Science.gov

Sample records for kletychen otgovor sled

  1. SLED phenomenology: curvature vs. volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert

    2016-03-01

    We assess the question whether the SLED (Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions) model admits phenomenologically viable solutions with 4D maximal symmetry. We take into account a finite brane width and a scale invariance (SI) breaking dilaton-brane coupling, both of which should be included in a realistic setup. Provided that the brane tension and the microscopic size of the brane take generic values set by the fundamental bulk Planck scale, we find that either the 4D curvature or the size of the extra dimensions is unacceptably large. Since this result is independent of the dilaton-brane couplings, it provides the biggest challenge to the SLED program.

  2. Nonholonomic diffusion of a stochastic sled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Peter; Marchegiani, Giampiero; Marchesoni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    A sled is a stylized mechanical model of a system which is constrained to move in space in a specific orientation, i.e., in the direction of the runners of the sled or a blade. The negation of motion transverse to the runners renders the sled a nonholonomic mechanical system. In this paper we report on the unexpected and fascinating richness of the dynamics of such a sled if it is subject to random forces. Specifically we show that the ensuing random dynamics is characterized by relatively smooth sections of motion interspersed by episodes of persistent tumbling (change of orientation) and sharp reversals resembling the random walks of bacterial cells. In the presence of self-propulsion, the diffusivity of the sled can be enhanced and suppressed depending on the directionality and strength of the propulsive force.

  3. Nonholonomic diffusion of a stochastic sled.

    PubMed

    Jung, Peter; Marchegiani, Giampiero; Marchesoni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    A sled is a stylized mechanical model of a system which is constrained to move in space in a specific orientation, i.e., in the direction of the runners of the sled or a blade. The negation of motion transverse to the runners renders the sled a nonholonomic mechanical system. In this paper we report on the unexpected and fascinating richness of the dynamics of such a sled if it is subject to random forces. Specifically we show that the ensuing random dynamics is characterized by relatively smooth sections of motion interspersed by episodes of persistent tumbling (change of orientation) and sharp reversals resembling the random walks of bacterial cells. In the presence of self-propulsion, the diffusivity of the sled can be enhanced and suppressed depending on the directionality and strength of the propulsive force. PMID:26871121

  4. Issues Associated with a Hypersonic Maglev Sled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haney, Joseph W.; Lenzo, J.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic levitation has been explored for application from motors to transportation. All of these applications have been at velocities where the physics of the air or operating fluids are fairly well known. Application of Maglev to hypersonic velocities (Mach greater than 5) presents many opportunities, but also issues that require understanding and resolution. Use of Maglev to upgrade the High Speed Test Track at Holloman Air Force Base in Alamogordo New Mexico is an actual hypersonic application that provides the opportunity to improve test capabilities. However, there are several design issues that require investigation. This paper presents an overview of the application of Maglev to the test track and the issues associated with developing a hypersonic Maglev sled. The focus of this paper is to address the issues with the Maglev sled design, rather than the issues with the development of superconducting magnets of the sled system.

  5. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  6. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  7. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  8. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  9. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  10. [Sled dog racing and animal welfare aspects].

    PubMed

    Schminke, A; Möbius, G

    1998-03-01

    Transport, housing and the dimensions of strain during training and race are important aspects of animal welfare. The race veterinarian has a great responsibility. He is responsible for the treatment of injured dogs and he has to give advice on all medical and animal welfare questions. The presence of the veterinarian during the entire race is very important. These veterinarians should have special knowledge of small animals and of sled dogs in particular. There should be health checks of sled dogs before and after racing similar to horse sport tournaments. PMID:9581387

  11. Molecular sled sequences are common in mammalian proteins

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Kan; Blainey, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work revealed a new class of molecular machines called molecular sleds, which are small basic molecules that bind and slide along DNA with the ability to carry cargo along DNA. Here, we performed biochemical and single-molecule flow stretching assays to investigate the basis of sliding activity in molecular sleds. In particular, we identified the functional core of pVIc, the first molecular sled characterized; peptide functional groups that control sliding activity; and propose a model for the sliding activity of molecular sleds. We also observed widespread DNA binding and sliding activity among basic polypeptide sequences that implicate mammalian nuclear localization sequences and many cell penetrating peptides as molecular sleds. These basic protein motifs exhibit weak but physiologically relevant sequence-nonspecific DNA affinity. Our findings indicate that many mammalian proteins contain molecular sled sequences and suggest the possibility that substantial undiscovered sliding activity exists among nuclear mammalian proteins. PMID:26857546

  12. Molecular sled sequences are common in mammalian proteins.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Kan; Blainey, Paul C

    2016-03-18

    Recent work revealed a new class of molecular machines called molecular sleds, which are small basic molecules that bind and slide along DNA with the ability to carry cargo along DNA. Here, we performed biochemical and single-molecule flow stretching assays to investigate the basis of sliding activity in molecular sleds. In particular, we identified the functional core of pVIc, the first molecular sled characterized; peptide functional groups that control sliding activity; and propose a model for the sliding activity of molecular sleds. We also observed widespread DNA binding and sliding activity among basic polypeptide sequences that implicate mammalian nuclear localization sequences and many cell penetrating peptides as molecular sleds. These basic protein motifs exhibit weak but physiologically relevant sequence-nonspecific DNA affinity. Our findings indicate that many mammalian proteins contain molecular sled sequences and suggest the possibility that substantial undiscovered sliding activity exists among nuclear mammalian proteins. PMID:26857546

  13. Gouge initiation in high-velocity rocket sled testing

    SciTech Connect

    Tachau, R.D.M.; Trucano, T.G.; Yew, C.H.

    1994-07-01

    A model is presented which describes the formation of surface damage ``gouging`` on the rails that guide rocket sleds. An unbalanced sled can randomly cause a very shallow-angle, oblique impact between the sled shoe and the rail. This damage phenomenon has also been observed in high-velocity guns where the projectile is analogous to the moving sled shoe and the gun barrel is analogous to the stationary rail. At sufficiently high velocity, the oblique impact will produce a thin hot layer of soft material on the contact surfaces. Under the action of a normal moving load, the soft layer lends itself to an anti-symmetric deformation and the formation of a ``hump`` in front of the moving load. A gouge is formed when this hump is overrun by the sled shoe. The phenomenon is simulated numerically using the CTH strong shock physics code, and the results are in good agreement with experimental observation.

  14. Reference PMHS Sled Tests to Assess Submarining.

    PubMed

    Uriot, Jérôme; Potier, Pascal; Baudrit, Pascal; Trosseille, Xavier; Petit, Philippe; Richard, Olivier; Compigne, Sabine; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Douard, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Sled tests focused on pelvis behavior and submarining can be found in the literature. However, they were performed either with rigid seats or with commercial seats. The objective of this study was to get reference tests to assess the submarining ability of dummies in more realistic conditions than on rigid seat, but still in a repeatable and reproducible setup. For this purpose, a semi-rigid seat was developed, which mimics the behavior of real seats, although it is made of rigid plates and springs that are easy to reproduce and simulate with an FE model. In total, eight PMHS sled tests were performed on this semirigid seat to get data in two different configurations: first in a front seat configuration that was designed to prevent submarining, then in a rear seat configuration with adjusted spring stiffness to generate submarining. All subjects sustained extensive rib fractures from the shoulder belt loading. No pelvis fractures and no submarining were observed in the front seat configuration, but two subjects sustained lumbar vertebrae fractures. In the rear seat configuration, all subjects sustained pelvic fractures and demonstrated submarining. Corridors were constructed for the external forces and the PMHS kinematics. They are provided in this paper as new reference tests to assess the biofidelity of human surrogates in different configurations that either result in submarining or do not. In future, it is intended to analyze further seat and restraint system configurations to be able to define a submarining predictor. PMID:26660745

  15. Speeding up biomolecular interactions by molecular sledding

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Turkin, Alexander; Zhang, Lei; Marcozzi, Alessio; Mangel, Walter F.; Herrmann, Andreas; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2015-10-07

    In numerous biological processes associations involve a protein with its binding partner, an event that is preceded by a diffusion-mediated search bringing the two partners together. Often hindered by crowding in biologically relevant environments, three-dimensional diffusion can be slow and result in long bimolecular association times. Moreover, the initial association step between two binding partners often represents a rate-limiting step in biotechnologically relevant reactions. We also demonstrate the practical use of an 11-a.a. DNA-interacting peptide derived from adenovirus to reduce the dimensionality of diffusional search processes and speed up associations between biological macromolecules. We functionalize binding partners with the peptidemore » and demonstrate that the ability of the peptide to one-dimensionally diffuse along DNA results in a 20-fold reduction in reaction time. We also show that modifying PCR primers with the peptide sled enables significant acceleration of standard PCR reactions.« less

  16. Speeding up biomolecular interactions by molecular sledding

    SciTech Connect

    Turkin, Alexander; Zhang, Lei; Marcozzi, Alessio; Mangel, Walter F.; Herrmann, Andreas; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2015-10-07

    In numerous biological processes associations involve a protein with its binding partner, an event that is preceded by a diffusion-mediated search bringing the two partners together. Often hindered by crowding in biologically relevant environments, three-dimensional diffusion can be slow and result in long bimolecular association times. Moreover, the initial association step between two binding partners often represents a rate-limiting step in biotechnologically relevant reactions. We also demonstrate the practical use of an 11-a.a. DNA-interacting peptide derived from adenovirus to reduce the dimensionality of diffusional search processes and speed up associations between biological macromolecules. We functionalize binding partners with the peptide and demonstrate that the ability of the peptide to one-dimensionally diffuse along DNA results in a 20-fold reduction in reaction time. We also show that modifying PCR primers with the peptide sled enables significant acceleration of standard PCR reactions.

  17. 7. SHOWING METHOD OF SLEDDING WIND CABLE DOWN YAKI TRAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SHOWING METHOD OF SLEDDING WIND CABLE DOWN YAKI TRAIL TO THE BRIDGE, WEIGHT OF CABLE AND DRUM APPROXIMATELY 2200 POUNDS - Kaibab Trail Suspension Bridge, Spanning Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  18. The BATSE SLED: The problem and the correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestrade, John Patrick

    1991-01-01

    The Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) has been in space for 4 months and, by anyone's reckoning, is performing better than even the most optimistic pre-flight predictions. That doesn't mean there haven't been some small surprises. Because of the discreteness of gamma-ray energies available to us in pre-flight testing, we could not subject the instrument to the continuous distribution of energies it now sees in space. Therefore, it was not until the beginning of mission operations that a small non-linearity was discovered in the low energy region of the SPD spectra. The nickname for this depression is the SLED (Spectroscopy Low-Energy Depression). Sample spectra for module 6 at two gains (1X and 0.4X) are given. Note that the position of the sled is gain-independent in channel space. A further study on a non-flight module discovered the cause lay in the spectroscopy analog electronics. Above a certain energy threshold, the digital signal from the SPEC-FAST2 discriminator causes, in effect, an extra small amount of charge to be added to the SHER analog input. The laboratory measurements of SHER output energy as a function of input energy are presented. The change of slope at the point of the SLED results in narrower bin widths for the channels in that region. The SLED is approximately 5 channels wide. It should be mentioned that below the SLED and for many decades above the SLED the response is extremely linear. The proposed fix was to move the lower straight line up to match the extrapolation of the upper straight line, shown by the dotted line. In effect, this means reassigning channel numbers. All channel edges lower than the SLED are moved a fixed amount to higher channel numbers. Channel edges in the SLED are moved a different amount depending on their position. The latter obviously results in narrower channel widths in energy space.

  19. Rocket Sled Propelled Testing of a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meacham, Michael B.; Kennett, Andrew; Townsend, Derik J.; Marti, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Decelerators (IADs) have traditionally been tested in wind tunnels. As the limitations of these test facilities are reached, other avenues must be pursued. The IAD being tested is a Supersonic IAD (SIAD), which attaches just aft of the heatshield around the perimeter of an entry body. This 'attached torus' SIAD is meant to improve the accuracy of landing for robotic class missions to Mars and allow for potentially increased payloads. The SIAD Design Verification (SDV) test aims to qualify the SIAD by applying a targeted aerodynamic load to the vehicle. While many test architectures were researched, a rocket sled track was ultimately chosen to be the most cost effective way to achieve the desired dynamic pressures. The Supersonic Naval Ordnance Research Track (SNORT) at the Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (NAWCWD) China Lake is a four mile test track, traditionally used for warhead and ejection seat testing. Prior to SDV, inflatable drag bodies have been tested on this particular track. Teams at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and NAWCWD collaborate together to design and fabricate one of the largest sleds ever built. The SDV sled is comprised of three individual sleds: a Pusher Sled which holds the solid booster rockets, an Item Sled which supports the test vehicle, and a Camera Sled that is pushed in front for in-situ footage and measurements. The JPL-designed Test Vehicle has a full-scale heatshield shape and contains all instrumentation and inflation systems necessary to inflate and test a SIAD. The first campaign that is run at SNORT tested all hardware and instrumentation before the SIAD was ready to be tested. For each of the three tests in this campaign, the number of rockets and top speed was increased and the data analyzed to ensure the hardware is safe at the necessary accelerations and aerodynamic loads.

  20. SLEDs and Swept Source Laser Technology for OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duelk, Marcus; Hsu, Kevin

    EXALOS offers broadband and high-power superluminescent light-emitting diodes (SLEDs) and high-speed wavelength-swept lasers, covering various visible and near-infrared wavelength regions (390-1,700 nm). These diverse wavelengths are realized in different semiconductor material systems such as GaN, GaAs, or InP. Those light sources are used in various fields such as navigation, optical coherence tomography (OCT), metrology, sensing, and microscopy. Detailed discussions on SLED characteristics and key swept-source OCT system design parameters are presented.

  1. 7. ROCKET SLED ON DECK OF TEST STAND 15. Photo ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ROCKET SLED ON DECK OF TEST STAND 1-5. Photo no. "6085, G-EAFB-16 SEP 52." Looking south to machine shop. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-5, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Noise assessment of the rocket sled test track operation at Jolloman AFB, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, W.J.

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the results of noise data measurements of the Holloman AFB rocket-sled test-track operations. Impulse and community noise measurements were made to determine the impact of the rocket-sled noise on the surrounding community. A worst case sled run was measured and used to determine that the rocket sled has very little impact on the community for a worst-case rocket-sled run and little or no impact for the majority of the runs. Recommendations were made to limit the number of people exposed to the rocket sled noise and require test-track personnel to wear hearing protection. Sonic-boom measurement equipment should be purchased to document all sonic booms created by the rocket sled.

  3. Adjustable Shock Test Sled for Haversine Pulses at 250 fps

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hartwig; Brent Hower; Aaron Seaholm

    2008-05-05

    New test requirements were developed by Sandia National Laboratory to simulate a regime of shock testing not previously performed at the Kansas City Plant operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies. These environments were unique in that they involved amplitude of shock >1000g with relatively long pulse durations (greater 5 ms but less than 10 ms) and involved velocity changes up to 235 ft/sec. Ten months were available to develop, design, manufacture and prove-in this new capability. We designed a new shock sled to deliver this new family of shock environments in a laboratory test. The performance range of the new sled includes five specific shocks (1000 g – 8 ms, 1300 - 6 ms, 1500 g – 5.4 ms, 1950 g – 6 ms, 2250 g – 5.4 ms; all haversine shaped), and it also incorporates adjustability to accommodate new shocks within this range. These shock environments result in velocity changes ranging from 160 fps to 250 fps. The test sled accommodates test articles weighing up to 20 lbs and measuring up to 10” along any axis.

  4. Sonic boom measurements from accelerating supersonic tracked sleds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Supersonic sled tests on the Sandia 1524-m (5000-ft) track generate sonic booms of sufficient intensity to allow some airblast measurements at distance scales not obtained from wind tunnel or flight tests. During acceleration, an emitted curved boom wave propagates to a caustic, or focus. Detailed measurements around these caustics may help to clarify the overpressure magnification which can occur from real aircraft operations. Six fixed pressure gages have been operated to document the general noise field, and a mobile array of twelve gages.

  5. A Transformational Curriculum Model: A Wilderness Travel Adventure Dog Sledding in Temagami.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leckie, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Personal narrative links elements of a dog sledding trip with the transformational curriculum model as applied to outdoor education. Describes the physical, mental, and spiritual challenges of a seven-day winter camping and dog sledding trip, during which students learned responsibility through experience and natural consequences and realized the…

  6. Sea-Ice Thickness Monitoring from Sensor Equipped Inuit Sleds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodwell, Shane; Jones, Bryn; Wilkinson, Jeremy

    2013-04-01

    A novel instrumentation package capable of measuring sea-ice thickness autonomously has been designed for long-term deployment upon the dog drawn sleds of the indigenous peoples of the Arctic. The device features a range of sensors that have been integrated with an electromagnetic induction device. These include a global positioning system, temperature sensor, tilt meter and accelerometer. Taken together, this system is able to provide accurate (+/-5cm) measurements of ice thickness with spatio-temporal resolution ranging from 1m to 5m every second. Autonomous data transmission capability is provided via GSM, inspired by the fact that many of the coastal communities in Greenland possess modern cell-phone infrastructure, enabling an inexpensive means of data-retrieval. Such data is essential in quantifying the sea-ice mass balance; given that existing satellite based systems are unable to measure ice-thickness directly. Field-campaign results from a prototype device, deployed in the North West of Greenland during three consecutive seasons, have demonstrated successful proof-of-concept when compared to data provided by ice mass balance (IMB) stations provided at fixed positions along the route of the sled. This project highlights not only the use of novel polar technology, but how opportunistic deployment using an existing roving platform (Inuit sledges) can provide economical, yet highly valuable, data for instrumentation development.

  7. Evaluation of plasma inflammatory cytokine concentrations in racing sled dogs.

    PubMed

    von Pfeil, Dirsko J F; Cummings, Bethany P; Loftus, John P; Levine, Corri B; Mann, Sabine; Downey, Robert L; Griffitts, Caroline; Wakshlag, Joseph J

    2015-12-01

    In human athletes significant changes in cytokine concentrations secondary to exercise have been observed. This prospective study evaluated the effect of a multi-day stage sled dog race on plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Samples from 20 dogs were harvested prior to and on days 2 and 8 of an 8-day race. Exercise resulted in significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-8 as well as increases of MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations (P-value between 0.01 and < 0.0001 for all parameters). The proportion of values for IL-2 that were below the detection limit increased from 40% on day 0 to 75% on day 2 and decreased on day 8 to 40% (P = 0.04). Racing sled dogs show cytokine-concentration changes that are different from those in humans. PMID:26663920

  8. SNR of swept SLEDs and swept lasers for OCT.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bart; Atia, Walid; Flanders, Dale C; Kuznetsov, Mark; Goldberg, Brian D; Kemp, Nate; Whitney, Peter

    2016-05-16

    A back-to-back comparison of a tunable narrow-band-filtered SLED (TSLED) and a swept laser are made for OCT applications. The two sources are similar in terms of sweep speed, tuning range and coherence length. A fundamental issue with a TSLED is that the RIN is proportional to 1/linewidth, meaning that the longer the coherence length, the higher the RIN and clock jitter. We show that the TSLED has an SNR limit that causes noise streaks at points of high reflection in images. The laser, which is shot noise limited, does not exhibit this effect. We add noise terms proportional to the sample power times reference power to standard swept source SNR expressions to account for the SNR limit. PMID:27409939

  9. Energetic particle studies at Mars by SLED on Phobos 2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Afonin, V. V.; Gringauz, K. I.; Kecskemety, K.; Keppler, E.; Kirsch, E.; Richter, A.; Rusznyak, P.; Schwingenschuh, K.; O'Sullivan, D.; Somogyi, A. J.; Szabo, L.; Thompson, A.; Varga, A.; Yeroshenko, Ye.; Witte, M.

    1992-09-01

    A preliminary overview of particle records obtained by the SLED instrument on Phobos 2, Feb-Mar, 1989 during Mars encounter, is presented. Data obtained while in close elliptical orbit around the planet (pericenter <900 km), in both spin and three axis stabilised mode, display evidence of energy related particle shadowing by the body of Mars. Flux enhancements, inside the magnetopause, in the approximate range 30 - 350 keV, recorded in the same general location at <900 km above Mars over an 8 day period during three consecutive elliptical orbits, are described. Possible explanations of these enhancements include the presence of quasi-trapped radiation at the planet and the detection of the propagation of accelerated particles along the boundary of the magnetopause from the day to the night side of Mars.

  10. Energetic particle studies at Mars by SLED on PHOBOS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Afonin, V. V.; Gringauz, K. I.; Kecskemety, K.; Keppler, E.; Kirsch, E.; Richter, A.; Rusznyak, P.; Schwingenschuh, K.; O'Sullivan, D.

    1992-09-01

    Data recorded by the SLED instruments on Phobos 2 while it was in the first four elliptical orbits and during 114 circular orbits about Mars (February-March, 1989) are presented. Data obtained while in close elliptical orbits around the planet display evidence of energy-related particle shadowing by the body of Mars; this effect was also sometimes observed in circular orbits at an altitude of 6330 km above the planet. Possible explanations of this phenomenon include the presence of quasi-trapped radiation of Mars and the detected propagation of accelerated particles along the boundary of the magnetopause from the dayside to the nightside of the planet. In circular orbits, many significant flux enhancement events, in the range 30-200 keV, were detected adjacent to the bow shock, indicating that the spacecraft traversed strongly anisotropic jets of energetic particles, which are suggested to contain O(+) ions.

  11. Driven microswimmers on a 2D substrate: A stochastic towed sled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchegiani, Giampiero; Marchesoni, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    We investigate, both numerically and analytically, the diffusion properties of a stochastic sled sliding on a substrate, subject to a constant towing force. The problem is motivated by the growing interest in controlling transport of artificial microswimmers in 2D geometries at low Reynolds numbers. We simulated both symmetric and asymmetric towed sleds. Remarkable properties of their mobilities and diffusion constants include sidewise drifts and excess diffusion peaks. We interpret our numerical findings by making use of stochastic approximation techniques.

  12. A genetic dissection of breed composition and performance enhancement in the Alaskan sled dog

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Alaskan sled dog offers a rare opportunity to investigate the development of a dog breed based solely on performance, rather than appearance, thus setting the breed apart from most others. Several established breeds, many of which are recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC), have been introduced into the sled dog population to enhance racing performance. We have used molecular methods to ascertain the constitutive breeds used to develop successful sled dog lines, and in doing so, determined the breed origins of specific performance-related behaviors. One hundred and ninety-nine Alaskan sled dogs were genotyped using 96 microsatellite markers that span the canine genome. These data were compared to that from 141 similarly genotyped purebred dog breeds. Sled dogs were evaluated for breed composition based on a variety of performance phenotypes including speed, endurance and work ethic, and the data stratified based on population structure. Results We observe that the Alaskan sled dog has a unique molecular signature and that the genetic profile is sufficient for identifying dogs bred for sprint versus distance. When evaluating contributions of existing breeds we find that the Alaskan Malamute and Siberian Husky contributions are associated with enhanced endurance; Pointer and Saluki are associated with enhanced speed and the Anatolian Shepherd demonstrates a positive influence on work ethic. Conclusion We have established a genetic breed profile for the Alaskan sled dog, identified profile variance between sprint and distance dogs, and established breeds associated with enhanced performance attributes. These data set the stage for mapping studies aimed at finding genes that are associated with athletic attributes integral to the high performing Alaskan sled dog. PMID:20649949

  13. Driven microswimmers on a 2D substrate: A stochastic towed sled model

    SciTech Connect

    Marchegiani, Giampiero; Marchesoni, Fabio

    2015-11-14

    We investigate, both numerically and analytically, the diffusion properties of a stochastic sled sliding on a substrate, subject to a constant towing force. The problem is motivated by the growing interest in controlling transport of artificial microswimmers in 2D geometries at low Reynolds numbers. We simulated both symmetric and asymmetric towed sleds. Remarkable properties of their mobilities and diffusion constants include sidewise drifts and excess diffusion peaks. We interpret our numerical findings by making use of stochastic approximation techniques.

  14. Diet of racing sled dogs affects erythrocyte depression by stress.

    PubMed

    Adkins, T O; Kronfeld, D S

    1982-09-01

    Fourteen racing huskies were matched into pairs then assigned to two diets, a commercial stress diet and an experimental diet. Proportions of protein: fat:carbohydrate on an available energy basis were 23:57:20 in a commercial stress diet and 28:69:3 in an experimental diet. The team participated in the 1979 Iditarod Trail race and was overtaken by an episode of diarrhea. Clinical signs were suggestive of parvovirus infection; high serum titers of parvo antibodies were found after the race. Blood examination showed normal levels of metabolites, electrolytes and enzymes after the race. Erythrocyte counts were depressed significantly during the race, by 15% in dogs fed an experimental diet and by 27% in those fed a commercial stress diet. Erythrocyte parameters have also become depressed during the racing season in middle distance sled dogs fed 28% protein (energy basis) but not 32 or 39%. Depressed red blood cell production has been demonstrated previously in dogs subjected to stress induced experimentally in several ways, and its restoration has been affected by dietary protein. Erythrocyte parameters may be useful indicies of the degree of stress in a dog as well as the adequacy of its protein intake during stress. PMID:17422178

  15. Simultaneous processing of photographic and accelerator array data from sled impact experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ash, M. E.

    1982-12-01

    A Quaternion-Kalman filter model is derived to simultaneously analyze accelerometer array and photographic data from sled impact experiments. Formulas are given for the quaternion representation of rotations, the propagation of dynamical states and their partial derivatives, the observables and their partial derivatives, and the Kalman filter update of the state given the observables. The observables are accelerometer and tachometer velocity data of the sled relative to the track, linear accelerometer array and photographic data of the subject relative to the sled, and ideal angular accelerometer data. The quaternion constraints enter through perfect constraint observations and normalization after a state update. Lateral and fore-aft impact tests are analyzed with FORTRAN IV software written using the formulas of this report.

  16. Switching speed effect of phase shift keying in SLED for generating high power microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zheng-Feng; Cheng, Cheng; Yu, Jian; Chen, Huai-Bi; Ning, Hui

    2016-01-01

    SLAC energy doubler (SLED) type radio-frequency pulse compressors are widely used in large-scale particle accelerators for converting long-duration moderate-power input pulses into short-duration high-power output pulses. Phase shift keying (PSK) is one of the key components in SLED pulse compression systems. Performance of the PSK will influence the output characteristics of the SLED, such as the rise-time of the output pulse, maximal peak power gain, and energy efficiency. In this paper, a high power microwave source based on power combining and pulse compression of conventional klystrons is introduced. The effects of nonideal PSK with slow switching speed and PSK without power output during the switching process are investigated, and the experimental results with nonideal PSK agree well with the analytical results.

