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1

A Bod Sensor Using Klebsiella Oxytoca AS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A BOD sensor using Klebsiella oxytoca AS 1 was investigated with special emphasis on the effect of cell properties, such as the number, and growth phase, of immobilized cells, on the sensor response. The sensor response was almost independent of the cell number in the case of low BOD solutions, whereas the response increased with increasing cell number when high

A. Ohki; K. Shinohara; O. Ito; K. Naka; S. Maeda; T. Sato; H. Akano; N. Kato; Y. Kawamura

1994-01-01

2

Cytotoxic and Pathogenic Properties of Klebsiella oxytoca Isolated from Laboratory Animals  

E-print Network

Klebsiella oxytoca is an opportunistic pathogen implicated in various clinical diseases in animals and humans. Studies suggest that in humans K. oxytoca exerts its pathogenicity in part through a cytotoxin. However, cytotoxin ...

Darby, Alison

3

Improvements In Ethanologenic Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella Oxytoca  

SciTech Connect

The current Verenium cellulosic ethanol process is based on the dilute-acid pretreatment of a biomass feedstock, followed by a two-stage fermentation of the pentose sugar-containing hydrolysate by a genetically modified ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain and a separate simultaneous saccharification-fermentation (SSF) of the cellulosic fraction by a genetically modified ethanologenic Klebsiella oxytoca strain and a fungal enzyme cocktail. In order to reduce unit operations and produce a fermentation beer with higher ethanol concentrations to reduce distillation costs, we have proposed to develop a simultaneous saccharification co-fermentation (SScF) process, where the fermentation of the pentose-containing hydrolysate and cellulosic fraction occurs within the same fermentation vessel. In order to accomplish this goal, improvements in the ethanologens must be made to address a number of issues that arise, including improved hydrolysate tolerance, co-fermentation of the pentose and hexose sugars and increased ethanol tolerance. Using a variety of approaches, including transcriptomics, strain adaptation, metagenomics and directed evolution, this work describes the efforts of a team of scientists from Verenium, University of Florida, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Genomatica to improve the E. coli and K. oxytoca ethanologens to meet these requirements.

Dr. David Nunn

2010-09-30

4

Introduction of an NADH regeneration system into Klebsiella oxytoca leads to an enhanced oxidative and reductive metabolism of glycerol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Redox cofactors play crucial roles in the metabolic and regulatory network of living organisms. We reported here the effect of introducing a heterogeneous NADH regeneration system into Klebsiella oxytoca on cell growth and glycerol metabolism. Expression of fdh gene from Candida boidinii in K. oxytoca resulted in higher intracellular concentrations of both NADH and NAD+ during the fermentation metaphase, with

Yanping Zhang; Zhihua Huang; Chenyu Du; Yin Li; Zhu’an Cao

2009-01-01

5

The respiratory responses to cyanide of a cyanide-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca bacterial strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The respiratory system of a cyanide-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca was analyzed by monitoring the changes in the cytochrome contents in response to various inhibitors in the presence of various concentrations of cyanide. The cells grown in the medium without cyanide (KCN) have two terminal oxidases, cytochrome d (Ki=10?5 M KCN) and o (Ki=10?3 M KCN). When cells were grown on medium

Ssu-Ching Chena; Jong-Kang Liu

1999-01-01

6

Genetics of a Novel Starch Utilisation Pathway Present in Klebsiella oxytoca  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 14.3 kb DNA fragment fromKlebsiella oxytocaM5a1 has been cloned and shown to provideEscherichia coliwith the capacity for growth on ?- and ?-cyclodextrins. This fragment is located immediately upstream of the previously identifiedcgtgene coding for cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase. It contains ten genes (cym) organised in two divergently oriented clusters separated by a non-coding region of 419 bp. Four of the genes

G. Fiedler; M. Pajatsch; A. Böck

1996-01-01

7

A study of the prevalence of cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic Klebsiella oxytoca fecal colonization in two patient populations  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Klebsiella oxytoca is a cause of antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis. Few reports of the occurrence of K oxytoca within stool exist and there is no gold standard method for its isolation. METHODS: MacConkey agar was modified to culture K oxytoca. Ampicillin was added and adonitol was substituted for lactose. Rectal swabs from 200 patients being screened for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and stool specimens from 429 patients who tested negative for Clostridium difficile cytotoxin were cultured. K oxytoca isolates were evaluated for cytotoxicity to HEp-2 cells. Available charts of K oxytoca-positive patients and a convenience sample of 93 K oxytoca-negative patients who underwent testing for C difficile cytotoxicity were reviewed retrospectively for documentation of bloody stool. RESULTS: K oxytoca was isolated from 14 of 200 patients (7.0%) being screened for VRE; only one of the 14 isolates (7.1%) was cytotoxic. The organism was isolated from 42 of 429 patients (9.8%) tested for C difficile cytotoxicity; 10 isolates (23.8%) were cytotoxic. Differences in isolation and cytotoxicity rates between groups were not statistically significant. Two of 13 (15.4%) K oxytoca-positive patients screened for VRE, three of 27 (11.1%) K oxytoca-positive patients tested for C difficile cytotoxicity, and 11 of 93 (11.8%) patients from the convenience sample had documented bloody stool. CONCLUSIONS: A medium that greatly facilitates isolation of K oxytoca was developed. Occurrence of K oxytoca colonization was similar in the two patient populations studied and isolation of cytotoxic K oxytoca was not usually associated with hematochezia. Current understanding of the occurrence and causality of antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis is insufficient for clinical laboratories to begin culturing K oxytoca and testing for cytotoxicity. PMID:21119796

Smith, Stephen A; Campbell, Sarah J; Webster, Duncan; Curley, Michael; Leddin, Desmond; Forward, Kevin R

2009-01-01

8

Klebsiella ornithinolytica sp. nov., formerly known as ornithine-positive Klebsiella oxytoca  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nameKlebsiella ornithinolytica sp. nov. is proposed for a group ofKlebsiella strains referred to previously as NIH Group 12 at the National Institute of Health, Tokyo. The members of this species are Gram-negative, encapsulated, nonmotile rods with the general characteristics of the familyEnterobacteriaceae and of the genusKlebsiella. They give positive results in tests for indole production, Voges-Proskauer, citrate utilization, lysine

R. Sakazaki; K. Tamura; Y. Kosako; E. Yoshizaki

1989-01-01

9

Epidemiology of Klebsiella oxytoca-associated diarrhea detected by Simmons citrate agar supplemented with inositol, tryptophan, and bile salts.  

PubMed

We studied the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Klebsiella oxytoca-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients in Hong Kong. Between 1 November 2009 and 30 April 2011, all inositol-fermenting colonies found on Simmons citrate agar supplemented with inositol, tryptophan, and bile salts (SCITB agar) used for the culturing of diarrheal stool samples were screened by a spot indole test for K. oxytoca. The overall sensitivity of SCITB agar plus the spot indole test (93.3%) for the detection of K. oxytoca in stool samples was superior to that of MacConkey agar (63.3%), while the specificities were 100% and 60.4%, respectively. The former achieved a 23-fold reduction in the workload and cost of subsequent standard biochemical identifications. Cytotoxin production and the clonality of K. oxytoca were determined by a cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay using HEp-2 cells and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Of 5,581 stool samples from 3,537 patients, K. oxytoca was cultured from 117/5,581 (2.1%) stool samples from 104/3,537 (2.9%) patients. Seventy-six of 104 (73.1%) patients with K. oxytoca had no copathogens in their diarrheal stool samples. Twenty-four (31.6%) of 76 patients carried cytotoxin-producing strains, which were significantly associated with antibiotic therapy after hospital admission (50% versus 21.2%; P = 0.01). Health care-associated diarrhea was found in 44 (42%) of 104 patients with K. oxytoca, but there was no epidemiological linkage suggestive of a nosocomial outbreak, and PFGE showed a diverse pattern. None of the patients with cytotoxin-producing K. oxytoca developed antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis, suggesting that K. oxytoca can cause a mild disease manifesting as uncomplicated antibiotic-associated diarrhea with winter seasonality. PMID:22357507

Cheng, Vincent C C; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Tsang, Lee-Lee; Yau, Miranda C Y; Siu, Gilman K H; Wong, Sally C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; To, Kelvin K W; Tse, Herman; Hung, Ivan F N; Tai, Josepha W M; Ho, Pak-Leung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2012-05-01

10

Enhancement of 2,3-Butanediol Production by Klebsiella oxytoca PTCC 1402  

PubMed Central

Optimal operating parameters of 2,3-Butanediol production using Klebsiella oxytoca under submerged culture conditions are determined by using Taguchi method. The effect of different factors including medium composition, pH, temperature, mixing intensity, and inoculum size on 2,3-butanediol production was analyzed using the Taguchi method in three levels. Based on these analyses the optimum concentrations of glucose, acetic acid, and succinic acid were found to be 6, 0.5, and 1.0 (% w/v), respectively. Furthermore, optimum values for temperature, inoculum size, pH, and the shaking speed were determined as 37°C, 8 (g/L), 6.1, and 150?rpm, respectively. The optimal combinations of factors obtained from the proposed DOE methodology was further validated by conducting fermentation experiments and the obtained results revealed an enhanced 2,3-Butanediol yield of 44%. PMID:21318172

Anvari, Maesomeh; Safari Motlagh, Mohammad Reza

2011-01-01

11

Genetic control of nitrate assimilation in Klebsiella oxytoca. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Some microorganisms can use nitrate as the sole source of nitrogen for biosynthesis. This project focused on the bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, an enterobacterium found in soil and water. Mutagenesis and molecular cloning identified the nasFEDCBA operon encoding enzymes for the uptake and reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium, and the adjacent nasR regulatory gene. Analysis of nasF operon expression revealed that transcription is activated by the Ntr (general nitrogen regulation ) system in response to nitrogen limitation. Transcription antitermination control in response to nitrate and nitrite is mediated by the NasR protein. Additional work established that the NasR protein is an RNA-binding protein that interacts with nasF operon leader RNA to control transcription readthrough.

Stewart, Valley J.

2001-04-01

12

Biofilm growth of individual and dual strains of Klebsiella oxytoca from the dairy industry on ultrafiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of biofilms in dairy membrane plants causes membrane pore blocking, product contamination and subsequent economic\\u000a loss. To investigate the biofilm growth, two Klebsiella\\u000a oxytoca strains, K. B006 and TR002, previously isolated from New Zealand dairy membrane plants, were grown both individually and combined on\\u000a three types of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in different concentrations of whey medium in biofilm reactors

Xuemei Tang; Steve H. Flint; Rod J. Bennett; John D. Brooks; R. Hugh Morton

2009-01-01

13

First Description of KPC-2-Producing Klebsiella oxytoca Isolated from a Pediatric Patient with Nosocomial Pneumonia in Venezuela  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, carbapenem resistance has emerged among clinical isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae family. This has been increasingly attributed to the production of ?-lactamases capable of hydrolyzing carbapenems. Among these enzymes, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) are the most frequently and clinically significant class-A carbapenemases. In this report, we describe the first nosocomial KPC-2-producing K. oxytoca isolated from a pediatric patient with pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit at The Andes University Hospital, Mérida, Venezuela. This strain was resistant to several antibiotics including imipenem, ertapenem, and meropenem but remained susceptible to ciprofloxacin, colistin, and tigecycline. Conjugation assays demonstrated the transferability of all resistance determinants, except aminoglycosides. The isolate LMM-SA26 carried a ~21?kb conjugative plasmid that harbored the blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-8, and blaTEM-15 genes. Although carbapenem resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae is still unusual in Venezuela, KPCs have a great potential to spread due to their localization on mobile genetic elements. Therefore, rapid detection of KPC-carrying bacteria with phenotypic and confirmatory molecular tests is essential to establish therapeutic options and effective control measures.

Labrador, Indira

2014-01-01

14

Piperacillin Tazobactam Compared with Co-Amoxiclav, Ampicillin plus Sulbactam and Timentin against Beta-Lactamase-Producing Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 266 enterobacterial isolates (Escherichia coli = 190, Klebsiella pneumoniae = 49, K. oxytoca = 27) were tested for susceptibility (Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion test and agar dilution procedure) to ampicillin, ampicillin in 10 ?g\\/ml of sulbactam, amoxicillin in 4 ?g\\/ml of clavulanic acid, piperacillin, piperacillin plus tazobactam (8:1 ratio), ticarcillin and timentin (ticarcillin in 4 ?g\\/ml of

Walter H. Traub; Birgit Leonhard

1995-01-01

15

XAS analysis of a nanostructured iron polysaccharide produced anaerobically by a strain of Klebsiella oxytoca.  

PubMed

A strain of Klebsiella oxytoca, isolated from acid pyrite-mine drainage, characteristically produces a ferric hydrogel, consisting of branched heptasaccharide repeating units exopolysaccharide (EPS), with metal content of 36 wt%. The high content of iron in the EPS matrix cannot be explained by a simple ferric ion bond to the sugar skeleton. The bio-generated Fe-EPS is investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Fe K-edge XANES analysis shows that iron is mostly in trivalent form, with a non-negligible amount of Fe(2+) in the structure. The Fe EXAFS results indicate that iron in the sample is in a mineralized form, prevalently in the form of nano-sized particles of iron oxides/hydroxides, most probably a mixture of different nano-crystalline forms. TEM shows that these nanoparticles are located in the interior of the EPS matrix, as in ferritin. The strain produces Fe-EPS to modulate Fe-ions uptake from the cytoplasm to avoid iron toxicity under anaerobic conditions. This microbial material is potentially applicable as iron regulator. PMID:22585084

Ar?on, Iztok; Piccolo, Oreste; Paganelli, Stefano; Baldi, Franco

2012-10-01

16

Effects of nano zero-valent iron on Klebsiella oxytoca and stress response.  

PubMed

Nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) is a new option for contaminated soil and groundwater treatment, despite little is known on their impact on environmental microorganisms. Klebsiella oxytoca K5 strain, isolated from the NZVI-treated soil, was used to investigate the bacterial, phenotypical and molecular response to commercial NZVI exposure. Cytotoxicity assays at three NZVI concentrations (1, 5 and 10 mg mL(-1)) suggested a negligible bacteriostatic effect and the lack of bactericidal effect. Structural changes were analysed by electronic microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of NZVI around some bacterial cells, but no apparent morphological changes were seen. NZVI attachment to the cell surface was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, although most of them were not affected. A proteomic approach (two-dimensional electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) was used to investigate NZVI impact. For the first time to our knowledge, results revealed that exposure of a soil bacterium to NZVI resulted in the overproduction of tryptophanase, associated with oxidative stress response. K5 may set up an adaptative stress response involving indole as a signal molecule to inform the bacterial population about environmental changes. These findings would improve knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial response to NZVI exposure. PMID:23893265

Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Fajardo, Carmen; Nande, Mar; Martín, Margarita

2013-11-01

17

Fermentation of crystalline cellulose to ethanol by Klebsiella oxytoca containing chromosomally integrated zymomonas mobilis genes  

SciTech Connect

Complete enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose is generally required for efficient fermentation to ethanol. This hydrolysis requires endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and cellobiase. The Gram-negative bacterium, Klebsiella oxytoca, contains the native ability to transport and metabolize cellobiose, minimizing the need for extracellular cellobiase. Strain P2 is a recombinant derivative in which the Zymomonas mobilis pdc and adhB genes have been integrated into the chromosome and expressed, directing the metabolism of pyruvate to ethanol. This organism has been evaluated in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) experiments to determine optimal conditions and limits of performance. The temperature was varied between 32 and 40{degree}C over a pH range of 5.0-5.8 with 100 g/L crystalline cellulose (Sigmacell 50, Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, MO) as the substrate and commercial cellulase (Spezyme CE, South San Francisco, CA). A broad optimum for SSF was observed, with a pH of 5.2-5.5 and temperatures of 32-35{degree}C, which allowed the production of over 44 g of ethanol/L (81-86% of the maximum theoretical yield). Although the rate of ethanol production increased with cellulase, diminishing improvements were observed at enzyme loadings above 10 filter paper units/g of cellulose. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Doran, J.B.; Ingram, L.O. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1993-09-01

18

Characterization of FOX3, an AmpC-Type Plasmid-Mediated bLactamase from an Italian Isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella oxytoca 1731, which showed a wide spectrum of resistance to b-lactams, including cefoxitin, was isolated in 1994 from a patient in Genoa, Italy. This strain contained a plasmid-mediated AmpC b-lactamase with a pI of 7.25. Sequencing of the corresponding DNA of K. oxytoca 1731 revealed 96 and 97% identities of the deduced amino acid sequence with FOX-1 and FOX-2,

ANNA MARCHESE; GUILLAUME ARLET; GIAN CARLO SCHITO; PHILIPPE H. LAGRANGE; ALAIN PHILIPPON

1998-01-01

19

Influence of carbon source on nitrate removal by nitrate-tolerant Klebsiella oxytoca CECT 4460 in batch and chemostat cultures  

SciTech Connect

The nitrate-tolerant organism Klebsiella oxytoca CECT-4460 tolerates nitrate at concentrations up to 1 M and is used to treat wastewater with high nitrate loads in industrial wastewater treatment plants. The authors studied the influence of the C source (glycerol or sucrose or both) on the growth rate and the efficiency of nitrate removal under laboratory conditions. With sucrose as the sole C source the maximum specific growth rate was 0.3 h{sup {minus}1}, whereas with glycerol it was 0.45 h{sup {minus}1}. In batch cultures K. oxytoca cells grown on sucrose or glycerol were able to immediately use sucrose as a sole C source, suggesting that sucrose uptake and metabolism were constitutive. In contrast, glycerol uptake occurred preferentially in glycerol-grown cells. Independent of the preculture conditions, when sucrose and glycerol were added simultaneously to batch cultures, the sucrose was used first, and once the supply of sucrose was exhausted, the glycerol was consumed. Utilization of nitrate as an N source occurred without nitrite of ammonium accumulation when glycerol was used, but nitrite accumulated when sucrose was used. In chemostat cultures K. oxytoca CECT 4460 efficiently removed nitrate without accumulation of nitrite or ammonium when sucrose, glycerol, or mixtures of these two C sources were used. The growth yields and the efficiencies of C and N utilization were determined at different growth rates in chemostat cultures. Regardless of the C source, yield carbon (Y{sub C}) ranged between 1.3 and 1.0 g (dry weight) per g of sucrose C or glycerol C consumed. Regardless of the specific growth rate and the C source, yield nitrogen (Y{sub N}) ranged from 17.2 to 12.5 g (dry weight) per g of nitrate N consumed.

Pinar, G.; Ramos, J.L. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Granada (Spain); Kovarova, K.; Egli, T. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Environmental Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Dept. of Microbiology

1998-08-01

20

Fermentation of starch by Klebsiella oxytoca P2, containing plasmids with {alpha}-amylase and pullulanase genes  

SciTech Connect

Klebsiella oxytoca P2(pC46), an ethanol-producing recombinant, has been evaluated in fermentation of maltose and starch. The maximum ethanol produced by P2(pC46) was 0.34 g ethanol/g maltose and 0.38, 0.40, or 0.36 g ethanol/g starch in fermentation of 1, 2, or 4% starch, representing 68, 71, and 64% the theoretical yield. The pC46 plasmid transformed to cells of K. oxytoca P2 reduced the ethanol production from maltose and starch. In fermentation of starch after its digestion at 60 C for 24 h, in two-step fermentation, the time for maximum ethanol production was reduced to 12--24 h and the theoretical yield was around 90%. The increase in starch concentration resulted in lower {alpha}-amylase activity but in higher pullulanase activity. The high activity and thermostability of the amylolytic enzymes from this transformant suggest that it has a potential for amylolytic enzymes source.

Santos, V.L. dos; Araujo, E.F.; Barros, E.G. de; Guimaraes, W.V.

1999-12-20

21

Production of allitol from D-psicose by a novel isolated strain of Klebsiella oxytoca G4A4.  

PubMed

A novel bacterium capable of producing allitol from D-psicose was isolated from soil and identified as Klebsiella oxytoca G4A4. An efficient method for the transformation of D-psicose to allitol was achieved through the resting cell reaction. Ribitol as an inducer is suitable for cell cultivation, and cells are most active in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0) at 37?°C with a density of 40 (OD600?nm ). After the reaction, the final conversion rates of the washed cells were approximately 87, 83, and 55% at D-psicose concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, and 1%, respectively. The product from D-psicose was purified and determined to be allitol by high-performance liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:24771547

Han, Wenjia; Zhu, Yueming; Men, Yan; Yang, Jiangang; Liu, Can; Sun, Yuanxia

2014-10-01

22

Comparative In Vitro Activities of Ciprofloxacin, Clinafloxacin, Gatifloxacin, Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, and Trovafloxacin against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, and Enterobacter aerogenes Clinical Isolates with Alterations in GyrA and ParC Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro activities of ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and trovafloxa- cin were tested against 72 ciprofloxacin-resistant and 28 ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates of Klebsiella pneu- moniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, and Enterobacter aerogenes. Irrespective of the alterations in GyrA and ParC proteins, clinafloxacin exhibited greater activity than all other fluoroquinolones tested against K. pneumoniae and E. aerogenes.

SYLVAIN BRISSE; DANA MILATOVIC; AD C. FLUIT; JAN VERHOEF; NELE MARTIN; SYBILLE SCHEURING; KARL KOHRER; FRANZ-JOSEF SCHMITZ

1999-01-01

23

Cloning and construction of recombinant palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca on pET-32b into E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS for production of isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Klebsiella oxytoca produces sucrose isomerase which catalyses the conversion of sucrose to isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar. From the previous study, palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca was succesfully isolated from sapodilla fruit (Manilkara zapota). The full-length palI gene sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca was cloned in E. coli DH5?. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 498 residues which includes conserved motif for sucrose isomerisation 325RLDRD329 and 97% identical to palI gene from Klebsiella sp. LX3 (GenBank:AAK82938.1). This fragment was succesfullly ligated into the expression vector pET-32b using overlap-extension PCR and cloned in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. DNA sequencing result shows that palI gene of Klebsiella oxytoca was inserted in-frame in pET-32b. This is the first report on cloning of palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca.

Moeis, Maelita R.; Berlian, Liska; Suhandono, Sony; Prima, Alex; Komalawati, Eli; Kristianti, Tati

2014-03-01

24

Isolation and molecular characterization of high-performance cellobiose-fermenting spontaneous mutants of ethanologenic Escherichia coli KO11 containing the Klebsiella oxytoca casAB operon.  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli KO11 was previously constructed to produce ethanol from acid hydrolysates of hemicellulose (pentoses and hexoses) by the chromosomal integration of Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase (adhB). Klebsiella oxytoca P2 was constructed in an analogous fashion for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose and contains PTS enzymes for cellobiose. In this study, KO11 was further engineered for the fermentation of cellulose by adding the K. oxytoca casAB genes encoding Enzyme IIcellobiose and phospho-beta-glucosidase. Although the two K. oxytoca genes were well expressed in cloning hosts such as DH5 alpha, both were expressed poorly in E. coli KO11, a derivative of E. coli B. Spontaneous mutants which exhibited more than 15-fold-higher specific activities for cellobiose metabolism were isolated. The mutations of these mutants resided in the plasmid rather than the host. Three mutants were characterized by sequence analysis. All contained similar internal deletions which eliminated the casAB promoter and operator regions and placed the lacZ Shine-Dalgarno region immediately upstream from the casA Shine-Dalgarno region. KO11 harboring mutant plasmids (pLOI1908, pLOI1909, or pLOI1910) rapidly fermented cellobiose to ethanol, and the yield was more than 90% of the theoretical yield. Two of these strains were used with commercial cellulase to ferment mixed-waste office paper to ethanol. PMID:9406380

Moniruzzaman, M; Lai, X; York, S W; Ingram, L O

1997-01-01

25

Adaptative biochemical pathways and regulatory networks in Klebsiella oxytoca BAS-10 producing a biotechnologically relevant exopolysaccharide during Fe(III)-citrate fermentation  

PubMed Central

Background A bacterial strain previously isolated from pyrite mine drainage and named BAS-10 was tentatively identified as Klebsiella oxytoca. Unlikely other enterobacteria, BAS-10 is able to grow on Fe(III)-citrate as sole carbon and energy source, yielding acetic acid and CO2 coupled with Fe(III) reduction to Fe(II) and showing unusual physiological characteristics. In fact, under this growth condition, BAS-10 produces an exopolysaccharide (EPS) having a high rhamnose content and metal-binding properties, whose biotechnological applications were proven as very relevant. Results Further phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rDNA sequence, definitively confirmed that BAS-10 belongs to K. oxytoca species. In order to rationalize the biochemical peculiarities of this unusual enterobacteriun, combined 2D-Differential Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis and mass spectrometry procedures were used to investigate its proteomic changes: i) under aerobic or anaerobic cultivation with Fe(III)-citrate as sole carbon source; ii) under anaerobic cultivations using Na(I)-citrate or Fe(III)-citrate as sole carbon source. Combining data from these differential studies peculiar levels of outer membrane proteins, key regulatory factors of carbon and nitrogen metabolism and enzymes involved in TCA cycle and sugar biosynthesis or required for citrate fermentation and stress response during anaerobic growth on Fe(III)-citrate were revealed. The protein differential regulation seems to ensure efficient cell growth coupled with EPS production by adapting metabolic and biochemical processes in order to face iron toxicity and to optimize energy production. Conclusion Differential proteomics provided insights on the molecular mechanisms necessary for anaeorobic utilization of Fe(III)-citrate in a biotechnologically promising enterobacteriun, also revealing genes that can be targeted for the rational design of high-yielding EPS producer strains. PMID:23176641

2012-01-01

26

Metabolic Changes in Klebsiella oxytoca in Response to Low Oxidoreduction Potential, as Revealed by Comparative Proteomic Profiling Integrated with Flux Balance Analysis  

PubMed Central

Oxidoreduction potential (ORP) is an important physiological parameter for biochemical production in anaerobic or microaerobic processes. However, the effect of ORP on cellular physiology remains largely unknown, which hampers the design of engineering strategies targeting proteins associated with ORP response. Here we characterized the effect of altering ORP in a 1,3-propanediol producer, Klebsiella oxytoca, by comparative proteomic profiling combined with flux balance analysis. Decreasing the extracellular ORP from ?150 to ?240 mV retarded cell growth and enhanced 1,3-propanediol production. Comparative proteomic analysis identified 61 differentially expressed proteins, mainly involved in carbohydrate catabolism, cellular constituent biosynthesis, and reductive stress response. A hypothetical oxidoreductase (HOR) that catalyzes 1,3-propanediol production was markedly upregulated, while proteins involved in biomass precursor synthesis were downregulated. As revealed by subsequent flux balance analysis, low ORP induced a metabolic shift from glycerol oxidation to reduction and rebalancing of redox and energy metabolism. From the integrated protein expression profiles and flux distributions, we can construct a rational analytic framework that elucidates how (facultative) anaerobes respond to extracellular ORP changes. PMID:24584239

Zhu, Yan; Li, Dan; Bao, Guanhui; Wang, Shaohua; Mao, Shaoming; Song, Jiangning; Li, Yin

2014-01-01

27

Saccharification and fermentation of sugar cane bagasse by Klebsiella oxytoca P2 containing chromosomally integrated genes encoding the Zymomonas mobilis ethanol pathway  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse is essential for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process which uses recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2 and Genencor Spezyme CE. Strain P2 has been genetically engineered to express Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding the ethanol pathway and retains the native ability to transport and metabolize cellobiose (minimizing the need for extracellular cellobiase). In SSF studies with this organism, both the rate of ethanol production and ethanol yield were limited by saccharification at 10 and 20 filter paper units (FPU) g[sup [minus]1] acid-treated bagasse. Dilute slurries of biomass were converted to ethanol more efficiently (over 72% of theoretical yield) in simple batch fermentations than slurries containing high solids, albeit with the production of lower levels of ethanol. With high solids (i.e., 160 g acid-treated bagasse L[sup [minus]1]), a combination of 20 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse, preincubation under saccharification conditions, and additional grinding (to reduce particle size) were required to produce ca. 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1]. Alternatively, almost 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1] was produced with 10 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse by incorporating a second saccharification step (no further enzyme addition) followed by a second inoculation and short fermentation. In this way, a theoretical ethanol yield of over 70% was achieved with the production of 20 g ethanol 800 FPU[sup [minus]1] of commercial cellulase.

Doran, J.B.; Aldrich, H.C.; Ingram, L.O. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science)

1994-06-20

28

Characterization of KPC-2-producing Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Klebsiella oxytoca isolates from a Chinese Hospital.  

PubMed

Twelve nonduplicated KPC-2-producing enterobacterial isolates, including three Escherichia coli, two Citrobacter freundii, two Enterobacter cloacae, four Enterobacter aerogenes, and one Klebsiella oxytoca, were collected from various clinical samples within 18 months (March 2011 to September 2012). Two of the 12 patients died from infections caused by KPC-2-producing pathogens, while the rest of the patients with KPC-2-producing pathogens improved or were cured. The majority of the clinical isolates exhibited a high-level of resistance to oxyimino-cephalosporins and carbapenems, and possessed self-transferable bla(KPC-2)-carrying plasmids with sizes ranging from 20 to 120?kb. Most isolates carried bla(CTX-M) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, while some isolates produced 16S rRNA methylases (ArmA or RmtB). The genetic environment of bla(KPC-2) of most clinical strains was consistent with the genetic structure surrounding bla(KPC-2) on the plasmid pKP048, which contains an integration structure of a Tn3-based transposon and partial Tn4401 segment. Inserted fragments (truncated bla(TEM)) were detected upstream of the bla(KPC-2) gene for two E. aerogenes strains. In conclusion, the enterobacterial isolates exhibited sporadic emergence and did not arise by clonal spread at our hospital. The outcome of infections caused by KPC-producing enterobacterial isolates and their mortality were closely associated with the baseline condition of patients. The spread of bla(KPC-2) gene between different enterobacterial species in China was mainly mediated by horizontal transfer of the Tn3-based transposons and not the bla(KPC-2)-carrying plasmids. PMID:24433026

Luo, Yanping; Yang, Jiyong; Ye, Liyan; Guo, Lin; Zhao, Qiang; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yong; Han, Xuelin; Zhao, Jingya; Tian, Shuguang; Han, Li

2014-08-01

29

ENUMERATION, TRANSPORT AND SURVIVAL OF BACTERIA ATTACHED TO GRANULAR ACTIVITATED CARBON IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The surfaces of granular activated carbon (GAC), sand, and anthracite particles were found to be populated to the same levels with heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria. GAC supported a greater number of Klebsiella oxytoca than the other two filter media. In a study of operati...

30

Antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Picea excelsa on Listeria, Staphylococcus aureus and coliform bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activity of essential oil of Picea excelsa was tested with the dilution method against one strain of Listeria ivanovii, six of L. monocytogenes, three of Staphylococcus aureus, three of Escherichia coli, one of Klebsiella oxytoca, one of K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae and one of Enterobacter cloacae. For Gram-positive bacteria in stationary phase, 0·07% of essential oil inhibited about 105colony

N. Canillac; A. Mourey

2001-01-01

31

The "other" gram-negative bacteria in mastitis: Klebsiella, serratia, and more.  

PubMed

Mastitis caused by gram-negative infections is of increasing importance on modern and well-managed dairy farms. Without a doubt, E coli tends to be the most important cause of these gram-negative infections when the data are tallied across farms.1 However, more precise investigation of individual farms often reveals a farm-specific infection pattern where a single gram-negative bacterial species predominates. Several farms with a predominance of “other” gram-negative IMIs may be observed. We have shown the presence of outbreaks on individual dairy farms with K pneumoniae, S marcescens, and Enterobacter cloacae. On farms with a predominance of these “other” gram-negative infections, a detailed epidemiologic investigation may reveal the source of these infections. It is quite surprising to identify the difference in host immune response pattern and the associated clinical and subclinical presentations of IMIs due to the different gram-negative organisms. Experimental and field observations would suggest that among the gram-negative bacterial causes of mastitis, Klebsiella spp are causing the most severe cases, closely followed by E coli and then much less clinical severity is observed in Serratia spp and Enterobacter spp cases. The precise mechanisms that would explain the difference in clinical severity are not known, but the most likely explanation appears to be the structure of the lipid A fraction of the LPS of the bacterial species. Important differences in the lipid A fraction of LPS between and within bacterial species are observed. The prevention of IMIs with gram-negative bacteria has components that are generic across species and components that are species specific. Generic prevention may be obtained by improving hygiene and reducing exposure of teat ends to environmental contamination. Also the use of a J5 bacterin is expected to provide some reduction in severity of gram-negative IMIs across bacterial species. Specific prevention programs will depend on the actual transmission behavior of the dominant species causing IMIs in the herd. Several clonal outbreaks of gram-negative bacterial species have been described. In such situations, optimal milking procedures, segregation and culling of infected animals, and targeted treatment would be advisable. Even more specific are the prevention procedures associated with S marcescens outbreaks, where resistance against specific biocides will lead to transmission of infection through teat disinfectants. Removal of these biocides from the cow environment is than essential. Antimicrobial treatment of gram-negative bacteria has often considered to be of limited value and treatment should be more targeted toward cow survival and reduction of clinical symptoms. More recently, extended treatment with a third-generation cephalosporin was reported to be efficacious in the treatment of E coli and Klebsiella spp but not of E cloacae. Further investigations in effective treatment protocols for gram-negative IMIs are warranted. PMID:22664206

Schukken, Ynte; Chuff, Matt; Moroni, Paolo; Gurjar, Abhijit; Santisteban, Carlos; Welcome, Frank; Zadoks, Ruth

2012-07-01

32

Influence of Asellus aquaticus on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Campylobacter jejuni and naturally occurring heterotrophic bacteria in drinking water.  

PubMed

Water lice, Asellus aquaticus (isopoda), frequently occur in drinking water distribution systems where they are a nuisance to consumers and water utilities. Whether they are solely an aesthetic problem or also affect the microbial water quality is a matter of interest. We studied the influence of A. aquaticus on microbial water quality in non-chlorinated drinking water in controlled laboratory experiments. Pure cultures of the indicator organisms Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the pathogen Campylobacter jejuni as well as naturally occurring heterotrophic drinking water bacteria (measured as heterotrophic plate counts, HPC) were investigated in microcosms at 7 °C, containing non-sterilised drinking water, drinking water sediment and A. aquaticus collected from a non-chlorinated ground water based drinking water supply system. Concentrations of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni decreased over time, following a first order decay with half lives of 5.3, 18.4 and 1.3 days, respectively. A. aquaticus did not affect survival of indicators and pathogens substantially whereas HPC were influenced by presence of dead A. aquaticus. Growth rates increased with an average of 48% for bacteria grown on R-2A agar and an average of 83% for bacteria grown on yeast extract agar when dead A. aquaticus were present compared to no and living A. aquaticus present. A. aquaticus associated E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni were measured (up to 25 per living and 500 per dead A. aquaticus) and so were A. aquaticus associated heterotrophic bacteria (>1.8*10(4) CFU per living and >6*10(4) CFU per dead A. aquaticus). A. aquaticus did not serve as an optimised habitat that increased survival of indicators and pathogens, since A. aquaticus associated E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni were only measured as long as the bacteria were also present in the water and sediment. PMID:22884244

Christensen, Sarah C B; Nissen, Erling; Arvin, Erik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

2012-10-15

33

Refactoring the nitrogen fixation gene cluster from Klebsiella oxytoca  

E-print Network

Bacterial genes associated with a single trait are often grouped in a contiguous unit of the genome known as a gene cluster. It is difficult to genetically manipulate many gene clusters because of complex, redundant, and ...

Zhao, Dehua

34

Abiotic process for Fe(II) oxidation and green rust mineralization driven by a heterotrophic nitrate reducing bacteria (Klebsiella mobilis).  

PubMed

Green rusts (GRs) are mixed Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides with a high reactivity toward organic and inorganic pollutants. GRs can be produced from ferric reducing or ferrous oxidizing bacterial activities. In this study, we investigated the capability of Klebsiella mobilis to produce iron minerals in the presence of nitrate and ferrous iron. This bacterium is well-known to reduce nitrate using an organic carbon source as electron donor but is unable to enzymatically oxidize Fe(II) species. During incubation, GR formation occurred as a secondary iron mineral precipitating on cell surfaces, resulting from Fe(II) oxidation by nitrite produced via bacterial respiration of nitrate. For the first time, we demonstrate GR formation by indirect microbial oxidation of Fe(II) (i.e., a combination of biotic/abiotic processes). These results therefore suggest that nitrate-reducing bacteria can potentially contribute to the formation of GR in natural environments. In addition, the chemical reduction of nitrite to ammonium by GR is observed, which gradually turns the GR into the end-product goethite. The nitrogen mass-balance clearly demonstrates that the total amount of ammonium produced corresponds to the quantity of bioreduced nitrate. These findings demonstrate how the activity of nitrate-reducing bacteria in ferrous environments may provide a direct link between the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and iron. PMID:24605878

Etique, Marjorie; Jorand, Frédéric P A; Zegeye, Asfaw; Grégoire, Brian; Despas, Christelle; Ruby, Christian

2014-04-01

35

Genetic Organization of Transposase Regions Surrounding blaKPC Carbapenemase Genes on Plasmids from Klebsiella Strains Isolated in a New York City Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella strains carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) are endemic to New York City and are spreading across the United States and internationally. Recent studies have indicated that the KPC structural gene is located on a 10-kb plasmid-borne element designated Tn4401. Fourteen Klebsiella pneumoniae strains and one Klebsiella oxytoca strain isolated at a New York City hospital in 2005 carrying

Thomas D. Gootz; Mary Kay Lescoe; Fadia Dib-Hajj; Brian A. Dougherty; Wen He; Phyllis Della-Latta; Richard C. Huard

2009-01-01

36

Digestion of cellulose and xylan by symbiotic bacteria in the intestine of the Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus).  

PubMed

Bats (Order Chiroptera) are a widely distributed group of mammals. Pteropus giganteus belongs to the Suborder Megachiroptera. This bat consumes fruits and leaves as their major food. Cellulose and xylan are the major composition of leaves. As they consume leaves in their diet, their digestive tract must contain cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria which help in the digestion of cellulose and xylan. The cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria were isolated and screened on Berg's agar containing cellulose and xylan. The bacteria isolated were characterized biochemically and found to be Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Serratia liquefaciens and Klebsiella oxytoca. These bacteria help in digestion of cellulose and xylan in the diet of the bat, P. giganteus. Here we show that leaves are also used as a carbohydrate source by these bats. An insectivorous bat, Hipposideros fulvus, was used as a control and does not possess cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. PMID:15471682

Prem Anand, A Alwin; Sripathi, K

2004-09-01

37

Fermentation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella and Citrobacter strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycerol-fermenting anaerobes were enriched with glycerol at low and high concentrations in order to obtain strains that produce 1,3-propanediol. Six isolates were selected for more detailed characterization; four of them were identified as Citrobacter freundii, one as Klebsiella oxytoca and one as K. pneumoniae. The Citrobacter strains formed 1.3-propanediol and acetate and almost no by-products, while the Klebsiella strains produced

Thomas Homann; Carmen Tag; Hanno Biebl; Wolf-Dieter Deckwer; Bernhard Schink

1990-01-01

38

Selective medium for the isolation and enumeration of Klebsiella spp.  

PubMed Central

A highly selective medium for the enumeration and isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca was developed in which the typical colonies were convex and 1 to 2 mm in diameter. Their pigment was either a mucoid pink-red color or a more watery pale red with a dark red center. Relatively little colonial growth occurred for any other bacterial genera, and where such colonies did grow, they could be easily differentiated since the form was atypical. The medium already appears to have potential value as a means of assessing the efficiency of treating sewage and monitoring the microbiological quality of vegetables. PMID:3890736

Wong, S H; Cullimore, D R; Bruce, D L

1985-01-01

39

Cleanliness scores as indicator of Klebsiella exposure in dairy cows.  

PubMed

This study was designed to explore the relationship between cow and udder cleanliness scores and the risk of isolation of Klebsiella spp. from lower hind legs and teat ends, respectively. The distribution of Klebsiella species was compared among isolates from teat ends, legs, and cases of clinical mastitis obtained from 2 dairy farms in New York State, with 850 and 1,000 cows, respectively. Farms were visited twice approximately 4 wk apart in August and September 2007 to obtain cleanliness scores and swabs from legs and teats. Isolates of Klebsiella clinical mastitis from each farm were collected from July through October 2007. Two studies were conducted. In the first study, whole-cow cleanliness of a purposive sample of 200 lactating cows was scored using a 4-point scale, and swabs were taken from their lower hind legs. In the second study, udder cleanliness of a separate convenience sample of 199 lactating cows was scored in the milking parlor, and swabs were taken from their teat ends before and after premilking udder preparation. Prevalence of Klebsiella spp. on legs and teat ends before udder preparation was 59 and 60%, respectively. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between isolation of Klebsiella spp. and cleanliness scores. Cow cleanliness scores and udder cleanliness scores were not associated with detection of Klebsiella on legs and on teats before udder preparation, respectively. After udder preparation, 43% of previously Klebsiella positive teat end samples remained positive, with significant differences between farms and months. Teats from dirty udders were significantly more likely to test positive for Klebsiella after udder preparation than teats from clean udders. The proportion of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca isolates was similar for isolates from teat end swabs and clinical mastitis cases, supporting the notion that the presence of Klebsiella on teat ends may lead to opportunistic intramammary infections. Udder cleanliness scores could be used as a management tool to monitor the risk of exposure to Klebsiella spp. on teat ends. PMID:18832213

Munoz, M A; Bennett, G J; Ahlström, C; Griffiths, H M; Schukken, Y H; Zadoks, R N

2008-10-01

40

Further observations on enhancement of the infectivity of Fusobacterium necrophorum by other bacteria.  

PubMed Central

It had already been shown with a single virulent strain (A42) of Fusobacterium necrophorum that suspension of the fusobacteria in sub-lethal doses of broth cultures of other bacteria reduced the minimum infective dose (greater than 10(6) organisms) for mice by subcutaneous inoculation, sometimes to less than 10 organisms. The present study extended the known range of bacteria with strong infectivity-enhancing properties to include Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella oxytoca and Staphylococcus aureus; and those with weaker effect to include Bacillus subtilis, 'Bacteroides melaninogenicus', Clostridium sporogenes, Pasteurella haemolytica, and Proteus mirabilis. The study also showed that five further virulent strains of F. necrophorum closely resembled A42 in respect of striking susceptibility to infectivity enhancement by Escherichia coli. Actinomyces (Corynebacterium) pyogenes and S. aureus. One further strain (A6) of F. necrophorum resembled A42 in respect of strong infectivity enhancement by A. pyogenes, S. aureus, B. cereus and K. oxytoca but differed from it and the other five strains in being only slightly affected by E. coli. This work was a necessary prelude to the development of a method, based on infectivity enhancement, for the detection and isolation of F. necrophorum present in small numbers in heavily contaminated material such as faeces. PMID:1902184

Smith, G. R.; Barton, S. A.; Wallace, L. M.

1991-01-01

41

Alimentary Tract Bacteria Isolated and Identified with API-20E and Molecular Cloning Techniques from Australian Tropical Fruit Flies, Bactrocera cacuminata and B. tryoni  

PubMed Central

Bacteria were isolated from the crop and midgut of field collected Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering) and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Two methods were used, firstly isolation onto two types of bacteriological culture media (PYEA and TSA) and identification using the API-20E diagnostic kit, and secondly, analysis of samples using the 16S rRNA gene molecular diagnostic method. Using the API-20E method, 10 genera and 17 species of bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae were identified from cultures growing on the nutrient agar. The dominant species in both the crop and midgut were Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella oxytoca. Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp ozaenae and Serratia marcescens were isolated from B. tryoni only. Using the molecular cloning technique that is based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, five bacteria classes were dignosed — Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Delta- Proteobacteria and Firmicutes — including five families, Leuconostocaceae, Enterococcaceae, Acetobacteriaceae, Comamonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. The bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes were found mainly in the crop while the Gammaproteobacteria, especially the family Enterobacteriaceae, was dominant in the midgut. This paper presents results from the first known application of molecular cloning techniques to study bacteria within tephritid species and the first record of Firmicutes bacteria in these flies. PMID:20883132

Thaochan, N.; Drew, R. A. I.; Hughes, J. M.; Vijaysegaran, S.; Chinajariyawong, A.

2010-01-01

42

Isolation and Identification of Ropy Bacteria in Raw Milk1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 4.2% of 4,000 Mary- land-Virginia raw milk tanker samples developed ropiness when incubated at 10°C. Of the 56 bacterial isolates 30 were identified by species. Klebsiella oxytoca and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated most frequently. Other ropy isolates were identified as Pseudomonas spp., Chromo- bacterium, Flavobacterium multivorum, presumptive gersinia pestis, Enterobacter agglomerans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pasteurella-Actinobacter spp. Six of the

B. A. Cheung; D. C. Westhoff

1983-01-01

43

Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a tertiary hospital in Madrid, Spain: high percentage of colistin resistance among VIM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 isolates.  

PubMed

Here we describe the carbapenemase genes, genetic relatedness and antimicrobial susceptibility data of 123 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) clinical isolates recovered from 2010 to 2012, comprising Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 79), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 13), Serratia marcescens (n = 14), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 12), Enterobacter asburiae (n = 4) and Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 1). VIM-1 was the most common carbapenemase (n = 101) followed by KPC-2 (n = 19), OXA-48 (n = 2) and IMP-22 (n = 1). Among the K. pneumoniae isolates, nine sequence types (STs) were identified but two clones were dominant: ST11 (54/79) containing mainly VIM-1-producing isolates; and ST101 (13/79) constituted by KPC-2-producing strains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed a higher genetic diversity among the remaining Enterobacteriaceae. Amikacin and fosfomycin were the most active agents with 82.9% and 80.5% susceptibility, respectively. Non-susceptibility to tigecycline was detected in 36.5% of strains. Overall, colistin resistance was 24.7% and was as high as 47% in Enterobacter spp. An increase in colistin resistance from 13.5% to 31.7% was observed among K. pneumoniae isolates during the study period. Resistance was focused on ST11 since 83.3% of colistin-resistant strains belonged to this clone. The high level of colistin resistance observed in this study is worrying with respect to the already limited therapeutic options for infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24657043

Pena, Irene; Picazo, Juan J; Rodríguez-Avial, Carmen; Rodríguez-Avial, Iciar

2014-05-01

44

Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae is an uncommon cause of community-acquired pneumonia except in alcoholics. Klebsiella may mimic pulmonary reactivation tuberculosis because it presents with hemoptysis and cavitating lesions. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a difficult infection to treat because of the organism's thick capsule. Klebsiella is best treated with third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, quinolones, or carbapenems. Monotherapy is just as effective as a combination

Simon E. Prince; Karen Ann Dominger; Burke A. Cunha; Natalie C. Klein

1997-01-01

45

Modeling 1,2-dichloroethane biodegradation by Klebsiella oxytoca va 8391 immobilized on granulated activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of the biodegradation of xenobiotics by microbial cells attached to particles of granulated activated\\u000a carbon was developed. The model allowed the quantitative evaluation of different characteristics of the biofilm behavior:\\u000a retarded microbial growth, increased concentration of immobilized cells compared to suspended cultures, potential cell detachment\\u000a from the solid support and consequent independent growth of free cells. The

A. Mileva; Ts. Sapundzhiev; V. Beschkov

2008-01-01

46

Sources of Klebsiella and Raoultella species on dairy farms: be careful where you walk.  

PubMed

Klebsiella spp. are a common cause of mastitis, milk loss, and culling on dairy farms. Control of Klebsiella mastitis is largely based on prevention of exposure of the udder to the pathogen. To identify critical control points for mastitis prevention, potential Klebsiella sources and transmission cycles in the farm environment were investigated, including oro-fecal transmission, transmission via the indoor environment, and transmission via the outdoor environment. A total of 305 samples was collected from 3 dairy farms in upstate New York in the summer of 2007, and included soil, feed crops, feed, water, rumen content, feces, bedding, and manure from alleyways and holding pens. Klebsiella spp. were detected in 100% of rumen samples, 89% of water samples, and approximately 64% of soil, feces, bedding, alleyway, and holding pen samples. Detection of Klebsiella spp. in feed crops and feed was less common. Genotypic identification of species using rpoB sequence data showed that Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common species in rumen content, feces, and alleyways, whereas Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella variicola, and Raoultella planticola were the most frequent species among isolates from soil and feed crops. Random amplified polymorphic DNA-based strain typing showed heterogeneity of Klebsiella spp. in rumen content and feces, with a median of 4 strains per 5 isolates. Observational and bacteriological data support the existence of an oro-fecal transmission cycle, which is primarily maintained through direct contact with fecal contamination or through ingestion of contaminated drinking water. Fecal shedding of Klebsiella spp. contributes to pathogen loads in the environment, including bedding, alleyways, and holding pens. Hygiene of alleyways and holding pens is an important component of Klebsiella control on dairy farms. PMID:21257074

Zadoks, R N; Griffiths, H M; Munoz, M A; Ahlstrom, C; Bennett, G J; Thomas, E; Schukken, Y H

2011-02-01

47

Antimicrobial and Herbal Drug Resistance in Enteric Bacteria Isolated from Faecal Droppings of Common House Lizard/Gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus).  

PubMed

From 194 faecal dropping samples of common house geckos collected from offices (60), houses (88), integrated farm units (IFS,18) and hostels, guest houses, and dining rooms of different canteen/mess (HGM, 28), 326 bacterial isolates of enteric bacteria belonging to 17 genera and 34 species were detected. Escherichia coli were the most frequently (39) isolated followed by Citrobacter freundii (33), Klebsiella pneumonia (27), Salmonella indica (12), Enterobacter gergoviae (12), and Ent. agglomerans (11). Other important bacteria isolated from gecko droppings were Listonella damsela (2), Raoultella terrigena (3), S. salamae (2), S. houtenae (3), Edwardsiella tarda (4), Edwardsiella hoshinae (1), and Klebsiella oxytoca (2). Of the 223 isolates tested for antimicrobial drug sensitivity, 27 (12.1%) had multiple drug resistance (MDR). None of the salmonellae or edwardsiellae had MDR however, MDR strains were significantly more common among Escherichia spp. (P = 1.9 × 10(-5)) and isolates from IFS units (P = 3.58 × 10(-23)). The most effective herbal drug, Ageratum conyzoides extract, inhibited growth of only 27.8% of strains tested followed by ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (13.9%), eucalyptus oil (5.4%), patchouli oil (5.4%), lemongrass oil (3.6%), and sandalwood oil (3.1%), and Artemisia vulgaris essential oil (3.1%). PMID:24223595

Singh, Bhoj R; Singh, Vidya; Ebibeni, N; Singh, Raj K

2013-01-01

48

[Yearly changes in antibacterial activities of cefozopran against various clinical isolates between 1996 and 2000--II. Gram-negative bacteria].  

PubMed

The in vitro antibacterial activities of cefozopran (CZOP), an agent of cephems, against various clinical isolates obtained between 1996 and 2000 were yearly evaluated and compared with those of other cephems, oxacephems, and carbapenems. Thirty-two species 2,697 strains of Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from the clinical materials annually collected from January to December, and consisted of Moraxella subgenus Branhamella catarrhalis (n = 125), Escherichia coli (n = 250), Citrobacter freundii (n = 153), Citrobacter koseri (n = 97), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 150), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 100), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 50), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 125), Serratia marcescens (n = 153), Proteus mirabillis (n = 103), Proteus vulgaris (n = 77), Morganella morganii (n = 141), Providencia spp. (P. alcalifaciens, P. rettgeri, P. stuartii; n = 154), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 211), Pseudomonas putida (n = 49), Burkholderia cepacia (n = 102), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 101), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 210), Acinetobactor baumannii (n = 63), Acinetobactor Iwoffii (n = 30), Bacteroides fragilis group (B. fragilis, B. vulgatus, B. distasonis, B. ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron; n = 129), and Prevotella spp. (P. melaninogenica, P. intermedia, P. bivia, P. oralis, P. denticola; n = 124). CZOP possessed stable antibacterial activities against M. (B.) catarrhalis, E. coli, C. freundii, C. koseri, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, E. aerogenes, E. cloacae, S. marcescens, P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, M. morganii, Providencia spp., P. aeruginosa, and A. lowffii throughout 5 years. The MIC90 of CZOP against those strains were consistent with those obtained from the studies performed until the new drug application approval. On the other hand, the MIC90 of CZOP against H. influenzae yearly obviously increased with approximately 65-time difference during study period. The MIC90 of cefpirome, cefepime, and flomoxef against H. influenzae also yearly tended to rise. The present results demonstrated that CZOP had maintained the antibacterial activity against almost Gram-negative strains tested. However, the decrease in the antibacterial activity of CZOP against H. influenzae was suggested. PMID:12071094

Suzuki, Yumiko; Nishinari, Chisato; Endo, Harumi; Tamura, Chieko; Jinbo, Keiko; Hiramatsu, Nobuyoshi; Akiyama, Kazumitsu; Koyama, Tsuneo

2002-04-01

49

[Yearly changes in antibacterial activities of cefozopran against various clinical isolates between 1996 and 2001--II. Gram-negative bacteria].  

