed Central

The contribution of horizontal gene transmission (HGT) in the emergence and spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing gram-negative bacteria during periods of endemicity is unclear. Over a 12-month period, rectal colonization with SHV-5 and SHV-12 producing-Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was quantified among a cohort of residents in a long-term care facility. Demographic and clinical data were collected on colonized residents. Transferability of SHV-encoding plasmids and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to quantify the contribution of HGT and cross-transmission, respectively. A total of 25 (12%) of 214 enrolled patients were colonized with 11 SHV-5- and 17 SVH-12-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Clonally-related isolates were detected among multiple residents residing on the same and different wards. Among 12 clonally-distinct isolates, HGT of SHV-5- and SHV-12-encoding plasmids was identified among 6 (50%) isolates. HGT among clonally-distinct strains contributes to the transmission dynamics of these ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria and should be considered when evaluating the spread of these pathogens.

Doi, Yohei; Adams-Haduch, Jennifer M.; Peleg, Anton Y.; D'Agata, Erika MC

2012-01-01

421

Study on mechanisms of colonization of nitrogen-fixing PGPB, Klebsiella pneumoniae NG14 on the root surface of rice and the formation of biofilm.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) refer to the bacteria beneficial to plants, and they may affect the growth and development of plants directly or indirectly. This article studied the activities of nitrogen fixation and colonization of a strain of PGPB, Klebsiella pneumoniae NG14, which was isolated from the rice root surface. The results showed that NG14 harbouring the nifH gene had nitrogenase activity, (15)N(2)-fixing activity, and was able to colonize on the root surface and within the cavity of root vascular tissues of rice. Using proteomics technology to study the differences and changes of membrane proteins (MP) of NG14 bacterial biofilm in non-biological surface, 28 proteins showing significant differences before and after the formation of bacterial biofilm have been identified, in which the precursors of membrane pore protein OmpC relevant to osmotic stress resistance was up-regulated. This study would have positive significance on further understanding of the direct and indirect promotion effects of PGPB and related mechanisms. PMID:21132569

Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Sun, Xiaolu; Yang, Hailian; Wang, Yunshan; Song, Wei

2010-12-07

422

Effect of recombinant human interleukin-2 on the course of experimental chronic respiratory tract infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice.  

PubMed Central

The effect of recombinant human interleukin-2 (rIL-2) on the course of experimental chronic respiratory tract infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice was examined. rIL-2 was administered subcutaneously once a day for 7 or 14 days, starting 2 weeks after the mice were infected. Administration of 2 or 20 micrograms of rIL-2 per mouse daily for 7 days reduced bacterial counts in the lungs dose dependently. At a dose of 0.2 microgram per day, proliferation of bacteria in the lungs was suppressed after 14 days of administration. Agglutinin titers in serum were not affected by rIL-2 treatment. Monocyte and lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood were increased by administration of 20 micrograms of rIL-2 daily for 14 days but not by treatment for 7 days. In addition, clearance of bacteria from the lungs after aerosol exposure was enhanced by treatment for 7 days before infection. Thus, rIL-2 acted therapeutically or prophylactically in the presence or absence, respectively, of a specific antigen. These effects were not abolished by anti-asialo GM1 antibody. This suggests that activation of natural killer cells does not play a critical role in the therapeutic and prophylactic effects of rIL-2.

Iizawa, Y; Nishi, T; Kondo, M; Tsuchiya, K; Imada, A

1988-01-01

423

Effects of microamperage, medium, and bacterial concentration on iontophoretic killing of bacteria in fluid.  