  17. EVALUATION OF A TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETRY SLED FOR MAPPING SOIL WATER CONTENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid method for mapping soil water content would be valuable for agricultural and scientific applications such as precision irrigation. A sled type measurement device with a time domain reflectometer and global positioning system was evaluated for measuring soil water content following tillage. T...

  18. Broadband SLED-based light source (BeST-SLEDTM) and spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Dattner, Yonathan

    2016-03-01

    A small footprint, low power, cost effective single mode fiber coupled broadband light source and spectrometer is presented. It is based on Super Luminescent Diode (SLED) devices and a compact design enables coverage of the 1250 nm-1750 nm region with a total optical power of 50 mW at the output of the fiber. This Broad Spectrum Tunable Super Luminescent (BeST-SLEDTM) light source can operate at temperatures ranging from -40°C to 60°C, and resides in a custom designed 26-pin package. The fiber is a polarization maintaining fiber with a FC/APC connector at the output. Three variations of the BeST-SLEDTM were developed, BEST-SLED™ Bands, BeST-SLEDTM Tunable and BeST-SLEDTM FTNIR. In the Bands version six SLEDs were packaged allowing for one SLED on at a time or any combination of the SLEDs on. In the Tunable version an Acoustic Optical Tunable Filter (AOTF) was integrated into the package allowing the user to select one wavelength at a time to pass into the fiber with resolution of ~1 nm @1550nm. In the FTNIR version, a Silicon Photonic based interferometer (the Nano-SpecTM) was integrated into the package for a Fourier Transform Near Infrared based Spectrometer and light source. The BeST-SLEDTM is being used in process control applications such as steam quality measurements, oil in water, gas composition and air quality monitoring.

  19. Effect of the coefficient of friction of a running surface on sprint time in a sled-towing exercise.

    PubMed

    Linthorne, Nicholas P; Cooper, James E

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of the coefficient of friction of a running surface on an athlete's sprint time in a sled-towing exercise. The coefficients of friction of four common sports surfaces (a synthetic athletics track, a natural grass rugby pitch, a 3G football pitch, and an artificial grass hockey pitch) were determined from the force required to tow a weighted sled across the surface. Timing gates were then used to measure the 30-m sprint time for six rugby players when towing a sled of varied weight across the surfaces. There were substantial differences between the coefficients of friction for the four surfaces (micro = 0.21-0.58), and in the sled-towing exercise the athlete's 30-m sprint time increased linearly with increasing sled weight. The hockey pitch (which had the lowest coefficient of friction) produced a substantially lower rate of increase in 30-m sprint time, but there were no significant differences between the other surfaces. The results indicate that although an athlete's sprint time in a sled-towing exercise is affected by the coefficient offriction of the surface, the relationship relationship between the athlete's rate of increase in 30-m sprint time and the coefficient of friction is more complex than expected. PMID:23898689

  20. Head Trajectories of Restrained Child Dummy in Sled Tests Over 56 kph Delta-V

    PubMed Central

    Hauschild, Hans W.

    2000-01-01

    Child restraint devices (CRDs) have been used for many years to protect children in automotive crashes. The following data was collected to find out whether current restraints would be able to pass more stringent dynamic testing at higher changes in velocity (delta-v), such as the NHTSA NCAP program or the IIHS offset barrier test, and to look at one possible misuse mode. Three basic types of CRDs were sled tested at a delta-v between 57.5 & 61.4 kph (35.7 & 38.1 mph). Data from each test are presented and compared. Comparisons are made between each seat’s sled test results and various countries’ standards. PMID:11558089

  1. Performance Evaluation of Child Safety Seats in Far-Side Lateral Sled Tests at Varying Speeds

    PubMed Central

    Ghati, Yoganand; Menon, Rajiv A.; Milone, Mary; Lankarani, Hamid; Oliveres, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    Protection of children in Child Safety Seats (CSS) in side impact crashes has been a topic of recent studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of CSS in far-side impacts through a series of sled tests conducted at varying test speeds. Forty eight sled tests were conducted at three speeds (24 km/h, 29 km/h and 36 km/h), under two different CSS attachment conditions (LATCH and seat belt attached), using rear facing and forward facing CSS from four different manufacturers. Analyses were conducted to examine head retention within the CSS, velocity of the head as it passes an imaginary plane (cross over into other occupant space or door), lateral trajectory of the head and knee; head, chest and pelvis accelerations; neck and lumbar loads and moments. In addition to these parameters, the CSS were visually inspected for structural integrity after each test. Results from these sled tests highlighted the differential performance of CSS in far-side impacts. During the tests, all CSS experienced significant lateral movement irrespective of attachment type. In rear facing CSS tests, one of the designs failed as the seat disengaged from its base. In forward facing CSS tests, it was observed that the seat belt attached CSS experienced less rotational motion than the LATCH attached CSS. ATD head retention within the seat was not achieved with either CSS attachments at any speed. The findings from this study augment the current efforts to define regulatory sled setup procedure for far-side impact crashes involving children in CSS, which currently does not exist and will eventually further the protection of children in automobiles. PMID:20184846

  2. The SLED instrument on the PHOBOS mission to Mars and its moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan M. P.

    1989-09-01

    The twin-telescope particle-detector system SLED (energy range 30 keV to 30 MeV), which was built in Ireland, is briefly described. Also, an account is given of its successful performance in space, as attested by the acquisition of unique data during the 204-day cruise phase of the Phobos mission to Mars and its moons and during Mars encounter.

  3. High-power rf pulse compression with SLED-II at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Nantista, C.; Kroll, N.M.; Farkas, Z.D.; Lavine, T.L.; Menegat, A.; Ruth, R.D.; Tantawi, S.G.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wilson, P.B.

    1993-04-01

    Increasing the peak rf power available from X-band microwave tubes by means of rf pulse compression is envisioned as a way of achieving the few-hundred-megawatt power levels needed to drive a next-generation linear collider with 50--100 MW klystrons. SLED-II is a method of pulse compression similar in principal to the SLED method currently in use on the SLC and the LEP injector linac. It utilizes low-los resonant delay lines in place of the storage cavities of the latter. This produces the added benefit of a flat-topped output pulse. At SLAC, we have designed and constructed a prototype SLED-II pulse-compression system which operates in the circular TE{sub 01} mode. It includes a circular-guide 3-dB coupler and other novel components. Low-power and initial high-power tests have been made, yielding a peak power multiplication of 4.8 at an efficiency of 40%. The system will be used in providing power for structure tests in the ASTA (Accelerator Structures Test Area) bunker. An upgraded second prototype will have improved efficiency and will serve as a model for the pulse compression system of the NLCTA (Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator).

  4. The NIWA seamount sled: An effective epibenthic sledge for sampling epifauna on seamounts and rough seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Malcolm R.; Stewart, Rob

    2016-02-01

    Epibenthic sleds, sledges and dredges have been widely used for sampling deep-sea macro and megafaunal communities, providing extensive information on benthic biodiversity and distribution patterns. Different countries and institutes have developed a variety of gear types, but these are often unsuitable for sampling rough seafloor, such as seamount and ridge topography. The NIWA seamount sled, a form of epibenthic sledge, is an inexpensive yet robust and versatile sampling device used to obtain invertebrate and rock samples. It incorporates features from a number of existing designs that have produced a versatile sled that can be used on all habitats from mud through to steep and rocky seamounts. It has been used for many research surveys around New Zealand, where it has proven an efficient sampler of target fauna (large macro- and mega-benthic epifauna). Its design has also been adopted by institutes in France and China for surveying seamounts, and it is suggested it could be used as a simple standardised design for sampling seamounts internationally.

  5. Mercury interferes with endogenous antioxidant levels in Yukon River subsistence-fed sled dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, Kriya L.; Reynolds, Arleigh J.; Gerlach, S. Craig; Duffy, Lawrence K.

    2011-10-01

    Before adopting modern corn-and-grain-based western processed diets, circumpolar people had a high fat and protein subsistence diet and exhibited a low incidence of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some health benefits are attributable to a subsistence diet that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants. Pollution, both global and local, is a threat to wild foods, as it introduces contaminants into the food system. Northern indigenous people and their sled dogs are exposed to a variety of contaminants, including mercury, that accumulate in the fish and game that they consume. The sled dogs in Alaskan villages are maintained on the same subsistence foods as their human counterparts, primarily salmon, and therefore they can be used as a food systems model for researching the impact of changes in dietary components. In this study, the antioxidant status and mercury levels were measured for village sled dogs along the Yukon River. A reference kennel, maintained on a nutritionally balanced commercial diet, was also measured for comparison. Total antioxidant status was inversely correlated with the external stressor mercury.

  6. Upgrade of the SLAC SLED II Pulse Compression System Based on Recent High Power Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Vlieks, A.E.; Fowkes, W.R.; Loewen, R.J.; Tantawi, S.G.; /SLAC

    2011-09-06

    In the Next Linear Collider (NLC) it is expected that the high power rf components be able to handle peak power levels in excess of 400 MW. We present recent results of high power tests designed to investigate the RF breakdown limits of the X-band pulse compression system used at SLAC. (SLED-II). Results of these tests show that both the TE{sub 01}-TE{sub 10} mode converter and the 4-port hybrid have a maximum useful power limit of 220-250 MW. Based on these tests, modifications of these components have been undertaken to improve their peak field handling capability. Results of these modifications will be presented. As part of an international effort to develop a new 0.5-1.5 TeV electron-positron linear collider for the 21st century, SLAC has been working towards a design, referred to as 'The Next Linear Collider' (NLC), which will operate at 11.424 GHz and utilize 50-75 MW klystrons as rf power sources. One of the major challenges in this design, or any other design, is how to generate and efficiently transport extremely high rf power from a source to an accelerator structure. SLAC has been investigating various methods of 'pulse compressing' a relatively wide rf pulse ({ge} 1 {mu}s) from a klystron into a narrower, but more intense, pulse. Currently a SLED-II pulse compression scheme is being used at SLAC in the NLC Test Accelerator (NLCTA) and in the Accelerator Structures Test Area (ASTA) to provide high rf power for accelerator and component testing. In ASTA, a 1.05 {mu}s pulse from a 50 MW klystron was successfully pulse compressed to 205 MW with a pulse width of 150 ns. Since operation in NLC will require generating and transporting rf power in excess of 400 MW it was decided to test the breakdown limits of the SLED-II rf components in ASTA with rf power up to the maximum available of 400 MW. This required the combining of power from two 50 MW klystrons and feeding the summed power into the SLED-II pulse compressor. Results from this experiment demonstrated

  7. High-J CO Sleds in Nearby Infrared Bright Galaxies Observed By Herschel/PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashian, N.; Sturm, E.; Sternberg, A.; Janssen, A.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Fischer, J.; Contursi, A.; González-Alfonso, E.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Poglitsch, A.; Veilleux, S.; Davies, R.; Genzel, R.; Lutz, D.; Tacconi, L.; Verma, A.; Weiß, A.; Polisensky, E.; Nikola, T.

    2015-04-01

    We report the detection of far-infrared (FIR) CO rotational emission from nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and starburst galaxies, as well as several merging systems and Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs). Using the Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS), we have detected transitions in the Jupp = 14-30 range. The PACS CO data obtained here provide the first reference of well-sampled FIR extragalactic CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for this range. We find a large range in the overall SLED shape, even among galaxies of similar type, demonstrating the uncertainties in relying solely on high-J CO diagnostics to characterize the excitation source of a galaxy. Combining our data with low-J line intensities taken from the literature, we present a CO ratio-ratio diagram and discuss its value in distinguishing excitation sources and physical properties of the molecular gas. The position of a galaxy on such a diagram is less a signature of its excitation mechanism, than an indicator of the presence of warm, dense molecular gas. We then quantitatively analyze the CO emission from a subset of the detected sources with single-component and two-component large velocity gradient (LVG) radiative transfer models to fit the CO SLEDs. From these fits we derive the molecular gas mass and the corresponding CO-to-H2 conversion factor, {{α }CO}, for each respective source. For the ULIRGs we find α values in the canonical range 0.4- 5M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1, while for the other objects, α varies between 0.2 and 14. Finally, we compare our best-fit LVG model results with previous studies of the same galaxies and comment on any differences. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  8. Impact of Harness Attachment Point on Kinetics and Kinematics During Sled Towing.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Ian; Atkins, Steve J; Edmundson, Christopher J; Metcalfe, John; Sinclair, Jonathan K

    2016-03-01

    Resisted sprint training is performed in a horizontal direction and involves similar muscles, velocities, and ranges of motion (ROM) to those of normal sprinting. Generally, sleds are attached to the athletes through a lead (3 m) and harness; the most common attachment points are the shoulder or waist. At present, it is not known how the different harness point's impact on the kinematics and kinetics associated with sled towing (ST). The aim of the current investigation was to examine the kinetics and kinematics of shoulder and waist harness attachment points in relation to the acceleration phase of ST. Fourteen trained men completed normal and ST trials, loaded at 10% reduction of sprint velocity. Sagittal plane kinematics from the trunk, hip, knee, and ankle were measured, together with stance phase kinetics (third footstrike). Kinetic and kinematic parameters were compared between harness attachments using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. The results indicated that various kinetic differences were present between the normal and ST conditions. Significantly greater net horizontal mean force, net horizontal impulses, propulsive mean force, and propulsive impulses were measured (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the waist harness also led to greater net horizontal impulse when compared with the shoulder attachment (p < 0.001). In kinematic terms, ST conditions significantly increased peak flexion in hip, knee, and ankle joints compared with the normal trials (p < 0.05). Results highlighted that the shoulder harness had a greater impact on trunk and knee joint kinematics when compared with the waist harness (p < 0.05). In summary, waist harnesses seem to be the most suitable attachment point for the acceleration phase of sprinting. Sled towing with these attachments resulted in fewer kinematic alterations and greater net horizontal impulse when compared with the shoulder harness. Future research is necessary in order to explore the long-term adaptations of

  9. Technical Advisory Team (TAT) report on the rocket sled test accident of October 9, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Stofleth, Jerome H.; Dinallo, Michael Anthony; Medina, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes probable causes and contributing factors that led to a rocket motor initiating prematurely while employees were preparing instrumentation for an AIII rocket sled test at SNL/NM, resulting in a Type-B Accident. Originally prepared by the Technical Advisory Team that provided technical assistance to the NNSA's Accident Investigation Board, the report includes analyses of several proposed causes and concludes that the most probable source of power for premature initiation of the rocket motor was the independent battery contained in the HiCap recorder package. The report includes data, evidence, and proposed scenarios to substantiate the analyses.

  10. Digital synchroballistic schlieren camera for high-speed photography of bullets and rocket sleds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, Benjamin D.; L'Esperance, Drew

    2013-08-01

    A high-speed digital streak camera designed for simultaneous high-resolution color photography and focusing schlieren imaging is described. The camera uses a computer-controlled galvanometer scanner to achieve synchroballistic imaging through a narrow slit. Full color 20 megapixel images of a rocket sled moving at 480 m/s and of projectiles fired at around 400 m/s were captured, with high-resolution schlieren imaging in the latter cases, using conventional photographic flash illumination. The streak camera can achieve a line rate for streak imaging of up to 2.4 million lines/s.

  11. Magnetic Shadowing of High Energy Ions at Mars, Comparisons Between SLED/Phobos-2 Observations and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S. M.; Kallio, E. J.; Jarvinen, R.; Afonin, V.

    2011-12-01

    Energetic particle data recorded by the SLED instrument aboard Phobos-2 while in circular orbit about Mars in March, 1989 showed the presence of magnetic shadowing. A 3-D, self-consistent, hybrid model (HYB-Mars) supplemented by test particle simulations was developed to study the response of the Martian plasma environment to solar disturbances and to interpret, in particular, the SLED observations. The magnetic and electric fields, as well as the properties of high energy ions, present at Mars under conditions of extreme solar disturbance can be derived from HYB-Mars. Our initial study [McKenna-Lawlor et al., EPS 2011, in press] showed that the HYB-Mars model predicted an already well-documented plasma phenomenon at the planet, namely the "solar wind-flow shadowing", identified in measurements of the ASPERA (plasma) experiment aboard Phobos-2. Furthermore, the HYB-Mars model predicted the occurrence of magnetic shadowing which is qualitatively similar to that recorded by SLED. Also, the simulations suggested that the configuration of the magnetic shadow depends on the pertaining solar wind density and velocity, and on the magnitude and direction of the interplanetary magnetic field. This study presents a more detailed investigation where upstream plasma and magnetic field conditions input to the HYB-Mars model come from measurements made aboard Phobos-2 contemporaneously with the SLED observations. In this way it is possible to realistically match the upstream interplanetary conditions with the configuration of the magnetic shadow recorded at various energies in the SLED data. One-to-one comparisons between the SLED observations and the simulated high energy H+ fluxes will be presented in this context and similarities and differences between the observations and the simulations discussed.

  12. In-vivo Kinematics of the Cervical Spine in Frontal Sled Tests

    PubMed Central

    Dehner, Christoph; Schick, Sylvia; Hell, Wolfram; Richter, Peter; Kraus, Michael; Kramer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The description of cervical spine motion and the risk to sustain a cervical spine injury in traffic accidents is mainly based on rear-end collisions. The knowledge about frontal collisions is comparable low. Therefore the objective of this exploratory study was, to describe the in-vivo cervical spine motion and acceleration during simulated frontal sled collisions and to identify sequences of motion in which the risk of injury is increased. A frontal collision with a speed change of 10.2km/h was simulated in a sled test with ten volunteers. Cervical spine kinematics was assessed by the simultaneous analysis of the angular head motion and acceleration as well as the simultaneous analysis of the relative motion and acceleration between the head and the first thoracic vertebral body. The motion sequence was divided into five phases. The combination of peak values of the angular head acceleration to ventral and the relative horizontal head acceleration to dorsal between the time period of 90ms and 110ms (early flexion phase) included – potential injury generating – shear forces. Although a hyperflexion (late rebound phase) as injury pattern didn’t occur, dorsal soft tissue injuries due to eccentric muscle-sprain could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion the study showed under simulated test conditions that during the early flexion phase and the late rebound phase, acceleration and movement pattern occur that could lead to cervical spine injuries. PMID:23618481

  13. Low energy charged particles in near Martian space from the SLED and LET experiments aboard the Phobos-2 spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonin, V. V.; McKenna-Lawlor, S. M. P.; Erdos, G.; Gringauz, K. I.; Keppler, E.; Kecskemety, K.; Kirsch, E.; Marsden, R. G.; Richter, A. K.; Riedler, W.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Somogyi, A.; O'Sullivan, D.; Szabo, L.; Thompson, A.; Varga, A.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Witte, M.; Yeroshenko, Ye.; Zelenyi, L.

    1991-02-01

    The charged particle detector SLED on the Phobos-2 spacecraft has recorded, during a number of circular orbits about Mars, significant fluxes of ions with energies up to 200 keV in close spatial association with the Martian bow shock. The observed characteristics of these enhancements suggest that different shock acceleration mechanisms were operative in producing individual events.

  14. Electron-Beam Switches For A High Peak Power Sled-II Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay, L.

    2015-12-02

    Omega-P demonstrated triggered electron-beam switches on the L=2 m dual-delay-line X-band pulse compressor at Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). In those experiments, with input pulses of up to 9 MW from the Omega-P/NRL X-band magnicon, output pulses having peak powers of 140-165 MW and durations of 16-20 ns were produced, with record peak power gains M of 18-20. Switch designs are described based on the successful results that should be suitable for use with the existing SLAC SLED-II delay line system, to demonstrate C=9, M=7, and n>>78%, yielding 173ns compressed pulses with peak powers up to 350MW with input of a single 50-MW.

  15. Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Transport by EC-145 With a Custom-Built Sled.

    PubMed

    Holt, Philip L; Hodge, Ashley B; Ratliff, Todd; Frazier, W Joshua; Ohnesorge, David; Gee, Samantha W

    2016-01-01

    Indications for the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in pediatrics has expanded beyond the initial historic treatment of neonates with respiratory failure. Patients with severe refractory cardiopulmonary failure may benefit from ECMO support until the primary insult has subsided or been treated. More recently, ECMO has been used by some centers as a bridge to transplant for irreversible organ failure. Nationwide Children's Hospital is a referral center that supports the use of ECMO as a bridge to transplant and is able to provide transport services for ECMO patients referred for transplant evaluation. In this report, we describe our design of a unique, custom-built sled designed specifically for the EC-145 helicopter to transport pediatric ECMO patients to our institution. This report is the first, to our knowledge, to describe the safe and successful transport of a pediatric ECMO patient in an EC-145 helicopter. PMID:27255881

  16. Effects of bracing on human kinematics in low-speed frontal sled tests.

    PubMed

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Kemper, Andrew R; Madigan, Michael L; Duma, Stefan M

    2011-12-01

    Continued development of computational models and biofidelic anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) necessitates further analysis of the effects of bracing on an occupant's biomechanical response in automobile collisions. A total of 20 dynamic sled tests were performed, 10 low (2.5 g, Δv = 4.8 kph) and 10 medium severity (5.0 g, Δv = 9.7 kph), with five male human volunteers of approximately 50th percentile male height and weight. Each volunteer was exposed to two impulses at each severity, one relaxed and one braced prior to the impulse. A Vicon motion analysis system, 12 MX-T20 2 megapixel cameras, was used to quantify subject 3D kinematics (±1 mm) (1 kHz). Excursions of select anatomical regions were normalized to their respective initial positions and compared by test condition. At the low severity, bracing significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the forward excursion of the knees, hips, elbows, shoulders, and head (average 35-70%). At the medium severity, bracing significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the forward excursion of the elbows, shoulders, and head (average 36-69%). Although not significant, bracing at the medium severity considerably reduced the forward excursion of the knees and hips (average 18-26%). This study illustrates that bracing has a significant influence on the biomechanical response of human occupants in frontal sled tests and provides novel biomechanical data that can be used to refine and validate computational models and ATDs used to assess injury risk in automotive collisions. PMID:21870249

  17. SNR of swept SLEDs and swept lasers for OCT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Bart C.; Atia, Walid; Flanders, Dale; Kuznetsov, Mark; Goldberg, Brian; Kemp, Nate; Whitney, Peter

    2016-03-01

    A back-to-back comparison of a tunable narrow-band SLED (TSLED) and a swept laser are made for OCT applications. Both are 1310 nm sources sweeping at 50 kHz over a 100 nm tuning range and have similar coherence lengths. The TSLED consists of a seed SOA and two amplification SOAs. The ASE is filtered twice by a tunable MEMS Fabry Perot in a polarization multiplexed double-pass arrangement on either side of the middle SOA. This allows very long coherence lengths to be achieved. A fundamental issue with a SLED is that the RIN is proportional to 1/Linewidth, meaning that the longer the coherence length, the higher the RIN. High RIN also leads to increased clock jitter. Most swept source SNR calculations assume that the noise is independent of the amplitude of the signal light: The higher the signal, the higher the SNR. We show that in the case of the TSLED, that the high signal RIN and clock jitter give rise to additional noises that scale with signal power. This leads to an SNR limit in the case of the TSLED: The higher the signal, the higher the noise, so the SNR reaches a limit. While the TSLED has respectable sensitivity, the SNR limit causes noise streaks in an image where the A-line has a high reflectivity point. The laser, which is shot noise limited, does not exhibit this effect. This is illustrated with SNR data and side-by-side images taken with the two sources.

  18. Effects of a synbiotic on fecal quality, short-chain fatty acid concentrations, and the microbiome of healthy sled dogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sled dogs commonly suffer from diarrhea. Although multiple etiologies exist there are limited field studies using synbiotics as a supplement to prevent or treat diarrhea. The objective of this study was to examine alterations in fecal quality, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and the fecal microbiome in two groups of training sled dogs fed a synbiotic or microcrystalline cellulose placebo. Twenty clinically healthy training sled dogs randomized into two cohorts (9 synbiotic-fed, 8 placebo-fed) for a 6 week prospective study were examined. Fecal pH and fecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were measured and tag-encoded FLX 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) and quantitative real-time PCR were performed at baseline (10 d prior to the study) and after 2 weeks of treatment with a total treatment time of 6 weeks. Fecal scores for all dogs were assessed at baseline and every day for 6 wk after initiation of treatment. Results Alterations in the fecal microbiome were observed with a significant rise in Lactobacillaceae in the synbiotic group (P = 0.004) after 2 wk of treatment. A positive correlation was found between Lactobacillaceae and overall butyrate concentration (R = 0.62, p = 0.011) in all dogs. After 5 wk of treatment, there was an improved fecal score and fewer days of diarrhea (Χ2 = 5.482, P = 0.019) in the dogs given synbiotic, which coincided with a presumed contagious outbreak shared by all dogs in the study. Conclusions Use of this synbiotic results in an increase in presumed beneficial bacterial flora of the host colon which was associated with a decrease in the prevalence of diarrhea in training sled dogs. PMID:24313995

  19. Magnetic shadowing of high energy ions at Mars: Comparison of SLED/Phobos-2 observations and hybrid model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Kallio, E.; Jarvinen, R.; Alho, M.; Afonin, V. V.

    2011-10-01

    Energetic particle data recorded by the SLED instrument aboard Phobos-2 while in circular orbit about Mars in March, 1989 showed the presence of magnetic shadowing. A 3-D, self-consistent, hybrid model (HYB-Mars) supplemented by test particle simulations has been developed to study the response of the Martian plasma environment to the solar disturbances concerned and to interpret the SLED observations. During Extreme Solar Events, the magnetic and electric fields as well as the properties of high energy ions present at Mars can be derived from HYB-Mars. It has already been shown [1] that the hybrid modeling results in magnetic shadowing which is qualitatively similar to that recorded by SLED at Mars while demonstrating in addition that the size of the shadow decreases with the energy of the ions in the range analyzed (50 keV to 3.2 MeV). In this presentation the initial qualitative study outlined above has been extended to provide a more quantitative analysis by comparing the observed and the simulated fluxes of high energy ions at Mars during Extreme Flaring.