PubMed

The in vitro antibacterial activities of cefozopran (CZOP), an agent of cephems, against various clinical isolates obtained between 1996 and 2001 were yearly evaluated and compared with those of other cephems, oxacephems and carbapenems. A total of 3,245 strains in 32 species of Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from the clinical materials annually collected from January to December, and consisted of Moraxella subgenus Branhamella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter koseri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabillis, Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii, Providencia spp. (P. alcalifaciens, P. rettgeri, P. stuartii), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Haemophilus influenzae, Acinetobactor baumannii, Acinetobactor lwoffii, Bacteroides fragilis group (B. fragilis, B. vulgatus, B. distasonis, B. ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron), and Prevotella spp. (P. melaninogenica, P. intermedia, P. bivia, P. oralis, P. denticola). CZOP possessed stable antibacterial activities against M. (B.) catarrhalis, E. coli, C. freundii, C. koseri, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, E. aerogenes, E. cloacae, S. marcescens, P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, M. morganii, Providencia spp., P. aeruginosa, and A. lwoffii throughout 6 years. The MIC90 of CZOP against those strains were consistent with those obtained from the studies performed until the new drug application approval. On the other hand, the MIC90 of CZOP against H. influenzae yearly obviously increased with approximately 64-time difference during the study period. The MIC90 of cefpirome, cefepime, and flomoxef against H. influenzae also yearly tended to rise. The present results demonstrated that CZOP had maintained the antibacterial activity against almost Gram-negative strains tested. However, the decrease in antibacterial activities of CZOP against B. cepacia, and H. influenzae was suggested. PMID:14567255

Suzuki, Yumiko; Nishinari, Chisato; Endo, Harumi; Hiramatsu, Nobuyoshi; Akiyama, Kazumitsu; Koyama, Tsuneo

2003-08-01

50

Efficacy of surface disinfectant cleaners against emerging highly resistant gram-negative bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, the emergence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria is a clinical problem. Surface disinfectant cleaners (SDCs) that are effective against these bacteria are needed for use in high risk areas around patients and on multi-touch surfaces. We determined the efficacy of several SDCs against clinically relevant bacterial species with and without common types of multidrug resistance. Methods Bacteria species used were ATCC strains; clinical isolates classified as antibiotic-susceptible; and multi-resistant clinical isolates from Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens (all OXA-48 and KPC-2); Acinetobacter baumannii (OXA-23); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (VIM-1); and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (ATCC strain). Experiments were carried out according to EN 13727:2012 in quadruplicate under dirty conditions. The five evaluated SDCs were based on alcohol and an amphoteric substance (AAS), an oxygen-releaser (OR), surface-active substances (SAS), or surface-active-substances plus aldehydes (SASA; two formulations). Bactericidal concentrations of SDCs were determined at two different contact times. Efficacy was defined as a log10???5 reduction in bacterial cell count. Results SDCs based on AAS, OR, and SAS were effective against all six species irrespective of the degree of multi-resistance. The SASA formulations were effective against the bacteria irrespective of degree of multi-resistance except for one of the four P. aeruginosa isolates (VIM-1). We found no general correlation between SDC efficacy and degree of antibiotic resistance. Conclusions SDCs were generally effective against gram-negative bacteria with and without multidrug resistance. SDCs are therefore suitable for surface disinfection in the immediate proximity of patients. Single bacterial isolates, however, might have reduced susceptibility to selected biocidal agents. PMID:24885029

2014-01-01

51

Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

The continuing emergence of infections due to multidrug resistant bacteria is a serious public health problem. Klebsiella pneumoniae, which commonly acquires resistance encoded on mobile genetic elements, including ones that encode carbapenemases, is a prime example. K. pneumoniae carrying such genetic material, including both blaKPC and genes encoding metallo-?-lactamases, have spread globally. Many carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae are resistant to multiple antibiotic classes beyond ?-lactams, including tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. The optimal treatment, if any, for infections due to these organisms is unclear but, paradoxically, appears to often require the inclusion of an optimally administered carbapenem. PMID:25343037

Deresinski, Stan

2014-01-01

52

Microbiological investigation of Raphanus sativus L. grown hydroponically in nutrient solutions contaminated with spoilage and pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

The survival of eight undesired (spoilage/pathogenic) food related bacteria (Citrobacter freundii PSS60, Enterobacter spp. PSS11, Escherichia coli PSS2, Klebsiella oxytoca PSS82, Serratia grimesii PSS72, Pseudomonas putida PSS21, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PSS52 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19114(T)) was investigated in mineral nutrient solution (MNS) during the crop cycle of radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivated in hydroponics in a greenhouse. MNSs were microbiologically analyzed weekly by plate count. The evolution of the pure cultures was also evaluated in sterile MNS in test tubes. The inoculated trials contained an initial total mesophilic count (TMC) ranging between 6.69 and 7.78Log CFU/mL, while non-sterile and sterile control trials showed levels of 4.39 and 0.97Log CFU/mL, respectively. In general, all inoculated trials showed similar levels of TMC in MNS during the experimentation, even though the levels of the inoculated bacteria decreased. The presence of the inoculums was ascertained by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis applied on the isolates collected at 7-day intervals. At harvest, MNSs were also analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The last analysis, except P. putida PSS21 in the corresponding trial, did not detect the other bacteria, but confirmed that pseudomonads were present in un-inoculated MNSs. Despite the high counts detected (6.44 and 7.24CFU/g), only C. freundii PSS60, Enterobacter spp. PSS11 and K. oxytoca PSS82 were detected in radishes in a living form, suggesting their internalization. PMID:23290244

Settanni, Luca; Miceli, Alessandro; Francesca, Nicola; Cruciata, Margherita; Moschetti, Giancarlo

2013-01-01

53

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CHEMOSTAT-GROWN 'YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA' AND 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE' TO CHLORINE DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The resistance of bacteria to antimicrobial agents could be influenced by growth environment. The susceptibility of two enteric bacteria, Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumoniae, to chlorine dioxide was investigated. These organisms were grown in a defined medium in a c...

54

Nosocomial klebsiellas. I. Colonization of hospitalized patients.  

PubMed Central

The colonization of patients by Klebsiella and several other gram-negative bacteria was studied in a hospital urological ward over a period of six months. Before and during the survey there was no evidence of an outbreak of nosocomial infection and multi-drug resistant strains of Klebsiella were not isolated. Klebsiella were biotyped by nine biochemical tests, which led to the detection of 66 biotypes spread uniformly throughout the survey period. This method of biotyping proved a useful epidemiological tool. The colonization rate of throats, hands, and faeces of patients increased after admission to the ward, especially when antibiotics were used. The effect of systemic antibiotics was greater than that of urinary antibiotics especially on throat and faeces carrier rates. Carrier rates for Klebsiella increased also after catheterization and operation--relationships which could well be multifactorial. During the first two weeks after admission the proportion of antibiotic resistant strains of Klebsiella in carriers increased. The proportion of resistant strains amongst isolations from clinical infections was always greater than among strains isolated routinely from sites of carriage. PMID:429785

Haverkorn, M. L.; Michel, M. F.

1979-01-01

55

Incidence of histamine-forming bacteria and histamine content in scombroid fish species from retail markets in the Barcelona area.  

PubMed

Incidence and diversity of histidine decarboxylating bacteria were determined in samples of tunafish, bonito and mackerel purchased at different retail markets. Histamine-forming bacteria occurred in a low proportion and always accounted for less than 0.1% of the total bacterial load in the fish samples studied. Similarly, histamine content in fish samples also was low ( < 25 ppm) and all of them met current histamine standards established by the European Union. Histamine was found in 83.3% of the tested tunafish samples with an average of 8.9 ppm. In contrast, none of mackerel samples and only 2 out of 12 of bonito showed detectable amounts of histamine. Morganella morganii and Klebsiella oxytoca were the most active histamine formers under experimental conditions, and produced on average 2765 and 1415 ppm of histamine, respectively, after incubation at 37 degrees C for 18 h. Some new histamine formers, such as Plesiomonas shigelloides, Enterobacter intermedium, Serratia marcescens, Serratia plymuthica and Serratia fonticola, have been identified. Especially Plesiomonas shigelloides would have an important role within histidine decarboxylating bacteria because it was the sole histamine former isolated that has frequently been associated with the marine aquatic environment. However, only 8-340 ppm of histamine was formed by these strains in laboratory trials. PMID:8652349

López-Sabater, E I; Rodríguez-Jerez, J J; Hernández-Herrero, M; Mora-Ventura, M T

1996-01-01

56

Immunization against Fatal Experimental Klebsiella pneumoniae Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theability ofserospecific anti-capsular polysaccharide (CPS)antibody toprevent fatal Klebsiella pneumo- niaepneumonia wasevaluated inaratlungmodel. Ratswereimmunized intramuscularly with100,ugof purified serotype 2 CPSandchallenged intrabronchially 14dayslater witha serotype 2 strain ofK. pneumoniae. Vaccination engendered highlevels ofserumanti-CPS antibody whichafforded significant protection (P< 0.01) against fatal pneumonia. Immunization promoted clearance ofthechallenge bacteria fromthelungs andprevented bacteremia. Histological examination oflungtissue frominfected control animals showed pronounced inflammatory cellular infiltrate intheaveolar

S. J. CRYZ; E. FURER; R. GERMANIER

1986-01-01

57

Antimicrobial effect of the triterpene 3?,6?,16?-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene on planktonic cells and biofilms from Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of 3?,6?,16?-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene (CLF1), a triterpene isolated from Combretum leprosum Mart., in inhibiting the planktonic growth and biofilms of Gram positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans and S. mitis. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The antibiofilm potential was determined by quantifying total biomass and enumerating biofilm-entrapped viable bacteria. In addition, the acute toxicity of CLF1 on Artemia sp. nauplii was also determined. The results showed that CLF1 was able in inhibiting the growth of S. mutans and S. mitis with MIC and MBC of 7.8 ?g/mL and 15.6 ?g/mL, respectively. CLF1 was highly effective on biofilms of both bacteria. Only 7.8 ?g/mL CLF1 was enough to inhibit by 97% and 90% biomass production of S. mutans and S. mitis, respectively. On the other hand, such effects were not evident on Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella oxytoca. The toxicity tests showed that the LC50 of CLF1 was 98.19 ?g/mL. Therefore, CLF1 isolated from C. leprosum may constitute an important natural agent for the development of new therapies for caries and other infectious diseases caused by S. mutans and S. mitis. PMID:25093179

Evaristo, Francisco Flávio Vasconcelos; Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R; dos Santos, Hélcio Silva; Bandeira, Paulo Nogueira; Avila, Fábio do Nascimento; da Silva, Bruno Rocha; Vasconcelos, Ariana Azevedo; Rabelo, Erica de Menezes; Nascimento-Neto, Luiz Gonzaga; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

2014-01-01

58

Antimicrobial Effect of the Triterpene 3?,6?,16?-Trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene on Planktonic Cells and Biofilms from Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of 3?,6?,16?-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene (CLF1), a triterpene isolated from Combretum leprosum Mart., in inhibiting the planktonic growth and biofilms of Gram positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans and S. mitis. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The antibiofilm potential was determined by quantifying total biomass and enumerating biofilm-entrapped viable bacteria. In addition, the acute toxicity of CLF1 on Artemia sp. nauplii was also determined. The results showed that CLF1 was able in inhibiting the growth of S. mutans and S. mitis with MIC and MBC of 7.8??g/mL and 15.6??g/mL, respectively. CLF1 was highly effective on biofilms of both bacteria. Only 7.8??g/mL CLF1 was enough to inhibit by 97% and 90% biomass production of S. mutans and S. mitis, respectively. On the other hand, such effects were not evident on Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella oxytoca. The toxicity tests showed that the LC50 of CLF1 was 98.19??g/mL. Therefore, CLF1 isolated from C. leprosum may constitute an important natural agent for the development of new therapies for caries and other infectious diseases caused by S. mutans and S. mitis. PMID:25093179

Evaristo, Francisco Flavio Vasconcelos; Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R.; dos Santos, Helcio Silva; Bandeira, Paulo Nogueira; Avila, Fabio do Nascimento; da Silva, Bruno Rocha; Vasconcelos, Ariana Azevedo; Rabelo, Erica de Menezes; Nascimento-Neto, Luiz Gonzaga; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

2014-01-01

59

Isolation and characterization of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella spp. isolated from shrimp imported from Thailand.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken to isolate and characterize tetracycline and nalidixic acid-resistant Klebsiella spp. in farm-raised, imported shrimp sold in the United States. Sixty-seven multiple antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella spp. strains were isolated from imported shrimp samples. Using morphological and biochemical methods, fifty-three strains were tentatively identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and fourteen as K. oxytoca. Although all isolates were resistant to tetracycline, only 8 were resistant to nalidixic acid. These 8 isolates were further screened by PCR for quinolone resistance genes (qnrA, B, S, gyrA, B and parC). PCR protocols failed to amplify any qnr genes. The purified PCR amplicons of gyrA, gyrB and parC were sequenced and analyzed for point mutations that confer resistance to fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Analysis of the sequences of the gyrA amplicons from nalidixic acid-resistant Klebsiella spp. indicated two point mutations in gyrA at positions 83 (Ser?Phe) and 87 (Asp?Ala). Sequence analysis of the parC amplicons indicated an amino acid change at position 80 (Ser?Ile). No mutations were detected in gyrB. Template DNA from all isolates was screened for tetracycline resistance genes (tetA-E). Oligonucleotide primers specifically targeting a 305-bp region of tetB and a 477-bp region of tetD successfully amplified sequences from 91.0 and 44.0% of the isolates, respectively. None of the isolates contained tetA, tetC or tetE genes. Plasmids (2.0-16.0kb) were found in 23 of the 67 isolates. XbaI-PFGE identified 32 distinct macro restriction patterns (mrps) among the 61 multiple drug-resistant Klebsiella spp. that were typable. Our results indicate that imported shrimp is a reservoir for multidrug resistant Klebsiella spp. and potential health risks posed by such strains should not be underestimated. PMID:22405354

Nawaz, Mohamed; Khan, S A; Tran, Q; Sung, K; Khan, A A; Adamu, I; Steele, R S

2012-04-16

60

Multilocus enzyme analysis in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria using gel electrophoresis-nitrocellulose blotting.  

PubMed

An optimized multilocus enzyme electrophoresis method, which involves polyacrylamide-agarose gel electrophoresis followed by electrophoretic transfers on nitrocellulose sheets, was developed for the analysis of enzyme polymorphism in several aerobic and anaerobic bacterial species including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. agalactiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca, Clostridium bifermentans and C. sordellii, and Prevotella bivia. Serial electrophoretic transfers (during 5-15 min each) from a single polyacrylamide gel could be achieved for most enzymes studied, and allowed an increased definition of enzyme bands on nitrocellulose as compared to migration gels. Four enzymes, which could not be blotted in such conditions, could still be stained in gels after blotting. Thus, the method allowed the combined analysis of several enzymes after a single gel electrophoresis separation. The analysis of enzyme polymorphism in the various species studied raised the interest of polymorphic loci such as esterase or glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase for epidemiologic studies. The method characterized a genetic diversity of enzyme loci of S. pneumoniae higher than previously reported, and is thus convenient for the analysis of genetic relationships between related isolates. Since the present method reduces the tediousness of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and requires experimental conditions that are not specific for the bacterial population studied, it may be proposed for rapid population genetics analysis of a wide variety of bacteria. PMID:10754243

Combe, M; Lemeland, J; Pestel-Caron, M; Pons, J

2000-04-15

61

Klebsiella pneumoniae Flocculation Dynamics  

PubMed Central

The bacterial pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae is a cause of community- and hospital-acquired lung, urinary tract, and blood stream infections. A common contaminant of indwelling catheters, it is theorized that a common infection pathway for this organism is via shedding of aggregates off of biofilm colonies. In an effort to better understand bacterial proliferation in the host bloodstream, we develop a PDE model for the flocculation dynamics of Klebsiella pneumoniae in suspension. Existence and uniqueness results are provided, as well as a brief description of the numerical approximation scheme. We generate artificial data and illustrate the requirements to accurately identify proliferation, aggregation, and fragmentation of flocs in the experimental domain of interest. PMID:18071828

Jackson, T. L.; Taylor, K. A.; Thompson, A. P.; Younger, J. G.

2011-01-01

62

Salicylate or bismuth salts enhance opsonophagocytosis of Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary After treatment of encapsulatedKlebsiella pneumoniae with salicylate or bismuth compounds, phagocytic uptake by human peripheral white blood cells or rat alveolar macrophages was assessed. Without salicylate pretreatment of bacteria, a 30–60% net increase in viable bacteria resulted in phagocytic assays after a 1 hour incubation. With salicylate pretreatment, dose-related decreases in bacterial counts were seen, achieving a maximal reduction

P. Domenico; B. A. Cunha; R. J. Salo; D. C. Straus; J. C. Hutson

1992-01-01

63

Effect of algae and plant lectins on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in clinically relevant bacteria and yeasts.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the abilities of plant and algae lectins to inhibit planktonic growth and biofilm formation in bacteria and yeasts. Initially, ten lectins were tested on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and C. tropicalis at concentrations of 31.25 to 250? ? g/mL. The lectins from Cratylia floribunda (CFL), Vatairea macrocarpa (VML), Bauhinia bauhinioides (BBL), Bryothamnion seaforthii (BSL), and Hypnea musciformis (HML) showed activities against at least one microorganism. Biofilm formation in the presence of the lectins was also evaluated; after 24?h of incubation with the lectins, the biofilms were analyzed by quantifying the biomass (by crystal violet staining) and by enumerating the viable cells (colony-forming units). The lectins reduced the biofilm biomass and/or the number of viable cells to differing degrees depending on the microorganism tested, demonstrating the different characteristics of the lectins. These findings indicate that the lectins tested in this study may be natural alternative antimicrobial agents; however, further studies are required to better elucidate the functional use of these proteins. PMID:24982871

Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Silva, Helton Colares; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda; Cavada, Benildo; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Henriques, Mariana; Pereira, Maria Olivia

2014-01-01

64

Duodenal-mucosal bacteria associated with celiac disease in children.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins. This disorder is associated with imbalances in the gut microbiota composition that could be involved in the pathogenesis of CD. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition and diversity of the cultivable duodenal mucosa-associated bacteria of CD patients and control children. Duodenal biopsy specimens from patients with active disease on a gluten-containing diet (n = 32), patients with nonactive disease after adherence to a gluten-free diet (n = 17), and controls (n = 8) were homogenized and plated on plate count agar, Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart agar, or yeast, Casitone, and fatty acid agar. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Renyi diversity profiles showed the highest diversity values for active CD patients, followed by nonactive CD patients and control individuals. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria were more abundant in patients with active CD than in the other child groups, while those of the phylum Firmicutes were less abundant. Members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae, particularly the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, were more abundant in patients with active disease than in controls. In contrast, members of the family Streptococcaceae were less abundant in patients with active CD than in controls. Furthermore, isolates of the Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus mutans groups were more abundant in controls than in both CD patient groups, regardless of inflammatory status. The findings indicated that the disease is associated with the overgrowth of possible pathobionts that exclude symbionts or commensals that are characteristic of the healthy small intestinal microbiota. PMID:23835180

Sánchez, Ester; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Fernández-Murga, Maria Leonor; Sanz, Yolanda

2013-09-01

65

Effects of inoculation of Poa pratensis and Triticum aestivum with root-associated, N 2 -fixing Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Azospirillum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains ofKlebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella terrigena, Enterobacter agglomerans andAzospirillum lipoferum were compared as diazotrophic inoculants in association withPoa pratensis andTriticum aestivum. Each strain colonized both plants in numbers ranging from 104 to 107 bacteria per root, and electron microscopy and immunofluorescence staining of inoculated roots revealed bacteria mainly on\\u000a root hairs. Indirect immunofluorescence with specific antifimbriae antibodies showed that the enteric

Kielo Haahtela; Tuula Laakso; Eeva-Liisa Nurmiaho-Lassila; Timo K. Korhonen

1988-01-01

66

Genotoxic Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Colibactin is a nonribosomal peptide-polyketide synthesized by multi-enzyme complexes encoded by the pks gene cluster. Colibactin-producing Escherichia coli have been demonstrated to induce host DNA damage and promote colorectal cancer (CRC) development. In Taiwan, the occurrence of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) has been suggested to correlate with an increasing risk of CRC, and Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant PLA pathogen in Taiwan Methodology/Principal Findings At the asn tRNA loci of the newly sequenced K. pneumoniae 1084 genome, we identified a 208-kb genomic island, KPHPI208, of which a module identical to the E. coli pks colibactin gene cluster was recognized. KPHPI208 consists of eight modules, including the colibactin module and the modules predicted to be involved in integration, conjugation, yersiniabactin production, microcin production, and unknown functions. Transient infection of BALB/c normal liver cells with K. pneumoniae 1084 increased the phosphorylation of histone H2AX, indicating the induction of host DNA damage. Colibactin was required for the genotoxicity of K. pneumoniae 1084, as it was diminished by deletion of clbA gene and restored to the wild type level by trans-complementation with a clbA coding plasmid. Besides, BALB/c mice infected with K. pneumoniae 1084 exhibited enhanced DNA damage in the liver parenchymal cells when compared to the isogenic clbA deletion mutant. By PCR detection, the prevalence of pks-positive K. pneumoniae in Taiwan is 25.6%, which is higher than that reported in Europe (3.5%), and is significantly correlated with K1 type, which predominantly accounted for PLA in Taiwan. Conclusions Our knowledge regarding how bacteria contribute to carcinogenesis has just begun. The identification of genotoxic K. pneumoniae and its genetic components will facilitate future studies to elucidate the molecular basis underlying the link between K. pneumoniae, PLA, and CRC. PMID:24852749

Lai, Yi-Chyi; Lin, Ann-Chi; Chiang, Ming-Ko; Dai, Yu-Han; Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Lu, Min-Chi; Liau, Chun-Yi; Chen, Ying-Tsong

2014-01-01

67

Transposition of IS1397 in the family Enterobacteriaceae and first characterization of ISKpn1, a new insertion sequence associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae palindromic units.  

PubMed

IS1397 and ISKpn1 are IS3 family members which are specifically inserted into the loop of palindromic units (PUs). IS1397 is shown to transpose into PUs with sequences close or identical to the Escherichia coli consensus, even in other enterobacteria (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca). Moreover, we show that homologous intergenic regions containing PUs constitute IS1397 transpositional hot spots, despite bacterial interspersed mosaic element structures that differ among the three species. ISKpn1, described here for the first time, is specific for PUs from K. pneumoniae, in which we discovered it. A sequence comparison between the two insertion sequences allowed us to define a motif possibly accounting for their specificity. PMID:11443073

Wilde, C; Bachellier, S; Hofnung, M; Clément, J M

2001-08-01

68

Transposition of IS1397 in the Family Enterobacteriaceae and First Characterization of ISKpn1, a New Insertion Sequence Associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae Palindromic Units  

PubMed Central

IS1397 and ISKpn1 are IS3 family members which are specifically inserted into the loop of palindromic units (PUs). IS1397 is shown to transpose into PUs with sequences close or identical to the Escherichia coli consensus, even in other enterobacteria (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca). Moreover, we show that homologous intergenic regions containing PUs constitute IS1397 transpositional hot spots, despite bacterial interspersed mosaic element structures that differ among the three species. ISKpn1, described here for the first time, is specific for PUs from K. pneumoniae, in which we discovered it. A sequence comparison between the two insertion sequences allowed us to define a motif possibly accounting for their specificity. PMID:11443073

Wilde, Caroline; Bachellier, Sophie; Hofnung, Maurice; Clement, Jean-Marie

2001-01-01

69

Prevalence and Features of Pathogenic Bacteria in the Department of Hematology without Bone Marrow Transplantation in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2010 to 2012.  

PubMed

Objective To investigate the incidence,pathogens,and clinical features of infection in consecutive cases from 2010 to 2012 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Method The incidence,pathogen,treatment,and outcomes of patients with hematological diseases who had positive findings of bacterium in their samples from 2010 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Results There were 449 positive samples (5.8%) from 4 890 patients during this period,among which 388 were proved to be with pathogenic bacteria. Samples separated from patients with community-aquired infections accounted for 8.4% of all positive samples. Most community-aquired infections were caused by Gram-negative bacteria (75%),although no multidrug-resistant bacteria was observed. Samples separated from patients with nosocomial infections accounted for 91.6% of all positive samples. Respiratory tract (49.4%) and peripheral blood (32.6%) were the most common samples with positive results. Skin soft tissues (10.4%),and urine (3.7%) were less common samples. Most of the pathogenic bacteria of the nosocomial infections were Gram-negative (66.9%). The most common Gram-negative bacteria included Escherichia coli (13.8%),Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.1%),and Klebsiella pneumonia (12.1%),while Staphylococcus aureus (10.4%),Enterococcus faecium (7.0%),and Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.1%) were the most common Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria consisted of most of sputum samples and peripheral blood samples. Samples from the surface of skin wound and anal swab were composed largely by Gram-positive bacteria (63.8%). The detection rates of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumonia/Klebsiella oxytoca,Escherichia coli,and Proteus mirabilis were 24.0%,87.9% and 38.4%,respectively. The resistance to Acinetobacter baumannii was serious. Multidrug-resistant,extensive drug resistant and pan drug resistant A. baumannii acountted for 74% of all A. Baumannii infections. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia showed low resistance to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim,levofloxacin and minocycline. Also,22 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 9 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Epidermidis were detected,which were only sensitive to vancomycin,teicoplanin,and linezolid. All patients were treated in the haematology wards and most of them were under agranulocytosis or immunosuppression. Finally,22 patients reached clinical recovery through anti-infective therapy,whereas 49 patients died. Among those deaths,42 patients attributed to severe infections and infection-associated complications. Fourteen of all the deaths might be infected with drug-resistance bacteria. There were 61 samples proved to be bacteria colonization. Nonfermenters such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia made up for a large amount of bacteria colonization. Conclusions The pathogens of nosocomial infections in the hematology ward are mainly Gram-negative bacteria. The incidences and pathogens vary from different infection sites. Nosocomial infection still has a higher mortality rate. Once nonfermenters are detected positive,the pathogenic or colonial bacteria should be distinguished. PMID:25176215

Lu, Wang; Chen, Yang; Qian, Zhang; Bing, Han; Jun-Ling, Zhuang; Miao, Chen; Nong, Zou; Jian, Li; Ming-Hui, Duan; Wei, Zhang; Tie-Nan, Zhu; Ying, Xu; Shu-Jie, Wang; Dao-Bin, Zhou; Yong-Qiang, Zhao; Hui, Zhang; Peng, Wang; Ying-Chun, Xu

2014-08-31

70

Occurrence of yeasts, enterococci and other enteric bacteria in subgingival biofilm of HIV-positive patients with chronic gingivitis and necrotizing periodontitis  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of enteric bacteria and yeasts in biofilm of 80 HIV-positive patients with plaque-associated gingivitis or necrotizing periodontitis. Patients were subjected to extra, intra oral and radiographic examinations. The oral hygiene, bleeding on probing, gingival conditions, and attachment loss were evaluated. Clinical specimens were collected from gingival crevices or periodontal pockets, transferred to VMGA III, diluted and transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose agar with 100 ?g/ml of chloramphenicol, peptone water, EVA broth, EMB agar, SS agar, Bile esculin agar and Brilliant green agar. Isolation of yeasts was carried out at room temperature, for 3-7 days; and for the isolation of enteric microorganisms plates were incubated at 37°C, for 24-48 h. The yeasts identification was performed according to the carbon and nitrogen assimilation, fermentation of carbohydrates and germ tube formation. Bacteria were identified according to their colonial and cellular morphologies and biochemical tests. Yeasts were identified as Candida albicans and its occurrence was more common in patients with CD4+ below 200/mm3 and was affected by the extension of periodontal involvement (P = 0.0345). Enteric bacteria recovered from clinical specimens were identified as Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia liquefaciens, Klebsiella oxytoca and Enterococcus sp. Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci were detected in 32.5% of clinical samples from patients with necrotizing periodontitis. In conclusion, non-oral pathogenic bacteria and C. albicans were more prevalent in periodontal sites of HIV-positive patients with necrotizing periodontitis and chronic gingivitis. PMID:24031212

Gaetti-Jardim Junior, Elerson; Nakano, Viviane; Wahasugui, Thais C.; Cabral, Fatima C.; Gamba, Rosa; Avila-Campos, Mario Julio

2008-01-01

71

Hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

A new hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) variant of Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged. First described in the Asian Pacific Rim, it now increasingly recognized in Western countries. Defining clinical features are the ability to cause serious, life-threatening community-acquired infection in younger healthy hosts, including liver abscess, pneumonia, meningitis and endophthalmitis and the ability to metastatically spread, an unusual feature for enteric Gram-negative bacilli in the non-immunocompromised. Despite infecting a healthier population, significant morbidity and mortality occurs. Although epidemiologic features are still being defined, colonization, particularly intestinal colonization, appears to be a critical step leading to infection. However the route of entry remains unclear. The majority of cases described to date are in Asians, raising the issue of a genetic predisposition vs. geospecific strain acquisition. The traits that enhance its virulence when compared with “classical” K. pneumoniae are the ability to more efficiently acquire iron and perhaps an increase in capsule production, which confers the hypermucoviscous phenotype. An objective diagnostic test suitable for routine use in the clinical microbiology laboratory is needed. If/when these strains become increasingly resistant to antimicrobials, we will be faced with a frightening clinical scenario. PMID:23302790

Shon, Alyssa S.; Bajwa, Rajinder P.S.; Russo, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

72

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Bacteria from Milkmen and Cows with Clinical Mastitis in and around Kampala, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of pathogens associated with bovine mastitis is helpful in treatment and management decisions. However, such data from sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. Here we describe the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from cows with clinical mastitis in Kampala, Uganda. Due to high concern of zoonotic infections, isolates from milkmen are also described. Methodology/Principal Findings Ninety seven milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis and 31 nasal swabs from milkmen were collected (one sample per cow/human). Fifty eight (60%) Gram-positive isolates namely Staphylococci (21), Enterococci (16), Streptococci (13), Lactococci (5), Micrococci (2) and Arcanobacteria (1) were detected in cows; only one grew Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, 24 (25%) coliforms namely Escherichia coli (12), Klebsiella oxytoca (5), Proteus vulgaris (2), Serratia (2), Citrobacter (1), Cedecea (1) and Leclercia (1) were identified. From humans, 24 Gram-positive bacteria grew, of which 11 were Staphylococci (35%) including four Staphylococcus aureus. Upon susceptibility testing, methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were prevalent; 57%, 12/21 in cows and 64%, 7/11 in humans. However, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was not detected. Furthermore, methicillin and vancomycin resistant CoNS were detected in cows (Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis) and humans (Staphylococcus scuiri). Also, vancomycin and daptomycin resistant Enterococci (Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively) were detected in cows. Coliforms were less resistant with three pan-susceptible isolates. However, multidrug resistant Klebsiella, Proteus, Serratia, Cedecea, and Citrobacter were detected. Lastly, similar species grew from human and bovine samples but on genotyping, the isolates were found to be different. Interestingly, human and bovine Staphylococcus aureus were genetically similar (spa-CC435, spa-type t645 corresponding to ST121) but with different susceptibility patterns. Conclusions/Significance CoNS, Enterococci, Streptococci, and Escherichia coli are the predominant pathogens associated with clinical bovine-mastitis in Kampala, Uganda. Multidrug resistant bacteria are also prevalent. While similar species occurred in humans and cows, transmission was not detected. PMID:23667611

Kateete, David Patrick; Kabugo, Usuf; Baluku, Hannington; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Kyobe, Samuel; Okee, Moses; Najjuka, Christine Florence; Joloba, Moses Lutaakome

2013-01-01

73

Role of Antibiotic Penetration Limitation in Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilm Resistance to Ampicillin and Ciprofloxacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penetration of two antibiotics, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin, through biofilms developed in an in vitro model system was investigated. The susceptibilities of biofilms and corresponding freely suspended bacteria to killing by the antibiotics were also measured. Biofilms of Klebsiella pneumoniae were developed on microporous membranes resting on agar nutrient medium. The susceptibilities of planktonic cultures and biofilms to 10 times

JEFF N. ANDERL; MICHAEL J. FRANKLIN; PHILIP S. STEWART

2000-01-01

74

Surface Antigen Exposure by Bismuth Dimercaprol Suppression of Klebsiella pneumoniae Capsular Polysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bismuth dimercaprol (BisBAL) at 1 ppm of Bi31 repressed Klebsiella pneumoniae capsule expression in defined medium by nearly 90%, which exposed subsurface structures. The phagocytic index for BisBAL-treated bacteria increased from <10 to 360 bacteria per 100 neutrophils in the presence of complement and anticapsular or anti-O antigen antiserum. BisBAL treatment also enhanced the reactivity of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific

PHILIP DOMENICO; J. M. TOMAS; S. MERINO; X. RUBIRES; BURKE A. CUNHA

1999-01-01

75

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Klebsiella pneumoniae related community-  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Klebsiella pneumoniae related community- acquired acute lower, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the second pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Yet, very-sector hospitals. Keywords: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Community-acquired, Pneumonia, Extended-spectrum betalactamases

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

76

Antimicrobial-resistant Klebsiella species isolated from free-range chicken samples in an informal settlement  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sub-therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents are administered routinely to poultry to aid growth and to prevent disease, with prolonged exposure often resulting in bacterial resistance. Crossover of antibiotic resistant bacteria from poultry to humans poses a risk to human health. Material and methods In this study, 17 chicken samples collected from a vendor operating in an informal settlement in the Cape Town Metropolitan area, South Africa were screened for antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacilli using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion assay. Results In total, six antibiotics were screened: ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and trimethoprim. Surprisingly, Klebsiella ozaenae was identified in 96 and K. rhinoscleromatis in 6 (n=102) of the samples tested. Interestingly, ?40% of the isolated Klebsiella spp. showed multiple resistance to at least three of the six antibiotics tested. Conclusions Klebsiella ozaenae and K. rhinoscleromatis cause clinical chronic rhinitis and are almost exclusively associated with people living in areas of poor hygiene. PMID:22457672

Fielding, Burtram C.; Mnabisa, Amanda; Gouws, Pieter A.

2012-01-01

77

Emergence of Carbapenemaseproducing Klebsiella Pneumoniae of Sequence type 258 in Michigan, USA  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in our hospital increased beginning in 2009. We aimed to study the clinical and molecular epidemiology of these emerging isolates. We performed a retrospective review of all adult patients with clinical cultures confirmed as CPE by positive modified Hodge test from 5/2009- 5/2010 at the University of Michigan Health System (UMHS). Clinical information was obtained from electronic medical records. Available CPE isolates were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene and blaKPC locus. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Twenty six unique CPE isolates were obtained from 25 adult patients. The majority were Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=17). Other isolates included K. oxytoca (n=3), Citrobacter freundii (n=2), Enterobacter cloacae (n=2), Enterobacter aerogenes (n=1) and Escherichia coli (n=1). Molecular characterization of 19 available CPE isolates showed that 13 (68%) carried the KPC-3 allele and 6 (32%) carried the KPC-2 allele. Among 14 available K. pneumoniae strains, 12 (86%) carried the KPC-3 allele and belonged to a common lineage, sequence type (ST) 258. The other 2 (14%) K. pneumoniae isolates carried the KPC-2 allele and belonged to two unique STs. Among these ST 258 strains, 67% were isolated from patients with prior exposures to health care settings outside of our institution. In contrast, all CPE isolates carrying the KPC-2 allele and all non ST 258 CPE isolates had acquisition attributable to our hospital. Molecular epidemiology of carbapenemase producing K. pneumoniae suggests that KPC-3 producing K. pneumoniae isolates of a common lineage, sequence type (ST 258), are emerging in our hospital. While ST 258 is a dominant sequence type throughout the United States, this study is the first to report its presence in Michigan. PMID:24470956

Jain, Ruchika; Walk, Seth T.; Aronoff, David M.; Young, Vincent B.; Newton, Duane W.; Chenoweth, Carol E.; Washer, Laraine L.

2013-01-01

78

Outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-2-Producing K. pneumoniae Sequence Type 11 in Taiwan in 2011  

PubMed Central

From June to September 2011, a total of 305 ertapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates (MICs of ertapenem ? 1 ?g/ml) were collected from 11 hospitals in different parts of Taiwan. The MICs of 12 antimicrobial agents against these isolates were determined using the broth microdilution method, and genes for carbapenemases were detected using PCR. Genotypes of isolates possessing carbapenemase genes were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. The ertapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates included Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 219), Escherichia coli (n = 64), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 15), and other species (n = 7). Seven (2.3%) of the ertapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates exhibited colistin MICs of >4 ?g/ml, and 24 (7.9%) were not susceptible to tigecycline (MICs > 2 ?g/ml). A total of 29 (9.5%) isolates carried genes encoding carbapenemases, namely, K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2) in 16 (7.3%) isolates of K. pneumoniae (KPC-2-KP) and IMP-8 in 5 (2.3%) isolates of K. pneumoniae, 5 (33.3%) isolates of E. cloacae, 1 isolate of E. coli, 1 isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca, and one isolate of Citrobacter freundii. The 16 KPC-2-KP isolates were isolated from patients at four different hospitals in northern Taiwan. All 16 of the KPC-2-KP isolates were susceptible to amikacin and colistin and had a similar pulsotype (pulsotype 1) and the same sequence type (sequence type 11). Infections due to KPC-2-KP mainly occurred in severely ill patients in the intensive care unit (n = 14, 88%). Four patients with infections due to KPC-2-KP died within 14 days of hospitalization. The findings are the first to demonstrate intrahospital and interhospital dissemination of KPC-2-KP in northern Taiwan. PMID:22802253

Lee, Chun-Ming; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Lee, Wen-Sen; Liu, Yung-Ching; Hsueh, Po-Ren

2012-01-01

79

First Canadian outbreak of Enterobacteriaceae-expressing Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase type 3  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Organisms expressing Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) are found in several regions worldwide but are rarely detected in Canada. The first outbreak of KPC-expressing strains of Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates in a university-affiliated hospital intensive care unit (ICU) in Canada is described. METHODS: Enterobacteriaceae isolates that were flagged by the Vitek 2 (bioMérieux, France) system as possible carbapenemase producers were subjected to the modified Hodge test. Modified Hodge test-positive organisms were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, tested for KPC and other beta-lactamase genes by polymerase chain reaction analysis and underwent subsequent nucleic acid sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined by Vitek 2 and Etest (bioMérieux, France). A chart review was conducted to establish epidemiological links. RESULTS: During the study period, 10 unique Enterobacteriaceae isolates expressing KPC were detected from nine ICU patients. Five patients had infections (three pneumonias, one surgical site infection, one urinary tract infection). Isolates included Escherichia coli (5), Klebsiella oxytoca (2), Serratia marcescens (2) and Citrobacter freundii (1). Polymerase chain reaction analysis and sequencing confirmed the presence of KPC-3 in all isolates; four also carried TEM, two CTX-M and one CMY-2. The imipenem minimum inhibitory concentrations as determined by Etest ranged from 0.75 ?g/mL to ?32 ?g/mL. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis clonal patterns and patient location in the ICU revealed presumptive horizontal transmission events. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, Enterobacteriaceae isolates with KPC are emerging and can result in serious infections. The KPC gene can spread via plasmids to different genera of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The dissemination of KPC in Enterobacteriaceae and the consequences for treatment and infection control measures warrant a high degree of vigilance among clinicians and microbiologists. PMID:23997777

Leung, Victor; Loo, Vivian G; Frenette, Charles; Domingo, Marc-Christian; Bourgault, Anne-Marie; Mulvey, Michael R; Robson, Hugh G

2012-01-01

80

Development of industrial-medium-required elimination of the 2,3-butanediol fermentation pathway to maintain ethanol yield in an ethanologenic strain of Klebsiella oxytoca.  

PubMed

Fermentation efficiency and nutrient costs are both significant factors in process economics for the microbial conversion of cellulosic biomass to commodity chemicals such as ethanol. In this study, we have developed a more industrial medium (OUM1) composed of 0.5% corn steep liquor (dry weight basis) supplemented with mineral salts (0.2%), urea (0.06%), and glucose (9%). Although the growth of strain P2 was vigorous in this medium, approximately 14% of substrate carbon was diverted into 2,3-butanediol and acetoin under the low pH conditions needed for optimal cellulase activity during simultaneous saccharification. Deleting the central region of the budAB genes encoding alpha-acetolactate synthase and alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase eliminated the butanediol and acetoin coproducts and increased ethanol yields by 12%. In OUM1 medium at pH 5.2, strain BW21 produced over 4% ethanol in 48 h (0.47 g ethanol per g glucose). Average productivity (48 h), ethanol titer, and ethanol yield for BW21 in OUM1 medium (pH 5.2) exceeded that of the parent (strain P2) in rich laboratory medium (Luria broth). PMID:16209539

Wood, Brent E; Yomano, L P; York, S W; Ingram, L O

2005-01-01

81

Enterobacter and Klebsiella species isolated from fresh vegetables marketed in Valencia (Spain) and their clinically relevant resistances to chemotherapeutic agents.  

PubMed

Occurrence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic or commensal enterobacteria in marketed agricultural foodstuffs may contribute to their incorporation into the food chain and constitutes an additional food safety concern. In this work, we have determined the clinically relevant resistances to 11 common chemotherapeutic agents in Enterobacter and Klebsiella isolates from fresh vegetables from various sources (supermarkets and greengrocers' shops in Valencia, Spain). A total of 96 isolates were obtained from 160 vegetables analyzed (50% positive samples): 68 Enterobacter isolates (59 E. cloacae, two E. aerogenes, two E. cancerogenus, one E. gergoviae, and four E. sakazakii, currently Cronobacter spp.), and 28 Klebsiella isolates (19 K. oxytoca and 9 K. pneumoniae). Only seven isolates were susceptible to all agents tested, and no resistances to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol were detected. Most isolates were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (74 [58 Enterobacter and 16 Klebsiella]) or to ampicillin (80 [55/25]). Other resistances were less frequent: nitrofurantoin (13 isolates [12/1]), tetracycline (6 [5/1]), co-trimoxazole (3 [3/0]), cefotaxime (1 [1/0]), and streptomycin (2 [1/1]). Multiresistant isolates to two (56 [41/15]), three (10 E. cloacae isolates), four (one E. cloacae and one K. pneumoniae isolate), and five (two E. cloacae isolates) chemotherapeutic agents were also detected. The presence of potential pathogens points to marketed fresh produce, which often is eaten raw, as a risk factor for consumer health. In addition, these results support the usefulness of these bacterial species as indicators of the spreading of antibiotic resistances into the environment, particularly in the food chain, and suggest their role as carriers of resistance determinants from farms to consumers, which may constitute an additional "silent" food safety concern. Therefore, there is a need to improve the hygienic quality of marketed fresh vegetables, from better methods to prevent contamination in the farms to the use of sanitizing practices at home. PMID:23980710

Falomir, María Pilar; Rico, Hortensia; Gozalbo, Daniel

2013-12-01

82

Fecal Shedding of Klebsiella pneumoniae by Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle. Wood products are considered to be the main source of Klebsiella on dairy farms. Envi- ronmental hygiene and use of inorganic bedding materi- als such as sand are recommended to control Klebsiella mastitis. However, Klebsiella mastitis still occurs on well-managed dairy farms that use sand as bedding ma-

M. A. Munoz; C. Ahlström; B. J. Rauch; R. N. Zadoks

2006-01-01

83

Frequency assessment of ?-lactamase enzymes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella isolates in patients with urinary tract infection  

PubMed Central

Background: Production of ?-lactamase enzymes is the most common and important mechanism of resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. The objective of this study was to assess frequency of three main ?-lactamase enzymes, including extended spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs), metallo-?-lactamase (MBL), and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) enzymes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolated from nosocomial and community urinary tract infections (UTI). Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study from March to December 2012, midstream urine samples were obtained from patients suspicious of UTI who were hospitalized or referred to Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Samples were cultured and E. coli and Klebsiella spp. were isolated. Prevalence of ESBLs, KPC, and MBLs producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. were studied by double-disk (combined-disk), the modified Hodge test and imipenem-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid combined disc methods respectively. In addition, their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns determined and resistant to carbapenem drugs confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentrations based on E-test method. Results: A total of 1080 E. coli and 484 Klebsiella strains were isolated during study period. Among 720 E. coli and 384 Klebsiella isolates from hospitalized patients, 300 (41.7%) and 198 (51.5%) were ESBLs producers, respectively. In out-patients samples, the rate of ESBLs production was 25% (90/360) and 40% (40/100) in E. coli and Klebsiella isolates, respectively. Prevalence of MBLs producing in hospital E. coli and Klebsiella isolates were 0.3% (2/720) and 2.6% (10/384), and for KPC data were 1.4% (10/720) and 48.4% (186/384), respectively. No MBLs and KPC producing isolate was seen in non-hospital E. coli and Klebsiella isolates except for one non-hospital KPC producing Klebsiella isolate. Conclusion: The result of our study showed high prevalence of ESBLs and KPC, but low prevalence of MBLs in cultured bacteria from urine samples of patients with acute UTI. In addition, KPC was the main carbapenem resistance mechanism in Klebsiella and E. coli isolates. PMID:25002893

Moayednia, Reza; Shokri, Dariush; Mobasherizadeh, Sina; Baradaran, Azar; Fatemi, Seyed Masih; Merrikhi, Alireza

2014-01-01

84

Analysis of eight out genes in a cluster required for pectic enzyme secretion by Erwinia chrysanthemi: sequence comparison with secretion genes from other gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Many extracellular proteins produced by Erwinia chrysanthemi require the out gene products for transport across the outer membrane. In a previous report (S. Y. He, M. Lindeberg, A. K. Chatterjee, and A. Collmer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:1079-1083, 1991) cosmid pCPP2006, sufficient for secretion of Erwinia chrysanthemi extracellular proteins by Escherichia coli, was partially sequenced, revealing four out genes sharing high homology with pulH through pulK from Klebsiella oxytoca. The nucleotide sequence of eight additional out genes reveals homology with pulC through pulG, pulL, pulM, pulO, and other genes involved in secretion by various gram-negative bacteria. Although signal sequences and hydrophobic regions are generally conserved between Pul and Out proteins, four out genes contain unique inserts, a pulN homolog is not present, and outO appears to be transcribed separately from outC through outM. The sequenced region was subcloned, and an additional 7.6-kb region upstream was identified as being required for secretion in E. coli. out gene homologs were found on Erwinia carotovora cosmid clone pAKC651 but were not detected in E. coli. The outC-through-outM operon is weakly induced by polygalacturonic acid and strongly expressed in the early stationary phase. The out and pul genes are highly similar in sequence, hydropathic properties, and overall arrangement but differ in both transcriptional organization and the nature of their induction. Images PMID:1429461

Lindeberg, M; Collmer, A

1992-01-01

85

Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Other Gram-Negative Bacilli in Pneumonia-Prone Age Groups in Semarang, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) cause many cases of pneumonia in Indonesia. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of GNB in Semarang, Indonesia. Klebsiella pneumoniae carriage in adults (15%) was higher than in children (7%) (P = 0.004), while that of other GNB was comparable. Poor food and water hygiene are determinants of carriage of these bacteria. PMID:23486716

Severin, Juliette A.; Gasem, M. Hussein; Keuter, Monique; van den Broek, Peterhans; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Wahyono, Hendro; Verbrugh, Henri A.

2013-01-01

86

Evaluation of an Automated Rapid Diagnostic Assay for Detection of Gram-Negative Bacteria and Their Drug-Resistance Genes in Positive Blood Cultures  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the performance of the Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Nucleic Acid Test (BC-GN; Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA), an automated multiplex assay for rapid identification of positive blood cultures caused by 9 Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and for detection of 9 genes associated with ?-lactam resistance. The BC-GN assay can be performed directly from positive blood cultures with 5 minutes of hands-on and 2 hours of run time per sample. A total of 397 GNB positive blood cultures were analyzed using the BC-GN assay. Of the 397 samples, 295 were simulated samples prepared by inoculating GNB into blood culture bottles, and the remaining were clinical samples from 102 patients with positive blood cultures. Aliquots of the positive blood cultures were tested by the BC-GN assay. The results of bacterial identification between the BC-GN assay and standard laboratory methods were as follows: Acinetobacter spp. (39 isolates for the BC-GN assay/39 for the standard methods), Citrobacter spp. (7/7), Escherichia coli (87/87), Klebsiella oxytoca (13/13), and Proteus spp. (11/11); Enterobacter spp. (29/30); Klebsiella pneumoniae (62/72); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (124/125); and Serratia marcescens (18/21); respectively. From the 102 clinical samples, 104 bacterial species were identified with the BC-GN assay, whereas 110 were identified with the standard methods. The BC-GN assay also detected all ?-lactam resistance genes tested (233 genes), including 54 blaCTX-M, 119 blaIMP, 8 blaKPC, 16 blaNDM, 24 blaOXA-23, 1 blaOXA-24/40, 1 blaOXA-48, 4 blaOXA-58, and 6 blaVIM. The data shows that the BC-GN assay provides rapid detection of GNB and ?-lactam resistance genes in positive blood cultures and has the potential to contributing to optimal patient management by earlier detection of major antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:24705449

Tojo, Masayoshi; Fujita, Takahiro; Ainoda, Yusuke; Nagamatsu, Maki; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Sakurai, Aki; Masui, Yoshinori; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Kirikae, Teruo; Ohmagari, Norio

2014-01-01

87

Clinical epidemiology of the global expansion of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) were originally identified in the USA in 1996. Since then, these versatile ?-lactamases have spread internationally among Gram-negative bacteria, especially K pneumoniae, although their precise epidemiology is diverse across countries and regions. The mortality described among patients infected with organisms positive for KPC is high, perhaps as a result of the limited antibiotic options remaining (often colistin, tigecycline, or aminoglycosides). Triple drug combinations using colistin, tigecycline, and imipenem have recently been associated with improved survival among patients with bacteraemia. In this Review, we summarise the epidemiology of KPCs across continents, and discuss issues around detection, present antibiotic options and those in development, treatment outcome and mortality, and infection control. In view of the limitations of present treatments and the paucity of new drugs in the pipeline, infection control must be our primary defence for now. PMID:23969216

Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Poirel, Laurent; Bonomo, Robert A; Schwaber, Mitchell J; Daikos, George L; Cormican, Martin; Cornaglia, Giuseppe; Garau, Javier; Gniadkowski, Marek; Hayden, Mary K; Kumarasamy, Karthikeyan; Livermore, David M; Maya, Juan J; Nordmann, Patrice; Patel, Jean B; Paterson, David L; Pitout, Johann; Villegas, Maria Virginia; Wang, Hui; Woodford, Neil; Quinn, John P

2013-09-01

88

Klebsiella pneumoniae brain abscess in two neonates.  