PubMed Central

Prevention of nosocomial urinary tract infections by iontophoresis is addressed. An iontophoretic generator was used to provide microamperage (10 to 400 microA) to vials containing either synthetic urine or supplemented synthetic urine. Bacteria were added to vials, and parameters of growth, bacterial killing, and multiple electrode materials were examined. Escherichia coli and Proteus species were both inhibited and killed at various microamperages and with several electrode types, the most efficient being gold-gold as the anode-cathode combination. Klebsiella pneumoniae in supplemented synthetic urine was least inhibited in growth, and higher microamperage (200 to 400 microA) was most effective in killing the bacteria. Bacterial growth reduction and killing were directly related to increasing microamperage and were inversely related to bacterial concentration. Images

Davis, C P; Weinberg, S; Anderson, M D; Rao, G M; Warren, M M

1989-01-01

424

Modeling Klebsiella pneumoniae Pathogenesis by Infection of the Wax Moth Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

The implementation of infection models that approximate human disease is essential for understanding pathogenesis at the molecular level and for testing new therapies before they are entered into clinical stages. Insects are increasingly being used as surrogate hosts because they share, with mammals, essential aspects of the innate immune response to infections. We examined whether the larva of the wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used as a host model to conceptually approximate Klebsiella pneumoniae-triggered pneumonia. We report that the G. mellonella model is capable of distinguishing between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Klebsiella strains. Moreover, K. pneumoniae infection of G. mellonella models some of the known features of Klebsiella-induced pneumonia, i.e., cell death associated with bacterial replication, avoidance of phagocytosis by phagocytes, and the attenuation of host defense responses, chiefly the production of antimicrobial factors. Similar to the case for the mouse pneumonia model, activation of innate responses improved G. mellonella survival against subsequent Klebsiella challenge. Virulence factors necessary in the mouse pneumonia model were also implicated in the Galleria model. We found that mutants lacking capsule polysaccharide, lipid A decorations, or the outer membrane proteins OmpA and OmpK36 were attenuated in Galleria. All mutants activated G. mellonella defensive responses. The Galleria model also allowed us to monitor Klebsiella gene expression. The expression levels of cps and the loci implicated in lipid A remodeling peaked during the first hours postinfection, in a PhoPQ- and PmrAB-governed process. Taken together, these results support the utility of G. mellonella as a surrogate host for assessing infections with K. pneumoniae. PMID:23836821

Insua, José Luis; Llobet, Enrique; Moranta, David; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Camino; Tomás, Anna; Garmendia, Junkal; Bengoechea, José A

2013-07-08

425

MOTILE MARINE BACTERIA I.  

PubMed Central

Leifson, Einar (Loyola University, Chicago, Ill.), B. J. Cosenza, R. Murchelano, and R. C. Cleverdon. Motile marine bacteria. I. Techniques, ecology, and general characteristics. J. Bacteriol. 87:652–666. 1964.—Aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the waters of the Long Island Sound, Narragansett Bay, Atlantic Ocean, and from the intestine of a variety of marine animals found along the shore of the Long Island Sound. A total of about 600 cultures of motile bacteria were studied morphologically and physiologically, with special emphasis on flagellar characteristics. The great majority of the bacteria isolated from the water were polar flagellate, nonfermentative, nonpigmented, and gramnegative. Most of these were straight, capsulated rods, but a considerable number were curved like vibrios. Yellow-pigmented isolates were often nonmotile, and the motile forms were most frequently subpolar flagellate. Several rosette-forming bacteria, including Caulobacter species, were isolated. Two typical spirilla and one flagellated coccus were found. Peritrichous flagellate bacteria, both gram-positive and gram-negative, were rare except in bottom mud. The normal intestinal flora of marine animals, such as fish and shellfish, consisted of polar flagellate, fermentative, non-pigmented, gram-negative, straight rods. Curved forms, like vibrios, were less common. Polar multitrichous flagellate forms were not uncommon and included all the luminescent types isolated. A considerable proportion of the polar monotrichous flagellate rods swarmed over the surface of agar media. When grown on solid media, all of these showed mixed polar and lateral flagellation; in liquid media, mainly polar flagellation was found. The ecology and general taxonomy of marine bacteria are discussed. Images

Leifson, Einar; Cosenza, B. J.; Murchelano, R.; Cleverdon, R. C.