  20. Molecular sled is an eleven-amino acid vehicle facilitating biochemical interactions via sliding components along DNA

    PubMed Central

    Mangel, Walter F.; McGrath, William J.; Xiong, Kan; Graziano, Vito; Blainey, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we showed the adenovirus proteinase interacts productively with its protein substrates in vitro and in vivo in nascent virus particles via one-dimensional diffusion along the viral DNA. The mechanism by which this occurs has heretofore been unknown. We show sliding of these proteins along DNA occurs on a new vehicle in molecular biology, a ‘molecular sled' named pVIc. This 11-amino acid viral peptide binds to DNA independent of sequence. pVIc slides on DNA, exhibiting the fastest one-dimensional diffusion constant, 26±1.8 × 106 (bp)2 s−1. pVIc is a ‘molecular sled,' because it can slide heterologous cargos along DNA, for example, a streptavidin tetramer. Similar peptides, for example, from the C terminus of β-actin or NLSIII of the p53 protein, slide along DNA. Characteristics of the ‘molecular sled' in its milieu (virion, nucleus) have implications for how proteins in the nucleus of cells interact and imply a new form of biochemistry, one-dimensional biochemistry. PMID:26831565

  1. Occupant kinematics in low-speed frontal sled tests: Human volunteers, Hybrid III ATD, and PMHS.

    PubMed

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Kemper, Andrew R; Madigan, Michael L; Franck, Christopher T; Loftus, Stephen C

    2012-07-01

    A total of 34 dynamic matched frontal sled tests were performed, 17 low (2.5g, Δv=4.8kph) and 17 medium (5.0g, Δv=9.7kph), with five male human volunteers of approximately 50th percentile height and weight, a Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATD, and three male PMHS. Each volunteer was exposed to two impulses at each severity, one relaxed and one braced prior to the impulse. A total of four tests were performed at each severity with the ATD and one trial was performed at each severity with each PMHS. A Vicon motion analysis system, 12 MX-T20 2 megapixel cameras, was used to quantify subject 3D kinematics (±1mm) (1kHz). Excursions of select anatomical regions were normalized to their respective initial positions and compared by test condition and between subject types. The forward excursions of the select anatomical regions generally increased with increasing severity. The forward excursions of relaxed human volunteers were significantly larger than those of the ATD for nearly every region at both severities. The forward excursions of the upper body regions of the braced volunteers were generally significantly smaller than those of the ATD at both severities. Forward excursions of the relaxed human volunteers and PMHSs were fairly similar except the head CG response at both severities and the right knee and C7 at the medium severity. The forward excursions of the upper body of the PMHS were generally significantly larger than those of the braced volunteers at both severities. Forward excursions of the PMHSs exceeded those of the ATD for all regions at both severities with significant differences within the upper body regions. Overall human volunteers, ATD, and PMHSs do not have identical biomechanical responses in low-speed frontal sled tests but all contribute valuable data that can be used to refine and validate computational models and ATDs used to assess injury risk in automotive collisions. PMID:22342960

  2. A Sled-Mounted Vibroseis Seismic Source for Geological Studies in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speece, M. A.; Luyendyk, B. P.; Harwood, D. M.; Powell, R. D.; Wilson, D. S.; Pekar, S. F.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Rack, F. R.

    2013-12-01

    Given the success of recent vibrator seismic source (vibroseis) tests in Antarctica, we propose the purchase of a large vibroseis for dedicated use by United States Antarctic Program (USAP) projects in Antarctica. Long seismic reflection profiles across Antarctica can be accomplished efficiently by pulling a sled-mounted vibrator that in turn pulls a snow streamer of gimbaled geophones. A baseplate or pad in the center of the sled will be lowered to the ground and support most of the weight of the vibrator assembly while an actuator vibrates the ground at each source location. The vibroseis will be moved to remote locations using over-ice/snow traverses given the increased reliance on traversing for supplying remote sites in Antarctica. Total vibrator hold-down weight when fully assembled will be ~66,000 lbs. Other design features include a 475 HP Caterpillar C15 diesel engine for the hydraulic power unit. The new vibrator will use an INOVA P-wave vibrator system: new Model PLS-362 actuator with up to 60,000 lbs of peak force and frequency limit of 5 Hz to 250Hz. Antarctic research objectives that could be impacted by the use of a vibrator include: (1) mapping of sub-ice stratigraphic sequences for drilling for paleoclimate information, e.g. the deep sedimentary basins of West Antarctica (Ross and Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelves and related divides); (2) correlating offshore and onshore seismic data and complementing airborne geophysical surveys to help determine Antarctica's geologic history; (3) identifying ice-bedrock interface properties and exploring grounding-line processes for ice dynamics; (4) exploring subglacial lakes and water-routing systems; and, (5) investigating the physical properties of ice sheets. An Antarctic Vibroseis Advisory Committee (AVAC) will promote the use of the vibroseis capability among Antarctic geophysical, geological, glaciological and related scientists and groups by encouraging and facilitating the development and submission of

  3. Misuse study of latch attachment: a series of frontal sled tests.

    PubMed

    Menon, Rajiv; Ghati, Yoganand

    2007-01-01

    This study was initiated to quantify the effects of the misuse in LATCH lower webbing. In the short period since the implementation of the LATCH system several cases of potential misuses have been reported. A series of sled tests in frontal impact mode were conducted with various misuse conditions (loose attachment of LATCH lower webbing, misrouting of LATCH lower webbing and child seat back inclination) for both forward and rearward facing child safety seats (FFCSS and RFCSS). Results from these tests are compared and discussed with that of the standard test with no misuse and showed that as the slack in the lower LATCH webbing increased, ATD injury measures exceeded the limits. The FFCSS tests in the reclined condition yielded lower injury values for all except the chest G's when compared to the standard upright test. In the misrouting tests the ATD kinematics depended on the routing pivot point, the lower the pivot point the better the ATD kinematics. Similar findings were also observed in the RFCSS tests. The use of top tether with the FFCSS substantially improved the performance of the Hybrid III 3 year old ATD in spite of misuse conditions and the injury values were lower than the corresponding tests with no top tether. The effective reduction was 37% in the HIC values, 6% in the chest G's, 30% in the head excursion, 22 % in the knee excursion and finally 37 % reduction in the Nij values. PMID:18184489

  4. Misuse Study of Latch Attachment: A Series of Frontal Sled Tests

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Rajiv; Ghati, Yoganand

    2007-01-01

    This study was initiated to quantify the effects of the misuse in LATCH lower webbing. In the short period since the implementation of the LATCH system several cases of potential misuses have been reported. A series of sled tests in frontal impact mode were conducted with various misuse conditions (loose attachment of LATCH lower webbing, misrouting of LATCH lower webbing and child seat back inclination) for both forward and rearward facing child safety seats (FFCSS and RFCSS). Results from these tests are compared and discussed with that of the standard test with no misuse and showed that as the slack in the lower LATCH webbing increased, ATD injury measures exceeded the limits. The FFCSS tests in the reclined condition yielded lower injury values for all except the chest G’s when compared to the standard upright test. In the misrouting tests the ATD kinematics depended on the routing pivot point, the lower the pivot point the better the ATD kinematics. Similar findings were also observed in the RFCSS tests. The use of top tether with the FFCSS substantially improved the performance of the Hybrid III 3 year old ATD in spite of misuse conditions and the injury values were lower than the corresponding tests with no top tether. The effective reduction was 37% in the HIC values, 6% in the chest G’s, 30% in the head excursion, 22 % in the knee excursion and finally 37 % reduction in the Nij values. PMID:18184489

  5. Energetic protons at Mars: interpretation of SLED/Phobos-2 observations by a kinetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallio, E.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Alho, M.; Jarvinen, R.; Dyadechkin, S.; Afonin, V. V.

    2012-11-01

    Mars has neither a significant global intrinsic magnetic field nor a dense atmosphere. Therefore, solar energetic particles (SEPs) from the Sun can penetrate close to the planet (under some circumstances reaching the surface). On 13 March 1989 the SLED instrument aboard the Phobos-2 spacecraft recorded the presence of SEPs near Mars while traversing a circular orbit (at 2.8 RM). In the present study the response of the Martian plasma environment to SEP impingement on 13 March was simulated using a kinetic model. The electric and magnetic fields were derived using a 3-D self-consistent hybrid model (HYB-Mars) where ions are modelled as particles while electrons form a massless charge neutralizing fluid. The case study shows that the model successfully reproduced several of the observed features of the in situ observations: (1) a flux enhancement near the inbound bow shock, (2) the formation of a magnetic shadow where the energetic particle flux was decreased relative to its solar wind values, (3) the energy dependency of the flux enhancement near the bow shock and (4) how the size of the magnetic shadow depends on the incident particle energy. Overall, it is demonstrated that the Martian magnetic field environment resulting from the Mars-solar wind interaction significantly modulated the Martian energetic particle environment.

  6. Evaluating the physical demands when using sled-type stair descent devices to evacuate mobility-limited occupants from high-rise buildings.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Steven A; Mehta, Jay P; Hedman, Glenn E; Park, Sanghyun; Reichelt, Paul A; Conrad, Karen M

    2015-09-01

    The physical demands on evacuators were investigated when using different types of sled-type stair descent devices designed for the emergency evacuation of high rise buildings. Twelve firefighters used six sled-type stair descent devices during simulated evacuations. The devices were evaluated under two staircase width conditions (1.12, and 1.32 m). Dependent measures included electromyographic (EMG) data, heart rates, Borg Scale ratings, and descent velocities. All stair descent speeds were below those reported during pedestrian egress trials. With the exception of the inflatable device, the devices operated by two evacuators had higher descent speeds than those operated by a single evacuator. High friction materials under the sleds facilitated control and reduced the muscle demands on stairs but increased physical demands on the landings. Usability assessments found devices with shorter overall lengths had fewer wall contacts on the landing, and handles integrated in the straps were preferred by the evacuators. PMID:25959322

  7. The low energy particle detector sled (~30 keV-3.2 MeV) and its performance on the phobos mission to mars and its moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Afonin, V. V.; Gringauz, K. I.; Keppler, E.; Kirsch, E.; Richter, A.; Witte, M.; O'Sullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Somogyi, A. J.; Szabo, L.; Varga, A.

    1990-05-01

    A low energy particle detector system (SLED) is described which was designed to measure the flux densities of electrons and ions in the energy range from ~30 keV to a few MeV in (a) the varying solar aspect angles and temperatures pertaining during the Cruise Phase of the Phobos Mission and (b) in the low temperature environment (reaching -25° C) pertaining during Mars Encounter. Representative data illustrating the excellent functioning of SLED during both phases of the mission are presented.

  8. Computer simulation and sled test validation of a powerbase wheelchair and occupant subjected to frontal crash conditions.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, G E; Szobota, S; Hobson, D A; Digges, K

    1999-06-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has led to an increased number of wheelchair users seeking transportation services. Many of these individuals are unable to transfer to a vehicle and are instead required to travel seated in their wheelchairs. Unfortunately, wheelchairs are not typically designed with the same occupant protection features as motor vehicle seats, and wheelchair seated occupants may be at higher risk for injury in a crash. To study the effects of crash level forces on wheelchairs and their occupants, it is useful to simulate crash conditions using computer modeling. This study has used a dynamic lumped mass crash simulator, in combination with sled impact testing, to develop a model of a secured commercial powerbase and restrained occupant subjected to a 20 g/30 mph frontal motor vehicle crash. Time histories profiles of simulation-generated wheelchair kinematics, occupant accelerations, tiedown forces and occupant restraint forces were compared to sled impact testing for model validation. Validation efforts for this model were compared to validation results found acceptable for the ISO/SAE surrogate wheelchair model. This wheelchair-occupant simulation model can be used to investigate wheelchair crash response or to evaluate the influence of various factors on occupant crash safety. PMID:10391594

  9. An SNP within the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Distinguishes between Sprint and Distance Performing Alaskan Sled Dogs in a Candidate Gene Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huson, Heather J.; Byers, Alexandra M.; Runstadler, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The Alaskan sled dog offers a unique mechanism for studying the genetics of elite athletic performance. They are a group of mixed breed dogs, comprised of multiple common breeds, and a unique breed entity seen only as a part of the sled dog mix. Alaskan sled dogs are divided into 2 primary groups as determined by their racing skills. Distance dogs are capable of running over 1000 miles in 10 days, whereas sprint dogs run much shorter distances, approximately 30 miles, but in faster times, that is, 18–25 mph. Finding the genes that distinguish these 2 types of performers is likely to illuminate genetic contributors to human athletic performance. In this study, we tested for association between polymorphisms in 2 candidate genes; angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and myostatin (MSTN) and enhanced speed and endurance performance in 174 Alaskan sled dogs. We observed 81 novel genetic variants within the ACE gene and 4 within the MSTN gene, including a polymorphism within the ACE gene that significantly (P value 2.38 × 10−5) distinguished the sprint versus distance populations. PMID:21846742

  10. Whole-body kinematic and dynamic response of restrained PMHS in frontal sled tests.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason; Lessley, David; Kent, Richard; Bostrom, Ola; Pipkorn, Bengt

    2006-11-01

    The literature contains a wide range of response data describing the biomechanics of isolated body regions. Current data for the validation of frontal anthropomorphic test devices and human body computational models lack, however, a detailed description of the whole-body response to loading with contemporary restraints in automobile crashes. This study presents data from 14 frontal sled tests describing the physical response of postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) in the following frontal crash environments: A) (5 tests) driver position, force-limited 3-point belt plus airbag restraint (FLB+AB), 48 km/h deltaV. B) (3 tests) passenger position, FLB+AB restraint, 48 km/h deltaV. C) (3 tests) passenger position, standard (not force-limited) 3-point belt plus air bag restraint (SB+AB), 48 km/h deltaV. D) (3 tests) passenger position, standard 3-point belt restraint (SB), 29 km/h deltaV. Reported data include x-axis and z-axis (SAE occupant reference frame) accelerations of the head, spine (upper, middle, and lower), and pelvis; rate of angular rotation of the head about y-axis; displacements of the head, upper spine, pelvis and knee relative to the vehicle buck; and deformation contours of the upper and lower chest. A variety of kinematic trends are identified across the different test conditions, including a decrease in head and thorax excursion and a change in the nature of the excursion in the driver position compared to the passenger position. Despite this increase in forward excursion when compared to the driver's side FLB+AB tests, the passenger's side FLB+AB tests resulted in greater peak thoracic (T8) x-axis accelerations (passenger's side -29 g; driver's side -22 g;) and comparable maximum chest deflection (passenger's side - 23+/-3.1% of the undeformed chest depth; driver's side - 23+/-5.6%; ). In the 48 km/h passenger's side tests, the head excursion associated with the force-limiting belt system was approximately 15% greater than that for a standard belt

  11. Kinematics and dynamics of the pelvis in the process of submarining using PMHS sled tests.

    PubMed

    Luet, Carole; Trosseille, Xavier; Drazétic, Pascal; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2012-10-01

    This study focused on a better understanding and characterization of the submarining phenomenon that occurs in frontal crashes when the lap belt slides over the anterior superi or iliac spine. Submarining is the consequence of the pelvis kinematics relative to the lap belt, driven by the equilibrium of forces and moments applied to the pelvis. The study had two primary purposes; the first was to provide new PMHS data in submarining test configurations, the second was to investigate the Hybrid II and Hybrid III dummies biofidelity regarding submarining. Several Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) studies have been published on this subject. However, the lack of information about the occupant initial positioning and the use of car seats make it difficult to reconstruct these tests. Furthermore, the two dummies are rarely compared to PMHS in submarining test configurations. A fifteen frontal sled test campaign was carried out on two Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) and nine PMHS. The test environment was designed to be reproducible. It consisted of a rigid seat, a 2-poi nts shoulder belt and a 2-points lap belt instrumented to record their 3D forces at anchorage. The subjects were instrumented with angular sensors at the sacrum, T1 and T12 levels to record their initial angles. Kinematics was measured at these three levels by means of three accelerometers and angular velocity sensors. A PMHS positioning procedure was developed to ensure repeatability. A pre-test was performed on each subject to characterize its lumbar spine static behavior. All the subjects were CT-scanned from head to toe prior to the test. The campaign was divided into three test configurations leading to different surrogates' interaction with the environment and different kinematics. This resulted in a wider range of behaviors for the dummies evaluation. The deceleration pulse, initial lap belt angle, lap belt slack, seat pan angle and footrest position varied. The Hybrid II and Hybrid III dummies

  12. Frontal sled tests comparing rear and forward facing child restraints with 1-3 year old dummies.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, C P; Crandall, J R

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12 mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3 yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads. PMID:18184491

  13. Unusual presentation of Lisfranc fracture dislocation associated with high-velocity sledding injury: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Benejam, Christopher E; Potaczek, Steven G

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Lisfranc fracture dislocations of the foot are rare injuries. A recent literature search revealed no reported cases of injury to the tarsometatarsal (Lisfranc) joint associated with sledding. Case presentation A 19-year-old male college student presented to the emergency department with a Lisfranc fracture dislocation of the foot as a result of a high-velocity sledding injury. The patient underwent an immediate open reduction and internal fixation. Conclusion Lisfranc injuries are often caused by high-velocity, high-energy traumas. Careful examination and thorough testing are required to identify the injury properly. Computed tomography imaging is often recommended to aid in diagnosis. Treatment of severe cases may require immediate open reduction and internal fixation, especially if the risk of compartment syndrome is present, followed by a period of immobilization. Complete recovery may take up to 1 year. PMID:18694504

  14. Influence of sustained low-efficiency diafiltration (SLED-f) on interstitial fluid concentrations of fluconazole in a critically ill patient: Use of microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Sinnollareddy, Mahipal G; Roberts, Michael S; Lipman, Jeffrey; Peake, Sandra L; Roberts, Jason A

    2015-07-01

    Acute kidney injury is a common complication in critically ill patients, and hybrid techniques including sustained low-efficiency dialysis/diafiltration (SLED-f) are being increasingly utilised in intensive care units. Most fungal infections occur in the interstitial fluid (ISF) of tissues and successful treatment of a fungal infection relies on the ability of an antifungal agent to achieve adequate concentrations at the site of infection. Tissue distribution of antimicrobials is impaired in critically ill patients owing to a variety of disease-related physiological changes, e.g. sepsis. Fluconazole is a widely used antifungal agent used to treat Candida spp. infections in critically ill patients. The implications for ISF concentrations of enhanced elimination during renal replacement therapy have not yet been reported for fluconazole. The aim of this single-patient case report was to describe the influence of SLED-f on subcutaneous (SC) ISF concentrations of fluconazole and the implications for achieving pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets. Serial blood and ISF samples were collected at pre- and post-filter ports within the SLED-f circuit and subcutaneously inserted microdialysis probe, respectively. Fluconazole concentrations were measured using a validated chromatography method. The SC ISF-to-plasma partition coefficient of fluconazole in this patient was 0.91, indicating rapid equilibrium. SC ISF fluconazole concentrations consistently decreased after initiating SLED-f. The majority of the fluconazole was eliminated from the SC ISF as a result of redistribution. Considering the extensive tissue re-distribution of fluconazole and observed elimination from tissue compartments, higher doses may be required to treat deep-seated fungal infections. PMID:25888463

  15. Responses of the Q6/Q6s ATD Positioned in Booster Seats in the Far-Side Seat Location of Side Impact Passenger Car and Sled Tests.

    PubMed

    Tylko, Suzanne; Bohman, Katarina; Bussières, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Passenger car side impact crash tests and sled tests were conducted to investigate the influence of booster seats, near-side occupant characteristics and vehicle interiors on the responses of the Q6/Q6s child ATD positioned in the rear, far-side seating location. Data from nine side impact sled tests simulating a EuroNCAP AEMD barrier test were analyzed with data obtained from 44 side impact crash tests. The crash tests included: FMVSS 214 and IIHS MDB, moving car-to-stationary car and moving car-to-moving car. A Q6 or prototype Q6s ATD was seated on the far-side, using a variety of low and high back booster seats. Head and chest responses were recorded and ATD motions were tracked with high-speed videos. The vehicle lateral accelerations resulting from MDB tests were characterized by a much earlier and more rapid rise to peak than in tests where the bullet was another car. The near-side seating position was occupied by a Hybrid III 10-year-old ATD in the sled tests, and a rear or front facing child restraint or a 5th percentile side impact ATD in the crash tests. Head impacts occurred more frequently in vehicles where a forward facing child restraint was present behind the driver seat for both the low and high back booster seats. Pretensioners were found to reduce lateral head displacements in all sled test configurations but the greatest reduction in lateral excursion was obtained with a high back booster seat secured with LATCH and tested in combination with pretensioners. PMID:26660749

  16. Injury risk of a 6-year-old wheelchair-seated occupant in a frontal motor vehicle impact--'ANSI/RESNA WC-19' sled testing analysis.

    PubMed

    Ha, DongRan; Bertocci, Gina

    2007-09-01

    Children with disabilities are transported on a daily basis to schools and developmental facilities. When they travel, they often remain seated in their wheelchairs in vehicles. To study injury risk of pediatric wheelchair users in motor vehicle crashes, three of the same pediatric manual wheelchairs were sled impact tested with a seated Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD using a 20 g/48 km/h frontal crash pulse. The sled test results were compared to kinematic limitations and injury criteria specified in the ANSI/RESNA WC-19, FMVSS 213 and FMVSS 208. All sled test results were below the limits specified in the ANSI/RESNA WC-19 standard and FMVSS 213. All tests exceeded the N(ij) limit of 1 specified in FMVSS 208, and one test exceeded the limit of peak neck tension force. Chest deflection resulting from one of three tests was at the limit specified in FMVSS 208. Our results suggest that children with disabilities who remain seated in their wheelchairs in vehicles may be at risk of neck injury in a frontal impact motor vehicle crash. However, limitations in the biofidelity of the Hybrid III ATD neck raise concern as to the translatability of these findings to the real world. Additional studies are needed to investigate the influence of neck properties and ATD neck biofidelity on injury risk of children who travel seated in their wheelchairs. PMID:17251048

  17. A comparison between a child-size PMHS and the Hybrid III 6 YO in a sled frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Forman, Jason; Kent, Richard; Bostrom, Ola; Segui-Gomez, Maria

    2009-10-01

    As pediatric PMHS data are extremely limited, evidence of kinematic differences between pediatric ATDs and live humans comes from comparison of laboratory data to field crash data. Despite the existence of regulations intended to prevent head injuries, these remain the most common serious injuries sustained by children in crashes. In this study, nine frontal sled tests using a Hybrid III 6YO and three tests performed with a child-size adult PMHS were compared, with focus on the kinematic responses (especially of the head) and the seatbelt forces generated during the impact. Two different restraint systems (a pretensioning, force-limiting seatbelt, and a non pretensioning force-limiting standard belt) and two different impact speeds (29 km/h and 48 km/h) were compared. Data from the PMHS were scaled using the erect sitting height of a 50th percentile 6YO and both scaled and unscaled data are presented. The ATD predicted correctly the peak values of the scaled displacements of the PMHS, but differences in relevant parameters such as torso angle and resultant acceleration at different locations were found between the dummy and the PMHS. The ATD's stiffer thoracic spine is hypothesized as a major cause of these differences. PMID:20184847

  18. Molecular sled is an eleven-amino acid vehicle facilitating biochemical interactions via sliding components along DNA

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mangel, Walter F.; McGrath, William J.; Xiong, Kan; Graziano, Vito; Blainey, Paul C.

    2016-02-02

    Recently, we showed the adenovirus proteinase interacts productively with its protein substrates in vitro and in vivo in nascent virus particles via one-dimensional diffusion along the viral DNA. The mechanism by which this occurs has heretofore been unknown. We show sliding of these proteins along DNA occurs on a new vehicle in molecular biology, a ‘molecular sled’ named pVIc. This 11-amino acid viral peptide binds to DNA independent of sequence. pVIc slides on DNA, exhibiting the fastest one-dimensional diffusion constant, 26±1.8 × 106 (bp)2 s−1. pVIc is a ‘molecular sled,’ because it can slide heterologous cargos along DNA, for example, amore » streptavidin tetramer. Similar peptides, for example, from the C terminus of β-actin or NLSIII of the p53 protein, slide along DNA. Finally, characteristics of the ‘molecular sled’ in its milieu (virion, nucleus) have implications for how proteins in the nucleus of cells interact and imply a new form of biochemistry, one-dimensional biochemistry.« less

  19. A comparison between a child-size PMHS and the Hybrid III 6 YO in a sled frontal impact

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Forman, Jason; Kent, Richard; Bostrom, Ola; Segui-Gomez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    As pediatric PMHS data are extremely limited, evidence of kinematic differences between pediatric ATDs and live humans comes from comparison of laboratory data to field crash data. Despite the existence of regulations intended to prevent head injuries, these remain the most common serious injuries sustained by children in crashes. In this study, nine frontal sled tests using a Hybrid III 6YO and three tests performed with a child-size adult PMHS were compared, with focus on the kinematic responses (especially of the head) and the seatbelt forces generated during the impact. Two different restraint systems (a pretensioning, force-limiting seatbelt, and a non pretensioning force-limiting standard belt) and two different impact speeds (29 km/h and 48 km/h) were compared. Data from the PMHS were scaled using the erect sitting height of a 50th percentile 6YO and both scaled and unscaled data are presented. The ATD predicted correctly the peak values of the scaled displacements of the PMHS, but differences in relevant parameters such as torso angle and resultant acceleration at different locations were found between the dummy and the PMHS. The ATD’s stiffer thoracic spine is hypothesized as a major cause of these differences. PMID:20184847

  20. Comparison of AIS 1990 update 98 versus AIS 2005 for describing PMHS injuries in lateral and oblique sled tests.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Humm, John R; Stadter, Gregory W; Curry, William H; Brasel, Karen J

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed skeletal and organ injuries in pure lateral and oblique impacts from 20 intact post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests at 6.7 m/s. Injuries to the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and spine were scored using AIS 1990-1998 update and 2005. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were extracted for both loadings from both versions. Mean age, stature, total body mass and body mass index for pure lateral and oblique tests: 58 and 55 years, 1.7 and 1.8 m, 69 and 66 kg, and 24 and 21 kg/m(2). Skeletal injuries (ribs, sternum) occurred in both impacts. However, oblique impacts resulted in more injuries. Pure lateral and oblique impacts ISS: 0 to 16 and 0 to 24, representing a greater potential for injury-related consequences in real-world situations in oblique impacts. Internal organs were more involved in oblique impacts. ISS decreased in AIS 2005, reflecting changes to scoring and drawing attention to potential effects for pre-hospital care/medical aspects. Mean AIS scores for the two load vectors and two AIS coding schemes are included. From automotive crashworthiness perspectives, decreases in injury severities might alter injury risk functions with a shift to lower metrics for the same risk level than current risk estimations. This finding influences dummy-based injury criteria and occupant safety as risk functions are used for countermeasure effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses by regulatory bodies. Increase in organ injuries in oblique loading indicate the importance of this vector as current dummies and injury criteria used in regulations are based on pure lateral impact data. PMID:24406958

  1. Comparison of AIS 1990 update 98 versus AIS 2005 for describing PMHS injuries in lateral and oblique sled tests

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Humm, John R.; Stadter, Gregory W.; Curry, William H.; Brasel, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed skeletal and organ injuries in pure lateral and oblique impacts from 20 intact post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests at 6.7 m/s. Injuries to the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and spine were scored using AIS 1990–1998 update and 2005. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were extracted for both loadings from both versions. Mean age, stature, total body mass and body mass index for pure lateral and oblique tests: 58 and 55 years, 1.7 and 1.8 m, 69 and 66 kg, and 24 and 21 kg/m2. Skeletal injuries (ribs, sternum) occurred in both impacts. However, oblique impacts resulted in more injuries. Pure lateral and oblique impacts ISS: 0 to 16 and 0 to 24, representing a greater potential for injury-related consequences in real-world situations in oblique impacts. Internal organs were more involved in oblique impacts. ISS decreased in AIS 2005, reflecting changes to scoring and drawing attention to potential effects for pre-hospital care/medical aspects. Mean AIS scores for the two load vectors and two AIS coding schemes are included. From automotive crashworthiness perspectives, decreases in injury severities might alter injury risk functions with a shift to lower metrics for the same risk level than current risk estimations. This finding influences dummy-based injury criteria and occupant safety as risk functions are used for countermeasure effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses by regulatory bodies. Increase in organ injuries in oblique loading indicate the importance of this vector as current dummies and injury criteria used in regulations are based on pure lateral impact data. PMID:24406958

  2. Effects of Sled Towing on Peak Force, the Rate of Force Development and Sprint Performance During the Acceleration Phase

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Valencia, María Asunción; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Elvira, José L.L.; González-Ravé, José María; Navarro-Valdivielso, Fernando; Alcaraz, Pedro E.