PubMed

We report two premature infants who developed multiple brain abscesses following Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Both the cases were diagnosed by ultrasonogram (USG) and cranial tomography. Abscess had intraventricular communication in one case. One infant was managed conservatively while the other required surgical drainage. PMID:18723915

Pant, Pragya; Banerjee, Shyamal; Ganguly, Sutapa

2008-08-01

89

Complete Genome Sequence of the N2Fixing Broad Host Range Endophyte Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and Virulence Predictions Verified in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342. Although K. pneumoniae 342 is a member of the enteric bacteria, it serves as a model for studies of endophytic, plant- bacterial associations due to its efficient colonization of plant tissues (including maize and wheat, two of the most important crops in the

Derrick E. Fouts; Heather L. Tyler; Robert T. DeBoy; Sean Daugherty; Qinghu Ren; Jonathan H. Badger; Anthony S. Durkin; Heather Huot; Susmita Shrivastava; Sagar Kothari; Robert J. Dodson; Yasmin Mohamoud; Hoda Khouri; Luiz F. W. Roesch; Karen A. Krogfelt; Carsten Struve; Eric W. Triplett; Barbara A. Methé

2008-01-01

90

Manno(Rhamno)Biose-Containing Capsular Polysaccharides of Klebsiella pneumoniae Enhance Opsono-Stimulation of Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the relationship between the capsular and the O-antigen structures and the ability of bacteria to trigger respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL).Capsulated and non-capsulated variants as well as capsule-switched derivatives of Klebsiella serotypes bearing or lacking manno(rhamno)biose repeats in their capsular polysaccharides and expressing either mannose-rich or mannose-poor O antigens were tested for their ability to induce

Hany Sahly; Yona Keisari; Itzhak Ofek

2009-01-01

91

Specific Modification of a Na+ Binding Site in NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase from Klebsiella pneumoniae with Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 16 September 2005\\/Accepted 13 February 2006 The respiratory NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I) (NDH-1) is a multisubunit enzyme that trans- locates protons (or in some cases Na) across energy-conserving membranes from bacteria or mitochondria. We studied the reaction of the Na-translocating complex I from the enterobacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae with N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), with the aim of identifying a subunit critical for

Irini Vgenopoulou; Anja C. Gemperli; Julia Steuber

2006-01-01

92

Fimbriae and Adhesive Properties in Klebsiella Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: F'imbriae were found in 125 of 154 non-motile Klebsiella strains examined by electron-microscope in serial aerobic broth cultures. Fimbriate strains occurred in each of the capsule serotypes 1-72 and mostly showed the biochemical reactions of saprophytic KZebsieZZa aerogenes. The fimbriae were clearly distinguishable from the capsules and occurred also in non-capsulate mutants. Most fimbriate strains showed evidence of varying

J. P. DUGUID

1959-01-01

93

In vitro growth inhibition of mastitis causing bacteria by phenolics and metal chelators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial activities of three phenolic compounds and four metal chelators were tested at 0, 250, 500, and 1000 ppm in vitro against four major mastitis-causing bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pnuemoniae, and Escherichia coli. Overall, butylated hydroxyanisole and tert-butylhydroquinone showed the greatest antimicrobial activity. These phenolics were bactericidal at 250 to 500 ppm against all four bacteria tested. The

B. P. Chew; L. W. Tjoelker; T. S. Tanaka

1985-01-01

94

Anti-Biofilm Activity: A Function of Klebsiella pneumoniae Capsular Polysaccharide  

PubMed Central

Competition and cooperation phenomena occur within highly interactive biofilm communities and several non-biocides molecules produced by microorganisms have been described as impairing biofilm formation. In this study, we investigated the anti-biofilm capacities of an ubiquitous and biofilm producing bacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae. Cell-free supernatant from K. pneumoniae planktonic cultures showed anti-biofilm effects on most Gram positive bacteria tested but also encompassed some Gram negative bacilli. The anti-biofilm non-bactericidal activity was further investigated on Staphylococcus epidermidis, by determining the biofilm biomass, microscopic observations and agglutination measurement through a magnetic bead-mediated agglutination test. Cell-free extracts from K. pneumoniae biofilm (supernatant and acellular matrix) also showed an influence, although to a lesser extend. Chemical analyses indicated that the active molecule was a high molecular weight polysaccharide composed of five monosaccharides: galactose, glucose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and glucosamine and the main following sugar linkage residues [?2)-?-l-Rhap-(1?]; [?4)-?-l-Rhap-(1?]; [?-d-Galp-(1?]; [?2,3)-?-d-Galp-(1?]; [?3)-?-d-Galp-(1?] and, [?4)-?-d-GlcAp-(1?]. Characterization of this molecule indicated that this component was more likely capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and precoating of abiotic surfaces with CPS extracts from different serotypes impaired the bacteria-surface interactions. Thus the CPS of Klebsiella would exhibit a pleiotropic activity during biofilm formation, both stimulating the initial adhesion and maturation steps as previously described, but also repelling potential competitors. PMID:24932475

Dos Santos Goncalves, Marina; Delattre, Cedric; Balestrino, Damien; Charbonnel, Nicolas; Elboutachfaiti, Redouan; Wadouachi, Anne; Badel, Stephanie; Bernardi, Thierry; Michaud, Philippe; Forestier, Christiane

2014-01-01

95

Effects of bathing on Pseudomonas and Klebsiella colonization in patients with spinal cord injuries.  

PubMed Central

This study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae colonization in humans with spinal cord injuries who were using the external urinary collection system showed that meticulous bathing with the bar soap issued by the hospital did not eliminated colonization and was frequently associated with the shifting of these bacteria to adjacent sites on the body. Bacterial counts of the skin showed that bathing did reduce the numbers of P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae found on the skin surface and temporarily eliminated these bacteria from some sites. The persistence of these organisms for long periods, even when patients were meticulously bathed, indicates that P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae may become part of the resident flora in these patients. PMID:6793623

Gilmore, D S; Aeilts, G D; Alldis, B A; Bruce, S K; Jimenez, E M; Schick, D G; Morrow, J W; Montgomerie, J Z

1981-01-01

96

Two distinct sensing pathways allow recognition of Klebsiella pneumoniae by Dictyostelium amoebae.  

PubMed

Recognition of bacteria by metazoans is mediated by receptors that recognize different types of microorganisms and elicit specific cellular responses. The soil amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum feeds upon a variable mixture of environmental bacteria, and it is expected to recognize and adapt to various food sources. To date, however, no bacteria-sensing mechanisms have been described. In this study, we isolated a Dictyostelium mutant (fspA KO) unable to grow in the presence of non-capsulated Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria, but growing as efficiently as wild-type cells in the presence of other bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis. fspA KO cells were also unable to respond to K.?pneumoniae and more specifically to bacterially secreted folate in a chemokinetic assay, while they responded readily to B.?subtilis. Remarkably, both WT and fspA KO cells were able to grow in the presence of capsulated LM21 K.?pneumoniae, and responded to purified capsule, indicating that capsule recognition may represent an alternative, FspA-independent mechanism for K.?pneumoniae sensing. When LM21 capsule synthesis genes were deleted, growth and chemokinetic response were lost for fspA KO cells, but not for WT cells. Altogether, these results indicate that Dictyostelium amoebae use specific recognition mechanisms to respond to different K.?pneumoniae elements. PMID:24128258

Lima, Wanessa C; Balestrino, Damien; Forestier, Christiane; Cosson, Pierre

2014-03-01

97

Characterization of Klebsiella sp. strain 10982, a colonizer of humans that contains novel antibiotic resistance alleles and exhibits genetic similarities to plant and clinical Klebsiella isolates.  

PubMed

A unique Klebsiella species strain, 10982, was cultured from a perianal swab specimen obtained from a patient in the University of Maryland Medical Center intensive care unit. Klebsiella sp. 10982 possesses a large IncA/C multidrug resistance plasmid encoding a novel FOX AmpC ?-lactamase designated FOX-10. A novel variant of the LEN ?-lactamase was also identified. Genome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that this isolate contains genes associated with nitrogen fixation, allantoin metabolism, and citrate fermentation. These three gene regions are typically present in either Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates or Klebsiella nitrogen-fixing endophytes but usually not in the same organism. Phylogenomic analysis of Klebsiella sp. 10982 and sequenced Klebsiella genomes demonstrated that Klebsiella sp. 10982 is present on a branch that is located intermediate between the genomes of nitrogen-fixing endophytes and K. pneumoniae clinical isolates. Metabolic features identified in the genome of Klebsiella sp. 10982 distinguish this isolate from other Klebsiella clinical isolates. These features include the nitrogen fixation (nif) gene cluster, which is typically present in endophytic Klebsiella isolates and is absent from Klebsiella clinical isolates. Additionally, the Klebsiella sp. 10982 genome contains genes associated with allantoin metabolism, which have been detected primarily in K. pneumoniae isolates from liver abscesses. Comparative genomic analysis of Klebsiella sp. 10982 demonstrated that this organism has acquired genes conferring new metabolic strategies and novel antibiotic resistance alleles, both of which may enhance its ability to colonize the human body. PMID:24395222

Hazen, Tracy H; Zhao, LiCheng; Sahl, Jason W; Robinson, Gwen; Harris, Anthony D; Rasko, David A; Johnson, J Kristie

2014-01-01

98

Lung adenocarcinoma masquerading as refractory Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

We report the case of a middle-aged man where a diagnosis of Klebsiella pneumoniae obscured the underlying malignancy. The patient was hospitalised for management of a presumed refractory community-acquired pneumonia with radiological features of right lower lobe consolidation. Bronchoscopy did not identify an endobronchial lesion and washings grew K pneumoniae. CT-guided fine-needle aspirate samples did not detect any malignancy. However, despite appropriate antibiotic treatment there was no improvement in the patient's clinical condition. Consequently, a CT-guided lung core biopsy was performed to obtain more tissue for histopathology, which was diagnostic of primary lung adenocarcinoma. This case highlights the need to continue to investigate a patient who is not progressing as clinically appropriate to their original diagnosis. PMID:24706703

McCartney, Clair; Moghadam, Afshin; Sriram, Krishna B

2014-01-01

99

Bacteria Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Who knew that bacteria had their own virtual museum? Here, visitors will "learn that not all bacteria are harmful, how they are used in industry, that they belong to the oldest living creatures on Earth", and many more interesting facts to discover about the diverse world of bacteria. The "Bacterial Species Files" tab at the top of the page, allows visitors to look up information on 40 different specific bacteria, from Anthrax to Yersinia enterocolitica. The information provided for each bacterium includes photographs, consumer guides, fact sheets, and scientific links. Visitors will find that the "Main Exhibits" tab addresses the basics about bacteria, as well as "Pathogenic Bacteria", "Evolution", "How We Fight Bacteria", and "Food and Water Safety". Visitors will surely enjoy the "Good Bacteria in Food" link found in the Food and Water Safety section, as it explains how some foods benefit from good bacteria, such as Swiss cheese, sausage, sauerkraut, chocolate, and coffee.

100

'KLEBSIELLA' DENSITIES IN WATERS RECEIVING WOOD PULP EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Surface waters receiving pulp mill effluents were examined for the presence of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Salmonella species. Fecal coliforms were biochemically identified as belonging to the Escherichia, Klebsiella or Enterobacter genera. Sixty percent of the isolates...

101

Klebsiella pneumoniae: a rare cause of device-associated endocarditis.  

PubMed

Intravascular infections involving implanted pacemakers and defibrillators are being seen with increasing frequency. This report describes a case of intravascular infection of an implanted defibrillator with Klebsiella pneumoniae, an unusual pathogen for pacemaker or defibrillator infection. PMID:16689852

Pai, Rakesh K; Wall, T Scott; Macgregor, John F; Abedin, Moeen; Freedman, Roger A

2006-05-01

102

Contribution of the Klebsiella pneumoniae Capsule to Bacterial Aggregate and Biofilm Microstructures? †  

PubMed Central

We studied the interaction between capsule production and hydrodynamic growth conditions on the internal and macroscopic structure of biofilms and spontaneously formed aggregates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Wild-type and capsule-deficient strains were studied as biofilms and under strong and mild hydrodynamic conditions. Internal organization of multicellular structures was determined with a novel image-processing algorithm for feature extraction from high-resolution confocal microscopy. Measures included interbacterial spacing and local angular alignment of individual bacteria. Macroscopic organization was measured via the size distribution of aggregate populations forming under various conditions. Compared with wild-type organisms, unencapsulated mutant organisms formed more organized aggregates with less variability in interbacterial spacing and greater interbacterial angular alignment. Internal aggregate structure was not detectably affected by the severity of hydrodynamic growth conditions. However, hydrodynamic conditions affected both wild-type and mutant aggregate size distributions. Bacteria grown under high-speed shaking conditions (i.e., at Reynolds' numbers beyond the laminar-turbulent transition) formed few multicellular aggregates while clumpy growth was common in bacteria grown under milder conditions. Our results indicate that both capsule and environment contribute to the structure of communities of K. pneumoniae, with capsule exerting influence at an interbacterial length scale and fluid dynamic forces affecting overall particle size. PMID:21239544

Dzul, Stephen P.; Thornton, Margaret M.; Hohne, Danial N.; Stewart, Elizabeth J.; Shah, Aayush A.; Bortz, David M.; Solomon, Michael J.; Younger, John G.

2011-01-01

103

Capsule and Fimbria Interaction in Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

The capsular polysaccharide and type 1 fimbriae are two of the major surface-located virulence properties associated with the pathogenesis of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The capsule is an elaborate polysaccharide matrix that encases the entire cell surface and provides resistance against many host defense mechanisms. In contrast, type 1 fimbriae are thin adhesive thread-like surface organelles that can extend beyond the capsular matrix and mediate d-mannose-sensitive adhesion to host epithelial cells. These fimbriae are archetypical and consist of a major building block protein (FimA) that comprises the bulk of the organelle and a tip-located adhesin (FimH). It is assumed that the extended major-subunit protein structure permits the FimH adhesin to function independently of the presence of a capsule. In this study, we have employed a defined set of K. pneumoniae capsulated and noncapsulated strains to show that the function of type 1 fimbriae is actually impeded by the concomitant expression of a polysaccharide capsule. Capsule expression had significant effects on two parameters commonly used to define FimH function, namely, yeast cell agglutination and biofilm formation. Our data suggest that this effect is not due to transcriptional/translational changes in fimbrial gene/protein expression but rather the result of direct physical interference. This was further demonstrated by the fact that we could restore fimbrial function by inhibiting capsule synthesis. It remains to be determined whether the expression of these very different surface components occurs simply via random events of phase variation or in a coordinated manner in response to specific environmental cues. PMID:16040975

Schembri, Mark A.; Blom, Jens; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Klemm, Per

2005-01-01

104

[Viable non-culturable bacteria].  

PubMed

Viable but non-culturable cells (VBNC) are defined as live bacteria, but which do not either grow or divide. Such bacteria cannot be cultivated on conventional media (they do not form colonies on solid media, they do not change broth appearance), but their existence can be proved using other methods. The switch to the VBNC stage has been described and documented for several bacterial species: Vibrio spp. (cholerae, vulnificus and other species), Escherichia coli (including EHEC), Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolytica, Shigella spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Cronobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Providencia spp., Morganella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Enterococcus spp. The capacity of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria to enter the VBNC stage started to concern microbiologists in the field of food industry (food and water safety) and pharmaceutical industry. Many studies have shown that processes meant to achieve bactericidal effects can favour bacterial switch to VBNC. Viable but non-culturable stage is reversible. Concerns are due to the capacity of VBNC, especially of potentially pathogen cells, to switch to the infectious stage once in the host organism. PMID:21038700

N??cu?iu, Alexandra-Maria

2010-01-01

105

Identification of pathogenic bacteria in blood cultures: Comparison between conventional and PCR methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were found to be the most prevalent bacteremia-causing bacteria in a survey in a medical center. A PCR method for identification of these five most common pathogens in blood cultures was developed. A unique sequence was chosen for each pathogen and used for primer design. Sixty-one blood samples (from

Alina Pechorsky; Yeshayahu Nitzan; Tsilia Lazarovitch

2009-01-01

106

Combined Biochemical and Serological Typing of Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella  

PubMed Central

In a series of 640 strains of Klebsiella isolated from clinical specimens over a 7-month period, there were sufficient biochemical differences between strains to allow a biochemical typing system to be established. Biochemical tests were done in solid media inoculated with a modified Steers inocula replicator. Biotypes were designated by a numerical coding system; 29 distinct biotypes were found among the 640 strains of Klebsiella. Serotyping of 270 of the strains was done by the Quellung reaction, and 40 capsular types were identified. Numerical biotypes and serotypes of strains appeared to vary independently. When used in conjunction, the two methods subdivided the strains into many more distinct types than either used alone. With the combined method over 100 types of Klebsiella were distinguished among the 270 isolates. PMID:4608362

Rennie, R. P.; Duncan, I. B. R.

1974-01-01

107

Investigation on American cockroaches medically important bacteria in Khorramshahr hospital, Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate American cockroaches' infection to various bacteria in Khorramshahr Vali-e-Asr hospital, which was done in 2008. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 20 American cockroaches were caught via direct collection. Medically important bacteria were extracted from their outer surface of bodies by standard procedures. Results Culturing outer surface wash of cockroaches resulted in the separation of Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Proteus and Streptococcus. The main common bacteria were Klebsiella (35%) and Pseudomonas (30%). Also, results of culture media showed that about 90% of cockroaches infected to at least one bacterium. Conclusions American cockroaches can transmit pathogenic and potential pathogenic bacteria, therefore their presence in hospitals may be a sanitation challenge. It is recommended to assess plans in purpose to combat these pests in the hospitals.

Kassiri, Hamid; Kassiri, Ali; Kazemi, Shahnaz

2014-01-01

108

Bacteria Transformation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students construct paper recombinant plasmids to simulate the methods genetic engineers use to create modified bacteria. They learn what role enzymes, DNA and genes play in the modification of organisms. For the particular model they work on, they isolate a mammal insulin gene and combine it with a bacteria's gene sequence (plasmid DNA) for production of the protein insulin.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

109

Hessian Fly-Associated Bacteria: Transmission, Essentiality, and Composition  

PubMed Central

Plant-feeding insects have been recently found to use microbes to manipulate host plant physiology and morphology. Gall midges are one of the largest groups of insects that manipulate host plants extensively. Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor) is an important pest of wheat and a model system for studying gall midges. To examine the role of bacteria in parasitism, a systematic analysis of bacteria associated with HF was performed for the first time. Diverse bacteria were found in different developmental HF stages. Fluorescent in situ hybridization detected a bacteriocyte-like structure in developing eggs. Bacterial DNA was also detected in eggs by PCR using primers targeted to different bacterial groups. These results indicated that HF hosted different types of bacteria that were maternally transmitted to the next generation. Eliminating bacteria from the insect with antibiotics resulted in high mortality of HF larvae, indicating that symbiotic bacteria are essential for the insect to survive on wheat seedlings. A preliminary survey identified various types of bacteria associated with different HF stages, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Ochrobactrum, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Nitrosomonas, Arcanobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, and Klebsiella. Similar bacteria were also found specifically in HF-infested susceptible wheat, suggesting that HF larvae had either transmitted bacteria into plant tissue or brought secondary infection of bacteria to the wheat host. The bacteria associated with wheat seedlings may play an essential role in the wheat-HF interaction. PMID:21858016

Bansal, Raman; Hulbert, Scot; Schemerhorn, Brandi; Reese, John C.; Whitworth, R. Jeff; Stuart, Jeffrey J.; Chen, Ming-Shun

2011-01-01

110

Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Respiratory Isolate IA565  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a clinically significant opportunistic bacterial pathogen as well as a normal member of the human microbiota. K. pneumoniae strain IA565 was isolated from a tracheal aspirate at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. Here, we present the genome sequence of K. pneumoniae IA565. PMID:25212620

Johnson, Jeremiah G.; Spurbeck, Rachel R.; Sandhu, Sukhinder K.

2014-01-01

111

Differentiation of Enterobacter aerogenes from Klebsiellae by Deoxyribonucleic Acid Reassociation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polynucleotide sequence relatedness tests were carried out to determine the extent of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) divergence among species of Klebsiella and Enterobacter aerogenes strains. Labeled, denatured DNA fragments from K. pneumoniae type 2 and E. aerogenes 1627-66 were each incubated with an excess of unlabeled DNA fragments from Klebsielia species and strains of E. aerogenes. Reassociated DNA duplexes were separated

DON J. BRENNER; A. G. STEIGERWALT; G. R. FANNING

1972-01-01

112

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Comparative analysis of Klebsiella pneumoniae  

E-print Network

-emerged as a cause of community-acquired in- fections including pneumonia and the characteristic syndrome of pyogenic a frequent cause of nosocomial infections and a re-emerging cause of severe community-acquired infections. KRESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Comparative analysis of Klebsiella pneumoniae genomes identifies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

Klebsiella pneumoniae triggers a cytotoxic effect on airway epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a capsulated Gram negative bacterial pathogen and a frequent cause of nosocomial infections. Despite its clinical relevance, little is known about the features of the interaction between K. pneumoniae and lung epithelial cells on a cellular level, neither about the role of capsule polysaccharide, one of its best characterised virulence factors, in this interaction. RESULTS: The

Victoria Cano; David Moranta; Enrique Llobet-Brossa; José Antonio Bengoechea; Junkal Garmendia

2009-01-01

114

Effect of subinihibitory and inhibitory concentrations of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng essential oil on Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

We evaluated the antimicrobial activity and some mechanisms used by subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil, obtained from leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus, against a standard strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 5 multiresistant clinical isolates of the bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), the rate of kill and the pH sensitivity of the essential oil were determined by microdilution tests performed in 96-well plates. Subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil were tested in order to check its action on K. pneumoniae membrane permeability, capsule expression, urease activity and cell morphology. The MIC and MBC of the essential oil were 0.09±0.01%. A complete inhibition of the bacterial growth was observed after 2 h of incubation with twice the MIC of the essential oil. A better MIC was found when neutral or alkaline pH broth was used. Alteration in membrane permeability was found by the increase of crystal violet uptake when the bacteria were incubated with twice the MIC levels of the essential oil. The urease activity could be prevented when all the subinhibitory concentrations were tested in comparison to the untreated group (p<0.001). Alteration of the bacterial morphology besides inhibition of the capsule expression was verified by atomic force microscopy, and Anthony's stain method, respectively. Our data allow us to conclude that the essential oil of P. amboinicus can be a good candidate for future research. PMID:22776104

Gonçalves, Thially Braga; Braga, Milena Aguiar; de Oliveira, Francisco F M; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Carvalho, Cibele B M; Brito e Cabral, Paula; de Melo Santiago, Thiago; Sousa, Jeanlex S; Barros, Eduardo Bedê; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida T

2012-08-15

115

N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Production by Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Human Tongue Surface  

PubMed Central

Bacteria communicate by producing quorum sensing molecules called autoinducers, which include autoinducer-1, an N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (AHL), and autoinducer-2. Bacteria present in the human oral cavity have been shown to produce autoinducer-2, but not AHL. Here, we report the isolation of two AHL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from the posterior dorsal surface of the tongue of a healthy individual. Spent culture supernatant extracts from K. pneumoniae activated the biosensors Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4(pZLR4) and Escherichia coli [pSB401], suggesting the presence of both long and short chain AHLs. High resolution mass spectrometry analyses of these extracts confirmed that both K. pneumoniae isolates produced N-octanoylhomoserine lactone and N-3-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of K. pneumoniae from the posterior dorsal surface of the human tongue and the production of these AHLs by this bacterium. PMID:22737019

Yin, Wai-Fong; Purmal, Kathiravan; Chin, Shenyang; Chan, Xin-Yue; Koh, Chong-Lek; Sam, Choon-Kook; Chan, Kok-Gan

2012-01-01

116

Susceptibility of different phases of biofilm of Klebsiella pneumoniae to three different antibiotics.  

PubMed

The existence of majority of bacteria in biofilm mode makes it difficult to eradicate them as antibiotics at much higher concentrations than the MICs are required to destroy these bacteria. This study investigated the effect of different classes of antibiotics on different phases of biofilm formed by Klebsiella pneumoniae. The organism was grown in different phases relevant to biofilm formation: planktonic cells at mid-log phase, planktonic cells at stationary phase, adherent monolayers and mature biofilms and their susceptibility to different classes of antibiotics was assessed. The results showed that planktonic organisms were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, amikacin and piperacillin, and their MBC values were same or eight times higher than their corresponding MICs. MBC of ciprofloxacin and amikacin was found to be four and eight times higher for monolayer than planktonic cells. On the other hand, MBC of piperacillin was >1024??g?ml(-1). K. pneumoniae in a biofilm growth mode was more resistant to antibiotics than all other modes. The effect of amikacin and ciprofloxacin on young and older biofilms, at the highest achievable serum concentrations, was also examined. It was observed that amikacin at a concentration of 40??g?ml(-1) was able to eradicate the young biofilms; however, with increase in the age of the biofilm, it became completely ineffective. Calcofluor staining suggested increased production of exopolysaccharide in older biofilm compared with younger biofim that might be responsible for the increased resistance of older biofilm of K. pneumoniae to antibiotics. PMID:23168403

Singla, Saloni; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

2013-02-01

117

Effect of Klebsiella pneumoniae enterotoxin on intestinal transport in the rat.  

PubMed Central

The effects on intestinal transport of either a semipurified preparation of enterotoxin elaborated by Klebsiella pneumoniae or similaryly prepared control material were tested by marker perfusion studies in the small intestine of rats. At a concentration of 2 mg/ml, the enterotoxin produced net secretion of water, Na, and Cl in both jejunal and ileal segments; HCO3 transport was not affected. Net secretion was evident within 30 min after intorduction of the toxin and was maximal after 90 min. The addition of 56 mM glucose to the enterotoxin-containing perfusion fluid resulted in reversal of water and Na transport to net absorption in both intestinal segments. The enterotoxin also produced a significant depression of xylose absorption in both the jejunum and ileum but did not affect the absorption of either glucose or L-leucine. Intestinal structure was not altered after perfusion of the toxin but insillation of approximately one-quarter of the total perfusion dose into a ligated jejunal loop for 18 h produced fluid secretion and structural abnormalities. These observations confirm the fact that other species of coliform bacteria in addition to tescherichia coli are capable of elaborating an enterotoxin. Such species commonly contaminate the small intestine of persons with tropical sprue and it is suggested that chronic exposure of the intestinal mucosa to the enterotoxin elaborated by these bacteria may be a factor in the pathogenesis of intestinal abnormalities in thid disorder. Images PMID:169297

Klipstein, F A; Horowitz, I R; Engert, R F; Schnenk, E A

1975-01-01

118

Methanotrophic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Methane-utilizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria that are related to other members of the Proteobacteria. These bacteria are classified into three groups based on the pathways used for assimilation of formaldehyde, the major source of cell carbon, and other physiological and morphological features. The type I and type X methanotrophs are found within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria and employ the ribulose monophosphate pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, whereas type II methanotrophs, which employ the serine pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, form a coherent cluster within the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Methanotrophic bacteria are ubiquitous. The growth of type II bacteria appears to be favored in environments that contain relatively high levels of methane, low levels of dissolved oxygen, and limiting concentrations of combined nitrogen and/or copper. Type I methanotrophs appear to be dominant in environments in which methane is limiting and combined nitrogen and copper levels are relatively high. These bacteria serve as biofilters for the oxidation of methane produced in anaerobic environments, and when oxygen is present in soils, atmospheric methane is oxidized. Their activities in nature are greatly influenced by agricultural practices and other human activities. Recent evidence indicates that naturally occurring, uncultured methanotrophs represent new genera. Methanotrophs that are capable of oxidizing methane at atmospheric levels exhibit methane oxidation kinetics different from those of methanotrophs available in pure cultures. A limited number of methanotrophs have the genetic capacity to synthesize a soluble methane monooxygenase which catalyzes the rapid oxidation of environmental pollutants including trichloroethylene. PMID:8801441

Hanson, R S; Hanson, T E

1996-01-01

119

Ribitol dehydrogenase from Klebsiella aerogenes. Purification and subunit structure  

PubMed Central

Ribitol dehydrogenase has been purified to homogeneity from several strains of Klebsiella aerogenes. One strain yields 3–6g of pure enzyme from 1kg of cells. The enzyme is a tetramer of four subunits, mol.wt. 27000. Preliminary studies of the activity of the enzyme are reported. Peptide `maps' together with the amino acid composition indicate that the subunits are identical. ImagesPLATE 2PLATE 1 PMID:4618776

Taylor, Susan S.; Rigby, Peter W. J.; Hartley, Brian S.

1974-01-01

120

Necrotizing external otitis in a patient caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrotizing external otitis is a potentially life-threatening infection involving the temporal and adjacent bones. The most frequent pathogen is attributed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but is rarely caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Recently, we encountered a 47-year-old diabetic man with a swollen obliterated external ear canal with granulation tissue on the right ear. Image study demonstrated skull base osteomyelitis, epidural abscess and

Ting-Hua Yang; Shuo-Tzung Kuo; Yi-Ho Young

2006-01-01

121

KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, finally targeting Turkey  

PubMed Central

We report here the first identification of the worldwide spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2-producing and carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae clone ST258 in Turkey, a country where the distantly-related carbapenemase OXA-48 is known to be endemic. Worryingly, this isolate was also resistant to colistin, now considered to be the last-resort antibiotic for carbapenem-resistant isolates. PMID:25356342

Labarca, J; Poirel, L; Ozdamar, M; Turkoglu, S; Hakko, E; Nordmann, P

2014-01-01

122

Cofactor engineering through heterologous expression of an NADH oxidase and its impact on metabolic flux redistribution in Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Background Acetoin is an important bio-based platform chemical. However, it is usually existed as a minor byproduct of 2,3-butanediol fermentation in bacteria. Results The present study reports introducing an exogenous NAD+ regeneration sysytem into a 2,3-butanediol producing strain Klebsiella pneumoniae to increse the accumulation of acetoin. Batch fermentation suggested that heterologous expression of the NADH oxidase in K. pneumoniae resulted in large decreases in the intracellular NADH concentration (1.4 fold) and NADH/NAD+ ratio (2.0 fold). Metabolic flux analysis revealed that fluxes to acetoin and acetic acid were enhanced, whereas, production of lactic acid and ethanol were decreased, with the accumualation of 2,3-butanediol nearly unaltered. By fed-batch culture of the recombinant, the highest reported acetoin production level (25.9 g/L) by Klebsiella species was obtained. Conclusions The present study indicates that microbial production of acetoin could be improved by decreasing the intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio in K. pneumoniae. It demonstrated that the cofactor engineering method, which is by manipulating the level of intracellular cofactors to redirect cellular metabolism, could be employed to achieve a high efficiency of producing the NAD+-dependent microbial metabolite. PMID:23351660

2013-01-01

123

Gram-Negative Bacteria Produce Membrane Vesicles Which Are Capable of Killing Other Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Naturally produced membrane vesicles (MVs), isolated from 15 strains of gram-negative bacteria (Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Morganella, Proteus, Salmonella, and Shigella strains), lysed many gram-positive (including Mycobacterium) and gram-negative cultures. Peptidoglycan zymograms suggested that MVs contained peptidoglycan hydrolases, and electron microscopy revealed that the murein sacculi were digested, confirming a previous modus operandi (J. L. Kadurugamuwa and T. J. Beveridge, J. Bacteriol. 174:2767–2774, 1996). MV-sensitive bacteria possessed A1?, A4?, A1?, A2?, and A4? peptidoglycan chemotypes, whereas A3?, A3?, A3?, A4?, B1?, and B1? chemotypes were not affected. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 vesicles possessed the most lytic activity. PMID:9765585

Li, Zusheng; Clarke, Anthony J.; Beveridge, Terry J.

1998-01-01

124

Tolerance of Anaerobic Bacteria to Chlorinated Solvents  

PubMed Central

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of four chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), perchloroethene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), chloroform (CF) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), on the growth of eight anaerobic bacteria: four fermentative species (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Clostridium sp. and Paenibacillus sp.) and four respiring species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Geobacter sulfurreducens, Shewanella oneidensis and Desulfovibrio vulgaris). Effective concentrations of solvents which inhibited growth rates by 50% (EC50) were determined. The octanol-water partition coefficient or log Po/w of a CAH proved a generally satisfactory measure of its toxicity. Most species tolerated approximately 3-fold and 10-fold higher concentrations of the two relatively more polar CAHs CF and 1,2-DCA, respectively, than the two relatively less polar compounds PCE and CT. EC50 values correlated well with growth rates observed in solvent-free cultures, with fast-growing organisms displaying higher tolerance levels. Overall, fermentative bacteria were more tolerant to CAHs than respiring species, with iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in particular appearing highly sensitive to CAHs. These data extend the current understanding of the impact of CAHs on a range of anaerobic bacteria, which will benefit the field of bioremediation. PMID:24441515

Koenig, Joanna C.; Groissmeier, Kathrin D.; Manefield, Mike J.

2014-01-01

125

Endocarditis Due to Rare and Fastidious Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The etiologic diagnosis of infective endocarditis is easily made in the presence of continuous bacteremia with gram-positive cocci. However, the blood culture may contain a bacterium rarely associated with endocarditis, such as Lactobacillus spp., Klebsiella spp., or nontoxigenic Corynebacterium, Salmonella, Gemella, Campylobacter, Aeromonas, Yersinia, Nocardia, Pasteurella, Listeria, or Erysipelothrix spp., that requires further investigation to establish the relationship with endocarditis, or the blood culture may be uninformative despite a supportive clinical evaluation. In the latter case, the etiologic agents are either fastidious extracellular or intracellular bacteria. Fastidious extracellular bacteria such as Abiotrophia, HACEK group bacteria, Clostridium, Brucella, Legionella, Mycobacterium, and Bartonella spp. need supplemented media, prolonged incubation time, and special culture conditions. Intracellular bacteria such as Coxiella burnetii cannot be isolated routinely. The two most prevalent etiologic agents of culture-negative endocarditis are C. burnetti and Bartonella spp. Their diagnosis is usually carried out serologically. A systemic pathologic examination of excised heart valves including periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and molecular methods has allowed the identification of Whipple's bacillus endocarditis. Pathologic examination of the valve using special staining, such as Warthin-Starry, Gimenez, and PAS, and broad-spectrum PCR should be performed systematically when no etiologic diagnosis is evident through routine laboratory evaluation. PMID:11148009

Brouqui, P.; Raoult, D.

2001-01-01

126

CTX-M-type extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Japan.  

PubMed

Three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) were obtained from three dairy cows with clinical mastitis in two farms in western Japan. Two of the 3 isolates from cows in different farms were able to transfer plasmids carrying the blaCTX-M-2 gene to Escherichia coli recipient. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the 2 isolates were different from each other, although restricted-fragment patterns of the two conjugative plasmids were similar to each other. Additionally, PCR-based replicon typing revealed that both the plasmids belonged to type Inc.T. These results suggest that ESBL-encoding genes can be distributed in bacteria on dairy farms through the plasmids. PMID:24784438

Saishu, Nobukazu; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Murase, Toshiyuki

2014-08-01

127

Antibiofilm efficacy of silver nanoparticles against biofilm of extended spectrum ?-lactamase isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of bacteria to develop antibiotic resistance and colonize abiotic surfaces by forming biofilms is a major cause of medical implant-associated infections and results in prolonged hospitalization periods and patient mortality. Different approaches have been used for preventing biofilm-related infections in health care settings. Many of these methods have their own demerits that include chemical-based complications; emergent antibiotic-resistant strains, and so on. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are renowned for their influential antimicrobial activity. We demonstrate the biofilm formation by extended spectrum ?-lactamases-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. by direct visualization applying tissue culture plate, tube, and Congo red agar methods. Double fluorescent staining for confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) consisted of propidium iodide staining to detect bacterial cells and concanavalin A-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining to detect the exopolysaccharides matrix were used. Scanning electron microscopy observations clearly indicate that AgNPs reduced the surface coverage by E. coli and Klebsiella spp. thus prevent the biofilm formations. Double-staining technique using CLSM provides the visual evidence that AgNPs arrested the bacterial growth and prevent the exopolysaccharides formation. The AgNPs-coated surfaces effectively restricted biofilm formation of the tested bacteria. In our study, we could demonstrate the complete antibiofilm activity AgNPs at a concentration as low as 50 ?g/ml. Our findings suggested that AgNPs can be exploited towards the development of potential antibacterial coatings for various biomedical and environmental applications. These formulations can be used for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections caused by biofilms, at much lower nanosilver loading with higher efficiency.

Ansari, Mohammad Azam; Khan, Haris M.; Khan, Aijaz A.; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Pal, Ruchita

2014-10-01

128

Biofilm formation of Klebsiella pneumoniae on urethral catheters requires either type 1 or type 3 fimbriae  

PubMed Central

Urinary catheters are standard medical devices utilized in both hospital and nursing home settings, but are associated with a high frequency of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). In particular, biofilm formation on the catheter surface by uropathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae causes severe problems. Here we demonstrate that type 1 and type 3 fimbriae expressed by K. pneumoniae enhance biofilm formation on urinary catheters in a catheterized bladder model that mirrors the physico-chemical conditions present in catheterized patients. Furthermore, we show that both fimbrial types are able to functionally compensate for each other during biofilm formation on urinary catheters. In situ monitoring of fimbrial expression revealed that neither of the two fimbrial types is expressed when cells are grown planktonically. Interestingly, during biofilm formation on catheters, both fimbrial types are expressed, suggesting that they are both important in promoting biofilm formation on catheters. Additionally, transformed into and expressed by a nonfimbriated Escherichia coli strain, both fimbrial types significantly increased biofilm formation on catheters compared with the wild-type E. coli strain. The widespread occurrence of the two fimbrial types in different species of pathogenic bacteria stresses the need for further assessment of their role during urinary tract infections. PMID:22448614

Stahlhut, Steen G; Struve, Carsten; Krogfelt, Karen A; Reisner, Andreas

2012-01-01

129

Inhaled fluticasone propionate impairs pulmonary clearance of Klebsiella Pneumoniae in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Recent trials demonstrate increased pneumonia risk in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients treated with the inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) fluticasone propionate (FP). There is limited work describing FP effects on host defenses against bacterial pneumonia. Methods C57BL/6 mice received daily, nose-only exposure to nebulized FP or vehicle for 8?days, followed by pulmonary challenge with Klebsiella pneumoniae. Bacterial burden, phagocytosis, leukocyte recruitment, cytokine expression, nitric oxide release, and survival were measured. Results Inhaled FP increased bacterial burden in lungs and blood 48?h after infection but affected neither in vivo phagocytosis of bacteria by alveolar macrophages (AM) nor alveolar neutrophil recruitment. AM from FP-treated mice showed impaired expression of infection induced TNF-alpha, IP-10 (CXCL-10), and interleukin 6 (IL-6), and AM also showed a trend towards impaired intracellular pathogen control following in vivo infection. In vitro FP treatment resulted in a dose-dependent impairment of cytokine expression by AM. Furthermore, infection-induced nitric oxide (but not hydrogen peroxide) production was impaired by FP in vivo and in vitro. FP decreased survival in this model. Conclusions Exposure to inhaled FP impairs pulmonary clearance of K. pneumoniae in mice, an effect associated with greater systemic bacteremia and death. Decreased AM cytokine and nitric oxide expression parallel the failure to control infection. These results support the study of ICS effects on human pulmonary host defenses. PMID:22651370

2012-01-01

130

Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates producing KPC-2 carbapenemase in Cuba.  

PubMed

The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing carbapenemase (KPC) has now become a global concern. As a part of a nationwide multicentre surveillance study in Cuba, three K. pneumoniae clinical isolates resistant to carbapenems were detected for a 1-month period (September to October 2011). PCR and sequence analysis revealed that the three strains harboured bla KPC-2. They showed resistance or intermediate susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, other ?-lactams, a ?-lactam/?-lactamase inhibitor combination, and gentamicin. Two strains were susceptible only to colistin, whereas the other strain showing colistin resistance was susceptible to fluoroquinolones. These bla KPC -2-positive K. pneumoniae strains were classified into ST1271 (CC29), a novel clone harbouring bla KPC -2, and were revealed to be genetically identical by PCR-based DNA fingerprinting. The three patients infected with the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae had common risk factors, and had no overseas travel experience outside Cuba, suggesting local acquisition of the resistant pathogen. This is the first report of a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Cuba. Although detection of KPC in Enterobacteriaceae is still rare in Cuba, our finding indicated that KPC-producing bacteria are a global concern and highlighted the need to identify these microorganisms in clinical laboratories. PMID:25356357

Quiñones, D; Hart, M; Espinosa, F; Garcia, S; Carmona, Y; Ghosh, S; Urushibara, N; Kawaguchiya, M; Kobayashi, N

2014-07-01

131

Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates producing KPC-2 carbapenemase in Cuba  

PubMed Central

The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing carbapenemase (KPC) has now become a global concern. As a part of a nationwide multicentre surveillance study in Cuba, three K. pneumoniae clinical isolates resistant to carbapenems were detected for a 1-month period (September to October 2011). PCR and sequence analysis revealed that the three strains harboured blaKPC-2. They showed resistance or intermediate susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, other ?-lactams, a ?-lactam/?-lactamase inhibitor combination, and gentamicin. Two strains were susceptible only to colistin, whereas the other strain showing colistin resistance was susceptible to fluoroquinolones. These blaKPC-2-positive K. pneumoniae strains were classified into ST1271 (CC29), a novel clone harbouring blaKPC-2, and were revealed to be genetically identical by PCR-based DNA fingerprinting. The three patients infected with the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae had common risk factors, and had no overseas travel experience outside Cuba, suggesting local acquisition of the resistant pathogen. This is the first report of a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Cuba. Although detection of KPC in Enterobacteriaceae is still rare in Cuba, our finding indicated that KPC-producing bacteria are a global concern and highlighted the need to identify these microorganisms in clinical laboratories.

Quinones, D; Hart, M; Espinosa, F; Garcia, S; Carmona, Y; Ghosh, S; Urushibara, N; Kawaguchiya, M; Kobayashi, N

2014-01-01

132

Colonization of the Botanical Environment by Klebsiella Isolates of Pathogenic Origin †  

PubMed Central

Growth, survival, and pathogenicity of Klebsiella growing in and on environmental foci were examined. Total coliforms present in raw wastes from pulp mills were in excess of 105/ml, and 60 to 80% were Klebsiella. Fecal coliform counts ranged from 101 to 105/ml. Klebsiella isolates from industrial effluents and a variety of human and bovine mastitis origins multiplied in pulp waste and commonly exceeded 106 cells per ml. Pathogenic isolates also multiplied in dilute aqueous extracts of sawdust to comparable levels. Klebsiella strains from vegetable surfaces and human infections grew rapidly on the surfaces of potatoes and lettuce and exceeded 103 organisms per g of surface peel and leaf after a 24h incubation at room temperature. After 7 weeks on potatoes stored at 5°C, some 10 to 30% of the day 1 Klebsiella counts were recoverable. Three Klebsiella isolates of pathogenic origin were passed 45 times through sterile pulp effluent (270 generations), and mean lethal dose levels in mice were periodically monitored. In two instances, a significant decrease in virulence was noted after 15 to 26 passes (90 to 156 generations). The third culture, of bovine mastitis origin, retained its original mean lethal dose value. Botanical milieu provided suitable habitats for the multiplication and colonization of Klebsiella isolates of disease origins in the same manner as indigenous isolates. Aquatic environments polluted with botanical material served as potential reservoirs for perpetuating the growth and spread of opportunistic Klebsiella pathogens that may ultimately colonize animals, humans, and aquatic organisms. PMID:337900

Knittel, Martin D.; Seidler, Ramon J.; Eby, Chris; Cabe, Linda M.

1977-01-01

133

Antibiotic Resistance Patterns and Genetic Analysis of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Isolates from the Respiratory Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a pathogenic bacterium causing nosocomial infections in particular severe respiratory tract infections. Little information is available on the antibiotic susceptibility of pulmonary isolates of Klebsiella spp. The aims of this study were to determine the antibiotic resistance patterns and prevalence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBLs) producing Kleb. Among the respiratory isolates and to detect the possible clonal

Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi; Gelavizh Etemadi; Marveh Rahmati; Samira Mohammadi-Yeganeh; Shiveh Shabanpoor; Soroor Asadi

134

Klebsiella pneumoniae Brain Abscess in Neonates: A Report of 2 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain abscesses are uncommon in neonates. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a very uncommon microbial agent to cause brain abscess. We report 2 infants with Klebsiella pneumoniae sepsis who developed brain abscesses. One infant was a premature neonate who required mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome and subsequently developed nosocomial sepsis and brain abscess without evidence of preceding meningitis. Another infant was

Venkataseshan Sundaram; Sunil Agrawal; Swathi Chacham; Kanya Mukhopadhyay; Sourabh Dutta; Praveen Kumar

2010-01-01

135

Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying bla NDM-1 gene in orthopedic practice.  

PubMed

Emergence and spread of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae is a cause of concern worldwide, the latest threat being New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM-1). This report is of an orthopedic case with fracture femur managed with internal fixation and bone grafting, who subsequently developed secondary infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring bla NDM-1 gene. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of imipenem was ?8 ?g/ml by E-test, suggestive of carbapenemase production. Phenotypic and further genotypic detection confirmed the presence of bla NDM-1 gene. The isolate remained susceptible only to tigecycline, colistin, and polymyxin B. PMID:25298566

Gupta, Varsha; Bansal, Neha; Gupta, Ravi; Chander, Jagdish

2014-09-01

136

Klebsiella pneumoniae pharyngitis mimicking malignancy: a diagnostic dilemma.  

PubMed

Acute pharyngitis is a common disease. However, acute pharyngitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae with a gross appearance mimicking hypopharyngeal malignancy has never previously been reported. We report the case of a 57-year-old man with a right hypopharyngeal tumor which was disclosed by fiberoptic laryngoscopy and computed tomography scan. However, both the frozen and final pathologies showed no evidence of malignant cells, and a bacterial culture revealed the growth of K. pneumoniae. The hypopharyngeal lesion completely regressed after 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment. Clinicians should perform biopsy along with tissue culture for tumor-like lesions because infectious agents can lead to lesions with malignancy-like appearance. PMID:24925476

Yeh, C-F; Li, W-Y; Hsu, Y-B

2014-12-01

137

Antibiotic Resistance Related to Biofilm Formation in Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

The Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, Klebsiella pneumoniae, is responsible for causing a spectrum of community-acquired and nosocomial infections and typically infects patients with indwelling medical devices, especially urinary catheters, on which this microorganism is able to grow as a biofilm. The increasingly frequent acquisition of antibiotic resistance by K. pneumoniae strains has given rise to a global spread of this multidrug-resistant pathogen, mostly at the hospital level. This scenario is exacerbated when it is noted that intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents dramatically increases when K. pneumoniae strains grow as a biofilm. This review will summarize the findings about the antibiotic resistance related to biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae.

Vuotto, Claudia; Longo, Francesca; Balice, Maria Pia; Donelli, Gianfranco; Varaldo, Pietro E.

2014-01-01

138

Haemodialysis related bacteraemia Haemodialysis-related bacteraemia usually occurs in patients with tunnelled catheters and is  

E-print Network

9642 TC Heparin Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Escherischa coli Klebsiella oxytoca Delftia acidovorans Enterobacter aerogenes Coagulase neg Staphylococcus Haemophilus parainfluenzae

Diggle, Peter J.

139

Automated methods for identification of bacteria from clinical specimens.  

PubMed Central

Automated methods for measuring enzyme activities of bacterial suspensions in saline are described. The methods were applied to bacteria cultured from urine specimens, and specific enzyme profiles characteristic for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp, Proteus sp, and Pseudomonas sp were established. Identification of 294 freshly isolated strains by automated and conventional methods were compared. Results from automated identification based on eight enzyme tests and assay of protein content, all performed on a bacterial suspension made from one colony in 1 ml of saline, agreed 100% with those obtained by conventional methods. Identification was achieved in 6 hours. PMID:6987274

Bascomb, S; Spencer, R C

1980-01-01

140

Effects of electrolyzed oxidizing water and ice treatments on reducing histamine-producing bacteria on fish skin and food contact surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EO water) and ice (EO ice) treatments in reducing histamine-producing bacteria (Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii and Proteus hauseri) on food contact surfaces (ceramic tile and stainless steel) and fish skin (Atlantic salmon and yellowfin tuna). Soaking ceramic tile and stainless steel in EO water (50ppm chlorine) for 5min

Sureerat Phuvasate; Yi-Cheng Su

2010-01-01

141

High isolation rates of multidrug-resistant bacteria from water and carpets of mosques  

PubMed Central

Objective There is little information regarding the isolation of antimicrobial-resistant potentially pathogenic bacteria from water and carpets of mosques worldwide. The objective of the present investigation is to determine the bacteriological quality of water and carpets of mosques in Elkhomes city in Libya. Methods Potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from water samples (n=44) and dust samples from carpets (n=50) of 50 mosques in Elkhomes city, Libya, using standard bacteriological procedures. Susceptibility of isolated bacteria to antimicrobial agents was determined by the disc-diffusion method. Results Of the water samples examined, 12 (27.3%) were positive for Escherichia coli, 10 (22.7%) for Klebsiella spp., and 15 (34.1%) for other enteric bacteria. Of the dust samples of carpets examined, 6 (12%) were positive for E. coli, 33 (66%) for Klebsiella spp., and 30 (60%) for Staphylococcus spp. Multidrug resistance (MDR, resistance to three or more antimicrobial groups) was found among 48.7% (19/37) and 46.9% (30/64) of the examined enterobacteria from water and carpets, respectively, and among 66.7% (20/30) of Staphylococcus spp. from carpets. In addition, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from a carpet of one mosque. Conclusion Presence of multidrug-resistant potentially pathogenic bacteria in examined water and carpets indicate that mosques as communal environments may play a role in the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria in the community and pose a serious health risk to worshipers. PMID:25128691

Mohamed Ali, Mostafa Mohamed; Alemary, Fuoad; Alrtail, Amna; Rzeg, Moftah M.; Albakush, Abdulla M.; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw

2014-01-01

142

Molecular Epidemiology of Two Klebsiella pneumoniae Mastitis Outbreaks on a Dairy Farm in New York State?  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella spp. have become an important cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in New York State. We describe the occurrence of two Klebsiella mastitis outbreaks on a single dairy farm. Klebsiella isolates from milk, feces, and environmental sources were compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR typing. The first mastitis outbreak was caused by a single strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, RAPD type A, which was detected in milk from eight cows. RAPD type A was also isolated from the rubber liners of milking machine units after milking of infected cows and from bedding in the outbreak pen. Predominance of a single strain could indicate contagious transmission of the organism or exposure of multiple cows to an environmental point source. No new cases with RAPD type A were observed after implementation of intervention measures that targeted the prevention of transmission via the milking machine as well as improvement of environmental hygiene. A second outbreak of Klebsiella mastitis that occurred several weeks later was caused by multiple RAPD types, which rules out contagious transmission and indicates opportunistic infections originating from the environment. The diversity of Klebsiella strains as quantified with Simpson's index of discrimination was significantly higher for isolates from fecal, feed, and water samples than for isolates from milk samples. Several isolates from bedding material that had the phenotypic appearance of Klebsiella spp. were identified as being Raoultella planticola and Raoultella terrigena based on rpoB sequencing. PMID:17928424

Munoz, Marcos A.; Welcome, Francis L.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Zadoks, Ruth N.

2007-01-01

143

O-Antigen Protects Gram-Negative Bacteria from Histone Killing  

PubMed Central

Beyond their traditional role of wrapping DNA, histones display antibacterial activity to Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. To identify bacterial components that allow survival to a histone challenge, we selected resistant bacteria from homologous Escherichia coli libraries that harbor plasmids carrying pieces of the chromosome in different sizes. We identified genes required for exopolysaccharide production and for the synthesis of the polysaccharide domain of the lipopolysaccharide, called O-antigen. Indeed, O-antigen and exopolysaccharide conferred further resistance to histones. Notably, O-antigen also conferred resistance to histones in the pathogens Shigella flexneri and Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:23951089

Chaput, Catherine; Spindler, Eileen; Gill, Ryan T.; Zychlinsky, Arturo

2013-01-01

144

Ethanol production from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Klebsiella variicola shows maximum productivity under alkaline conditions.  