1964-01-01

426

Enterotoxigenic Bacteria in Food and Water from an Ethiopian Community  

PubMed Central

Food and water samples from an Ethiopian community were screened for the presence of enterotoxin-producing bacteria. Using the Chinese hamster ovary cell assay, 40 of 213 isolates (18.8%) produced heat-labile (LT) enterotoxin. These LT-producing isolates comprised 33 of 177 (18.6%) strains from 24 of 68 food samples (35.3%) and 7 of 36 (19.4%) isolates of 4 of 17 water samples (23.5%). One LT-producing strain each of Salmonella emek and of Shigella dysenteriae was found. Three pseudomonads, all LT producers, produced heat-stable enterotoxin as gauged by the suckling mouse test. Two strains of LT-enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O68 were found in water samples. No enterotoxigenic E. coli were isolated from food samples, but 13 of the LT-producing strains were Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Serratia, and Proteus species, and 7 food samples yielded more than one species of enterotoxigenic bacterium. Of the enterotoxigenic isolates from food, 15 were oxidase-positive strains of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, and Vibrio. LT-enterotoxigenic Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus, Providencia, and Serratia species represented 20 of the food and water isolates. Culture supernatant fluids of representative strains of oxidase-positive and oxidase-negative species giving positive reactions in Chinese hamster ovary cell tests induced fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal loops. Eight of the food samples and two of the water samples contained more than one isolate or species of enterotoxigenic bacterium. The stability of the LT production by oxidase-positive bacteria and non-E. coli strains was assessed by the rabbit skin and adrenal cell tests after 9 months and 1 year of storage, respectively, in Trypticase soy broth with glycerol at ?70°C. Only 33% of the oxidase-positive strains were still LT enterotoxigenic. Of the oxidase-negative strains, 50 and 33% were LT producing at 9 months and 1 year, respectively. None of the E. coli isolates, both enterotoxigenic and nonenterotoxigenic, possessed K88, K99, or colonization factor antigen. The survey demonstrates the presence in food and water of enterotoxigenic bacteria of the same species as those isolated from cases of infantile diarrhea in the same community, although a correlation between these sources and infantile diarrhea remains to be established. Images

Jiwa, Sadruddin F. H.; Krovacek, Karel; Wadstrom, Torkel

1981-01-01

427

Antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria by human vaginal lactobacilli.  

PubMed

This study attempted to isolate lactobacilli strains from healthy vaginal ecosystem to search for a new effective antibacterial probiotic strain. The strains were identified and characterized for their probiotic properties including bile salt and acid tolerance, growth at acidic pH, their ability to utilize protein, starch, and lipid, the production of hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocin as well as their antibiotic resistance patterns. The antibacterial activity of the culture supernatant of these strains were tested against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae. Salmonella typhi, and Salmonella typhimurium. None of the strains inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria. Contrastly, the culture supernatant of strain L 22, identified as Lactobacillus reuteri, significantly inhibited all of the clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The antibacterial effect of the selected strain L 22 was further investigated. In the presence of L 22, the bacterial growth was assessed in vitro by viable bacterial counting. The numbers of viable cells were significantly lower in L 22-containing broth than those in the control by 6h. This finding clearly demonstrates that strain L 22 can produce an anti-MRSA effect. The antibacterial ability of the strain L 22 was fundamentally attributed to their bacteriocin production which can cause both cell inhibition and cell death. PMID:16931064

Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Bilasoi, Sopa; Supamala, Orawan

2006-08-23

428

Sex differences in the impact of ozone on survival and alveolar macrophage function of mice after Klebsiella pneumoniae infection  

PubMed Central

Background Sex differences have been described in a number of pulmonary diseases. However, the impact of ozone exposure followed by pneumonia infection on sex-related survival and macrophage function have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ozone exposure differentially affects: 1) survival of male and female mice infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 2) the phagocytic ability of macrophages from these mice. Methods Male and female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to O3 or to filtered air (FA) (control) and then infected intratracheally with K. pneumoniae bacteria. Survival was monitored over a 14-day period, and the ability of alveolar macrophages to phagocytize the pathogen in vivo was investigated after 1 h. Results 1) Both male and female mice exposed to O3 are significantly more susceptible to K. pneumoniae infection than mice treated with FA; 2) although females appeared to be more resistant to K. pneumoniae than males, O3 exposure significant