    2015-01-01

    Resisted sprint training is believed to increase strength specific to sprinting. Therefore, the knowledge of force output in these tasks is essential. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of sled towing (10%, 15% and 20% of body mass (Bm)) on sprint performance and force production during the acceleration phase. Twenty-three young experienced sprinters (17 men and 6 women; men = 17.9 ± 3.3 years, 1.79 ± 0.06 m and 69.4 ± 6.1 kg; women = 17.2 ± 1.7 years, 1.65 ± 0.04 m and 56.6 ± 2.3 kg) performed four 30 m sprints from a crouch start. Sprint times in 20 and 30 m sprint, peak force (Fpeak), a peak rate of force development (RFDpeak) and time to RFD (TRFD) in first step were recorded. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant increases (p ≤ 0.001) in sprint times (20 and 30 m sprint) for each resisted condition as compared to the unloaded condition. The RFDpeak increased significantly when a load increased (3129.4 ± 894.6 N·s−1, p ≤ 0.05 and 3892.4 ± 1377.9 N·s−1, p ≤ 0.01). Otherwise, no significant increases were found in Fpeak and TRFD. The RFD determines the force that can be generated in the early phase of muscle contraction, and it has been considered a factor that influences performance of force-velocity tasks. The use of a load up to 20% Bm might provide a training stimulus in young sprinters to improve the RFDpeak during the sprint start, and thus, early acceleration. PMID:26240657

  3. Effects of Sled Towing on Peak Force, the Rate of Force Development and Sprint Performance During the Acceleration Phase.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valencia, María Asunción; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Elvira, José L L; González-Ravé, José María; Navarro-Valdivielso, Fernando; Alcaraz, Pedro E

    2015-06-27

    Resisted sprint training is believed to increase strength specific to sprinting. Therefore, the knowledge of force output in these tasks is essential. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of sled towing (10%, 15% and 20% of body mass (Bm)) on sprint performance and force production during the acceleration phase. Twenty-three young experienced sprinters (17 men and 6 women; men = 17.9 ± 3.3 years, 1.79 ± 0.06 m and 69.4 ± 6.1 kg; women = 17.2 ± 1.7 years, 1.65 ± 0.04 m and 56.6 ± 2.3 kg) performed four 30 m sprints from a crouch start. Sprint times in 20 and 30 m sprint, peak force (Fpeak), a peak rate of force development (RFDpeak) and time to RFD (TRFD) in first step were recorded. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant increases (p ≤ 0.001) in sprint times (20 and 30 m sprint) for each resisted condition as compared to the unloaded condition. The RFDpeak increased significantly when a load increased (3129.4 ± 894.6 N·s-1, p ≤ 0.05 and 3892.4 ± 1377.9 N·s-1, p ≤ 0.01). Otherwise, no significant increases were found in Fpeak and TRFD. The RFD determines the force that can be generated in the early phase of muscle contraction, and it has been considered a factor that influences performance of force-velocity tasks. The use of a load up to 20% Bm might provide a training stimulus in young sprinters to improve the RFDpeak during the sprint start, and thus, early acceleration. PMID:26240657

  4. Transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) before, during and after Sustained Low Efficiency Dialysis (SLED). A Prospective Study on Feasibility of TPTD and Prediction of Successful Fluid Removal

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Stephan; Minning, Andreas; Küchle, Claudius; Braun, Marlena; Beitz, Analena; Schultheiss, Caroline; Mair, Sebastian; Phillip, Veit; Schmid, Sebastian; Schmid, Roland M.; Lahmer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients. AKI requires renal replacement therapy (RRT) in up to 10% of patients. Particularly during connection and fluid removal, RRT frequently impairs haemodyamics which impedes recovery from AKI. Therefore, “acute” connection with prefilled tubing and prolonged periods of RRT including sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED) has been suggested. Furthermore, advanced haemodynamic monitoring using trans-pulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) and pulse contour analysis (PCA) might help to define appropriate fluid removal goals. Objectives, Methods Since data on TPTD to guide RRT are scarce, we investigated the capabilities of TPTD- and PCA-derived parameters to predict feasibility of fluid removal in 51 SLED-sessions (Genius; Fresenius, Germany; blood-flow 150mL/min) in 32 patients with PiCCO-monitoring (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany). Furthermore, we sought to validate the reliability of TPTD during RRT and investigated the impact of “acute” connection and of disconnection with re-transfusion on haemodynamics. TPTDs were performed immediately before and after connection as well as disconnection. Results Comparison of cardiac index derived from TPTD (CItd) and PCA (CIpc) before, during and after RRT did not give hints for confounding of TPTD by ongoing RRT. Connection to RRT did not result in relevant changes in haemodynamic parameters including CItd. However, disconnection with re-transfusion of the tubing volume resulted in significant increases in CItd, CIpc, CVP, global end-diastolic volume index GEDVI and cardiac power index CPI. Feasibility of the pre-defined ultrafiltration goal without increasing catecholamines by >10% (primary endpoint) was significantly predicted by baseline CPI (ROC-AUC 0.712; p = 0.010) and CItd (ROC-AUC 0.662; p = 0.049). Conclusions TPTD is feasible during SLED. “Acute” connection does not substantially impair haemodynamics. Disconnection with re

  5. Investigation on occupant ejection in high severity rear impact based on post mortem human subject sled tests.

    PubMed

    Petit, Philippe; Luet, Carole; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Occupant protection in rear impact involves two competing challenges. On one hand, allowing a deformation of the seat would act as an energy absorber in low severity impacts and would consequently decrease the risk of neck injuries. However, on the other hand, large deformations of the seat may increase the likelihood of occupant ejection in high severity cases. Green et al. 1987 analyzed a total of 919 accidents in Great Britain. They found that occupant ejection resulted in a risk of severe injuries and fatalities between 3.6 and 4.5 times higher than those cases where no ejection was observed. The sample included single front, side and rear impacts as well as multiple impacts and rollover. The rate of belt use in the sample was 50%. While this analysis included all forms of impact scenarios, nevertheless, it highlights the relative injury severity of occupant ejection. Extensive literature search has found no full-scale rear impact tests involving Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) conducted in a laboratory environment and resulting in ejection. This paper describes a total of 10 sled tests conducted on 3 belted PMHS using a simplified seat design composed of rigid plates assembled such that the angular and linear stiffness of the seatback (including the foam) was modeled. The initial angular position and the range of motion of the seatback, the size of the PMHS, the slack length of the seatbelt, the angular stiffness of the seatback, and the use of headrest were varied in the test matrix while the pulse was kept constant (triangular acceleration with a peak of 17 G at 30 ms and a duration of 95 ms). In the test series, the tests were not run randomly but the likelihood of occupant ejection was increased systematically until ejection occurred. PMHS seat ejection was observed only for the 95th percentile, initially positioned with a seatback angle relative to the vertical equal to 22°, a range of seatback angular motion equal to 44° and no headrest. Repeating

  6. Evaluating the effect of ambient particulate pollution on DNA methylation in Alaskan sled dogs: Potential applications for a sentinel model of human health

    PubMed Central

    Montrose, Luke; Noonan, Curtis; Cho, Yoon Hee; Lee, Joongwon; Harley, John; O’Hara, Todd; Cahill, Catherine; Ward, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is known to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality in human populations. During the winter months in Fairbanks, Alaska, severe temperature inversions lead to elevated concentrations of ambient PM smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). Sled dogs represent an easily accessible environmentally exposed population that may yield findings informative for human health risk assessment. Objectives In this pilot study, we evaluated whether ambient PM was associated with markers of global methylation in sled dogs. Methods Kennels were strategically recruited to provide a wide PM2.5 exposure gradient for the Fairbanks area. Continuous monitoring of ambient PM2.5 was conducted at each kennel during the winter of 2012/13 using a DustTrak 8530. Dogs received a physical examination and assessment of standard hematology and clinical chemistries. Global methylation was determined using the LUminometric Methylation Assay (LUMA) and 5-Methycytosine (5-mC) Quantification. Results Three sled dog kennels (n ~30 dogs/kennel) were evaluated and sampled. The average PM2.5 concentrations measured for kennels A, B, and C were 90 μg/m3, 48 μg/m3, 16 μg/m3 (p< 0.0001), respectively. The average (standard deviation) global methylation percentage for each kennel measured by LUMA was 76.22 (1.85), 76.52 (1.82), and 76.72 (2.26), respectively. The average (standard deviation) global methylation percentage for each kennel measured by 5-mC was 0.16 (0.04), 0.15 (0.04), and 0.15 (0.05), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the three kennels and their average global methylation percentage either by LUMA or 5-mC. Conclusions In this study we evaluated global methylation using LUMA and 5-mC and found no differences between kennels, though exposure to ambient PM2.5 was significantly different between kennels. As more information becomes available regarding immunologically-related canine genes and

  7. Interplanetary variability in particle fluxes recorded by the low energy charged particle detector SLED (about 30 keV to greater than 30 MeV) during the Cruise Phase of the PHOBOS Mission to Mars and its moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S. M. P.; Afonin, V. V.; Gringauz, K. I.; Keppler, E.; Kirsch, E.; Richter, A. K.; Witte, M.; O'Sullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Kecskemety, K.

    1991-05-01

    Two lightweight telescope detector systems, codenamed SLED-1 and SLED-2, with the capability to monitor electron and ion fluxes within an energy range spanning 34 keV to a few tens of MeV, were launched on the twin spacecraft of the Soviet Phobos Mission to Mars and its moons in July 1988. Solar-related particle enhancements recorded during the Cruise Phase, and also in the near Martian environment, over the interval 19 July 1988-27 March 1989 while the interplanetary medium was in course of changing over from solar-minimum to solar-maximum dominated conditions, are presented. In particular, examples of signatures characterizing events associated with each of these phenomenological states are provided in the context of attempting to elucidate how the solar interplanetary medium evolves from one condition to the other.

  8. Pilot evaluation of physical and psychological effects of a physical trek programme including a dog sledding expedition in children and teenagers with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vallet, Clothilde; André, Nicolas; Gentet, Jean-Claude; Verschuur, Arnauld; Michel, Gérard; Sotteau, Frédéric; Martha, Cécile; Grélot, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To evaluate the feasibility and to measure the effects of a six-week-long adapted physical activity programme (APAP), including 5 days of intense dog sledding, on the physical and psychological health of children and adolescents treated for cancer. Methods Eleven children and teenagers (4 girls, 7 boys; mean age 14.3 ± 2.9 years) participated in this monocentric pilot programme of adapted physical activities from February 2013 to March 2013. Seven were still on treatment. The programme lasted 6 weeks. A series of physical tests and psychological questionnaires were carried out before and after the programme. Results All children and teenagers completed the full programme. An improvement in all physical and psychological parameters was observed. Statistically significant differences were observed for global self-esteem (6.2 ± 2.1 to 7.7 ± 1.8; p = 0.02), perceived sport competence (5.3 ± 3.2 to 7.4 ± 2; p = 0.02) and perceived physical strength (5.6 ± 2.5 to 7.1 ± 1.8; p = 0.001). Regarding physical tests, the physical training led to statistically significant improvement for sit-ups (13.8 ± 2.6 to 21.75 ± 5.4; p = 0.01), muscle tone (76 ± 23.7 to 100 ± 22.9; p = 0.01), and resting heart rate (96.1 ± 3.2 to 91.6 ± 4.5; p = 0.03). Conclusion This programme is feasible in children and adolescents even during their oncologic treatment. During the 6-week programme, children and adolescents improved their physical and psychological health, and the putative benefits of the APAP are discussed. A larger randomised trial started in 2014. PMID:26284122

  9. Kinetic and kinematic responses of post mortem human surrogates and the Hybrid III ATD in high-speed frontal sled tests.

    PubMed

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Kemper, Andrew R; Madigan, Michael L; Duma, Stefan M

    2013-06-01

    Despite improvements in vehicle design and safety technologies, frontal automotive collisions continue to result in a substantial number of injuries and fatalities each year. Although a considerable amount of research has been performed on PMHSs and ATDs, matched dynamic whole-body frontal testing with PMHSs and the current ATD aimed at quantifying both kinetic and kinematic data in a single controlled study is lacking in the literature. Therefore, a total of 4 dynamic matched frontal sled tests were performed with three male PMHSs and a Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATD (28.6g, Δv=40 kph). Each subject was restrained using a 4 kN load limiting, driver-side, 3-point seatbelt. Belt force was measured for the lap belt and shoulder belt. Reaction forces were measured at the seat pan, seat back, independent foot plates, and steering column. Linear head acceleration, angular head acceleration, and pelvic acceleration were measured for all subjects. Acceleration of C7, T7, T12, both femurs, and both tibias were also measured for the PMHSs. A Vicon motion analysis system, consisting of 12 MX-T20 2 megapixel cameras, was used to quantify subject 3D motion (±1 mm) at a rate of 1 kHz. Excursions of select anatomical regions were normalized to their respective initial positions and compared by test condition and between subject types. Notable discrepancies were observed in the responses of the PMHSs and the ATD. The reaction forces and belt loading for the ATD, particularly foot plate, seat back, steering column, and lap belt forces, were not in agreement with those of the PMHSs. The forward excursions of the ATD were consistently within those of the PMHSs with the exception of the left upper extremity. This could potentially be due to the known limitations of the Hybrid III ATD shoulder and chest. The results presented herein demonstrate that there are some limitations to the current Hybrid III ATD under the loading conditions evaluated in the current study. Overall

  10. An inflatable belt system in the rear seat occupant environment: investigating feasibility and benefit in frontal impact sled tests with a 50th percentile male ATD

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Jason L.; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Dennis, Nate; Kent, Richard W.; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Frontal-impact airbag systems have the potential to provide a benefit to rear seat occupants by distributing restraining forces over the body in a manner not possible using belts alone. This study sought to investigate the effects of incorporating a belt-integrated airbag (“airbelt”) into a rear seat occupant restraint system. Frontal impact sled tests were performed with a Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) seated in the right-rear passenger position of a 2004 mid-sized sedan buck. Tests were performed at 48 km/h (20 g, 100 ms acceleration pulse) and 29 km/h (11 g, 100 ms). The restraints consisted of a 3-point belt system with a cylindrical airbag integrated into the upper portion of the shoulder belt. The airbag was tapered in shape, with a maximum diameter of 16 cm (at the shoulder) that decreased to 4 cm at the mid-chest. A 2.5 kN force-limiter was integrated into the shoulder-belt retractor, and a 2.3 kN pretensioner was present in the out-board anchor of the lap belt. Six ATD tests (three 48 km/h and three 29 km/h) were performed with the airbelt system. These were compared to previous frontal-impact, rear seat ATD tests with a standard (not-force-limited, not-pretensioned) 3-point belt system and a progressive force-limiting (peak 4.4 kN), pretensioning (FL+PT) 3-point belt system. In the 48 km/h tests, the airbelt resulted in significantly less (p<0.05, two-tailed Student’s t-test) posterior displacement of the sternum towards the spine (chest deflection) than both the standard and FL+PT belt systems (airbelt: average 13±1.1 mm standard deviation; standard belt: 33±2.3 mm; FL+PT belt: 23±2.6 mm). This was consistent with a significant reduction in the peak upper shoulder belt force (airbelt: 2.7±0.1 kN; standard belt: 8.7±0.3 kN; FL+PT belt: 4.4±0.1 kN), and was accompanied by a small increase in forward motion of the head (airbelt: 54±0.4 cm; standard belt: 45±1.3 cm; FL+PT belt: 47±1.1 cm) The airbelt system

  11. Portable Linear Sled (PLS) for biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallotton, Will; Matsuhiro, Dennis; Wynn, Tom; Temple, John

    1993-01-01

    The PLS is a portable linear motion generating device conceived by researchers at Ames Research Center's Vestibular Research Facility and designed by engineers at Ames for the study of motion sickness in space. It is an extremely smooth apparatus, powered by linear motors and suspended on air bearings which ride on precision ground ceramic ways.

  12. Operations and maintenance manual for the linear accelerator (sled)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Linear Accelerator, a sliding chair which is pulled along a stationary platform in a horizontal axis is described. The driving force is a motor controlled by a velocity loop amplifier, and the mechanical link to the chair is a steel cable. The chair is moved in forward and reverse directions as indicated by the direction of motor rotation. The system operation is described with emphasis on the electronic control and monitoring functions. Line-by-line schematics and wire lists are included.

  13. Tradition and Technology: Sea Ice Science on Inuit Sleds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Jeremy P.; Hanson, Susanne; Hughes, Nick E.; James, Alistair; Jones, Bryn; MacKinnon, Rory; Rysgaard, Søren; Toudal, Leif

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic is home to a circumpolar community of native people whose culture and traditions have enabled them to thrive in what most would perceive as a totally inhospitable and untenable environment. In many ways, sea ice can be viewed as the glue that binds these northern communities together; it is utilized in all aspects of their daily life. Sea ice acts as highways of the north; indeed, one can travel on these highways with dogsleds and snowmobiles. These travels over the frozen ocean occur at all periods of the sea ice cycle and over different ice types and ages. Excursions may be hunting trips to remote regions or social visits to nearby villages. Furthermore, hunting on the sea ice contributes to the health, culture, and commercial income of a community.

  14. Molecular Sleds and More: Novel Antiviral Agents via Single-Molecule Biology (441st Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Mangel, Wally

    2008-10-15

    Vaccines are effective against viruses such as polio and measles, but vaccines against other important viruses, such as HIV and flu viruses, may be impossible to obtain. These viruses change their genetic makeup each time they replicate so that the immune system cannot recognize all their variations. Hence it is important to develop new antiviral agents that inhibit virus replication. During this lecture, Dr. Mangel will discuss his group's work with a model system, the human adenovirus, which causes, among other ailments, pink eye, blindness and obesity. Mangel's team has developed a promising drug candidate that works by inihibiting adenovirus proteinase, an enzyme necessary for viral replication.

  15. Evaluation of steering control devices in adapted cars using sled deceleration tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eixerés, B.; Masiá, J.; Dols, J. F.; Esquerdo, T. V.

    2009-11-01

    Steering control devices used by disabled drivers can reduce passive safety, interfering with the existing systems of safety in the vehicle or causing injury to the occupants [1]. In this article, the results obtained in different dynamic tests carried out in a crash test simulator are presented. These tests were carried out on the steering devices which interfere the most with the deployment of the driver's airbag and also with the knee airbag in a Citroen C5.

  16. Dog Sleds to Satellites: Library Service in the Land of the Midnight Sun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herie, Euclid J.

    The role of the Canadian National Institute for the Blind (CNIB) in serving the aboriginal (indigenous) peoples of Canada, especially those in the Northwest Territories (NWT), is described, and the possibilities for future library delivery systems are discussed. The right of these peoples, and of all blind and visually impaired persons, to…

  17. Sled Dogs, Musher Math, and More: Theme Teaching and the Alaskan Iditarod.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park-Seldomridge, Anne

    1995-01-01

    A teacher of upper elementary deaf students describes a multidisciplinary study unit focused on the Alaskan dogsled race, the Iditarod. Activities included studying Alaskan geography and history, following specific racers (mushers) through daily updates faxed from Alaska, writing letters to mushers, calculating math facts related to the race,…

  18. An experimental meat-free diet maintained haematological characteristics in sprint-racing sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Wendy Y; Vanselow, Barbara A; Redman, Andrew J; Pluske, John R

    2009-11-01

    A dog's nutrient requirements can theoretically be met from a properly balanced meat-free diet; however, proof for this is lacking. Exercise places additional demands on the body, and dogs fed a meat-free diet may be at increased risk of developing sports anaemia. We hypothesised that exercising dogs would remain in good health and not develop anaemia when fed a nutritionally balanced meat-free diet. To this end, twelve sprint-racing Siberian huskies were fed either a commercial diet recommended for active dogs (n 6), or a meat-free diet formulated to the same nutrient specifications (n 6). The commercial diet contained 43 % poultry meal, whereas soyabean meal and maize gluten made up 43 % of the meat-free diet, as the main protein ingredients. Dogs were fed these diets as their sole nutrient intake for 16 weeks, including 10 weeks of competitive racing. Blood samples were collected at weeks 0, 3, 8 and 16, and veterinary health checks were conducted at weeks 0, 8 and 16. Haematology results for all dogs, irrespective of diet, were within normal range throughout the study and the consulting veterinarian assessed all dogs to be in excellent physical condition. No dogs in the present study developed anaemia. On the contrary, erythrocyte counts and Hb values increased significantly over time (P < 0.01) in both groups of dogs. The present study is the first to demonstrate that a carefully balanced meat-free diet can maintain normal haematological values in exercising dogs. PMID:19480731

  19. "Heavy Sledding": Barriers to Community Participation in Beaufort Sea Hydrocarbon Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durst, Douglas

    1994-01-01

    This description of the Canadian government's assessment of the social impact of hydrocarbon exploration in the Arctic demonstrates barriers to citizen involvement: ad hoc nature, travel and child care problems, and lack of enough volunteers. Recommendations for community participation in impact assessment are given. (SK)

  20. The AMT maglev test sled -- EML weapons technology transition to transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Schaaf, J.C. Jr.; Zowarka, R.C. Jr.; Davey, K.; Weldon, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Technology spinoffs from prior electromagnetic launcher work enhance a magnetic levitation transportation system test bed being developed by American Maglev Technology of Florida. This project uses a series wound linear DC motor and brushes to simplify the magnetic levitation propulsion system. It takes advantage of previous related work in electromagnetic launcher technology to achieve success with this innovative design. Technology and knowledge gained from developments for homopolar generators and proposed railgun arc control are key to successful performance. This contribution supports a cost effective design that is competitive with alternative concepts. Brushes transfer power from the guideway (rail) to the vehicle (armature) in a novel design that activates the guideway only under the vehicle, reducing power losses and guideway construction costs. The vehicle carries no power for propulsion and levitation, and acts only as a conduit for the power through the high speed brushes. Brush selection and performance is based on previous EML homopolar generator research. A counterpulse circuit, first introduced in an early EML conference, is used to suppress arcing on the trailing brush and to transfer inductive energy to the next propulsion coil. Isolated static lift and preliminary propulsion tests have been completed, and integrated propulsion and lift tests are scheduled in early 1996.

  1. Mid-J CO Shock Tracing Observations of Infrared Dark Clouds. III. SLED Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pon, A.; Kaufman, M. J.; Johnstone, D.; Caselli, P.; Fontani, F.; Butler, M. J.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Palau, A.; Tan, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    Giant molecular clouds contain supersonic turbulence that can locally heat small fractions of gas to over 100 K. We run shock models for low-velocity, C-type shocks propagating into gas with densities between 103 and 105 cm‑3 and find that CO lines are the most important cooling lines. Comparison to photodissociation region (PDR) models indicates that mid-J CO lines (J = 8 \\to 7 and higher) should be dominated by emission from shocked gas. In Papers I and II we presented CO J = 3 \\to 2, 8 \\to 7, and 9 \\to 8 observations toward four primarily quiescent clumps within infrared dark clouds. Here we fit PDR models to the combined spectral line energy distributions and show that the PDR models that best fit the low-J CO emission underpredict the mid-J CO emission by orders of magnitude, strongly hinting at a hot gas component within these clumps. The low-J CO data clearly show that the integrated intensities of both the CO J = 8 \\to 7 and 9 \\to 8 lines are anomalously high, such that the line ratio can be used to characterize the hot gas component. Shock models are reasonably consistent with the observed mid-J CO emission, with models with densities near {10}4.5 cm‑3 providing the best agreement. Where this mid-J CO is detected, the mean volume filling factor of the hot gas is 0.1%. Much of the observed mid-J CO emission, however, is also associated with known protostars and may be due to protostellar feedback.

  2. Evaluation of Sled Tests for Spacecraft Dynamic Environments using the Small Female and Large Male Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Jessica A.; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Newby, Nathaniel J.; Putnam, Jacob F.; Currie-Gregg, Nancy J.; Lawrence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Anthropomorphic test devices (ATD) are widely used for military and automotive applications. These ATDs have been correlated to certain types of human injuries largely involving automotive-type energetics and directions of impact. Spacecraft dynamic events involve very different impact characteristics and, in the case of landings, require lower levels of acceptable injury risk due to the certainty of impact occurrence. This test series evaluated the small female and large male Hybrid IIII ATDs for spacecraft dynamic events.