PubMed

Biodiesel fuel (BDF) waste contains large amounts of crude glycerol as a by-product, and has a high alkaline pH. With regard to microbial conversion of ethanol from BDF-derived glycerol, bacteria that can produce ethanol at alkaline pH have not been reported to date. Isolation of bacteria that shows maximum productivity under alkaline conditions is essential to effective production of ethanol from BDF-derived glycerol. In this study, we isolated the Klebsiella variicola TB-83 strain, which demonstrated maximum ethanol productivity at alkaline pH. Strain TB-83 showed effective usage of crude glycerol with maximum ethanol production at pH 8.0-9.0, and the culture pH was finally neutralized by formate, a by-product. In addition, the ethanol productivity of strain TB-83 under various culture conditions was investigated. Ethanol production was more efficient with the addition of yeast extract. Strain TB-83 produced 9.8 g/L ethanol (0.86 mol/mol glycerol) from cooking oil-derived BDF waste. Ethanol production from cooking oil-derived BDF waste was higher than that of new frying oil-derived BDF and pure-glycerol. This is the first report to demonstrate that the K. variicola strain TB-83 has the ability to produce ethanol from glycerol at alkaline pH. PMID:24681408

Suzuki, Toshihiro; Nishikawa, Chiaki; Seta, Kohei; Shigeno, Toshiya; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki

2014-05-25

145

Risk Factors for the First Episode of Klebsiella pneumoniae Resistant to Carbapenems Infection in Critically Ill Patients: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To identify risk factors for the first episode of Klebsiella Pneumonia resistant to carbapenems (KPRC) infection in critically ill patients. Design, Setting, and Methods. This prospective cohort study was conducted in a 12-bed general Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in a University Hospital on ICU patients who required mechanical ventilation (MV) for >48 hours during a 12-month period. Clinical and microbiologic data were studied. Characteristics of KPRC patients were compared with those of critically ill patients who presented nonmultidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections or no documented infection at all. Results. Twenty-five patients presented KPRC infection, 18 presented non-MDR bacterial infection, and 39 patients presented no infection. Compared to patients without documented infection or infected by non MDR bacteria, patients with KPRC infection had received more frequently or for longer duration antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria (carbapenems, colistin P < 0.05). Duration of colistin administration prior to KPRC isolation was independently associated with increased frequency of KPRC infection (odds ratio, 1.156 per day; 95% confidence interval, 1.010 to 1.312; P = 0.025). KPRC patients stayed longer in the ICU and received mechanical ventilation and sedation for longer periods and presented increased mortality (P < 0.05). Conclusion. KPRC infection is an emerging problem which might be more common in patients with previous use of antibiotics and especially colistin. PMID:24455733

Mantzarlis, Konstantinos; Makris, Demosthenes; Manoulakas, Efstratios; Karvouniaris, Marios; Zakynthinos, Epaminondas

2013-01-01

146

Characterization of RarA, a Novel AraC Family Multidrug Resistance Regulator in Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional regulators, such as SoxS, RamA, MarA, and Rob, which upregulate the AcrAB efflux pump, have been shown to be associated with multidrug resistance in clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria. In addition to the multidrug resistance phenotype, these regulators have also been shown to play a role in the cellular metabolism and possibly the virulence potential of microbial cells. As such, the increased expression of these proteins is likely to cause pleiotropic phenotypes. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major nosocomial pathogen which can express the SoxS, MarA, Rob, and RamA proteins, and the accompanying paper shows that the increased transcription of ramA is associated with tigecycline resistance (M. Veleba and T. Schneiders, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 56:4466–4467, 2012). Bioinformatic analyses of the available Klebsiella genome sequences show that an additional AraC-type regulator is encoded chromosomally. In this work, we characterize this novel AraC-type regulator, hereby called RarA (Regulator of antibiotic resistance A), which is encoded in K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter sp. 638, Serratia proteamaculans 568, and Enterobacter cloacae. We show that the overexpression of rarA results in a multidrug resistance phenotype which requires a functional AcrAB efflux pump but is independent of the other AraC regulators. Quantitative real-time PCR experiments show that rarA (MGH 78578 KPN_02968) and its neighboring efflux pump operon oqxAB (KPN_02969_02970) are consistently upregulated in clinical isolates collected from various geographical locations (Chile, Turkey, and Germany). Our results suggest that rarA overexpression upregulates the oqxAB efflux pump. Additionally, it appears that oqxR, encoding a GntR-type regulator adjacent to the oqxAB operon, is able to downregulate the expression of the oqxAB efflux pump, where OqxR complementation resulted in reductions to olaquindox MICs. PMID:22644028

Veleba, Mark; Higgins, Paul G.; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Seifert, Harald

2012-01-01

147

Molecular characterization of clinical multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates  

PubMed Central

Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent nosocomial pathogen, with the multidrug-resistant (MDR) K. pneumoniae being a major public health concern, frequently causing difficult-to-treat infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular characterization of clinical MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Methods A total of 27 non-duplicate MDR K. pneumoniae isolates with a CTX-CIP-AK resistance pattern were investigated for the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes including extended spectrum ?-lactamase genes (ESBLs), plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, 16S rRNA methylase (16S-RMTase) genes, and integrons by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequencing. Plasmid replicons were typed by PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT). Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were carried out to characterize the strain relatedness. Results All the isolates co-harbored 3 or more resistance determinants. OqxAB, CTX-M-type ESBLs and RmtB were the most frequent determinants, distributed among19 (70.4%),18 (66.7%) and 8 (29.6%) strains. Fourteen isolates harbored class 1 integrons, with orfD-aacA4 being the most frequent gene cassette array. Class 3 integrons were less frequently identified and contained the gene cassette array of blaGES-1-blaOXA-10-aac(6?)-Ib. IncFII replicon was most commonly found in this collection. One cluster was observed with ?80% similarity among profiles obtained by PFGE, and one sequence type (ST) by MLST, namely ST11, was observed in the cluster. Conclusion K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)–producing ST11 was the main clone detected. Of particular concern was the high prevalence of multiple resistance determinants, classs I integrons and IncFII plasmid replicon among these MDR strains, which provide advantages for the rapid development of MDR strains. PMID:24884610

2014-01-01

148

Phagocytic and chemiluminescent responses of mouse peritoneal macrophages to living and killed Salmonella typhimurium and other bacteria  

SciTech Connect

In the presence of luminol, resident as well as thioglycolate-induced and immunized macrophages emitted chemiluminescence more efficiently when the cells were exposed to living Salmonella typhimurium than when they were exposed to the same bacterium killed by ultraviolet light or heat. This phenomenon was observed whether or not the bacterium was opsonized. The different response to living and killed bacteria was also found with Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus morganii, and Enterobacter aerogenes, but not with Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Propionibacterium acnes. The results suggest that macrophages respond better to living, motile bacteria than to nonmotile or killed bacteria. The experimental results obtained with motility mutants of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa confirm that macrophages exposed to the motile bacteria emit chemiluminescence more efficiently and ingest the motile bacteria at a much faster rate than the nonmotile bacteria.

Tomita, T.; Blumenstock, E.; Kanegasaki, S.

1981-06-01

149

Carriage rate of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospitalised patients during a national outbreak.  

PubMed

During a national outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in Israel, we conducted a point prevalence survey to determine the extent of asymptomatic carriage. Subsequently, a retrospective case-control study was done, comparing carriers of CRKP with non-carriers, in order to detect risk factors for carriage. Oral, perianal and rectal swabs were obtained from all hospitalised eligible and consenting patients. Selective media for carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria were used and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) helped to determine clonal source. Culture was obtained from 298 patients. Sixteen (5.4%) were carriers of CRKP, with a higher carriage rate in medical and surgical wards. Only 18% of carriers were treated with any carbapenem prior to the survey. Five of the 16 carriers had a positive clinical specimen for CRKP, hence a clinical infection versus asymptomatic carriage ratio of 1:3. The rectum was the most sensitive site sampled, detecting 15/16 carriers, and the overall sensitivity of the method was 94% with a negative predictive value of 99.6%. In a multivariate analysis of risk factors for CRKP carriage, three variables were significantly related to carriage state: diaper use, longer duration of hospital stay and vancomycin use. PFGE demonstrated that all 16 isolates were identical, confirming clonal origin. A point prevalence survey performed at a single medical centre during an outbreak of CRKP demonstrated a carriage rate of 5.4%. The clonal origin of these isolates suggests that strict adherence to isolation procedure may contain this outbreak. PMID:19783067

Wiener-Well, Y; Rudensky, B; Yinnon, A M; Kopuit, P; Schlesinger, Y; Broide, E; Lachish, T; Raveh, D

2010-04-01

150

Activation of IFN-?/STAT/IRF-1 in Hepatic Responses to Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Klebsiella pneumoniae-caused liver abscess (KLA) has become a health problem in Taiwan and is continually reported in other countries. Diabetes mellitus, the most common metabolic disorder, underlies half of the KLA patients in Taiwan. The clinical impact of KLA has been well-documented. Nevertheless, the molecular basis regarding how K. pneumoniae causes liver infection, particularly in diabetic individuals, remains unclear. Methodology/Principle Findings Auto-bioluminescence-expressing K. pneumoniae was inoculated into diabetic mice and age-match naïve control. With the use of in vivo imaging system, translocation of the bioluminescence-expressing K. pneumoniae from intestine to extraintestinal organs, mainly the liver, was noted in 80% of the diabetic mice, whereas the same bacteria causes extraintestinal infections in only 31% of naïve mice. Besides increased morbidity, the severity of hepatic tissue injury was also enhanced in the K. pneumoniae-infected diabetic mice. Upon K. pneumoniae infection, IFN-? production was significantly evoked in the liver. To mediate IFN-? signal, STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) 1 and 3 were activated in hepatocytes, and so was the expression of IRF (interferon regulatory factor)-1. Moreover, accumulation of neutrophils which was triggered by prolonged production of IL-1? and MIP-2, and significant increases in the level of active caspase 3 and phospho-eIF2?, were exclusively revealed in the K. pneumoniae-infected diabetic mice. Conclusion The activation of IFN-?/STAT/IRF-1 signaling demonstrated by this work emphasizes the role of IFN-? for mediating the hepatic response to K. pneumoniae infection. PMID:24223208

Lin, Yi-Chun; Lu, Min-Chi; Lin, Chingju; Chiang, Ming-Ko; Jan, Ming-Shiou; Tang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Hsu-Chung; Lin, Wea-Lung; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Lai, Yi-Chyi

2013-01-01

151

Evaluation and application of an improved bacteriocin typing method for Klebsiella aerogenes.  

PubMed Central

A bacteriocin typing method was evaluated using 200 strains of Klebsiella aerogenes, 93% of which fell into 11 distinct types. The typing technique was successfully applied to the monitoring and control of hospital cross-infection. PMID:342545

Heddell, G W; Mitchell, A A

1978-01-01

152

Correlation of Klebsiella pneumoniae Comparative Genetic Analyses with Virulence Profiles in a Murine Respiratory Disease Model  

E-print Network

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterial pathogen of worldwide importance and a significant contributor to multiple disease presentations associated with both nosocomial and community acquired disease. ATCC 43816 is a well-studied ...

Fodah, Ramy A.

153

Klebsiella serotype 25 capsular polysaccharide: primary structure and depolymerization by a bacteriophage-borne glycanase.  

PubMed Central

By partial acid hydrolysis, methylation and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the methylated monomers (as the alditol acetates), mass spectrometry of trimethylsilylated disaccharide alditols, as well as proton magnetic resonance, the primary structure of the Klebsiella serotype 25 capsular polysaccharide was elucidated. A glycanase activity, associated with the particles of newly isolated Klebsiella bacteriophage no. 25, was shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycan. Images PMID:853030

Niemann, H; Kwiatkowski, B; Westphal, U; Stirm, S

1977-01-01

154

Bioelectricity Aware of bacteria  

E-print Network

Bioelectricity Aware of bacteria Bacteria of the genus Geobacter carry out anaerobic respiration the mechanism that makes these bacteria conductors of electricity. Researchers have studied this for a population of G. sulfurreducens, endowed with bacteria nanometric filaments (pili) that enable them

Lovley, Derek

155

Bacteria TMDL Projects  

E-print Network

of the projects are listed below. ? Peach CreekWater Quality Improvement Project ? Monitoring and Educational Programs Focused on Bacteria and Nutrient Runoff on Dairy Operations in the LeonWatershed ? Development of the Plum CreekWPP ? Impact of Proper... above Canyon Lake: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Houston Metropolitan Area: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Leon River below Proctor Lake ? Northwest Houston Area Bacteria TMDL Project ? Oso Bay and Oso Creek: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Peach...

Wythe, Kathy

2007-01-01

156

21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus...epidemiological information on these diseases. These organisms can cause serious urinary tract and pulmonary infections, particularly in...

2012-04-01

157

21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus...epidemiological information on these diseases. These organisms can cause serious urinary tract and pulmonary infections, particularly in...

2010-04-01

158

21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.  

...identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus...epidemiological information on these diseases. These organisms can cause serious urinary tract and pulmonary infections, particularly in...

2014-04-01

159

21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus...epidemiological information on these diseases. These organisms can cause serious urinary tract and pulmonary infections, particularly in...

2013-04-01

160

21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus...epidemiological information on these diseases. These organisms can cause serious urinary tract and pulmonary infections, particularly in...

2011-04-01

161

Glycolytic Breakdown of Sulfoquinovose in Bacteria: a Missing Link in the Sulfur Cycle  

PubMed Central

Sulfoquinovose (6-deoxy-6-sulfo-d-glucopyranose), formed by the hydrolysis of the plant sulfolipid, is a major component of the biological sulfur cycle. However, pathways for its catabolism are poorly delineated. We examined the hypothesis that mineralization of sulfoquinovose to inorganic sulfate is initiated by reactions of the glycolytic and/or Entner-Doudoroff pathways in bacteria. Metabolites of [U-13C]sulfoquinovose were identified by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in strains of Klebsiella and Agrobacterium previously isolated for their ability to utilize sulfoquinovose as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth, and cell extracts were analyzed for enzymes diagnostic for the respective pathways. Klebsiella sp. strain ABR11 grew rapidly on sulfoquinovose, with major accumulations of sulfopropandiol (2,3-dihydroxypropanesulfonate) but no detectable release of sulfate. Later, when sulfoquinovose was exhausted and growth was very slow, sulfopropandiol disappeared and inorganic sulfate and small amounts of sulfolactate (2-hydroxy-3-sulfopropionate) were formed. In Agrobacterium sp. strain ABR2, growth and sulfoquinovose disappearance were again coincident, though slower than that in Klebsiella sp. Release of sulfate was still late but was faster than that in Klebsiella sp., and no metabolites were detected by 13C-NMR. Extracts of both strains grown on sulfoquinovose contained phosphofructokinase activities that remained unchanged when fructose 6-phosphate was replaced in the assay mixture with either glucose 6-phosphate or sulfoquinovose. The results were consistent with the operation of the Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas (glycolysis) pathway for catabolism of sulfoquinovose. Extracts of Klebsiella but not Agrobacterium also contained an NAD+-dependent sulfoquinovose dehydrogenase activity, indicating that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway might also contribute to catabolism of sulfoquinovose. PMID:14602597

Roy, Alexander B.; Hewlins, Michael J. E.; Ellis, Andrew J.; Harwood, John L.; White, Graham F.

2003-01-01

162

Bacteria can promote calcium oxalate crystal growth and aggregation.  

PubMed

Our previous report showed that uropathogenic bacteria, e.g., Escherichia coli, are commonly found inside the nidus of calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stones and may play pivotal roles in stone genesis. The present study aimed to prove this new hypothesis by direct examining CaOx lithogenic activities of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. CaOx was crystallized in the absence (blank control) or presence of 10(5) CFU/ml E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus pneumoniae. Fragmented red blood cell membranes and intact red blood cells were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The crystal area and the number of aggregates were measured to initially screen for effects of bacteria on CaOx crystal growth and aggregation. The data revealed that all the bacteria tested dramatically increased the crystal area and number of crystal aggregates. Validation assays (spectrophotometric oxalate-depletion assay and an aggregation-sedimentation study) confirmed their promoting effects on both growth (20.17 ± 3.42, 17.55 ± 2.27, 16.37 ± 1.38, and 21.87 ± 0.85 % increase, respectively) and aggregation (57.45 ± 2.08, 51.06 ± 5.51, 55.32 ± 2.08, and 46.81 ± 3.61 % increase, respectively) of CaOx crystals. Also, these bacteria significantly enlarged CaOx aggregates, with the diameter greater than the luminal size of distal tubules, implying that tubular occlusion might occur. Moreover, these bacterial effects were dose-dependent and specific to intact viable bacteria, not intact dead or fragmented bacteria. In summary, intact viable E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, and S. pneumoniae had significant promoting effects on CaOx crystal growth and aggregation. This functional evidence supported the hypothesis that various types of bacteria can induce or aggravate metabolic stone disease, particularly the CaOx type. PMID:23334195

Chutipongtanate, Somchai; Sutthimethakorn, Suchitra; Chiangjong, Wararat; Thongboonkerd, Visith

2013-03-01

163

First outbreak of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Norwegian neonatal intensive care unit; associated with contaminated breast milk and resolved by strict cohorting.  

PubMed

Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are vulnerable to nosocomial outbreaks caused by multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae, but no reports of NICU outbreaks of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae have previously been published from countries with a low level of antimicrobial resistance such as the Scandinavian countries. We describe a clonal outbreak of CTX-M-15 -producing Klebsiella pneumoniae affecting 58 infants in the neonatal intensive care unit at Stavanger University Hospital, Norway, during a period of 4 months, 2008-2009. The clone spread widely and rapidly in the NICU, and extensive interventions were required to terminate the outbreak. In contrast to previous outbreaks, only one infant acquired a systemic infection caused by the outbreak strain, probably due to a favourable epidemic strain lacking the most common virulence factors. A probable index case was identified, due to multiple positive breast milk samples collected from the infant's mother before and after the infant's transfer from another hospital. Breast milk samples from 3/18 (17%) mothers of colonized infants were positive for ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae. Vertical transmission of ESBL-producing bacteria has been shown previously,?but the possibility of transmission of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae through expressed breast milk is reported here for the first time. The increasing occurrence of ESBL-producing?Enterobacteriaceae should therefore encourage changes in diagnostic routines for bacterial screening of breast milk. PMID:22779683

Rettedal, Siren; Löhr, Iren H; Natås, Olav; Giske, Christian G; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Øymar, Knut

2012-08-01

164

[Investigation of plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase types in Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli isolates resistant or intermediate to cefoxitin].  

PubMed

Plasmid mediated AmpC beta-lactamases are reported from Enterobacteriaceae with increasing frequency. There have been reports of treatment failures in patients infected with these organisms and given broad-spectrum cephalosporins. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of plasmid mediated AmpC beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. A total of 41 strains of cefoxitin resistant or intermediate E. coli (n= 27) and Klebsiella spp. (n= 14) were collected from january 2005 to January 2006 at Akdeniz University Hospital Central Laboratory. Three-dimensional test was used as a phenotypic confirmatory test. Analytical isoelectric focusing electrophoresis was used to measure the pl values of the beta-lactamases. Plasmid mediated AmpC enzyme genes were amplified using multiplex polymerase chain reaction and sequenced by Beckman Coulter CEQ 8000. AmpC beta-lactamases were only detected in two isolates (7.4%) of E. coli. These isolates produced CMY-2 like enzymes and have either CTX-M or TEM enzyme. Transferable AmpC beta-lactamases are associated with multiple antibiotic resistance. Therefore detection of these enzymes in gram-negative bacteria has a clinical importance, since it can often provide valuable information to clinicians leading to more effective and appropriate use of antimicrobials. PMID:19149075

Demirbakan, Hadiye; Midilli, Kenan; O?ünç, Dilara; Ozen, Nevgün; Ongüt, Gözde; Da?lar, Duygu; Mutlu, Derya; Ozhak, Betil; Colak, Dilek

2008-10-01

165

Infected Hydatid Cysts Bacteria in Slaughtered Livestock and Their Effects on Protoscoleces Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Background: The protoscoleces of fertile hydatid cysts are considered as major risks in surgery and producing secondary cysts if rupture the cyst during operation and, cause infecting the dogs with adult worm if eaten by this animal. Bacterial infection of the hydatid fluid can lead to sterilization of the cyst. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial infection rate of livestock hydatid cysts in Hamedan, Iran, and test the isolated bacteria effects on viable protoscoleces, in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total of 5709 slaughtered livestock were inspected to detect the presence of hydatid cysts. The hydatid fluid of all cysts was cultured separately to isolate and identify the bacteria. The effect of isolated bacteria was tested on viable protoscoleces in culture tubes, in vitro. The culture tubes were observed and examined under a light microscope every two hours for 24 hours, and then, after 36 and 48 hours. Results: Infected cysts were found in 74% of animals in Hamedan (46% were calcified and the bacteria was isolated from 52%) and 62% in Borujerd. The isolated bacteria in the infected cysts were as follows: Escherichia coli, E. blattae, Klebsiella pnoumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Edwardsiella tarda. The protoscoleces incubated with the isolated bacteria totally degenerated, but 55% of the protoscoleces in the control groups were intact and viable even after one week. Conclusions: This study indicated a high percentage of cysts bacterial infections in two provinces of Iran. The common isolated bacteria were E. coli and Klebsiella. The isolated bacteria degenerated the protoscoleces during short-time incubation, in vitro. PMID:25371792

Fallah, Mohammad; Kavand, Abdollah; Yousefi Mashouf, Rasoul

2014-01-01

166

Structural and Mechanical Properties of Klebsiella pneumoniae Type 3 Fimbriae? §  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the structural and mechanical properties of Klebsiella pneumoniae type 3 fimbriae, which constitute a known virulence factor for the bacterium. Transmission electron microscopy and optical tweezers were used to understand the ability of the bacterium to survive flushes. An individual K. pneumoniae type 3 fimbria exhibited a helix-like structure with a pitch of 4.1 nm and a three-phase force-extension curve. The fimbria was first nonlinearly stretched with increasing force. Then, it started to uncoil and extended several micrometers at a fixed force of 66 ± 4 pN (n = 22). Finally, the extension of the fimbria shifted to the third phase, with a characteristic force of 102 ± 9 pN (n = 14) at the inflection point. Compared with the P fimbriae and type 1 fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, K. pneumoniae type 3 fimbriae have a larger pitch in the helix-like structure and stronger uncoiling and characteristic forces. PMID:21239584

Chen, Feng-Jung; Chan, Chia-Han; Huang, Ying-Jung; Liu, Kuo-Liang; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Chang, Hwan-You; Liou, Gunn-Guang; Yew, Tri-Rung; Liu, Cheng-Hsien; Hsu, Ken Y.; Hsu, Long

2011-01-01

167

Regulation of tyramine oxidase synthesis in Klebsiella aerogenes.  

PubMed Central

Tyramine oxidase in Klebsiella aerogenes is highly specific for tyramine, dopamine, octopamine, and norepinephrine, and its synthesis is induced specifically by these compounds. The enzyme is present in a membrane-bound form. The Km value for tyramine is 9 X 10(-4) M. Tyramine oxidase synthesis was subjected to catabolite repression by glucose in the presence of ammonium salts. Addition of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) overcame the catabolite repression. A mutant strain, K711, which can produce a high level of beta-galactosidase in the presence of glucose and ammonium chloride, can also synthesize tyramine oxidase and histidase in the presence of inducer in glucose ammonium medium. Catabolite repression of tyramine oxidase synthesis was relieved when the cells were grown under conditions of nitrogen limitation, whereas beta-galactosidase was strongly repressed under these conditions. A cAMP-requiring mutant, MK54, synthesized tyramine oxidase rapidly when tyramine was used as the sole source of nitrogen in the absence of cAMP. However, a glutamine synthetase-constitutive mutant, MK94, failed to synthesize tyramine oxidase in the presence of glucose and ammonium chloride, although it synthesized histidase rapidly under these conditions. These results suggest that catabolite repression of tyramine oxidase synthesis in K. aerogenes is regulated by the intracellular level of cAMP and an unknown cytoplasmic factor that acts independently of cAMP and is formed under conditions of nitrogen limitation. PMID:179974

Okamura, H; Murooka, Y; Harada, T

1976-01-01

168

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF A PUTATIVE OXIDOREDUCTASE FROM KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE  

SciTech Connect

Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram-negative enteric bacterium, is found in nosocomial infections which are acquired during hospital stays for about 10% of hospital patients in the United States. The crystal structure of a putative oxidoreductase from K. pneumoniae has been determined. The structural information of this K. pneumoniae protein was used to understand its function. Crystals of the putative oxidoreductase enzyme were obtained by the sitting drop vapor diffusion method using Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, Bis-Tris buffer, pH 5.5 as precipitant. These crystals were used to collect X-ray data at beam line X12C of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The crystal structure was determined using the SHELX program and refi ned with CNS 1.1. This protein, which is involved in the catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction, has an alpha/beta structure. It utilizes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) or nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to perform its function. This structure could be used to determine the active and co-factor binding sites of the protein, information that could help pharmaceutical companies in drug design and in determining the protein’s relationship to disease treatment such as that for pneumonia and other related pathologies.

Baig, M.; Brown, A.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; Swaminathan, S.

2009-01-01

169

Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium  

DOEpatents

New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

Tyndall, R.L.

1995-05-30

170

Gram-negative bacteria from the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii (Ixodidae) and the chicken tick Argas persicus (Argasidae) and their antibiotic sensitivities.  

PubMed

A total of nine species of gram-negative bacteria were isolated from organs and haemolymph of the hard tick Hyalomma (Hyalomma) dromedarii and the soft tick Argas (Persicargas) persicus. Four species namely Serratia liquefaciens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Klebsiella ornithinolytica and Aeromonas hydrophila were isolated from H. dromedarii and five species namely Rahnella aquatilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter cloacae, Chryseomonas luteola and Chryseobacterium meningosepticum were isolated from A. persicus. Isolated bacteria were identified using the analytical profile index 20E. Disk diffusion test was carried out on all isolated bacteria to determine antibiotic sensitivity of chloramphenicol, amoxillin/clavulanic acid, neomycin, streptomycin, triplesulphur tetracycline and nitrofurantion. The results were discussed. PMID:15880998

Montasser, Ashraf A

2005-04-01

171

Antibiotic Resistance and Its Transfer Among Clinical and Nonclinical Klebsiella Strains in Botanical Environments †  

PubMed Central

A total of 183 isolates of Klebsiella from drinking water, market vegetables, wood, sawdust, industrial effluents, and human and animal origin were examined for susceptibility to 10 antibacterial agents. Incidence of resistance to two or more antibiotics tested was: 65% of the human clinical isolates, 59% among bovine mastitis, and 24% among the nonclinical isolates. The five different multiple resistance patterns among nonclinically derived Klebsiella were also found among the human and bovine mastitis isolates. Statistical analyses revealed that patterns of resistance among Klebsiella isolates from drinking water, market vegetables, and industrial effluents were highly correlated with each other and with resistance patterns of human clinical isolates. Antibiotic resistance was transferred between Klebsiella growing in two habitat-simulated environments (growing radish plants and aqueous sawdust suspensions). Transconjugants were detected in 5 of 21 and 6 of 21 mating pairs, respectively. Average transconjugants/donor ranged from 10?3 to 10?6 in Penassay broth, from 10?6 to 10?7 on radish plants, and from 10?5 to 10?8 in sawdust suspensions. Although antibiotic resistance transfer under simulated environmental conditions can occur, regrowth of clinical strains is probably the major cause for the widespread occurrence of antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella in the nonclinical environment. PMID:6986852

Talbot, Henry W.; Yamamoto, Deborah K.; Smith, Martin W.; Seidler, Ramon J.

1980-01-01

172

The development and assessment of a bacteriocin typing method for Klebsiella.  

PubMed Central

Klebsiellas are generally typed by the method of capsular serotyping but, although this is a reliable method, it is time consuming, requires the production of a large number of antisera and is not generally available. For this reason another method for typing klebsiellas was sought. A bacteriocin typing method involving mitomycin C induction was developed and the cultural conditions giving optimum klebecin production and the best methods of testing the sensitivity of the organisms to klebecins were determined. Of 190 klebsiella strains screened for bacteriocinogeny, only 68 (35.8%) produced klebecin and after calculation of similarity values by computer analysis, a typing set of 15 producers was selected. This typing set allowed over 96% of klebsiella strains to be typed and tests of the reproducibility of the method and the variability of typing patterns in natural populations of klebsiella indicated that results of acceptable accuracy could be obtained, while retaining good discrimination if two or more differences were required between patterns before they were regarded as distinct. A complete set of capsular antisera were prepared, enabling the results obtained from klebecin typing to be compared with those from serotyping. There was generally close agreement between the results from the two typing methods and greater discrimination was obtained between similar strains when the two methods were combined. Klebecin typing and serotyping revealed relationships between strains from five outbreaks of infection, and strains of the same serotype from different hospitals could frequently be distinguished by their klebecin typing patterns. PMID:372440

Edmondson, A. S.; Cooke, E. M.

1979-01-01

173

Fungi outcompete bacteria under increased uranium concentration in culture media.  

PubMed

As a key part of water management at the Ranger Uranium Mine (Northern Territory, Australia), stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water was applied to natural woodland on the mine lease in accordance with regulatory requirements. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium concentrations. Soil samples were collected from LAAs with different concentrations of uranium and extracts were plated onto LB media containing no (0 ppm), low (3 ppm), medium (250 ppm), high (600 ppm) and very high (1500 ppm) uranium concentrations. These concentrations were similar to the range of measured uranium concentrations in the LAAs soils. Bacteria grew on all plates except for the very high uranium concentrations, where only fungi were recovered. Identifications based on bacterial 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria belonged to the genus Bacillus. Members of the genera Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Klebsiella, Microbacterium and Chryseobacterium were also isolated from the LAAs soil samples. Fungi were identified by sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer region, and members of the genera Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Penicillium and Curvularia were dominant on plates with very high uranium concentrations. Members of the Paecilomyces and Alternaria were also present but in lower numbers. These findings indicate that fungi can tolerate very high concentrations of uranium and are more resistant than bacteria. Bacteria and fungi isolated at the Ranger LAAs from soils with high concentrations of uranium may have uranium binding capability and hence the potential for uranium bioremediation. PMID:23416228

Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

2013-06-01

174

Effects of the hindlimb-unloading model of spaceflight conditions on resistance of mice to infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: It has been well documented in several studies that many immunologic parameters are altered in experimental animals and human subjects who have flown in space. However, it is not fully known whether these immunologic changes could result in increased susceptibility to infection. Hindlimb (antiorthostatic) unloading of rodents has been used successfully to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight on physiologic systems. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hindlimb unloading on the outcome of Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in mice. METHODS: Hindlimb-unloaded, hindlimb-restrained, and control mice were intraperitoneally infected with one 50% lethal dose of K pneumoniae 2 days after suspension. Mortality and bacterial load in several organs were compared among the groups. RESULTS: Unloaded mice showed significantly increased mortality and reduced mean time to death compared with that seen in the control groups. Kinetics of bacterial growth with smaller infective doses revealed that control mice were able to clear bacteria from the organs after 30 hours. In contrast, unloaded mice had continued bacterial growth at the same time point. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that hindlimb unloading might enhance the dissemination of K pneumoniae, leading to increased mortality. The complex physiologic changes observed during hindlimb unloading, including stress, have a key role in the pathophysiology of this infection.

Belay, Tesfaye; Aviles, Hernan; Vance, Monique; Fountain, Kimberly; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

2002-01-01

175

Direct Detection and Genotyping of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemases from Urine by Use of a New DNA Microarray Test  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) are considered a serious threat to antibiotic therapy, as they confer resistance to carbapenems, which are used to treat extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. Here, we describe the development and evaluation of a DNA microarray for the detection and genotyping of KPC genes (blaKPC) within a 5-h period. To test the whole assay procedure (DNA extraction plus a DNA microarray assay) directly from clinical specimens, we compared two commercial DNA extraction kits (the QIAprep Spin miniprep kit [Qiagen] and the urine bacterial DNA isolation kit [Norgen]) for the direct DNA extraction from urine samples (dilution series spiked in human urine). Reliable single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing was demonstrated using 1 × 105 CFU/ml urine for Escherichia coli (Qiagen and Norgen) and 80 CFU/ml urine, on average, for K. pneumoniae (Norgen). This study presents, for the first time, the combination of a new KPC microarray with commercial sample preparation for detecting and genotyping microbial pathogens directly from clinical specimens; this paves the way toward tests providing epidemiological and diagnostic data, enabling better antimicrobial stewardship. PMID:23035190

Peter, Harald; Berggrav, Kathrine; Thomas, Peter; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Witte, Wolfgang; Templeton, Kate

2012-01-01

176

Direct detection and genotyping of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases from urine by use of a new DNA microarray test.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) are considered a serious threat to antibiotic therapy, as they confer resistance to carbapenems, which are used to treat extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. Here, we describe the development and evaluation of a DNA microarray for the detection and genotyping of KPC genes (bla(KPC)) within a 5-h period. To test the whole assay procedure (DNA extraction plus a DNA microarray assay) directly from clinical specimens, we compared two commercial DNA extraction kits (the QIAprep Spin miniprep kit [Qiagen] and the urine bacterial DNA isolation kit [Norgen]) for the direct DNA extraction from urine samples (dilution series spiked in human urine). Reliable single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing was demonstrated using 1 × 10(5) CFU/ml urine for Escherichia coli (Qiagen and Norgen) and 80 CFU/ml urine, on average, for K. pneumoniae (Norgen). This study presents, for the first time, the combination of a new KPC microarray with commercial sample preparation for detecting and genotyping microbial pathogens directly from clinical specimens; this paves the way toward tests providing epidemiological and diagnostic data, enabling better antimicrobial stewardship. PMID:23035190

Peter, Harald; Berggrav, Kathrine; Thomas, Peter; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Witte, Wolfgang; Templeton, Kate; Bachmann, Till T

2012-12-01

177

Identification of Antigenic Proteins of the Nosocomial Pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

The continuous expansion of nosocomial infections around the globe has become a precarious situation. Key challenges include mounting dissemination of multiple resistances to antibiotics, the easy transmission and the growing mortality rates of hospital-acquired bacterial diseases. Thus, new ways to rapidly detect these infections are vital. Consequently, researchers around the globe pursue innovative approaches for point-of-care devices. In many cases the specific interaction of an antigen and a corresponding antibody is pivotal. However, the knowledge about suitable antigens is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify novel antigens as specific diagnostic markers. Additionally, these proteins might be aptly used for the generation of vaccines to improve current treatment options. Hence, a cDNA-based expression library was constructed and screened via microarrays to detect novel antigens of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a prominent agent of nosocomial infections well-known for its extensive antibiotics resistance, especially by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). After screening 1536 clones, 14 previously unknown immunogenic proteins were identified. Subsequently, each protein was expressed in full-length and its immunodominant character examined by ELISA and microarray analyses. Consequently, six proteins were selected for epitope mapping and three thereof possessed linear epitopes. After specificity analysis, homology survey and 3d structural modelling, one epitope sequence GAVVALSTTFA of KPN_00363, an ion channel protein, was identified harboring specificity for K. pneumoniae. The remaining epitopes showed ambiguous results regarding the specificity for K. pneumoniae. The approach adopted herein has been successfully utilized to discover novel antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica antigens before. Now, we have transferred this knowledge to the key nosocomial agent, K. pneumoniae. By identifying several novel antigens and their linear epitope sites, we have paved the way for crucial future research and applications including the design of point-of-care devices, vaccine development and serological screenings for a highly relevant nosocomial pathogen. PMID:25333280

Hoppe, Sebastian; Bier, Frank F.; von Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus

2014-01-01

178

Use of a Dictyostelium Model for Isolation of Genetic Loci Associated with Phagocytosis and Virulence in Klebsiella pneumoniae?  

PubMed Central

Phagocytosis resistance is an important virulence factor in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Dictyostelium has been used to study the interaction between phagocytes and bacteria because of its similarity to mammalian macrophages. In this study, we used a Dictyostelium model to investigate genes for resistance to phagocytosis in NTUH-K2044, a strain of K. pneumoniae causing pyogenic liver abscess that is highly resistant to phagocytosis. A total of 2,500 transposon mutants were screened by plaque assay, and 29 of them permitted phagocytosis by Dictyostelium. In the 29 mutants, six loci were identified; three were capsular synthesis genes. Of the other three, one was related to carnitine metabolism, one encoded a subunit of protease (clpX), and one encoded a lipopolysaccharide O-antigen transporter (wzm). Deletion and complementation of these genes showed that only ?clpX and ?wzm mutants became susceptible to Dictyostelium phagocytosis, and their complementation restored the phagocytosis resistance phenotype. These two mutants were also susceptible to phagocytosis by human neutrophils and revealed attenuated virulence in a mouse model, implying that they play important roles in the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae. Furthermore, we demonstrated that clpP, which exists in an operon with clpX, was also involved in resistance to phagocytosis. The transcriptional profile of ?clpX was examined by microarray analysis and revealed a 3-fold lower level of expression of capsular synthesis genes. Therefore, we have identified genes involved in resistance to phagocytosis in K. pneumoniae using Dictyostelium, and this model is useful to explore genes associated with resistance to phagocytosis in heavily encapsulated bacteria. PMID:21173313

Pan, Yi-Jiun; Lin, Tzu-Lung; Hsu, Chun-Ru; Wang, Jin-Town

2011-01-01

179

The Role of Klebsiella in Crohn's Disease with a Potential for the Use of Antimicrobial Measures  

PubMed Central

There is a general consensus that Crohn's disease (CD) develops as the result of immune-mediated tissue damage triggered by infections with intestinal microbial agents. Based on the results of existing microbiological, molecular, and immunological studies, Klebsiella microbe seems to have a key role in the initiation and perpetuation of the pathological damage involving the gut and joint tissues in patients with CD. Six different gastroenterology centres in the UK have reported elevated levels of antibodies to Klebsiella in CD patients. There is a relationship between high intake of starch-containing diet, enhanced growth of gut microbes, and the production of pullulanases by Klebsiella. It is proposed that eradication of these microbes by the use of antibiotics and low starch diet, in addition to the currently used treatment, could help in alleviating or halting the disease process in CD. PMID:24223596

Rashid, Taha; Ebringer, Alan; Wilson, Clyde

2013-01-01

180

Klebsiella pneumoniae induces an inflammatory response in an in vitro model of blood-retinal barrier.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae has become an important pathogen in recent years. Although most cases of K. pneumoniae endogenous endophthalmitis occur via hematogenous spread, it is not yet clear which microbial and host factors are responsible for the ability of K. pneumoniae to cross the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). In the present study, we show that in an in vitro model of BRB based on coculturing primary bovine retinal endothelial cells (BREC) and primary bovine retinal pericytes (BRPC), K. pneumoniae infection determines changes of transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability to sodium fluorescein. In the coculture model, bacteria are able to stimulate the enzyme activities of endothelial cytosolic and Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A2s (cPLA2 and iPLA2). These results were confirmed by the incremental expression of cPLA2, iPLA2, cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX1), and COX2 in BREC, as well as by cPLA2 phosphorylation. In supernatants of K. pneumoniae-stimulated cocultures, increases in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production were found. Incubation with K. pneumoniae in the presence of arachidonoyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF3) or bromoenol lactone (BEL) caused decreased PGE2 and VEGF release. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images of BREC and BRPC showed adhesion of K. pneumoniae to the cells, but no invasion occurred. K. pneumoniae infection also produced reductions in pericyte numbers; transfection of BREC cocultured with BRPC and of human retinal endothelial cells (HREC) cocultured with human retinal pericytes (HRPC) with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeted to cPLA2 and iPLA2 restored the pericyte numbers and the TEER and permeability values. Our results show the proinflammatory effect of K. pneumoniae on BREC, suggest a possible mechanism by which BREC and BRPC react to the K. pneumoniae infection, and may provide physicians and patients with new ways of fighting blinding diseases. PMID:24478098

Motta, C; Salmeri, M; Anfuso, C D; Amodeo, A; Scalia, M; Toscano, M A; Giurdanella, G; Alberghina, M; Lupo, G

2014-02-01

181

Klebsiella pneumoniae Induces an Inflammatory Response in an In Vitro Model of Blood-Retinal Barrier  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae has become an important pathogen in recent years. Although most cases of K. pneumoniae endogenous endophthalmitis occur via hematogenous spread, it is not yet clear which microbial and host factors are responsible for the ability of K. pneumoniae to cross the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). In the present study, we show that in an in vitro model of BRB based on coculturing primary bovine retinal endothelial cells (BREC) and primary bovine retinal pericytes (BRPC), K. pneumoniae infection determines changes of transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability to sodium fluorescein. In the coculture model, bacteria are able to stimulate the enzyme activities of endothelial cytosolic and Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2s (cPLA2 and iPLA2). These results were confirmed by the incremental expression of cPLA2, iPLA2, cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX1), and COX2 in BREC, as well as by cPLA2 phosphorylation. In supernatants of K. pneumoniae-stimulated cocultures, increases in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production were found. Incubation with K. pneumoniae in the presence of arachidonoyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF3) or bromoenol lactone (BEL) caused decreased PGE2 and VEGF release. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images of BREC and BRPC showed adhesion of K. pneumoniae to the cells, but no invasion occurred. K. pneumoniae infection also produced reductions in pericyte numbers; transfection of BREC cocultured with BRPC and of human retinal endothelial cells (HREC) cocultured with human retinal pericytes (HRPC) with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeted to cPLA2 and iPLA2 restored the pericyte numbers and the TEER and permeability values. Our results show the proinflammatory effect of K. pneumoniae on BREC, suggest a possible mechanism by which BREC and BRPC react to the K. pneumoniae infection, and may provide physicians and patients with new ways of fighting blinding diseases. PMID:24478098

Motta, C.; Salmeri, M.; Anfuso, C. D.; Amodeo, A.; Scalia, M.; Toscano, M. A.; Giurdanella, G.; Alberghina, M.

2014-01-01

182

Inactivation of bacteria via photosensitization of vitamin K3 by UV-A light.  

PubMed

This study investigated inactivation of bacteria with ultraviolet light A irradiation in combination with vitamin K3 as a photosensitizer. Six bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli suspended in vitamin K3 aqueous solution were exposed to ultraviolet light A. Five of six bacteria, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were reduced by eight logs with 1600 ?M of vitamin K3 and 5.8 J cm(-2) UV-A irradiation. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was reduced by four logs under these conditions. Reactive oxygen species including singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical were generated in vitamin K3 aqueous solution under UV-A irradiation. These results suggest that vitamin K3 and UV-A irradiation may be effective for bacterial inactivation in environmental and medical applications. PMID:25053393

Xu, Fei; Vostal, Jaroslav G

2014-09-01

183

Detection of multiple potentially pathogenic bacteria in Matang mangrove estuaries, Malaysia.  

PubMed

The deltaic estuarine system of the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve of Malaysia is a site where several human settlements and brackish water aquaculture have been established. Here, we evaluated the level of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the surface water and sediments. Higher levels of FIB were detected at downstream sampling sites from the fishing village, indicating it as a possible source of anthropogenic pollution to the estuary. Enterococci levels in the estuarine sediments were higher than in the surface water, while total coliforms and E. coli in the estuarine sediments were not detected in all samples. Also, various types of potentially pathogenic bacteria, including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter cloacae were isolated. The results indicate that the Matang estuarine system is contaminated with various types of potential human bacterial pathogens which might pose a health risk to the public. PMID:24820641

Ghaderpour, Aziz; Mohd Nasori, Khairul Nazrin; Chew, Li Lee; Chong, Ving Ching; Thong, Kwai Lin; Chai, Lay Ching

2014-06-15

184

Comparision of Three Laboratory Tests for Detection of AmpC ? Lactamases in Klebsiella Species and E. Coli  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: AmpC ? lactamases are one of the important causes of drug resistance in gram negative bacteria. Failure to detect these enzymes in the laboratory has contributed to therapeutic failures but there are till date no standard guideline available. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate three phenotypic laboratory tests and the inhibitors used in two of the tests to detect AmpC ? lactamases produced by E. coli and Klebsiella species as they are most commonly isolated organisms. Methods: E. coli and Klebsiella isolates from different clinical samples were tested for ESBLs production as per CLSI guidelines and excluded from the study. The non-ESBLs isolates were then screened for AmpC ? lactamases production, by cefoxitin and then confirmed by three different methods, i.e., Disc Potentiation Test (DPT) , Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST) and Modified Three Dimensional Test (M3DT) which in the absence of molecular methods, was taken as the gold standard. Boronic acid and cloxacillin were used as inhibitory agents in the Disc Potentiation and Double Disc synergy Tests. Results: A total of 2,933 isolates were tested out of which 165 isolates were detected as non ESBLs producers,135 (81.82%) when screened for AmpC ? lactamases based on resistance to cefoxitin were labelled as positive. 30 (18.18%) cefoxitin sensitive isolates were labelled as probably non AmpC producers . M3DT, in addition to detecting all the 135 (100%) cefoxitin resistant isolates, also detected 5 (16.67%) cefoxitin sensitive isolates as AmpC producers. Other phenotypic tests, DPT and DDST with different inhibitors like boronic acid and cloxacillin in different potencies were all found to be less sensitive. The best results among these two methods were obtained with DDST using cloxacillin 500?g. Conclusion: In the absence of recommended guidelines for AmpC detection, the study reports, among the tests performed, M3DT as the best phenotypic method for AmpC confirmation, as it is not only the most sensitive but also specific test for AmpC as it rules out the resistance due to other mechanisms like the porin channel. PMID:25120977

Deotale, V.S.; Mendiratta, D.K.; Narang, P.

2014-01-01

185

Genome Sequences of Two Carbapenemase-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 Isolates  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae, an ESKAPE group (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogen, has acquired multiple antibiotic resistance genes and is becoming a serious public health threat. Here, we report the genome sequences of two representative strains of K. pneumoniae from the emerging K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) outbreak in northeast Ohio belonging to sequence type 258 (ST258) (isolates Kb140 and Kb677, which were isolated from blood and urine, respectively). Both isolates harbor a blaKPC gene, and strain Kb140 carries blaKPC-2, while Kb677 carries blaKPC-3. PMID:24948759

Ramirez, Maria Soledad; Xie, Gang; Johnson, Shannon; Davenport, Karen; van Duin, David; Perez, Federico; Bonomo, Robert A.; Chain, Patrick

2014-01-01

186

Genome Sequences of Two Carbapenemase-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 Isolates.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae, an ESKAPE group (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogen, has acquired multiple antibiotic resistance genes and is becoming a serious public health threat. Here, we report the genome sequences of two representative strains of K. pneumoniae from the emerging K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) outbreak in northeast Ohio belonging to sequence type 258 (ST258) (isolates Kb140 and Kb677, which were isolated from blood and urine, respectively). Both isolates harbor a blaKPC gene, and strain Kb140 carries blaKPC-2, while Kb677 carries blaKPC-3. PMID:24948759

Ramirez, Maria Soledad; Xie, Gang; Johnson, Shannon; Davenport, Karen; van Duin, David; Perez, Federico; Bonomo, Robert A; Chain, Patrick; Tolmasky, Marcelo E

2014-01-01

187

Identification and Characterization of the fis Operon in Enteric Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The small DNA binding protein Fis is involved in several different biological processes in Escherichia coli. It has been shown to stimulate DNA inversion reactions mediated by the Hin family of recombinases, stimulate integration and excision of phage ? genome, regulate the transcription of several different genes including those of stable RNA operons, and regulate the initiation of DNA replication at oriC. fis has also been isolated from Salmonella typhimurium, and the genomic sequence of Haemophilus influenzae reveals its presence in this bacteria. This work extends the characterization of fis to other organisms. Very similar fis operon structures were identified in the enteric bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Erwinia carotovora, and Proteus vulgaris but not in several nonenteric bacteria. We found that the deduced amino acid sequences for Fis are 100% identical in K. pneumoniae, S. marcescens, E. coli, and S. typhimurium and 96 to 98% identical when E. carotovora and P. vulgaris Fis are considered. The deduced amino acid sequence for H. influenzae Fis is about 80% identical and 90% similar to Fis in enteric bacteria. However, in spite of these similarities, the E. carotovora, P. vulgaris, and H. influenzae Fis proteins are not functionally identical. An open reading frame (ORF1) preceding fis in E. coli is also found in all these bacteria, and their deduced amino acid sequences are also very similar. The sequence preceding ORF1 in the enteric bacteria showed a very strong similarity to the E. coli fis P region from ?53 to +27 and the region around ?116 containing an ihf binding site. Both ?-galactosidase assays and primer extension assays showed that these regions function as promoters in vivo and are subject to growth phase-dependent regulation. However, their promoter strengths vary, as do their responses to Fis autoregulation and integration host factor stimulation. PMID:9811652

Beach, Michael B.; Osuna, Robert

1998-01-01

188

Histamine-producing bacteria in decomposing skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis).  

PubMed

Spoilage in skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) was studied under controlled conditions by incubating whole, fresh fish in seawater at 38 degrees C, the optimum temperature for histamine formation. Bacterial isolates were obtained from the loin tissue of a decomposing tuna containing 134 mg of histamine per 100 g and a total anaerobic count of 3.5 x 10(5)/g after incubation for 24 h. Over 92% of the 134 isolates obtained were facultatively or obligately anaerobic bacteria. Eighteen isolates produced histamine in culture media containing histidine, and these were identified as Clostridium perfringens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Vibrio alginolyticus. Histidine decarboxylase activity of several isolates was measured in a tuna broth medium and with resting cells suspended in a buffered histidine solution. PMID:6289747

Yoshinaga, D H; Frank, H A

1982-08-01

189

Understanding the patterns of antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria causing urinary tract infection in West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level. In order to assess the adequacy of empirical therapy, the susceptibility of antibiotics and resistance pattern of bacteria responsible for UTI in West Bengal, India, were evaluated throughout the period of 2008–2013. The infection reports belonging to all age groups and both sexes were considered. Escherichia coli was the most abundant uropathogen with a prevalence rate of 67.1%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (22%) and Pseudomonas spp. (6%). Penicillin was least effective against UTI-causing E. coli and maximum susceptibility was recorded for the drugs belonging to fourth generation cephalosporins. Other abundant uropathogens, Klebsiella spp., were maximally resistant to broad-spectrum penicillin, followed by aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporin. The antibiotic resistance pattern of two principal UTI pathogens, E. coli and Klebsiella spp. in West Bengal, appears in general to be similar to that found in other parts of the Globe. Higher than 50% resistance were observed for broad-spectrum penicillin. Fourth generation cephalosporin and macrolides seems to be the choice of drug in treating UTIs in Eastern India. Furthermore, improved maintenance of infection incident logs is needed in Eastern Indian hospitals in order to facilitate regular surveillance of the occurrence of antibiotic resistance patterns, since such levels continue to change. PMID:25278932

Saha, Sunayana; Nayak, Sridhara; Bhattacharyya, Indrani; Saha, Suman; Mandal, Amit K.; Chakraborty, Subhanil; Bhattacharyya, Rabindranath; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Franco, Octavio L.; Mandal, Santi M.; Basak, Amit

2014-01-01

190

Genetic transformation in bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain species of bacteria can become competent to take up high molecular weight DNA from the surrounding medium. DNA homologous\\u000a to resident chromosomal DNA is transported, processed and recombined with the resident DNA. There are some variations in steps\\u000a leading to transformation between Gram-positive bacteria likebiplococcus pneumoniae and Gram-negative bacteria represented byHaemophilus influenzae but the integration is by single-strand displacement

N. K. Notani; V. P. Joshi; R. P. Kanade

1984-01-01

191

Species Numbers in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A modified biological species definition (BSD), i.e., that bacteria exchange genes within a species, but not usually between species, is shown to apply to bacteria. The formal definition of bacterial species, which is more conservative than the modified BSD, is framed in terms of DNA hybridization. From this I estimate there are a million species of bacteria in 30 grams of rich forest topsoil and propose that there will be at least a billion species worldwide. PMID:21874075

Dykhuizen, Daniel

2010-01-01

192

Osteomyelitis due to multiple carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria: The first case report of a GES-13-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate in Canada  

PubMed Central

A case of osteomyelitis in an infant following a burn injury sustained in Pakistan caused by a GES-13-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (the first reported in Canada) and an OXA-48 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae is described. The present case serves to highlight the importance of international travel as a risk factor for infection with carbapenemase-producing bacteria and the challenges in the laboratory detection of these organisms.

Sepehri, Shadi; Poliquin, Guillaume; Alfattoh, Nora; Boyd, David; Mulvey, Michael; Denisuik, Andrew; Fanella, Sergio; Karlowsky, James; Walkty, Andrew

2014-01-01

193

Familial Spread of a Virulent Clone of Klebsiella pneumoniae Causing Primary Liver Abscess?  

PubMed Central

Capsule-forming Klebsiella pneumoniae K1 caused primary liver abscess in two household members of a family. The causative isolates had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and were determined to be sequence type 23. An additional member of the family was found to carry the same strain without clinical manifestation. PMID:21490191

Harada, Sohei; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Mitsui, Hiroshi; Hattori, Yusuke; Okubo, Masao; Kimura, Sei; Sekigawa, Kenichiro; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Hashimoto, Naoaki; Itoyama, Satoru; Nakai, Tatsuro; Suzuki, Takeo; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Yamaguchi, Keizo

2011-01-01

194

Carbapenem Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae Due to the New Delhi Metallo-?-lactamase  

PubMed Central

(See editorial commentary by Bronomo, on pages 485–487.) Carbapenem resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae is most notably due to the K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) ?-lactamase. In this report, we describe the occurrence of a newly described mechanism of carbapenem resistance, the NDM-1 ?-lactamase, in a patient who received medical attention (but was not hospitalized) in India. PMID:21258100

Sidjabat, Hanna; Nimmo, Graeme R.; Walsh, Timothy R.; Binotto, Enzo; Htin, Anthony; Hayashi, Yoshiro; Li, Jian; Nation, Roger L.; George, Narelle

2011-01-01

195

A new serotyping method for Klebsiella species: development of the technique.  