  3. Signatures of the Martian moon PHOBOS in the fluxes of energetic particles as measured by experiment SLED onboard PHOBOS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, E.; McKenna-Lawlor, S. M. P.; Afonin, V. V.; Keppler, E.; Livi, S.; Rosenbauer, H.; Witte, M.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Thompson, A.; O'Sullivan, D.

    1993-06-01

    Energetic particles Ep greater than 34 keV, E0+ greater than 55 keV), plasma ions (30 eV-6 keV) and magnetic fields have been observed onboard Phobos 2 during the approach phases of the spacecraft to the Phobos moon in February/March 1989. Water ions and protons escaping as neutral water molecules from Phobos and the Martian tail can generally be accelerated by the pickup process. The present study is concerned with the acceleration of particles at the evening side (alpha s/c = 90 deg) of the Martian bowshock, which escaped as neutrals, especially from the tail or at the front side of Phobos. Since the interplanetary magnetic field forms quasiperpendicular and quasiparallel shocks with the Martian bowshock, the shock drift and the Fermi acceleration process were considered as processes for a further acceleration. The observed particle fluxes are interpreted as protons of 34-200 keV and O(+) ions of 55-225 keV energy.

  4. Haemorrhagic pneumonia in sled dogs caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus - one fatality and two full recoveries: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In spite of yearly vaccination, outbreaks of canine infectious respiratory disease are periodically seen amongst domestic dogs. These infections compromise host defense mechanisms, and, when combined with other stressful events, allow opportunistic pathogens like Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus to create serious disease. Early recognition and treatment are tremendously important for a successful outcome in these cases. A polyvalent vaccine was given to 22 racing dogs three days after a competition, followed by two days of rest, and then the dogs were returned to regular training. Coughing was noticed among the dogs four days after immunisation. Three days after this outbreak one of the dogs was unusually silent and was found dead the next morning. Simultaneously two other dogs developed haemorrhagic expectorate, depression and dyspnea and were brought in to the veterinary hospital. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated in pure culture from all three cases. They were treated and rehabilitated successfully, and won a sledge race three months later. This paper discusses the necropsy results, treatment regime, rehabilitation and the chronology of vaccination, stressful events and disease. PMID:24020788

  5. 5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 3. SOUTH SIDE. Edwards Air Force Base, South Base ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH SIDE. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to northwest from access road. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 5. BUILDING 0503, INTERIOR WOODEN ARCHES. Looking south from entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BUILDING 0503, INTERIOR WOODEN ARCHES. Looking south from entrance. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 3. BUILDING 0503, NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, WITH LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 0503, NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, WITH LOADING DOCK AND GABLE ROOFED SHED. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. NORTH SIDE FACING TRACK, SHOWING ELECTRICAL BOX AND CONCRETE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH SIDE FACING TRACK, SHOWING ELECTRICAL BOX AND CONCRETE VAULT - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Electrical Distribution Station, South side of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA recently performed a trial run on a rocket sled test fixture, powered by rockets, to replicate the forces a supersonic spacecraft would experience prior to landing. The sled tests will allow t...

  13. A Front-Row Seat at a Wheelchair Crash Test: EP Kicks Off Its Wheelchair Transportation Safety Series with a Visit to the University of Michigan's Transportation Research Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2007-01-01

    The centerpiece of the University of Michigan's Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) Sled Lab is "the impact sled," as it is called in the business. It's the business of conducting sled impact tests, perhaps better known as crash tests, on all types of wheelchairs and wheelchair seating systems as well as wheelchair tiedowns and…

  14. 10. ENTRY STAIRWELL TO CABLE TUNNEL, ABOUT THREE QUARTERS THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. ENTRY STAIRWELL TO CABLE TUNNEL, ABOUT THREE QUARTERS THE DISTANCE TO THE SLED LAUNCHING PAD FROM THE FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0545. Looking west northwest. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing Control Blockhouse, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. The oral [(13)C]bicarbonate technique for measurement of short-term energy expenditure of sled dogs and their physiological response to diets with different fat:carbohydrate ratios.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Caroline; Ahlstrøm, Øystein; Junghans, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus B; Blache, Dominique; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2015-01-01

    The oral [(13)C]bicarbonate technique (o(13)CBT) was assessed for the determination of short-term energy expenditure (EE) under field conditions. A total of eight Alaskan huskies were fed two experimental diets in a cross-over experiment including two periods of 3 weeks. Effects of diets on EE, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and on plasma hormones, blood lactate and glucose were furthermore investigated. The percentages of metabolisable energy derived from protein (P), fat (F) and carbohydrates (C) were 26:58:16 in the PFC diet and 24:75:1 in the PF diet. Measurements of EE were performed in the post-absorptive state during rest. Blood samples were collected during rest and exercise and ATTD was determined after days with rest and with exercise. EE was higher (P < 0·01) in period 2 than in period 1 (68 v. 48 kJ/kg body weight(0·75) per h). The ATTD of organic matter, crude protein and crude fat was higher (P < 0·01) in the PF diet compared with the PFC diet, and lower (P < 0·01) for total carbohydrates. Exercise did not affect ATTD. Higher (P < 0·01) insulin-like growth factor 1 and leptin concentrations were measured when fed the PF diet compared with the PFC diet. Concentrations of insulin decreased (P < 0·01), whereas cortisol and ghrelin increased (P < 0·05), after exercise. There was no effect of diet on blood lactate and glucose, but higher (P < 0·001) lactate concentrations were measured in period 1 than in period 2. The results suggest that the o(13)CBT can be used in the field to estimate short-term EE in dogs during resting conditions. Higher ATTD and energy density of the PF diet may be beneficial when energy requirements are high. PMID:26495123

  16. Experiments with very-high-power RF pulses at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Hogg, H.A.; Loew, G.A.; Price, V.G.

    1983-03-01

    Experiments in which the powers of two SLAC klystrons were combined and fed into a resonant cavity pulse-compression system (SLED) are described. Pulse powers up to 65 MW into SLED were reached. The corresponding instantaneous peak power out of SLED was 390 MW. After normal initial aging, no persistent RF breakdown problems were encountered. X-radiation at the SLED cavities was generally less than 400 mR/h after aging. The theoretical relationship between x-radiation intensity and RF electric field strength is discussed.

  17. 9. A VIEW ALONG WEST REAR WALL SHOWING CONFIGURATION FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. A VIEW ALONG WEST REAR WALL SHOWING CONFIGURATION FOR OBSERVATION MIRRORS. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 7. BULLET GLASS OBSERVATION WINDOW AT GROUND LEVEL ON WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. BULLET GLASS OBSERVATION WINDOW AT GROUND LEVEL ON WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 2. WEST REAR, WITH PORTHOLE ESCAPE HATCH ABOVE ENTRY DOOR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST REAR, WITH PORTHOLE ESCAPE HATCH ABOVE ENTRY DOOR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 8. INTERIOR, CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. Looking southwest toward entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. Looking southwest toward entrance and inner blast door. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 4. EAST FRONT. Original viewing windows on upper level have ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EAST FRONT. Original viewing windows on upper level have been filled in with concrete block. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. SOUTHWEST REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE. Protective berm at left shields ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHWEST REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE. Protective berm at left shields Air Supply building from launch pad - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Air Supply Building for Building No. 0545, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 15. ELEVATED CAMERA STAND, SHOWING LINE OF CAMERA STANDS PARALLEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. ELEVATED CAMERA STAND, SHOWING LINE OF CAMERA STANDS PARALLEL TO SLED TRACK. Looking west southwest down Camera Road. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 43 CFR 423.37 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....37 Winter activities. (a) You must not tow persons on skis, sleds, or other sliding devices with a motor vehicle or snowmobile, except that you may tow sleds designed to be towed behind snowmobiles if joined to the towing snowmobile with a rigid hitching mechanism, and you may tow disabled snowmobiles...

  6. 13. WALKWAY FROM LAUNCHING PAD TO CABLE TUNNEL STAIRWELL, ALSO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WALKWAY FROM LAUNCHING PAD TO CABLE TUNNEL STAIRWELL, ALSO SHOWING A PROTECTIVE BERM AT TOP LEFT, AND FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0545 AT TOP RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing Control Blockhouse, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, HIGH ENCLOSED METAL OBSERVATION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, HIGH ENCLOSED METAL OBSERVATION TOWER LOCATED APPROXIMATELY 1800 FEET SOUTH OF TRACK. Looking southeast - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Observation Tower, South of west end of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 11. ENTRY STAIRWELL TO CABLE TUNNEL. REMAINS OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. ENTRY STAIRWELL TO CABLE TUNNEL. REMAINS OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION STATIONS AT LEFT, TRACKSIDE CAMERA STAND AT FAR RIGHT. Looking northeast toward launch pad. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing Control Blockhouse, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 23. "GAFFTC 20 APR 60, H65A F106A; ESCAPE SYSTEM RUN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. "G-AFFTC 20 APR 60, H-6-5A F-106A; ESCAPE SYSTEM RUN 5A." Testing the ejection system on a Convair sled. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 24. "GAFFTC 29 SEP 60, F106B STATIC TEST 1." Test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. "G-AFFTC 29 SEP 60, F-106B STATIC TEST 1." Test of the Convair sled escape system at static test site east of Station "50". File no. 11,988-60. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST FRONT. The frames on an ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST FRONT. The frames on an angle originally held mirrors for viewing the tests from inside the building. Vertical frame originally held bullet glass. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing Control Blockhouse, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, C. Y.; Morris, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous, real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

  13. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostics expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Cheng Y.; Morris, William S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

  14. A case for Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, David A.; Gibson, Garth; Katz, Randy H.

    1988-01-01

    Increasing performance of CPUs and memories will be squandered if not matched by a similar performance increase in I/O. While the capacity of Single Large Expensive Disks (SLED) has grown rapidly, the performance improvement of SLED has been modest. Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID), based on the magnetic disk technology developed for personal computers, offers an attractive alternative to SLED, promising improvements of an order of magnitude in performance, reliability, power consumption, and scalability. This paper introduces five levels of RAIDs, giving their relative cost/performance, and compares RAID to an IBM 3380 and a Fujitsu Super Eagle.

  15. Meal Plans: What Kids with Diabetes Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Meal Plans: What Kids With Diabetes Need to Know KidsHealth > For Kids > ...

  16. 19. MUELLER FIRE HYDRANT NEAR LAUNCHING PAD IN STATION "0". ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. MUELLER FIRE HYDRANT NEAR LAUNCHING PAD IN STATION "0". - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Cold-Weather Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... try sledding . Or, if you prefer ice to snow, think hockey or figure skating. Runners can also ... freeze. Regardless of how you get down a snow-covered slope, always watch for obstacles such as ...

  18. Frostbite

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Cold Like We Do? Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family Safety ... Frostbite How to Be Safe in Ice and Snow Stay Safe Center Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, ...

  19. What's a Scab?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating ... a scab forms. Scabs are usually crusty and dark red or brown. Their job is to protect ...

  20. Learning the "Wright' Way to Fly!

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lesson uses the online NASA CONNECT™™: The "Wright" Math Educator Guide, the NASA Aeronautics Activity Guide and the Sled Kite activity to help students learn how the Wright brothers developed...

  1. Scabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Scabies KidsHealth > For Kids > Scabies Print A A A ... Stop to Scabies en español Sarna What Is Scabies? Scabies (say: SKAY-beez) is an itchy skin ...

  2. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > For Kids > Diabetes: ... True or False: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes False: When kids get type 1 diabetes , it's ...

  3. 76 FR 77552 - Certain Light-Emitting Diodes and Products Containing Same; Determination Not To Review an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... August 18, 2011, based on a ] complaint filed by SLED. 76 FR 51396-97 (Aug. 18, 2011). A corrected Notice... Investigations will not participate as a party in this investigation. 76 FR 52348-49 (Aug. 22, 2011)....

  4. SOUTHEAST FRONT AND NORTHEAST SIDE. Looking northwest from top of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHEAST FRONT AND NORTHEAST SIDE. Looking northwest from top of protective berm - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Water Pump Station, Area "O" at east end, northwest of fuel storage, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. What's Spit?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Tongue What Are Taste Buds? Word! Saliva What's ...

  6. Life with Lupus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Guillain-Barré Syndrome Movie: Immune System What Are Glands? Your Immune System ...

  7. Acne Myths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Acne Myths KidsHealth > For Kids > Acne Myths Print A ... get your acne under control. Myth: Stress causes acne. Fact: Are you worried that the big test ...

  8. 15. "FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE; STATION '0' AREA; PLAN, AND SECTIONS." ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. "FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE; STATION '0' AREA; PLAN, AND SECTIONS." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-57-75; Drawing No. AF-60-09-15; sheet 40 of 96; D.O. Series No. AF 1394/60, Rev. A. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296 Rev. A, Date: 11/17/59. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing Control Blockhouse, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 14. "FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE; STATION '0' AREA; PLAN, ELEVATIONS, SECTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. "FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE; STATION '0' AREA; PLAN, ELEVATIONS, SECTION, DETAIL AND SCHED." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-57-75; Drawing No. AF-60-09-15; sheet 21 of 96; D.O. Series No. AF 1394/39, Rev. A. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296 Rev. A, Date: 11/17/59. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing Control Blockhouse, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 26. "AIR INSTALLATIONS; EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA; HIGH SPEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. "AIR INSTALLATIONS; EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA; HIGH SPEED TEST TRACK." Drawing No. 10-259. One inch to 400 feet plan of original 10,000-foot sled track. No date. No D.O. series number. No headings as above. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. A system for measuring bottom profile, waves and currents in the high-energy nearshore environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Howard, P.C.; Fletcher, C. H., III; Howd, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    A new data-acquisition system capable of measuring waves, currents and the nearshore profile in breaking waves as high as 5 m has been developed and successfully field-tested. Components of the mechanical system are a sled carrying a vertical mast, a double-drum winch placed landward of the beach, and a line that runs from one drum of the winch around three blocks, which are the corners of a right triangle, to the other drum of the winch. The sled is attached to the shore-normal side of the triangular line arrangement and is pulled offshore by one drum of the winch and onshore by the other. The profile is measured as the sled is towed along the shore-normal transect using an infrared rangefinder mounted landward of the winch and optical prisms mounted on top of the sled's mast. A pressure sensor and two-axis electromagnetic current meter are mounted on the frame of the sled. These data are encoded on the sled and telemetered to a receiving/recording station onshore. Preliminary results suggest that near-bottom offshore-flowing currents during periods of high-energy swell are important in forcing changes to the configuration of the nearshore profile. ?? 1983.

  12. Using head-on collisions to compare risk of driver death by frontal air bag generation: a matched-pair cohort study.

    PubMed

    Braver, Elisa R; Kufera, Joseph A; Alexander, Melvin T; Scerbo, Marge; Volpini, Karen; Lloyd, Joseph P

    2008-03-01

    US air bag regulations were changed in 1997 to allow tests of unbelted male dummies in vehicles mounted and accelerated on sleds, resulting in longer crash pulses than rigid-barrier crashes. This change facilitated depowering of frontal air bags and was intended to reduce air bag-induced deaths. Controversy ensued as to whether sled-certified air bags could increase adult fatality risk. A matched-pair cohort study of two-vehicle, head-on, fatal collisions between drivers involving first-generation versus sled-certified air bags during 1998-2005 was conducted by using Fatality Analysis Reporting System data. Sled certification was ascertained from public information and a survey of automakers. Conditional Poisson regression for matched-pair cohorts was used to estimate risk ratios adjusted for age, seat belt status, vehicle type, passenger car size, and model year for driver deaths in vehicles with sled-certified air bags versus first-generation air bags. For all passenger-vehicle pairs, the adjusted risk ratio was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.77, 0.98). In head-on collisions involving only passenger cars, the adjusted risk ratio was 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 1.29). Increased fatality risk for drivers with sled-certified air bags was not observed. A borderline significant interaction between vehicle type and air bag generation suggested that sled-certified air bags may have reduced the risk of dying in head-on collisions among drivers of pickup trucks. PMID:18079131

  13. Development and validation of a computer crash simulation model of an occupied adult manual wheelchair subjected to a frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Dsouza, R; Bertocci, G

    2010-04-01

    Wheelchairs are primarily designed for mobility and are not necessarily intended for use as motor vehicle seats. However, many wheelchairs serve as vehicle seats for individuals unable to transfer to a vehicle seat. Subjecting wheelchairs to sled testing, in part establishes the crashworthiness of wheelchairs used as motor vehicle seats. Computer simulations provide a supplemental approach for sled testing, to assess wheelchair response and loading under crash conditions. In this study a nonlinear, dynamic, computer model was developed and validated to simulate a wheelchair and occupant subjected to a frontal impact test (ANSI/RESNA WC19). This simulation model was developed utilizing data from two frontal impact 20 g/48 km/h sled tests, which consisted of identical, adult manual wheelchairs secured with 4-point tiedowns, occupied with a 50th percentile adult male anthropomorphic test device (ATD), restrained with a 3-point occupant restraint system. Additionally, the model was validated against sled data using visual comparisons of wheelchair and occupant kinematics, along with statistical assessments of outcome measures. All statistical evaluations were found to be within the acceptance criteria, indicating the model's high predictability of the sled tests. This model provides a useful tool for the development of crashworthy wheelchair design guidelines, as well as the development of transit-safe wheelchair technologies. PMID:19251461

  14. Implementation and validation of thoracic side impact injury prediction metrics in a human body model.

    PubMed

    Golman, Adam J; Danelson, Kerry A; Gaewsky, James P; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-08-01

    This study's purpose was to implement injury metrics into the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) mirroring the spinal accelerometers, rib accelerometers and chest band instrumentation from two lateral post-mortem human subject sled test configurations. In both sled configurations, THUMS contacted a flat rigid surface (either a wall or beam) at 6.7 m/s. Sled A maximum simulated wall forces for the thorax, abdomen and pelvis were 7.1, 5.0 and 10.0 kN versus 5.7 ± 0.8, 3.4 ± 1.2 and 6.2 ± 2.7 kN experimentally. Sled B maximum simulated beam forces for the torso and pelvis were 8.0 and 7.6 kN versus 8.5 ± 0.2 and 7.9 ± 2.5 kN experimentally. Quantitatively, force magnitude contributed more to variation between simulated and experimental forces than phase shift. Acceleration-based injury metrics were within one standard deviation of experimental means except for the lower spine in the rigid wall sled test. These validated metrics will be useful for quantifying occupant loading conditions and calculating injury risks in various loading configurations. PMID:24520849

  15. Comparisons between in situ measurements of the magnetic shadowing of high energy ions at Mars and hybrid model simulations, using contemporary particle and field measurements to define the upstream interplanetary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Kallio, E.; Alho, M.; Jarvinen, R.; Afonin, V.

    2012-04-01

    Energetic particle data recorded by the SLED instrument aboard Phobos-2 while in circular orbit about Mars in March, 1989 showed the presence of magnetic shadowing. A 3-D, self consistent, hybrid model (HYB-Mars) supplemented by test particle simulations was developed to study the response of the Martian plasma environment to solar disturbances and to interpret, in particular, the SLED observations. The magnetic and electric fields, as well as the properties of high energy ions, present at Mars under conditions of extreme solar disturbance can be derived from HYB-Mars. Our initial study [McKenna-Lawlor et al., EPS 2011, in press] showed that the HYB-Mars model predicted an already well-documented plasma phenomenon at the planet, namely 'sw-flow shadowing (identified in the measurements of the ASPERA (plasma) experiment aboard Phobos-2). HYB further, importantly, predicted the occurrence of magnetic shadowing which is qualitatively similar to that recorded by SLED. The simulations in addition suggested that the configuration of a magnetic shadow depends on the pertaining solar wind density and velocity, and on the magnitude and direction of the interplanetary magnetic field. The present work presents a more detailed study where plasma and magnetic field inputs to the HYB model come from measurements made aboard Phobos-2 contemporaneously with the SLED observations. In this way it is possible to realistically match the upstream interplanetary conditions with the configuration of the magnetic shadow recorded at various energies in the SLED data. One-to-one comparisons between the SLED observations and simulated high energy H+ fluxes will be presented in this context and similarities and differences between the observations and simulations discussed.

  16. A theory for the excitation of CO in star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Desika; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2014-08-01

    Observations of molecular gas in high-z star-forming galaxies typically rely on emission from CO lines arising from states with rotational quantum numbers J > 1. Converting these observations to an estimate of the CO J = 1-0 intensity, and thus inferring H2 gas masses, requires knowledge of the CO excitation ladder or spectral line energy distribution (SLED). The few available multi-J CO observations of galaxies show a very broad range of SLEDs, even at fixed galaxy mass and star formation rate (SFR), making the conversion to J = 1-0 emission and hence molecular gas mass highly uncertain. Here, we combine numerical simulations of disc galaxies and galaxy mergers with molecular line radiative transfer calculations to develop a model for the physical parameters that drive variations in CO SLEDs in galaxies. An essential feature of our model is a fully self-consistent computation of the molecular gas temperature and excitation structure. We find that, while the shape of the SLED is ultimately determined by difficult-to-observe quantities such as the gas density, temperature and optical depth distributions, all of these quantities are well correlated with the galaxy's mean star formation rate surface density (ΣSFR), which is observable. We use this result to develop a model for the CO SLED in terms of ΣSFR, and show that this model quantitatively reproduces the SLEDs of galaxies over a dynamic range of ˜200 in SFR surface density, at redshifts from z = 0 to 6. This model should make it possible to significantly reduce the uncertainty in deducing molecular gas masses from observations of high-J CO emission.

  17. Realistic warhead and blast shield testing of chemical energy tandem warhead systems for advanced antitank missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Fradkin, D.B.; Hull, L.M.; Laabs, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    The results of dynamic sled track performance testing of advanced tandem configuration shaped-charge warheads against multiple-reactive-element tank armors are presented. Tandem configurations utilizing both currently fielded and experimental shaped-charge warheads were tested. Sled velocities used were between 400 and 1100 ft/s (Mach number 0.35 to 0.95), typical of the terminal approach velocity of TOW-type antitank missiles. High-speed motion pictures (5000 frames/s) of the sled in operation and a typical mock missile'' warhead package approaching the target are shown. Details of the sled design and fabrication and of the warhead package design and fabrication are presented. Sled track instrumentation is discussed. This instrumentation includes foil make/break switches and associated time interval meters (TIM) and digital delay units (DDU), magnetic Hall-effect transistors for measuring sled trajectory, and flash x-rays (FXR). Methods for timing the x-rays are presented. Schematic functional diagrams of the experimental setups are also given. Evidence of the ability to accurately time the delay between precursor and main warheads for even very long time delays are presented. FXR pictures illustrate the dynamics of the interaction of the jets with various target elements. The interaction dynamics of the jets is discussed in relation to the overall penetration performance of the tandem warhead. The use of x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to help diagnose interaction dynamics is illustrated. The results of a test utilizing the missile propulsion rocket motor as a blast shield is presented in this paper. 2 refs., 22 figs.

  18. Planned investigation of energetic particle populations (approximately 20-500 keV) in the close Martian environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Rusznyak, P.; Gringauz, K.; Klimenko, I.; Lutsenko, V.; Verigin, M.; Korth, A.; Richter, A.; Fischer, S.; Polasek, C.

    1995-04-01

    Energetic particle observations made by the Irish SLED instrument on the Phobos 2 spacecraft in 1989 have revealed the presence, within the overall energy range less than 30 keV - greater than 3.2 MeV, of variously located energetic particle populations in the close Marian environment. The signatures of characteristic boundaries have also been recorded for the first time in energetic particles in the distant Martian magnetotail. The new SLED-II instrument on the Mars-94 Mission is designed to study in detail, with 4 pi measurement capability, these and other energetic particle phenomena at Mars, while operating, over an extended period, at low altitudes above the planet.

  19. Development and validation of a frontal impact 6-year-old occupant and wheelchair computer model.

    PubMed

    Ha, DongRan; Bertocci, Gina; Jategaonkar, Rohit

    2007-01-01

    Many children with disabilities use their wheelchair as a vehicle seat when traveling. To date, few studies have focused on pediatric wheelchair users in transit. A computer model representing a manual pediatric wheelchair seated with a Hybrid III 6-year-old anthropomorphic test device subjected to a 20-g/48-kph (30-mph) frontal crash was developed in MADYMO. The wheelchair was secured using a 4-point tiedown system, and the occupant was restrained using a 3-point belt system. The time history profiles of the computer model were tuned to those of the sled tests. The peak value for key variables was compared between the sled tests and the model. To evaluate model variable time histories, Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) between the sled test and the model outcome measures were determined. The correlation coefficients ranged from .86 to .95, with an average r of .91. This indicates that there are "high" correlations between the model and sled tests across all variables. The pediatric wheelchair model developed and validated in this study will provide a foundation for studying the response of a manual pediatric wheelchair in frontal impacts and associated injury risks for pediatric wheelchair users. PMID:18335711

  20. COMPARISON OF TRANSFER OF SURFACE CHLORPYRIFOS RESIDUES FROM CARPET BY THREE DISLODGEABLE RESIDUE METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    After chlorpyrifos, which was broadcast-sprayed on carpet, had dried, transfers by the Dow drag sled, the California cloth roller, and the Southwest Research Institute polyurethane foam (PUF) roller were compared. n plush nylon carpet, mean chlorpyrifos transfers were 4.5% by the...

  1. Head impact mechanisms of a child occupant seated in a child restraint system as determined by impact testing.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryoichi; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Mizuno, Koji; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Hosokawa, Naruyuki

    2011-11-01

    In side collision accidents, the head is the most frequently injured body region for child occupants seated in a child restraint system (CRS). Accident analyses show that a child's head can move out of the CRS shell, make hard contact with the vehicle interior, and thus sustain serious injuries. In order to improve child head protection in side collisions, it is necessary to understand the injury mechanism of a child in the CRS whose head makes contact with the vehicle interior. In this research, an SUV-to-car oblique side crash test was conducted to reconstruct such head contacts. A Q3s child dummy was seated in a CRS in the rear seat of the target car. The Q3s child dummy's head moved out beyond the CRS side wing, moved laterally, and made contact with the side window glass and the doorsill. It was demonstrated that the hard head contact, which produced a high HIC value, could occur in side collisions. A series of sled tests was carried out to reproduce the dummy kinematic behavior observed in the SUV-to-car crash test, and the sled test conditions such as sled angle, ECE seat slant angle and velocity-time history that duplicated the kinematic behavior were determined. A parametric study also was conducted with the sled tests; and it was found that the impact angle, harness slack, chest clip, and the CRS side wing shape affected the torso motion and head contact with the vehicle interior. PMID:22869307

  2. Denakenaga' for Children. Lesson Plans for Teaching Denakenaga' (Minto-Nenana Tanana) to Children in Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Chad; Frank, Ellen

    This curriculum for elementary school-level instruction in Denakenaga' is intended for development of oral native language skills. Included are plans for 60 25-minute lessons, arranged in 11 units: basic conversation; food and eating; hunting and animals; clothing and morning routine; weather; body parts; dogs and sleds; numbers; the village;…

  3. Alaska Women in the Iditarod.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Peg

    This instructional booklet features biographical stories of Alaskan women who have raced and participated in the annual Iditarod Sled Dog Race. The Iditarod race covers over 1,049 miles from Anchorage to Nome and attracts racers from all over the world. A team consists of 12 to 18 dogs and their trainer or musher. The first Iditarod took place in…

  4. HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS OF LARVAL FISH IN A LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat associations of larval fishes in Great Lakes coastal wetlands (GLCW) are not well documented. To determine the distribution of larval fish in coastal wetlands with regard to location and vegetation characteristics, we used a larval tow-sled to sample four macrohabitat typ...

  5. Premature ignition of a rocket motor.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Darlene Ruth

    2010-10-01

    During preparation for a rocket sled track (RST) event, there was an unexpected ignition of the zuni rocket motor (10/9/08). Three Sandia staff and a contractor were involved in the accident; the contractor was seriously injured and made full recovery. The data recorder battery energized the low energy initiator in the rocket.

  6. 75 FR 50958 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... dummies during the crash, and the structural integrity of the seats, floor and bus. The sled tests (crash... total cost of adding belts and making structural changes to the motorcoach floor would be approximately... weight to the motorcoach. Weight would vary depending upon the needed structural changes, and...

  7. It's Time to Play

    MedlinePlus

    ... on a sled. Make snow angels. When It's Hot, Hot, Hot Yikes — it's hot outside, everyone is sweaty, and your legs are ... water , even if you don't feel thirsty. Hot temperatures make you sweat more when you're ...

  8. 14. ELEVATED CAMERA STAND IN FOREGROUND, FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE (BLDG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. ELEVATED CAMERA STAND IN FOREGROUND, FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE (BLDG. 0545) IN CENTER, AIR SUPPLY BUILDING AND PROTECTIVE BERM IN BACKGROUND. Looking north northeast from Camera Road. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Hey! A Louse Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Hey! A Louse Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Louse Bit Me! Print A A A ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Gnat Bit Me! Hey! A Flea Bit ...

  10. Hey! A Chigger Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Hey! A Chigger Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Chigger Bit Me! Print A A A ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me! Hey! A Gnat ...

  11. STEMEdhub: Supporting STEM Education Initiatives via the HUBzero Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, James D.; Ertmer, Peggy A.; Bessenbacher, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Built as one of 60+ hubs on the HUBzero platform, STEMEdhub was developed in 2011 as a resource for research, education, and collaboration in STEM education. The hub currently supports 82 different groups. In this article, the authors describe two specific groups (SLED and AAU) that are taking advantage of numerous communication and resource tools…

  12. Space adaptation syndrome experiments (8-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, D.

    1992-01-01

    A set of seven experiments will study adaptation of the human nervous system to weightlessness. Particular emphasis will be placed on the vestibular and proprioceptive systems. The experiments are as follows: the sled/H-reflex; rotation/vestibulo-ocular reflex; the visual stimulator experiment; proprioception (relaxed) experiment; proprioception (active) experiment; proprioception (illusion) experiment; and tactile acuity.

  13. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Winter activities. 1002.19 Section 1002.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding,...

  14. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities. 1002.19 Section 1002.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding,...

  15. Understanding Complex Ecologies: An Investigation of Student Experiences in Adventure Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koseoglu, Suzan; Doering, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    The GoNorth! Adventure Learning (AL) Series delivered educational programs about global climate change and sustainability from 2006 to 2010 via a hybrid-learning environment that included a curriculum designed with activities that worked in conjunction with the travels of Team GoNorth! as they dog sledded throughout the circumpolar Arctic. This…

  16. The ESTER particle and plasma analyzer complex for the phobos mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonin, V. V.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Kiraly, P.; Marsden, R.; Richter, A.; Rusznyak, P.; Shutte, N. M.; Szabo, L.; Szalai, S.; Szucs, I. T.; Varhalmi, L.; Witte, M.

    1990-05-01

    The ESTER particle and plasma analyzer system for the Phobos Mission comprised a complex of three instruments (LET, SLED and HARP) serviced by a common Data Processing Unit. An account is provided of this complex, its objectives and excellent performance in space.

  17. Doggone Good Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raack, Lenaya

    1999-01-01

    Describes a teacher's experiences developing and implementing a three-week interdisciplinary unit for fourth grade students that revolves around the Alaskan Iditarod sled dog race. Students read about the race history, figure out a racing budget, learn about animal breeding and care, and follow the actual progress of the racing teams via Internet…

  18. Hemodiafiltration Decreases Serum Levels of Inflammatory Mediators in Severe Leptospirosis: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cleto, Sérgio Aparecido; Rodrigues, Camila Eleutério; Malaque, Ceila Maria; Sztajnbok, Jaques; Seguro, Antônio Carlos; Andrade, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a health problem worldwide. Its most severe form is a classic model of sepsis, provoking acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute kidney injury (AKI), with associated mortality that remains unacceptably high. We previously demonstrated that early initiation of sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) followed by daily SLED significantly decreases mortality. However, the mode of clearance can also affect dialysis patient outcomes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of SLED with traditional (diffusive) clearance, via hemodialysis, and SLED with convective clearance, via hemodiafiltration (SLEDf), in patients with severe leptospirosis. Methods In this prospective study, conducted in the intensive care unit (ICU) from 2009 through 2012, we compared two groups—SLED (n = 19) and SLEDf (n = 20)—evaluating demographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters, as well as serum levels of interleukins, up to the third day after admission. All patients received dialysis early and daily thereafter. Results During the study period, 138 patients were admitted to our ICU with a diagnosis of leptospirosis; 39 (36 males/3 females) met the criteria for ARDS and AKI. All patients were on mechanical ventilation and were comparable in terms of respiratory parameters. Mortality did not differ between the SLEDf and SLED groups. However, post-admission decreases in the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-7, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were significantly greater in the SLEDf group. Direct bilirubin and the arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio were significantly higher in the SLED group. We identified the following risk factors (sensitivities/specificities) for mortality in severe leptospirosis: age ≥ 55 years (67%/91%); serum urea ≥ 204 mg/dl (100%/70%); creatinine ≥ 5.2 mg/dl (100%/58%); Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score ≥ 39.5 (67%/88%); Sequential

  19. Warm molecular gas temperature distribution in six local infrared bright Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Spinoglio, Luigi; van der Werf, Paul P.; Piqueras López, Javier

    2014-06-01

    We simultaneously analyze the spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) of CO and H2 of six local luminous infrared (IR) Seyfert galaxies. For the CO SLEDs, we used new Herschel/SPIRE FTS data (from J = 4-3 to J = 13-12) and ground-based observations for the lower-J CO transitions. The H2 SLEDs were constructed using archival mid-IR Spitzer/IRS and near-IR VLT/SINFONI data for the rotational and ro-vibrational H2 transitions, respectively. In total, the SLEDs contain 26 transitions with upper level energies between 5 and 15 000 K. A single, constant density, model (nH2 ~ 104.5-6 cm-3) with a broken power-law temperature distribution reproduces well both the CO and H2 SLEDs. The power-law indices are β1 ~ 1-3 for warm molecular gas (20 K 100 K). We show that the steeper temperature distribution (higher β) for hot molecular gas can be explained by shocks and photodissociation region (PDR) models; however, the exact β values are not reproduced by PDR or shock models alone and a combination of both is needed. We find that the three major mergers among our targets have shallower temperature distributions for warm molecular gas than the other three spiral galaxies. This can be explained by a higher relative contribution of shock excitation, with respect to PDR excitation, for the warm molecular gas in these mergers. For only one of the mergers, IRASF 05189-2524, the shallower H2 temperature distribution differs from that of the spiral galaxies. The presence of a bright active galactic nucleus in this source might explain the warmer molecular gas observed. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  20. Molecular Gas Heating Mechanisms, and Star Formation Feedback in Merger/Starbursts: NGC 6240 and Arp 193 as Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Xilouris, E. M.; Weiss, Axel; van der Werf, Paul; Israel, F. P.; Greve, T. R.; Isaak, Kate G.; Gao, Y.

    2014-06-01

    We used the SPIRE/FTS instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory to obtain the Spectral Line Energy Distributions (SLEDs) of CO from J = 4-3 to J = 13-12 of Arp 193 and NGC 6240, two classical merger/starbursts selected from our molecular line survey of local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (L IR >= 1011 L ⊙). The high-J CO SLEDs are then combined with ground-based low-J CO, 13CO, HCN, HCO+, CS line data and used to probe the thermal and dynamical states of their large molecular gas reservoirs. We find the two CO SLEDs strongly diverging from J = 4-3 onward, with NGC 6240 having a much higher CO line excitation than Arp 193, despite their similar low-J CO SLEDs and L FIR/L CO, 1 - 0, L HCN/L CO (J = 1-0) ratios (proxies of star formation efficiency and dense gas mass fraction). In Arp 193, one of the three most extreme starbursts in the local universe, the molecular SLEDs indicate a small amount (~5%-15%) of dense gas (n >= 104 cm-3) unlike NGC 6240 where most of the molecular gas (~60%-70%) is dense (n ~ (104-105) cm-3). Strong star-formation feedback can drive this disparity in their dense gas mass fractions, and also induce extreme thermal and dynamical states for the molecular gas. In NGC 6240, and to a lesser degree in Arp 193, we find large molecular gas masses whose thermal states cannot be maintained by FUV photons from Photon-Dominated Regions. We argue that this may happen often in metal-rich merger/starbursts, strongly altering the initial conditions of star formation. ALMA can now directly probe these conditions across cosmic epoch, and even probe their deeply dust-enshrouded outcome, the stellar initial mass function averaged over galactic evolution.

  1. The effect of gait approach velocity on the broken escalator phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Tang, K-S; Kaski, D; Allum, J H J; Bronstein, A M

    2013-05-01

    Walking onto a stationary surface previously experienced as moving generates an after-effect commonly known as the "broken escalator" after-effect (AE). This AE represents an inappropriate expression of the locomotor adaptation necessary to step onto the moving platform (or escalator). It is characterised by two main biomechanical components, an increased gait approach velocity (GAV) and a forward trunk overshoot on gait termination. We investigated whether the trunk overshoot and other biomechanical measures are the direct inertial consequence of the increased GAV or whether these are the result of an independent adaptive mechanism. Forty-eight healthy young adults walked onto a movable sled. They performed 5 trials with the sled stationary at their preferred walking velocity (BEFORE trials), 5 with the sled moving (MOVING or adaptation trials), and 5 with the sled stationary again (AFTER trials). For the AFTER trials, subjects were divided into four groups. One group was instructed to walk slowly ("slower"), another with cueing at the BEFORE pace ("metronome"). The third group walked without cueing at the BEFORE pace ("normal"), and the fourth, fast ("faster"). We measured trunk pitch angle, trunk linear horizontal displacement, left shank pitch angular velocity and surface EMG from lower leg and trunk muscles. In the AFTER trials, an AE was observed in these biomechanical measures for all gait speeds, but these were not strongly dependent on GAV. An AE was present even when GAV was not different from that of BEFORE trials. Therefore, we conclude that, although contributary, the trunk overshoot is not the direct consequence of the increased GAV. Instead, it appears to be generated by anticipatory motor activity "just in case" the sled moves, herewith termed a "pre-emptive" postural adjustment. PMID:23468158

  2. Interrelationships between different loads in resisted sprints, half-squat 1 RM and kinematic variables in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valencia, María Asunción; González-Ravé, José M; Santos-García, Daniel Juárez; Alcaraz Ramón, Pedro E; Navarro-Valdivielso, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Resisted sprint running is a common training method for improving sprint-specific strength. It is well-known that an athlete's time to complete a sled-towing sprint increases linearly with increasing sled load. However, to our knowledge, the relationship between the maximum load in sled-towing sprint and the sprint time is unknown, The main purpose of this research was to analyze the relationship between the maximum load in sled-towing sprint, half-squat maximal dynamic strength and the velocity in the acceleration phase in 20-m sprint. A second aim was to compare sprint performance when athletes ran under different conditions: un-resisted and towing sleds. Twenty-one participants (17.86 ± 2.27 years; 1.77 ± 0.06 m and 69.24 ± 7.20 kg) completed a one repetition maximum test (1 RM) from a half-squat position (159.68 ± 22.61 kg) and a series of sled-towing sprints with loads of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30% body mass (Bm) and the maximum resisted sprint load. No significant correlation (P<0.05) was found between half-squat 1 RM and the sprint time in different loaded conditions. Conversely, significant correlations (P<0.05) were found between maximum load in resisted sprint and sprint time (20-m sprint time, r=-0.71; 5% Bm, r=-0.73; 10% Bm, r=-0.53; 15% Bm, r=-0.55; 20% Bm, r=-0.65; 25% Bm, r=-0.44; 30% Bm, r=-0.63; MaxLoad, r= 0.93). The sprinting velocity significantly decreased by 4-22% with all load increases. Stride length (SL) also decreased (17%) significantly across all resisted conditions. In addition, there were significant differences in stride frequency (SF) with loads over 15% Bm. It could be concluded that the knowledge of the individual maximal load in resisted sprint and the effects on the sprinting kinematic with different loads, could be interesting to determinate the optimal load to improve the acceleration phase at sprint running. PMID:24444204

  3. Technology evaluation of man-rated acceleration test equipment for vestibular research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taback, I.; Kenimer, R. L.; Butterfield, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The considerations for eliminating acceleration noise cues in horizontal, linear, cyclic-motion sleds intended for both ground and shuttle-flight applications are addressed. the principal concerns are the acceleration transients associated with change in direction-of-motion for the carriage. The study presents a design limit for acceleration cues or transients based upon published measurements for thresholds of human perception to linear cyclic motion. The sources and levels for motion transients are presented based upon measurements obtained from existing sled systems. The approaches to a noise-free system recommends the use of air bearings for the carriage support and moving-coil linear induction motors operating at low frequency as the drive system. Metal belts running on air bearing pulleys provide an alternate approach to the driving system. The appendix presents a discussion of alternate testing techniques intended to provide preliminary type data by means of pendulums, linear motion devices and commercial air bearing tables.

  4. Analysis of ocular torsion data from Space Labs D-1 and SL-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, C. M.

    1990-01-01

    A series of preflight, inflight, and postflight vestibular experiments were conducted on Spacelab missions SL-1 and D-1. Two portions of the investigation, the 'sled' and 'dome' functional objectives, involved recording the torsional motion of human subject's eyes. In the SL-1 sled and dome experiments, preflight and postflight ocular torsion was recorded on 35 mm film using a Nikon motor driven camera (2.6 frames/sec). The film was to be analyzed by measuring the motion of contact lens landmarks using a Hermes senior film scanner. However, an inflight failure of the dome experiment camera flash unit led the crew to utilize the Spacelab video camera as an alternative contingency method for imaging the eye in this FO. A suitable method for analysis of the video data was developed. Results of the analysis are presented.

  5. A new look at deep-sea video

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chezar, H.; Lee, J.

    1985-01-01

    A deep-towed photographic system with completely self-contained recording instrumentation and power can obtain color-video and still-photographic transects along rough terrane without need for a long electrically conducting cable. Both the video- and still-camera systems utilize relatively inexpensive and proven off-the-shelf hardware adapted for deep-water environments. The small instrument frame makes the towed sled an ideal photographic tool for use on ship or small-boat operations. The system includes a temperature probe and altimeter that relay data acoustically from the sled to the surface ship. This relay enables the operator to monitor simultaneously water temperature and the precise height off the bottom. ?? 1985.

  6. Mid-J CO Emission in Nearby Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Spinoglio, Luigi; Busquet, Gemma; Glenn, Jason; Isaak, Kate; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Schirm, Maximilien R. P.; Baes, Maarten; Barlow, Michael J.; Boselli, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha; Cormier, Diane

    2012-12-01

    We study for the first time the complete sub-millimeter spectra (450 GHz to 1550 GHz) of a sample of nearby active galaxies observed with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SPIRE/FTS) onboard Herschel. The CO ladder (from Jup = 4 to 12) is the most prominent spectral feature in this range. These CO lines probe warm molecular gas that can be heated by ultraviolet photons, shocks, or X-rays originated in the active galactic nucleus or in young star-forming regions. In these proceedings we investigate the physical origin of the CO emission using the averaged CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of six Seyfert galaxies. We use a radiative transfer model assuming an isothermal homogeneous medium to estimate the molecular gas conditions. We also compare this CO SLED with the predictions of photon and X-ray dominated region (PDR and XDR) models.

  7. A Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Nanyao Y.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Armus, L.; Appleton, P. N.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz Santos, T.; Evans, A. S.; Howell, J.; Issak, K.; Iwasawa, K.; Leech, J.; Lord, S. D.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Petric, A.; Sanders, D. B.; Schulz, B.; Surace, J. A.; Van der Werf, P.

    2013-01-01

    We describe an on-going Herschel 194-671 micron spectroscopic survey of a flux-limited sample of 125 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), targeting primarily at the spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the CO rotational line emission (from J=4-3 up to J=13-12) from warm and dense molecular gas, the [NII] 205 micron line from ionized gas, and the [CI] 370 and 609 micron lines arising mainly from less dense and colder molecular gas where the CO (J=1-0) line is also strong. We present observational results for the first set of 65 sample galaxies that are more or less point sources with respect to the Herschel beams, and show statistical correlations among the shape of the CO SLED, CO line luminosities, IR dust luminosity, and whether a target is known to harbor AGN or not.

  8. Simultaneous drag and flow measurements of Olympic skeleton athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Yae Eun; Digiulio, David; Peters, Steve; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    The Olympic sport of skeleton involves an athlete riding a small sled face first down a bobsled track at speeds up to 130 km/hr. In these races, the difference between gold and missing the medal stand altogether can be hundredths of a second per run. As such, reducing aerodynamic drag through proper body positioning is of first order importance. To better study the flow behavior and to improve the performance of the athletes, we constructed a static force balance system on a mock section of a bobsled track. Athlete and the sled are placed on the force balance system which is positioned at the exit of an open loop wind tunnel. Simultaneous drag force and DPIV velocity field measurements were made along with video recordings of body position to aid the athletes in determining their optimal aerodynamic body position.

  9. Gastritis and Gastric Ulcers in Working Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Michael S.; Williamson, Katherine K.

    2016-01-01

    Gastritis and gastric ulcers are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in canine athletes. Although the majority of scientific work on this condition has been performed in ultraendurance racing sled dogs, this condition has been identified in other canine athletes, including sled dogs competing in shorter events and dogs performing off-leash explosive detection duties. The cause of the syndrome is unknown, but current hypotheses propose a link between exercise-induced hyperthermia and loss of gastric mucosal barrier function as an early event in the pathogenesis. Treatment is focused on prevention of clinical disease using acid secretion inhibitors, such as omeprazole, which has excellent efficacy in controlled clinical studies. PMID:27092307

  10. Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doig, G.

    2014-08-01

    A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.

  11. RF modulation studies on an S band pulse compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Shu; Feng-Li, Zhao; Shi-Lun, Pei; Ou-Zheng, Xiao

    2016-03-01

    An S band SLED-type pulse compressor has been manufactured by the Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, trying to reach 100 MW maximum input power, which means the output peak power is about 500 MW at the phase reversal time. To improve the reliability at very high power, amplitude modulation and phase modulation with flat-top output are considered, and RF modulation studies on the S-band SLED are presented in this paper. Furthermore, a method is developed using the CST Microwave Studio transient solver to simulate the time response of the pulse compressor, which can verify the modulation theory. In addition, the experimental setup was constructed and the flat-top output obtained in low power tests. Both amplitude modulation and phase modulation methods can give flat-top output, and the average power gain for both methods is almost the same. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475201)

  12. Automatic circuit interrupter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwinell, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    In technique, voice circuits connecting crew's cabin to launch station through umbilical connector disconnect automatically unused, or deadened portion of circuits immediately after vehicle is launched, eliminating possibility that unused wiring interferes with voice communications inside vehicle or need for manual cutoff switch and its associated wiring. Technique is applied to other types of electrical actuation circuits, also launch of mapped vehicles, such as balloons, submarines, test sleds, and test chambers-all requiring assistance of ground crew.

  13. Practical use of high-speed cameras for research and development within the automotive industry: yesterday and today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmetz, Klaus

    1995-05-01

    Within the automotive industry, especially for the development and improvement of safety systems, we find a lot of high accelerated motions, that can not be followed and consequently not be analyzed by human eye. For the vehicle safety tests at AUDI, which are performed as 'Crash Tests', 'Sled Tests' and 'Static Component Tests', 'Stalex', 'Hycam', and 'Locam' cameras are in use. Nowadays the automobile production is inconceivable without the use of high speed cameras.

  14. Pickup ions near Mars associated with escaping oxygen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravens, T. E.; Hoppe, A.; Ledvina, S. A.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.

    2002-08-01

    Ions produced by ionization of Martian neutral atoms or molecules and picked up by the solar wind flow are expected to be an important ingredient of the Martian plasma environment. Significant fluxes of energetic (55-72 keV) oxygen ions were recorded in the wake of Mars and near the bow shock by the solar low-energy detector (SLED) charged particle detector onboard the Phobos 2 spacecraft. Also, copious fluxes of oxygen ions in the ranges 0.5-25 and 0.01-6 keV/q were detected in the Martian wake by the Automatic Space Plasma Experiment with Rotating Analyzer (ASPERA) instrument on Phobos 2. This paper provides a quantitative analysis of the SLED energetic ion data using a test particle model in which one million ion trajectories were numerically calculated. These trajectories were used to determine the ion flux as a function of energy in the vicinity of Mars for conditions appropriate for Circular Orbit 42 of Phobos 2. The electric and magnetic fields required by the test particle model were taken from a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of the solar wind interaction with Mars. The ions were started at rest with a probability proportional to the density expected for exospheric hot oxygen. The test particle model supports the identification of the ions observed in channel 1 of the SLED instrument as pick-up oxygen ions that are created by the ionization of oxygen atoms in the distant part of the exosphere. The flux of 55-72 keV oxygen ions near the orbit of the Phobos 2 should be proportional to the oxygen density at radial distances from Mars of about 10 Rm (Martian radii) and hence proportional to the direct oxygen escape rate from Mars that is an important part of the overall oxygen loss rate at Mars. The modeled energetic oxygen fluxes also exhibit a spin modulation as did the SLED fluxes during Circular Orbit 42.

  15. 28. "CONSTRUCTION PHASING, STATION '0' AREA." Specifications No. OC15775, Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. "CONSTRUCTION PHASING, STATION '0' AREA." Specifications No. OC1-57-75, Drawing No. AF-45-02-19, sheet 3 of 5, D.O. Series No. AF 1439/25, Rev. B. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296 Rev. B, Date: 11/13/59. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 30. "CONSTRUCTION PHASING, STATION '50' AREA." Specifications No. ENG043535775, Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. "CONSTRUCTION PHASING, STATION '50' AREA." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-57-75, Drawing No. AF-4502-19, sheet 4 of 5, D.O. Series No. AF 1439/26. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296, Date: 10 NOV. 59. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Description of a mathematical model and computer simulation of separation of the nose cap from the solid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaniger, A. J., Jr.; Murphree, H. I.

    1982-01-01

    A system of equations which models the motion of the Solid Rocket Booster Nose Cap upon separation is described. The computer program which utilizes these equations to generate nose cap trajectories is described in detail. Application of the program to simulate a rocket sled test of the nose cap separation is discussed and the results of the applications are presented. With the information given a user should be able to exercise the computer program with a minimum of effort.

  18. 20. HIGH OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF 10,000FOOT HIGH SPEED TRACK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. HIGH OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF 10,000-FOOT HIGH SPEED TRACK, LOOKING TO SOUTHEAST. THE FIRING CONTROL BUILDING (BUILDING 0502) CAN BE SEEN NEAR THE TRACK AT LOWER RIGHT. (See also HAER NO. CA-234-G). - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. NASA satellite to track North Pole expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The proposed expedition of a lone explorer and the use of Nimbus 6 (NASA meteorological research satellite) to track his journey is reported. The journey is scheduled to start March 4, 1978, and will cover a distance of 6.000 Km (3,728 miles) from northern Canada to the North Pole and return, traveling the length of Greenland's isolated interior. The mode of transportation for the explorer will be by dog sled. Instrumentation and tracking techniques are discussed.

  20. Effects of Frequency and Motion Paradigm on Perception of Tilt and Translation During Periodic Linear Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaton, K. H.; Holly, J. E.; Clement, G. R.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an effect of frequency on the gain of tilt and translation perception. Results from different motion paradigms are often combined to extend the stimulus frequency range. For example, Off-Vertical Axis Rotation (OVAR) and Variable Radius Centrifugation (VRC) are useful to test low frequencies of linear acceleration at amplitudes that would require impractical sled lengths. The purpose of this study was to compare roll-tilt and lateral translation motion perception in 12 healthy subjects across four paradigms: OVAR, VRC, sled translation and rotation about an earth-horizontal axis. Subjects were oscillated in darkness at six frequencies from 0.01875 to 0.6 Hz (peak acceleration equivalent to 10 deg, less for sled motion below 0.15 Hz). Subjects verbally described the amplitude of perceived tilt and translation, and used a joystick to indicate the direction of motion. Consistent with previous reports, tilt perception gain decreased as a function of stimulus frequency in the motion paradigms without concordant canal tilt cues (OVAR, VRC and Sled). Translation perception gain was negligible at low stimulus frequencies and increased at higher frequencies. There were no significant differences between the phase of tilt and translation, nor did the phase significantly vary across stimulus frequency. There were differences in perception gain across the different paradigms. Paradigms that included actual tilt stimuli had the larger tilt gains, and paradigms that included actual translation stimuli had larger translation gains. In addition, the frequency at which there was a crossover of tilt and translation gains appeared to vary across motion paradigm between 0.15 and 0.3 Hz. Since the linear acceleration in the head lateral plane was equivalent across paradigms, differences in gain may be attributable to the presence of linear accelerations in orthogonal directions and/or cognitive aspects based on the expected motion paths.