PubMed Central

A new serotyping method for Klebsiella species using indirect immunofluorescence is described. Nonspecific fluorescence has been minimized by carrying out the capsular antigen-antibody reaction at pH 9.0. Commercial antisera have been tested with the 72 antigenic types of Klebsiella, and appropriate dilutions of each pool and specific antisera have been proposed for use in routine typing. Dilutions were chosen to allow strong fluorescence with each type and its specific antiserum and minimal fluorescence with cross reacting antisera. Where the pool antisera gave a weak reaction for one or more of the component types, it is recommended that the specific antisera for these types be added to the pool dilution. The few remaining cross reactions, with the pool and specific antisera in test dilution, are listed in a table. The unique cross reacting patterns of particular types have been found to be useful in identification. Typing Klebsiella by the fluorescent antibody technique is easy to perform and interpret; the results are reproducible, and it is less expensive than the existing capsular swelling method as it is more sensitive and requires less concentrated antisera. This new method of typing should facilitate detailed epidemiological studies of the mode of transmission of Klebsiella species in hospitals and thus allow more effective infection control measures to be instituted. Images PMID:777042

Riser, E; Noone, P; Poulton, T A

1976-01-01

196

Comparison of in vitro activities of meropenem productions on Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from hospitalized patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Antimicrobial activities of meropenem products on Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were determined. Methods: 212 non-duplicated Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were examined for in vitro meropenem susceptibility test by using the following disks, which were made from Meronem (AstraZeneca, UK), Exipenem (Exir, Iran) and Meroxan (DAANA, Iran) powders. MIC50 and MIC90 for meropenem antibiotics were determined. Results: Meronem had good activities against most isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and only a few strains had a rather high MIC. Exipenem and Meroxan showed a similar activity with Meronem. Conclusion: Regarding the comparison of two internal generic meropenem products with the external Meronem product have shown that they are equivalents in terms of microbiological activity, as measured using the disk diffusion and MIC. In developing countries, we suggested preparing disks with antibiotic powders that can be an equivalent function in microbiological activity with standard disks. In addition, since it demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against the Klebsiella pneumoniae. For use of Exipenem and Meroxan in vivo, it would be better to perform additional testing (activity against different species, stability etc.). PMID:25152857

Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Asghari, Babak; Nahaei, Mohammed Reza; Memar, Mohammad Yousef; Lari, Abdolaziz Rastegar; Naghili, Behrooz; Pirzadeh, Tahereh

2014-01-01

197

Emergence of clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae producing OXA-232 carbapenemase in Singapore  

PubMed Central

We report the emergence of OXA-232, a newly described OXA-48-like carbapenemase variant, in Southeast Asia. Molecular characterization of eight Klebsiella pneumoniae obtained from local and foreign patients reveals clonality of the isolates. blaOXA-232 was located on a non-conjugative plasmid of 6141 base pairs (GenBank accession number JX423831.1). PMID:25356318

Teo, J W P; Kurup, A; Lin, R T P; Hsien, K T

2013-01-01

198

Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Multidrug Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from a University Teaching Hospital, China  

PubMed Central

The multidrug-resistant rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae has risen rapidly worldwide. To better understand the multidrug resistance situation and molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a total of 153 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were collected, and drug susceptibility test was performed to detect its susceptibility patterns to 13 kinds of antibiotics. Phenotypic tests for carbapenemases ESBLs and AmpC enzyme-producing strains were performed to detect the resistance phenotype of the isolates. Then PCR amplification and sequencing analysis were performed for the drug resistance determinants. The results showed that 63 strains harbored blaCTX-M gene, and 14 strains harbored blaDHA gene. Moreover, there were 5 strains carrying blaKPC gene, among which 4 strains carried blaCTX-M, blaDHA and blaKPC genes, and these 4 strains were also resistant to imipenem. Our data indicated that drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were highly prevalent in the hospital. Thus it is warranted that surveillance of epidemiology of those resistant isolates should be a cause for concern, and appropriate drugs should be chosen. PMID:24740167

Liu, Helu; Lu, Dongyue; Liang, Hong; Dou, Yuhong

2014-01-01

199

Overview of the epidemiology and the threat of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) resistance  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) confer resistance to nearly all ?-lactams. This broad-spectrum drug resistance mechanism has rapidly spread in the United States and is reportedly increasing elsewhere in the world. Thus, the emergence of KPC resistance is a major threat to global health. This article reviews the epidemiology and provides an overview of the dissemination of KPC-producing organisms. PMID:23055754

Chen, Luke F; Anderson, Deverick J; Paterson, David L

2012-01-01

200

The fur gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae: characterization, genomic organization and phylogenetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fur (ferric uptake regulator) protein controls the expression of a number of bacterial virulence determinants including those involved in iron uptake. The fur gene was cloned and characterized from Klebsiella pneumoniae. The gene is preceded by a single autoregulated promoter whose ?10 region overlaps the putative Fur binding site. The autoregulated nature of the K. pneumoniae fur gene and

Laurie A Achenbach; Wei Yang

1997-01-01

201

In vitro activities of streptomycin and 11 oral antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis.  

PubMed Central

We tested in vitro the activities of streptomycin and tetracycline--antibiotics that have long been used to treat rhinoscleroma--as well as several newer oral agents by using 23 isolates of the causative organism Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. All isolates were inhibited by clinically achievable concentrations of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin-clavulanate, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, cephalexin, cefuroxime, and cefpodoxime. PMID:1416867

Perkins, B A; Hamill, R J; Musher, D M; O'Hara, C

1992-01-01

202

Prevalence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the prevalence and molecular biology of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected in the Czech Republic. Clinical material from patients hospitalised in 16 Czech hospitals in September 2004 was used to isolate K. pneumoniae strains. Strains were identified by standard identification procedures. Susceptibility of the strains to antibiotics was tested using a microdilution method. The

M. Kolar; T. Latal; P. Cermak; N. Bartonikova; E. Chmelarova; P. Sauer; M. Kesselova

2006-01-01

203

Immunoproteomic to Analysis the Pathogenicity Factors in Leukopenia Caused by Klebsiella Pneumonia Bacteremia  

PubMed Central

Incidences of leukopenia caused by bacteremia have increased significantly and it is associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased cost. Immunoproteomic is a promising method to identify pathogenicity factors of different diseases. In the present study, we used immunoproteomic to analysis the pathogenicity factors in leukopenia caused by Klebsiella Pneumonia bacteremia. Approximately 40 protein spots localized in the 4 to 7 pI range were detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, and 6 differentially expressed protein spots between 10 and 170 kDa were identified. Pathogenicity factors including S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, glutathione synthetase, UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, acetate kinase A and elongation factor tu (EF-Tu). In validation of the pathogenicity factor, we used western blotting to show that Klebsiella pneumonia had higher (EF-Tu) expression when they accompanied by leukopenia rather than leukocytosis. Thus, we report 6 pathogenicity factors of leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia bacteremia, including 5 housekeeping enzymes and EF-Tu. We suggest EF-Tu could be a potential pathogenicity factor for leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia. PMID:25330314

Liu, Haiyan; Cheng, Zhongle; Song, Wen; Wu, Wenyong; Zhou, Zheng

2014-01-01

204

THE MITOCHONDRIA OF BACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence from the biochemical, the genetic and the morphologic study of bacteria, in that chronological order, has indicated essential similarities of the bacterial cell to the cells of higher organisms. Recognition in bacteria of a large category of cytoplasmic granules as possessing characteristics which strongly sug- gest that they are the functional equivalents of the mitochondria of anirnaE and

STUART MUDD

1953-01-01

205

A Multicenter Study of Beta-Lactamase Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Reveals High Level Chromosome Mediated Extended Spectrum ? Lactamase Resistance in Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

As a result of the ever increasing problem of multiresistant bacteria, we instituted a surveillance program with the aim of identifying the basic molecular properties of ESBL in our environment. About 197 isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were selected and tested for ESBL production and antimicrobial susceptibility. Plasmid profiles were determined and curing ability was tested. ESBL prevalence was 26.4% for all isolates tested, with E. coli having a greater proportion. There was absolute resistance to ampicilin, tetracycline, and co-trimaxole among tested isolates. There was above average susceptibility to the 2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporins. Plasmid profiles of tested isolates ranged from 9?kbp to 26?kbp with average of 14.99 ± 2.3?kbp for E. coli and 20.98 ± 1.8?kbp K. pneumoniae, 9.6% of ESBL positive E. coli plasmids were cured, while 3.9% of K. pneumoniae plasmids were cured after treatment. The present study shows an upsurge in ESBL acquisition by gram negative bacteria and evidence of cocirculation of varying subtypes of ESBL with both plasmid transmissible and chromosome encoded subtypes. This calls for universal surveillance and more effort towards molecular epidemiology of this public health treatment. PMID:24790598

Adeyankinnu, Folasoge A.; Motayo, Babatunde O.; Akinduti, Akinniyi; Akinbo, John; Ogiogwa, Joseph I.; Aboderin, Bukola W.; Agunlejika, R. A.

2014-01-01

206

KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from a Czech patient previously hospitalized in Greece and in vivo selection of colistin resistance.  

PubMed

Carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria peak clinical interest due to their ability to hydrolyze most ?-lactams, including carbapenems; moreover, their genes spread through bacterial populations by horizontal transfer. Bacteria with acquired carbapenemase have sporadically been reported in the Czech Republic, so far only in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, we described the first finding of a KPC-2-producing strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, which was isolated from a surgical wound swab, decubitus ulcer, and urine of a patient previously hospitalized in Greece. The patient underwent various antibiotic therapies including a colistin treatment. However, after approximately 20 days of the colistin therapy, the strain developed a high-level resistance to this drug. All the isolates were indistinguishable by pulsed field gel electrophoretic analysis and belonged to the international clone ST258, which is typical of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. The bla (KPC-2) gene was located on a Tn4401a transposon variant. The OmpK35 and OmpK36 genes analysis performed due to the high resistance level of the strains to ?-lactams exhibited no changes in their sequence or in their expression when compared with carbapenem-susceptible isolates. PMID:21818609

Hrabák, Jaroslav; Niemczyková, Jana; Chudá?ková, Eva; Fridrichová, Marta; Studentová, Vendula; Cervená, Dana; Urbášková, Pavla; Zemli?ková, Helena

2011-07-01

207

Application of S-thanatin, an antimicrobial peptide derived from thanatin, in mouse model of Klebsiella pneumoniae infection.  

PubMed

Thanatin was first discovered from the hemipteran insect Podisus maculiventris and showed a promising antimicrobial activity. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae have developed resistance to current therapies. As an attempt to resolve this problem, the efficacy of thanatin and its analogues against clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae was studied in vitro and in vivo. S-thanatin showed an improved antimicrobial activity with the tested MIC values was 2-8-fold lower than those of other thanatin analogs. Antimicrobial assay indicated a high activity of S-thanatin against K. pneumoniae in vitro with MIC between 4 and 8 ?g/ml. Its in vivo activity was evaluated using a K. pneumoniae-infected mice model. Adult male ICR mice were randomly grouped and given an intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 2 × 10(10)colony-forming units of K. pneumoniae (CI 120204205). Afterwards, mouse groups were subjected to i.p. administration of saline or S-thanatin (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg). After an inspection of 72 h, the mice were finally sacrificed for analysis of in vivo bacterial growth and plasma endotoxin level. The results showed that S-thanatin administration apparently improved the survival rate and reduced the bacterial CFU from intra-abdominal fluid in mice. The plasma endotoxin level was improved as well. All above implied that S-thanatin, as an alternative, may provide a novel strategy for treating K. pneumoniae infection and other infections due to multidrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:23643614

Wu, Guoqiu; Wu, Pengpeng; Xue, Xiulei; Yan, Xuejiao; Liu, Siru; Zhang, Chen; Shen, Zilong; Xi, Tao

2013-07-01

208

Electron transfer capacity dependence of quinone-mediated Fe(III) reduction and current generation by Klebsiella pneumoniae L17.  

PubMed

Quinone groups in exogenous electron shuttles can accelerate extracellular electron transfer (EET) from bacteria to insoluble terminal electron acceptors, such as Fe(III) oxides and electrodes, which are important in biogeochemical redox processes and microbial electricity generation. However, the relationship between quinone-mediated EET performance and electron-shuttling properties of the quinones remains incompletely characterized. This study investigates the effects of a series of synthetic quinones (SQs) on goethite reduction and current generation by a fermenting bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae L17. In addition, the voltammetric behavior and electron transfer capacities (ETCs) of SQ, including electron accepting (EAC) and donating (EDC) capacities, is also examined using electrochemical methods. The results showed that SQ can significantly increase both the Fe(III) reduction rates and current outputs of L17. Each tested SQ reversibly accepted and donated electrons as indicated by the cyclic voltammograms. The EAC and EDC results showed that Carmine and Alizarin had low relative capacities of electron transfer, whereas 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid (AQDS), 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-HNQ), and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (5-HNQ) showed stronger relative ETC, and 9,10-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQC) and 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS) had high relative ETC. Enhancement of microbial goethite reduction kinetics and current outputs by SQ had a good linear relationship with their ETC, indicating that the effectiveness of quinone-mediated EET may be strongly dependent on the ETC of the quinones. Therefore, the presence of quinone compounds and fermenting microorganisms may increase the diversity of microbial populations that contribute to element transformation in natural environments. Moreover, ETC determination of different SQ would help to evaluate their performance for microbial EET under anoxic conditions. PMID:23461838

Li, Xiaomin; Liu, Liang; Liu, Tongxu; Yuan, Tian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Fangbai; Zhou, Shungui; Li, Yongtao

2013-06-01

209

Multidrug Resistance in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Large amounts of antibiotics used for human therapy, as well as for farm animals and even for fish in aquaculture, resulted in the selection of pathogenic bacteria resistant to multiple drugs. Multidrug resistance in bacteria may be generated by one of two mechanisms. First, these bacteria may accumulate multiple genes, each coding for resistance to a single drug, within a single cell. This accumulation occurs typically on resistance (R) plasmids. Second, multidrug resistance may also occur by the increased expression of genes that code for multidrug efflux pumps, extruding a wide range of drugs. This review discusses our current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in both types of resistance. PMID:19231985

Nikaido, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

210

Transferable resistance to cefotaxime, cefoxitin, cefamandole and cefuroxime in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In conjugational crosses, threeKlebsiella pneumoniae strains and oneSerratia marcescens strain have been demonstrated to transfer resistance determinants to newer types of cephalosporins. WhileKlebsiella strains donated cefotaxime, cefamandole and cefuroxime resistance toEscherichia coli K-12 recipients, the genetic analysis of exconjugants after the transfer of plasmids fromSerratia strains toProteus orSalmonella recipients showed that the cefoxitin resistance determinant was also co-transferred. In

H. Knothe; P. Shah; V. Krcmery; M. Antal; S. Mitsuhashi

1983-01-01

211

Outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae producing KPC3 in a tertiary medical centre in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant KPC-3-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae outside the USA. Ninety patients from different departments of a tertiary medical centre were diagnosed with carbapenem-resistant, extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae infection by standard methods over a 10-month period in 2006. Fifteen randomly selected outbreak isolates were subjected to randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as

Zmira Samra; Orit Ofir; Yinon Lishtzinsky; Liora Madar-Shapiro; Jihad Bishara

2007-01-01

212

Toxicological Effects of Selective Herbicides on Plant Growth Promoting Activities of Phosphate Solubilizing Klebsiella sp . Strain PS19  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of four herbicides, quizalafop-p-ethyl, clodinafop, metribuzin and glyphosate, on plant growth promoting activities like phosphate solubilization, siderophores,\\u000a indole acetic acid, exo-polysaccharides, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia production by herbicide tolerant Klebsiella sp. strain PS19. The strain was isolated from mustard rhizosphere. The selected herbicides were applied two to three times\\u000a at the recommended rates. Klebsiella sp.

Munees Ahemad

2011-01-01

213

Intercellular communication in bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacteria have been long considered primitive organisms, with a lifestyle focused on the survival and propagation of single cells. However, in the past few decades it became obvious that bacteria can display sophisticated group behaviors. For instance, bacteria can communicate amongst themselves and with their hosts, by producing, sensing, and responding to chemical signals. By doing so, they can sense their surroundings and adapt as to increase their chances of survival and propagation. Here, we review the discovery of bacterial intercellular communication, some of the signaling molecules identified to date, the role of intercellular signaling in symbiotic and pathogenic relationships between bacteria and their hosts and its implications for the development of new therapeutic strategies against human disease. PMID:19514909

Antunes, L Caetano M; Ferreira, Rosana B R

2009-01-01

214

Cultivation Media for Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common bacteriological culture media (tryptic soy agar, chocolate agar, Thayer-Martin agar, MacConkey agar, eosin-methylene blue agar, hektoen agar, mannitol salt agar, and sheep blood agar) are shown uninoculated and inoculated with bacteria.

American Society For Microbiology;

2009-12-08

215

Bacteria in shear flow  

E-print Network

Bacteria are ubiquitous and play a critical role in many contexts. Their environment is nearly always dynamic due to the prevalence of fluid flow: creeping flow in soil, highly sheared flow in bodily conduits, and turbulent ...

Marcos, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

216

Nitrogenase of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Purification and properties of the component proteins  

PubMed Central

1. Nitrogenase from the facultative anaerobe Klebsiella pneumoniae was resolved into two protein components resembling those obtained from other nitrogen-fixing bacteria. 2. Both proteins were purified to homogeneity as shown by the criteria of disc electrophoresis and ultracentrifugal analysis. 3. The larger component had a mol.wt. of 218000 and contained one Mo atom, 17Fe atoms and 17 acid-labile sulphide groups/mol; it contained two types of subunit, present in equal amounts, of mol.wts. 50000 and 60000. All the common amino acids were present, with a predominance of acidic residues. The apparent partial specific volume was 0.73; ultracentrifugal analysis gave s020,w=11.0S and D020,w=4.94×10?7cm2/s. The specific activities (nmol of product formed/min per mg of protein) when assayed with the second nitrogenase component were 1500 for H2 evolution, 380 for N2 reduction, 1200 for acetylene reduction and 5400 for ATP hydrolysis. The reduced protein showed electron-paramagnetic-resonance signals at g=4.3, 3.7 and 2.015; the Mössbauer spectrum of the reduced protein consisted of at least three doublets. The u.v. spectra of the oxidized and reduced proteins were identical. On oxidation the absorbance increased generally throughout the visible region and a shoulder at 430nm appeared. The circular-dichroism spectra of both the oxidized and reduced proteins were the same, consisting mainly of a negative trough at 220nm. 4. The smaller component had mol.wt. 66800 and contained four Fe atoms and four acid-labile sulphide groups in a molecule comprising two subunits each of mol.wt. 34600. All common amino acids except tryptophan were present, with a predominance of acidic residues. The apparent partial specific volume calculated from the amino acid analysis was 0.732, which was significantly higher than that obtained from density measurements (0.69); ultracentrifugal analysis gave s020,w=4.8S and D020,w=5.55×10?7cm2/s. The specific activities (nmol of product formed/min per mg of protein) were 1050 for H2 evolution, 275 for N2 reduction, 980 for acetylene reduction and 4350 for ATP hydrolysis. The protein was not cold-labile. The reduced protein showed electron-paramagnetic-resonance signals in the g=1.94 region. The Mössbauer spectrum of the reduced protein consisted of a doublet at 77°K. The u.v. spectra of reduced and O2-inactivated proteins were identical, and inactivation by O2 generally increased the absorbance in the visible region and resulted in a shoulder at 460nm. The circular-dichroism spectra exhibited a negative trough at 220nm and inactivation by O2 decreased the depth of the trough. 5. The reduction of N2 and acetylene, and H2 evolution, were maximal at a 1:1 molar ratio of the Fe-containing protein to the Mo–Fe-containing protein; excess of the Mo–Fe-containing protein was inhibitory. All reductions were accompanied by H2 evolution. The combined proteins had no ATP-independent hydrogenase activity. ImagesPLATE 1Fig. 2. PMID:4344006

Eady, R. R.; Smith, B. E.; Cook, K. A.; Postgate, J. R.

1972-01-01

217

Structural modifications and antimicrobial activity of N-cycloalkenyl-2-acylalkylidene-2,3-dihydro-1,3-benzothiazoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of N-cycloalkenyl-2-acylalkylidene-2,3-dihydro-1,3-benzothiazoles 5a–j, N-cycloalkyl-2-acylalkylidene-2,3-dihydro-1,3-benzothiazoles 8a–e, and N-alkyl-2-acylalkylidene-2,3-dihydro-1,3-benzothiazoles 8f–h, were synthesized and tested for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities against four gram-positive and five gram-negative bacteria (Bacillus subtilis 6633, Enterococcus faecalis 29212, Staphylococcus aureus 6538, Staphylococcus aureus 25923, Escherichia coli 25922, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus a1, A. calcoaceticus a2, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27835, Klebsiella oxytoca 49131), four yeast-like fungi and one

Andrea Latrofa; Massimo Franco; Angela Lopedota; Antonio Rosato; Dora Carone; Cesare Vitali

2005-01-01

218

Complete Genome Sequence of the N2-Fixing Broad Host Range Endophyte Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and Virulence Predictions Verified in Mice  

PubMed Central

We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342. Although K. pneumoniae 342 is a member of the enteric bacteria, it serves as a model for studies of endophytic, plant-bacterial associations due to its efficient colonization of plant tissues (including maize and wheat, two of the most important crops in the world), while maintaining a mutualistic relationship that encompasses supplying organic nitrogen to the host plant. Genomic analysis examined K. pneumoniae 342 for the presence of previously identified genes from other bacteria involved in colonization of, or growth in, plants. From this set, approximately one-third were identified in K. pneumoniae 342, suggesting additional factors most likely contribute to its endophytic lifestyle. Comparative genome analyses were used to provide new insights into this question. Results included the identification of metabolic pathways and other features devoted to processing plant-derived cellulosic and aromatic compounds, and a robust complement of transport genes (15.4%), one of the highest percentages in bacterial genomes sequenced. Although virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were predicted, experiments conducted using mouse models showed pathogenicity to be attenuated in this strain. Comparative genomic analyses with the presumed human pathogen K. pneumoniae MGH78578 revealed that MGH78578 apparently cannot fix nitrogen, and the distribution of genes essential to surface attachment, secretion, transport, and regulation and signaling varied between each genome, which may indicate critical divergences between the strains that influence their preferred host ranges and lifestyles (endophytic plant associations for K. pneumoniae 342 and presumably human pathogenesis for MGH78578). Little genome information is available concerning endophytic bacteria. The K. pneumoniae 342 genome will drive new research into this less-understood, but important category of bacterial-plant host relationships, which could ultimately enhance growth and nutrition of important agricultural crops and development of plant-derived products and biofuels. PMID:18654632

Fouts, Derrick E.; Tyler, Heather L.; DeBoy, Robert T.; Daugherty, Sean; Ren, Qinghu; Badger, Jonathan H.; Durkin, Anthony S.; Huot, Heather; Shrivastava, Susmita; Kothari, Sagar; Dodson, Robert J.; Mohamoud, Yasmin; Khouri, Hoda; Roesch, Luiz F. W.; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Struve, Carsten; Triplett, Eric W.; Methe, Barbara A.

2008-01-01

219

Clinical Disease Caused by Klebsiella in 2 Unrelated Patients With Interleukin 12 Receptor ?1 Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Patients with interleukin 12 (IL-12)p40 or IL-12 receptor ?1 (IL12R?1) deficiencies are prone to develop infections caused by mycobacteria and salmonella; other infections have only been rarely observed. In this report we describe 2 unrelated patients with complete autosomal recessive IL12R?1 deficiency who suffered from sepsis attributable to Klebsiella pneumoniae. A Mexican boy suffered from disseminated bacilli Calmette-Guérin disease and infections caused by K pneumoniae and Candida albicans and had a fatal outcome. A Turkish girl living in France suffered from disseminated Nocardia nova infection and K pneumoniae sepsis. Therefore, Klebsiella infections should be considered in patients with IL12R?1 deficiency. Conversely, IL12R?1 deficiency should be considered in patients with unexplained klebsiellosis. PMID:20855390

Pedraza, Sigifredo; Lezana, Jose Luis; Samarina, Arina; Aldana, Ruth; Herrera, Maria Teresa; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Bustamante, Jacinta; Pages, Perle; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Picard, Capucine

2010-01-01

220

Effect of Methionine Sulfoximine and Methionine Sulfone on Glutamate Synthesis in Klebsiella aerogenes  

PubMed Central

At least two pathways exist in Klebsiella aerogenes for glutamate synthesis. A mutant blocked in one pathway due to the loss of glutamate dehydrogenase (gltD) does not require glutamate and has the same growth characteristics as the parent strain in most media; however, its growth is inhibited by the analogues methionine sulfoximine and methionine sulfone. Wild-type Klebsiella is resistant to 0.1 M methionine sulfoximine or methionine sulfone, whereas the gltD mutant is sensitive to 1 mM concentrations. Either glutamate or glutamine is effective in overcoming this inhibition. Activities of both glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthetase, two enzymes involved in the second pathway of glutamate synthesis, are inhibited by methionine sulfoximine and methionine sulfone. The primary effect of methionine sulfoximine appears to be the prevention of glutamine production necessary for subsequent glutamate synthesis via glutamate synthetase enzyme. PMID:4145197

Brenchley, Jean E.

1973-01-01

221

Correlation between Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying pLVPK-derived loci and abscess formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae-caused liver abscess (KLA) is an emerging infectious disease. However, factors other than K1-specific loci that contribute\\u000a to the pathogenesis of this disease have not been identified. pLVPK is a 219,385-bp plasmid of K. pneumoniae CG43, an invasive K2 strain associated with KLA. We aimed in this study to evaluate the involvement of pLVPK in K. pneumoniae virulence and

H.-L. Tang; M.-K. Chiang; W.-J. Liou; Y.-T. Chen; H.-L. Peng; C.-S. Chiou; K.-S. Liu; M.-C. Lu; K.-C. Tung; Y.-C. Lai

2010-01-01

222

Activity of Imipenem against Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilms In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Encapsulated Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged as one of the most clinically relevant and more frequently encountered opportunistic pathogens in combat wounds as the result of nosocomial infection. In this report, we show that imipenem displayed potent activity against established K. pneumoniae biofilms under both static and flow conditions in vitro. Using a rabbit ear model, we also demonstrated that imipenem was highly effective against preformed K. pneumoniae biofilms in wounds. PMID:24247132

Chen, Ping; Seth, Akhil K.; Abercrombie, Johnathan J.; Mustoe, Thomas A.

2014-01-01

223

Sequential epidemic outbreaks of septicaemias by Serratia and Klebsiella species on a medical Intensive Care Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high rate of septicaemias (20%, 19% and 14%) observed in our Intensive Care Unit (ICU) during the first 3 years was due to an epidemic incidence of Serratia sp. (S) (26% during the first year) and Klebsiella sp. (K) (25% during the third) and decreased significantly in the following 6 years (mean incidence of 11%) (ppppp2=3.78, p=0.052). The large

J. L. Cortés; E. Domínguez Villota; A. Algora-Weber; C. Chamorro; M. C. Torrecilla; J. M. Mosquera

1988-01-01

224

First isolate of KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumonaie sequence type 23 from the Americas.  

PubMed

KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates mainly correspond to clonal complex 258 (CC258); however, we describe KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates belonging to invasive sequence type 23 (ST23). KPC-2 has scarcely been reported to occur in ST23, and this report describes the first isolation of this pathogen in the Americas. Acquisition of resistant markers in virulent clones could mark an evolutionary step toward the establishment of these clones as major nosocomial pathogens. PMID:25031447

Cejas, Daniela; Fernández Canigia, Liliana; Rincón Cruz, Giovanna; Elena, Alan X; Maldonado, Ivana; Gutkind, Gabriel O; Radice, Marcela A

2014-09-01

225

Multiple product inhibition and growth modeling of Clostridium butyricum and Klebsiella pneumoniae in glycerol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibition potentials of products and substrate on the growth of Clostridium butyricum and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the glycerol fermentation are examined from experimental data and with a mathematical model. Whereas the inhibition potential of externally added and self-produced 1,3-propanediol is essentially the same, butyric acid produced by the culture is more toxic than that externally added. The same seems

A.-P. Zeng; A. Ross; H. Biebl; C. Tag; B. Guenzel; W.-D. Deckwer

1994-01-01

226

Efficient production of ethanol from crude glycerol by a Klebsiella pneumoniae mutant strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mutant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, termed GEM167, was obtained by ? irradiation, in which glycerol metabolism was dramatically affected on exposure to ? rays. Levels of metabolites of the glycerol reductive pathway, 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) and 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP), were decreased in the GEM167 strain compared to a control strain, whereas the levels of metabolites derived from the oxidative pathway,

Baek-Rock Oh; Jeong-Woo Seo; Sun-Yeon Heo; Won-Kyung Hong; Lian Hua Luo; Min-ho Joe; Don-Hee Park; Chul Ho Kim

2011-01-01

227

Post-Antibiotic Effects of Cefdinir on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The post-antibiotic effects (PAEs) of a new cephalosporin, cefdinir, were determined against a range of organisms using a viable counting technique. Cefdinir exerted considerable PAEs against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, but no overall post-antibiotic inhibition of growth was detected against Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Exposure to cefdinir made the gram-negative organisms susceptible to the washing procedure used for

B. M. A. Howard; R. J. Pinney; J. T. Smith

1994-01-01

228

Molecular and physiological characterisation of a 3phytase from soil bacterium Klebsiella sp. ASR1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella sp. strain ASR1 isolated from an Indonesian rice field is able to hydrolyse myo-inositol hexakis phosphate (phytate). The phytase protein was purified and characterised as a 42 kDa protein accepting phytate, NADP and sugar phosphates as substrates. The corresponding gene (phyK) was cloned from chromosomal DNA using a combined approach of protein and genome analysis, and expressed in Escherichia coli.

A. Sajidan; A. Farouk; R. Greiner; P. Jungblut; E.-C. Müller; R. Borriss

2004-01-01

229

In Vivo Emergence of Tigecycline Resistance in Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Although resistance to tigecycline has been reported in surveillance studies, very few reports have described the emergence of resistance in vivo. We report two cases of patients with infections due to SHV-12-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-3 (KPC-3)-producing Escherichia coli, which developed tigecycline resistance in vivo after treatment. The reported limited experience underlines the risk of occurrence of a tigecycline MIC increase under treatment pressure. PMID:22644031

Spanu, Teresa; De Angelis, Giulia; Cipriani, Michela; Pedruzzi, Barbara; D'Inzeo, Tiziana; Cataldo, Maria Adriana; Sganga, Gabriele

2012-01-01

230

Extended broad spectrum ?-lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae including resistance to cephamycins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A plasmid-encoded ß-lactamase conferring extended broad spectrum resistance including cephamycins was identified in aKlebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated from a patient's wound. Strains harbouring the plasmid pMVP-1 were resistant to penicillins, cephalosporins of all generations (parenteral and new oral compounds) cephamycins, aztreonam, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides and to all aminoglycosides modified by AAC-(6)-I-transferase. ß-lactams still active against these strains were temocillin,

A. Bauernfeind; S. Schweighart; Y. Chong

1989-01-01

231

Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Honey is a natural substance produced by honeybees and has nutritional and therapeutic uses. In Ethiopia, honeys are used traditionally to treat wounds, respiratory infections and diarrhoea. Recent increase of drug resistant bacteria against the existing antibiotics forced investigators to search for alternative natural remedies and evaluate their potential use on scientific bases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of different types of honeys in Ethiopia which are used traditionally to treat different types of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. Methods Mueller Hinton agar (70191) diffusion and nutrient broth culture medium assays were performed to determine susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and resistant clinical isolates (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA), Escherichia coli(R) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), using honeys of Apis mellifera and stingless bees in northern and north western Ethiopia. Results Honey of the stingless bees produced the highest mean inhibition (22.27?±?3.79 mm) compared to white honey (21.0?±?2.7 mm) and yellow honey (18.0?±?2.3 mm) at 50% (v/v) concentration on all the standard and resistant strains. Stingless bees honey was found to have Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 6.25% (6.25 mg/ml) for 80% of the test organisms compared to 40% for white and yellow Apis mellifera honeys. All the honeys were found to have minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 12.5% (12.5 mg/ml) against all the test organisms. Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) was susceptible to amoxicillin, methicillin, kanamycine, tetracycline, and vancomycine standard antibiotic discs used for susceptibility tests. Similarly, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) was found susceptible for kanamycine, tetracycline and vancomycine. Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) has not been tested for amoxicillin ampicillin and methicillin. The susceptibility tests performed against Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli (R) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (R) using three of methicillin, erythromycin, ampicillin, Penicillin and amoxicillin discs were resistant. But, these drug resistant strains were susceptible to antibacterial agents found in the honeys and inhibited from 16 mm to 20.33 mm. Conclusions Honeys in Ethiopia can be used as therapeutic agents for drug resistant bacteria after pharmaceutical standardization and clinical trials. PMID:24138782

2013-01-01

232

Quantifying the clinical virulence of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing carbapenemase Klebsiella pneumoniae with a Galleria mellonella model and a pilot study to translate to patient outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies may have overestimated morbidity and mortality due to Klebsiella pneumoniae producing carbapenemase (KPC) Klebsiella pneumoniae infections because of difficulties in modeling patient comorbidities. This pilot study sought to evaluate KPC virulence by combining clinical and Galleria mellonella models in patients with K. pneumoniae blood stream infections (BSIs). Methods G. mellonella were inoculated using KPC(+) and KPC(?) isolates from these patients. Extent and rapidity of insect mortality was analyzed. Patients were stratified by KPC BSI status. Clinical outcomes of mortality and length of stay post-infection for survivors (LOS) were analyzed. Median virulence scores calculated from the insect studies were imputed in the clinical model. Results The in-vivo model revealed greater mortality in KPC(?) isolates (p?

2014-01-01

233

Prevalence of ESBL-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates in Tertiary Care Hospital.  

PubMed

Extended-spectrum ? lactamases (ESBLs) continue to be a major challenge in clinical setups world over, conferring resistance to the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. An attempt was made to study the prevalence of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates in a tertiary care hospital in Kurnool. A total of hundred collected isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae was studied for their susceptibility patterns to various antibiotics and detection of ESBL producers by double disc synergy test (DDST) and phenotypic confirmatory disc diffusion test (PCDDT). Of the 100 isolates tested for their antibiogram, 61% isolates have shown susceptibility to 3rd-generation cepholosporins and 39% were resistant. Amoxycillin showed the highest percentage of resistance followed by tetracyclins and cotrimoxazole. Among 39 resistant isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 17 were ESBL producers detected by DDST and PCDDT. ESBL producers were more in the hospital isolates (28%) compared to community isolates (6%). Maximum percentage of ESBL producers were noticed from blood sample with 57.14%. In the present study, a large number of isolates were found to be multidrug resistant and ESBL producers. PCDDT was found to be better than DDST in the detection of ESBLs. Continued monitoring of drug resistance is necessary in clinical settings for proper disease management. PMID:23724303

Sarojamma, Vemula; Ramakrishna, Vadde

2011-01-01

234

Prevalence of ESBL-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates in Tertiary Care Hospital  

PubMed Central

Extended-spectrum ? lactamases (ESBLs) continue to be a major challenge in clinical setups world over, conferring resistance to the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. An attempt was made to study the prevalence of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates in a tertiary care hospital in Kurnool. A total of hundred collected isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae was studied for their susceptibility patterns to various antibiotics and detection of ESBL producers by double disc synergy test (DDST) and phenotypic confirmatory disc diffusion test (PCDDT). Of the 100 isolates tested for their antibiogram, 61% isolates have shown susceptibility to 3rd-generation cepholosporins and 39% were resistant. Amoxycillin showed the highest percentage of resistance followed by tetracyclins and cotrimoxazole. Among 39 resistant isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 17 were ESBL producers detected by DDST and PCDDT. ESBL producers were more in the hospital isolates (28%) compared to community isolates (6%). Maximum percentage of ESBL producers were noticed from blood sample with 57.14%. In the present study, a large number of isolates were found to be multidrug resistant and ESBL producers. PCDDT was found to be better than DDST in the detection of ESBLs. Continued monitoring of drug resistance is necessary in clinical settings for proper disease management. PMID:23724303

Sarojamma, Vemula; Ramakrishna, Vadde

2011-01-01

235

Endogenous Klebsiella Endophthalmitis Associated with Liver Abscess: First Case Report from Iran  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the first case of endogenous Klebsiella endophthalmitis associated with liver abscess in Iran. Case Report A 79-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to severe pain and visual loss in the left eye. On physical examination, conjunctival hyperemia, corneal edema, hypopyon and severe vitreous cellular reaction were identified in the left eye; however, yellowish conjunctival discoloration was more apparent in the right eye. Abdominal CT scan showed a right liver lobe abscess that was confirmed by sonographically guided percutaneous liver mass biopsy. Blood, vitreous and liver mass aspirate cultures revealed Klebsiella pneumoniae growth. The patient was thus diagnosed with endogenous Klebsiella endophthalmitis secondary to bacteremia associated with liver abscess. Conclusion This report suggests that, rather than being confined to Taiwan, endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to a liver abscess due to K. pneumoniae may be a global problem. Therefore, physicians should be aware of the possibility of endophthalmitis whenever a patient with K. pneumoniae liver abscess complains of ocular symptoms. PMID:21532995

Dehghani, A.R.; Masjedi, A.; Fazel, F.; Ghanbari, H.; Akhlaghi, M.; Karbasi, N.

2011-01-01

236

wzi Gene Sequencing, a Rapid Method for Determination of Capsular Type for Klebsiella Strains  

PubMed Central

Pathogens of the genus Klebsiella have been classified into distinct capsular (K) types for nearly a century. K typing of Klebsiella species still has important applications in epidemiology and clinical microbiology, but the serological method has strong practical limitations. Our objective was to evaluate the sequencing of wzi, a gene conserved in all capsular types of Klebsiella pneumoniae that codes for an outer membrane protein involved in capsule attachment to the cell surface, as a simple and rapid method for the prediction of K type. The sequencing of a 447-nucleotide region of wzi distinguished the K-type reference strains with only nine exceptions. A reference wzi sequence database was created by the inclusion of multiple strains representing K types associated with high virulence and multidrug resistance. A collection of 119 prospective clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were then analyzed in parallel by wzi sequencing and classical K typing. Whereas K typing achieved typeability for 81% and discrimination for 94.4% of the isolates, these figures were 98.1% and 98.3%, respectively, for wzi sequencing. The prediction of K type once the wzi allele was known was 94%. wzi sequencing is a rapid and simple method for the determination of the K types of most K. pneumoniae clinical isolates. PMID:24088853

Passet, Virginie; Haugaard, Anita Bjork; Babosan, Anamaria; Kassis-Chikhani, Najiby; Struve, Carsten; Decre, Dominique

2013-01-01

237

Identification and Differentiation of Carbapenemases in Klebsiella Pneumoniae: A Phenotypic Test Evaluation Study from Jaipur, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Carbapenem resistance is one of the major threats faced in antimicrobial treatment of infections caused by gram negative organisms. In recent years, carbapenem resistance has emerged in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates due to acquisition of carbapenemases which belong to Ambler class A KPC type enzymes or to Ambler class B metallo-?-lactamases (MBL). Routine lab detection of carbapenemase producing K. pneumoniae isolates is crucial, both for a therapeutic management and an efficient infection control. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 60 carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains which were isolated from various clinical samples over a period of one year (September 2010-August 2011), at a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur. Phenotypic confirmatory test was done by using discs of Meropenem alone and those with phenyl boronic acid (PBA) or Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or both, for detection of carbapenemase production and differentiation of KPC and MBL enzymes. Results: Of the 60 carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, 53 (88.33%) were found to be MBL producers, 4(6.66%) were found to be MBL and KPC co-producers and the rest of the 3(5%) isolates were negative for both MBL and KPC production, as was seen by combined disc testing. Conclusion: The combined disc test is a simple test which can be used for differentiation of carbapenemases and it can be easily incorporated in routine microbiology lab testing.

2014-01-01

238

Detection of Carbapenemase Production in Gram-negative Bacteria.  

PubMed

The greatest threat to antimicrobial treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria is the production of carbapenemases. Metallo-beta-lactamases and plasmid-mediated serine carbepenemases like Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase are threatening the utility of almost all currently available beta-lactams including carbapenems. Detection of organisms producing carbapenemases can be difficult, because their presence does not always produce a resistant phenotype on conventional disc diffusion or automated susceptibility testing methods. These enzymes are often associated with laboratory reports of false susceptibility to carbapenems which can be potentially fatal. Moreover, most laboratories do not attempt to detect carbapenemases. This may be due to the lack of availability of guidelines and procedures or lack of knowledge and expertise. Because routine susceptibility tests may be unreliable, special tests are required to detect the resistance mechanisms involved. This document describes the standard methodology for detection of various types of carbapenemases, which can be put to use by laboratories working on antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25328329

Asthana, Sonal; Mathur, Purva; Tak, Vibhor

2014-07-01

239

Assessment of pathogenic bacteria in treated graywater and irrigated soils.  

PubMed

Reuse of graywater (GW) for irrigation is recognized as a sustainable solution for water conservation. One major impediment for reuse of GW is the possible presence of pathogenic microorganisms. The presence and abundance of six pathogens and indicators were investigated in three GW recirculating vertical flow constructed wetland treatment systems and their respective irrigated yard soils. The treated GW and soils were monitored once every two months for six months using real-time quantitative PCR. As a control, samples from four soils irrigated with fresh water (FW) were similarly analyzed for pathogens and indicators. Comparable types of pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, and Shigella spp., were found in the treated GW, their corresponding irrigated soils and the FW-irrigated soils. Moreover, the abundance of these bacteria in the GW- and FW-irrigated soils was of the same order of magnitude, suggesting that the source of the pathogens cannot be established. Our results suggest that GW irrigation has no effect on the diversity and abundance of the tested pathogens and indicators in yard soils. PMID:23666359

Benami, Maya; Gross, Amit; Herzberg, Moshe; Orlofsky, Ezra; Vonshak, Ahuva; Gillor, Osnat

2013-08-01

240

Detection of Carbapenemase Production in Gram-negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The greatest threat to antimicrobial treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria is the production of carbapenemases. Metallo-beta-lactamases and plasmid-mediated serine carbepenemases like Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase are threatening the utility of almost all currently available beta-lactams including carbapenems. Detection of organisms producing carbapenemases can be difficult, because their presence does not always produce a resistant phenotype on conventional disc diffusion or automated susceptibility testing methods. These enzymes are often associated with laboratory reports of false susceptibility to carbapenems which can be potentially fatal. Moreover, most laboratories do not attempt to detect carbapenemases. This may be due to the lack of availability of guidelines and procedures or lack of knowledge and expertise. Because routine susceptibility tests may be unreliable, special tests are required to detect the resistance mechanisms involved. This document describes the standard methodology for detection of various types of carbapenemases, which can be put to use by laboratories working on antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25328329

Asthana, Sonal; Mathur, Purva; Tak, Vibhor

2014-01-01

241

In vitro growth inhibition of mastitis causing bacteria by phenolics and metal chelators  

SciTech Connect

Antimicrobial activities of three phenolic compounds and four metal chelators were tested at 0, 250, 500, and 1000 ppm in vitro against four major mastitis-causing bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pnuemoniae, and Escherichia coli. Overall, butylated hydroxyanisole and tert-butylhydroquinone showed the greatest antimicrobial activity. These phenolics were bactericidal at 250 to 500 ppm against all four bacteria tested. The butylated hydroxytoluene was bactericidal against the gram-positive bacteria but was ineffective against the coliforms. At 250 ppm, disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was bactericidal against the gram-positive bacteria but much less effective against the gram-negatives. However, diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid was more growth inhibitory than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid against the gram-negative bacteria and especially against Escherichia coli. All other compounds were generally much less effective or ineffective against all four microorganisms. Therefore, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, tert-butylhydroquinone, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid may have practical implications in the prevention or treatment of bovine mastitis.

Chew, B.P.; Tjoelker, L.W.; Tanaka, T.S.

1985-11-01

242

TSSWCB Bacteria-Related Projects  

E-print Network

of the projects are listed below. ? Peach CreekWater Quality Improvement Project ? Monitoring and Educational Programs Focused on Bacteria and Nutrient Runoff on Dairy Operations in the LeonWatershed ? Development of the Plum CreekWPP ? Impact of Proper... above Canyon Lake: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Houston Metropolitan Area: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Leon River below Proctor Lake ? Northwest Houston Area Bacteria TMDL Project ? Oso Bay and Oso Creek: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Peach...

Wythe, Kathy

2007-01-01

243

Systematics of Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, in particular green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria are actively\\u000a involved in the dissimilatory sulfur cycle by oxidizing reduced sulfur compounds. An introduction to the current state of\\u000a the systematics of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria is given here. With the introduction of 16S rDNA sequences, the consideration\\u000a of genetic relatedness of these bacteria and

Johannes F. Imhoff

244

Prevention of biofilm colonization by Gram-negative bacteria on minocycline-rifampin-impregnated catheters sequentially coated with chlorhexidine.  

PubMed

Resistant Gram-negative bacteria are increasing central-line-associated bloodstream infection threats. To better combat this, chlorhexidine (CHX) was added to minocycline-rifampin (M/R) catheters. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of CHX-M/R catheters against multidrug resistant, Gram-negative Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was tested. M/R and CHX-silver sulfadiazine (CHX/SS) catheters were used as comparators. The novel CHX-M/R catheters were significantly more effective (P < 0.0001) than CHX/SS or M/R catheters in preventing biofilm colonization and showed better antimicrobial durability. PMID:24165191

Jamal, Mohamed A; Rosenblatt, Joel S; Hachem, Ray Y; Ying, Jiang; Pravinkumar, Egbert; Nates, Joseph L; Chaftari, Anne-Marie P; Raad, Issam I

2014-01-01

245

Ice-Nucleating Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of ice-nucleating bacteria in 1974 by Maki et al., a large number of studies on the biological characteristics, ice-nucleating substance, ice nucleation gene and frost damage etc. of the bacteria have been carried out. Ice-nucleating bacteria can cause the freezing of water at relatively warm temperature (-2.3°C). Tween 20 was good substrates for ice-nucleating activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens KUIN-1. Major fatty acids of Isolate (Pseudomonas fluorescens) W-11 grown at 30°C were palmitic, cis-9-hexadecenoic and cis-11-octadecenoic which amounted to 90% of the total fatty acids. Sequence analysis shows that an ice nucleation gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens is related to the gene of Pseudomonas syringae.

Obata, Hitoshi

246

Mineralization of Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of viable and nonviable bacteria became mineralized with hydroxyapatite when implanted in dialysis bags in the peritoneal cavities of rats. The microscopic pattern of mineral deposition appeared analogous to that in the formation of oral calculus. Since nonviable organisms were mineralized at an accelerated rate, bacterial metabolic processes may not be essential for mineralization.

A. A. Rizzo; G. R. Martin; D. B. Scott; S. E. Mergenhagen

1962-01-01

247

Enteric bacteria mandibular osteomyelitis.  

PubMed

Osteomyelitis of the mandible is a relatively rare inflammatory disease that usually stems from the odontogenic polymicrobial flora of the oral cavity. We are reporting 2 unusual cases of mandibular osteomyelitis resulting from enteric bacteria infection. In one patient, abundant clinical evidence suggested a diagnosis of a chronic factitious disease, whereas in the second patient no obvious etiology was found. PMID:15897844

Scolozzi, Paolo; Lombardi, Tommaso; Edney, Timothy; Jaques, Bertrand

2005-06-01

248

Glowing Bacteria: Transformation Efficiency  

E-print Network

took up and expressed GFP after transformation. Background: Transformation efficiency is a quantitative1 Glowing Bacteria: Transformation Efficiency Purpose: To determine how well your E. coli cells. The number represents how many cells were transformed per microgram (µg) of plasmid DNA used

Rose, Michael R.

249

Aquatic Bacteria Samples  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the BP Deepwater Horizon drilling platform collapsed and sank in the Gulf of Mexico, causing one of the largest oil spills in history. One of the big dilemmas in responding to the oil spil is how to clean up the oil itself. One way currently under research is to use bacteria that ...

2010-06-14

250

Bacteria and phenoptosis.  

PubMed

Genetically programmed death of an organism, or phenoptosis, can be found not only in animals and plants, but also in bacteria. Taking into account intrapopulational relations identified in bacteria, it is easy to imagine the importance of phenoptosis in the regulation of a multicellular bacterial community in the real world of its existence. For example, autolysis of part of the population limits the spread of viral infection. Destruction of cells with damaged DNA contributes to the maintenance of low level of mutations. Phenoptosis can facilitate the exchange of genetic information in a bacterial population as a result of release of DNA from lysed cells. Bacteria use a special "language" to transmit signals in a population; it is used for coordinated regulation of gene expression. This special type of regulation of bacterial gene expression is usually active at high densities of bacteria populations, and it was named "quorum sensing" (QS). Different molecules can be used for signaling purposes. Phenoptosis, which is carried out by toxin-antitoxin systems, was found to depend on the density of the population; it requires a QS factor, which is called the extracellular death factor. The study of phenoptosis in bacteria is of great practical importance. The components that make up the systems ensuring the programmed cell death, including QS factor, may be used for the development of drugs that will activate mechanisms of phenoptosis and promote the destruction of pathogenic bacteria. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the genes encoding several key enzymes involved in apoptosis of eukaryotes, such as paracaspases and metacaspases, apoptotic ATPases, proteins containing NACHT leucine-rich repeat, and proteases similar to mitochondrial HtrA-like protease, have homologs in bacteria. Proteomics techniques have allowed for the first time to identify the proteins formed during phenoptosis that participate in orderly liquidation of Streptomyces coelicolor and Escherichia coli cells. Among these proteins enzymes have been found that are involved in the degradation of cellular macromolecules, regulatory proteins, and stress-induced proteins. Future studies involving methods of biochemistry, genetics, genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics should support a better understanding of the "mystery" of bacterial programmed cell death; this knowledge might be used to control bacterial populations. PMID:24228917

Koksharova, O A

2013-09-01

251

Phytochemistry and Preliminary Assessment of the Antibacterial Activity of Chloroform Extract of Amburana cearensis (Allem?o) A.C. Sm. against Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing Strains  

PubMed Central

The chloroform extract of the stem bark of Amburana cearensis was chemically characterized and tested for antibacterial activity.The extract was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The main compounds identified were 4-methoxy-3-methylphenol (76.7%), triciclene (3.9%), ?-pinene (1.0%), ?-pinene (2.2%), and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3.1%). Preliminary antibacterial tests were carried out against species of distinct morphophysiological characteristics: Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determinate in 96-well microplates for the chloroform extract and an analogue of themain compound identified, which was purchased commercially.We have shown that plant's extract was only inhibitory (but not bactericidal) at the maximum concentration of 6900??g/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus. Conversely, the analogue 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol produced MICs ranging from215 to 431??g/mL against all bacterial species.New antibacterial assays conducted with such chemical compound against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing strains have shown similarMICresults and minimumbactericidal concentration (MBC) of 431??g/mL.We conclude that A. cearensis is a good source of methoxy-methylphenol compounds,which could be screened for antibacterial activity againstmultiresistant bacteria fromdifferent species PMID:24772183

Sa, Mirivaldo Barros; Ralph, Maria Taciana; Nascimento, Danielle Cristina Oliveira; Ramos, Clecio Souza; Barbosa, Isvania Maria Serafin; Sa, Fabricio Bezerra; Lima-Filho, J. V.

2014-01-01

252

Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis induces memory impairment and increases pro-inflammatory host response in the central nervous system of Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis has recently become an increasingly common cause of central nervous system infection. The invasion of bacteria within the subarachnoid space stimulates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, triggering a host immune response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate memory and pro-inflammatory mediators at different times in the brains of adult Wistar rats with K. pneumoniae meningitis. The animals were sacrificed at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h after meningitis induction. The hippocampus, frontal cortex and cerebrospinal fluid were isolated to determine the cytokine, chemokine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. In the first 6 and 24 h following meningitis induction, there was a significant increase of the TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 and BDNF levels in the central nervous system. Ten days after meningitis induction, cognitive memory was evaluated using an open-field task and step-down inhibitory avoidance task. In the control group, significant differences in behaviour were observed between the training and testing sessions for both tasks, demonstrating habituation and aversive memory. However, the meningitis group did not exhibit any difference between the training and testing sessions in either task, demonstrating memory impairment. As a result of these observations, we believe that the meningitis model may be a good research tool to study the biological mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of this illness, while recognizing that animal models should be interpreted with caution before extrapolation to the clinic. PMID:24105840

Barichello, Tatiana; Simões, Lutiana R; Valvassori, Samira S; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Aveline, Paulo Eduardo D V; Dominguini, Diogo; Elias, Samuel G; Vilela, Marcia C; Quevedo, João; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

2014-01-01

253

The priB gene of Klebsiella pneumoniae encodes a 104-amino acid protein that is similar in structure and function to Escherichia coli PriB.  

PubMed

Primosome protein PriB is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that serves as an accessory factor for PriA helicase-catalyzed origin-independent reinitiation of DNA replication in bacteria. A recent report describes the identification of a novel PriB protein in Klebsiella pneumoniae that is significantly shorter than most sequenced PriB homologs. The K. pneumoniae PriB protein is proposed to comprise 55 amino acid residues, in contrast to E. coli PriB which comprises 104 amino acid residues and has a length that is typical of most sequenced PriB homologs. Here, we report results of a sequence analysis that suggests that the priB gene of K. pneumoniae encodes a 104-amino acid PriB protein, akin to its E. coli counterpart. Furthermore, we have cloned the K. pneumoniae priB gene and purified the 104-amino acid K. pneumoniae PriB protein. Gel filtration experiments reveal that the K. pneumoniae PriB protein is a dimer, and equilibrium DNA binding experiments demonstrate that K. pneumoniae PriB's single-stranded DNA-binding activity is similar to that of E. coli PriB. These results indicate that the PriB homolog of K. pneumoniae is similar in structure and in function to that of E. coli. PMID:21931731

Berg, Linda; Lopper, Matthew E

2011-01-01

254

Investigation of the antibacterial activity of a short cationic peptide against multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhimurium strains and its cytotoxicity on eukaryotic cells.  

PubMed

With the growing microbial resistance to conventional antimicrobial agents, the development of novel and alternative therapeutic strategies are vital. During recent years novel peptide antibiotics with broad spectrum activity against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria have been developed. In this study, antibacterial activity of CM11 peptide (WKLFKKILKVL-NH2), a short cecropin-melittin hybrid peptide, is evaluated against antibiotic-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhimurium as two important pathogenic bacteria. To appraise the antibacterial activity, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and bactericidal killing assay were utilized with different concentrations (2-128 mg/L) of peptide. To evaluate cytotoxic effect of peptide, viability of RAJI, Hela, SP2/0, CHO, LNCAP cell lines and primary murine macrophage cells were also investigated with MTT assay in different concentrations (3-24 and 0.5-16 mg/L, respectively). MICs of K. pneumoniae and S. typhimurium isolates were in range of 8-16 and 4-16 mg/L, respectively. In bactericidal killing assay no colonies were observed at 2X MIC for K. pneumoniae and S. typhimurium isolates after 80-90 min, respectively. Despite the fact that CM11 reveals no significant cytotoxicity on RAJI, Hela, SP2/0, and CHO cell lines beneath 6 mg/L at first 24 and 48 h, the viability of LNCAP cells are about 50 % at 3 mg/L, which indicates strong cytotoxicity of the peptide. In addition, macrophage toxicity by MTT assay showed that LD50 of CM11 peptide is 12 ?M (16 mg/L) after 48 h while in this concentration after 24 h macrophage viability was about 70 %. PMID:24323118

Moghaddam, Mehrdad Moosazadeh; Barjini, Kamal Azizi; Ramandi, Mahdi Fasihi; Amani, Jafar

2014-05-01

255

Biofunctionalization of cellulosic fibres with L-cysteine: assessment of antibacterial properties and mechanism of action against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this work is to obtain a cotton-based textile material functionalized with L-cysteine (L-cys) to achieve an antimicrobial effect with potential application in biomedical, geriatric or pediatric textiles. The binding capacity of L-cys to cotton fibres was assessed through different functionalization strategies--surface activation and exhaustion processes. A subsequent analysis of the possible antibacterial action against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed according with the Japanese International standard (JISL, 2008). To determine the mechanism of action of L-cys on the selected strains, flow cytometry was used. The results revealed that the exhaustion process was performed with success to confer bioactivity to the treated fabric, as assessed by an effective antibacterial effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and successfully linkage of L-cys was observed via FTIR with a durable effect demonstrated after the washing tests (fastness to washing). It was also observed that L-cys exerts a bacteriostatic effect against both bacterial strains, since there were alterations in the metabolic activity of the microorganisms after the application of the bioactive textile which was shown by the CTC (cyanoditolyl tetrazolium chloride) staining used in flow cytometry. This study shows a new and successful biotechnological process to develop antibacterial textiles through the functionalization of cotton fibres with L-cys which presents a broad range of applications in healthcare, since L-cys is a natural antibacterial compound, non-toxic and affects pathogenic bacteria related to hospital infections. PMID:24432376

Caldeira, Estela; Piskin, Erhan; Granadeiro, Luiza; Silva, Filomena; Gouveia, Isabel C

2013-12-01

256

Evolution of the ferric enterobactin receptor in gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

Using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of iron-deficient and replete cell envelopes, 59Fe-siderophore uptake studies, and Western immunoblots and cytofluorimetric analyses with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we surveyed a panel of gram-negative bacteria to identify outer membrane proteins that are structurally related to the Escherichia coli K-12 ferric enterobactin receptor, FepA. Antibodies within the panel identified FepA epitopes that are conserved among the majority of the bacteria tested, as well as epitopes present in only a few of the strains. In general, epitopes of FepA that are buried in the outer membrane bilayer were more conserved among gram-negative bacteria than epitopes that are exposed on the bacterial cell surface. The surface topology and tertiary structure of FepA are quite similar in E. coli and Shigella flexneri but differ in Salmonella typhimurium. Of the 18 different genera tested, 94% of the bacteria transported ferric enterobactin, including members of the previously unrecognized genera Citrobacter, Edwardsiella, Enterobacter, Haemophilus, Hafnia, Morganella, Neisseria, Proteus, Providencia, Serratia, and Yersinia. The ferric enterobactin receptor contains at least one buried epitope, recognized by MAb 2 (C. K. Murphy, V. I. Kalve, and P. E. Klebba, J. Bacteriol. 172:2736-2746, 1990), that is conserved within the structure of an iron-regulated cell envelope protein in all the bacteria that we have surveyed. With MAb 2, we identified and determined the Mr of cell envelope antigens that are immunologically related to E. coli FepA in all the gram-negative bacteria tested. Collectively, the library of anti-FepA MAbs showed unique patterns of reactivity with the different bacteria, allowing identification and discrimination of species within the following gram-negative genera: Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Edwardsiella, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Haemophilus, Hafnia, Klebsiella, Morganella, Neisseria, Proteus, Providencia, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Serratia, Shigella, Vibrio, and Yersinia. PMID:1717434

Rutz, J M; Abdullah, T; Singh, S P; Kalve, V I; Klebba, P E

1991-10-01

257

PCR-RFLP analysis of the diversity of phytate-degrading bacteria in the Tibetan Plateau.  

PubMed

Phytases play a very important role in increasing phytate digestion and reducing phosphorus pollution in the environment, and phytate-degrading bacteria have a ubiquitous distribution in the environment. Due to its extremely harsh environment, the Tibetan Plateau breeds possibly abundant, extreme microorganisms. In this research, 67 phytate-degrading bacteria were isolated from different habitats in the Tibetan Plateau. Among all isolates, 40.3% were screened from farmland, 25.3% from wetland, 4.5% from saline-alkaline soil, 7.5% from hot springs, and 22.4% from lawns, which showed that the distribution of the phytate-degrading bacteria varied with habitats. By the PCR-RFLP method, 16 different species were identified and named, 4 of which are reported for the first time as phytate-degrading bacteria, that is, Uncultured Enterococcus sp. GYPB01, Bacillaceae bacterium strain GYPB05, Endophytic bacterium strain GYPB16, and Shigella dysenteria strain GYPB22. Through the assay of phytase activity of 16 strains, Klebsiella sp. strain GYPB15 displayed the highest capability of phytase production. Through analysis of the optimum pH, the optimum temperature, and the thermal stability of enzyme from 16 strains, some especial phytate-degrading bacteria were obtained. Our findings clearly indicate a good relation between the composition of the soils from the different environments in the Tibetan Plateau and populations of cultivable phytate-degrading bacteria. Moreover, extreme harsh soils are logically the best soils in which to find some strains of phytate-degrading bacteria for exploiting in the fields of biotechnology and industry. PMID:23586748

Miao, Yu-Zhi; Xu, Hui; Fei, Bao-Jin; Qiao, Dai-Rong; Cao, Yi

2013-04-01

258

Outbreak of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae neurosurgical site infections associated with a contaminated shaving razor used for preoperative scalp shaving.  

PubMed

Between July 5 and 21, 2011, an outbreak of neurosurgical site infections with carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumonia occurred in a tertiary care hospital. The outbreak affected 7 patients. The subsequent investigation revealed that a barber's contaminated shaving razor may have caused the carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumonia outbreak. Standardized skin preparation performed by registered nurses using sterilized instruments should be emphasized. PMID:24792718

Dai, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chengfang; Ma, Xiaoling; Chang, Wenjiao; Hu, Shoukui; Jia, Hengmin; Huang, Jiaxiang; Lu, Huaiwei; Li, Hua; Zhou, Shusheng; Qiu, Guangkuo; Liu, Jiaqin

2014-07-01

259

A new variant of food poisoning: enteroinvasive Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli sepsis from a contaminated hamburger.  

PubMed

For the first time, we report Klebsiella pneumoniae as an enteroinvasive food-borne pathogen transmitted from a hamburger. A 28-year-old previously healthy African-American male ingested a portion of a hamburger from a fast food chain. Symptoms of gastroenteritis rapidly deteriorated to multiorgan failure. Blood and hamburger cultures grew Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Since Klebsiella had not previously been reported as enteroinvasive, the isolates were compared. Full biochemical profiles, antimicrobial sensitivity, plasmid profile, and toxin assay by DNA hybridization probe were completely concordant. The patient survived the episode of food-borne sepsis. Deliberate or inadvertent employee contamination of food products with feces may be a potential source of life-threatening food-borne illness. PMID:9448190

Sabota, J M; Hoppes, W L; Ziegler, J R; DuPont, H; Mathewson, J; Rutecki, G W

1998-01-01

260

Toward Repurposing Ciclopirox as an Antibiotic against Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic-resistant infections caused by gram-negative bacteria are a major healthcare concern. Repurposing drugs circumvents the time and money limitations associated with developing new antimicrobial agents needed to combat these antibiotic-resistant infections. Here we identified the off-patent antifungal agent, ciclopirox, as a candidate to repurpose for antibiotic use. To test the efficacy of ciclopirox against antibiotic-resistant pathogens, we used a curated collection of Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates that are representative of known antibiotic resistance phenotypes. We found that ciclopirox, at 5–15 µg/ml concentrations, inhibited bacterial growth regardless of the antibiotic resistance status. At these same concentrations, ciclopirox reduced growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates, but some of these pathogens required higher ciclopirox concentrations to completely block growth. To determine how ciclopirox inhibits bacterial growth, we performed an overexpression screen in E. coli. This screen revealed that galE, which encodes UDP-glucose 4-epimerase, rescued bacterial growth at otherwise restrictive ciclopirox concentrations. We found that ciclopirox does not inhibit epimerization of UDP-galactose by purified E. coli GalE; however, ?galU, ?galE, ?rfaI, or ?rfaB mutant strains all have lower ciclopirox minimum inhibitory concentrations than the parent strain. The galU, galE, rfaI, and rfaB genes all encode enzymes that use UDP-galactose or UDP-glucose for galactose metabolism and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis. Indeed, we found that ciclopirox altered LPS composition of an E. coli clinical isolate. Taken together, our data demonstrate that ciclopirox affects galactose metabolism and LPS biosynthesis, two pathways important for bacterial growth and virulence. The lack of any reported fungal resistance to ciclopirox in over twenty years of use in the clinic, its excellent safety profiles, novel target(s), and efficacy, make ciclopirox a promising potential antimicrobial agent to use against multidrug-resistant problematic gram-negative pathogens. PMID:23936064

Carlson-Banning, Kimberly M.; Chou, Andrew; Liu, Zhen; Hamill, Richard J.; Song, Yongcheng; Zechiedrich, Lynn

2013-01-01

261

Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaNDM-1 gene in orthopedic practice  

PubMed Central

Emergence and spread of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae is a cause of concern worldwide, the latest threat being New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM-1). This report is of an orthopedic case with fracture femur managed with internal fixation and bone grafting, who subsequently developed secondary infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring blaNDM-1 gene. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of imipenem was ?8 ?g/ml by E-test, suggestive of carbapenemase production. Phenotypic and further genotypic detection confirmed the presence of blaNDM-1 gene. The isolate remained susceptible only to tigecycline, colistin, and polymyxin B.

Gupta, Varsha; Bansal, Neha; Gupta, Ravi; Chander, Jagdish

2014-01-01

262

First report of KPC-2 Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Japan.  

PubMed

We investigated a novel Japanese isolate of sequence type 11 (ST11), the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2)-producing K. pneumoniae strain Kp3018, which was previously obtained from a patient treated at a Brazilian hospital. This strain was resistant to various antibiotic classes, including carbapenems, and harbored the gene blaKPC-2, which was present on the transferable plasmid of ca. 190 kb, in addition to the blaCTX-M-15 gene. Furthermore, the ca. 2.3-kb sequences (ISKpn8-blaKPC-2-ISKpn6-like), encompassing blaKPC-2, were found to be similar to those of K. pneumoniae strains from China. PMID:24566171

Saito, Ryoichi; Takahashi, Rieko; Sawabe, Etsuko; Koyano, Saho; Takahashi, Yutaka; Shima, Mari; Ushizawa, Hiroto; Fujie, Toshihide; Tosaka, Naoki; Kato, Yuko; Moriya, Kyoji; Tohda, Shuji; Tojo, Naoko; Koike, Ryuji; Kubota, Tetsuo

2014-05-01

263

SLO4, a new interferon inducer isolated from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

A product isolated from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, coded SLO4, has been shown to be effective in endogenous interferon induction in vivo in mouse when administered IP or IV, and in vitro with human leukocyte cultures. In these two systems induced interferon was defined. The inducer has not yet been characterized but seems not to belong to any components known to be interferon inducers such as viral particles, nucleic acids or endotoxins. An analytical study will be carried out to specify the constitution of this interferon inducer. PMID:2409177

Stefanos, S; Vanderhoven, C; Wietzerbin, J; Falcoff, R; Page, Y

1985-01-01

264

Microbial production of 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae using crude glycerol from biodiesel preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD) was produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae using crude glycerol obtained from biodiesel production. The 1,3-PD concentration of 51.3 g\\/l?1 on crude glycerol from alkali-catalyzed methanolysis of soybean oil was comparable to that of 53 g\\/l?1 on crude glycerol derived from a lipase-catalyzed process. The productivities of 1.7 g l?1 h?1 on crude glycerol were comparable to that of 2 g l?1 h?1 on pure glycerol. It could

Ying Mu; Hu Teng; Dai-Jia Zhang; Wei Wang; Zhi-Long Xiu

2006-01-01

265

Infection of mice by aerosols of Klebsiella pneumoniae under hyperbaric conditions.  

PubMed Central

Both the physical behavior of aerosols and survival of airborne Serratia marcescens in hyperbaric chambers with a helium-air mixture at 20 atm of pressure was approximately the same as in the system at ambient pressures. Exposure of mice to aerosols of Klebsiella pneumoniae at 1-, 2-, and 17-atm (ca. 101-, 203-, and 1,722-kPa) pressures of helium-oxygen mixture showed that the number of viable organisms constituting a 50% lethal dose was not significantly affected by the hyperbaric conditions. Images PMID:6996616

Heckly, R J; Chatigny, M A; Dimmick, R L

1980-01-01

266

The Yersinia high-pathogenicity island in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from polymicrobial infections.  

PubMed

We examined 12 pairs of strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from mixed infections in human for the presence of the Yersinia high-pathogenicity island (HPI). In one case both isolates carried the HPI, whereas in 11 cases one strain of the pair was HPI-positive. Although there were differences in the organization of the Yersinia HPI, all HPI-positive isolates were able to produce yersiniabactin. The presence of the Yersinia HPI may enhance the capability of strains involved in mixed infections to replicate in iron-deprived conditions in the host. PMID:22708350

Koczura, Ryszard; Mokracka, Joanna; Kaznowski, Adam

2012-01-01

267

KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains That Harbor AAC(6')-Ib Exhibit Intermediate Resistance to Amikacin.  

PubMed

The aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme AAC(6')-Ib is common among carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) strains. We investigated amikacin (AMK) activity against 20 AAC(6')-Ib-producing CR-Kp strains. MICs clustered at 16 to 32 ?g/ml. By the time-kill study, AMK (1× and 4× the MIC) was bactericidal against 30% and 85% of the strains, respectively. At achievable human serum concentrations, however, the majority of strains showed regrowth, suggesting that AAC(6')-Ib confers intermediate AMK resistance. AMK and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) were synergistic against 90% of the strains, indicating that the combination may overcome resistance. PMID:25288089

Bremmer, Derek N; Clancy, Cornelius J; Press, Ellen G; Almaghrabi, Reem; Chen, Liang; Doi, Yohei; Nguyen, M Hong; Shields, Ryan K

2014-12-01

268

Evaluation of methods to identify the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase in Enterobacteriaceae.  

PubMed

The Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenem (KPC) beta-lactamase occurs in Enterobacteriaceae and can confer resistance to all beta-lactam agents including carbapenems. The enzyme may confer low-level carbapenem resistance, and the failure of susceptibility methods to identify this resistance has been reported. Automated and nonautomated methods for carbapenem susceptibility were evaluated for identification of KPC-mediated resistance. Ertapenem was a more sensitive indicator of KPC resistance than meropenem and imipenem independently of the method used. Carbapenemase production could be confirmed with the modified Hodge test. PMID:17581941

Anderson, K F; Lonsway, D R; Rasheed, J K; Biddle, J; Jensen, B; McDougal, L K; Carey, R B; Thompson, A; Stocker, S; Limbago, B; Patel, J B

2007-08-01

269

Population structure of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from midwestern U.S. hospitals.  

PubMed

Genome sequencing of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from regional U.S. hospitals was used to characterize strain diversity and the bla(KPC) genetic context. A phylogeny based on core single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) supports a division of sequence type 258 (ST258) into two distinct groups. The primary differences between the groups are in the capsular polysaccharide locus (cps) and their plasmid contents. A strict association between clade and KPC variant was found. The bla(KPC) gene was found on variants of two plasmid backbones. This study indicates that highly similar K. pneumoniae subpopulations coexist within the same hospitals over time. PMID:24913165

Wright, Meredith S; Perez, Federico; Brinkac, Lauren; Jacobs, Michael R; Kaye, Keith; Cober, Eric; van Duin, David; Marshall, Steven H; Hujer, Andrea M; Rudin, Susan D; Hujer, Kristine M; Bonomo, Robert A; Adams, Mark D

2014-08-01

270

Endocarditis due to Anaerobic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and management of endocarditis due to anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobic bacteria are an uncommon but important cause of endocarditis. Most cases of anaerobic endocarditis are caused by anaerobic cocci, Propionibacterium acnes and Bacteroides fragilis group. Predisposing factors and signs and symptoms of endocarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria are similar to those seen in endocarditis with

Itzhak Brook

2002-01-01

271

Denitrification by extremely halophilic bacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extremely halophilic bacteria were isolated from widely separated sites by anaerobic enrichment in the presence of nitrate. The anaerobic growth of several of these isolates was accompanied by the production of nitrite, nitrous oxide, and dinitrogen. These results are a direct confirmation of the existence of extremely halophilic denitrifying bacteria, and suggest that such bacteria may be common inhabitants of hypersaline environments.

Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

1985-01-01

272

Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting endophytic diazotrophic bacteria from Korean rice cultivars.  

PubMed

We have isolated 576 endophytic bacteria from the leaves, stems, and roots of 10 rice cultivars and identified 12 of them as diazotrophic bacteria using a specific primer set of nif gene. Through 16S rDNA sequence analysis, nifH genes were confirmed in the two species of Penibacillus, three species of Microbacterium, three Bacillus species, and four species of Klebsiella. Rice seeds treated with these plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) showed improved plant growth, increased height and dry weight and antagonistic effects against fungal pathogens. In addition, auxin and siderophore producing ability, and phosphate solubilizing activity were studied for the possible mechanisms of plant growth promotion. Among 12 isolates tested, 10 strains have shown higher auxin producing activity, 6 isolates were confirmed as strains with high siderophore producing activity while 4 isolates turned out to have high phosphate-solubilizing activity. These results strongly suggest that the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria characterized in this study could be successfully used to promote plant growth and inducing fungal resistance in plants. PMID:23871145

Ji, Sang Hye; Gururani, Mayank Anand; Chun, Se-Chul

2014-01-20

273

Differential effects of catecholamines on in vitro growth of pathogenic bacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supplementation of minimal medium inoculated with bacterial cultures with norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, or isoproterenol resulted in marked increases in growth compared to controls. Norepinephrine and dopamine had the greatest enhancing effects on growth of cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, while epinephrine and isoproterenol also enhanced growth to a lesser extent. The growth of Escherichia coli in the presence of norepinephrine was greater than growth in the presence of the three other neurochemicals used in the study. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus was also enhanced in the presence of norepinephrine, but not to the same degree as was the growth of gram negative bacteria. Addition of culture supernatants from E. coli cultures that had been grown in the presence of norepinephrine was able to enhance the growth of K. pneumoniae. Addition of the culture supernatant fluid culture from E. coli cultures that had been grown in the presence of norepinephrine did not enhance growth of P. aeruginosa or S. aureus. Culture supernatant fluids from bacteria other than E. coli grown in the presence of norepinephrine were not able to enhance the growth of any bacteria tested. The results suggest that catecholamines can enhance growth of pathogenic bacteria, which may contribute to development of pathogenesis; however, there is no uniform effect of catecholamines on bacterial growth.

Belay, Tesfaye; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

2002-01-01

274

Genomics of cellulolytic bacteria.  

PubMed

The heterogeneous plant biomass is efficiently decomposed by the interplay of a great number of different enzymes. The enzyme systems in cellulolytic bacteria have been investigated by sequencing and bioinformatic analysis of genomes from plant biomass degrading microorganisms with valuable insights into the variety of the involved enzymes. This broadened our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of plant polymer degradation and made the enzymes applicable for modern biotechnology. A list of the truly cellulolytic bacteria described and the available genomic information was examined for proteins with cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic capability. The importance of the isolation, characterization and genomic sequencing of cellulolytic microorganisms and their usage for sustainable energy production from biomass and other residues, is emphasized. PMID:25104562

Koeck, Daniela E; Pechtl, Alexander; Zverlov, Vladimir V; Schwarz, Wolfgang H

2014-10-01

275

[Natural transformation in bacteria].  

PubMed

Transformants may be formed by some bacterial species when the growing cultures are mixed. This phenomenon caused by the DNA release from bacterial cells is called natural transformation. DNA release is most likely to be mediated by cell autolysis. Both chromosomal markers and plasmids are transferred by natural transformation. The phenomenon is reproduced while growing bacteria together in sterile soil. The DNA adsorbed on sand and other soil solid particles was more resistant to DNAse action, than the free transforming DNA. Natural transformation seems to be one of the forms of the genetic exchange in bacteria in their habitats. An indirect argument for this suggestion is perfect coordination between the different steps of transformation process, at least, in some bacterial species. PMID:2185417

Kosovich, P V; Prozorov, A A

1990-01-01

276

Exopolysaccharides from marine bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial polysaccharides represent a class of important products of growing interest for many sectors of industry. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in isolating new exopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from various extreme marine environments. Many new marine microbial EPSs with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures have been found to have potential applications in fields such as adhesives, textiles, Pharmaceuticals and medicine for anti-cancer, food additives, oil recovery and metal removal in mining and industrial waste treatments, etc This paper gives a brief summary of the information about the EPSs produced by marine bacteria, including their chemical compositions, properties and structures, together with their potential applications in industry.

Chi, Zhenming; Fang, Yan

2005-01-01

277

Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

278

Reanimation of Ancient Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Recent highly publicized experiments conducted on salt crystals taken from the Permian Salado Formation in Southeastern New Mexico have shown that some ancient crystals contain viable microorganisms trapped within fluid inclusions. Stringent geological and microbiological selection criteria were used to select crystals and conduct all sampling. This talk will focus on how each of these lines of data support the conclusion that such isolated bacteria are as old as the rock in which they are trapped. In this case, the isolated microbes are salt tolerant bacilli that grow best in media containing 8% NaCl, and respond to concentrated brines by forming spores. One of the organisms is phylogenetically related to several bacilli, but does have several unique characteristics. This talk will trace the interdisciplinary data and procedures supporting these discoveries, and describe the various isolated bacteria.

Russell Vreeland

2009-01-09

279

Bacteria, food, and cancer  

PubMed Central

Gut microbes are essential components of the human organism—helping us metabolize food into energy, produce micronutrients, and shape our immune systems. Having a particular pattern of gut microbes is also increasingly being linked to medical conditions including obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and diabetes. Recent studies now indicate that our resident intestinal bacteria may also play a critical role in determining one's risk of developing cancer, ranging from protection against cancer to promoting its initiation and progression. Gut bacteria are greatly influenced by diet and in this review we explore evidence that they may be the missing piece that explains how dietary intake influences cancer risk, and discuss possible prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:21876723

Rooks, Michelle G.

2011-01-01

280

Allolysis in bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review deals with the phenomenon of allolysis, i.e., lysis of a part of a bacterial population induced by a group of epigenetically\\u000a differentiated cells of the same species or phylotype. Allolysis is best studied in two species of gram-positive bacteria,\\u000a Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis. In S. pneumoniae, allolysis is associated with the onset of the competence stage, while

A. A. Prozorov; V. N. Danilenko

2011-01-01

281

Bacteria in Confined Spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial cells can display differentiation between several developmental pathways, from planktonic to matrix-producing, depending upon the colony conditions. We study the confinement of bacteria in hydrogels as well as in liquid-liquid double emulsion droplets and observe the growth and morphology of these colonies as a function of time and environment. Our results can give insight into the behavior of bacterial colonies in confined spaces that can have applications in the areas of food science, cosmetics, and medicine.

Wilking, Connie; Weitz, David

2010-03-01

282

Adaptive mutability in bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a common source of damage to cellular DNA, and have been implicated in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.\\u000a In bacteria, their mutagenicity appears to be mediated in part by the mutagenic SOS system and in part by SOS-independent\\u000a mechanisms. Since acrobically growing log-phase cells (which by definition are well adapted to their environment) would not\\u000a be especially

Donald G. Macphee

1999-01-01

283

Glacial Lake Hides Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article highlights the published work of a geomicrobiology research team led by Eric Gaidos from the University of Hawaii and Brian Lanoil, from the University of California, Riverside. This group reports the identification of bacteria from an Icelandic sub-glacial lake, and how the collection and description of these microorganisms immured within glacial ice and sub-surface water serve as a model in the search for extra-terrestrial life.

Peplow, Mark

2010-03-01

284

Evaluation of the NucliSENS EasyQ KPC Assay for Detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae  

PubMed Central

The NucliSENS EasyQ KPC assay (bioMérieux SA, Marcy l'Etoile, France) was compared with a routinely used phenotypic method for detection of Enterobacteriaceae producing Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-type carbapenemases, using 806 stool samples and rectal swabs. Compared with the phenotypic method, the EasyQ KPC assay had a sensitivity and specificity of 93.3% and 99.0%, respectively, in this setting, with diverse KPC producers not limited to ST258 Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:23554195

Derome, A.; Meunier, D.; Burns, P. J.; Woodford, N.; Dodgson, A. R.

2013-01-01

285

Nasopharyngeal colonization by potentially pathogenic bacteria found in healthy semi-captive wild-born chimpanzees in Uganda.  

PubMed

Information on the chimpanzee nasopharygeal colonization in captive sanctuaries and in the wild is rare. This study was undertaken to establish the nasopharygeal colonization and potential bacterial pathogens in sanctuary chimpanzees as a basis for improving chimpanzee and employee health. Nasopharygeal colonization of 39 healthy chimpanzees were analyzed by microbiological cultivation method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We report four major phyla dominated by Proteobacteria (50%), Fermicutes (35.7%), Bacteriodes (7.1%), and Cynobacteria (7.1%) in healthy semi-captive chimpanzees. Further classification based on 7-base oligomers revealed the following genera: Streptococcus, Veillonella, Neisseria, Prevotella, Kingella and unclassified Cynobacteria, Actinobacillus, Bacteriodes and Pasteurellaceae. On microbiological cultivation we were able to identify and characterize some of the bacteria to species level as Klebsiella pneumonie and Pseudomonas aeruginosa being dominant bacteria with 54.7% and 50% colonization, respectively. Of these, Streptococcus, Neisseria, Klebsiella, and Haemophillus have representatives known to potentially cause severe respiratory disease. Our data present important information on chimpanzee nasopharygeal colonization as a guide to understanding disease processes and pharmaceutical therapies required for improving the health of chimpanzees. The results from this study will guide the processes to improve procedures for routine management of sanctuary chimpanzees and use it as a basis for evaluation of future reintroduction possibilities. PMID:24395648

Mugisha, Lawrence; Köndgen, Sophie; Kaddu-Mulindwa, Deogratias; Gaffikin, Lynne; Leendertz, Fabian H

2014-02-01

286

Living bacteria in silica gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The encapsulation of enzymes within silica gels has been extensively studied during the past decade for the design of biosensors and bioreactors. Yeast spores and bacteria have also been recently immobilized within silica gels where they retain their enzymatic activity, but the problem of the long-term viability of whole cells in an inorganic matrix has never been fully addressed. It is a real challenge for the development of sol-gel processes. Generic tests have been performed to check the viability of Escherichia coli bacteria in silica gels. Surprisingly, more bacteria remain culturable in the gel than in an aqueous suspension. The metabolic activity of the bacteria towards glycolysis decreases slowly, but half of the bacteria are still viable after one month. When confined within a mineral environment, bacteria do not form colonies. The exchange of chemical signals between isolated bacteria rather than aggregates can then be studied, a point that could be very important for 'quorum sensing'.

Nassif, Nadine; Bouvet, Odile; Noelle Rager, Marie; Roux, Cécile; Coradin, Thibaud; Livage, Jacques

2002-09-01

287

Adult Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis in Qatar: clinical pattern of ten cases  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the clinical presentation, underlying diseases, antimicrobial susceptibility, treatment and outcome of Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis patients. Methods This retrospective study involved all patients with 15 years of age or older who admitted to Hamad General Hospital with culture proven Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2012. Results A total of ten cases were identified (nine males and one female). Their mean age was (43.3±12.8) years. Eight patients (80%) had nosocomial meningitis with neurosurgery being the most frequent associated condition. Fever and altered consciousness were the most frequent symptom. Cerebrospinal fluid showed elevated protein and glucose levels. Gram stain showed Gram-negative rods in 50% of cases, while positive cerebrospinal fluid culture results were found in all patients. Multidrug resistance was observed in two cases, and all patients had received appropriate empirical and definitive antibiotic treatments. The mean duration of intravenous antimicrobial treatment was (19.3±7.0) d and all patients with external ventricular drains underwent removal of the device, while in-hospital mortality was 50%. Conclusions The number of cases was too small to come up with therapeutic and prognostic conclusions. Further large-scale prospective study is needed. PMID:25183339

Khan, Fahmi Yousef; Abukhattab, Mohammed; AbuKamar, Mohammed; Anand, Deshmukh

2014-01-01

288

2,3-butanediol production from starch by engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae G31-A.  

PubMed

2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is an organic compound, which is widely used as a fuel and fuel additive and applied in chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Contemporary strategies for its economic synthesis include the development of microbial technologies that use starch as cheap and renewable feedstock. The present work encompasses the metabolic engineering of the excellent 2,3-BD producer Klebsiella pneumoniae G31. In order to perform direct starch conversion into 2,3-BD, the amyL gene encoding quite active, liquefying ?-amylase in Bacillus licheniformis was cloned under lac promoter control in the recombinant K. pneumoniae G31-A. The enhanced extracellular over-expression of amyL led to the highest extracellular amylase activity (68 U/ml) ever detected in Klebsiella. The recombinant strain was capable of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of potato starch to 2,3-BD. In SSF batch process by the use of 200 g/l starch, the amount of total diols produced was 60.9 g/l (53.8 g/l 2,3-BD and 7.1 g/l acetoin), corresponding to 0.31 g/g conversion rate. The presented results are the first to show successful starch conversion to 2,3-BD by K. pneumoniae in a one-step process. PMID:24323288

Tsvetanova, Flora; Petrova, Penka; Petrov, Kaloyan

2014-03-01

289

Biodegradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the bacterium Klebsiella jilinsis 2N3.  

PubMed

Enrichment culturing of sludge taken from an industrial wastewater treatment pond led to the identification of a bacterium (Klebsiella jilinsis H. Zhang) that degrades chlorimuron-ethyl with high efficiency. Klebsiella jilinsis strain 2N3 grows with chlorimuron-ethyl as the sole nitrogen source at the optimal temperature range of 30-35 degrees C and pH values between 6.0-7.0. In liquid medium, the degradation activity was further induced by chlorimuron-ethyl. Degradation rates followed the pesticide degradation kinetic equation at concentrations between 20 and 200 mg L(-1). Using initial concentrations of 20 and 100 mg L(-1), the degradation rates of chlorimuron-ethyl were 83.5 % and 92.5 % in 12 hours, respectively. At an initial concentration higher than 200 mg L(-1), the degradation rate decreased slightly as the concentration increased. The 2N3 strain also degraded the sulfonylurea herbicides ethametsulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, nicosulfuron, rimsulfuron, and tribenuron-methyl. This study provides scientific evidence and support for the application of K. jilinsis in bioremediation to reduce environmental pollution. PMID:20574870

Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Xianghui; Mu, Wenhui; Wang, Jiaxiu; Pan, Hongyu; Li, Yu

2010-08-01

290

Novel screening assay for in vivo selection of Klebsiella pneumoniae genes promoting gastrointestinal colonisation  

PubMed Central

Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important opportunistic pathogen causing pneumonia, sepsis and urinary tract infections. Colonisation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a key step in the development of infections; yet the specific factors important for K. pneumoniae to colonize and reside in the GI tract of the host are largely unknown. To identify K. pneumoniae genes promoting GI colonisation, a novel genomic-library-based approach was employed. Results Screening of a K. pneumoniae C3091 genomic library, expressed in E. coli strain EPI100, in a mouse model of GI colonisation led to the positive selection of five clones containing genes promoting persistent colonisation of the mouse GI tract. These included genes encoding the global response regulator ArcA; GalET of the galactose operon; and a cluster of two putative membrane-associated proteins of unknown function. Both ArcA and GalET are known to be involved in metabolic pathways in Klebsiella but may have additional biological actions beneficial to the pathogen. In support of this, GalET was found to confer decreased bile salt sensitivity to EPI100. Conclusions The present work establishes the use of genomic-library-based in vivo screening assays as a valuable tool for identification and characterization of virulence factors in K. pneumoniae and other bacterial pathogens. PMID:22967317

2012-01-01

291

Discrimination of selected species of pathogenic bacteria using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and principal components analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method, based on Raman spectroscopy, for identification of different microorganisms involved in bacterial urinary tract infections has been proposed. Spectra were collected from different bacterial colonies (Gram-negative: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae, and Gram-positive: Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp.), grown on culture medium (agar), using a Raman spectrometer with a fiber Raman probe (830 nm). Colonies were scraped from the agar surface and placed on an aluminum foil for Raman measurements. After preprocessing, spectra were submitted to a principal component analysis and Mahalanobis distance (PCA/MD) discrimination algorithm. We found that the mean Raman spectra of different bacterial species show similar bands, and S. aureus was well characterized by strong bands related to carotenoids. PCA/MD could discriminate Gram-positive bacteria with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and Gram-negative bacteria with sensitivity ranging from 58 to 88% and specificity ranging from 87% to 99%.

de Siqueira e Oliveira, Fernanda SantAna; Giana, Hector Enrique; Silveira, Landulfo

2012-10-01

292

Bacteria in the Cafeteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity from the American Museum of Natural History's family magazine series challenges kids to go on a microbe quest to solve a riddle. The online activity begins with a page of directions for how to find the missing letters of the riddle. As kids click their way around a virtual lunchroom, they are given 11 Yes/No questions asking whether the featured bacteria helps people. Along with the answer to the riddle, kids get a round of applause when they correctly answer all 11 questions.

293

Surface layers of bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Since bacteria are so small, microscopy has traditionally been used to study them as individual cells. To this end, electron microscopy has been a most powerful tool for studying bacterial surfaces; the viewing of macromolecular arrangements of some surfaces is now possible. This review compares older conventional electron-microscopic methods with new cryotechniques currently available and the results each has produced. Emphasis is not placed on the methodology but, rather, on the importance of the results in terms of our perception of the makeup and function of bacterial surfaces and their interaction with the surrounding environment. Images PMID:1723487

Beveridge, T J; Graham, L L

1991-01-01

294

Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of OXA-48-Producing Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae KP_ST11_OXA-48  

PubMed Central

We present the draft genome sequence of a blood culture isolate of OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (sequence type 11 [ST11]) obtained in the course of a hospital outbreak in Spain. Sequence analysis showed 121 genes related to antibiotic and antiseptic resistance, including blaOXA-48, which was located in an IncL/M plasmid. PMID:25081259

Villa, Jennifer; Viedma, Esther; Branas, Patricia; Mingorance, Jesus

2014-01-01

295

Pyogenic Liver Abscess with a Focus on Klebsiella pneumoniae as a Primary Pathogen: An Emerging Disease with Unique Clinical Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Pyogenic liver abscess is a common intraabdominal infection. Historically, Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been the predominant causative agent. Klebsiella liver abscess (KLA) was first reported in Taiwan and has surpassed E. coli as the number one isolate from patients with hepatic abscesses in that country and reports from other countries, including the United States, have increased. We examined the

Edith R. Lederman; Nancy F. Crum

2005-01-01

296

Emerging K1 serotype Klebsiella pneumoniae primary liver abscess: three cases presenting to a single university hospital in Norway  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message Community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae primary liver abscess (KLA) has been emerging worldwide over the past two decades and with high incidence in Asia. The presence of specific virulence characteristics is a risk factor for a syndrome with metastatic complications. This report signals an increasing emergence in Northern Europe. PMID:25356268

Holmas, Kristoffer; Fostervold, Aasmund; Stahlhut, Steen Gustav; Struve, Carsten; Holter, Jan Cato

2014-01-01

297

Antibiotic resistance and plasmid transfer capacity in biofilm formed with a CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate  

E-print Network

-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate that was identified during an outbreak involving 16 patients who had on natural surfaces, such as the teeth, heart valves and lungs, but also on indwelling medical devices, such as prosthetic joints, endoscopes and intra- venous catheters.1 Medical devices are typically contaminated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

298

The Influence of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration on the Respiration and Glucose Metabolism of Klebsiella aerogenes during Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The influence of dissolved oxygen concentration on the metabolism and respiration of growing Klebsiella aerogenes NCTC 8017 was studied by means of a continuous-flow culture technique. Different dissolved oxygen tensions (equivalent partial pressures) were obtained by varying the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase. The respiration rate (oxygen uptake rate per unit mass organism) was independent of

D. E. F. HARRISON; S. J. PIRT

1967-01-01

299

Pulmonary and Systemic Host Response to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacteremia in Normal and Immunosuppressed Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality related to bacteremic pneumonia remains high, and the role of sepsis in inflammation, pulmonary injury, and death remains unclear, mostly in leukopenic states. In the present study, the microbiology, histopathology, and host response to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae infection were deter- mined in an experimental model of bacteremia in immunocompetent and leukopenic mice. Leukocyte depletion by cyclophosphamide did

ERJIAN WANG; NATHALIE OUELLET; MARIE SIMARD; ISABELLE FILLION; YVES BERGERON; DENIS BEAUCHAMP; MICHEL G. BERGERON

2001-01-01

300

Factors associated with antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae : 1-year survey in a French university hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections. Both resistance to multiple antibiotics and the expression of virulence factors are likely to be involved in the physiopathological process. In this study, 227 isolates of K. pneumoniae collected over a 1-year period in a teaching hospital in Clermont-Ferrand, France, were investigated for their antibiotic resistance pattern and the presence

C. De Champs; C. Rich; P. Chandezon; C. Chanal; D. Sirot; C. Forestier

2004-01-01

301

Whole genome mapping of the first reported case of KPC-2-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 in Nebraska.  

PubMed

Three ertapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying bla(KPC-2) were isolated from a single patient in Nebraska over a span of 5 months. A comparative analysis of the genetic relatedness of these isolates was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and whole genome mapping. PMID:24813687

Fowler, Randal C; Scharn, Caitlyn R; Ali, Mir A; Cavalieri, Stephen J; Goering, Richard V; Hanson, Nancy D

2014-07-01

302

First Outbreak of KPC-2-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 258 in a Hospital in South Korea  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report the first outbreak of KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from three patients admitted to a neurosurgery department in a South Korean teaching hospital. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the isolates were identical to the previous KPC producers in South Korea and other countries, suggesting clonal spread. PMID:24006005

Hong, Sung Kwan; Yong, Dongeun; Kim, Kyeongmi; Hong, Sang Sook; Khosbayar, Tulgaa; Song, Wonkeun; Roh, Kyoung Ho; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

2013-01-01

303

Phg1/TM9 Proteins Control Intracellular Killing of Bacteria by Determining Cellular Levels of the Kil1 Sulfotransferase in Dictyostelium  

PubMed Central

Dictyostelium discoideum has largely been used to study phagocytosis and intracellular killing of bacteria. Previous studies have shown that Phg1A, Kil1 and Kil2 proteins are necessary for efficient intracellular killing of Klebsiella bacteria. Here we show that in phg1a KO cells, cellular levels of lysosomal glycosidases and lysozyme are decreased, and lysosomal pH is increased. Surprisingly, overexpression of Kil1 restores efficient killing in phg1a KO cells without correcting these lysosomal anomalies. Conversely, kil1 KO cells are defective for killing, but their enzymatic content and lysosomal pH are indistinguishable from WT cells. The killing defect of phg1a KO cells can be accounted for by the observation that in these cells the stability and the cellular amount of Kil1 are markedly reduced. Since Kil1 is the only sulfotransferase characterized in Dictyostelium, an (unidentified) sulfated factor, defective in both phg1a and kil1 KO cells, may play a key role in intracellular killing of Klebsiella bacteria. In addition, Phg1B plays a redundant role with Phg1A in controlling cellular amounts of Kil1 and intracellular killing. Finally, cellular levels of Kil1 are unaffected in kil2 KO cells, and Kil1 overexpression does not correct the killing defect of kil2 KO cells, suggesting that Kil2 plays a distinct role in intracellular killing. PMID:23301051

Le Coadic, Marion; Froquet, Romain; Lima, Wanessa C.; Dias, Marco; Marchetti, Anna; Cosson, Pierre

2013-01-01

304

Nitrogen control in bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen metabolism in prokaryotes involves the coordinated expression of a large number of enzymes concerned with both utilization of extracellular nitrogen sources and intracellular biosynthesis of nitrogen-containing compounds. The control of this expression is determined by the availability of fixed nitrogen to the cell and is effected by complex regulatory networks involving regulation at both the transcriptional and posttranslational levels. While the most detailed studies to date have been carried out with enteric bacteria, there is a considerable body of evidence to show that the nitrogen regulation (ntr) systems described in the enterics extend to many other genera. Furthermore, as the range of bacteria in which the phenomenon of nitrogen control is examined is being extended, new regulatory mechanisms are also being discovered. In this review, we have attempted to summarize recent research in prokaryotic nitrogen control; to show the ubiquity of the ntr system, at least in gram-negative organisms; and to identify those areas and groups of organisms about which there is much still to learn. PMID:8531888

Merrick, M J; Edwards, R A

1995-01-01

305

Can entropy save bacteria?  

E-print Network

This article presents a physical biology approach to understanding organization and segregation of bacterial chromosomes. The author uses a "piston" analogy for bacterial chromosomes in a cell, which leads to a phase diagram for the organization of two athermal chains confined in a closed geometry characterized by two length scales (length and width). When applied to rod-shaped bacteria such as Escherichia coli, this phase diagram predicts that, despite strong confinement, duplicated chromosomes will demix, i.e., there exists a primordial physical driving force for chromosome segregation. The author discusses segregation of duplicating chromosomes using the concentric-shell model, which predicts that newly synthesized DNA will be found in the periphery of the chromosome during replication. In contrast to chromosomes, these results suggest that most plasmids will be randomly distributed inside the cell because of their small sizes. An active partitioning system is therefore required for accurate segregation of low-copy number plasmids. Implications of these results are also sketched, e.g., on the role of proteins, segregation mechanisms for bacteria of diverse shapes, cell cycle of an artificial cell, and evolution.

Suckjoon Jun

2008-08-19

306

Presence of Rhapidosomes in Various Species of Bacteria and Their Morphological Characteristics1  

PubMed Central

Rod-shaped structures have been observed in cells of Pseudomonas, Photobacterium, Proteus, and Saprospira by use of the negative-contrast stain. These structures, referred to as rhapidosomes, appear to be normal components of these cells. Other bacteria including Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Bacillus, Mycobacterium, Rhodospirillum, and Hydrogenomonas genera failed to reveal these structures. The rhapidosomes of Saprospira were found to consist of two rods, one encasing a narrower, longer structure. In contrast, the rhapidosomes of Pseudomonas, Proteus, and Photobacterium were without the rigid inner structure, but were occasionally seen filled with a homogeneous material as observed by the negative stain. Ultrathin sections of Pseudomonas cells indicate that these rhapidosomes are embedded within or are in close association with the nucleoplasm. Images PMID:4965198

Yamamoto, T.

1967-01-01

307

The inhibitory effect of Zingiber corallinum Hance essential oil on drug-resistant bacteria and evaluation of its acute toxicity  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The excessive and irregular use of antibiotics could result in the generation and diffusion of drug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Zingiber corallinum Hance essential oil (ZCHO) on drug-resistant bacteria, especially on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Material/Methods Susceptibility testing was used to evaluate the effect of ZCHO on growth inhibition of drug-resistant bacteria by paper disk method. Mice orally administered with ZCHO were used to observe acute toxicity and to determine median lethal dose (LD50) of ZCHO. Broth dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ZCHO on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Results ZCHO exhibited an obvious inhibitory effect not only on gram-negative drug-resistant bacteria including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Acinetobacter baumannii, but also on gram-positive drug-resistant bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. The ZCHO containing 79% terpinen-4-ol revealed better bacteriostatic effect than ZCHO with 34% terpinen-4-ol. The LD50 of ZCHO was 1790.427 mg/kg. The MIC and MBC of ZCHO on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii were 1457.81 mg/L. Conclusions ZCHO has obvious bacteriostasis and bactericidal effects, especially against drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Therefore, ZCHO is a promising natural bioactive component with antibacterial effect and satisfactory safety due to its low toxicity. PMID:21525802

Yang, Ce; Zhou, Lin-Lin; Wang, Hai-Yan; Huang, Su-Na; Liu, Qing; Hu, Shi-Lin; Li, Ting-Rong; Chen, Yan-Bing; Jiang, Jian-Xin

2011-01-01

308

Plugging of a Model Rock System by Using Starved Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The effects of starvation on bacterial penetration through artificial rock cores were examined. Klebsiella pneumoniae was starved in a simple salts solution for a duration of up to 4 weeks. These cell suspensions were injected into sintered glass bead cores, and the resulting reductions in core permeabilities were recorded. Vegetative cell cultures of K. pneumoniae grown in a sodium citrate medium were injected into other, similar cores, and the reductions in core permeabilities were recorded. The starved cell suspensions did not completely block the core pores, whereas the vegetative cultures reduced core permeability to less than 1%. Scanning electron microscopy of core sections infiltrated with either vegetative or starved cells showed that the former produced shallow “skin” plugs and copious amounts of glycocalyx at the inlet face, whereas the latter produced very little glycocalyx and the cells were distributed evenly throughout the length of the core. The use of a DNA assay to produce a cell distribution profile showed that, compared with the vegetative cells, starved bacteria were able to penetrate deeper into the cores. This was due to the smaller size of the cells and the reduction in biofilm production. This ability of starved bacteria to penetrate further into cores than the normal-size vegetative cells can be usefully applied to selective plugging for enhanced oil recovery. To further test the suitability of starved cells for use in selective plugging, the activities of starved cells present within cores were monitored before and after nutrient stimulation. Our data indicate that with nutrient stimulation, the starved cells lose their metabolic dormancy and produce reductions in core permeability due to cell growth and polymer production. Images PMID:16347647

MacLeod, F. A.; Lappin-Scott, H. M.; Costerton, J. W.

1988-01-01

309

Predominance of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST14 carrying CTX-M-15 causing neonatal sepsis in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Klebsiella pneumoniae strains expressing ESBLs are a predominant cause of hospital acquired infections. Here we describe the molecular epidemiology of these isolates in a tertiary hospital in Tanzania, as potential pathogens for neonatal infections. Methods Between April 2009 and March 2010 all Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with phenotypic expression Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) were collected and characterized. Identification was done using in house biochemical tests in case of ambiguous results confirmation was done using API 20E. Susceptibility testing was determined using the disc diffusion method followed by specific PCR and sequencing to determine ESBL genes. Phylogenetic analysis, Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multi-Locus sequence typing (MLST) to PFGE clusters representative isolates were performed to determine clones of the isolates. Conjugation and hybridization were performed to determine the location of blaCTX-M-15 gene. Results A total of 92 non- repetitive ESBL producing K. pneumoniae representing 50.3% of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were characterized. These isolates were from blood 61 (66%), wound swab 13 (14%), urine 12 (13%) and pus 6 (7%) were analyzed. Most blood culture strains originated from neonatal unit 39/61(64%) and 22 (36%) of the blood culture isolates were from neonatal ICU. All isolates were resistant to gentamicin and 54% were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Using a similarity index of 80%, the isolates were assigned to thirteen clusters based on PFGE patterns and contained sub-clusters with identical strains indicating clonal outbreaks. Cluster X5, X7 and X8, and X9 were grouped into ST48, ST14 and ST348 respectively. Based on gyrA PCR- RFLP phylogenetic analysis all isolates were grouped as KpI. The predominant ESBL allele detected was blaCTX-M-15 which was found in 76% of isolates, followed by blaTEM-104 (19%), blaSHV-11 (3.2%) and blaTEM-176 (2%). The blaCTX-M-15 gene was located in multiple conjugative IncF plasmids ranging from 25 kb-485 kb in size. Conclusion The high prevalence of blaCTX-M-15 observed among ESBL producing K. pneumoniae in Tanzania, is possibly due to the spread of a common IncFII 145 kb plasmid and of certain clones such as ST14 and ST48. Furthermore the 485 kb plasmid detected is the largest plasmid reported to carry blaCTX-M-15 todate. PMID:24099282

2013-01-01

310

Toxicological effects of selective herbicides on plant growth promoting activities of phosphate solubilizing Klebsiella sp. strain PS19.  

PubMed

This study examines the effect of four herbicides, quizalafop-p-ethyl, clodinafop, metribuzin and glyphosate, on plant growth promoting activities like phosphate solubilization, siderophores, indole acetic acid, exo-polysaccharides, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia production by herbicide tolerant Klebsiella sp. strain PS19. The strain was isolated from mustard rhizosphere. The selected herbicides were applied two to three times at the recommended rates. Klebsiella sp. strain PS19 tolerated a concentration of 1600 ?g/ml each of quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop, and 3200 and 2800 ?g/ml of metribuzin and glyphosate, respectively. The activities of Klebsiella sp. strain PS19 observed under in vitro environment were persistent in the presence of all herbicides at lower rates. The plant growth promoting activities even-though decreased regularly, but was not lost completely, as the concentration of each herbicide was increased from the recommended to three times of higher doses. Among all herbicides, quizalafop-p-ethyl, generally, showed maximum toxicity to plant growth promoting activities of Klebsiella sp. strain PS19. As an example, 40, 80 and 120 ?g/l of quizalafop-p-ethyl added to liquid culture Pikovskaya medium, decreased phosphate solubilizing activity of strain PS19 by 93, 95 and 97%, respectively over untreated control. The study revealed that the higher rates of herbicides though decreased the plant growth promoting activity but it did not completely inhibit the metabolic activities of strain PS19. The herbicide tolerance together with growth promoting activities observed under herbicide stress suggests that Klebsiella sp. strain PS19 could be used as bacterial preparation for facilitating the growth and yields of crops even in soils polluted with herbicides. PMID:20721665

Ahemad, Munees; Saghir Khan, Md

2011-02-01

311

Antibacterial activity of the recombinant antimicrobial peptide Ib-AMP4 from Impatiens balsamina and its synergy with other antimicrobial agents against drug resistant bacteria.  

PubMed

Ib-AMP4 is an antimicrobial peptide of Impatiens balsamina (Balsaminaceae). Ib-AMP4 was produced as a recombinant peptide and in this study its antimicrobial activity against human bacterial pathogens was investigated. Ib-AMP4 was bactericidal against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria with MIC values between 0.49 and 3.5 microM in sensitive species. A genuine synergistic effect was achieved when IB-AMP4 was employed in combination with the plant monoterpene thymol against drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC) ATCC700603, or with the antibiotics vancomycin or oxacillin against Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) ATCC51299. PMID:23923648

Fan, X; Reichling, J; Wink, M

2013-07-01

312

Viable but Not Cultivable Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-studied, long-term survival mechanism employed by Gram-positive bacteria is formation of endospores. For Gram-negative\\u000a bacteria, the assumption has been that a survival state does not exist. However, a dormancy state has been described for Gram-negative\\u000a bacteria and designated as the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) strategy of nonspore-forming cells. A variety of environmental\\u000a factors are involved in induction of the

Rita R. Colwell

313

Iron storage in bacteria.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential nutrient for nearly all organisms but presents problems of toxicity, poor solubility and low availability. These problems are alleviated through the use of iron-storage proteins. Bacteria possess two types of iron-storage protein, the haem-containing bacterioferritins and the haem-free ferritins. These proteins are widespread in bacteria, with at least 39 examples known so far in eubacteria and archaebacteria. The bacterioferritins and ferritins are distantly related but retain similar structural and functional properties. Both are composed of 24 identical or similar subunits (approximately 19 kDa) that form a roughly spherical protein (approximately 450 kDa, approximately 120 A diameter) containing a large hollow centre (approximately 80 A diameter). The hollow centre acts as an iron-storage cavity with the capacity to accommodate at least 2000 iron atoms in the form of a ferric-hydroxyphosphate core. Each subunit contains a four-helix bundle which carries the active site or ferroxidase centre of the protein. The ferroxidase centres endow ferrous-iron-oxidizing activity and are able to form a di-iron species that is an intermediate in the iron uptake, oxidation and core formation process. Bacterioferritins contain up to 12 protoporphyrin IX haem groups located at the two-fold interfaces between pairs of two-fold related subunits. The role of the haem is unknown, although it may be involved in mediating iron-core reduction and iron release. Some bacterioferritins are composed of two subunit types, one conferring haem-binding ability (alpha) and the other (beta) bestowing ferroxidase activity. Bacterioferritin genes are often adjacent to genes encoding a small [2Fe-2S]-ferredoxin (bacterioferritin-associated ferredoxin or Bfd). Bfd may directly interact with bacterioferritin and could be involved in releasing iron from (or delivering iron to) bacterioferritin or other iron complexes. Some bacteria contain two bacterioferritin subunits, or two ferritin subunits, that in most cases co-assemble. Others possess both a bacterioferritin and a ferritin, while some appear to lack any type of iron-storage protein. The reason for these differences is not understood. Studies on ferritin mutants have shown that ferritin enhances growth during iron starvation and is also involved in iron accumulation in the stationary phase of growth. The ferritin of Campylobacter jejuni is involved in redox stress resistance, although this does not appear to be the case for Escherichia coli ferritin (FtnA). No phenotype has been determined for E. coli bacterioferritin mutants and the precise role of bacterioferritin in E. coli remains uncertain. PMID:9889981

Andrews, S C

1998-01-01

314

Phenotypic switching in bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial genetic networks that would implement a more general theoretical model of phenotypic switching. We will use a new cloning strategy in order to systematically assemble a large number of genetic features, such as site-specific recombination components from the R64 plasmid, which invert several coexisting DNA segments. The inversion of these segments would lead to discrete phenotypic transitions inside a living cell. These artificial phenotypic switches can be controlled precisely in experiments and may serve as a benchmark for their natural counterparts.