  1. EERE's State & Local Energy Data Tool

    ScienceCinema

    Shambarger, Erick; DeCesaro, Jennifer

    2014-06-26

    EERE's State and Local Energy Data (SLED) Tool provides basic energy market information that can help state and local governments plan and implement clean energy projects, including electricity generation; fuel sources and costs; applicable policies, regulations, and financial incentives; and renewable energy resource potential. Watch this video to learn more about the tool and hear testimonials from real users about the benefits of using this tool.

  2. EERE's State & Local Energy Data Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Shambarger, Erick; DeCesaro, Jennifer

    2014-06-23

    EERE's State and Local Energy Data (SLED) Tool provides basic energy market information that can help state and local governments plan and implement clean energy projects, including electricity generation; fuel sources and costs; applicable policies, regulations, and financial incentives; and renewable energy resource potential. Watch this video to learn more about the tool and hear testimonials from real users about the benefits of using this tool.

  3. 25. "GAFFTC 19 OCT 60, BLAST EFFECTS ON AIRFOILS, STATIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. "G-AFFTC 19 OCT 60, BLAST EFFECTS ON AIRFOILS, STATIC RUN 5." View of track rail mounting and the water brake trough at 20,000-foot track. Looking northeast. File no. 12,358-60. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. The development of a flight termination parachute system for a 1900 lb payload

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    A 30-ft-diameter ringslot/solid parachute was designed, developed, and tested at Sandia National Laboratories as the major component of a flight termination system required for a 1900-lb gliding delivery platform. Four full-scale sled tests were performed to validate the design models of the parachute, determine reefing line length, demonstrate structural adequacy of the parachute materials, and demonstrate that performance met the design requirements.

  5. Development of the parachute recovery system for the LBRV-2 reentry vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, W.B.

    1983-10-01

    A 6.44-ft-dia ribbon parachute with no reefing has been developed for recovery for the 130-lb LBRV-2 reentry nose cone. This report presents the results of five sled-launched, free-flight tests and of an operational recovery at velocities of 600 to 875 ft/s with corresponding dynamic pressures of 340 to 766 lb/ft/sup 2/.

  6. Miscible and immiscible experiments on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability using simultaneous planar laser induced fluorescence and backlight visualization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokler, Matthew; Roberts, Michael; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2012-11-01

    Incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments are presented in which two stratified liquids having Atwood number of 0.2 are accelerated in a vertical linear induction motor driven drop tower. A test sled having only vertical freedom of motion contains the experiment tank and visualization equipment. The sled is positioned at the top of the tower within the linear motors and accelerated downward causing the initially stable interface to be unstable and allowing the Rayleigh-Taylor instability to develop. Experiments are presented with and without forced initial perturbations produced by vertically oscillating the test sled prior to the start of acceleration. Half of the experimental tank is visualized using a 445nm laser light source that illuminates a fluorescent dye mixed in one of the fluids. The other half is illuminated with a white backlight. The resulting images are recorded using a monochromatic high speed video camera allowing for the measurement of spike and bubble mixing layer growth rates for both visualization techniques in a single experiment.

  7. Miscible and immiscible experiments on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability using planar laser induced fluorescence visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokler, Matthew; Roberts, Michael; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2013-11-01

    Incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments are presented in which two stratified liquids having Atwood number of 0.2 are accelerated in a vertical linear induction motor driven drop tower. A test sled having only vertical freedom of motion contains the experiment tank and visualization equipment. The sled is positioned at the top of the tower within the linear induction motors and accelerated downward causing the initially stable interface to be unstable and allowing the Rayleigh-Taylor instability to develop. Forced and unforced experiments are conducted using both immiscible and miscible liquid combinations. Forced initial perturbations are produced by vertically oscillating the test sled prior to the start of acceleration. The interface is visualized using a 445 nm laser light source that illuminates a fluorescent dye mixed in one of the fluids. The resulting fluorescent images are recorded using a monochromatic high speed video camera. The laser beam is synchronously swept across the fluorescent fluid, at the frame rate of the camera, exposing a single plane of the interface allowing for the measurement of spike and bubble growth. Comparisons between miscible and immiscible mixing layer distributions are made from the resulting interface concentration profiles.

  8. Mapping and characterisation of the inter-reefal benthic assemblages of the Torres Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, M. D. E.; Pitcher, C. R.; Ellis, N.; Wassenberg, T. J.; Smith, G.; Forcey, K.; McLeod, I.; Carter, A.; Strickland, C.; Coles, R.

    2008-09-01

    A comprehensive survey of the benthic assemblages of the Torres Strait was conducted in order to provide critical baseline information for regional marine planning, assessing the environmental sustainability of fisheries and understanding the ecosystems of the region. Over 150 sites throughout the region were sampled with a modified prawn trawl, towed underwater video, pipe dredge and epibenthic sled. This manuscript provides a broad overview of the activities undertaken and data collected. Two thousand three hundred and seventy-two different nominal species were sampled by the trawl and sled, only 728 by both gears. The towed video was not able to provide the same level of taxonomic resolution of epibenthic taxa, but was particularly useful in areas where the seabed was too rough to be sampled. Data from the trawl, sled and video were combined to characterise the epibenthic assemblages of the region. Data from the towed video was also used to provide a characterisation of the inter-reefal benthic habitats, which was then analysed in combination with physical covariate data to examine relationships between the two. Levels of mud and gravel in the sediments, trawling effort and seabed current stress were the covariates most significantly correlated with the nature of the seabed habitats.

  9. Comparative Performance of Rear Facing Child Restraint Systems on the CMVSS 213 Bench and Vehicle Seats

    PubMed Central

    Tylko, Suzanne; Locey, Caitlin M.; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Maltese, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic response of rear-facing child restraint systems (RFCRS) installed on the CMVSS 213 sled bench and a selection of vehicle seats. Thirty-six sled tests were conducted: three models of rear facing CRS with an anthropomorphic test device (ATD) representing a 12 month old child (CRABI) were affixed via lower anchors (LATCH), 3 point belt without CRS base, and 3 point belt with CRS base to one of three vehicle seats or the CMVSS 213 bench seat. All CRS were subjected to an identical sled acceleration pulse. Two types of matched pair analysis: “bench-to-vehicle” and “method of attachment” were conducted. Statistically significant differences were observed in the kinematic responses of the ATD and the CRS. This is the first study to quantify differences between the regulatory bench and vehicle seats on a system level and evaluate the influence of attachment method. Our results show that the difference in RFCRS forward excursion between 3-point belt with base and LATCH installations was between 1 and 7 percent on the bench and 22 to 76 percent on the vehicle seats. When evaluating the dynamic performance of RFCRS, the use of real vehicle seats from vehicles that commonly carry children may provide valuable insight. The findings would require further confirmation using a broader selection of RFCRS and vehicle seats, before generalizable conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24406967

  10. Herschel-SPIRE spectroscopy of nearby Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchi, N.; Spinoglio, L.; Wilson, C. D.; Kamenetzky, J.; Rangwala, N.; Rykala, A.; Isaak, K. G.; Bendo, G. J.; Bradford, M.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R.; Schirm, M. R. P.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Barlow, M. J.; Bock, J. J.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chanial, P.; Charlot, S.; Ciesla, L.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Cortese, L.; Davies, J. I.; Dwek, E.; Eales, S. A.; Elbaz, D.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.; Gear, W. K.; Gomez, H. L.; Griffin, M.; Hony, S.; Levenson, L. R.; Lu, N.; Madden, S.; O'Halloran, B.; Okumura, K.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Parkin, T. J.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Pohlen, M.; Rigby, E. E.; Roussel, H.; Sauvage, M.; Schulz, B.; Smith, M. W. L.; Stevens, J. A.; Sundar, S.; Symeonidis, M.; Trichas, M.; Vaccari, M.; Vigroux, L.; Wozniak, H.; Wright, G. S.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2011-05-01

    We present the 450-1550 GHz spectra of three nearby Seyfert galaxies (NGC1068, NGC7130 and NGC7582) taken with the Herschel SPIRE FTS. For the case of NGC1068 we reconstruct the nuclear spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the CO lines, applying nonLTE radiative transfer and a Bayesian likelihood analysis to estimate the physical properties of the molecular gas in the circumnuclear region. Groundbased observations of the low-J transitions with high (few arcsec) angular resolution are required to reconstruct the nuclear SLED avoiding contamination from colder molecular gas on larger galactic scales. We find evidence for a very warm molecular gas component with a density ~10^3.9 cm-3, similar to that found in previous works (Papadopoulos & Seaquist 1999, Usero et al. 2004, Kamenetzky et al. 2011), but with a much higher temperature (~ 550 K instead of 20-160 K). The higher-J transitions of CO are compatible with being excited in X-ray dissociation regions (XDR). However, in order to explain the entire CO SLED a comparable contribution from photodissociation regions (PDR) is required.

  11. The CO-H2 conversion factor and the CO excitation ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Joel Robert; Narayanan, Desika

    2015-01-01

    Indirect measurements of molecular hydrogen mass are can be made using the CO line intensity. Previous work has shown that the star formation rate surface density can be used to parameterize the conversion factor (XCO). There is further evidence to suggest that the physical conditions which determine the CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) also determine the conversion factor from CO line intensity to molecular gas mass conversion factor (XCO). Here, we present a series of SPH simulations of idealized galaxies in evolution, focusing on their Giant Molecular Cloud properties. We simulate a range of both disk galaxies and galaxy mergers with a wide range of star formation rates, velocity dispersions, gas metallicities and temperatures. From these varying simulations we perform full radiative transfer calculations with conditions derived from the simulated GMCs. These calculations will determine theoretical values of the conversion factor (XCO) as well as CO SLEDs. We aim to find a relationship between XCO and the CO SLED that will help inform observers in the era of ALMA.

  12. Design and characterization of a mixed-signal PCB for digital-to-analog conversion in a modular and scalable infrared scene projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, Jacob

    Infra-red (IR) sensors have proven instrumental in a wide variety of fields from military to industrial applications. The proliferation of IR sensors has spawned an intense push for technologies that can test and calibrate the multitudes of IR sensors. One such technology, IR scene projection (IRSP), provides an inexpensive and safe method for the testing of IR sensor devices. Previous efforts have been conducted to develop IRSPs based on super-lattice light emitting diodes (SLEDS). A single-color 512x512 SLEDs system has been developed, produced, and tested as documented in Corey Lange's Master's thesis, and a GOMAC paper by Rodney McGee [1][2]. Current efforts are being undergone to develop a two-color 512x512 SLEDs system designated (TCSA). The following thesis discusses the design and implementation of a custom printed circuit board (PCB), known as the FMC 4DAC, that contains both analog and digital signals. Utilizing two 16-bit digital-to-analog converters (DAC) the purpose of the board is to provide four analog current output channels for driving the TCSA system to a maximum frame rate of 1 kHz. In addition, the board supports a scalable TCSA system architecture. Several copies of the board can be run in parallel to achieve a range of analog channels between 4 and 32.

  13. Impact loading of the lumbar spine during football blocking.

    PubMed

    Gatt, C J; Hosea, T M; Palumbo, R C; Zawadsky, J P

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the impact force to the lumbar spine when football players hit a blocking sled. We quantified the loads at the L4-5 motion segment throughout the blocking sequence. Five Division I-A college football linemen were subjects for our study. Kinematic data were obtained while the subjects hit a blocking sled instrumented with a force plate. Three plane forces were then calculated from these data. The average impact force measured at the blocking sled was 3013 +/- 598 N. The average peak compression force at the L4-5 motion segment was 8679 +/- 1965 N. The average peak anteroposterior shear force was 3304 +/- 1116 N, and the average peak lateral shear force was 1709 +/- 411 N. The magnitude of the loads on the L4-5 motion segment during football blocking exceed those determined during fatigue studies to cause pathologic changes in both the lumbar disk and the pars interarticularis. These data suggest that the mechanics of repetitive blocking may be responsible for the increased incidence of lumbar spine injury incurred by football linemen. PMID:9167810

  14. Crash simulations of wheelchair-occupant systems in transport.

    PubMed

    Kang, W; Pilkey, W D

    1998-01-01

    A nonlinear multirigid body dynamic computer model has been developed to simulate the dynamic responses of a wheelchair-occupant system in a vehicle during a crash. The occupant, restrained by safety belts, is seated in a wheelchair that is, in turn, tied down in a vehicle. Validated extensively by crash sled tests at three laboratories, this model has been used to predict the responses of wheelchair-occupant systems in various crash environments. To evaluate the crashworthiness of different wheelchair tie-downs, the sensitivity of several design parameters, such as tiedown stiffness, wheel stiffness, and tiedown positions, has been studied using this model, and optimal values of these parameters for the wheelchair-occupant system have been obtained. Moreover, the model has been used to study the sensitivity of crash sled test pulse corridors in an effort to develop a sled test standard. It has been found that an existing ISO corridor allows large variation and should be "tightened." The model was implemented using a version of the multibody dynamic simulator, the Articulated Total Body program. PMID:9505255

  15. Immiscible experiments on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability using simultaneous particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokler, Matthew; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2014-11-01

    Incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments are presented in which two stratified liquids having Atwood number of 0.2 are accelerated in a vertical linear induction motor driven drop tower. A test sled having only vertical freedom of motion contains the experiment tank and visualization equipment. The sled is positioned at the top of the tower within the linear induction motors and accelerated downward causing the initially stable interface to be unstable and allowing the Rayleigh-Taylor instability to develop. Forced and unforced experiments are conducted using an immiscible liquid combination. Forced initial perturbations are produced by vertically oscillating the test sled prior to the start of acceleration. The interface is visualized using a 445 nm laser light source that illuminates a fluorescent dye mixed in one of the fluids and aluminum oxide particles dispersed in both fluids. The laser beam is synchronously swept across the fluorescent fluid, at the frame rate of the camera, exposing a single plane of the interface. The resulting images are recorded using a monochromatic high speed video camera. Time dependent velocity and density fields are obtained from the recorded images allowing for 2D full field measurements of turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent mass transport.

  16. Preferred movement patterns during a simple bouncing task.

    PubMed

    Raburn, Caroline E; Merritt, Kristen J; Dean, Jesse C

    2011-11-15

    Elastic tissues in the human body can store and return mechanical energy passively, reducing the metabolic cost of cyclical movements. However, it is not clear whether humans prefer movement patterns that optimize this storage and return. We investigated the preferred movement pattern during a bouncing task for which non-invasive techniques can identify the resonant frequency, which is the least metabolically costly. We quantified the preferred and resonant bounce frequencies for three mechanical conditions. During 'normal' trials, subjects bounced while reclined on a sled that moves along a track. During 'added mass' trials, mass was added to the sled. During 'added stiffness' trials, a spring was attached between the sled and the supporting frame, parallel to the track. Subsequently, we quantified the preferred bounce frequencies during ischemia, a technique that disrupts the available sensory feedback. Mechanical condition had a significant effect on both the preferred and resonant frequencies. Changes in preferred frequency scaled with resonant frequency, but the preferred frequency was significantly lower than the resonant frequency. These results indicate that humans adapt their preferred bouncing pattern in response to changes in mechanical condition. Humans may prefer a lower than resonant frequency because of an inability to sense metabolic cost during our relatively short trials. In contrast, during ischemia the preferred bounce frequency remained constant even when mechanical condition was varied, indicating that feedback is necessary to adapt the preferred frequency to changes in mechanics. These findings suggest that disrupted sensory feedback may prevent humans from choosing the optimal movement pattern. PMID:22031741

  17. A wireless time synchronized event control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Robert; Williams, Jonathan; Scheffel, Peter

    2014-05-01

    McQ has developed a wireless, time-synchronized, event control system to control, monitor, and record events with precise timing over large test sites for applications such as high speed rocket sled payload testing. Events of interest may include firing rocket motors and launch sleds, initiating flares, ejecting bombs, ejecting seats, triggering high speed cameras, measuring sled velocity, and triggering events based on a velocity window or other criteria. The system consists of Event Controllers, a Launch Controller, and a wireless network. The Event Controllers can be easily deployed at areas of interest within the test site and maintain sub-microsecond timing accuracy for monitoring sensors, electronically triggering other equipment and events, and providing timing signals to other test equipment. Recorded data and status information is reported over the wireless network to a server and user interface. Over the wireless network, the user interface configures the system based on a user specified mission plan and provides real time command, control, and monitoring of the devices and data. An overview of the system, its features, performance, and potential uses is presented.

  18. Molecular gas heating mechanisms, and star formation feedback in merger/starbursts: NGC 6240 and Arp 193 as case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Weiss, Axel; Van der Werf, Paul; Israel, F. P.; Greve, T. R.; Isaak, Kate G.; Gao, Y. E-mail: zyzhang@pmo.ac.cn E-mail: aweiss@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de E-mail: israel@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: kisaak@rssd.esa.int

    2014-06-20

    We used the SPIRE/FTS instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory to obtain the Spectral Line Energy Distributions (SLEDs) of CO from J = 4-3 to J = 13-12 of Arp 193 and NGC 6240, two classical merger/starbursts selected from our molecular line survey of local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (L {sub IR} ≥ 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}). The high-J CO SLEDs are then combined with ground-based low-J CO, {sup 13}CO, HCN, HCO{sup +}, CS line data and used to probe the thermal and dynamical states of their large molecular gas reservoirs. We find the two CO SLEDs strongly diverging from J = 4-3 onward, with NGC 6240 having a much higher CO line excitation than Arp 193, despite their similar low-J CO SLEDs and L {sub FIR}/L {sub CO,} {sub 1} {sub –0}, L {sub HCN}/L {sub CO} (J = 1-0) ratios (proxies of star formation efficiency and dense gas mass fraction). In Arp 193, one of the three most extreme starbursts in the local universe, the molecular SLEDs indicate a small amount (∼5%-15%) of dense gas (n ≥ 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}) unlike NGC 6240 where most of the molecular gas (∼60%-70%) is dense (n ∼ (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5}) cm{sup –3}). Strong star-formation feedback can drive this disparity in their dense gas mass fractions, and also induce extreme thermal and dynamical states for the molecular gas. In NGC 6240, and to a lesser degree in Arp 193, we find large molecular gas masses whose thermal states cannot be maintained by FUV photons from Photon-Dominated Regions. We argue that this may happen often in metal-rich merger/starbursts, strongly altering the initial conditions of star formation. ALMA can now directly probe these conditions across cosmic epoch, and even probe their deeply dust-enshrouded outcome, the stellar initial mass function averaged over galactic evolution.

  19. Biomechanical and Injury Response to Posterolateral Loading from Torso Side Airbags

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Jason J.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    This study characterized thoracoabdominal response to posterolateral loading from a seat-mounted side airbag. Seven unembalmed post-mortem human subjects were exposed to ten airbag deployments. Subjects were positioned such that the deploying airbag first contacted the posterolateral thorax between T6 and L1 while stationary (n = 3 × 2 aspects) or while subjected to left lateral sled impact at ΔV = 6.7 m/s (n = 4). Chestband contours were analyzed to quantify deformation direction in the thoracic x–y plane (zero degrees indicating anterior and 180° indicating posterior), magnitude, rate, and viscous response. Skeletal injuries were consistent with posterolateral contact; visceral injuries consisted of renal (n = 1) or splenic (n = 3) lacerations. Deformation direction was transient during sled impact, progressing from 122 ± 5° at deformation onset to 90° following maximum deflection. Angles from stationary subjects progressed from 141 ± 9° to 120°. Peak normalized deflections, peak rates, and VCmax ranges were 0.075 – 0.171, 3.7 – 12.7 m/s, and 0.3 – 0.6 m/s with stationary airbag, respectively; ranges were 0.167 – 0.297, 7.4 – 18.3 m/s, and 0.7 – 3.0 m/s with airbag sled impact, respectively. Peak deflections were measured at angles between 99° – 135° and 98° – 125° for stationary and dynamic conditions, respectively. Because of deflection angle transience and localized injury response, both posterolateral and lateral injury metrics may be required for this boundary condition. Contrasted with flat rigid or anterolateral loading, biomechanical response to side airbag interaction may be augmented by peak normalized deflection or VCmax at 130°. PMID:21512911

  20. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle(AUV) and Towed Vehicle Technologies for Under-Ice Hydrothermal Vent Studies at the Gakkel Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H.; Akin, D.; Reves-Sohn, R.; Humphris, S.; Shank, T.; Edmonds, H.

    2006-12-01

    The extreme polar environment presents a unique challenge to the use of the otherwise mature oceanographic technologies associated with Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) and towed vehicles. For deep water mapping and sampling applications, ice cover in the arctic is a formidable obstacle. In pursuing our goals to locate, map and sample hydrothermal vents on the Gakkel Ridge, we have built and plan to deploy two AUVs named JAGUAR and PUMA and a towed sampling sled with hydraulically actuated sampling chambers. Our methodologies for working with AUVs in the Arctic differ significantly from standard blue-water operations. Specifically, we have focused on, deploying and calibrating acoustic transponders with the limited mobility imposed by multi-year ice; a far more robust system architecture for dealing with component failures underwater; an autonomous manipulation system on the AUV for capturing sessile biological organisms and geological samples; and a low bandwidth acoustic tether for vehicle status, navigation and mission redirection. Our sampling sled was designed with the premise that the limited mobility associated with working in ice will at best provide us with a few, short opportunities to image and sample on a hydrothermal vent site. To this end our sled is equipped with a suite of imaging and chemical sensors as well as devices for quickly obtaining multiple samples of both sessile and motile biological organisms. We plan to deploy these new technologies during the International Polar Year in 2007 as part of a collaborative international effort to characterize the biological and geological characteristics of hydrothermal venting on the ultra-slow spreading Gakkel Ridge in the eastern Arctic basin.

  1. Molecular gas properties of the giant molecular cloud complexes in the arms and inter-arms of the spiral galaxy NGC 6946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topal, Selçuk; Bayet, Estelle; Bureau, Martin; Davis, Timothy A.; Walsh, Wilfred

    2014-01-01

    Combining observations of multiple CO lines with radiative transfer modelling is a very powerful tool to investigate the physical properties of the molecular gas in galaxies. Using new observations and literature data, we provide the most complete CO ladders ever generated for eight star-forming regions in the spiral arms and inter-arms of the spiral galaxy NGC 6946, with observations of the CO(1-0), CO(2-1), CO(3-2), CO(4-3), CO(6-5), 13CO(1-0) and 13CO(2-1) transitions. For each region, we use the large velocity gradient assumption to derive beam-averaged molecular gas physical properties, namely the gas kinetic temperature (TK), H2 number volume density (n(H2)) and CO number column density (N(CO)). Two complementary approaches are used to compare the observations with the model predictions: χ2 minimization and likelihood. The physical conditions derived vary greatly from one region to the next: TK = 10-250 K, n(H2) = 102.3-107.0 cm-3 and N(CO) = 1015.0-1019.3 cm-2. The spectral line energy distribution (SLED) in some of these extranuclear regions indicate a star formation activity that is more intense than that at the centre of our own Milky Way. The molecular gas in regions with a large SLED turnover transition (Jmax > 4) is hot but tenuous with a high CO column density, while that in regions with a low SLED turnover transition (Jmax ≤ 4) is cold but dense with a low CO column density. We finally discuss and find some correlations between the physical properties of the molecular gas in each region and the presence of young stellar population indicators (supernova remnants, H II regions, H I holes, etc.).

  2. Molecular and Atomic Line Surveys of Galaxies. I. The Dense, Star-Forming Gas Phase as a Beacon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geach, James E.; Papadopoulos, Padelis P.

    2012-10-01

    We predict the space density of molecular gas reservoirs in the universe and place a lower limit on the number counts of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecular, and [C II] atomic emission lines in blind redshift surveys in the submillimeter-centimeter spectral regime. Our model uses (1) recently available HCN spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) of local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L IR > 1011 L ⊙), (2) a value for epsilonsstarf = SFR/M dense(H2) provided by new developments in the study of star formation feedback on the interstellar medium, and (3) a model for the evolution of the infrared luminosity density. Minimal "emergent" CO SLEDs from the dense gas reservoirs expected in all star-forming systems in the universe are then computed from the HCN SLEDs since warm, HCN-bright gas will necessarily be CO-bright, with the dense star-forming gas phase setting an obvious minimum to the total molecular gas mass of any star-forming galaxy. We include [C II] as the most important of the far-infrared cooling lines. Optimal blind surveys with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) could potentially detect very distant (z ~ 10-12) [C II] emitters in the >=ULIRG galaxy class at a rate of ~0.1-1 hr-1 (although this prediction is strongly dependent on the star formation and enrichment history at this early epoch), whereas the (high-frequency) Square Kilometer Array will be capable of blindly detecting z > 3 low-J CO emitters at a rate of ~40-70 hr-1. The [C II] line holds special promise for detecting metal-poor systems with extensive reservoirs of CO-dark molecular gas where detection rates with ALMA can reach up to 2-7 hr-1 in Bands 4-6.

  3. Predictions for the CO emission of galaxies from a coupled simulation of galaxy formation and photon-dominated regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, Claudia del P.; Bayet, Estelle; Baugh, Carlton M.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Bell, Tom A.; Fanidakis, Nikolaos; Geach, James E.

    2012-11-01

    We combine the galaxy formation model GALFORM with the photon-dominated region code ucl-pdr to study the emission from the rotational transitions of 12CO (CO) in galaxies from z = 0 to z = 6 in the Λcold dark matter framework. GALFORM is used to predict the molecular (H2) and atomic hydrogen (H I) gas contents of galaxies using the pressure-based empirical star formation relation of Blitz & Rosolowsky. From the predicted H2 mass and the conditions in the interstellar medium, we estimate the CO emission in the rotational transitions 1-0 to 10-9 by applying the ucl-pdr model to each galaxy. We find that deviations from the Milky Way CO-H2 conversion factor come mainly from variations in metallicity, and in the average gas and star formation rate surface densities. In the local universe, the model predicts a CO(1-0) luminosity function (LF), CO-to-total infrared (IR) luminosity ratios for multiple CO lines and a CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) which are in good agreement with observations of luminous and ultra-luminous IR galaxies. At high redshifts, the predicted CO SLED of the brightest IR galaxies reproduces the shape and normalization of the observed CO SLED. The model predicts little evolution in the CO-to-IR luminosity ratio for different CO transitions, in good agreement with observations up to z ≈ 5. We use this new hybrid model to explore the potential of using colour-selected samples of high-redshift star-forming galaxies to characterize the evolution of the cold gas mass in galaxies through observations with the Atacama Large Millimetre Array.