Merrin, Jack

315

STUDIES ON LUMINOUS BACTERIA  

PubMed Central

1. A method has been described whereby the intensity of the light of luminous bacteria may be measured in a quantitative manner. 2. It is pointed out that the temperature coefficients for light intensity do not follow the van't Hoff rule, but are higher and vary with each 10° temperature interval. 3. From a comparison with other data it is found that the process is not a simple one, but that the observed curve is the resultant of several reactions which proceed simultaneously. 4. The discrepancies in the temperature coefficients in the neighborhood of the "optimum temperature" may be due to a process of coagulation of the colloidal particles of the enzyme. This coagulation will tend to cause a deviation of the curve away from that normal for chemical reactions. PMID:19872179

Morrison, Thomas F.

1925-01-01

316

Bacteriophages of methanotrophic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Bacteriophages of methanotrophic bacteria have been found in 16 out of 88 studied samples (underground waters, pond water, soil, gas and oil installation waters, fermentor cultural fluids, bacterial paste, and rumen of cattle) taken in different geographic zones of the Soviet Union. Altogether, 23 phage strains were isolated. By fine structure, the phages were divided into two types (with very short or long noncontractile tails); by host range and serological properties, they fell into three types. All phages had guanine- and cytosine-rich double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid consisting of common nitrogen bases. By all of the above-mentioned properties, all phages within each of the groups were completely identical to one another, but differed from phages of other groups.

Tyutikow, F.M. (All-Union Research Inst. for Genetics and Selection of Industrial Microorganisms, Moscow, USSR); Bespalova, I.A.; Rebentish, B.A.; Aleksandrushkina, N.N.; Krivisky, A.S.

1980-10-01

317

Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia: factors correlated with clinical and microbiologic outcomes.  

PubMed

We undertook a retrospective cohort study describing general outcomes and specific factors associated with positive outcomes in bacteremia due to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP). Forty-eight patients were included, of which 42% died at 30 days. Forty-two percent of patients were in septic shock at the time of the first positive blood culture, and 42% were recipients of solid organ transplants. Lack of microbiologic eradication at 7 days was independently associated with 30-day mortality. Adjunctive procedures performed for source control and microbiologic eradication at 7 days were associated with a favorable clinical response at 7 days. Time to initiation and receipt at any time of antimicrobials with in vitro activity against CRKP were not associated with improved survival. Breakthrough bacteremia occurred in 8 cases, all in patients receiving tigecycline. Our data suggest that severity of illness, rapid microbiologic eradication, and source control are crucial factors in the outcomes of patients with CRKP bacteremia. PMID:20356699

Nguyen, May; Eschenauer, Gregory A; Bryan, Monique; O'Neil, Kelly; Furuya, E Yoko; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Kubin, Christine J

2010-06-01

318

A novel bioconversion of L-fructose to L-glucose by Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

L-Fructose, which was produced from L-psicose using immobilized D-tagatose 3-epimerase, was utilized as a starting material in the preparation of an uncommon aldose-hexose, L-glucose, by cell reaction. A mutant strain, Klebsiella pneumoniae strain 40bXX, produced D-arabinose isomerase constitutively. Toluene-treated cells of the mutant strain, which were used as the source of crude D-arabinose isomerase, were employed in the conversion of L-fructose to L-glucose. Empirically, 0.35 g of L-glucose was obtained from 1.0 g of L-fructose, viz an overall yield of 35%. The product obtained was purified and identified to be L-glucose by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, and was ultimately confirmed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) spectra. PMID:16233412

Leang, Khim; Sultana, Ishrat; Takada, Goro; Izumori, Ken

2003-01-01

319

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA typing: a useful tool for rapid epidemiological typing of Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed Central

Discriminatory typing methods are invaluable in the investigation of outbreaks of infectious diseases. Single primers were used to generate randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles from Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates of various serotype and K. pneumoniae isolates from cases of sepsis at a Malaysian hospital and two English hospitals. RAPD profiles of acceptable reproducibility, a maximum of three minor band variations, were produced using a rapid DNA extraction method. RAPD typing of K. pneumoniae was shown to be as discriminatory as restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using pulsed field gel electrophoresis yet quicker and less costly. The findings suggest that RAPD typing may be a useful tool for the epidemiological typing of K. pneumoniae. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7995354

Wong, N. A.; Linton, C. J.; Jalal, H.; Millar, M. R.

1994-01-01

320

Production of 2-butanol from crude glycerol by a genetically-engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae was engineered to produce 2-butanol from crude glycerol as a sole carbon source by expressing acetolactate synthase (ilvIH), keto-acid reducto-isomerase (ilvC) and dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (ilvD) from K. pneumoniae, and ?-ketoisovalerate decarboxylase (kivd) and alcohol dehydrogenase (adhA) from Lactococcus lactis. Engineered K. pneumonia, ?ldhA/pBR-iBO (ilvIH–ilvC–ilvD–kivd–adhA), produced 2-butanol (160 mg l?1) from crude glycerol. To increase the yield of 2-butanol, we eliminated the 2,3-butanediol pathway from the recombinant strain by inactivating ?-acetolactate decarboxylase (adc). This further engineering step improved the yield of 2-butanol from 160 to 320 mg l?1. This represents the first successful attempt to produce 2-butanol from crude glycerol. PMID:24078128

Oh, Baek-Rock; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Lee, Sung-Mok; Hong, Won-Kyung; Park, Jang Min; Jung, You Ree; Kim, Dae-Hyuk; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho

2014-01-01

321

Glucosyltransferase production by Klebsiella sp. K18 and conversion of sucrose to palatinose using immobilized cells  

PubMed Central

The strain Klebsiella sp. K18 produces the enzyme glucosyltransferase and catalyses the conversion of sucrose to palatinose, an alternative sugar that presents low cariogenicity. Response Surface Methodology was successfully employed to determine the optimal concentration of culture medium components. Maximum glucosyltransferase production (21.78 U mL-1) was achieved using the optimized medium composed by sugar cane molasses (80 g L-1), bacteriological peptone (7 g L-1) and yeast extract (20 g L-1), after 8 hours of fermentation at 28°C. The conversion of sucrose to palatinose was studied utilizing immobilized cells in calcium alginate. The effects of the alginate concentration (2-4%), cell mass concentration (20-40%) and substrate concentration (25-45%) were evaluated and the yield of palatinose was approximately 62.5%. PMID:24031319

Orsi, Daniela C.; Kawaguti, Haroldo Y.; Sato, Helia H.

2009-01-01

322

Glucosyltransferase production by Klebsiella sp. K18 and conversion of sucrose to palatinose using immobilized cells.  

PubMed

The strain Klebsiella sp. K18 produces the enzyme glucosyltransferase and catalyses the conversion of sucrose to palatinose, an alternative sugar that presents low cariogenicity. Response Surface Methodology was successfully employed to determine the optimal concentration of culture medium components. Maximum glucosyltransferase production (21.78 U mL(-1)) was achieved using the optimized medium composed by sugar cane molasses (80 g L(-1)), bacteriological peptone (7 g L(-1)) and yeast extract (20 g L(-1)), after 8 hours of fermentation at 28°C. The conversion of sucrose to palatinose was studied utilizing immobilized cells in calcium alginate. The effects of the alginate concentration (2-4%), cell mass concentration (20-40%) and substrate concentration (25-45%) were evaluated and the yield of palatinose was approximately 62.5%. PMID:24031319

Orsi, Daniela C; Kawaguti, Haroldo Y; Sato, Hélia H

2009-01-01

323

Structural and kinetic insights into the mechanism of 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase from Klebsiella pneumoniae  

SciTech Connect

The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin has recently been demonstrated to proceed via two unstable intermediates and requires three separate enzymatic reactions. The second step of this reaction, the conversion of 5-hydroxyisourate (HIU) to 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline, is catalyzed by HIU hydrolase (HIUH). The high-resolution crystal structure of HIUH from the opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpHIUH) has been determined. KpHIUH is a homotetrameric protein that, based on sequence and structural similarity, belongs to the transthyretin-related protein family. In addition, the steady-state kinetic parameters for this enzyme and four active-site mutants have been measured. These data provide valuable insight into the functional roles of the active-site residues. Based upon the structural and kinetic data, a mechanism is proposed for the KpHIUH-catalyzed reaction.

French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell)

2011-07-19

324

ACHN-490, a neoglycoside with potent in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates.  

PubMed

The in vitro activity of ACHN-490, a novel aminoglycoside ("neoglycoside"), was evaluated against 102 multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, including a subset of 25 strains producing the KPC carbapenemase. MIC50 values for gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin were 8 microg/ml, 32 microg/ml, and 2 microg/ml, respectively; MIC90 values for the same antimicrobials were > or = 64 microg/ml, > or = 64 microg/ml, and 32 microg/ml, respectively. ACHN-490 showed an MIC50 of 0.5 microg/ml and an MIC90 of 1 microg/ml, which are significantly lower than those of comparator aminoglycosides. ACHN-490 represents a promising aminoglycoside for the treatment of MDR K. pneumoniae isolates, including those producing KPC beta-lactamase. PMID:19770287

Endimiani, Andrea; Hujer, Kristine M; Hujer, Andrea M; Armstrong, Eliana S; Choudhary, Yuvraj; Aggen, James B; Bonomo, Robert A

2009-10-01

325

5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase of Klebsiella pneumoniae 2. Inhibition by glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine].  

PubMed

The broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicide glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is a potent inhibitor of highly purified 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase (3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase, EC 2.5.1.19) of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The inhibition is competitive with phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) with Ki = 1 microM at pH 6.8 and non-competitive with shikimate 3-phosphate, EPSP, and inorganic phosphate. Non-herbicidal analogues of glyphosate, such as aminomethylphosphonic acid, bis-N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine and iminodiacetic acid, do not inhibit the enzyme. Inhibition of EPSP synthase by glyphosate strongly increases with increasing pH. Glyphosate protects the enzyme against inactivation by phenylglyoxal, 3-bromopyruvate, and N-ethylmaleimide. It is proposed that glyphosate binds to the PEP-binding site of EPSP synthase as a transition-state analogue of PEP. Other PEP-utilizing enzymes were not found to be subject to inhibition by glyphosate. PMID:6381057

Steinrücken, H C; Amrhein, N

1984-09-01

326

Efficient production of ethanol from crude glycerol by a Klebsiella pneumoniae mutant strain.  

PubMed

A mutant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, termed GEM167, was obtained by ? irradiation, in which glycerol metabolism was dramatically affected on exposure to ? rays. Levels of metabolites of the glycerol reductive pathway, 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) and 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP), were decreased in the GEM167 strain compared to a control strain, whereas the levels of metabolites derived from the oxidative pathway, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), ethanol, lactate, and succinate, were increased. Notably, ethanol production from glycerol was greatly enhanced upon fermentation by the mutant strain, to a maximum production level of 21.5 g/l, with a productivity of 0.93 g/l/h. Ethanol production level was further improved to 25.0 g/l upon overexpression of Zymomonas mobilis pdc and adhII genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (Adh), respectively in the mutant strain GEM167. PMID:21186120

Oh, Baek-Rock; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Hong, Won-Kyung; Luo, Lian Hua; Joe, Min-ho; Park, Don-Hee; Kim, Chul Ho

2011-02-01

327

Metabolic flux and robustness analysis of glycerol metabolism in Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

The knowledge of the mechanism of flux distribution will benefit understanding cell physiology and regulation of metabolism. In this study, the measured fluxes obtained under steady-state conditions were used to estimate intracellular fluxes and identify the robustness of branch points of the anaerobic glycerol metabolism in Klebsiella pneumoniae for the production of 1,3-propanediol by metabolic flux analysis. The biomass concentration increased as NADH(2)/NAD(+) decreased at low initial concentration and inversed at high initial glycerol concentration. The flux distribution revealed that the branch points of glycerol and dihydroxyacetonephosphate were rigid to the environmental conditions. However, the pyruvate and acetyl coenzyme A metabolisms gave cells the flexibility to regulate the energy and intermediate fluxes under various environmental conditions. Additionly, it was found that the formation rate of ethanol and the ratio of pyruvate dehydrogenase to pyruvate formate lyase appeared visible fluctuations at high glycerol uptake rate. PMID:17713793

Zhang, Qingrui; Teng, Hu; Sun, Yaqin; Xiu, Zhilong; Zeng, Anping

2008-02-01

328

Characterisation of aerobically grown non-spore-forming bacteria from paper mill pulps containing recycled fibres.  

PubMed

A total of 179 non-spore-forming bacteria aerobically growing on Nutrient Agar, Plate Count Agar or in specific enrichment conditions for salmonella, campylobacteria, listeria, yersinia or staphylococci, were isolated from 16 untreated paper mill pulps. After phenotypical screening the isolates were characterised by automated ribotyping and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. They could be divided into seven taxonomical classes representing 63 taxa (species): actinobacteria (11 species), bacilli (7), flavobacteria (3) alphaproteobacteria (10), betaproteobacteria (5), gammaproteobacteria (25) and sphingobacteria (2). Most of the gammaproteobacteria were enterobacteria, mainly species of the genera Enterobacter (7 species, 7 samples/3 mills) and Klebsiella (5 species, 6 samples/3 mills). Other commonly occurring bacteria were most closely related to Microbacterium barkeri (7 samples/3 mills), Cloacibacterium normanense (6 samples/2 mills), Pseudoxanthomonas taiwanensis (5 samples/2 mills) and Sphingobacterium composti (5 samples/1 mill). Sporadic isolates of Listeria innocua, L. monocytogenes, Enterococcus casseliflavus and Staphylococcus warneri were detected, from which only L. monocytogenes is considered to be a food pathogen. No isolates of the genera Campylobacter, Salmonella or Yersinia were detected. The detected bacteria may be harmful in process control, but the load of food pathogens with recycled fibres to paper machines is insignificant. Faecal contamination of the pulp samples was not indicated. PMID:18820960

Suihko, Maija-Liisa; Skyttä, Eija

2009-01-01

329

High diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in upper reaches of Heihe River, Northwestern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation plays a key role to water conservation in southern Qilian Mountains (Northwestern China), the upper reaches of Heihe River. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are crucial for vegetation protection because they can supply plants with nitrogen source. Nevertheless, little is known about nitrogen-fixing bacteria in this region. In present study, nifH gene clone libraries were established for detecting the difference of nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities between Potentilla parvifolia shrub and Carex alrofusca meadow in the southern Qilian Mountains. All the identified nitrogen-fixing bacterial clones belonged to Proteobacteria. At the genus level, the Azospirillum sp. was only detected in shrub soil while Thiocapsa sp., Derxiasp., Ectothiorhodospira sp., Mesorhizobium sp., Klebsiella sp., Ensifer sp., Methylocella sp. and Peseudomonas sp. were just detected in meadow soil. Shannon-Wiener index of nifH gene ranged from 1.5 to 2.8 and was higher in meadow soil than shrub soil. Contrarily, the nifH gene copies and CFUs of cultured nitrogen-fixing bacteria ranged from 0.4 × 107 to 6.9 × 107 copies g-1 soil and 0.97 × 106 to 12.78 × 106 g-1 soil, respectively. Furthermore, both of them were lower in meadow soil than shrub soil. Statistical analysis revealed that diversity and copies of nifH gene mostly correlated with aboveground biomass in shrub soil. In meadow soil, nifH gene diversity was principally affected by altitude while copies did by soil available K.

Tai, X. S.; Mao, W. L.; Liu, G. X.; Chen, T.; Zhang, W.; Wu, X. K.; Long, H. Z.; Zhang, B. G.

2013-03-01

330

Molecular phylogenetic profiling of gut-associated bacteria in larvae and adults of flesh flies.  

PubMed

Flesh flies of the genus Sarcophaga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are carrion-breeding, necrophagous insects important in medical and veterinary entomology as potential transmitters of pathogens to humans and animals. Our aim was to analyse the diversity of gut-associated bacteria in wild-caught larvae and adult flesh flies using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from cultured isolates and clone libraries revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the guts of larval and adult flesh flies. Bacteria cultured from larval and adult flesh fly guts belonged to the genera Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Budvicia, Citrobacter, Dermacoccus, Enterococcus, Ignatzschineria, Lysinibacillus, Myroides, Pasteurella, Proteus, Providencia and Staphylococcus. Phylogenetic analysis showed clone sequences of the genera Aeromonas, Bacillus, Bradyrhizobium, Citrobacter, Clostridium, Corynebacterium, Ignatzschineria, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Propionibacterium, Proteus, Providencia, Serratia, Sporosarcina, Weissella and Wohlfahrtiimonas. Species of clinically significant genera such as Ignatzschineria and Wohlfahrtiimonas spp. were detected in both larvae and adult flesh flies. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries supported culture-based results and revealed the presence of additional bacterial taxa. This study determined the diversity of gut microbiota in flesh flies, which will bolster the ability to assess microbiological risk associated with the presence of these flies. The present data thereby establish a platform for a much larger study. PMID:24805263

Gupta, A K; Rastogi, G; Nayduch, D; Sawant, S S; Bhonde, R R; Shouche, Y S

2014-12-01

331

Molecular mechanisms of ?-lactam resistance in carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

Carbapenemases are increasingly important antimicrobial resistance determinants. Little is known about the carbapenem resistance mechanisms in Sri Lanka. We examined 22 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from Sri Lanka to determine their ?-lactam resistance mechanisms. The predominant resistance mechanisms we detected in this study were OXA-181, NDM-1 carbapenemases and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase CTX-M-15. All isolates were then genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, variable-number tandem repeat sequence analysis and multilocus sequence typing, and seven distinct genotypes were observed. Five OXA-181-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were genotypically related to an isolate of Indian origin. Multilocus sequence typing found that these related isolates belong to ST-14, which has been associated with dissemination of OXA-181 from the Indian subcontinent. Other genotypes we discovered were ST-147 and ST-340, also associated with intercontinental spread of carbapenemases of suspected subcontinental origin. The major porin genes ompK35 and ompK36 from these isolates had insertions, deletions and substitutions. Some of these were exclusive to strains within single pulsotypes. We detected one ompK36 variant, ins AA134-135GD, in six ST-14- and six ST-147, blaOXA-181-positive isolates. This porin mutation was an independent predictor of high-level meropenem resistance in our entire Sri Lankan isolate collection (P=0.0030). Analysis of the Sri Lankan ST-14 and ST-147 ins AA134-135GD-positive isolates found ST-14 was more resistant to meropenem than other isolates (mean MIC: 32±0 µg ml(-1) and 20±9.47 µg ml(-1), respectively, P=0.0277). The likely international transmission of these carbapenem resistance determinants highlights the need for regional collaboration and prospective surveillance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:24855071

Hall, Jarrad M; Corea, Enoka; Sanjeewani, H D Anusha; Inglis, Timothy J J

2014-08-01

332

Resistance determinants and mobile genetic elements of an NDM-1-encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.  

PubMed

Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are emerging as a serious infectious disease challenge. These strains can accumulate many antibiotic resistance genes though horizontal transfer of genetic elements, those for ?-lactamases being of particular concern. Some ?-lactamases are active on a broad spectrum of ?-lactams including the last-resort carbapenems. The gene for the broad-spectrum and carbapenem-active metallo-?-lactamase NDM-1 is rapidly spreading. We present the complete genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, the first U.S. isolate found to encode NDM-1, and describe its repertoire of antibiotic-resistance genes and mutations, including genes for eight ?-lactamases and 15 additional antibiotic-resistance enzymes. To elucidate the evolution of this rich repertoire, the mobile elements of the genome were characterized, including four plasmids with varying degrees of conservation and mosaicism and eleven chromosomal genomic islands. One island was identified by a novel phylogenomic approach, that further indicated the cps-lps polysaccharide synthesis locus, where operon translocation and fusion was noted. Unique plasmid segments and mosaic junctions were identified. Plasmid-borne blaCTX-M-15 was transposed recently to the chromosome by ISEcp1. None of the eleven full copies of IS26, the most frequent IS element in the genome, had the expected 8-bp direct repeat of the integration target sequence, suggesting that each copy underwent homologous recombination subsequent to its last transposition event. Comparative analysis likewise indicates IS26 as a frequent recombinational junction between plasmid ancestors, and also indicates a resolvase site. In one novel use of high-throughput sequencing, homologously recombinant subpopulations of the bacterial culture were detected. In a second novel use, circular transposition intermediates were detected for the novel insertion sequence ISKpn21 of the ISNCY family, suggesting that it uses the two-step transposition mechanism of IS3. Robust genome-based phylogeny showed that a unified Klebsiella cluster contains Enterobacter aerogenes and Raoultella, suggesting the latter genus should be abandoned. PMID:24905728

Hudson, Corey M; Bent, Zachary W; Meagher, Robert J; Williams, Kelly P

2014-01-01

333

Detection and molecular characterization of Escherichia coli CTX-M-15 and Klebsiella pneumoniae SHV-12 ?-lactamases from bovine mastitis isolates in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Recent reports raised concerns about the role that farm stock may play in the dissemination of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. This study characterized the ESBLs in two Escherichia coli and three Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae isolates from cases of clinical bovine mastitis in the United Kingdom. Bacterial culture and sensitivity testing of bovine mastitic milk samples identified Gram-negative cefpodoxime-resistant isolates, which were assessed for their ESBL phenotypes. Conjugation experiments and PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT) were used for characterization of transferable plasmids. E. coli isolates belonged to sequence type 88 (ST88; determined by multilocus sequence typing) and carried blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-1, while K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae isolates carried blaSHV-12 and blaTEM-1. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-1 were carried on a conjugative plasmid in E. coli, and PBRT identified this to be an IncI1 plasmid. The resistance genes were nontransferable in K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae isolates. Moreover, in the E. coli isolates, an association of ISEcp1 and IS26 with blaCTX-M-15 was found where the IS26 element was inserted upstream of both ISEcp1 and the blaCTX-M promoter, a genetic arrangement highly similar to that described in some United Kingdom human isolates. We report the first cases in Europe of bovine mastitis due to E. coli CTX-M-15 and also of bovine mastitis due to K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae SHV-12 ?-lactamases in the United Kingdom. We also describe the genetic environment of blaCTX-M-15 and highlight the role that IncI1 plasmids may play in the spread and dissemination of ESBL genes, which have been described in both human and cattle isolates. PMID:24247146

Timofte, Dorina; Maciuca, Iuliana E; Evans, Nicholas J; Williams, Helen; Wattret, Andrew; Fick, Jenny C; Williams, Nicola J

2014-01-01

334

Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes among ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from blood cultures in Korea  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants in ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from patients at a tertiary care hospital in Korea. METHODS: A total of 102 nonduplicate isolates of ciprofloxacin-intermediate or ciprofloxacin-resistant E coli (n=80) and K pneumoniae (n=22) from blood cultures were obtained. The qnr (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS), aac(6?)-Ib-cr, qepA and oqxAB genes were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and confirmed using direct sequencing. To determine whether the PMQR-positive plasmid was horizontally transferable, conjugation experiments were performed. RESULTS: Of the 102 isolates, 81 (79.4%) had one or more PMQR genes; these consisted of 59 (73.8%) E coli and 22 (100%) K pneumoniae isolates. The qnr genes were present in 15 isolates (14.7%): qnrB4 was detected in 10.8% and qnrS1 was detected in 3.9%. The aac(6?)-Ib-cr, qepA and oqxAB genes were detected in 77.5%, 3.9% and 10.8%, respectively. In conjugation experiments, PMQR genes were successfully transferred from seven (8.6%) isolates. The range of minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin for these seven transconjugants increased to 0.5 mg/L to 1 mg/L, which was 16- to 33-fold that of the recipient E coli J53 bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: PMQR genes were highly prevalent among ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible E coli and K pneumoniae from blood cultures in the authors’ hospital. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor for the spread of PMQR genes of clinical isolates and to ensure careful antibiotic use in a hospital setting.

Yang, Hee Young; Nam, You Sun; Lee, Hee Joo

2014-01-01

335

YjcC, a c-di-GMP Phosphodiesterase Protein, Regulates the Oxidative Stress Response and Virulence of Klebsiella pneumoniae CG43  

PubMed Central

This study shows that the expression of yjcC, an in vivo expression (IVE) gene, and the stress response regulatory genes soxR, soxS, and rpoS are paraquat inducible in Klebsiella pneumoniae CG43. The deletion of rpoS or soxRS decreased yjcC expression, implying an RpoS- or SoxRS-dependent control. After paraquat or H2O2 treatment, the deletion of yjcC reduced bacterial survival. These effects could be complemented by introducing the ?yjcC mutant with the YjcC-expression plasmid pJR1. The recombinant protein containing only the YjcC-EAL domain exhibited phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity; overexpression of yjcC has lower levels of cyclic di-GMP. The yjcC deletion mutant also exhibited increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, oxidation damage, and oxidative stress scavenging activity. In addition, the yjcC deletion reduced capsular polysaccharide production in the bacteria, but increased the LD50 in mice, biofilm formation, and type 3 fimbriae major pilin MrkA production. Finally, a comparative transcriptome analysis showed 34 upregulated and 29 downregulated genes with the increased production of YjcC. The activated gene products include glutaredoxin I, thioredoxin, heat shock proteins, chaperone, and MrkHI, and proteins for energy metabolism (transporters, cell surface structure, and transcriptional regulation). In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that YjcC positively regulates the oxidative stress response and mouse virulence but negatively affects the biofilm formation and type 3 fimbriae expression by altering the c-di-GMP levels after receiving oxidative stress signaling inputs. PMID:23935824

Huang, Ching-Jou; Wang, Zhe-Chong; Huang, Hsi-Yuan; Huang, Hsien-Da; Peng, Hwei-Ling

2013-01-01

336

The pheV phenylalanine tRNA gene Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates is an integration hotspot for possible niche-adaptation genomic islands.  

PubMed

Horizontally acquired genomic islands may allow bacteria to conquer and colonize previously uncharted niches. Four Klebsiella pneumoniae tRNA gene insertion hotspots (arg6, asn34, met56, and pheV) in 101 clinical isolates derived from blood, sputum, wound, bile or urine specimens were screened by long-range PCR for the presence or absence of integrated islands. The pheV phenylalanine tRNA gene was the most frequently occupied site and harbored at least three entirely distinct types of islands: (1) KpGI-1, a 3.7 kb island coding for four proteins, three of which showed high similarity to two hypothetical proteins and a Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase in Salmonella enterica, (2) KpGI-2, a 6.4 kb island coding for five proteins including a truncated phage-like integrase, two helicase-related proteins, and a homolog of the functionally elusive Fic protein, and (3) KpGI-3, a 12.6 kb island which carried seven fimbriae-related genes, first identified in MGH78578. Consistent with the niche-adaptation hypothesis, KpGI-1-like islands which coded for the putative acetyltransferase were significantly over-represented in sputum isolates as compared to urine (P < 0.001), blood (P < 0.05) or bile (P < 0.05) derived isolates. Despite the unique nature of KpGI-2, likely homologs of orf5_KpGI-2 that coded for Fic were also found at undefined locations in six other clinical isolates, though none possessed the other KpGI-2 genes. We propose that the pheV-associated islands described in this study may contribute to fine tuning and adaptation of K. pneumoniae strains toward preferred infection and/or colonization pathways. PMID:19921332

Chen, Nan; Ou, Hong-Yu; van Aartsen, Jon Jurriaan; Jiang, XiaoFei; Li, Min; Yang, ZeHua; Wei, QuHao; Chen, XiaoYun; He, Xinyi; Deng, Zixin; Rajakumar, Kumar; Lu, Yuan

2010-03-01

337

"Silent" Dissemination of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates Bearing K. pneumoniae Carbapenemase in a Long-term Care Facility for Children and Young Adults in Northeast Ohio  

PubMed Central

Background.?Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates harboring the K. pneumoniae carbapenemase gene (blaKPC) are creating a significant healthcare threat in both acute and long-term care facilities (LTCFs). As part of a study conducted in 2004 to determine the risk of stool colonization with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant gram-negative bacteria, 12 isolates of K. pneumoniae that exhibited nonsusceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins were detected. All were gastrointestinal carriage isolates that were not associated with infection. Methods.?Reassessment of the carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations using revised 2011 Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints uncovered carbapenem resistance. To further investigate, a DNA microarray assay, PCR-sequencing of bla genes, immunoblotting, repetitive-sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. Results.?The DNA microarray detected blaKPC in all 12 isolates, and blaKPC-3 was identified by PCR amplification and sequencing of the amplicon. In addition, a blaSHV-11 gene was detected in all isolates. Immunoblotting revealed “low-level” production of the K. pneumoniae carbapenemase, and rep-PCR indicated that all blaKPC-3-positive K. pneumoniae strains were genetically related (?98% similar). According to MLST, all isolates belonged to sequence type 36. This sequence type has not been previously linked with blaKPC carriage. Plasmids from 3 representative isolates readily transferred the blaKPC-3 to Escherichia coli J-53 recipients. Conclusions.?Our findings reveal the “silent” dissemination of blaKPC-3 as part of Tn4401b on a mobile plasmid in Northeast Ohio nearly a decade ago and establish the first report, to our knowledge, of K. pneumoniae containing blaKPC-3 in an LTCF caring for neurologically impaired children and young adults. PMID:22492318

Viau, Roberto A.; Hujer, Andrea M.; Marshall, Steven H.; Perez, Federico; Hujer, Kristine M.; Briceno, David F.; Dul, Michael; Jacobs, Michael R.; Grossberg, Richard; Toltzis, Philip

2012-01-01

338

Wolbachia Bacteria of Filarial Nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding that the intracellular bacteria of filarial nematodes are related to the Wolbachia symbionts of arthropods has generated great interest. Here, Mark Taylor and Achim Hoerauf review recent studies by several groups on the structure, distribution and phylogeny of these endosymbionts, and discuss the potential role for these bacteria in filarial disease and as a target for chemotherapy.

M. J Taylor; A Hoerauf

1999-01-01

339

Periodontitis, periodontopathic bacteria and lactoferrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactoferrin (LF) is a component of saliva and is suspected to be a defense factor against oral pathogens including Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. Periodontitis is a very common oral disease caused by periodontopathic bacteria. Antimicrobial activities and other biological\\u000a effects of LF against representative periodontopathic bacteria, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia, have been widely studied. Association of

Hiroyuki Wakabayashi; Ichiro Kondo; Tetsuo Kobayashi; Koji Yamauchi; Tomohiro Toida; Keiji Iwatsuki; Hiromasa Yoshie

2010-01-01

340

Recombinational DNA Repair in Bacteria  

E-print Network

Recombinational DNA Repair in Bacteria: Postreplication Kevin P Rice,University of Wisconsin Recombinational DNA repair represents the primary function for homologous DNA recombination in bacteria. Most of this repair occurs at replication forks that are stalled at sites of DNA damage. Introduction Deoxyribonucleic

Cox, Michael M.

341

Evolutionary relationships among photosynthetic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the evolution of photosynthetic bacteria it is necessary to understand how the main groups within Bacteria have evolved from a common ancestor, a critical issue that has not been resolved in the past. Recent analysis of shared conserved inserts or deletions (indels) in protein sequences has provided a powerful means to resolve this long-standing problem in microbiology. Based

Radhey S. Gupta

2003-01-01

342

Acetic acid bacteria in oenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid bacteria have always been considered the bad mi- croorganisms of oenology; responsible for wine spoiling (vine- gary taint). The taxonomy and our knowledge of the metabo- lism of acetic acid bacteria are rapidly evolving, especially as new molecular biology techniques are applied to this fastidious group of microorganisms, which are still rather difficult to work with. The dramatic

A. Mas; M. J. Torija; A. González; M. Poblet; J. M. Guillamón

343

The effect of repeated episodes of bacteria-specific clinical mastitis on mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of a first and repeated cases of bacteria-specific clinical mastitis (CM) on the risk of mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows. The pathogens studied were Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Trueperella pyogenes, others, and no growth on aerobic culture. A total of 50,166 lactations were analyzed from 5 large, high-milk-producing dairy herds in New York State from 2003/2004 to 2011. Generalized linear mixed models with a Poisson error distribution were used to study the effects of parity, month of lactation, CM, calving diseases, pregnancy status, current season, and economic values on the risk of mortality and culling. Among first-lactation cows, the presence of a first CM case generally exposed cows to a greater risk of mortality in the current month (compared with the absence of a first case). This was especially acute with a first case of Klebsiella spp., where cows were 4.5 times more at risk [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7-7.6] of mortality, and with a first case of E. coli were 3.3 times more at risk (95% CI: 2.5-4.5). In first-parity cows, the risk of culling generally increased with a case of bacteria-specific CM. This was observed among cows with a first case of T. pyogenes [relative risk=10.4 (95% CI: 8.4-12.8)], a first case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=6.7 (95% CI: 5.5-8.1)], a first case of Staph. aureus [relative risk=4.8 (95% CI: 2.7-8.4)], a first case of E. coli [relative risk=3.1 (95% CI: 2.7-3.6)], and a third case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=5.0 (95% CI: 3.1-8.0)]. In general, the presence of a first or second/third case resulted in cows in parity ?2 with a greater risk of mortality. This was greatest for cows with a first case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=3.7 (95% CI: 3.3-4.3)], followed by a second/third case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk=3.2 (95% CI: 2.5-4.0)], a first case of E. coli [relative risk=3.0 (95% CI: 2.7-3.3)], and a first case of other CM [relative risk=1.8 (95% CI: 1.6-2.0)]. Among cows of parity ?2, the risk of culling was greater for cows as they progressed through lactations [i.e., cows in parity 4+ were 2.1 (95% CI: 2.0-2.2) times more likely to be culled compared with cows in lactation 2 (the baseline)]. The risk of culling dependent on the cow's characteristics can be easily calculated from the parameter estimates in the provided tables. PMID:23769361

Cha, E; Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Tauer, L W; Welcome, F L; Gröhn, Y T

2013-08-01

344

Regulatory RNAs in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

RNA regulators in bacteria are a heterogenous group of molecules that act by various mechanisms to modulate a wide range of physiological responses. One class comprises riboswitches, which are parts of the mRNAs they regulate. These leader sequences fold into structures amenable to conformational changes upon the binding of small molecules. Riboswitches thus sense and respond to the availability of various nutrients in the cell. Other small transcripts bind to proteins, among them global regulators, and antagonize their functions. The largest and most extensively studied set of small RNA regulators act through base pairing with RNAs, usually modulating the translation and stability of mRNAs. The majority of these small RNAs regulate responses to changes in environmental conditions. Finally, a recently discovered group of RNA regulators, known as the CRISPR RNAs, contain short regions of homology to bacteriophage and plasmid sequences. CRISPR RNAs interfere with bacteriophage infection and plasmid conjugation by targeting the homologous foreign DNA through an unknown mechanism. Here we discuss what is known about these RNA regulators, as well as the many intriguing questions that remain to be addressed. PMID:19239884

Waters, Lauren S.; Storz, Gisela

2011-01-01

345

Metabolic engineering of bacteria.  

PubMed

Yield and productivity are critical for the economics and viability of a bioprocess. In metabolic engineering the main objective is the increase of a target metabolite production through genetic engineering. Metabolic engineering is the practice of optimizing genetic and regulatory processes within cells to increase the production of a certain substance. In the last years, the development of recombinant DNA technology and other related technologies has provided new tools for approaching yields improvement by means of genetic manipulation of biosynthetic pathway. Industrial microorganisms like Escherichia coli, Actinomycetes, etc. have been developed as biocatalysts to provide new or to optimize existing processes for the biotechnological production of chemicals from renewable plant biomass. The factors like oxygenation, temperature and pH have been traditionally controlled and optimized in industrial fermentation in order to enhance metabolite production. Metabolic engineering of bacteria shows a great scope in industrial application as well as such technique may also have good potential to solve certain metabolic disease and environmental problems in near future. PMID:22754024

Kumar, Ravi R; Prasad, Satish

2011-07-01

346

Interactions between Diatoms and Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Summary: Diatoms and bacteria have cooccurred in common habitats for hundreds of millions of years, thus fostering specific associations and interactions with global biogeochemical consequences. Diatoms are responsible for one-fifth of the photosynthesis on Earth, while bacteria remineralize a large portion of this fixed carbon in the oceans. Through their coexistence, diatoms and bacteria cycle nutrients between oxidized and reduced states, impacting bioavailability and ultimately feeding higher trophic levels. Here we present an overview of how diatoms and bacteria interact and the implications of these interactions. We emphasize that heterotrophic bacteria in the oceans that are consistently associated with diatoms are confined to two phyla. These consistent bacterial associations result from encounter mechanisms that occur within a microscale environment surrounding a diatom cell. We review signaling mechanisms that occur in this microenvironment to pave the way for specific interactions. Finally, we discuss known interactions between diatoms and bacteria and exciting new directions and research opportunities in this field. Throughout the review, we emphasize new technological advances that will help in the discovery of new interactions. Deciphering the languages of diatoms and bacteria and how they interact will inform our understanding of the role these organisms have in shaping the ocean and how these interactions may change in future oceans. PMID:22933565

Amin, Shady A.; Parker, Micaela S.

2012-01-01

347

Magnetic Microstructure of Magnetotactic Bacteria by  

E-print Network

Magnetic Microstructure of Magnetotactic Bacteria by Electron Holography Rafal E. Dunin microstructure of magnetite nanocrys- tals in magnetotactic bacteria. The magnetite crystals were all single). For example, magnetotactic bacteria contain magnetosomes, which are intracellular, ferri- magnetic crystals

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

348

Molecular epidemiology of KPC-2- producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in Brazil: the predominance of sequence type 437.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic relatedness of 57 KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from 5 states in Brazil, during 2006-2009. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis analysis identified 10 pulsotypes. The pulsotype designated as Kp-RJ (Klebsiella pneumoniae-Rio de Janeiro) was the dominant clone found in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. Multilocus sequence typing of Kp-RJ assigned it to ST 437. Sequence types ST11, ST16, ST25, ST70, ST101, ST105, ST423, ST442, and ST443 were also identified. These results indicate the dissemination of a successful KPC-producing clone (ST437) in Brazil, which is a single locus variant of ST258. PMID:21397425

Seki, Liliane M; Pereira, Polyana S; de Souza, Maria da Penha A H; Conceição, Magda de S; Marques, Elizabeth A; Porto, Carlos Oliveira; Colnago, Elvira Maria L; Alves, Carlene de F M; Gomes, Deize; Assef, Ana Paula D A Carvalho; Samuelsen, Ørjan; Asensi, Marise D

2011-06-01

349

Profile of autoantibodies in the serum of patients with tuberculosis, klebsiella and other Gram-negative infections  

PubMed Central

Autoantibody profiles were examined in the sera of untreated patients with tuberculosis, and those with klebsiella septicaemia, and klebsiella and E. coli urinary tract infections. Rheumatoid factors of the IgM, IgA and IgG isotypes, antinuclear antibodies and antibodies to poly(ADP-ribose) were all frequently detected (generally 15-40%). In contrast, antibodies to the extractable nuclear antigens and to the organ specific antigens were unusual (generally <10%). In comparison, in a group of lupus patients IgM rheumatoid factor, anti-nuclear antibodies, antibodies to poly(ADP-ribose) and antibodies to the extractable nuclear antigens were more frequently found, but IgA and IgG rheumatoid factors and antibodies to the organ-specific antigens were present in much the same frequency. PMID:3301097

Isenberg, D. A.; Maddison, P.; Swana, G.; Skinner, R. P.; Swana, M.; Jones, M.; Addison, I.; Dudeney, C.; Shall, S.; El. Roiey, A.; Shoenfeld, Y.

1987-01-01

350

Profile of autoantibodies in the serum of patients with tuberculosis, klebsiella and other gram-negative infections.  

PubMed

Autoantibody profiles were examined in the sera of untreated patients with tuberculosis, and those with klebsiella septicaemia, and klebsiella and E. coli urinary tract infections. Rheumatoid factors of the IgM, IgA and IgG isotypes, antinuclear antibodies and antibodies to poly(ADP-ribose) were all frequently detected (generally 15-40%). In contrast, antibodies to the extractable nuclear antigens and to the organ specific antigens were unusual (generally less than 10%). In comparison, in a group of lupus patients IgM rheumatoid factor, anti-nuclear antibodies, antibodies to poly(ADP-ribose) and antibodies to the extractable nuclear antigens were more frequently found, but IgA and IgG rheumatoid factors and antibodies to the organ-specific antigens were present in much the same frequency. PMID:3301097

Isenberg, D A; Maddison, P; Swana, G; Skinner, R P; Swana, M; Jones, M; Addison, I; Dudeney, C; Shall, S; el Roiey, A

1987-03-01

351

Sampling bacteria with a laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water quality is a topic of high interest and it's getting more and more important due to climate change and the implementation of European Water Framework Directive (WFD). One point of interest here is the inflow of bacteria into a river caused by combined sewer overflows which lead untreated wastewater including bacteria directly into a river. These bacteria remain in the river for a certain time, they settle down and can be remobilised again. In our study we want to investigate these processes of sedimentation and resuspension and use the results for the development of a software module coupled with the software Flow3D. Thereby we should be able to simulate and therefore predict the water quality influenced by combined sewer overflows. Hence we need to get information about the bacteria transport and fate. We need to know about the size of the bacteria or of the bacteria clumps and the size of the particles the bacteria are attached to. The agglomerates lead to different characteristics and velocities of settlement. The timespan during this bacteria can be detected in the bulk phase depends on many factors like the intensity of UV light, turbidity of the water, the temperature of the water, if there are grazers and a lot more. The size, density and composition of the agglomerates is just a part of all these influencing factors, but it is extremely difficult to differ between the other effects if we have no information about the simple sedimentation in default of these basic information. However we have a big problem getting the data. The chaining between bacteria or bacteria and particles is not too strong, so filtering the water to get a sieving curve may destroy these connections. We did some experiments similar to PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements and evaluated the pictures with a macro written for the software ImageJ. Doing so we were able to get the concentration of bacteria in the water and collect information about the size of the bacteria. We also compared these data to samples of usual collection and filtering. The results of these laser measurements are very promising.

Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Rutschmann, Peter

2014-05-01

352

Outbreak of Infection with Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Carrying bla IMP8 in a University Medical Center in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with the transferable carbapenem-hydrolyzing metallo--lactamases, which include IMP- and VIM-type enzymes, remain extremely rare. To investigate whether IMP- or VIM-producing K. pneumoniae isolates had spread at a university medical center in Taiwan, a total of 3,458 clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae consecutively collected in 1999 and 2000 were tested by the agar diffusion method, colony hybridization, PCR,

JING-JOU YAN; WEN-CHIEN KO; SHU-HUEI TSAI; HSIU-MEI WU; JIUNN-JONG WU

353

Effects of insecticides on plant-growth-promoting activities of phosphate solubilizing rhizobacterium Klebsiella sp. strain PS19  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, four technical grade insecticides, fipronil, pyriproxyfen, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were applied at the recommended and the higher doses to investigate their effects on plant growth-promoting activities of phosphate-solubilizing Klebsiella sp. strain PS19, isolated from mustard rhizosphere. All tested insecticides displayed a concentration-dependent inhibition in plant growth promoting traits, like, inorganic phosphate solubilization, biosynthesis of phytohormones and siderophores,

Munees Ahemad; Mohammad Saghir Khan

2011-01-01

354

Overflow metabolism during anaerobic growth of Klebsiella aerogenes NCTC 418 on glycerol and dihydroxyacetone in chemostat culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella aerogenes NCTC 418 was grown anaerobically in chemostat culture with glycerol as source of carbon and energy. Glycerol-limited cultures did not ferment the carbon source with maximal efficiency but produced considerable amounts of 1,3-propanediol. The fraction of glycerol converted to this product depended on the growth rate and on the limitation: faster growing cells produced relatively more of this

H. Streekstra; M. J. Teixeira de Mattos; O. M. Neijssel; D. W. Tempest

1987-01-01

355

High concentration and productivity of 1,3-propanediol from continuous fermentation of glycerol by Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a continuous fermentation of glycerol by Klebsiella pneumoniae, a final propanediol concentration of 35.2–48.5 g l?1 and a volumetric productivity of 4.9–8.8 g l?1 h?1 can be obtained at dilution rates between 0.1 and 0.25 h?1. These results correspond to about 80–96% of the theoretical maxima under ideal conditions (no ethanol and hydrogen formation). The highest propanediol concentration achieved

K. Menzel; A.-P. Zeng; W.-D. Deckwer

1997-01-01

356

Bacteremic community-acquired pneumonia due to Klebsiella pneumoniae: Clinical and microbiological characteristics in Taiwan, 2001-2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is the major cause of community-acquired pyogenic infections in Taiwan. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of bacteremic community-acquired pneumonia due to K. pneumoniae in Taiwanese adults. METHODS: The clinical characteristics of bacteremic community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults due to K. pneumoniae were compared to those of adults with bacteremic CAP due to Streptococcus

Yi-Tsung Lin; Yuan-Yu Jeng; Te-Li Chen

2010-01-01

357

Intrapatient emergence of OXA-247: a novel carbapenemase found in a patient previously infected with OXA-163-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Two genetically related Klebsiella pneumoniae strains carrying OXA-type carbapenemases were isolated from a single patient 1 month apart. Kpn163 harboured OXA-163 and Kpn247 a new variant named OXA-247 that showed susceptibility to carbapenems and expanded-spectrum cephalosporins similar to OXA-48. Our epidemiological, biochemical and molecular results suggest the intrapatient emergence of blaOXA -247 from blaOXA -163. PMID:23402333

Gomez, S; Pasteran, F; Faccone, D; Bettiol, M; Veliz, O; De Belder, D; Rapoport, M; Gatti, B; Petroni, A; Corso, A

2013-05-01

358

Clinical microbiology of coryneform bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Coryneform bacteria are aerobically growing, asporogenous, non-partially-acid-fast, gram-positive rods of irregular morphology. Within the last few years, there has been a massive increase in the number of publications related to all aspects of their clinical microbiology. Clinical microbiologists are often confronted with making identifications within this heterogeneous group as well as with considerations of the clinical significance of such isolates. This review provides comprehensive information on the identification of coryneform bacteria and outlines recent changes in taxonomy. The following genera are covered: Corynebacterium, Turicella, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Dermabacter. Propionibacterium, Rothia, Exiguobacterium, Oerskovia, Cellulomonas, Sanguibacter, Microbacterium, Aureobacterium, "Corynebacterium aquaticum," Arcanobacterium, and Actinomyces. Case reports claiming disease associations of coryneform bacteria are critically reviewed. Minimal microbiological requirements for publications on disease associations of coryneform bacteria are proposed. PMID:8993861

Funke, G; von Graevenitz, A; Clarridge, J E; Bernard, K A

1997-01-01

359

Geobiology of marine magnetotactic bacteria  

E-print Network

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) biomineralize intracellular membrane-bound crystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4), and are abundant in the suboxic to anoxic zones of stratified marine environments worldwide. Their ...

Simmons, Sheri Lynn

2006-01-01

360

Environmental sources of fecal bacteria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This chapter provides a review of the research on environmental occurrences of faecal indicator bacteria in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic habitats under different geographic and climatic conditions, and discusses how these external sources may affect surface water quality.

Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Ishii, Satoshi

2011-01-01

361

Where Bacteria and Languages Concur  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Genetic data from human gastric bacteria provide independent support for a linguistic analysis of Pacific population dispersals.

Colin Renfrew (University of Cambridge;McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research)

2009-01-23

362

Inclusion Proteins fromother Insecticidal Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis and B. sphaericus, insecticidal bacteria that have been used widely for insect pest and vector control, is due to insecticidal protein crystals\\u000a produced during sporulation. Whereas the insecticidal crystals of these two species have been studied extensively owing to\\u000a their practical value, there are several other lesser known entomopathogenic bacteria that also produce either crystalline

Hyun-Woo Park; Brian A. Federici; Yuko Sakano

363

Evolutionary relationships among photosynthetic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the evolution of photosynthetic bacteria it is necessary to understand how the main groups within Bacteria have evolved from a common ancestor, a critical issue that has not been resolved in the past. Recent analysis of shared conserved\\u000a inserts or deletions (indels) in protein sequences has provided a powerful means to resolve this long-standing problem in\\u000a microbiology. Based

Radhey S. Gupta

2003-01-01

364

Anaerobic bacteria that dechlorinate perchloroethene.  

PubMed Central

In this study, we identified specific cultures of anaerobic bacteria that dechlorinate perchlorethene (PCE). The bacteria that significantly dechlorinated PCE were strain DCB-1, an obligate anaerobe previously shown to dechlorinate chlorobenzoate, and two strains of Methanosarcina. The rate of PCE dechlorination by DCB-1 compared favorably with reported rates of trichloroethene bio-oxidation by methanotrophs. Even higher PCE dechlorination rates were achieved when DCB-1 was grown in a methanogenic consortium. PMID:3426224

Fathepure, B Z; Nengu, J P; Boyd, S A

1987-01-01

365

MICROBIOLOGY: How Bacteria Respire Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: Some bacteria respire minerals; that is, they harvest energy from minerals through using them as electron acceptors. Many details of this respiration process have remained obscure. In her Perspective, Newman highlights the study by Lower et al., who have used a customized atomic force microscope to observe bacteria during mineral respiration.

Dianne K. Newman (California Institute of Technology;Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences)

2001-05-18

366

Bioreporter bacteria for landmine detection  

SciTech Connect

Landmines (and other UXO) gradually leak explosive chemicals into the soil at significant concentrations. Bacteria, which have adapted to scavenge low concentrations of nutrients, can detect these explosive chemicals. Uptake of these chemicals results in the triggering of specific bacterial genes. The authors have created genetically recombinant bioreporter bacteria that detect small concentrations of energetic chemicals. These bacteria are genetically engineered to produce a bioluminescent signal when they contact specific explosives. A gene for a brightly fluorescent compound can be substituted for increased sensitivity. By finding the fluorescent bacteria, you find the landmine. Detection might be accomplished using stand-off illumination of the minefield and GPS technology, which would result in greatly reduced risk to the deminers. Bioreporter technology has been proven at the laboratory scale, and will be tested under field conditions in the near future. They have created a bacterial strain that detects sub-micromolar concentrations of o- and p-nitrotoluene. Related bacterial strains were produced using standard laboratory protocols, and bioreporters of dinitrotoluene and trinitrotoluene were produced, screening for activity with the explosive compounds. Response time is dependent on the growth rate of the bacteria. Although frill signal production may require several hours, the bacteria can be applied over vast areas and scanned quickly, producing an equivalent detection speed that is very fast. This technology may be applicable to other needs, such as locating buried explosives at military and ordnance/explosive manufacturing facilities.

Burlage, R.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Youngblood, T. [Frisby Technologies, Aiken, SC (United States); Lamothe, D. [American Technologies, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States). Ordnance/Explosives Environmental Services Div.

1998-04-01

367

Oral versus intravenous antibiotics for patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess is the most common etiology of liver abscess in Singapore and much of Asia, and its incidence is increasing. Current management includes prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy, but there is limited evidence to guide oral conversion. The implicated K1/K2 capsule strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae is almost universally susceptible to ciprofloxacin, an antibiotic with high oral bioavailability. Our primary aim is to compare the efficacy of early (< one week) step-down to oral antibiotics, to continuing four weeks of intravenous antibiotics, in patients with Klebsiella liver abscess. Methods/design The study is designed as a multi-center randomized open-label active comparator-controlled non-inferiority trial, with a non-inferiority margin of 12%. Eligible participants will be inpatients over the age of 21 with a CT or ultrasound scan suggestive of a liver abscess, and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from abscess fluid or blood. Randomization into intervention or active control arms will be performed with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Participants randomized to active control will receive IV ceftriaxone 2 grams daily to complete a total of four weeks of IV antibiotics. Participants randomized to intervention will be immediately converted to oral ciprofloxacin 750 mg twice daily. At Week four, all participants will undergo abdominal imaging and be assessed for clinical response (CRP?Klebsiella liver abscess. A finding of non-inferiority may translate to the wider adoption of a more cost-effective strategy that reduces hospital length of stay and improves patient-centered outcomes and satisfaction. Trial registration Clinical trials gov NCT01723150 PMID:24176222

2013-01-01

368

The Most Common Detected Bacteria in Sputum of Patients with the Acute Exacerbation of COPD  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) may be triggered by infection with bacteria or viruses or by environmental pollutants; the cause of about one-third of exacerbations cannot be identified. Objective: To determine the most common bacteria in sputum culture of patients with AECOPD hospitalized in Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary disease and TB “Podhrastovi” in the 2012. Material and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of sputum bacterial cultures of patients with AECOPD treated in the Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary disease and TB “Podhrastovi” during 2012 .year. Each patient was required to give two sputum for bacterial examination. Each patient was treated with antibiotics prior to admission in Clinic “Podhrastovi”. The results of sputum bacterial culture findings are expressed in absolute number and percentage of examined patients. Results: In 2012, 75 patients with AECOPD were treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary disease and TB“Podhrastovi”. 44 (58.66%) of patients had normal –nonpathogenic – usual bacterial flora isolated in sputum cultures, 31 (41.34%) had a pathogen bacteria in sputum culture as follows: 7 had Streptoccocus pneumoniae, 8 had Klebsiella pneumoniae (2 with Streptococcus pneumoniae, one with Acinetobacter baumani) ,4 Escherichia colli, others are one or two cases with other bacteria. Conclusion: Bacterial airway infections play a great role in many, but not in all, of cases of AECOPD. So there is the need to do a sputum bacterial culture examination in each patient with AECOPD and with appropriate antibiotics to contribute to curing of them. PMID:24511262

Cukic, Vesna

2013-01-01

369

Lipocalin 2 Is Required for Pulmonary Host Defense against Klebsiella Infection1  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial proteins comprise a significant component of the acute innate immune response to infection. They are induced by pattern recognition receptors as well as by cytokines of the innate and adaptive immune pathways and play important roles in infection control and immunomodulatory homeostasis. Lipocalin 2 (siderocalin, NGAL, 24p3), a siderophore-binding antimicrobial protein, is critical for control of systemic infection with Escherichia coli; however, its role in mucosal immunity in the respiratory tract is unknown. In this study, we found that lipocalin 2 is rapidly and robustly induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae infection and is TLR4 dependent. IL-1? and IL-17 also individually induce lipocalin 2. Mucosal administration of IL-1? alone could reconstitute the lipocalin 2 deficiency in TLR4 knockout animals and rescue them from infection. Lipocalin 2-deficient animals have impaired lung bacterial clearance in this model and mucosal reconstitution of lipocalin 2 protein in these animals resulted in rescue of this phenotype. We conclude that lipocalin 2 is a crucial component of mucosal immune defense against pulmonary infection with K. pneumoniae. PMID:19342674

Chan, Yvonne R.; Liu, Jessica S.; Pociask, Derek A.; Zheng, Mingquan; Mietzner, Timothy A.; Berger, Thorsten; Mak, Tak W.; Clifton, Matthew C.; Strong, Roland K.; Ray, Prabir; Kolls, Jay K.

2009-01-01

370

Emergence of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Uruguay: infection control and molecular characterization  

PubMed Central

We describe the first outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP), the infection control measures adopted and the shift in resistance patterns of isolates during antibiotic treatment. The ST258 KPC-KP strain exhibited a multiresistant antibiotic phenotype including co-resistance to gentamycin, colistin and tigecycline intermediate susceptibility. Isolates before and after treatment had different behaviour concerning their antibiotic susceptibility and the population analysis profile study. A progressive increase in the aminoglycosides (acquiring amicacin resistance) and ?-lactam MICs, and a decreased susceptibility to fosfomycin was observed throughout the administration of combined antimicrobial regimens including meropenem. A high meropenem resistance KPC-KP homogeneous population (MIC 256 Jg/mL), could arise from the meropenem heterogeneous low-level resistance KPC-KP population (MIC 8 Jg/mL), by the selective pressure of the prolonged meropenem therapy. The kpc gene was inserted in a Tn4401 isoform a, and no transconjugants were detected. The core measures adopted were successful to prevent evolution towards resistance dissemination. PMID:25356345

Marquez, C; Ingold, A; Echeverria, N; Acevedo, A; Vignoli, R; Garcia-Fulgueiras, V; Viroga, J; Gonzalez, O; Odizzio, V; Etulain, K; Nunez, E; Albornoz, H; Borthagaray, G; Galiana, A

2014-01-01

371

FeoC from Klebsiella pneumoniae Contains a [4Fe-4S] Cluster  

PubMed Central

Iron is essential for pathogen survival, virulence, and colonization. Feo is suggested to function as the ferrous iron (Fe2+) transporter. The enterobacterial Feo system is composed of 3 proteins: FeoB is the indispensable component and is a large membrane protein likely to function as a permease; FeoA is a small Src homology 3 (SH3) domain protein that interacts with FeoB; FeoC is a winged-helix protein containing 4 conserved Cys residues in a sequence suitable for harboring a putative iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster. The presence of an iron-sulfur cluster on FeoC has never been shown experimentally. We report that under anaerobic conditions, the recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae FeoC (KpFeoC) exhibited hyperfine-shifted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and a UV-visible (UV-Vis) absorbance spectrum characteristic of a paramagnetic center. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) results were consistent only with the [4Fe-4S] clusters. Substituting the cysteinyl sulfur with oxygen resulted in significantly reduced cluster stability, establishing the roles of these cysteines as the ligands for the Fe-S cluster. When exposed to oxygen, the [4Fe-4S] cluster degraded to [3Fe-4S] and eventually disappeared. We propose that KpFeoC may regulate the function of the Feo transporter through the oxygen- or iron-sensitive coordination of the Fe-S cluster. PMID:23955005

Hsueh, Kuang-Lung; Yu, Liang-Kun; Chen, Yung-Han; Cheng, Ya-Hsin; Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Ke, Shyue-chu; Hung, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Chun-Jung

2013-01-01

372

Nosocomial infections by Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producing enterobacteria in a teaching hospital.  

PubMed

Objective To analyze the profile of patients with microorganisms resistant to carbapenems, and the prevalence of the enzyme Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase in interobacteriaceae. Methods Retrospective descriptive study. From the isolation in bacteriological tests ordered by clinicians, we described the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with enterobacteria resistants to carbapenems at a university hospital, between March and October 2013. Results We included 47 isolated patients in this study, all exhibiting resistance to carbapenems, including 9 patients who were confirmed as infected/colonized with K. pneumoniae carbapenemase. Isolation in tracheal aspirates (12; 25.5%) predominated. The resistance to ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem was 91.5%, 83.0% and 80.0%, respectively. Aminoglycosides was the class of antimicrobials that showed the highest sensitivity, 91.5% being sensitive to amikacin and 57.4% to gentamicin. Conclusion The K. pneumoniae carbapenemase was an important agent in graun isotaling in hospital intection. The limited therapeutic options emphasize the need for rapid laboratory detection, as well as the implementation of measures to prevent and control the spread of these pathogens. PMID:25295446

Seibert, Gabriela; Hörner, Rosmari; Meneghetti, Bettina Holzschuh; Righi, Roselene Alves; Forno, Nara Lucia Frasson Dal; Salla, Adenilde

2014-09-01

373

Fermentation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae was shown to convert glycerol to 1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol and ethanol under conditions of uncontrolled pH. Formation of 2,3-butanediol starts with some hours' delay and is accompanied by a reuse of the acetate that was formed in the first period. The fermentation was demonstrated in the type strain of K. pneumoniae, but growth was better with the more acid-tolerant strain GT1, which was isolated from nature. In continuous cultures in which the pH was lowered stepwise from 7.3 to 5.4, 2,3-butanediol formation started at pH 6.6 and reached a maximum yield at pH 5.5, whereas formation of acetate and ethanol declined in this p range 2,3-Butanediol and acetoin were also found among the products in chemostat cultures grown at pH 7 under conditions of glycerol excess but only with low yields. At any of the pH values tested, excess glycerol in the culture enhanced the butanediol yield. Both effects are seen as a consequence of product inhibition, the undissociated acid being a stronger trigger than the less toxic diols and acid anions. The possibilities for using the fermentation type described to produce 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol almost without by-products are discussed. PMID:9720196

Biebl, H; Zeng, A P; Menzel, K; Deckwer, W D

1998-07-01

374

Purification and characterization of phytase from Klebsiella pneumoniae 9-3B.  

PubMed

Phytase, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phytate, was purified from Klebsiella pneumoniae 9-3B. The isolate was preferentially selected in a medium which contains phytate as a sole carbon and phosphate source. Phytic acid was utilized for growth and consequently stimulated phytase production. Phytase production was detected throughout growth and the highest phytase production was observed at the onset of stationary phase. The purification scheme including ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration resulted in a 240 and 2077 fold purification of the enzyme with 2% and 15% recovery of the total activity for liberation of inorganic phosphate and inositol, respectively. The purified phytase was a monomeric protein with an estimated molecular weight of 45kDa based on size exclusion chromatography and SDS-PAGE analyses. The phytase has an optimum pH of 4.0 and optimum temperature of 50°C. The phytase activity was slightly stimulated by Ca(2+) and EDTA and inhibited by Zn(2+) and Fe(2+). The phytase exhibited broad substrate specificity and the K(m) value for phytate was 0.04mM. The enzyme completely hydrolyzed myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) to myo-inositol and inorganic phosphate. The properties of the enzyme prove that it is a good candidate for the hydrolysis of phytate for industrial applications. PMID:22244916

Escobin-Mopera, Lotis; Ohtani, Midori; Sekiguchi, Sachie; Sone, Teruo; Abe, Ayumi; Tanaka, Michiko; Meevootisom, Vithaya; Asano, Kozo

2012-05-01

375

Butanediol production from cellulose and hemicellulose by Klebsiella pneumoniae grown in sequential coculture with Trichoderma harzianum  

SciTech Connect

The bioconverison of cellulose and hemicellulose substrates to 2,3-butanediol by a sequential coculture approach was investigated with the cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum E58 and the fermentative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. Vogel medium optimal for the production of the cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes of the fungus was found to be inhibitory to butanediol fermentation. This inhibition appeared to be due to a synergistic effect of various ingredients, particularly the salts, present in the fungal medium. The removal or replacement of such ingredients from Vogel medium led to the relief of fermentation inhibition, but the treatments also resulted in a significant decrease in fungal enzyme production. Resting cells of K. pneumoniae could be used for butanediol production in the fungal medium, indicating that the inhibitory effect on solvent production under such conditions was due to the indirect result of growing inhibition of the bacterial cells. The resting-cell approach could be combined with a fed-batch system for the direct conversion of 8 to 10% (wt/vol) of Solka-Floc or aspenwood xylan to butanediol at over 30% of the theoretical conversion efficiencies.

Yu, E.K.C.; Deschatelets, L.; Louis-Seize, G.; Saddler, J.N.

1985-10-01

376

Surface changes and polymyxin interactions with a resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

This study examines the interaction of polymyxin B and colistin with the surface and outer membrane components of a susceptible and resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The interaction between polymyxins and bacterial membrane and isolated LPS from paired wild type and polymyxin-resistant strains of K. pneumoniae were examined with N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) uptake, fluorometric binding and thermal shift assays, lysozyme and deoxycholate sensitivity assays, and by (1)H NMR. LPS from the polymyxin-resistant strain displayed a reduced binding affinity for polymyxins B and colistin in comparison with the wild type LPS. The outer membrane NPN permeability of the resistant strain was greater compared with the susceptible strain. Polymyxin exposure enhanced the permeability of the outer membrane of the wild type strain to lysozyme and deoxycholate, whereas polymyxin concentrations up to 32?mg/ml failed to permeabilize the outer membrane of the resistant strain. Zeta potential measurements revealed that mid-logarithmic phase wild type cells exhibited a greater negative charge than the mid-logarithmic phase-resistant cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that the resistant derivative of K. pneumoniae can block the electrostatically driven first stage of polymyxin action, which thereby renders the hydrophobically driven second tier of polymyxin action on the outer membrane inconsequential. PMID:23887184

Velkov, Tony; Deris, Zakuan Z; Huang, Johnny X; Azad, Mohammad A K; Butler, Mark; Sivanesan, Sivashangarie; Kaminskas, Lisa M; Dong, Yao-Da; Boyd, Ben; Baker, Mark A; Cooper, Matthew A; Nation, Roger L; Li, Jian

2014-05-01

377

Clinical and microbiological characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae from community-acquired recurrent urinary tract infections.  

PubMed

Understanding the pathogenesis of recurrent urinary tract infection (RUTI) and whether it is attributable to reinfection with a new strain or relapse with the primary infecting strain is of considerable importance. Because previous studies regarding community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae RUTI are inconclusive, we undertook this study to evaluate the characteristics of the host and the bacterial agent K. pneumoniae in RUTI. A prospective study was designed, using consecutive patients diagnosed with community-acquired K. pneumoniae-related UTI from January 2007 to December 2009. Of the total 468 consecutive episodes, we found 7 patients with RUTI. All the patients with RUTI were elderly (median, 74 years), with diabetes (100 %, 7 out of 7). Clinical K. pneumoniae isolates derived from the same patients with RUTI revealed identical genomic fingerprints, indicating that K. pneumoniae UTI relapsed despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. The antimicrobial resistance, growth curve and biofilm formation of the recurrent isolates did not change. K. pneumoniae strains causing RUTI had more adhesion and invasiveness than the colonization strains (p?

Lin, W H; Kao, C Y; Yang, D C; Tseng, C C; Wu, A B; Teng, C H; Wang, M C; Wu, J J

2014-09-01

378

Genomic Definition of Hypervirulent and Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Clonal Groups.  

PubMed

Multidrug-resistant and highly virulent Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are emerging, but the clonal groups (CGs) corresponding to these high-risk strains have remained imprecisely defined. We aimed to identify K. pneumoniae CGs on the basis of genome-wide sequence variation and to provide a simple bioinformatics tool to extract virulence and resistance gene data from genomic data. We sequenced 48 K. pneumoniae isolates, mostly of serotypes K1 and K2, and compared the genomes with 119 publicly available genomes. A total of 694 highly conserved genes were included in a core-genome multilocus sequence typing scheme, and cluster analysis of the data enabled precise definition of globally distributed hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant CGs. In addition, we created a freely accessible database, BIGSdb-Kp, to enable rapid extraction of medically and epidemiologically relevant information from genomic sequences of K. pneumoniae. Although drug-resistant and virulent K. pneumoniae populations were largely nonoverlapping, isolates with combined virulence and resistance features were detected. PMID:25341126

Bialek-Davenet, Suzanne; Criscuolo, Alexis; Ailloud, Florent; Passet, Virginie; Jones, Louis; Delannoy-Vieillard, Anne-Sophie; Garin, Benoit; Le Hello, Simon; Arlet, Guillaume; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène; Decré, Dominique; Brisse, Sylvain

2014-11-01

379

Butanediol production from cellulose and hemicellulose by Klebsiella pneumoniae grown in sequential coculture with Trichoderma harzianum.  

PubMed

The bioconversion of cellulose and hemicellulose substrates to 2,3-butanediol by a sequential coculture approach was investigated with the cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum E58 and the fermentative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. Vogel medium optimal for the production of the cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes of the fungus was found to be inhibitory to butanediol fermentation. This inhibition appeared to be due to a synergistic effect of various ingredients, particularly the salts, present in the fungal medium. The removal or replacement of such ingredients from Vogel medium led to the relief of fermentation inhibition, but the treatments also resulted in a significant decrease in fungal enzyme production. Resting cells of K. pneumoniae could be used for butanediol production in the fungal medium, indicating that the inhibitory effect on solvent production under such conditions was due to the indirect result of growth inhibition of the bacterial cells. The resting-cell approach could be combined with a fed-batch system for the direct conversion of 8 to 10% (wt/vol) of Solka-Floc or aspenwood xylan to butanediol at over 30% of the theoretical conversion efficiencies. PMID:3909967

Yu, E K; Deschatelets, L; Louis-Seize, G; Saddler, J N

1985-10-01

380

Identification and characterization of antigens as vaccine candidates against Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Nosocomial infections, also called “hospital acquired infections,” occur worldwide and affect both developed and resource-poor countries, thus having a major impact on their health care systems. Klebsiella pneumoniae, which is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen, is responsible for causing pneumonia, urinary tract infections and septicemia in immune compromised hosts such as neonates. Unfortunately, there is no vaccine or mAb available for prophylactic or therapeutic use against K. pneumoniae infections. For this reason, we sought for a protein-based subunit vaccine capable of combating K. pneumoniae infections, by applying our ANTIGENome technology for the identification of potential vaccine candidates, focusing on conserved protein antigens present in strains with different serotypes. We identified numerous novel immunogenic proteins using genomic surface display libraries and human serum antibodies from donors exposed to or infected by K. pneumoniae. Vaccine candidate antigens were finally selected based on animal protection in a murine lethal-sepsis model. The protective and highly conserved antigens identified in this study are promising candidates for the development of a protein-based vaccine to prevent infection by K. pneumoniae. PMID:23250007

Lundberg, Urban; Senn, Beatrice M.; Schuler, Wolfgang; Meinke, Andreas; Hanner, Markus

2013-01-01

381

Characterization of a bioflocculant MBF-5 by Klebsiella pneumoniae and its application in Acanthamoeba cysts removal.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the potential of an extracellular, novel biopolymeric flocculant produced by a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from a sputum sample for removal of Acanthamoeba cysts, a potent pathogen prevalent in water, soil, air, and dust. The presence of cations did not enhance flocculating activity. The component of MBF-5 was mainly polysaccharide and protein with proportional of 96.8% and 2.1% respectively. Infrared spectrum analysis showed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in MBF-5. MBF-5 is nontoxic and can be used for removal of amoebae cysts from water. Conditions for flocculation of kaolin suspension and Acanthamoeba cysts were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and determined to be 54.38 mg/L dosage, 26.14°C and pH 3.32 and 129.73 mg/L dosage, 30.75°C and pH 4.36, respectively. The results of this study indicates a possible use of the K. pneumoniae biopolymer as an alternative to typically used chemical flocculants for removal of amoebae cysts from water. PMID:23587824

Zhao, Haijuan; Liu, Hongtao; Zhou, Jiangang

2013-06-01

382

Identification of natural compounds which inhibit biofilm formation in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae, an important opportunistic pathogen, exists as a biofilm in persistent infections and in-dwelling medical devices. With the objective of identifying natural compounds inhibiting biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae, 35 clinical isolates were screened,out of which 7 strong biofilm producers were identified. Six natural compounds were tested for their inhibitory effects on bacterial growth and biofilm formation by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum concentration for biofilm inhibition (MBIC) for each compound. The results show that reserpine followed by linoleic acid, were the most potent biofilm inhibitors. Reserpine, an efflux pump inhibitor was effective at biofilm inhibition at a concentration of 0.0156 mg/mL, 64-fold lower concentration than its MIC. Linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid was effective as a biofilm inhibitor at 0.0312 mg/mL, which is 32-fold lower than its MIC. Berberine, another plant derived antimicrobial, chitosan and eugenol had an MBIC value of 0.0635 mg/mL. Curcumin, a natural phenolic compound was effective at biofilm inhibition at a concentration of 0.25 mg/mL, which is 50 fold less than its MIC. Notably, the MIC and MBIC data on these 6 natural compounds was reproducible in all seven high biofilm forming isolates of K. pneumoniae. The present report is a comprehensive comparative analysis of the dose dependent inhibition of various natural compounds on biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae. PMID:24377137

Magesh, H; Kumar, Arun; Alam, Ayesha; Priyam; Sekar, Uma; Sumantran, Venil N; Vaidyanathan, Rama

2013-09-01

383

Klebsiella: a long way to go towards understanding this enigmatic jet-setter  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae is the causative agent of a variety of diseases, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, septicemia, and the recently recognized pyogenic liver abscesses (PLA). Renewed efforts to identify and understand the bacterial determinants required to cause disease have come about because of the worldwide increase in the isolation of strains resistant to a broad spectrum of antibiotics. The recent increased isolation of carbapenem-resistant strains further reduces the available treatment options. The rapid geographic spread of the resistant isolates and the spread to other pathogens are of particular concern. For many years, the best characterized virulence determinants were capsule, lipopolysaccharide, siderophores, and types 1 and 3 fimbriae. Recent efforts to expand this list include in vivo screens and whole-genome sequencing. However, we still know little about how this bacterium is able to cause disease. Some recent clonal analyses of K. pneumoniae strains indicate that there are distinct clonal groups, some of which may be associated with specific disease syndromes. However, what makes one clonal group more virulent and what changes the disease pattern are not yet clear and remain important questions for the future. PMID:25165563

Broberg, Christopher A.; Palacios, Michelle

2014-01-01

384

NAD(+)-independent aldehyde oxidase catalyzes cofactor balanced 3-hydroxypropionic acid production in Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

The limiting step for biosynthesis of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) in Klebsiella pneumoniae is the conversion of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) to 3-HP. This reaction is catalyzed by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) with NAD(+) as a cofactor. Although NAD(+)-dependent ALDH overexpression facilitates 3-HP biosynthesis, ALDH activity decreases and 3-HP stops accumulation when NAD(+) is exhausted. Here, we show that an NAD(+)-independent aldehyde oxidase (AOX) from Pseudomonas sp. AIU 362 holds promise for cofactor-balanced 3-HP production in K. pneumoniae. The AOX coding gene, alod, was heterologously expressed in E. coli and K. pneumoniae, and their respective crude cell extracts showed 38.1 U/mg and 16.6 U/mg activities toward propionaldehyde. The recombinant K. pneumoniae expressing alod showed 13.7 U/mg activity toward 3-HPA; K m and V max were 6.7 mM and 42 ?M/min/mg, respectively. In shake-flask cultures, the recombinant K. pneumoniae strain produced 0.89 g 3-HP/l, twice that of the control. Moreover, it produced 3 g 3-HP/l during 24 h fed-batch cultivation in a 5 l bioreactor. The results indicate that AOX can efficiently convert 3-HPA into 3-HP. PMID:24980850

Li, Ying; Liu, Luo; Tian, Pingfang

2014-11-01

385

Surface changes and polymyxin interactions with a resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

This study examines the interaction of polymyxin B and colistin with the surface and outer membrane components of a susceptible and resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The interaction between polymyxins and bacterial membrane and isolated LPS from paired wild type and polymyxin-resistant strains of K. pneumoniae were examined with N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) uptake, fluorometric binding and thermal shift assays, lysozyme and deoxycholate sensitivity assays, and by 1H NMR. LPS from the polymyxin-resistant strain displayed a reduced binding affinity for polymyxins B and colistin in comparison with the wild type LPS. The outer membrane NPN permeability of the resistant strain was greater compared with the susceptible strain. Polymyxin exposure enhanced the permeability of the outer membrane of the wild type strain to lysozyme and deoxycholate, whereas polymyxin concentrations up to 32 mg/ml failed to permeabilize the outer membrane of the resistant strain. Zeta potential measurements revealed that mid-logarithmic phase wild type cells exhibited a greater negative charge than the mid-logarithmic phase-resistant cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that the resistant derivative of K. pneumoniae can block the electrostatically driven first stage of polymyxin action, which thereby renders the hydrophobically driven second tier of polymyxin action on the outer membrane inconsequential. PMID:23887184

Velkov, Tony; Deris, Zakuan Z; Huang, Johnny X; Azad, Mohammad AK; Butler, Mark; Sivanesan, Sivashangarie; Kaminskas, Lisa M; Dong, Yao-Da; Boyd, Ben; Baker, Mark A; Cooper, Matthew A; Nation, Roger L; Li, Jian

2014-01-01

386

Structural and Mechanistic Studies on Klebsiella pneumoniae 2-Oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline Decarboxylase  

SciTech Connect

The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin was recently shown to proceed via three enzymatic steps. The final conversion is a decarboxylation of the unstable intermediate 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline (OHCU) and is catalyzed by OHCU decarboxylase. Here we present the structures of Klebsiella pneumoniae OHCU decarboxylase in unliganded form and with bound allantoin. These structures provide evidence that ligand binding organizes the active site residues for catalysis. Modeling of the substrate and intermediates provides additional support for this hypothesis. In addition we characterize the steady state kinetics of this enzyme and report the first OHCU decarboxylase inhibitor, allopurinol, a structural isomer of hypoxanthine. This molecule is a competitive inhibitor of K. pneumoniae OHCU decarboxylase with a K{sub i} of 30 {+-} 2 {micro}m. Circular dichroism measurements confirm structural observations that this inhibitor disrupts the necessary organization of the active site. Our structural and biochemical studies also provide further insights into the mechanism of catalysis of OHCU decarboxylation.

French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell)

2010-11-12

387

An Increasing Prominent Disease of Klebsiella pneumoniae Liver Abscess: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background. During the past two decades, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) had surpassed Escherichia coli (E. coli) as the predominant isolate from patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) in Asian countries, the United States, and Europe, and it tended to spread globally. Since the clinical symptom is atypical, the accurate and effective diagnosis and treatment of K. pneumoniae liver abscesses (KLAs) are very necessary. Methods. Here, we have comprehensively clarified the epidemiology and pathogenesis of KLA, put emphases on the clinical presentations especially the characteristic radiographic findings of KLA, and thoroughly elucidated the most effective antibiotic strategy of KLA. Results. K1 serotype is strongly associated with KLA especially in diabetic patients. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) were two main diagnostic methods of KLA in the past. Most of KLAs have solitary, septal lobular abscesses in the right lobe of liver, and they are mainly monomicrobial. Broad-spectrum antibiotics combined with the US-guided percutaneous drainage of liver abscesses can increase their survival rates, but surgical intervention still has its irreplaceable position. Conclusion. The imaging features contribute to the early diagnosis, and the percutaneous intervention combined with an aminoglycoside plus either an extended-spectrum betalactam or a second- or third-generation cephalosporin is a timely and effective treatment of KLA. PMID:24194749

Liu, Yun; Wang, Ji-yao; Jiang, Wei

2013-01-01

388

Identification and characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae aldehyde dehydrogenases increasing production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae produces 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) from glycerol with oxidation of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) to 3-HP in a reaction catalyzed by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). In the present study, two putative ALDHs of K. pneumoniae, YneI and YdcW were identified and characterized. Recombinant YneI was specifically active on 3-HPA and preferred NAD(+) as a cofactor, whereas YdcW exhibited broad substrate specificity and preferred NADP(+) as a cofactor. Overexpression of ALDHs in the glycerol oxidative pathway-deficient mutant K. pneumoniae AK resulted in a significant increase in 3-HP production upon shake-flask culture. The final titers of 3-HP were 2.4 and 1.8 g L(-1) by recombinants overexpressing YneI and YdcW, respectively. Deletion of the ALDH gene from K. pneumoniae did not affect the extent of 3-HP synthesis, implying non-specific activity of ALDHs on 3-HPA. The ALDHs might play major roles in detoxifying the aldehyde generated in glycerol metabolism. PMID:23297067

Luo, Lian Hua; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Oh, Baek-Rock; Kim, Dae-Hyuk; Kim, Chul Ho

2013-09-01

389

Production and characterization of high efficiency bioflocculant isolated from Klebsiella sp. ZZ-3.  

PubMed

In this study, a new bioflocculant (ZZ-3) is isolated and evaluated. This novel flocculant was derived Klebsiella, which was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as well as biochemical and physiological analyses. The composition of ZZ-3 was found to be 84.6% polysaccharides and 6.1% protein. More specifically, the amount (moles) of the polysaccharides rhamnose, mannose, and galactose were found to be 6.48, 2.47, and 1.74 greater than glucose, respectively. Results show ZZ-3 has a relatively high molecular weight (603-1820kDa) and contains many functional groups (hydroxyl, amide, carboxyl, and methoxyl) that likely contribute to flocculation. The results of microscopic observation, zeta potential measurements, and ZZ-3 bioflocculant structure suggested that bridging was the main mechanism for flocculation with kaolin. Based on a high flocculation efficiency, thermal stability, pH tolerance and the ability to flocculate without additional cations, ZZ-3 shows potential for industrial application. PMID:25218206

Yin, Ya-Jie; Tian, Zun-Ming; Tang, Wei; Li, Lei; Song, Li-Yan; McElmurry, Shawn P

2014-11-01

390

Two-stage fermentation for 2-Ketogluconic acid production by Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

2-Ketogluconic acid production by Klebsiella pneumoniae is a pH-dependent process, strictly proceeding under acidic conditions. Unfortunately, cell growth is inhibited by acidic conditions, resulting in low productivity of 2-ketogluconic acid. To overcome this deficiency, a two-stage fermentation strategy was exploited in the current study. During the first stage, the culture was maintained at neutral pH, favoring cell growth. During the second stage, the culture pH was switched to acidic conditions favoring 2-ketogluconic acid accumulation. Culture parameters, including switching time, dissolved oxygen levels, pH, and temperature were optimized for the fed-batch fermentation. Characteristics of glucose dehydrogenase and gluconate dehydrogenase were revealed in vitro, and the optimal pHs of the two enzymes coincided with the optimum culture pH. Under optimum conditions, a total of 186 g/l 2- ketogluconic acid was produced at 26 h, and the conversion ratio was 0.98 mol/mol. This fermentation strategy has successfully overcome the mismatch between optimum parameters required for cell growth and 2-ketogluconic acid accumulation, and this result has the highest productivity and conversion ratio of 2-ketogluconic and produced by microorganism. PMID:24572278

Sun, Yuehong; Wei, Dong; Shi, Jiping; Mojovi?, Ljiljana; Han, Zengsheng; Hao, Jian

2014-06-28

391

Genomic Definition of Hypervirulent and Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Clonal Groups  

PubMed Central

Multidrug-resistant and highly virulent Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are emerging, but the clonal groups (CGs) corresponding to these high-risk strains have remained imprecisely defined. We aimed to identify K. pneumoniae CGs on the basis of genome-wide sequence variation and to provide a simple bioinformatics tool to extract virulence and resistance gene data from genomic data. We sequenced 48 K. pneumoniae isolates, mostly of serotypes K1 and K2, and compared the genomes with 119 publicly available genomes. A total of 694 highly conserved genes were included in a core-genome multilocus sequence typing scheme, and cluster analysis of the data enabled precise definition of globally distributed hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant CGs. In addition, we created a freely accessible database, BIGSdb-Kp, to enable rapid extraction of medically and epidemiologically relevant information from genomic sequences of K. pneumoniae. Although drug-resistant and virulent K. pneumoniae populations were largely nonoverlapping, isolates with combined virulence and resistance features were detected. PMID:25341126

Bialek-Davenet, Suzanne; Criscuolo, Alexis; Ailloud, Florent; Passet, Virginie; Jones, Louis; Delannoy-Vieillard, Anne-Sophie; Garin, Benoit; Le Hello, Simon; Arlet, Guillaume; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène; Decré, Dominique

2014-01-01

392

Optimization of Pulse-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Subtyping of Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

A total of 110 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were used to optimize pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for subtyping of K. pneumoniae. For optimization of electrophoresis parameters (EPs) of XbaI-PFGE, 11 isolates were analyzed with XbaI digestion using three EPs. The EP of a switch time of 6 to 36 s for 18.5 h gave clearest patterns and was declared the optimal EP for XbaI PFGE of K. pneumoniae. By software analysis and pilot study, AvrII was chosen as another PFGE enzyme. Both XbaI- and AvrII-PFGE gave D-values higher than 0.99 for 69 K. pneumoniae isolated from different sources. Our results also showed good typeability, reproducibility of both XbaI- and AvrII-PFGE for K. pneumoniae subtyping. Furthermore, the established PFGE method also had good discriminatory power to distinguish outbreak K. pneumoniae strains and a high degree of consistency with multilocus sequence typing method. A rapid PFGE protocol was established here, which could be used for genotyping and other researches of K. pneumoniae. PMID:23880721

Han, Hui; Zhou, Haijian; Li, Haishan; Gao, Yuan; Lu, Zhi; Hu, Kongxin; Xu, Baoliang

2013-01-01

393

Carbapenemases in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Other Enterobacteriaceae: an Evolving Crisis of Global Dimensions  

PubMed Central

Summary: The spread of Enterobacteriaceae, primarily Klebsiella pneumoniae, producing KPC, VIM, IMP, and NDM carbapenemases, is causing an unprecedented public health crisis. Carbapenemase-producing enterobacteria (CPE) infect mainly hospitalized patients but also have been spreading in long-term care facilities. Given their multidrug resistance, therapeutic options are limited and, as discussed here, should be reevaluated and optimized. Based on susceptibility data, colistin and tigecycline are commonly used to treat CPE infections. Nevertheless, a review of the literature revealed high failure rates in cases of monotherapy with these drugs, whilst monotherapy with either a carbapenem or an aminoglycoside appeared to be more effective. Combination therapies not including carbapenems were comparable to aminoglycoside and carbapenem monotherapies. Higher success rates have been achieved with carbapenem-containing combinations. Pharmacodynamic simulations and experimental infections indicate that modification of the current patterns of carbapenem use against CPE warrants further attention. Epidemiological data, though fragmentary in many countries, indicate CPE foci and transmission routes, to some extent, whilst also underlining the lack of international collaborative systems that could react promptly and effectively. Fortunately, there are sound studies showing successful containment of CPE by bundles of measures, among which the most important are active surveillance cultures, separation of carriers, and assignment of dedicated nursing staff. PMID:23034326

Tzouvelekis, L. S.; Markogiannakis, A.; Psichogiou, M.; Tassios, P. T.

2012-01-01

394

Exploring Dangerous Connections between Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilms and Healthcare-Associated Infections  

PubMed Central

Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are a huge public health concern, particularly when the etiological agents are multidrug resistant. The ability of bacteria to develop biofilm is a helpful skill, both to persist within hospital units and to increase antibiotic resistance. Although the links between antibiotic resistance, biofilms assembly and HAI are consensual, little is known about biofilms. Here, electron microscopy was adopted as a tool to investigate biofilm structures associated with increased antibiotic resistance. The K. pneumoniae strains investigated are able to assemble biofilms, albeit with different kinetics. The biofilm structure and the relative area fractions of bacteria and extracellular matrix depend on the particular strain, as well as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the antibiotics. Increased values were found for bacteria organized in biofilms when compared to the respective planktonic forms, except for isolates Kp45 and Kp2948, the MIC values for which remained unchanged for fosfomycin. Altogether, these results showed that the emergence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria responsible for HAI is a multifactorial phenomenon dependent on antibiotics and on bacteria/biofilm features.

Bandeira, Maria; Almeida Carvalho, Patricia; Duarte, Aida; Jordao, Luisa

2014-01-01

395

Bacteria Galore by Sunday at Four  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This colorful picture book provides an introduction to the world of bacteria â where bacteria are found, what it is and how they spread. While the book is beautiful to look at, this childrenâs picture book is also full of accurate and interesting facts about bacteria. Author Dr. Mel Rosenberg emphasizes the colors, shapes, sizes, forms, and functions of bacteria.

Rosenberg, Mel; Niv-Dolinski, Tali

396

The role of nanotechnology in combating multi-drug resistant bacteria.  

PubMed

The development of antibiotics has played a significant role in combating the dreaded infectious disease such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, typhoid fever and meningitis in 20th century. However, the improper use of antibiotics led to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in microbial flora raising a global public health concern of 21st century. This unforeseen threat demands the development of new drugs and strategies for combating antibiotic resistance shown by many microbial species. Recent developments in nanotechnology to engineer nanoparticles with desired physicochemical properties have been projected as a new line of defense against MDR micro-organism. In this review, we summarized and discussed the recent development demonstrating the potential of nanomaterials to evade the MDR. Nanoparticles have shown effective antimicrobial activity against MDR bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, vancomycin resistant enterococci, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and others. Furthermore, new strategies like combination of radiation and drugs with nanoparticle that are being explored to potentiate the effectiveness against MDR bacteria have also been summarized. PMID:24757944

Singh, Rajni; Smitha, M S; Singh, Surinder P

2014-07-01

397

Interaction of Rhizosphere Bacteria, Fertilizer, and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi with Sea Oats †  

PubMed Central

Plants must be established quickly on replenished beaches in order to stabilize the sand and begin the dune-building process. The objective of this research was to determine whether inoculation of sea oats (Uniola paniculata L.) with bacteria (indigenous rhizosphere bacteria and N2 fixers) alone or in combination with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi would enhance plant growth in beach sand. At two fertilizer-N levels, Klebsiella pneumoniae and two Azospirillum spp. did not provide the plants with fixed atmospheric N; however, K. pneumoniae increased root and shoot growth. When a sparingly soluble P source (CaHPO4) was added to two sands, K. pneumoniae increased plant growth in sand with a high P content. The phosphorus content of shoots was not affected by bacterial inoculation, indicating that a mechanism other than bacterially enhanced P availability to plants was responsible for the growth increases. When sea oats were inoculated with either K. pneumoniae or Acaligenes denitrificans and a mixed Glomus inoculum, there was no consistent evidence of a synergistic effect on plant growth. Nonetheless, bacterial inoculation increased root colonization by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi when the fungal inoculum consisted of colonized roots but had no effect on colonization when the inoculum consisted of spores alone. K. pneumoniae was found to increase spore germination and hyphal growth of Glomus deserticola compared with the control. The use of bacterial inoculants to enhance establishment of pioneer dune plants warrants further study. PMID:16348236

Will, M. E.; Sylvia, D. M.

1990-01-01

398

24-Branched ?5 sterols from Laurencia papillosa red seaweed with antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Methanol extract of thirty-eight seaweeds samples were first screened against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051) and -negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Pseudomonas aerugenosa ATCC 9027) bacteria. Laurencia papillosa (Ceramiales, Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) gave maximum antimicrobial activity against these bacteria. It was finally tested against four clinical Gram-negative isolates (E. coli, P. aerugenosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shigella flexineri) and exhibited antibacterial activity. The extract was fractionated by column chromatography and the active fraction was identified as a cholesterol derivative, 24-propylidene cholest-5-en-3?-ol using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and FT-IR spectroscopic analysis also supported the structure of the compound. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 ?g/mL (IC50) against clinical isolates. This is the first report of antibacterial activity of this cholesterol derivative. This compound could be exploited as potential lead molecule against broad spectrum drug development. The results also affirm the potential of seaweeds as an important natural source of antimicrobial compounds for pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23910454

Kavita, Kumari; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Jha, Bhavanath

2014-04-01

399

Beverages obtained from soda fountain machines in the U.S. contain microorganisms, including coliform bacteria.  

PubMed

Ninety beverages of three types (sugar sodas, diet sodas and water) were obtained from 20 self-service and 10 personnel-dispensed soda fountains, analyzed for microbial contamination, and evaluated with respect to U.S. drinking water regulations. A follow-up study compared the concentration and composition of microbial populations in 27 beverages collected from 9 soda fountain machines in the morning as well as in the afternoon. Ice dispensed from these machines was also examined for microbial contamination. While none of the ice samples exceeded U.S. drinking water standards, coliform bacteria was detected in 48% of the beverages and 20% had a heterotrophic plate count greater than 500cfu/ml. Statistical analyses revealed no difference in levels of microbial contamination between beverage types or between those dispensed from self-service and personnel-dispensed soda fountains. More than 11% of the beverages analyzed contained Escherichia coli and over 17% contained Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Other opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the beverages included species of Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Candida, and Serratia. Most of the identified bacteria showed resistance to one or more of the 11 antibiotics tested. These findings suggest that soda fountain machines may harbor persistent communities of potentially pathogenic microorganisms which may contribute to episodic gastric distress in the general population and could pose a more significant health risk to immunocompromised individuals. These findings have important public health implications and signal the need for regulations enforcing hygienic practices associated with these beverage dispensers. PMID:19926155

White, Amy S; Godard, Renee D; Belling, Carolyn; Kasza, Victoria; Beach, Rebecca L

2010-01-31

400

Aerobic bacterial oral flora of garter snakes: development of normal flora and pathogenic potential for snakes and humans.  

PubMed Central

Garter snakes that are used for scientific laboratory studies or kept as exotic pets often become ill and die early in captivity. They may also act as reservoirs of potential human pathogens or transmit infection to man. A total of 126 strains of aerobic and facultative bacteria, most potential human and snake pathogens, were isolated from 82 garter snake oropharyngeal cultures. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were the most common species isolated. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Hafnia alvei, Arizona hinshawii, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were among the potential pathogens isolated. The spectrum of bacteria with potential for causing oral and pulmonary infections in garter snakes is greater than has been previously appreciated. Garter snakes should also be considered reservoirs of human pathogens, and appropriate precautions should be taken by laboratory personnel and pet owners. PMID:7240404

Goldstein, E J; Agyare, E O; Vagvolgyi, A E; Halpern, M

1981-01-01

401

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in the United Arab Emirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaecae among patients in the United Arab Emirates. Materials and Methods: A total of 130 Enterobacteriaceaecomprising of Escherichia coli (n = 83), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 45) and Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 2) was studied. Of these 130 isolates, 64 were from urine. ESBL screening was by

Mansour Al-Zarouni; Abiola Senok; Fatima Rashid; Shaikha Mohammed Al-Jesmi; Debadatta Panigrahi

2008-01-01

402

Human monoclonal macroglobulins with specificity for Klebsiella K polysaccharides that contain 3,4-pyruvylated-D-galactose and 4,6- pyruvylated-D-galactose  

PubMed Central

Two human IgM myeloma proteins, IgMWEA and IgMMAY, were found to react with agar and Klebsiella polysaccharides that contain pyruvylated D- galactose (DGal). Quantitative precipitin data and precipitin inhibition studies with methyl alpha- and beta-glycosides of 4,6- pyruvylated-D-galactose showed their combining sites to be different, although each was directed against the pyruvylated-D-Gal, one reacting most specifically with Klebsiella polysaccharides with terminal nonreducing beta-linked 2,4 pyruvylated-D-Gal, whereas the other reacted equally well with Klebsiella polysaccharides that contain 3,4 beta-linked and 4,6 alpha-linked terminal nonreducing pyruvylated-DGal. Inhibition studies showed that both sites are directed toward one of the two space isomers of 3,4- or 4,6-pyruvylated DGal, the form in which the methyl group of the pyruvate is equatorial, or endo, and its carboxyl group axial, or exo, to the plane of the acetal ring. Coprecipitation studies showed the combining site of IgMWEA to be located on an (Fab')2 fragment and not on the (Fc)5mu fragment. The monoclonal peak in the serum of IgMMAY was specifically precipitated by Klebsiella polysaccharide. Myeloma proteins with specificities of this type may occur with reasonable frequency in humans and may be a consequence of clonal expansion from inapparent infection, carrier states, or disease produced by various Klebsiella organisms. PMID:6158553

1980-01-01

403

Mechanical resonances of bacteria cells.  

PubMed

The quality of the natural vibrations of specific bacteria is investigated using a shell model which accounts for the elastic properties of the membrane and the associated viscosities of the cytoplasma and the surrounding fluid. The motion of the membrane is approximated in terms of the distribution of internal forces over the shell thickness, which is assumed to be much less than the size of the cell. Flexural moments and intersecting stresses are neglected. Using experimentally obtained values for the membrane properties, high-quality resonances are predicted for several types of bacteria which have radii greater than 5 microm. Viscous shear waves are the main source of energy dissipation as has been previously reported in other studies on the natural oscillations of red blood cells, drops, and bubbles. Implications for the acoustic mediated destruction of bacteria are discussed. PMID:16485974

Zinin, P V; Allen, J S; Levin, V M

2005-12-01

404

The ongoing battle against multi-resistant strains: in-vitro inhibition of hospital-acquired MRSA, VRE, Pseudomonas, ESBL E. coli and Klebsiella species in the presence of plant-derived antiseptic oils.  

PubMed

The fight against hospital-acquired infections involving antibiotic-resistant microorganisms has become of critical concern to surgeons worldwide. In addition to the development of new effective antibiotic chemotherapy, exploration of 'forgotten' topical antibacterial agents from the pre-antibiotic era has recently gained new attention. We report the promising efficacy of plant-derived antiseptic oils used in traditional aboriginal and south-east Asian treatments such as Lemongrass, Eucalyptus and Tea Tree Oil in the inhibition of clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), multi-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the in-vitro setting. Large consistent zones of inhibition were observed for all three plant-derived oils tested in an agar diffusion test. The commonly used antibacterial agents chlorhexidine 0.1%, and ethanol (70%), and standard olive oil consistently demonstrated notably lower or no efficacy in regard to growth inhibition of strains. Notably, Lemongrass oil proved to be particularly active against gram-positive bacteria, while Tea Tree oil showed superior inhibition of gram-negative microorganisms. As proven in vitro, plant-derived antiseptic oils may represent a promising and affordable topical agent to support surgical treatment against multi-resistant and hospital-acquired infections. PMID:23199627

Warnke, Patrick H; Lott, Alexander J S; Sherry, Eugene; Wiltfang, Joerg; Podschun, Rainer

2013-06-01

405

Characterization of AmpC, CTX-M and MBLs types of ?-lactamases in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli producing Extended Spectrum ?-lactamases in Kerman, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Extended spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC ?-lactamases enzyme are major sources of resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics especially in Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Increasing frequency of the co-existence of ESBLs with AmpC-?-lactamases in bacteria is a serious threat for treating bacterial infections. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the presence of AmpC and CTX-M types of ?-lactamases in clinical isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae producing ESBLs. Materials and Methods: Resistance to different antibiotics was determined using the standard disk diffusion method. ESBLs, MBLs and AmpC-?-lactamases were detected by the combination double disk test (CDDT) method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine blaCTX-M genes in the ESBLs and AmpC positive isolates. Results: The prevalence of ESBLs and AmpC-?-lactamase producer isolates was 181 (43.8%) and 133 (37.2%), respectively. The prevalence of blaCTX-M among isolates was 61 (14.7%). Conclusions: Outbreak of isolates co-expressing AmpC-?-lactamases and ESBLs can cause serious problems in the future, regarding the treatment of infections caused by these common enteric pathogens. PMID:25147671

Mansouri, Shahla; Kalantar Neyestanaki, Davood; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Halimi, Shahnaz; Beigverdi, Reza; Rezagholezadeh, Fereshteh; Hashemi, Ali

2014-01-01

406

Envisaging bacteria as phage targets  

PubMed Central

It can be difficult to appreciate just how small bacteria and phages are or how large, in comparison, the volumes that they occupy. A single milliliter, for example, can represent to a phage what would be, with proper scaling, an “ocean” to you and me. Here I illustrate, using more easily visualized macroscopic examples, the difficulties that a phage, as a randomly diffusing particle, can have in locating bacteria to infect. I conclude by restating the truism that the rate of phage adsorption to a given target bacterium is a function of phage density, that is, titer, in combination with the degree of bacterial susceptibility to adsorption by an encountering phage. PMID:23616932

Abedon, Stephen T.

2011-01-01

407

Transmission Electron Microscopic Study of Antibiotic Action on Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria that group together in biofilms are protected from killing by antibiotics. Researchers are still debating and inves- tigating the mechanisms behind this protection (3-5). One of the critical questions is whether the antibiotic penetrates throughout the biofilm. In a previous report, we described the use of a primitive diffusion cell to measure the permeation of ampicillin and ciprofloxacin through

Jeff Zahller; Philip S. Stewart

2002-01-01

408

Metabolic activation of bladder procarcinogens, 2-aminofluorene, 4-aminobiphenyl, and benzidine by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other human endogenous bacteria.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen of the human urinary tract, and other selected human endogenous bacteria were investigated for metabolic activation of the bladder procarcinogens, 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), 4-aminobiphenyl (4-AB), and benzidine (Bz). The cell-free extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and intestinal anaerobes, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, and Eubacterium aerofaciens produced increased histidine revertant frequencies with the tester strain Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay. In addition, the cell-free extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides fragilis, and Eubacterium aerofaciens each showed the presence of a cytochrome P450 absorption peak in the carbon monoxide (CO) difference spectrum. This was not demonstratable for the other bacteria. Our findings indicate that human endogenous bacteria, which are opportunistic pathogens of the urinary bladder, can metabolically activate the bladder procarcinogens 2-AF, 4-AB, and Bz into mutagens. The metabolic activation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides fragilis, and Eubacterium aerofaciens is mediated by a cytochrome P450 enzyme. For those organisms that induced metabolic activation but did not show a P450 absorption peak with the cell-free extracts, other oxidative enzymes may be involved. PMID:16203120

Adris, Piyatilake; Chung, King-Thom

2006-04-01

409

Prevalence and pattern of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: In developing countries, biological contaminants largely bacteria and other parasites constitute the major causes of food-borne diseases often transmitted through food, water, nails, and fingers contaminated with faeces. Accordingly, food-handlers with poor personal hygiene could be potential sources of infections by these micro-organisms. Objective: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and pattern of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers in the Federal Capital Territory. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive one in which a multistage sampling technique was employed to select 168 food handlers of various types. Subjects’ stool, urine, and fingernail analyses were carried out and the result scientifically scrutinized. Results: Fingernail bacteria isolates include: E. Coli (1.8%), coagulase-negative staphylococcus (17.9%), Staphylococcus aureus(7.1%), Klebsiella species (2.4%), Serratia species (1.2%), Citrobacter species (1.2%), and Enterococcus species (1.8%). The subjects’ stool samples tested positive: For A. lumbricoides (14.9%), T. trichuria (1.8%), S. starcolaris (3.0%), E. histolytica (10.7%), G. lambilia (1.8%), S. mansoni (1.2%), and Taenia species (4.8%). Furthermore, 42.3% and 15.5% of the stool specimen tested positive for Salmonella and Shigella species, respectively. Conclusion: Food establishments should screen and treat staff with active illness, and regularly train them on good personal and workplace hygiene practices. PMID:23293419

Ifeadike, C. O.; Ironkwe, O. C.; Adogu, P. O. U.; Nnebue, C. C.; Emelumadu, O. F.; Nwabueze, S. A.; Ubajaka, C. F.

2012-01-01

410

Synergetic Antimicrobial Effects of Mixtures of Ethiopian Honeys and Ginger Powder Extracts on Standard and Resistant Clinical Bacteria Isolates  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate antimicrobial effects of mixtures of Ethiopian honeys and ginger rhizome powder extracts on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli (R), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (R). Methods. Agar diffusion and broth assays were performed to determine susceptibility of these standard and resistant clinical bacteria isolates using honey-ginger powder extract mixtures. Results. Honey-ginger powder extract mixtures produced the highest mean inhibition (25.62?mm ± 2.55) compared to the use of honeys (21.63?mm ± 3.30) or ginger extracts (19.23?mm ± 3.42) individually. The ranges of inhibitions produced by honey-ginger extract mixtures on susceptible test organisms (26–30?mm) and resistant strains (range: 19–27?mm) were higher compared to 7–22?mm and 0–14?mm by standard antibiotic discs. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of mixture of honeys-ginger extracts were 6.25% (0.625?v/mL) on the susceptible bacteria compared to 75% for resistant clinical isolates. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of honey-ginger extracts was 12.5% (0.125?g/mL) for all the test organisms. Conclusion. The result of this study showed that honey-ginger powder extract mixtures have the potential to serve as cheap source of antibacterial agents especially for the drug resistant bacteria strains. PMID:24772182

Ewnetu, Yalemwork; Lemma, Wossenseged; Birhane, Nega

2014-01-01

411

Minim Typing - A Rapid and Low Cost MLST Based Typing Tool for Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Here we report a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based genotyping method for Klebsiella pneumoniae utilising high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis of fragments within the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) loci. The approach is termed mini-MLST or Minim typing and it has previously been applied to Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium. Six SNPs were derived from concatenated MLST sequences on the basis of maximisation of the Simpsons Index of Diversity (D). DNA fragments incorporating these SNPs and predicted to be suitable for HRM analysis were designed. Using the assumption that HRM alleles are defined by G+C content, Minim typing using six fragments was predicted to provide a D?=?0.979 against known STs. The method was tested against 202 K. pneumoniae using a blinded approach in which the MLST analyses were performed after the HRM analyses. The HRM-based alleles were indeed in accordance with G+C content, and the Minim typing identified known STs and flagged new STs. The tonB MLST locus was determined to be very diverse, and the two Minim fragments located herein contribute greatly to the resolving power. However these fragments are refractory to amplification in a minority of isolates. Therefore, we assessed the performance of two additional formats: one using only the four fragments located outside the tonB gene (D?=?0.929), and the other using HRM data from these four fragments in conjunction with sequencing of the tonB MLST fragment (D?=?0.995). The HRM assays were developed on the Rotorgene 6000, and the method was shown to also be robust on the LightCycler 480, allowing a 384-well high through-put format. The assay provides rapid, robust and low-cost typing with fully portable results that can directly be related to current MLST data. Minim typing in combination with molecular screening for antibiotic resistance markers can be a powerful surveillance tool kit. PMID:22428067

Andersson, Patiyan; Tong, Steven Y. C.; Bell, Jan M.; Turnidge, John D.; Giffard, Philip M.

2012-01-01

412

Klebsiella pneumoniae Bloodstream Infection: Epidemiology and Impact of Inappropriate Empirical Therapy.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance associated with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) among K. pneumoniae is endemic in southern Europe. We retrospectively analyzed the impact of resistance on the appropriateness of empirical therapy and treatment outcomes of K. pneumoniae bloodstream infections (BSIs) during a 2-year period at a 1420-bed tertiary-care teaching hospital in northern Italy. We identified 217 unique patient BSIs, including 92 (42%) KPC-positive, 49 (23%) ESBL-positive, and 1 (0.5%) metallo-beta-lactamase-positive isolates. Adequate empirical therapy was administered in 74% of infections caused by non-ESBL non-KPC strains, versus 33%