  4. Biomechanical and injury response to posterolateral loading from torso side airbags.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Jason J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2010-11-01

    This study characterized thoracoabdominal response to posterolateral loading from a seat-mounted side airbag. Seven unembalmed post-mortem human subjects were exposed to ten airbag deployments. Subjects were positioned such that the deploying airbag first contacted the posterolateral thorax between T6 and L1 while stationary (n = 3 x 2 aspects) or while subjected to left lateral sled impact at ΔV = 6.7 m/s (n = 4). Chestband contours were analyzed to quantify deformation direction in the thoracic x-y plane (zero degrees indicating anterior and 180° indicating posterior), magnitude, rate, and viscous response. Skeletal injuries were consistent with posterolateral contact; visceral injuries consisted of renal (n = 1) or splenic (n = 3) lacerations. Deformation direction was transient during sled impact, progressing from 122 ± 5° at deformation onset to 90° following maximum deflection. Angles from stationary subjects progressed from 141 ± 9° to 120°. Peak normalized deflections, peak rates, and VCmax ranges were 0.075 - 0.171, 3.7 - 12.7 m/s, and 0.3 - 0.6 m/s with stationary airbag, respectively; ranges were 0.167 - 0.297, 7.4 - 18.3 m/s, and 0.7 - 3.0 m/s with airbag sled impact, respectively. Peak deflections were measured at angles between 99° - 135° and 98° - 125° for stationary and dynamic conditions, respectively. Because of deflection angle transience and localized injury response, both posterolateral and lateral injury metrics may be required for this boundary condition. Contrasted with flat rigid or anterolateral loading, biomechanical response to side airbag interaction may be augmented by peak normalized deflection or VCmax at 130°. PMID:21512911

  5. Occupant kinematics and shoulder belt retention in far-side lateral and oblique collisions: a parametric study.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason L; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco; Lessley, David J; Riley, Patrick; Sochor, Mark; Heltzel, Sara; Ash, Joseph; Perz, Rafal; Kent, Richard W; Seacrist, Thomas; Arbogast, Kristy B; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2013-11-01

    In far-side impacts, head contact with interior components is a key injury mechanism. Restraint characteristics have a pronounced influence on head motion and injury risk. This study performed a parametric examination of restraint, positioning, and collision factors affecting shoulder belt retention and occupant kinematics in far-side lateral and oblique sled tests with post mortem human subjects (PMHS). Seven PMHS were subjected to repeated tests varying the D-ring position, arm position, pelvis restraint, pre-tensioning, and impact severity. Each PMHS was subjected to four low-severity tests (6.6 g sled acceleration pulse) in which the restraint or position parameters were varied and then a single higher-severity test (14 g) with a chosen restraint configuration (total of 36 tests). Three PMHS were tested in a purely lateral (90° from frontal) impact direction; 4 were tested in an oblique impact (60° from frontal). All subjects were restrained by a 3-point seatbelt. Occupant motion was tracked with a 3D optoelectric high speed motion capture system. For all restraint configurations, the 60° oblique impact angle was associated with greater lateral head excursion than the 90° impact angle. This unexpected result reflects the increased axial rotation of the torso in the oblique impacts, which allowed the shoulder to displace more relative to the shoulder belt and thus the head to displace more relative to the sled buck. Restraint engagement of the torso and shoulder was actually greater in the purely lateral impacts than in the oblique impacts. Pretensioning significantly reduced lateral head excursion (175 mm average in the low-severity tests across all restraint configurations). PMID:24435738

  6. Whole-body response to pure lateral impact.

    PubMed

    Lessley, David; Shaw, Greg; Parent, Daniel; Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Kindig, Matthew; Riley, Patrick; Purtsezov, Sergey; Sochor, Mark; Gochenour, Thomas; Bolton, James; Subit, Damien; Crandall, Jeff; Takayama, Shinichi; Ono, Koshiro; Kamiji, Koichi; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of human biomechanical response to whole-body, lateral impact. Three approximately 50th-percentile adult male PMHS were subjected to right-side pure lateral impacts at 4.3 ± 0.1 m/s using a rigid wall mounted to a rail-mounted sled. Each subject was positioned on a rigid seat and held stationary by a system of tethers until immediately prior to being impacted by the moving wall with 100 mm pelvic offset. Displacement data were obtained using an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system that was used to track the 3D motions of the impacting wall sled; seat sled, and reflective targets secured to the head, spine, extremities, ribcage, and shoulder complex of each subject. Kinematic data were also recorded using 3-axis accelerometer cubes secured to the head, pelvis, and spine at the levels of T1, T6, T11, and L3. Chest deformation in the transverse plane was recorded using a single chestband. Following the impact the subject was captured in an energy-absorbing net that provided a controlled non-injurious deceleration. The wall maintained nearly constant velocity throughout the impact event. One of the tested subjects sustained 16 rib fractures as well as injury to the struck shoulder while the other two tested subjects sustained no injuries. The collected response data suggest that the shoulder injury may have contributed to the rib fractures in the injured subject. The results suggest that the shoulder presents a substantial load path and may play an important role in transmitting lateral forces to the spine, shielding and protecting the ribcage. This characterization of whole-body, lateral impact response provides quantified subject responses and boundary condition interactions that are currently unavailable for whole-body, lateral impacts at impact speeds less than 6.7 m/s. PMID:21512913

  7. Determination of peak deflections from human surrogates using chestbands in side impact tests.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John R; Pintar, Frank A; Maiman, Dennis J

    2013-08-01

    To understand the biomechanics of the human body in motor vehicle environments, physical models including anthropomorphic test devices (ATD) and biological models (postmortem human surrogates) are used, and sled tests are conducted. Deflection is often used as a biomechanical variable to characterize the effects of impact loading and derive injury criteria. The objective of the present study was to evaluate different techniques and recommend a methodology to determine the peak thorax and abdominal deflections from temporal contours using chestbands in oblique lateral impacts. The side impact ATD WorldSID representing human surrogates was positioned on a seat. The seat was rigidly fixed to the platform of an acceleration sled. The oblique load-wall fixed to the sled consisted of separate and adjustable plates to contact the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Two 59-gage chestbands were wrapped on the thorax and abdomen. Tests were conducted at low, medium, and high velocities (3.4, 6.7, and 7.5m/s) and three methods, termed the spine-sternum, bilateral, and spine-box, were used to determine the global peak deflection and its angulation. Results indicated that all three methods produced very similar angulations, for all velocity tests, and at both thorax and abdominal regions. However, maximum deflections were the lowest in the spine-sternum, followed by bilateral and spine-box methods, with one exception. Based on the development of deflection contours, locations used in the definitions of the origin, and accuracy in identifying critical locations/points in time-varying contours, results of the present study indicate that the bilateral method is the optimum procedure to determine the oblique peak deflection vector in biomechanical tests. PMID:23357337

  8. MOLECULAR AND ATOMIC LINE SURVEYS OF GALAXIES. I. THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS PHASE AS A BEACON

    SciTech Connect

    Geach, James E.; Papadopoulos, Padelis P. E-mail: padelis@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de

    2012-10-01

    We predict the space density of molecular gas reservoirs in the universe and place a lower limit on the number counts of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecular, and [C II] atomic emission lines in blind redshift surveys in the submillimeter-centimeter spectral regime. Our model uses (1) recently available HCN spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) of local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }), (2) a value for {epsilon}{sub *} = SFR/M{sub dense}(H{sub 2}) provided by new developments in the study of star formation feedback on the interstellar medium, and (3) a model for the evolution of the infrared luminosity density. Minimal 'emergent' CO SLEDs from the dense gas reservoirs expected in all star-forming systems in the universe are then computed from the HCN SLEDs since warm, HCN-bright gas will necessarily be CO-bright, with the dense star-forming gas phase setting an obvious minimum to the total molecular gas mass of any star-forming galaxy. We include [C II] as the most important of the far-infrared cooling lines. Optimal blind surveys with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) could potentially detect very distant (z {approx} 10-12) [C II] emitters in the {>=}ULIRG galaxy class at a rate of {approx}0.1-1 hr{sup -1} (although this prediction is strongly dependent on the star formation and enrichment history at this early epoch), whereas the (high-frequency) Square Kilometer Array will be capable of blindly detecting z > 3 low-J CO emitters at a rate of {approx}40-70 hr{sup -1}. The [C II] line holds special promise for detecting metal-poor systems with extensive reservoirs of CO-dark molecular gas where detection rates with ALMA can reach up to 2-7 hr{sup -1} in Bands 4-6.

  9. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1994-01-01

    During the past three months, significant progress has been made on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. The results are set forth in recent reports and publications, and will be presented at forthcoming national and international meetings. Current and ongoing research activities reported herein include: textile composites from powder-coated towpreg - role of surface coating in braiding; prepregger hot sled operation in making tape from powder coated tow; ribbonizing powder-impregnated towpreg; textile composites from powder-coated towpreg - role of bulk factor in consolidation; powder curtain prepreg process improvements in doctoring of powder; and hot/cold shoe for ATP open-section part warpage control.

  10. Vehicle Interior Interactions and Kinematics of Rear Facing Child Restraints in Frontal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, C. P.; Gopalan, S.; Abdelilah, Y.; Marshall, R. J.; Crandall, J. R.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of rear facing child restraints in frontal crashes can be determined by controlling a) the child’s kinematics and b) interactions with vehicle structures. Twelve sled tests were performed to analyze the effect of the location and structural properties of vehicle interior components. The role of restraint kinematics was studied by developing computational models which underwent idealized motions. Stiff structures originally offset from the restraint, but which contact the restraint late in the test, cause increased injury values. Attachment methods which reduce child restraint rotation and more rigidly couple the restraint to the vehicle result in the best safety performance. PMID:16179150

  11. Replacing 16-mm film cameras with high-definition digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balch, Kris S.

    1995-09-01

    For many years 16 mm film cameras have been used in severe environments. These film cameras are used on Hy-G automotive sleds, airborne gun cameras, range tracking and other hazardous environments. The companies and government agencies using these cameras are in need of replacing them with a more cost effective solution. Film-based cameras still produce the best resolving capability, however, film development time, chemical disposal, recurring media cost, and faster digital analysis are factors influencing the desire for a 16 mm film camera replacement. This paper will describe a new camera from Kodak that has been designed to replace 16 mm high speed film cameras.

  12. 29. "TEST TRACK, STATION '0' THROUGH '200' AREA." Specifications No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. "TEST TRACK, STATION '0' THROUGH '200' AREA." Specifications No. ENG-OC-1-57-75, Drawing No. AF-6009-15, sheet 53 of 96, D.O. Series No. AF 1394/73, Rev. C. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296 Rev. C, Date: 19 NOV 59. Drawing includes plan, section, and details of track. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Designing for aircraft structural crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. G.; Caiafa, C.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes structural aviation crash dynamics research activities being conducted on general aviation aircraft and transport aircraft. The report includes experimental and analytical correlations of load-limiting subfloor and seat configurations tested dynamically in vertical drop tests and in a horizontal sled deceleration facility. Computer predictions using a finite-element nonlinear computer program, DYCAST, of the acceleration time-histories of these innovative seat and subfloor structures are presented. Proposed application of these computer techniques, and the nonlinear lumped mass computer program KRASH, to transport aircraft crash dynamics is discussed. A proposed FAA full-scale crash test of a fully instrumented radio controlled transport airplane is also described.

  14. NASA general aviation crashworthiness seat development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, E. L.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1979-01-01

    Three load limiting seat concepts for general aviation aircraft designed to lower the deceleration of the occupant in the event of a crash were sled tested and evaluated with reference to a standard seat. Dummy pelvis accelerations were reduced up to 50 percent with one of the concepts. Computer program MSOMLA (Modified Seat Occupant Model for Light Aircraft) was used to simulate the behavior of a dummy passenger in a NASA full-scale crash test of a twin engine light aircraft. A computer graphics package MANPLOT was developed to pictorially represent the occupant and seat motion.

  15. Pickup ions (E/O+/ greater than 55 keV) measured near Mars by Phobos-2 in February/March 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, E.; Keppler, E.; Witte, M.; Rosenbauer, H.; Livi, S.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Afonin, V. V.; O'Sullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.

    1991-11-01

    The Soviet spacecraft Phobos 2 reached Mars on January 29, 1989. The onboard SLED recorded particles of solar and planetary origin while in elliptical and circular orbits about the planet. Enhanced fluxes were identified, particularly during periods of spin stabilization, superimposed on the general particle intensity time profile. These latter fluxes are interpreted here, using backup evidence from simultaneous solar wind and magnetic field measurements recorded on the same spacecraft, to have constituted pickup ions (/O+/,/O2+/) with E/O+/ not less than 55 keV.

  16. Future ESA Missions in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1984-12-01

    A survey is given of the life sciences research program sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA). This program rests on a number of facilities originated by ESA: Spacelab, Space sled, Biorack, Anthrorack, Eureca and its Botany — and Protein Crystallization facilities. They are all to be brough into space and returned by one of the NASA Space Shuttles. With these facilities a wide range of space biology research will be covered: cell biology, developmental biology, botany, human physiology, radio-biology, exobiology and biotechnology. Information is given on how to prepare, submit and execute an experiment proposal.

  17. Ireland's contribution to deep space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan M. P.

    1988-03-01

    Irish contributions to the Giotto mission, the Phobos mission, and the planned International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program are discussed. Results are presented from the Energetic Particle Onset Admonitor (Epona) experiment, which flew on the Giotto mission. The Epona instruments detected electrons, protons, alpha particles, and pickup ions associated with Comet Halley. Other topics examined include the SLED experiment to study energetic-particle populations as part of the Phobos mission and expectations for Irish participation in the ISTP program, including the construction of a plasma and radio wave receiver.

  18. An overview of energetic particles (from 55 keV to > 30 MeV) recorded in the close Martian environment, and their energization in local and external processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Afonin, V. V.; Kirsch, E.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Slavin, J. A.; Trotignon, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    Observations made by the SLED particle detector on Phobos-2 in the close Martian environment from 29 January to 27 March, 1989 during the early rising phase of Solar Cycle 22, show the frequent presence close to the planet, under reasonably "quiet" interplanetary conditions, of particles with energies ( E) in the range from several tens of, to several hundred, keV. Under disturbed interplanetary circumstances, particles reaching energies of several tens of MeV were recorded close to Mars. Those particles in the keV range were observed at well-defined locations, i.e. at the Terminator Shocks ( E up to ≈600 keV); just inside the subsolar Planetopause ( E up to ≈225 keV), and travelling down the Tail, E≥55 keV. These three populations are herein suggested, instancing various candidate mechanisms, to have been energized by processes local to the planet. Since the seed particles for ions accelerated at the Terminator Shocks may comprise ambient, pre-accelerated, solar particles, the energies of ions detected by SLED during Bow Shock transits was observed (during two months) to vary between ≈50 keV and ≈600 keV. Particles with energies up to several tens of MeV which were found to suffuse the close planetary environment over extended periods, are interpreted to have been produced in association with solar processes external to Mars (Co-rotating Interaction Regions; Gradual and Impulsive Solar Events). Particle enhancements in the keV range recorded by SLED (under favourable magnetic conditions) during Bow Shock traversals, provide topographical information concerning the location of the Martian subsolar and distant shock surfaces. These observations constitute a new data set, complementary to those determinations of key boundaries derived from plasma and magnetic field measurements made aboard various American and Russian spacecraft at Mars which, for more than thirty years now, have been generally used in modelling the Solar Wind interaction with the planet

  19. Replacing 16 mm film cameras with high definition digital cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, K.S.

    1995-12-31

    For many years 16 mm film cameras have been used in severe environments. These film cameras are used on Hy-G automotive sleds, airborne gun cameras, range tracking and other hazardous environments. The companies and government agencies using these cameras are in need of replacing them with a more cost effective solution. Film-based cameras still produce the best resolving capability, however, film development time, chemical disposal, recurring media cost, and faster digital analysis are factors influencing the desire for a 16 mm film camera replacement. This paper will describe a new camera from Kodak that has been designed to replace 16 mm high speed film cameras.

  20. Operational vibroseis system for long-distance traverses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisen, Olaf; Hofstede, Coen; Diez, Anja; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Lambrecht, Astrid; Mayer, Christoph; Blenkner, Rick; Hilmarsson, Sverrir

    2014-05-01

    This poster presents results and performance of an operational vibroseis system used in Antarctica on the Ekströmisen and its catchment area. The about 500 km long overland traverse covered very different surface regimes in the elevation range from sea level up to 1000 m in the austral season 2013/14. The presentation is the successful culmination of a six-year effort to develop an operational vibroseis system for Antarctica and Greenland. Over three weeks the campaign acquired: • 407 km of seismic profiles in total, thereof • 110 km in 6-fold resolution with 125 m shot spacing • 25 km in 3-fold resolution with 250 m shot spacing. The remaining distance was covered in single-fold with 750 m shot spacing. The traverse used a well-established 60 channel 1.5 km streamer and a new setup with a vibroseis Buggy "EnviroVibe" with Mattracks on a polyethylen sled. The sled had a hole in the center to lower the vibrator pad directly onto the snow surface. With this setup data production varied between 20 km/day for 6-fold and 40 km/day for single fold for a decent 9h day of measurements. The combination of Mattracks with the PE-sled was especially advantageous on hard and rough surfaces because of the flexibility of each and the relatively lose mounting by cargo straps and wooden blocks. Production speeds were limited by the snow streamer, which had an increasing damage rate of geophone groups for velocities above 6 km/h. The source system itself could easily accommodate transfer velocities of 15 km/h. In combination with the streamer winch mounted in front of the source on a separate freight sled the channel spacing could be reduced to fractions of the 25 m spacing interval by combining several sweeps at the same location, thus increasing spatial resolution. The vibrator source was operated with a 10-250 Hz sweep over 10 s with 80% of the peak force of 66 kN. On soft surfaces a setup-sweep was utilized. Preliminary data analysis shows that sea floor geomorphology

  1. 27. "SITE PLAN." Specifications No. OC15775, Drawing No. AF600915, sheet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. "SITE PLAN." Specifications No. OC1-57-75, Drawing No. AF-60-09-15, sheet 1 of 96, D.O. Series No. AF 1394/20, Rev. B. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296 Rev. B, Date: 11/17/59. Site plan of 20,000-foot track, including construction phasing notes. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. The Effect of Obesity on the Restraint of Automobile Occupants

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Jason; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Lessley, David; Kindig, Matthew; Kent, Richard; Bostrom, Ola

    2009-01-01

    As obesity rates increase, the protection of obese occupants will become increasingly important in vehicle and restraint design. As a first step in this effort, this study seeks to compare the kinematics, dynamics, and injuries of obese post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to (approximately) 50th percentile adult male PMHS in frontal impact sled tests with a force-limiting, pre-tensioning restraint system. Forty-eight km/h, frontal impact sled tests were performed with a sled buck representing the rear seat occupant compartment of a 2004 mid-sized sedan. The restraint system consisted of a 3-point belt with a pretensioner and a progressive force-limiter at the retractor. The test subjects were either obese PMHS or approximately 50th percentile adult male PMHS. Instrumentation included accelerometer packages on the spine. Deformation of the subjects' chests were measured using chestbands placed nominally at the superior-inferior locations of the 4th and 8th ribs. Tension in the restraint system was measured at the upper shoulder belt, lower shoulder belt, and the lap belt. Motion of the head, shoulder, pelvis, and knee were recorded using high-speed video. Two obese PMHS (average mass 137 kg, average stature 186 cm) and three approximately mid-sized male PMHS (average mass 68 kg, average stature 176 cm) were tested. The obese PMHS exhibited significantly greater forward motion of the head and the pelvis compared to the mid-sized PMHS. The obese PMHS also exhibited backwards torso rotation at the time of maximum forward excursion, whereas the mid-sized PMHS did not. The obese PMHS exhibited average maximum chest compressions of approximately 44% (± 9% standard deviation) of their initial chest depths, and exhibited 26 g (± 2 g) average 3 ms clip maximum chest resultant acceleration. In comparison, the mid-sized PMHS exhibited averages of 29% (± 9%) maximum chest compression and 35 g (± 4 g) maximum 3 ms clip chest acceleration. The obese PMHS exhibited 7 and 2 rib

  3. Fast energy and energy spectrum feedback in the SLC Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, G.S.; Soderstrom, E.; Seeman, J.T.; Campisi, I.E.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.; Lee, M.; Petersen, A.; Phinney, N.; Ross, M.; Thompson, K.

    1987-01-01

    The energies and energy spectra of the positron and electron beams emerging from the SLC Linac must be carefully maintained so that the beams can be transported through the Arcs to the Final Focus without phase space dilution and also to specify the collision energy. A fastback system has been designed and constructed to control these parameters. The energies and energy spectra are measured nondestructively using position monitors and synchrotron radiation width monitors. The controls consist of rf phases in the Damping Rings, SLED timing, and rf amplitude. Theoretical aspects of the feedback process, algorithms, and operational experience are discussed.

  4. Ultrawide-bandwidth, superluminescent light-emitting diodes using InAs quantum dots of tuned height.

    PubMed

    Haffouz, S; Barrios, P J; Normandin, R; Poitras, D; Lu, Z

    2012-03-15

    An ultrawide-bandwidth, superluminescent light-emitting diode (SLED) utilizing multiple layers of dots of tuned height is reported. Due to thermal effect, the superluminescent phenomenon is observed only under pulse-mode operation. The device exhibits a 3 dB bandwidth of 190 nm with central wavelength of 1020 nm under continuous-wave (cw) conditions. The maximum corresponding output power achieved in this device under cw and pulsed operation conditions are 0.54 mW and 17 mW, respectively. PMID:22446239

  5. The comparative analysis of various aerospace system concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkadov, L. M.; Denisov, V. Ye.; Lazarev, V. V.; Plokhikh, V. P.; Buzuluk, V. I.; Volodin, S. V.; Chervonenko, K. A.; Skipenko, V. V.

    1995-01-01

    Consideration is given to fully reusable winged two- and single-stage systems powered by hydrogen/oxygen rocket engines, which differ in types of takeoff [horizontal takeoff (HTO) using an undercarriage; ground sled-assisted takeoff; air launch from a subsonic carrier; and launching-pad vertical takeoff (VTO)]. The systems have been optimized and compared using two criteria: payload mass and "dry mass to payload mass" ratio. The influence of the gross weight of a system and the technological level on the criteria involved is being investigated.

  6. Easily constructed, economical seawater intake and supply system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouck, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    A water intake system was designed and installed in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington. The dual system consisted of polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipes, a concrete pit and pumps located on shore at zero tide; and cables attached laterally to the pipelines and terminally between a shoreward anchor and to a seaward intake sled held in place with an 1800 kg Dansforth anchor. The overall construction costs were much lower than those for concrete-lined ductile iron pipe. Nearly three years after its construction, this system has withstood tides and storms without apparent adverse effect. Its application to lakes or rivers is equally possible.

  7. The Inductrack concept: A new approach to magnetic levitation

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.; Ryutov, D.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes theoretical and experimental investigations of a new approach to the problem of the magnetic levitation of a moving object. By contrast with previously studied levitation approaches, the Inductrack concept concept represents a simpler, potentially less expensive, and totally passive means of levitating a high-speed train. It may also be applicable to other areas where simpler magnetic levitation systems are needed, for example, high-speed test sleds for crash testing applications, or low-friction conveyer systems for industrial use.

  8. An Rf-gun-driven recirculated linac as injector and FEL driver.

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, A.; Biedron, S.; Eriksson, M.; Freund, H.; Werin, S.

    1999-08-23

    A new pre-injector for the MAX-Laboratory is under design and construction. A thermionic rf gun, designed to operate at medium currents with low back bombardment power, is under construction. The gun will, via a magnetic compressor and energy filter, feed a recirculated linac consisting of two SLED-equipped structures giving 125 MeV each. The first will be delivered in 1999. The system is aimed as a pre-injector for the existing storage rings at MAX-Lab, but will also open up possibilities for a SASE FEL in the UV reaching above 100 MW below 100 run.

  9. Determination of the availability of appropriate aged flight rocket motors. [captive tests to determine case bond separation and grain bore cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    A program to identify surplus solid rocket propellant engines which would be available for a program of functional integrity testing was conducted. The engines are classified as: (1) upper stage and apogee engines, (2) sounding rocket and launch vehicle engines, and (3) jato, sled, and tactical engines. Nearly all the engines were available because their age exceeds the warranted shelf life. The preference for testing included tests at nominal flight conditions, at design limits, and to establish margin limits. The principal failure modes of interest were case bond separation and grain bore cracking. Data concerning the identification and characteristics of each engine are tabulated. Methods for conducting the tests are described.

  10. Assessment of the pubic force as a pelvic injury criterion in side impact.

    PubMed

    Leport, Tiphaine; Baudrit, Pascal; Trosseille, Xavier; Petit, Philippe; Palisson, Anna; Vallancien, Guy

    2007-10-01

    In the literature, injuries at the ischio or ilio pubic ramus level are reported to occur to approximately (3/4) of the occupants injured at the pelvis during side impact. Assuming that the load going through the pubis was a good indicator of the ramus stress, the pubic force was widely accepted as a protection criterion for pelvic fractures on side impact dummies. However, no data regarding the actual loads going through the pubis is currently available in the literature for Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in dynamic conditions. The goal of this study was to determine pelvic biofidelity specifications in terms of load path, to evaluate the pertinence of the pubic force as a criterion, and to develop a pelvic injury risk curve as a function of the pubic force. For that purpose, a pubic load cell was developed for PMHS use, and 16 side impact tests were performed on 8 PMHS using boundary conditions similar to impactor tests and sled tests reported in the literature. One kind of impact was applied on one side of a subject and the other kind of impact was then applied on the other side of the same subject, at non injury severities. The ratio between the peak external force and the peak pubic force was calculated for each subject, and a mean ratio was then calculated for each of the test conditions. These ratios were finally used to calculate the pubic forces from the external pelvic forces for 90 PMHS side impact test data available in the literature. Injury risk curves as a function of the pubic force were developed from these data. Two normalized pubic force corridors from the 16 tests are presented, the first one for the impactor tests, the second one for the sled-like tests. The test results show statistically different ratios between the peak external force and the peak pubic force, for the two configurations (an average ratio of 3.3 for impactor tests and 4.6 for sled-like tests). The PMHS injury risk curves based on the external pelvic force were observed to